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Sample records for scopaeothrips bicolor thysanoptera

  1. Thysanoptera of bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniellaoccidentalis, Thripstabaci and Haplothripstritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. PMID:26019678

  2. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. PMID:26019678

  3. Meniscus ascent by thrips (Thysanoptera).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jiménez, Victor Manuel; Arriaga-Ramirez, Sarahi; Dudley, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Meniscus climbing using a fixed body posture has been well documented for various aquatic and neustonic insects, but is not known from small flying insects that inadvertently become trapped on water surfaces. Here, we show that thrips (order Thysanoptera) can ascend a meniscus by arching their non-wetting bodies to translate head-first and upward along a water surface; if initially oriented backwards, they can turn by 180° to ascend head-first, and climb upward on a surrounding boundary. Using variable-concentration sucrose solutions, we show that translational and climbing speeds during meniscus ascent vary inversely with fluid viscosity. Becoming trapped in water is a frequent event for flying insects, and given that most of them are very small, dedicated behaviours to escape water may be commonplace among pterygotes. PMID:27624795

  4. Thysanoptera-Terebrantia of the Hawaiian Islands: an identification manual

    PubMed Central

    Mound, Laurence; Nakahara, Sueo; Tsuda, Dick M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification system is presented to 99 species and 49 genera in three families recorded from the Hawaiian Islands in the Thysanoptera suborder Terebrantia. Only seven (possibly eight) of these species are considered endemic, the remainder being adventive to these islands. The only previous study of Hawaiian Thysanoptera, by Zimmerman in 1948, included 47 Terebrantia species in 21 genera. PMID:26843832

  5. A Trichodorus (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) nematode from thrips (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Surrey, British Columbia to Blaine, Washington by an AP...

  6. Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), new record from Tartous, Syria.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ali Yaseen

    2014-01-01

    The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area.

  7. Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V A

    2010-02-01

    The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers. PMID:20214367

  8. Analysis of the thrips fauna (Thysanoptera) on flowers of herbs.

    PubMed

    Pobozniak, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Studies of Thysanoptera were realized at the Agricultural Experimental Station in Mydlniki near Cracow over the years 2003-2005. This research work covers the observations of the species composition of thrips and the periods of the occurrence of the particulars species of thrips and their numerousness. The thrips were collected from flowers of Valeriana officinalis L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Levisticum officinale Koch. Following thrips species dominated samples collected directly from plants: Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), Thrips fuscipennis Haliday, Thrips tabaci Lindeman and Thrips major Uzel. The greatest number of thrips was noticed during flowering period on Valeriana officinalis L., and Hypericum perforatum L.

  9. Thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) of Iran: a revised and updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555

  10. Rhizobial infection in Adesmia bicolor (Fabaceae) roots.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Luciana

    2014-09-01

    The native legume Adesmia bicolor shows nitrogen fixation efficiency via symbiosis with soil rhizobia. The infection mechanism by means of which rhizobia infect their roots has not been fully elucidated to date. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to identify the infection mechanism in Adesmia bicolor roots. To this end, inoculated roots were processed following conventional methods as part of our root anatomy study, and the shape and distribution of root nodules were analyzed as well. Neither root hairs nor infection threads were observed in the root system, whereas infection sites-later forming nodules-were observed in the longitudinal sections. Nodules were found to form between the main root and the lateral roots. It can be concluded that in Adesmia bicolor, a bacterial crack entry infection mechanism prevails and that such mechanism could be an adaptive strategy of this species which is typical of arid environments.

  11. Distribution and ecology of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) bacterial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Chanbusarakum, Lisa J; Ullman, Diane E

    2009-08-01

    Bacterial populations in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) collected in diverse California environments consisted of two bacterial symbionts: BFo-1 and BFo-2 (B = bacteria, Fo = Frankliniella occidentalis, numbers reflect different types). Dual infections of BFo-1 and BFo-2 were found in 50% of the thrips, 18% had neither bacterium, and 24 and 8% were infected solely with BFo-1 and BFo-2, respectively. No other bacteria consistently infected F. occidentalis. Dual infections occurred more often in male thrips and in thrips of both sexes from southern mountain and valley sites. As average collection year or month minimum temperature decreased, infections of BFo-1, alone or in dual infections, increased significantly. As yearly precipitation increased, infection with BFo-1 alone also increased. F. occidentalis color morphology did not affect bacterial infection. BFo-1 created weak biofilms at 25 and 32 degrees C; BFo-2 made strong biofilms at 25 degrees C and no biofilms at 32 degrees C. When the bacteria were grown in culture together, weak biofilms formed at both temperatures studied, although there was no way to determine what each bacterium contributed to the biofilm. BFo-1 and BFo-2 grew at similar rates at 25 and 30 degrees C. Our data show BFo-1 and BFo-2 occur in natural populations of F. occidentalis and support the hypothesis BFo have a symbiotic relationship with F. occidentalis. Regional differences in bacterial prevalence suggest bacterial infection is associated with environmental conditions, and altitude, temperature, and precipitation may be important factors. PMID:19689885

  12. A Trichodorus (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) Nematode from Thrips (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae)

    PubMed Central

    Carta, L. K.; Skantar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Canada to Blaine, WA, by a USDA-APHIS-PPQ port inspector. Nematodes were attached to the abdomen of the female insect and sent to us in saline. Seven nematodes (five females, two males) were measured and these and others were processed for permanent slides. An adult female and a female juvenile were prepared for PCR. Morphologically these nematodes belonged to the Trichodorus sparsus group, and the 28S rDNA D2-D3 sequence showed greatest similarity to Trichodorus paragiennensis (94%) and T. giennensis (93%), with greatest morphological similarity to the latter species. Among other morphological differences, the innermost uterus width is wider than in related species. Trichodorus spp. are normally found in soil, so this is the first population seen in the atypical habitat of an insect. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Trichodorus sp. are presented, but a putative new species name is not currently advisable because of relatively poor condition of specimens. Ecological associations are also discussed. PMID:25276005

  13. An overview of chilli thrips. Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) biology, distribution and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the insect order Thysanoptera, the genus Scirtothrips Shull contains more than 100 thrips species, among which 10 species have been reported as serious pests of agricultural crops. Within this genus, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is an emerging pest of various economically important host crops in th...

  14. An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

  15. Thysanoptera intercepted in the Netherlands on plant products from Ethiopia, with description of two new species of the genus Thrips.

    PubMed

    Vierbergen, Gijsbertus

    2014-01-01

    An overview is given of 18 Thysanoptera species found on Ethiopian cut flowers, cuttings and vegetables during import inspection in the Netherlands. Consignments consisted mostly of cut flowers, in total belonging to twelve plant genera. Details on geographical distribution and host plants of the thrips encountered are given, and two are newly described: T. cacuminis sp. n. and T. dezeeuwi sp. n. The results do not give any serious indication of increased invasiveness by Ethiopian Thysanoptera

  16. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  17. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kae Shin; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  18. MOROKOSHI: Transcriptome Database in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Yuko; Shimada, Setsuko; Kawashima, Mika; Kondou-Kuriyama, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-01-01

    In transcriptome analysis, accurate annotation of each transcriptional unit and its expression profile is essential. A full-length cDNA (FL-cDNA) collection facilitates the refinement of transcriptional annotation, and accurate transcription start sites help to unravel transcriptional regulation. We constructed a normalized FL-cDNA library from eight growth stages of aerial tissues in Sorghum bicolor and isolated 37,607 clones. These clones were Sanger sequenced from the 5′ and/or 3′ ends and in total 38,981 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained. About one-third of the transcripts of known genes were captured as FL-cDNA clone resources. In addition to these, we also annotated 272 novel genes, 323 antisense transcripts and 1,672 candidate isoforms. These clones are available from the RIKEN Bioresource Center. After obtaining accurate annotation of transcriptional units, we performed expression profile analysis. We carried out spikelet-, seed- and stem-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis and confirmed the expression of 70.6% of the newly identified genes. We also downloaded 23 sorghum RNA-Seq samples that are publicly available and these are shown on a genome browser together with our original FL-cDNA and RNA-Seq data. Using our original and publicly available data, we made an expression profile of each gene and identified the top 20 genes with the most similar expression. In addition, we visualized their relationships in gene co-expression networks. Users can access and compare various transcriptome data from S, bicolor at http://sorghum.riken.jp. PMID:25505007

  19. The unusual orbitosphenoid of the snakelike lizard Bachia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Oscar A; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2008-08-01

    We studied the morphology of the chondrocranial orbitotemporal region in the snakelike gymnophthalmid lizard Bachia bicolor and its relation to other structures such as the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and eye muscles, to show its particular morphology, and discuss the homology of some skeletal structures relative to other squamates. We used three-dimensional computer reconstructions from serial histological sections; additionally we studied the embryonic and postembryonic development of the orbitosphenoid bone using cleared and double-stained whole-mount skeletal material. The chondrocranial orbitotemporal morphology in B. bicolor was found to be severely reduced as described for other miniaturized snakelike squamates, but it was accompanied by extensive orbitosphenoid ossifications. Within squamates, only amphisbaenians showed an expanded orbitosphenoid, which originates from fused endochondral and membranous ossifications. In B. bicolor the orbitosphenoid was also found to be formed by endochondral and membranous ossifications, but contrary to the amphisbaenian condition the membranous ossifications were found to arise as membrane bone outgrowths from the perichondral ossification of the chondral core. Despite its derived morphologies, we argue that the orbitosphenoids in amphisbaenians and B. bicolor are homologous to the orbitosphenoids of other squamates. Thus, the expanded orbitosphenoid morphology is found to be achieved by different ontogenetic processes in amphisbaenians and B. bicolor, representing a case of independent evolution by convergence. PMID:19172729

  20. One new species and two new records of the genus Aeolothrips from Iran (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Aeolothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Jalil; Awal, Mehdi Modarres; Fekrat, Lida; Minaei, Kambiz; Manzari, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aeolothrips gundeliae sp. n. is described, and two bicolored species of the same genus, Aeolothrips ericae Bagnall and Aeolothrips albithorax Pelikan are newly reported from northeast of Iran. Diagnostic characters are provided for each species as well as illustrations to distinguish these species. PMID:26884701

  1. [Gemology characterization and identification of beryllium diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires from Changle City, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Ming-xing

    2012-03-01

    Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires (blue and yellow) from Changle City, Shandong Province, China were studied by using standard gemological methods, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain the spectra characterization, and to suggest identification methods for them. Only Fe(3+)-Fe3+ absorption bands formed in ultraviolet region appear in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire, which is especially strong at 377 nm. In IR absorption spectra, absorption peak at 3 310 cm(-1) appears in heated and untreated bicolor sapphires, while it disappears in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. Therefore, UV-Vis and IR absorption spectra can be used to identify Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires. On the other hand, methylene iodide immersion observation also can be used to identify Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. PMID:22582625

  2. [Gemology characterization and identification of beryllium diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires from Changle City, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Ming-xing

    2012-03-01

    Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires (blue and yellow) from Changle City, Shandong Province, China were studied by using standard gemological methods, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain the spectra characterization, and to suggest identification methods for them. Only Fe(3+)-Fe3+ absorption bands formed in ultraviolet region appear in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire, which is especially strong at 377 nm. In IR absorption spectra, absorption peak at 3 310 cm(-1) appears in heated and untreated bicolor sapphires, while it disappears in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. Therefore, UV-Vis and IR absorption spectra can be used to identify Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires. On the other hand, methylene iodide immersion observation also can be used to identify Be-diffused bicolor sapphire.

  3. ESTIMATING BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) VIA NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Aaron M; Trease, Andrew J; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert G; Mckenzie, Cindy L; Davis, Paul H; Osborne, Lance S

    2014-06-01

    The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

  4. Night of the living thrips: an unusual outbreak of Thysanoptera dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Carness, Jeffrey M; Winchester, Jonathan C; Oras, Michael J; Arora, Navin S

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the etiology of a cutaneous eruption in the setting of an acute cluster outbreak is of utmost importance due to the inherent potential public health impact. The differential diagnosis ranges from innocuous arthropod bites to more concerning causes such as infection, medication reaction, and environmental exposure. We report the simultaneous presentation of 15 US Marines who presented with numerous discrete papular skin eruptions. Subsequent thorough patient evaluation and history, literature review, immunization status reconciliation, entomological assessment, site survey, and skin biopsy were performed. This case series is one of the largest reported to date of a cluster outbreak of a papular dermatitis secondary to bites from thrips (ie, insects of the order Thysanoptera). PMID:27023090

  5. Night of the living thrips: an unusual outbreak of Thysanoptera dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Carness, Jeffrey M; Winchester, Jonathan C; Oras, Michael J; Arora, Navin S

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the etiology of a cutaneous eruption in the setting of an acute cluster outbreak is of utmost importance due to the inherent potential public health impact. The differential diagnosis ranges from innocuous arthropod bites to more concerning causes such as infection, medication reaction, and environmental exposure. We report the simultaneous presentation of 15 US Marines who presented with numerous discrete papular skin eruptions. Subsequent thorough patient evaluation and history, literature review, immunization status reconciliation, entomological assessment, site survey, and skin biopsy were performed. This case series is one of the largest reported to date of a cluster outbreak of a papular dermatitis secondary to bites from thrips (ie, insects of the order Thysanoptera).

  6. Selection of colour of sticky trap for monitoring adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Harman, J Alex; Mao, Chang Xuan; Morse, Joseph G

    2007-02-01

    Adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande), overwintering inside the navel of navel oranges shipped from California to Australia, are an actionable pest for the importing country, i.e. infested lots are fumigated with methyl bromide. Strict quarantine regulations regarding C. fasciatus prompted studies on the best colour sticky trap that might be used to monitor for bean thrips populations in the vicinity of California citrus groves prior to harvesting fruit for export. Preliminary experiments identified the most attractive trap of each of four colours (blue, green, white, yellow) commonly used to sample adult Thysanoptera. Three trials of a field study were conducted, comparing C. fasciatus capture on the best card of each colour using asparagus ferns naturally infested with high levels of this pest. Based on significantly higher catch on green sticky cards, this colour trap is recommended for potential use in California's bean thrips mitigation plan designed to reduce thrips levels on citrus exported to Australia.

  7. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

  8. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken.

  9. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D.; Brun, A.; Danchin, E. G. J.; Duchaussoy, F.; Gibon, J.; Kohler, A.; Lindquist, E.; Peresa, V.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H. J.; Wuyts, J.; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M.; Brokstein, P.; Canback, B.; Cohen, D.; Courty, P. E.; Coutinho, P. M.; Delaruelle, C.; Detter, J. C.; Deveau, A.; DiFazio, S.; Duplessis, S.; Fraissinet-Tachet, L.; Lucic, E.; Frey-Klett, P.; Fourrey, C.; Feussner, I.; Gay, G.; Grimwood, J.; Hoegger, P. J.; Jain, P.; Kilaru, S.; Labbe, J.; Lin, Y. C.; Legue, V.; Le Tacon, F.; Marmeisse, R.; Melayah, D.; Montanini, B.; Muratet, M.; Nehls, U.; Niculita-Hirzel, H.; Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le; Peter, M.; Quesneville, H.; Rajashekar, B.; Reich, M.; Rouhier, N.; Schmutz, J.; Yin, T.; Chalot, M.; Henrissat, B.; Kues, U.; Lucas, S.; Van de Peer, Y.; Podila, G. K.; Polle, A.; Pukkila, P. J.; Richardson, P. M.; Rouze, P.; Sanders, I. R.; Stajich, J. E.; Tunlid, A.; Tuskan, G.; Grigoriev, I. V.

    2007-08-10

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants 1, 2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  10. DNA polymorphisms in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Manners, J M; Ludlow, M M; Henzell, R G

    1993-07-01

    Molecular markers [random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)] were used to determine the frequency of DNA polymorphism in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Twenty-nine oligonucleotide primers were employed for RAPDs, generating a total of 262 DNA fragments, of which 145 were polymorphic in at least one pairwise comparison between 36 genotypes. Individual primers differed significantly in their ability to detect genetic polymorphism in the species. The overall frequency of polymorphisms was low with a mean frequency of 0.117 polymorphisms per RAPD band being obtained from all pairwise comparisons between genotypes, with maximum and minimum values of 0.212 and 0.039, respectively. Results from phenetic analysis of bandsharing data were consistent with current sub-specific groupings of the species, with clusters of Durra, Zerazera, Caud-Nig, Caud-Kaura and Caffrorum being discernible. The results also indicated that individuals of a similar taxonomic grouping but different geographic origin may be genetically less identical than previously considered. Similar frequencies of polymorphism to that obtained with RAPDs were obtained with RFLPs. Results from these experiments indicated that a high level of genetic uniformity exists within S. bicolor. PMID:24193776

  11. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Fail, József; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    During the past two decades, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a global pest of increasing concern in commercial onion (Allium cepa L.), because of its development of resistance to insecticides, ability to transmit plant pathogens, and frequency of producing more generations at high temperatures. T. tabaci feeds directly on leaves, causing blotches and premature senescence as well as distorted and undersized bulbs. T. tabaci can cause yield loss > 50% but can be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). IYSV was identified in 1981 in Brazil and has spread to many important onion-producing regions of the world, including several U.S. states. IYSV symptoms include straw-colored, dry, tan, spindle- or diamond-shaped lesions on the leaves and scapes of onion plants and can cause yield loss up to 100%. Here, we review the biology and ecology of T. tabaci and discuss current management strategies based on chemical, biological, and cultural control as well as host resistance. Future directions for research in integrated pest management are examined and discussed. PMID:21404832

  12. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed.

  13. Holopothrips molzi sp.n. (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae): natural history and interactions in Myrtaceae galls.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Mariana Flores; Mendonça, Milton De Souza Jr; Cavalleri, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Holopothrips molzi sp. n. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is described from southern Brazil inducing leaf galls on Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae). Field observations revealed that the numbers of this thrips were highly variable within galls, and two other insect species were recorded living in these galls: Myrciathrips variabilis Cavalleri et al. (Phlaeothripidae) and an eulophid wasp (Hymenoptera). We investigated here if morphological traits of leaf and gall and abundance of the invader thrips were correlated with the gall inducer's abundance. In order to determine the feeding habit and behaviour of M. variabilis and its interactions with the gall inducer we performed observations ad libitum and attack simulation tests on both thrips species to observe their response to possible invaders. Our results showed that leaf size is not related to H. molzi abundance, and gall size is relevant only when total numbers of both thrips species are considered. Myrciathrips variabilis was observed feeding on gall tissues, and no direct antagonistic interactions between the two thrips were recorded. The results of the behavioural tests simulating attacks were remarkably different in the two thrips species, indicating different strategies when threatened or disturbed. The interaction between the two thrips species is probably a case of inquilinism. PMID:27395120

  14. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Franklin H; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard "Tres A" characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard "La Escondida" that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms.

  15. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Franklin H.; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E.

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard “Tres A” characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard “La Escondida” that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms. PMID:26246440

  16. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed. PMID:18767744

  17. Phyllomedusa bicolor skin secretion and the Kambô ritual

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ritual of Kambô or Sapo is a type of voluntary envenomation. During this purification ritual a shaman healer, from various South American countries, deliberately burns the right shoulder with a glowing stick from a fireplace. Excretions of Phyllomedusa bicolor (or Giant Leaf Frog, Kambô or Sapo) are then applied to these fresh wounds. This ritual is used as a means of purification of the body, supposedly brings luck to hunters, increases stamina and enhances physical and sexual strength. All the peripheral and most of the central effects of the secretion can be ascribed to the exceptionally high content of active peptides, easily absorbed through burned skin. This article describes the ritual and the bio-active peptides from the secretion. PMID:26413084

  18. Jejunal pseudodiverticulosis in a swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor).

    PubMed

    Haist, V; von Dörnberg, K; Jacobsen, B

    2012-11-01

    Necropsy examination of an 8-year-old female swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) from a zoological garden revealed four intestinal diverticular outpouchings at the mesenteric border of the jejunum, which were partly ruptured causing a fatal peritonitis. Microscopically, affected small intestinal segments were characterized by an abrupt gap in the muscular layer with subsequent herniation of respective mucosal and submucosal layers, interpreted as acquired pseudodiverticula. Multifocal perforations of these diverticula were associated with prominent fibrinosuppurative serositis with leakage of ingesta. In addition, there was intestinal nematodal endoparasitism with accompanying neutrophilic to eosinophilic enteritis. Small intestinal pseudodiverticula resembling human colonic diverticulosis are rare in animals and can lead to fatal peritonitis by faecal impaction, subsequent transmural inflammation and eventual perforation. PMID:22717131

  19. Variations in the polarized leaf reflectance of Sorghum bicolor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Lois; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1987-01-01

    The polarized reflectance factor, Rq, of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) leaves from field-grown plants was measured in situ in the summers of 1983 and 1984. In 1983, three leaves of two randomly selected plants were measured at 2-week intervals. The value of Rq varied, depending on leaf and day of measurement. Measured values of Rq for the adaxial leaf surface ranged from 16 to 53; for the abaxial leaf surface the values ranged from 28 to 69. In 1984, measurements consisted of repeated observations made on the same leaf at biweekly intervals. The values of Rq from the adaxial leaf surface ranged from 26 to 38. Values of Rq from the abaxial leaf surface increased throughout the season, from 16 to 45. Differences in Rq were attributed to changes in surface details of the leaf.

  20. Isolated compounds from Sorghum bicolor L. inhibit the classical pathway of the complement.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Lee, Young-Choon; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-04-01

    The present study evaluated the anticomplement effects from isolated compounds of Sorghum bicolor in classical pathway complement system. Using column chromatograph, three compounds; Sorgoleone-362 (1), Sorgoleone-360 (2) and Sorgoleone-386 (3) were isolated and evaluated for in vitro anticomplement activity. Sorgoleone-386 showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) values of 148.3μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity of isolated compounds from Sorghum bicolor.

  1. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV. PMID:20568640

  2. The First Record of Female Maturation of the Short-finned Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, in the Coastal Waters of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Tongnunui, Prasert; Yoknoi, Nuengruetai; Pechnoi, Pimwipa; Yamada, Hideaki; Kon, Koetsu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide reproductive biological information on the gonadal development of the short-finned eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, which inhabits the coastal waters of Thailand. Short-finned eels were collected from three coastal areas of Trang Province, southern Thailand, from September 2011 to December 2013. The gonads of 151 specimens were subjected to a histological analysis. The histological observations found both immature and maturing females. Based on the advanced oocytes within an entire ovarian section, the ovaries of the studied specimens were classified into three maturity phases: 1) the immature phase was defined by ovaries that showed oogonia and primary growth oocytes, 2) the developing phase was defined by ovaries that contained early vitellogenic-stage oocytes with some oogonia present along with cortical alveolar oocytes and many adipocytes, and 3) the late vitellogenic phase refers to ovaries that contained nearly entirely late-vitellogenic oocytes. The density of oocytes in juxtaposition to an adipose matrix is considered to represent the degree of gonadal development. The results of this study may be applicable in further defining the general spawning area of A. bicolor bicolor in regions of the Indian Ocean. PMID:27019687

  3. The First Record of Female Maturation of the Short-finned Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, in the Coastal Waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tongnunui, Prasert; Yoknoi, Nuengruetai; Pechnoi, Pimwipa; Yamada, Hideaki; Kon, Koetsu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide reproductive biological information on the gonadal development of the short-finned eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, which inhabits the coastal waters of Thailand. Short-finned eels were collected from three coastal areas of Trang Province, southern Thailand, from September 2011 to December 2013. The gonads of 151 specimens were subjected to a histological analysis. The histological observations found both immature and maturing females. Based on the advanced oocytes within an entire ovarian section, the ovaries of the studied specimens were classified into three maturity phases: 1) the immature phase was defined by ovaries that showed oogonia and primary growth oocytes, 2) the developing phase was defined by ovaries that contained early vitellogenic-stage oocytes with some oogonia present along with cortical alveolar oocytes and many adipocytes, and 3) the late vitellogenic phase refers to ovaries that contained nearly entirely late-vitellogenic oocytes. The density of oocytes in juxtaposition to an adipose matrix is considered to represent the degree of gonadal development. The results of this study may be applicable in further defining the general spawning area of A. bicolor bicolor in regions of the Indian Ocean.

  4. The First Record of Female Maturation of the Short-finned Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, in the Coastal Waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tongnunui, Prasert; Yoknoi, Nuengruetai; Pechnoi, Pimwipa; Yamada, Hideaki; Kon, Koetsu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide reproductive biological information on the gonadal development of the short-finned eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, which inhabits the coastal waters of Thailand. Short-finned eels were collected from three coastal areas of Trang Province, southern Thailand, from September 2011 to December 2013. The gonads of 151 specimens were subjected to a histological analysis. The histological observations found both immature and maturing females. Based on the advanced oocytes within an entire ovarian section, the ovaries of the studied specimens were classified into three maturity phases: 1) the immature phase was defined by ovaries that showed oogonia and primary growth oocytes, 2) the developing phase was defined by ovaries that contained early vitellogenic-stage oocytes with some oogonia present along with cortical alveolar oocytes and many adipocytes, and 3) the late vitellogenic phase refers to ovaries that contained nearly entirely late-vitellogenic oocytes. The density of oocytes in juxtaposition to an adipose matrix is considered to represent the degree of gonadal development. The results of this study may be applicable in further defining the general spawning area of A. bicolor bicolor in regions of the Indian Ocean. PMID:27019687

  5. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers. PMID:27257604

  6. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.

  7. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  8. Turnover of dhurrin in green sorghum seedlings. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, S.R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with {sup 14}C-tyrosine and ({sup 14}C)shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

  9. Characterization of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench) for biomass utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Increased utilization of novel biomass sources for energy conversion schemes has become a significant portion of energy related research and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is often considered a viable potential resource. Plant breeding efforts to improve sorghum are limited in part by a poor definition of quality traits and their inheritance. To address these concerns, six diverse sorghums were compared and then combined to produce a full F/sub 1/ diallel with reciprocal crosses and genetic analysis. Fourteen agronomic, composition or quality traits were measured using chemical, biological and microscopic techniques. The six parental genotypes were grown at College Station and Weslaco, Texas in 1982 and 1983 while the diallel was grown at College Station in 1983. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, correlation and the Jinks-Hayman methods of diallel analysis. A significant genotype x environment interaction occurred for Brix % and yield per plant, but height and maturity did not display a significant effect. Through the diallel analysis, it was determined that additive genetic variance was a significant factor for total sugars, cell wall %, IVDMD, hemicellulose and starch. However, partial dominance was indicated for several traits as well. Reciprocal effects were not a major factor for the traits evaluated. The results together indicate that a breeding program should continue to develop improved male and female lines for use in hybrids.

  10. Phytoremediation using microbially mediated metal accumulation in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Phieler, René; Merten, Dirk; Roth, Martin; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    Reclaiming land that has been anthropogenically contaminated with multiple heavy metal elements, e.g., during mining operations, is a growing challenge worldwide. The use of phytoremediation has been discussed with varying success. Here, we show that a careful examination of options of microbial determination of plant performance is a key element in providing a multielement remediation option for such landscapes. We used both (a) mycorrhiza with Rhizophagus irregularis and (b) bacterial amendments with Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and Streptomyces tendae F4 to mediate plant-promoting and metal-accumulating properties to Sorghum bicolor. In pot experiments, the effects on plant growth and metal uptake were scored, and in a field trial at a former uranium leaching heap site near Ronneburg, Germany, we could show the efficacy under field conditions. Different metals could be extracted at the same time, with varying microbial inoculation and soil amendment scenarios possible when a certain metal is the focus of interest. Especially, manganese was extracted at very high levels which might be useful even for phytomining approaches.

  11. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

  12. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified.

  13. Cell type-specific loss of atp6 RNA editing in cytoplasmic male sterile Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Howad, W; Kempken, F

    1997-09-30

    RNA editing and cytoplasmic male sterility are two important phenomena in higher plant mitochondria. To determine whether correlations might exist between the two, RNA editing in different tissues of Sorghum bicolor was compared employing reverse transcription-PCR and subsequent sequence analysis. In etiolated shoots, RNA editing of transcripts of plant mitochondrial atp6, atp9, nad3, nad4, and rps12 genes was identical among fertile or cytoplasmic male sterile plants. We then established a protocol for mitochondrial RNA isolation from plant anthers and pollen to include in these studies. Whereas RNA editing of atp9, nad3, nad4, and rps12 transcripts in anthers was similar to etiolated shoots, mitochondrial atp6 RNA editing was strongly reduced in anthers of the A3Tx398 male sterile line of S. bicolor. atp6 transcripts of wheat and selected plastid transcripts in S. bicolor showed normal RNA editing, indicating that loss of atp6 RNA editing is specific for cytoplasmic male sterility S. bicolor mitochondria. Restoration of fertility in F1 and F2 lines correlated with an increase in RNA editing of atp6 transcripts. Our data suggest that loss of atp6 RNA editing contributes to or causes cytoplasmic male sterility in S. bicolor. Further analysis of the mechanism of cell type-specific loss of atp6 RNA editing activity may advance our understanding of the mechanism of RNA editing.

  14. Studies on the seed oils of Parkia biglobosa and Parkia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Aiyelaagbe, O O; Ajaiyeoba, E O; Ekundayo, O

    1996-04-01

    The seed oils of Parkia biglobosa and Parkia bicolor (Mimosaceae) have been analysed for their possible edible utility and to provide some physical data on both oils. The fatty acid composition of the oils was identified. Six major fatty acids were identified in the oil of P. bicolor while five were identified in that of P. biglobosa by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The two oils contained five similar fatty acids in almost the same ratios. Arachidic acid was the most abundant fatty acids (greater than forty per cent) in both oils. Other fatty acids in the oils were behenic, stearic, palmitic and linoleic acids. The sixth fatty acid in P. bicolor was an odd number of carbon atom and un unsaturated fatty acid (C20H37COOH) named bicolargic acid. The oils were also found to be non toxic.

  15. Development of chloroplast microsatellite markers for the endangered Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.)1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hana; Kim, Changkyun; Lee, You-Mi; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ten polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and characterized in an endemic and endangered herb, Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.), for use in conservation genetics. Methods and Results: Primer sets flanking each of the 10 cpSSR loci in noncoding regions of the chloroplast genome of M. bicolor were designed. These cpSSR markers were tested on a total of 33 adult individuals from three natural populations in South Korea. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to three. The unbiased haplotype diversity per locus ranged from 0.061 to 0.682. All markers were successfully transferred to the congeneric species M. japonicum, M. bifolium, and M. dilatatum with polymorphisms among the species. Conclusions: The developed cpSSR markers will be useful in assessing the genetic diversity and population structure of M. bicolor and will help to infer its molecular identification, thereby providing a basis for conservation.

  16. In vitro activity of Sorghum bicolor extracts, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Abugri, Daniel A; Witola, William H; Jaynes, Jesse M; Toufic, Nashar

    2016-05-01

    We investigated dried red leaf extracts of Sorghum bicolor for activity against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. S. bicolor red leaf extracts were obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation using ethanol and ethyl acetate as solvents. Analysis of the crude and fractionated extracts from S. bicolor using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that they contained significant amounts of apigeninidin, luteolinidin, 7-methoxyapigeninidin, 5-methoxyapigeninidin, 5-methoxyluteolinidin, 7-methoxyluteolinidin 5,7-dimethoxyapigeninidin or 5,7-dimethoxyluteolinidin, based on mass per charge (m/z). When tested in vitro, the IC50s for inhibitory activity against T. gondii tachyzoites' growth of the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were 2.3- and 4-fold, respectively, lower than their cytotoxic IC50s in mammalian cells. Ethyl acetate extracts fractionated in chloroform-methanol and chloroform had IC50s against T. gondii that were 56.1- and 3-fold lower than their respective cytotoxic IC50s in mammalian cells. These antiparasitic activities were found to be consistent with those of the respective pure 3-deoxyanthocyanidin compounds identified to be contained in the fractions in significant amounts. Further, we observed that, the position and number of methoxy groups possessed by the 3-deoyanthocyanidins influenced their antiparasitic activity. Together, our findings indicate that S. bicolor red-leaf 3-deoxyanthocyanidins-rich extracts have potent in vitro inhibitory activity against the proliferative stage of T. gondii parasites. PMID:26855040

  17. Industrial growth, morphology and some properties of Bi-colored amethyst citrine quartz (ametrine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balitsky, V. S.; Machina, I. B.; Mar‧in, A. A.; Shigley, J. E.; Rossman, G. R.; Lu, T.

    In the middle of the 1990s the first industrial technology for producing synthetic bi-colored amethyst-citrine quartz (ametrine) was created. The technology is based on results of studies of the effect of different physical-chemical and growth factors on the formation, stability and the character of the distribution in crystals of amethyst and citrine color centers.

  18. 12-Membered Resorcylic Acid Lactones Isolated from Saccharicola bicolor, an Endophytic Fungi from Bergenia purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Le; Zhao, Min; Xiao, Shi-Ji; Xia, Bing; Wan, Bo; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Two new resorcylic acid lactones, 13-hydroxyhidroresorcylide (1) and 12-hydroxyhidroresorcylide (2), along with four known congeners (3-6) were isolated from Saccharicola bicolor, an endophytic fungus from Bergenia purpurascens. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of the spectroscopic evidence.

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brown midrib mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), with a high biomass yield and excellent tolerance to drought and low nutrition, has been recommended as one of the most competitive bioenergy crops. Brown midrib (bmr) mutant sorghum with reduced lignin content showed a high potential for the improvement of bioethanol ...

  20. Registration of RTx430/gaigaoliang sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) moench]recombinant inbred line mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The RTx430 x ‘Gaigaoliang’ (PI610727) sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] (Reg. No. MP-__; NSL ____ MAP) recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population was developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, Cropping Systems Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Lubbock, TX and released in 2...

  1. 12-Membered Resorcylic Acid Lactones Isolated from Saccharicola bicolor, an Endophytic Fungi from Bergenia purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Le; Zhao, Min; Xiao, Shi-Ji; Xia, Bing; Wan, Bo; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Two new resorcylic acid lactones, 13-hydroxyhidroresorcylide (1) and 12-hydroxyhidroresorcylide (2), along with four known congeners (3-6) were isolated from Saccharicola bicolor, an endophytic fungus from Bergenia purpurascens. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of the spectroscopic evidence. PMID:26882683

  2. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines for Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D.; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K.; Auckland, Susan A.; Goff, Valorie H.; Rainville, Lisa K.; Burow, Gloria B.; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor × Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor × S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor × S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development. PMID:23316442

  3. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2011-04-01

    Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM), respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  4. Analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from leaves of Solanum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, Alida Pérez; Rojas, Luis B; Arias, Eilen; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    The volatile components from the leaves of Solanum bicolor Roemer & Schultes, was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analizad by GC/MS. A total of 20 compounds, representing 96.3 % of the oil, were identified. The dominant compounds were trans-caryophyllene (23.2%), trans-2-pentadecene (22.6%), germacrene D (12.2%), biciclogermecrene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.7%).

  5. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA IN A PIED TAMARIN (SAGUINUS BICOLOR).

    PubMed

    Barbon, Alberto Rodriguez; Ordóñez, Israel Alamilla; Haworth, Peter; Glendewar, Gale; Routh, Andrew; Pocknell, Ann

    2016-06-01

    An intact male pied tamarin (Saguinus bicolor) presented with a hunched posture while moving, dysuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria. After diagnostic imaging assessment and prostate biopsy, benign prostatic hyperplasia was diagnosed. Treatments with delmadinone acetate and osaterone caused clinical signs and hematuria to resolve temporarily for a variable period of time. Because of frequent recurrence, elective surgical castration was performed, leading to resolution of the clinical signs. PMID:27468035

  6. Chemical composition, aroma evaluation, and inhibitory activity towards acetylcholinesterase of essential oils from Gynura bicolor DC.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Usami, Atsushi; Matsuda, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    The compositions of the essential oils obtained from leaves and stems of Gynura bicolor DC. were analyzed by GC-MS. One hundred eight components of these oils were identified. (E)-β-caryophyllene (31.42 %), α-pinene (17.11 %), and bicyclogermacrene (8.09 %) were found to be the main components of the leaf oil, while α-pinene (61.42 %), β-pinene (14.39 %), and myrcene (5.10 %) were the major constituents of the stem oil. We found 73 previously unidentified components in these oils from G. bicolor. The oils were also subjected to odor evaluation. Eleven and 12 aroma-active compounds were detected in the leaf and stem oils, respectively. The abilities of these oils to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined. The sesquiterpenoids in the oils were found to inhibit AChE activity more strongly than the monoterpenoids in the oils did. It was suggested that the three main components in each essential oil act synergistically against AChE activity. These results show that the essential oils obtained from G. bicolor are a good dietary source of AChE activity inhibition.

  7. Development of chloroplast microsatellite markers for the endangered Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.)1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hana; Kim, Changkyun; Lee, You-Mi; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ten polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and characterized in an endemic and endangered herb, Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.), for use in conservation genetics. Methods and Results: Primer sets flanking each of the 10 cpSSR loci in noncoding regions of the chloroplast genome of M. bicolor were designed. These cpSSR markers were tested on a total of 33 adult individuals from three natural populations in South Korea. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to three. The unbiased haplotype diversity per locus ranged from 0.061 to 0.682. All markers were successfully transferred to the congeneric species M. japonicum, M. bifolium, and M. dilatatum with polymorphisms among the species. Conclusions: The developed cpSSR markers will be useful in assessing the genetic diversity and population structure of M. bicolor and will help to infer its molecular identification, thereby providing a basis for conservation. PMID:27610276

  8. Development of the Poplar-Laccaria bicolor Ectomycorrhiza Modifies Root Auxin Metabolism, Signaling, and Response.

    PubMed

    Vayssières, Alice; Pěnčík, Ales; Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Ljung, Karin; Martin, Francis; Legué, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Root systems of host trees are known to establish ectomycorrhizae (ECM) interactions with rhizospheric fungi. This mutualistic association leads to dramatic developmental modifications in root architecture, with the formation of numerous short and swollen lateral roots ensheathed by a fungal mantle. Knowing that auxin plays a crucial role in root development, we investigated how auxin metabolism, signaling, and response are affected in poplar (Populus spp.)-Laccaria bicolor ECM roots. The plant-fungus interaction leads to the arrest of lateral root growth with simultaneous attenuation of the synthetic auxin response element DR5. Measurement of auxin-related metabolites in the free-living partners revealed that the mycelium of L. bicolor produces high concentrations of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Metabolic profiling showed an accumulation of IAA and changes in the indol-3-pyruvic acid-dependent IAA biosynthesis and IAA conjugation and degradation pathways during ECM formation. The global analysis of auxin response gene expression and the regulation of AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN5, AUXIN/IAA, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR expression in ECM roots suggested that symbiosis-dependent auxin signaling is activated during the colonization by L. bicolor. Taking all this evidence into account, we propose a model in which auxin signaling plays a crucial role in the modification of root growth during ECM formation.

  9. Temperature measurement and accuracy of bi-colored radiometer applying pseudo gray-body approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, Terumi; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Fan, Z.; Kurokawa, Katashi

    1994-12-31

    It is necessary to obtain a true surface radiation temperature not including reflection energy, because the influence of reflection energy on measured images of a surface radiation temperature is comparatively large on a metal surface. In general, there are two ways to eliminate reflection energy and to specify a true temperature. One of the most typical methods is the analytical method obtaining a true surface temperature after measuring a true emissivity using infrared radiometer. Another one is on the basis of the bi-colored method applying pseudo gray-body approximation, in which a true surface temperature can be acquired after eliminating emissivity on a surface with the aid of radiation energy possessing various detection wave lengths. The surface temperature measurement using bi-colored radiometer combined with pseudo gray-body approximation has not been discussed yet. Therefore, in the present study, the authors will propose and investigate its bi-colored temperature measurement based on a power law description of energy for various detection wave lengths. And then its applicability and accuracy on temperature measurement will also be estimated as follows.

  10. Development of the Poplar-Laccaria bicolor Ectomycorrhiza Modifies Root Auxin Metabolism, Signaling, and Response.

    PubMed

    Vayssières, Alice; Pěnčík, Ales; Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Ljung, Karin; Martin, Francis; Legué, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Root systems of host trees are known to establish ectomycorrhizae (ECM) interactions with rhizospheric fungi. This mutualistic association leads to dramatic developmental modifications in root architecture, with the formation of numerous short and swollen lateral roots ensheathed by a fungal mantle. Knowing that auxin plays a crucial role in root development, we investigated how auxin metabolism, signaling, and response are affected in poplar (Populus spp.)-Laccaria bicolor ECM roots. The plant-fungus interaction leads to the arrest of lateral root growth with simultaneous attenuation of the synthetic auxin response element DR5. Measurement of auxin-related metabolites in the free-living partners revealed that the mycelium of L. bicolor produces high concentrations of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Metabolic profiling showed an accumulation of IAA and changes in the indol-3-pyruvic acid-dependent IAA biosynthesis and IAA conjugation and degradation pathways during ECM formation. The global analysis of auxin response gene expression and the regulation of AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN5, AUXIN/IAA, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR expression in ECM roots suggested that symbiosis-dependent auxin signaling is activated during the colonization by L. bicolor. Taking all this evidence into account, we propose a model in which auxin signaling plays a crucial role in the modification of root growth during ECM formation. PMID:26084921

  11. Temporal dynamics of iris yellow spot virus and its vector, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in seeded and transplanted onion fields.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A; Fuchs, Marc; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2010-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferentially colonize larger plants. Limited information is available on the temporal dynamics of IYSV and its vector in onion fields. In 2007 and 2008, T. tabaci and IYSV levels were monitored in six seeded and six transplanted fields. We found significantly more thrips in transplanted fields early in the season, but by the end of the season seeded fields had higher levels of IYSV. The percentage of sample sites with IYSV-infected plants remained low (<12%) until August, when infection levels increased dramatically in some fields. The densities of adult and larval thrips in August and September were better predictors of final IYSV levels than early season thrips densities. For 2007 and 2008, the time onions were harvested may have been more important in determining IYSV levels than whether the onions were seeded or transplanted. Viruliferous thrips emigrating from harvested onion fields into nonharvested ones may be increasing the primary spread of IYSV in late-harvested onions. Managing T. tabaci populations before harvest, and manipulating the spatial arrangement of fields based on harvest date could mitigate the spread of IYSV.

  12. Overwintering locations and hosts for onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the onion cropping ecosystem in New York.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Shelton, A M; Musser, F R; Nault, B A; Plate, J

    2007-08-01

    Identifying locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently disperse is important for designing control strategies. In upstate New York from 2003 through 2006, potential overwintering sites in the commercial onion, Allium cepa L., cropping system were investigated early in the spring before onion seedling emergence and again late in the season after onions were harvested. Onion thrips adults were sampled directly from the soil and indirectly from the soil by using emergence cages. Sampling locations included onion field interiors and edges and areas outside of these fields, including woods. Host material sampled included onion culls; volunteer onions, which sprout from cull onions left behind after harvest; and weeds. Onion thrips adults were found in all sections of onion fields and in locations outside of onion fields, with the fewest emerging from woods. Emergence began in early May and extended into June. Peak emergence occurred during the last half of May, at which time 50-75% of the population had emerged. Adults colonized volunteer onions as early as late March and as late as mid-November. No adults were found overwintering in onion cull piles. Adults also colonized several weed species, especially pigweed, Amaranthus hybridis L., and lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L., late in the fall. Our results indicate that onion thrips adults overwinter in the soil within and near onion fields and that they probably colonize volunteer onion plants before subsequent generations infest the onion crop in the spring. Volunteer onions and weeds also provide onion thrips with a host after onions are harvested. Consequently, onion thrips management strategies should include tactics that reduce volunteer onion and weed abundance.

  13. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. PMID:27329626

  14. Potential new insecticides for the control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on sweet pepper, tomato, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Broughton, S; Herron, G A

    2009-04-01

    New pesticides are required to maintain effective resistance management strategies for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). We tested the efficacy of acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam, two neonicotinoids that represent a newer class of insecticides for the control of thrips. We also tested chlorfenapyr, a pyrrol compound, and a lower than registered rate of the biopesticide spinosad. Laboratory bioassays were used to predict the relative efficacy of insecticides against F. occidentalis and to forecast likely field rates. Two doses within the calculated LC99.99 range were used to predict field rates and trial rates of 0.5 g and 1.0 active ingredient (AI)/liter acetamiprid, 0.025 and 0.05 g (AI)/liter chlorfenapyr, 0.3 and 0.6 g (AI)/liter thiamethoxam, and 0.01 g (AI)/ liter spinosad were tested in the greenhouse against pepper, lettuce, and tomato. With the exception of acetamiprid, field trial doses predicted from laboratory bioassay translated to effective field efficacy. All products controlled F. occidentalis at the rates trialed and so have potential to augment current chemical controls. Increasing mortality correlated with increasing acetamiprid concentration in a greenhouse lettuce trial, suggesting that the higher trial rate (1.0 g [AI]/liter) may be required in some lettuce crops. The lower than registered (0.01 g [AI]/liter) rate of spinosad also significantly reduced F. occidentalis numbers and is a viable control option that may be useful in specific integrated pest management programs. The implications of introducing neonicotinoids into existing insecticide resistance management strategies for F. occidentalis are discussed. PMID:19449645

  15. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment.

  16. Overwintering locations and hosts for onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the onion cropping ecosystem in New York.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Shelton, A M; Musser, F R; Nault, B A; Plate, J

    2007-08-01

    Identifying locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently disperse is important for designing control strategies. In upstate New York from 2003 through 2006, potential overwintering sites in the commercial onion, Allium cepa L., cropping system were investigated early in the spring before onion seedling emergence and again late in the season after onions were harvested. Onion thrips adults were sampled directly from the soil and indirectly from the soil by using emergence cages. Sampling locations included onion field interiors and edges and areas outside of these fields, including woods. Host material sampled included onion culls; volunteer onions, which sprout from cull onions left behind after harvest; and weeds. Onion thrips adults were found in all sections of onion fields and in locations outside of onion fields, with the fewest emerging from woods. Emergence began in early May and extended into June. Peak emergence occurred during the last half of May, at which time 50-75% of the population had emerged. Adults colonized volunteer onions as early as late March and as late as mid-November. No adults were found overwintering in onion cull piles. Adults also colonized several weed species, especially pigweed, Amaranthus hybridis L., and lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L., late in the fall. Our results indicate that onion thrips adults overwinter in the soil within and near onion fields and that they probably colonize volunteer onion plants before subsequent generations infest the onion crop in the spring. Volunteer onions and weeds also provide onion thrips with a host after onions are harvested. Consequently, onion thrips management strategies should include tactics that reduce volunteer onion and weed abundance. PMID:17849870

  17. Temporal dynamics of iris yellow spot virus and its vector, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in seeded and transplanted onion fields.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A; Fuchs, Marc; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2010-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferentially colonize larger plants. Limited information is available on the temporal dynamics of IYSV and its vector in onion fields. In 2007 and 2008, T. tabaci and IYSV levels were monitored in six seeded and six transplanted fields. We found significantly more thrips in transplanted fields early in the season, but by the end of the season seeded fields had higher levels of IYSV. The percentage of sample sites with IYSV-infected plants remained low (<12%) until August, when infection levels increased dramatically in some fields. The densities of adult and larval thrips in August and September were better predictors of final IYSV levels than early season thrips densities. For 2007 and 2008, the time onions were harvested may have been more important in determining IYSV levels than whether the onions were seeded or transplanted. Viruliferous thrips emigrating from harvested onion fields into nonharvested ones may be increasing the primary spread of IYSV in late-harvested onions. Managing T. tabaci populations before harvest, and manipulating the spatial arrangement of fields based on harvest date could mitigate the spread of IYSV. PMID:20388253

  18. Comparative effects of auxin transport inhibitors on rhizogenesis and mycorrhizal establishment of spruce seedlings inoculated with Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Ana; Priha, Outi; Sotta, Bruno; Bonnet, Magda; Le Tacon, François

    2003-08-01

    We compared the effects of two auxin transport inhibitors (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)) on rhizogenesis and mycorrhizal establishment of Picea abies L. (Karst.) seedlings inoculated with Laccaria bicolor S238N (Maire) Orton. Inoculation of seedlings with L. bicolor under in vitro conditions strongly increased host root and shoot growth. Although TIBA had no effect on taproot growth, NPA decreased taproot growth and deformed the root apex into a globular shape in both non-inoculated seedlings and seedlings inoculated with L. bicolor. Inoculation with L. bicolor strongly increased lateral rhizogenesis of the seedlings, and application of 100 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) partially reproduced this effect. Although TIBA completely inhibited the stimulatory effect of L. bicolor on lateral root formation, NPA inhibited it only partially. Both TIBA and NPA counteracted the effect of exogenous IAA on lateral rhizogenesis. Inoculation with L. bicolor significantly increased shoot growth and seedling dry biomass, whereas application of exogenous IAA had no effect on either parameter. There was no effect of NPA on shoot growth and biomass production. The presence of TIBA completely prevented the development of ectomycorrhizal structures (mantle and Hartig net). In the presence of NPA, the number of seedlings colonized by the fungus was reduced and the degree of development of ectomycorrhizal structures was variable, but not completely prevented. In medium lacking tryptophan, neither TIBA nor NPA inhibited the release of IAA produced by L. bicolor in pure culture. When 100 microM tryptophan was added to the medium, TIBA significantly increased the amount of IAA released by the fungus, whereas NPA had no significant effect. We conclude that fungal IAA plays an important role in plant rhizogenesis and in the establishment of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

  19. Location and Survival of Mycorrhiza Helper Pseudomonas fluorescens during Establishment of Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis between Laccaria bicolor and Douglas Fir

    PubMed Central

    Frey-Klett, P.; Pierrat, J. C.; Garbaye, J.

    1997-01-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6, isolated from a Laccaria bicolor sporocarp, consistently promotes L. bicolor-Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) ectomycorrhizal formation, even with low doses of bacterial inoculum. In order to describe this phenomenon more accurately, we have looked at the location and survival of the introduced bacterial strain in the soil and in the rhizosphere during the establishment of mycorrhizal symbiosis in glasshouse and nursery experiments. Bacterial populations were quantified with a spontaneous, stable, rifampin-resistant mutant, BBc6R8, which phenotypically conformed to the parental strain. BBc6R8 populations declined rapidly, reaching the detection limit after 19 weeks, and did not increase either when L. bicolor sporocarps were forming in autumn or when Douglas fir roots resumed growing in spring. BBc6R8 was neither an endophyte nor a rhizobacterium. Furthermore, it was not particularly associated with either mycorrhizas of Douglas fir-L. bicolor or L. bicolor sporocarps. Surprisingly, a significant mycorrhiza helper effect was observed when the inoculated BBc6R8 population had dropped as low as 30 CFU g of dry matter(sup-1) in the soil. This study raises questions concerning the bacterial concentration in the soil which is effective for promotion of mycorrhizal establishment and the timing of the bacterial effect. It allows us to develop working hypotheses, which can be tested experimentally, to identify the mechanisms of the mycorrhiza helper effect. PMID:16535478

  20. Phytochemical investigation of Gynura bicolor leaves and cytotoxicity evaluation of the chemical constituents against HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Tan, Hooi Poay; Ling, Sui Kiong; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Sim, Kae Shin

    2016-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells. PMID:25738869

  1. Effects of different carbon dioxide and LED lighting levels on the anti-oxidative capabilities of Gynura bicolor DC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jin; Guo, Shuangsheng; Xu, Chunlan; Yang, Chengjia; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Qin, Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Gynura bicolor DC is not only an edible plant but also a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine. G. bicolor DC grown in controlled environmental chambers under 3 CO2 concentrations [450 (ambient), 1500 (elevated), 8000 (super-elevated) μmol mol-1] and 3 LED lighting conditions [white (WL), 85% red + 15% blue (RB15), 70% red + 30% blue (RB30) ] were investigated to reveal plausible antioxidant anabolic responses to CO2 enrichment and LED light quality. Under ambient and elevated CO2 levels, blue light increasing from 15% to 30% was conducive to the accumulation of anthocyanins and total flavonoids, and the antioxidant activity of extract was also increased, but plant biomass was decreased. These results demonstrated that the reinforcement of blue light could induce more antioxidant of secondary metabolites, but depress the effective growth of G. bicolor DC under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. In addition, compared with the ambient and elevated CO2 levels, the increased anthocyanins, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant enzyme activities of G. bicolor DC under super-elevated CO2 level could serve as important components of antioxidative defense mechanism against CO2 stress. Hence, G. bicolor DC might have higher tolerance to CO2 stress.

  2. Photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system of Gynura Bicolor DC grown at different elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO _{2}] will increase in the future and will affect global climate and ecosystem productivity. However, this is not clearly an area that requires further study on the most appropriate [CO _{2}] selection for plant growth and quality in a closed, controlled environment. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant status under five CO _{2} concentration (400, 800, 1200, 2000 and 3000 umol mol (-1) ) on the leaf of Gynura bicolor DC. Here the results show that net photosynthetic rate(Pn), Chl content, edible biomass(EB), leaf blade width(LBW), root weight(RW), fructose(Fru) and sucrose(Suc) of Gynura bicolor DC increased under elevated [CO _{2}] of 800 umol mol (-1) , 1200 umol mol (-1) and 2000 umol mol (-1) . On the contrary, photosynthesis and biomass production declined significantly at 3000 umol mol (-1) CO _{2}, While Lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H _{2}O _{2}) achieved the highest levels. Furthermore, the contents of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) reached the highest level at 2000 umol mol ({-1) }CO _{2}. Results imply that a significant increase in growth and antioxidant defense system of Gynura bicolor DC occurred under 800-2000 umol mol (-1) of CO _{2} concentration provided a theoretical basis for the application for plants selection in Bioregeneration Life Support System (BLSS) and a closed controlled environment.

  3. Sunlight decreased genotoxicity of azadirachtin on root tip cells of Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Kwankua, W; Sengsai, S; Kuleung, C; Euawong, N

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) extract for pest control in agriculture has raised concerns over contamination by the residues to the environment. Such residues, particularly azadirachtin (Aza), may cause deleterious effect to non-target organisms. This investigation was conducted to find out if Aza could be inactivated through exposures to sunlight. Activity of Aza was assessed as its ability to cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the forms of nuclei abnormality and chromosome aberration as measured by mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration (MA). Varying concentrations of Aza were tested on Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor. It was found that the MI of all root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa and E. bicolor treated with 0.00005%, 0.00010%, 0.00015%, and 0.00020% (w/v) Aza-containing neem extract for 24h, were significantly lower than the controls. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the Aza-treated groups showed higher MA levels in all cases investigated. Furthermore, the decreasing levels of MI and the increasing levels of MA related well with the increasing concentration of Aza. Microscopic examination of root tip meristematic cells revealed that the anomaly found most often were mitotic disturbances and chromosomal bridges. Exposures of 0.00020% (w/v) Aza to sunlight for 3 days and 7 days decreased Aza ability to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, both in terms of MI and MA, to root tip meristematic cells in A. cepa and E. bicolor. Photodegradation of Aza upon exposure to direct sunlight was confirmed by HPLC. The study implicates that Aza would unlikely cause long term deleterious effects to the environment since it would be inactivated by sunlight. PMID:20452021

  4. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

  5. Population dynamics of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and other thrips species on two ornamental host plant species in Southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Catharine M; Derksen, Andrew I; Seal, Dakshina R; Osborne, Lance S; Martin, Cliff G

    2014-08-01

    Since its 2005 introduction into the United States, chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a problematic pest of agronomic, vegetable, fruit, and ornamental plants. Knowledge of its population dynamics may help managers better monitor and control S. dorsalis. Population estimates were recorded for S. dorsalis and other thrips species on Knock-Out rose (Rosa 'Radrazz') and green buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) from July 2007 to September 2008 in two field plots (one per plant species) in Homestead, FL. Yellow sticky card traps and samples of terminals, flowers, buds, and leaves were collected. S. dorsalis accounted for 95% of all thrips individuals collected from plants and 84% from traps with the remainder including at least 18 other thrips species. More thrips were caught on or flying near rose plants (47,438) than on or near buttonwoods (5,898), and on-plant densities of S. dorsalis appeared higher for rose than for buttonwood. Compared with rose leaves, rose buds, terminals, and flowers each had higher numbers of S. dorsalis, and buds and terminals had higher densities. On each host plant species, S. dorsalis density fluctuated over time with peaks in the late spring, summer, and fall, but populations were consistently low in the late winter and early spring. On roses, increased plant damage ratings correlated with reduced numbers of flowers and buds, reduced mean flower areas, and increased on-plant number and density of S. dorsalis. There were positive correlations over time between S. dorsalis density and plant damage rating for rose flowers (R = 0.78; P = 0.0003) and for buttonwood terminals (R = 0.90; P = 0.0001). Yellow sticky card traps were effective for monitoring S. dorsalis and may be especially useful and economically justified for the most susceptible hosts, but they also work well for less susceptible hosts. A good S. dorsalis scouting program should hence consider trap catches and symptoms such as leaf

  6. Challenges of Detecting Directional Selection After a Bottleneck: Lessons From Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Martha T.; Casa, Alexandra M.; Sun, Hong; Murray, Seth C.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Aquadro, Charles F.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Multilocus surveys of sequence variation can be used to identify targets of directional selection, which are expected to have reduced levels of variation. Following a population bottleneck, the signal of directional selection may be hard to detect because many loci may have low variation by chance and the frequency spectrum of variation may be perturbed in ways that resemble the effects of selection. Cultivated Sorghum bicolor contains a subset of the genetic diversity found in its wild ancestor(s) due to the combined effects of a domestication bottleneck and human selection on traits associated with agriculture. As a framework for distinguishing between the effects of demography and selection, we sequenced 204 loci in a diverse panel of 17 cultivated S. bicolor accessions. Genomewide patterns of diversity depart strongly from equilibrium expectations with regard to the variance of the number of segregating sites, the site frequency spectrum, and haplotype configuration. Furthermore, gene genealogies of most loci with an excess of low frequency variants and/or an excess of segregating sites do not show the characteristic signatures of directional and diversifying selection, respectively. A simple bottleneck model provides an improved but inadequate fit to the data, suggesting the action of other population-level factors, such as population structure and migration. Despite a known history of recent selection, we find little evidence for directional selection, likely due to low statistical power and lack of an appropriate null model. PMID:16547110

  7. Antioxidant Potential in Different Parts and Callus of Gynura procumbens and Different Parts of Gynura bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vijendren; Ahmad, Syahida; Mahmood, Maziah

    2015-01-01

    Plants from Gynura family was used in this study, namely, Gynura procumbens and Gynura bicolor. Gynura procumbens is well known for its various medicinal properties such as antihyperglycaemic, antihyperlipidaemic, and antiulcerogenic; meanwhile, G. bicolor remains unexploited. Several nonenzymatic antioxidants methods were utilized to study the antioxidant capacity, which include ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and ascorbic acid content determination. DPPH assay reveals G. procumbens shoot as the lowest (66.885%) and G. procumbens root as the highest (93.499%) DPPH radical inhibitor. In FRAP assay, reducing power was not detected in G. procumbens leaf callus (0.000 TEAC mg/g FW) whereby G. procumbens root exhibits the highest (1.103 TEAC mg/g FW) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content exhibited similar trend for both the intact plants analysed. In all antioxidant assays, G. procumbens callus culture exhibits very low antioxidant activity. However, G. procumbens root exhibited highest phenolic content, flavonoid content, and ascorbic acid content with 4.957 TEAC mg/g FW, 543.529 QE µg/g FW, and 54.723 µg/g FW, respectively. This study reveals that G. procumbens root extract is a good source of natural antioxidant. PMID:26491654

  8. The mitochondrial genome of the Vespa bicolor Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae).

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Niu, Fang-Fang; Tan, Jiang-Li

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first representative mitochondrial genome of the subfamily Vespinae (Hymenopterea: Vespidae) from the Vespa bicolor Fabricius (GenBank accession No. KJ735511). Nearly complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced with a length of 16,937 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 20 tRNA genes, as well as a portion of A+T-rich region. Two tRNA genes, i.e. trnI and trnY, were failed to sequence, which were presumed to be located within a region between A+T-rich region and trnM-trnQ-nad2. In the V. bicolor mitochondrial genome, at least three tRNA genes were rearranged. trnY was rearranged to the unsequenced region between A+T-rich region and trnM-trnQ-nad2. trnL1 was rearranged from a location between nad1 and rrnL to the upstream of nad1 gene. trnS1 and trnE were shuffled in the tRNA cluster of trnA-trnR-trnN-trnS1-trnE-trnF. Our study showed that the mitochondrial genomes between Vespinae and Polistinae shared more arrangement pattern than that between Vespinae and Eumeninae.

  9. Secretome of the free-living mycelium from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Delphine; Kohler, Annegret; Claverol, Stephane; Solier, Emilie; Joets, Johann; Gibon, Julien; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Plomion, Christophe; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor has a dual lifestyle with a transitory soil saprotrophic phase and a longer mutualistic interaction with tree roots. Recent evidence suggests that secreted proteins play key roles in host plant colonisation and symbiosis development. However, a limited number of secreted proteins have been characterized, and the full spectrum of effectors involved in the mycobiont invasion and survival remains unknown. We analyzed the extracellular proteins secreted in growth medium by free-living mycelium of L. bicolor as a proxy for its saprotrophic phase. The proteomic analyses (two-dimensional electrophoresis and shotgun proteomics) were substantiated by whole-genome expression transcript profiling on ectomycorrhizal roots. Among the 224 proteins identified were carbohydrate-acting enzymes likely involved in the cell wall remodelling linked to hyphal growth as well as secreted proteases possibly digesting soil organic compounds and/or fending off competitors, pathogens, and predators. Evidence of gene expression was found in ectomycorrhizal roots for 210 of them. These findings provide the first global view of the secretome of a mutualistic symbiont and shed some light on the mechanisms controlling cell wall remodelling during the hyphal growth. They also revealed many novel putative secreted proteins of unknown function, including one mycorrhiza-induced small secreted protein.

  10. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly.

  11. Isolation from the Sorghum bicolor Mycorrhizosphere of a Bacterium Compatible with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development and Antagonistic towards Soilborne Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Budi, S. W.; van Tuinen, D.; Martinotti, G.; Gianinazzi, S.

    1999-01-01

    A gram-positive bacterium with antagonistic activity towards soilborne fungal pathogens has been isolated from the mycorrhizosphere of Sorghum bicolor inoculated with Glomus mosseae. It has been identified as Paenibacillus sp. strain B2 based on its analytical profile index and on 16S ribosomal DNA analysis. Besides having antagonistic activity, this bacterium stimulates mycorrhization. PMID:10543835

  12. Hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin transcription in roots of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Cooke, Janice E K; Kemppainen, Minna; Pardo, Alejandro G; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2016-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi have been reported to increase root hydraulic conductivity (L pr) by altering apoplastic and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP)-mediated cell-to-cell water transport pathways in associated roots, or to have little effect on root water transport, depending on the interacting species and imposed stresses. In this study, we investigated the water transport properties and PIP transcription in roots of aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by the wild-type strain of Laccaria bicolor and by strains overexpressing a major fungal water-transporting aquaporin JQ585595. Inoculation of aspen seedlings with L. bicolor resulted in about 30 % colonization rate of root tips, which developed dense mantle and the Hartig net that was restricted in the modified root epidermis. Transcript abundance of the aspen aquaporins PIP1;2, PIP2;1, and PIP2;2 decreased in colonized root tips. Root colonization by JQ585595-overexpressing strains had no significant impact on seedling shoot water potentials, gas exchange, or dry mass; however, it led to further decrease in transcript abundance of PIP1;2 and PIP2;3 and the significantly lower L pr than in non-inoculated roots. These results, taken together with our previous study that showed enhanced root water hydraulics of L. bicolor-colonized white spruce (Picea glauca), suggest that the impact of L. bicolor on root hydraulics varies by the ectomycorrhiza-associated tree species.

  13. Impact of NPK treatments on sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)) yields for biofuel feedstock in Piedmont Region of North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative sources for biofuel production such as juice extracted from sweet sorghum are in high demand and proper nutrient management practices need to be established for growing sweet sorghum in order to maximize profits. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising alternative ener...

  14. Discovery of a dhurrin QTL in sorghum bicolor: colocalization of dhurrin biosynthesis and a novel stay-green QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin [(S)-p-hydroxymandelonitrile-ß-D-glucopyranoside] is a cyanogenic glucoside produced by (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and is generally considered a natural defense compound capable of producing the toxin hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to deter animal herbivory. Recently, high levels of leaf dhurrin h...

  15. Registration of the IS3620C/BTx623 recombinant inbred mapping population of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench.])

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BTx623 x IS3620C sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] mapping population (Reg. No. _______, NSL ____, [represented as BTx623/IS3620C]), is a set of 430 F7 to F9 recombinant inbred lines [RILs](USDA-ARS Germplasm Information Network (GRIN) PI 658758 through PI 659060 and PI 659144 through PI 65...

  16. Hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin transcription in roots of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Cooke, Janice E K; Kemppainen, Minna; Pardo, Alejandro G; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2016-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi have been reported to increase root hydraulic conductivity (L pr) by altering apoplastic and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP)-mediated cell-to-cell water transport pathways in associated roots, or to have little effect on root water transport, depending on the interacting species and imposed stresses. In this study, we investigated the water transport properties and PIP transcription in roots of aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by the wild-type strain of Laccaria bicolor and by strains overexpressing a major fungal water-transporting aquaporin JQ585595. Inoculation of aspen seedlings with L. bicolor resulted in about 30 % colonization rate of root tips, which developed dense mantle and the Hartig net that was restricted in the modified root epidermis. Transcript abundance of the aspen aquaporins PIP1;2, PIP2;1, and PIP2;2 decreased in colonized root tips. Root colonization by JQ585595-overexpressing strains had no significant impact on seedling shoot water potentials, gas exchange, or dry mass; however, it led to further decrease in transcript abundance of PIP1;2 and PIP2;3 and the significantly lower L pr than in non-inoculated roots. These results, taken together with our previous study that showed enhanced root water hydraulics of L. bicolor-colonized white spruce (Picea glauca), suggest that the impact of L. bicolor on root hydraulics varies by the ectomycorrhiza-associated tree species. PMID:26861480

  17. Uptake, translocation, and metabolism of oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and their influence on metolachlor metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yenne, S.P.; Hatzios, K.K.; Meredith, S.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The uptake, translocation, and metabolism of the oxime ether safeners oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, var. Funk G-522-DR) were investigated. Following application of ({sup 14}C)oxabetrinil and ({sup 14}C)CGA-133205 to imbibed seeds, it appears that the safeners are conferring protection to grain sorghum by increasing the rate of metolachlor metabolism.

  18. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly. PMID:25964378

  19. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  20. Bioactive and nutritive compounds in Sorghum bicolor (Guinea corn) red leaves and their health implication.

    PubMed

    Abugri, D A; Tiimob, B J; Apalangya, V A; Pritchett, G; McElhenney, W H

    2013-05-01

    Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Naga Red) red leaves is an ingredient used in rice and beans that is known as "waakye" in the Hausa language in some African countries. Little is known about its benefits aside from its colourant properties. We studied its bioactive, nutritive compounds and the effectiveness of four organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether) in isolation of these compounds to gain information regarding its health benefits to consumers. Of the compounds evaluated, the leaves consisted primarily of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids with small amounts of chlorophyll (a and b), lycopene and β-carotene. The fatty acid profiles of the leaves revealed palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid as predominant with each having greater than 5% of the total fatty acid identified. The nutritional implication of these findings is that the consumption of diets prepared with the leaves provides natural antioxidant and essential fatty acids that could fight cardiovascular related diseases. PMID:23265545

  1. The bioconversion of 5-deoxystrigol to sorgomol by the sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Motonami, Noriko; Ueno, Kotomi; Nakashima, Hitomi; Nomura, Saki; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2013-09-01

    Strigolactones, important rhizosphere signalling molecules and a class of phytohormones that control shoot architecture, are apocarotenoids of plant origin. They have a structural core consisting of a tricyclic lactone connected to a butyrolactone group via an enol ether bridge. Deuterium-labelled 5-deoxystrigol stereoisomers were administered to aquacultures of a high sorgomol-producing sorghum cultivar, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, and conversion of these substrates to sorgomol stereoisomers was investigated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses established that 5-deoxystrigol (5-DS) and ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol were absorbed by sorghum roots, converted to sorgomol and ent-2'-epi-sorgomol, respectively, and exuded out of the roots. The conversion was inhibited by uniconazole-P, implying the involvement of cytochrome P450 in the hydroxylation. These results provide experimental evidence for the postulated biogenetic scheme for formation of strigolactones, in which hydroxylation at C-9 of 5-DS can generate sorgomol.

  2. Ectoparasitic dermatitis in free-ranging swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor) in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Portas, T J; Crowley, A; Hufschmid, J

    2009-04-01

    We report extensive dermatological lesions in three, free-ranging, adult, male swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor), presented to Taronga Western Plains Zoo wildlife hospital. All three animals were moderately infested with the louse species Heterodoxus ualabati, and two were concurrently infested with a previously undescribed sarcoptiform mite of the genus Diabolicoptes. Histological changes included moderate to marked compact hyperkeratosis, focal deep pyoderma and superficial dermatophytosis. Mild to moderate hyperplastic perivascular and periadnexal dermatitis with marked superficial and follicular hyperkeratosis was evident in the skin of the inguinal region and lateral thigh of the two wallabies infested with the Diabolicoptes species. This is the first report of ectoparasitic dermatitis in free-ranging swamp wallabies and the first report of mites of the genus Diabolicoptes from a macropodid. PMID:19335473

  3. [Analysis of genetic relationship between sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Mench) and johnsongrass (Sorghum. halepense L. Pers)].

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin Hua; Han, Yong Liang; Zhao, Qian

    2007-10-01

    Tetraploid sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) line "sishentian" and Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers) were used to analyze genetic differences between Sorghum and Johnsongrass by SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and cytogenetic methods. The SSR analyzed results indicated: (1) There were great genetic differences between sorghum and Johnsongrass, According to the different locus distribution, the chromosome linkage groups can be separated into two groups: High differences group and low differences group. (2) Cytogenetic analysis revealed that the parents and their hybrid are irregular tetraploid genetic populations; The chromosome configuration at MI were mainly bivalent and quadrivalents in sorghum, Johnsongrass and their hybrid; there were 17.00, 15.23, 15.83 bivalents and 0.95, 2.15, 1.60 quadrivalents in hybrid, sorghum and Johnsongrass respectively; The results of SSR and cytogenetic analysis demonstrated that the genome of Johnsongrass and Sorghum are homologous in a certain extent. The hybrid can not be steadily hereditary as double diploid.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Sorghum bicolor Proteome in Response to Drought Stress and following Recovery.

    PubMed

    Jedmowski, Christoph; Ashoub, Ahmed; Beckhaus, Tobias; Berberich, Thomas; Karas, Michael; Brüggemann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive response of Sorghum bicolor landraces from Egypt to drought stress and following recovery was analyzed using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, 2D-DIGE. Physiological measurements and proteome alterations of accession number 11434, drought tolerant, and accession number 11431, drought sensitive, were compared to their relative control values after drought stress and following recovery. Differentially expressed proteins were analysed by Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF-MS. Alterations in protein contents related to the energy balance, metabolism (sensu Mewes et al. 1997), and chaperons were the most apparent features to elucidate the differences between the drought tolerant and sensitive accessions. Further alterations in the levels of proteins related to transcription and protein synthesis are discussed.

  5. In silico ligand binding studies of cyanogenic β-glucosidase, dhurrinase-2 from Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Chavi; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir M; Rawal, Shuban S

    2015-07-01

    Dhurrinase, a cyanogenic β-glucosidase from Sorghum bicolor is the key enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of dhurrin to produce toxic hydrogen cyanide, as a part of plant defence mechanism. Dhurrinase 1 (SbDhr1) and dhurrinase 2 (SbDhr2), two isozymes have been isolated and characterized from S. bicolor. However, there is no information in the literature about the three dimensional (3D) structure of SbDhr2 and molecular interactions involved between the protein and ligand. In this study, the three dimensional structure of SbDhr2 was built based on homology modeling by using the X-ray crystallographic structure of its close homologue SbDhr1 as the template. The generated 3D model was energy minimized and the quality was validated by Ramachndran plot, various bioinformatic tools and their relevant parameters. Stability, folding-unfolding and flexibility of the modeled SbDhr2 was evaluated on the basis of RMSD, radius of gyration (Rg) and RMSF values respectively, obtained through molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. Further, molecular docking was performed with its natural substrate dhurrin, one substrate analogue, three un-natural substrates, and one inhibitor. Analysis of molecular interactions in the SbDhr2-ligand complexes revealed the key amino acid residues responsible to stabilize the ligands within the binding pocket through non-bonded interactions and some of them were found to be conserved (Glu239, Tyr381, Trp426, Glu454, Trp511). Reasonably broader substrate specificity of SbDhr2 was explained through the wider entrance passage observed in comparison to SbDhr1.

  6. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor stimulates lateral root formation in poplar and Arabidopsis through auxin transport and signaling.

    PubMed

    Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Morin, Emmanuelle; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P; Palme, Klaus; Martin, Francis; Ditengou, Franck A; Legué, Valérie

    2009-12-01

    The early phase of the interaction between tree roots and ectomycorrhizal fungi, prior to symbiosis establishment, is accompanied by a stimulation of lateral root (LR) development. We aimed to identify gene networks that regulate LR development during the early signal exchanges between poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor with a focus on auxin transport and signaling pathways. Our data demonstrated that increased LR development in poplar and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interacting with L. bicolor is not dependent on the ability of the plant to form ectomycorrhizae. LR stimulation paralleled an increase in auxin accumulation at root apices. Blocking plant polar auxin transport with 1-naphthylphthalamic acid inhibited LR development and auxin accumulation. An oligoarray-based transcript profile of poplar roots exposed to molecules released by L. bicolor revealed the differential expression of 2,945 genes, including several components of polar auxin transport (PtaPIN and PtaAUX genes), auxin conjugation (PtaGH3 genes), and auxin signaling (PtaIAA genes). Transcripts of PtaPIN9, the homolog of Arabidopsis AtPIN2, and several PtaIAAs accumulated specifically during the early interaction phase. Expression of these rapidly induced genes was repressed by 1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Accordingly, LR stimulation upon contact with L. bicolor in Arabidopsis transgenic plants defective in homologs of these genes was decreased or absent. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis pin2, the root apical auxin increase during contact with the fungus was modified. We propose a model in which fungus-induced auxin accumulation at the root apex stimulates LR formation through a mechanism involving PtaPIN9-dependent auxin redistribution together with PtaIAA-based auxin signaling.

  7. [Development of EST-SSR marker and genetic diversity analysis in Sorghum bicolor×Sorghum sudanenes].

    PubMed

    Wen, Ying; Lu, Xiao-Ping; Ren, Rui; Mi, Fu-Gui; Han, Ping-An; Xue, Chun-Lei

    2013-02-01

    A total of 57 498 non-redundant ESTs were identified from 210 878 ESTs of Sorghum in NCBI by sequence analysis. In all, 3 338 SSRs were distributed in 3 116 ESTs with an average frequency of one SSR per 11.28 kb, which included 215 SSR motifs. Analysis of SSR motifs revealed that the trinucleotides were major motifs, accounting for 68.33%.The dinucleotides motifs accounted for 17.97%. There were 1 694 sequences from 3 338 EST-SSR sequences could be designed into primers and the proportion was 50.75%. Fourteen primers were selected to amplify EST-SSR loci with 50 collections of Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanenes, 7 collections of S. bicolor and 3 collections of S. sudanenes. Seventy-two allele variations were detected and the frequency was 5.14 gene loci per primer. The polymorphism index of each primer was in the range of 0.54-0.93. The genetic distance ranged from 0.1646 to 0.6398. This showed abundant genetic diversity in the materials. The materials were divided into 5 groups with clustering analysis of EST-SSR data. Each group included the varieties with similar parents or similar regional distribution. Meanwhile, 4 specific molecular markers were found. Primer D1763 was specific in the registered variety GB-4-2 which was the progeny of S. bicolor 314A × S. sudanenes White Skull. The marker was specific in justification of the germ difference. These results showed that the EST-SSR was an effective marker for genetic diversity analysis and specificity studies on S. bicolor × S. sudanenes.

  8. The Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor Stimulates Lateral Root Formation in Poplar and Arabidopsis through Auxin Transport and Signaling1[W

    PubMed Central

    Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Morin, Emmanuelle; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Palme, Klaus; Martin, Francis; Ditengou, Franck A.; Legué, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    The early phase of the interaction between tree roots and ectomycorrhizal fungi, prior to symbiosis establishment, is accompanied by a stimulation of lateral root (LR) development. We aimed to identify gene networks that regulate LR development during the early signal exchanges between poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor with a focus on auxin transport and signaling pathways. Our data demonstrated that increased LR development in poplar and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interacting with L. bicolor is not dependent on the ability of the plant to form ectomycorrhizae. LR stimulation paralleled an increase in auxin accumulation at root apices. Blocking plant polar auxin transport with 1-naphthylphthalamic acid inhibited LR development and auxin accumulation. An oligoarray-based transcript profile of poplar roots exposed to molecules released by L. bicolor revealed the differential expression of 2,945 genes, including several components of polar auxin transport (PtaPIN and PtaAUX genes), auxin conjugation (PtaGH3 genes), and auxin signaling (PtaIAA genes). Transcripts of PtaPIN9, the homolog of Arabidopsis AtPIN2, and several PtaIAAs accumulated specifically during the early interaction phase. Expression of these rapidly induced genes was repressed by 1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Accordingly, LR stimulation upon contact with L. bicolor in Arabidopsis transgenic plants defective in homologs of these genes was decreased or absent. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis pin2, the root apical auxin increase during contact with the fungus was modified. We propose a model in which fungus-induced auxin accumulation at the root apex stimulates LR formation through a mechanism involving PtaPIN9-dependent auxin redistribution together with PtaIAA-based auxin signaling. PMID:19854859

  9. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops.

  10. Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Pupin, Francine; Bikoba, Veronique; Biasi, William B; Pedroso, Gabriel M; Ouyang, Yuling; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5 degrees C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5 degrees C, plus 5 d at 15 degrees C, and 2 d at 20 degrees C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters.

  11. Population Dynamics of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and the Predator Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) as Influenced by Flower Color of Lagerstroemia (Lythraceae).

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Charles; Funderburk, Joe; Tyler-Julian, Kara; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Knox, Gary; Andersen, Peter; Adkins, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Crapemyrtle is a common landscape planting that is a resource subsidy for beneficial insects. Field studies were conducted to determine the influence of crapemyrtle flower color on the population abundances and predator-prey dynamics of the herbivorous Frankliniella species and the predator Orius insidiosus. Adults and immatures of predator and prey were highly anthophilous, preferring white 'Acoma' flowers compared with lavender 'Apalachee', red 'Carolina Beauty', and pink 'Choctaw'. The predator was aggregated with its prey in a density-dependent manner: the adults by preferring the crapemyrtle clones also preferred by the thrips and the nymphs by direct tracking or as a function of increased prey and fecundity. Acoma was best for preference and buildup of O. insidiosus populations, and it was the only clone where there was no buildup in thrips populations. Two species of Karnyothrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaoethripidae), predators of small insects, were common in Tillandsia usneoides, an epiphyte on the crapemyrtle. Crapemyrtle is a bridge to enhance populations of O. insidiosus during summer months when there are few other hosts in the southern USA. PMID:26313973

  12. Overexpression of Laccaria bicolor aquaporin JQ585595 alters root water transport properties in ectomycorrhizal white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Kemppainen, Minna; El Kayal, Walid; Lee, Seong Hee; Pardo, Alejandro G; Cooke, Janice E K; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of hyphae to water transport in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings was examined by altering expression of a major water-transporting aquaporin in Laccaria bicolor. Picea glauca was inoculated with wild-type (WT), mock transgenic or L. bicolor aquaporin JQ585595-overexpressing (OE) strains and exposed to root temperatures ranging from 5 to 20°C to examine the root water transport properties, physiological responses and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) expression in colonized plants. Mycorrhization increased shoot water potential, transpiration, net photosynthetic rates, root hydraulic conductivity and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivity in seedlings. At 20°C, OE plants had higher root hydraulic conductivity compared with WT plants and the increases were accompanied by higher expression of P. glauca PIP GQ03401_M18.1 in roots. In contrast to WT L. bicolor, the effects of OE fungi on root and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivities were abolished at 10 and 5°C in the absence of major changes in the examined transcript levels of P. glauca root PIPs. The results provide evidence for the importance of fungal aquaporins in root water transport of mycorrhizal plants. They also demonstrate links between hyphal water transport, root aquaporin expression and root water transport in ECM plants.

  13. Overexpression of Laccaria bicolor aquaporin JQ585595 alters root water transport properties in ectomycorrhizal white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Kemppainen, Minna; El Kayal, Walid; Lee, Seong Hee; Pardo, Alejandro G; Cooke, Janice E K; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of hyphae to water transport in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings was examined by altering expression of a major water-transporting aquaporin in Laccaria bicolor. Picea glauca was inoculated with wild-type (WT), mock transgenic or L. bicolor aquaporin JQ585595-overexpressing (OE) strains and exposed to root temperatures ranging from 5 to 20°C to examine the root water transport properties, physiological responses and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) expression in colonized plants. Mycorrhization increased shoot water potential, transpiration, net photosynthetic rates, root hydraulic conductivity and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivity in seedlings. At 20°C, OE plants had higher root hydraulic conductivity compared with WT plants and the increases were accompanied by higher expression of P. glauca PIP GQ03401_M18.1 in roots. In contrast to WT L. bicolor, the effects of OE fungi on root and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivities were abolished at 10 and 5°C in the absence of major changes in the examined transcript levels of P. glauca root PIPs. The results provide evidence for the importance of fungal aquaporins in root water transport of mycorrhizal plants. They also demonstrate links between hyphal water transport, root aquaporin expression and root water transport in ECM plants. PMID:25323307

  14. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a diverse, representative collection of the C4 model plant, Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Hong; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Burrell, A Millie; Sahraeian, Sayed Mohammad Ebrahim; Klein, Robert R; Klein, Patricia E

    2013-05-20

    To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 13,390 single-nucleotide polymorphims. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms were produced using a highly multiplexed genotyping-by-sequencing methodology. Genetic structure was established using principal component, Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic, and Bayesian cluster analyses. These analyses indicated that the mini-core collection was structured along both geographic origin and sorghum race classification. Examples of the former were accessions from Southern Africa, East Asia, and Yemen. Examples of the latter were caudatums with widespread geographical distribution, durras from India, and guineas from West Africa. Race bicolor, the most primitive and the least clearly defined sorghum race, clustered among other races and formed only one clear bicolor-centric cluster. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium analyses showed linkage disequilibrium decayed, on average, within 10-30 kb, whereas the short arm of SBI-06 contained a linkage disequilibrium block of 20.33 Mb, confirming a previous report of low recombination on this chromosome arm. Four smaller but equally significant linkage disequilibrium blocks of 3.5-35.5 kb were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 9, and 10. We examined the genes encoded within each block to provide a first look at candidates such as homologs of GS3 and FT that may indicate a selective sweep during sorghum domestication.

  15. Genetic Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in a Diverse, Representative Collection of the C4 Model Plant, Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Hong; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Burrell, A. Millie; Sahraeian, Sayed Mohammad Ebrahim; Klein, Robert R.; Klein, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 13,390 single-nucleotide polymorphims. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms were produced using a highly multiplexed genotyping-by-sequencing methodology. Genetic structure was established using principal component, Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic, and Bayesian cluster analyses. These analyses indicated that the mini-core collection was structured along both geographic origin and sorghum race classification. Examples of the former were accessions from Southern Africa, East Asia, and Yemen. Examples of the latter were caudatums with widespread geographical distribution, durras from India, and guineas from West Africa. Race bicolor, the most primitive and the least clearly defined sorghum race, clustered among other races and formed only one clear bicolor-centric cluster. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium analyses showed linkage disequilibrium decayed, on average, within 10−30 kb, whereas the short arm of SBI-06 contained a linkage disequilibrium block of 20.33 Mb, confirming a previous report of low recombination on this chromosome arm. Four smaller but equally significant linkage disequilibrium blocks of 3.5−35.5 kb were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 9, and 10. We examined the genes encoded within each block to provide a first look at candidates such as homologs of GS3 and FT that may indicate a selective sweep during sorghum domestication. PMID:23704283

  16. Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) calling and risk-sensitive foraging in the face of threat.

    PubMed

    Freeberg, Todd M; Krama, Tatjana; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Krams, Indriķis; Kullberg, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, a songbird that uses chick-a-dee calls in a variety of social contexts. In two studies, a human observer wore an animal mask that either faced or faced away from the focal bird(s). In Study 1, focal birds were individual titmice captured in a walk-in trap, and the observer stood near the trapped bird. In Study 2, focal birds were titmouse flocks utilizing a feeding station and the observer stood near the station. In both studies, calling behavior was affected by mask orientation. In Study 2, foraging and agonistic behavior were also affected. Titmice can therefore perceive the facial orientation of a potential threat, and this perception affects different behavioral systems, including calling. Our results indicate sensitivity of titmice to the facial orientation of a potential predator in two quite different motivational contexts. This work suggests the possibility of strategic signaling by prey species depending upon the perceptual space of a detected predator.

  17. Genome-wide Scanning and Characterization of Sorghum bicolor L. Heat Shock Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, M; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kumar, S Anil; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Kishor, P B Kavi; Rao, D Manohar

    2015-08-01

    A genome-wide scanning of Sorghum bicolor resulted in the identification of 25 SbHsf genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows the ortholog genes that are clustered with only rice, representing a common ancestor. Promoter analysis revealed the identification of different cis-acting elements that are responsible for abiotic as well as biotic stresses. Hsf domains like DBD, NLS, NES, and AHA have been analyzed for their sequence similarity and functional characterization. Tissue specific expression patterns of Hsfs in different tissues like mature embryo, seedling, root, and panicle were studied using real-time PCR. While Hsfs4 and 22 are highly expressed in panicle, 4 and 9 are expressed in seedlings. Sorghum plants were exposed to different abiotic stress treatments but no expression of any Hsf was observed when seedlings were treated with ABA. High level expression of Hsf1 was noticed during high temperature as well as cold stresses, 4 and 6 during salt and 5, 6, 10, 13, 19, 23 and 25 during drought stress. This comprehensive analysis of SbHsf genes will provide an insight on how these genes are regulated in different tissues and also under different abiotic stresses and help to determine the functions of Hsfs during drought and temperature stress tolerance. PMID:27006630

  18. MSH1-Induced Non-Genetic Variation Provides a Source of Phenotypic Diversity in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guomei; Nino-Liu, David O.; Kundariya, Hardik; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Dweikat, Ismail; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    MutS Homolog 1 (MSH1) encodes a plant-specific protein that functions in mitochondria and chloroplasts. We showed previously that disruption or suppression of the MSH1 gene results in a process of developmental reprogramming that is heritable and non-genetic in subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, this developmental reprogramming process is accompanied by striking changes in gene expression of organellar and stress response genes. This developmentally reprogrammed state, when used in crossing, results in a range of variation for plant growth potential. Here we investigate the implications of MSH1 modulation in a crop species. We found that MSH1-mediated phenotypic variation in Sorghum bicolor is heritable and potentially valuable for crop breeding. We observed phenotypic variation for grain yield, plant height, flowering time, panicle architecture, and above-ground biomass. Focusing on grain yield and plant height, we found some lines that appeared to respond to selection. Based on amenability of this system to implementation in a range of crops, and the scope of phenotypic variation that is derived, our results suggest that MSH1 suppression provides a novel approach for breeding in crops. PMID:25347794

  19. Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) calling and risk-sensitive foraging in the face of threat.

    PubMed

    Freeberg, Todd M; Krama, Tatjana; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Krams, Indriķis; Kullberg, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, a songbird that uses chick-a-dee calls in a variety of social contexts. In two studies, a human observer wore an animal mask that either faced or faced away from the focal bird(s). In Study 1, focal birds were individual titmice captured in a walk-in trap, and the observer stood near the trapped bird. In Study 2, focal birds were titmouse flocks utilizing a feeding station and the observer stood near the station. In both studies, calling behavior was affected by mask orientation. In Study 2, foraging and agonistic behavior were also affected. Titmice can therefore perceive the facial orientation of a potential threat, and this perception affects different behavioral systems, including calling. Our results indicate sensitivity of titmice to the facial orientation of a potential predator in two quite different motivational contexts. This work suggests the possibility of strategic signaling by prey species depending upon the perceptual space of a detected predator. PMID:24929843

  20. Reproductive ecology of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with high levels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.P.; Secord, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    Tree swallows(Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB-contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. Related work has shown that PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994, reproductive success at PCB-contaminated sites was significantly impaired relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely due to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. In 1995, reproductive output was normal, but higher than expected rates of abandonment and supernormal clutches persisted. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Given the levels of contamination in this population, the success of most Hudson River tree swallows reinforces the importance of understanding interspecific differences in the effects of contaminants.

  1. Drought tolerance strategies highlighted by two Sorghum bicolor races in a dry-down experiment.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Alessandra; Trindade, Luisa; Amaducci, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects more and more frequently plant growth and productivity due to the current climate change scenario. Unravelling the physiological mechanism underlying the response of plants to water stress and discover traits related to drought tolerance provide new and powerful tools for the selection in breeding programmes. Four genotypes of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were screened in a dry-down experiment using different approaches to discover physiological and molecular indicators of drought tolerance. Different strategies were identified in response to drought among the four genotypes and the two Sorghum race allowing to state the tolerance of durra race compared to the caudatum one and, within the durra race, the drought tolerance of the genotype IS22330. It retained high biomass production and high tolerance index, it had a low threshold of fraction of transpirable soil water and high capacity to recover leaf apparatus after drought stress. Furthermore in this study, the expression levels of four genes highlighted that they could be used as proxy for drought tolerance. Dehdrine (DHN) could be used for screening drought tolerance both in durra and in caudatum races. NADP-Malic Enzyme, Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) and Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein (PIP2-5), being up-regulated by drought stress only in durra race, have a more limited, though nonetheless useful application. In the tolerant durra genotype IS22330 in particular, the regulation of stomatal openings was strongly related to NADP-Malic Enzyme expression. PMID:26624226

  2. Embryonic development of the skull of the Andean lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Jaimes, Carlos; Jerez, Adriana; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The study of cranial design and development in Gymnophthalmidae is important to understand the ontogenetic processes behind the morphological diversity of the group and to examine the possible effects of microhabitat use and other ecological parameters, as well as phylogenetic constraints, on skull anatomy. Complete morphological descriptions of embryonic skull development within Gymnophthalmidae are non-existent. Likewise, very little is known about the complete chondrocranium of the family. Herein, the development of the skull of the semi-fossorial lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor is described along with an examination of the chondrocranium of other gymnophthalmid taxa and the teiid Cnemidophorus lemniscatus. Cranial chondrification begins with early condensations in the ethmoid, orbitotemporal and occipital regions of the chondrocranium as well as the viscerocranium. Ossification of the skull starts with elements of the dermatocranium (pterygoid, prefrontal, maxilla and jugal). The orbitosphenoid is the last chondral bone to appear. At birth, the skull is almost completely ossified and exhibits a large frontoparietal fontanelle. In general terms, the chondrocranium of the gymnophthalmids studied is characteristic of lacertiform terrestrial lizards, in spite of their life habits, and resembles the chondrocranium of C. lemniscatus in many aspects. However, the gymnophthalmids show great variation in the orbitosphenoid and a complex nasal capsule. The latter exhibits greater development of some nasal cartilages, which make it more complex than in C. lemniscatus. These characteristics might be related to microhabitat use and the well-developed olfactory and vomeronasal systems observed within this clade. PMID:22881276

  3. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Nobach, Daniel; Bourg, Manon; Herzog, Sibylle; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Encarnação, Jorge A.; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Background Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). Principal Findings Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity. Conclusions The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems. PMID:26313904

  4. Small-scale genetic connectivity of bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits in Mexican Caribbean reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Sánchez, C. A.; Rivera-Madrid, R.; Arias-González, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of genetic similarities among marine populations is a key method for use in connectivity studies intended to provide information for management strategies. The present study aimed at assessing the connectivity levels of subpopulations of bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits at a small scale (~200 km) among four reefs in the Mexican Caribbean. Samples were collected from 13 sites nested in two Marine Parks (Cozumel and Xcalak), one Biosphere Reserve (Chinchorro Bank) and one unprotected area (Mahahual). A total of 713 samples were genetically characterized by means of seven microsatellite DNA markers and were analyzed on a hierarchical basis. A strong genetic structure was detected among sites with a weak but significant genetic structure among reefs, the combination of which has not been reported in previous studies. These results appear to be related to a “sweepstake-chance effect” combined with oceanographic factors. An isolation by distance test, in addition to a hierarchical Bayesian method, revealed that neither distance among sites and reefs nor any of 10 environmental factors tested could be used to explain the genetic differences observed. The results suggest that conservation strategies for S. partitus based on local scales are likely to be effective.

  5. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Rooney, William L; Mullet, John E

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance.

  6. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  7. Aspects of sucrose transport in stem parenchyma of sweet sorghum. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Lingle, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sucrose-storing crop with a storage tissue anatomically similar to that of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). However, recent evidence suggests that sweet sorghum may be biochemically different from sugarcane. /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake was studied in excised tissue discs from fully-elongated internodes of Rio sweet sorghum. Washout studies gave results consistent with a 3 compartment system. After 3 hours of uptake, most of the /sup 14/C was found in the vacuole compartment, and was determined by HPLC to be sucrose. Total sucrose uptake consisted of a PCMBS-sensitive (active) and a PCMBS-insensitive (passive) component. Active sucrose uptake had a pH optimum of 4.5. Total sucrose uptake was negatively correlated with the internal sucrose content of the tissue. Fructosyl-labelled /sup 14/C-sucrose was not randomized during uptake, suggesting that sucrose cleavage is not a requirement for sucrose uptake in sweet sorghum. This data suggests that in sweet sorghum, sucrose is transported intact by a specific carrier, as opposed to the sucrose-cleavage-and-resynthesis transport system that apparently operates in sugarcane.

  8. Bi-color near infrared thermoreflectometry: a method for true temperature field measurement.

    PubMed

    Sentenac, Thierry; Gilblas, Rémi; Hernandez, Daniel; Le Maoult, Yannick

    2012-12-01

    In a context of radiative temperature field measurement, this paper deals with an innovative method, called bicolor near infrared thermoreflectometry, for the measurement of true temperature fields without prior knowledge of the emissivity field of an opaque material. This method is achieved by a simultaneous measurement, in the near infrared spectral band, of the radiance temperature fields and of the emissivity fields measured indirectly by reflectometry. The theoretical framework of the method is introduced and the principle of the measurements at two wavelengths is detailed. The crucial features of the indirect measurement of emissivity are the measurement of bidirectional reflectivities in a single direction and the introduction of an unknown variable, called the "diffusion factor." Radiance temperature and bidirectional reflectivities are then merged into a bichromatic system based on Kirchhoff's laws. The assumption of the system, based on the invariance of the diffusion factor for two near wavelengths, and the value of the chosen wavelengths, are then discussed in relation to a database of several material properties. A thermoreflectometer prototype was developed, dimensioned, and evaluated. Experiments were carried out to outline its trueness in challenging cases. First, experiments were performed on a metallic sample with a high emissivity value. The bidirectional reflectivity was then measured from low signals. The results on erbium oxide demonstrate the power of the method with materials with high emissivity variations in near infrared spectral band.

  9. A retrovirus isolated from cell lines derived from neurofibromas in bicolor damselfish (Pomacentrus partitus).

    PubMed

    Schmale, M C; Aman, M R; Gill, K A

    1996-06-01

    Damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) is a naturally occurring, neoplastic disease affecting bicolor damselfish (Pomacentrus partitus) living on coral reefs in southern Florida, USA. The disease consists of multiple neurofibromas, neurofibrosarcomas and chromatophoromas and has been proposed as an animal model for neurofibromatosis type 1 in humans. DNF is transmissible by injection of crude tumour homogenates, cell-free filtrates of homogenates or cells from tumour cell lines. An analysis of tumorigenic cell lines derived from fish with spontaneous or experimentally induced DNF revealed virus particles budding from cells and present in conditioned media. The 90-110 nm particles resembled type C retroviruses. This virus exhibited a buoyant density of 1.14-1.17 g/cm2 in sucrose, at least six virus proteins of 15 to 80 kDa and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. RT activity was maximized with a poly(rC).oligo(dG) template.primer combination and Mn2+ at a concentration of 0.5-1.0 mM. The optimum temperature for RT was determined to be 20 degrees C, a finding consistent with the ambient temperatures encountered by this species. This retrovirus, tentatively named damselfish neurofibromatosis virus (DNFV) may be the aetiological agent of DNF. Whether DNFV or another, as yet unidentified, virus is the cause of DNF, this agent may be unique in virus oncogenesis; neoplastic transformation of the cell types involved in DNF, Schwann cells and chromatophores, has not been documented in any other transmissible tumour.

  10. Possible genetic etiology of damselfish neurofibromatosis: genetic differentiation of bicolor damselfish (Pomacentrus partitus) populations.

    PubMed

    Lacson, J M; Riccardi, V M; Morizot, D C

    1988-01-01

    Variable prevalence rates of damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) between Florida Keys reefs have previously been used as evidence against a genetic etiology of DNF in favor of an infectious etiology. Such a conclusion also presumes a genetically homogeneous population, that is, panmixia, throughout the reef system population. In order to address this issue, we conducted a survey of allozyme variation in two closely situated populations of the bicolor damselfish (Pomacentrus partitus) within the Florida Keys. The results suggest that gene flow between these two populations is restricted. Data analyses show significant heterogeneity in allelic frequencies at two enzyme-coding loci (ACO1 and ADH) and a relatively high estimate of genetic distance between samples from Little Grecian Rocks Reef and Grecian Rocks Reef. These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the etiology of DNF is genetic. It is of some interest that these results are in contrast to previous studies of genetic differentiation among widely separated populations of coral reef fishes. Sufficient allozyme variation was detected (12 out of 23 loci were polymorphic) to allow for a subsequent rigorous assessment of panmixia in these populations at risk for DNF.

  11. Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

  12. Drought tolerance strategies highlighted by two Sorghum bicolor races in a dry-down experiment.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Alessandra; Trindade, Luisa; Amaducci, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects more and more frequently plant growth and productivity due to the current climate change scenario. Unravelling the physiological mechanism underlying the response of plants to water stress and discover traits related to drought tolerance provide new and powerful tools for the selection in breeding programmes. Four genotypes of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were screened in a dry-down experiment using different approaches to discover physiological and molecular indicators of drought tolerance. Different strategies were identified in response to drought among the four genotypes and the two Sorghum race allowing to state the tolerance of durra race compared to the caudatum one and, within the durra race, the drought tolerance of the genotype IS22330. It retained high biomass production and high tolerance index, it had a low threshold of fraction of transpirable soil water and high capacity to recover leaf apparatus after drought stress. Furthermore in this study, the expression levels of four genes highlighted that they could be used as proxy for drought tolerance. Dehdrine (DHN) could be used for screening drought tolerance both in durra and in caudatum races. NADP-Malic Enzyme, Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) and Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein (PIP2-5), being up-regulated by drought stress only in durra race, have a more limited, though nonetheless useful application. In the tolerant durra genotype IS22330 in particular, the regulation of stomatal openings was strongly related to NADP-Malic Enzyme expression.

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in pre-fledgling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, M.L. )

    1989-09-01

    Wetlands in urbanized areas are frequently degraded by human activity. The Hackensack River Estuary in Northeastern New Jersey is no exception. This estuary contains over 1,600 acres of landfill, and receives various levels of treated effluent from seven different sewage treatment plants. Heavy metals are a common pollutant in the Hackensack River Basin. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in birds is a well documented phenomenon. Studies have shown that near shore predatory birds have higher mercury levels in their feathers than do pelagic predatory birds. Other studies have shown that insectivorous pied flycatcher nestlings and black-crowned night heron pre-fledglings show heavy metal body burdens that correlate well with the distance of their nests from a heavy metal source. The tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) is a common summer resident in the Hackensack Meadowlands. This species readily nests in man-made nest boxes, and has used boxes erected for this purpose in the Hackensack Meadowlands District (HMD). The swallows feed primarily on adult midges (Chironomus decorus) which are prevalent in the region. This relationship makes the tree swallows and midges an ideal model for food chain bioaccumulation studies.

  14. Genome-wide Scanning and Characterization of Sorghum bicolor L. Heat Shock Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, M.; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kumar, S. Anil; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Kishor, P. B. Kavi; Rao, D. Manohar

    2015-01-01

    A genome-wide scanning of Sorghum bicolor resulted in the identification of 25 SbHsf genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows the ortholog genes that are clustered with only rice, representing a common ancestor. Promoter analysis revealed the identification of different cis-acting elements that are responsible for abiotic as well as biotic stresses. Hsf domains like DBD, NLS, NES, and AHA have been analyzed for their sequence similarity and functional characterization. Tissue specific expression patterns of Hsfs in different tissues like mature embryo, seedling, root, and panicle were studied using real-time PCR. While Hsfs4 and 22 are highly expressed in panicle, 4 and 9 are expressed in seedlings. Sorghum plants were exposed to different abiotic stress treatments but no expression of any Hsf was observed when seedlings were treated with ABA. High level expression of Hsf1 was noticed during high temperature as well as cold stresses, 4 and 6 during salt and 5, 6, 10, 13, 19, 23 and 25 during drought stress. This comprehensive analysis of SbHsf genes will provide an insight on how these genes are regulated in different tissues and also under different abiotic stresses and help to determine the functions of Hsfs during drought and temperature stress tolerance. PMID:27006630

  15. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    PubMed

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots.

  16. Embryonic development of the skull of the Andean lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jaimes, Carlos; Jerez, Adriana; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2012-10-01

    The study of cranial design and development in Gymnophthalmidae is important to understand the ontogenetic processes behind the morphological diversity of the group and to examine the possible effects of microhabitat use and other ecological parameters, as well as phylogenetic constraints, on skull anatomy. Complete morphological descriptions of embryonic skull development within Gymnophthalmidae are non-existent. Likewise, very little is known about the complete chondrocranium of the family. Herein, the development of the skull of the semi-fossorial lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor is described along with an examination of the chondrocranium of other gymnophthalmid taxa and the teiid Cnemidophorus lemniscatus. Cranial chondrification begins with early condensations in the ethmoid, orbitotemporal and occipital regions of the chondrocranium as well as the viscerocranium. Ossification of the skull starts with elements of the dermatocranium (pterygoid, prefrontal, maxilla and jugal). The orbitosphenoid is the last chondral bone to appear. At birth, the skull is almost completely ossified and exhibits a large frontoparietal fontanelle. In general terms, the chondrocranium of the gymnophthalmids studied is characteristic of lacertiform terrestrial lizards, in spite of their life habits, and resembles the chondrocranium of C. lemniscatus in many aspects. However, the gymnophthalmids show great variation in the orbitosphenoid and a complex nasal capsule. The latter exhibits greater development of some nasal cartilages, which make it more complex than in C. lemniscatus. These characteristics might be related to microhabitat use and the well-developed olfactory and vomeronasal systems observed within this clade. PMID:22881276

  17. Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other

  18. Impact of insecticide efficacy on developing action thresholds for pest management: a case study of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-08-01

    An action threshold (AT) is one of the most important decision-making elements in integrated pest management. Unlike economic thresholds, ATs are not typically derived from an economic injury level model, but they are more commonly used. ATs may be identified from research-based, pest-crop relationships, but they also may be based on experience. ATs may be adjusted depending on, e.g., weather and plant variety, but modifying ATs to accommodate differences in insecticide efficacy has received little attention. To examine this point, several combinations of ATs and insecticides were evaluated against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.). Studies were conducted in New York onion fields from 2006 to 2008 by using registered insecticides for T. tabaci on onions. We hypothesized that the most efficacious insecticides would provide acceptable control of thrips populations regardless of AT (one, three, and five thrips per leaf), whereas less effective products would only control populations using the lowest AT (one thrips per leaf). Results indicated that T. tabaci infestations were managed effectively when spinetoram was applied after a three larvae per leaf threshold, but not when using lambda-cyhalothrin, methomyl or formetanate hydrochloride. However, T. tabaci infestations were managed well when methomyl and formetanate hydrochloride were applied after a one larva per leaf threshold. T. tabaci infestations were never controlled using lambda-cyhalothrin, regardless of the AT used. None of the products reduced T. tabaci populations to an acceptable level when applied at a five larvae per leaf threshold. Implications of adjusting ATs based on efficacy of different insecticides are discussed. PMID:20857743

  19. Characterization of resistance, evaluation of the attractiveness of plant odors, and effect of leaf color on different onion cultivars to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2012-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L. In field studies on onion resistance conducted in 2007 and 2008 using 49 cultivars, 11 showed low leaf damage by T. tabaci. In laboratory studies, the 11 cultivars, along with two susceptible checks and four additional cultivars, were evaluated to characterize resistance to T. tabaci and to determine if color and/or light reflectance were associated with resistance to T tabaci. No-choice tests were performed with adults and the numbers of eggs and larvae were counted on each cultivar after three and 10 d, respectively. In choice tests in which all cultivars were planted together in a circle in a single pot, 100 adults were released and the number of adults on each plant was evaluated 24 h later. The behavioral response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors was studied in a glass Y-tube olfactometer. The reflectance spectrum of leaves was measured using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Results indicate that resistant cultivars showed an intermediate-high antibiotic effect to T. tabaci and all of them showed a very strong antixenotic effect. There were no significant preferences in the response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors. The two susceptible cultivars had the highest values of leaf reflectance for the first (275-375 nm) and second (310-410 nm) theoretical photopigment-system of T. tabaci, and these values were significantly different from most resistant cultivars. These results suggest a strong response of T. tabaci to onion cultivars with higher reflectance in the ultraviolet range (270-400 nm). Overall, these results appear promising in helping to identify categories of resistance to T. tabaci in onions that can be used in breeding programs.

  20. Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

    2014-09-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. PMID:25175655

  1. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as influenced by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) developmental stage and host plant stage.

    PubMed

    Buitenhuis, R; Shipp, J L

    2005-10-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes were investigated as an alternative biological control strategy for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in ornamental greenhouse crops, by using potted chrysanthemum as a model crop. The susceptibility of various life stages of F. occidentalis to different concentrations of the nematode Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was investigated in petri dish bioassays. This was followed with trials using potted chrysanthemums comparing the efficacy of nematode application to plants in vegetative (exposed habitat) versus flowering (cryptic habitat) stages. In both trials, the effect of the wetting agent Agral 90 (nonylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol), which is used in combination with the nematode spray, on F. occidentalis mortality was assessed. In petri dish trials, the prepupae and pupae were the most susceptible developmental stages of F. occidentalis to infection by S. feltiae. First and second instars were killed by very high rates of nematodes (> or =20,000 infective juveniles per milliliter), but corrected mortality was only approximately 28-37%. No significant mortality was observed for adult thrips. Results from the petri dish trials were confirmed on chrysanthemum plants. Foliar application of S. feltiae did not result in significant mortality in larvae or adults. No significant differences in efficacy were detected by application of nematodes on vegetative versus flowering chrysanthemum. Agral 90 had a significant impact on mortality on the first stage larvae and prepupae in the petri dish trials but not in the plant trials. Thrips control by S. feltiae in greenhouses may be partly or completely due to prepupal and pupal mortality. PMID:16334313

  2. In Situ Identification of Intracellular Bacteria Related to Paenibacillus spp. in the Mycelium of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N

    PubMed Central

    Bertaux, J.; Schmid, M.; Chemidlin Prevost-Boure, N.; Churin, J. L.; Hartmann, A.; Garbaye, J.; Frey-Klett, P.

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial proliferations have recurrently been observed for the past 15 years in fermentor cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N, suggesting the presence of cryptic bacteria in the collection culture of this fungus. In this study, intracellular bacteria were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy in several collection subcultures of L. bicolor S238N. They were small (0.5 μm in diameter), rare, and heterogeneously distributed in the mycelium and were identified as Paenibacillus spp. by using a 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probe initially designed for bacteria isolated from a fermentor culture of L. bicolor S238N. PMID:12839806

  3. Scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) venom exhibits cytotoxicity and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in breast and colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Abbasmanthiri, Rajamohamed; Arshaduddin, Mohammed; Al-Harthi, Fahad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The defective apoptosis is believed to play a major role in the survival and proliferation of neoplastic cells. Hence, the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells is one of the targets for cancer treatment. Researchers are considering scorpion venom as a potent natural source for cancer treatment because it contains many bioactive compounds. The main objective of the current study is to evaluate the anticancer property of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Scorpions were milked by electrical stimulation of telsons and lyophilized. The breast (MDA-MB-231) and colorectal (HCT-8) cancer cells were maintained in appropriate condition. The venom cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, and the cellular and nuclear changes were studied with propidium iodide and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole stain, respectively. The cell cycle arrest was examined using muse cell analyzer. Results: The A. bicolor venom exerted cytotoxic effects on MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cells in a dose- and duration-dependent manner and induced apoptotic cell death. The treatment with this venom arrests the cancer cells in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. Conclusions: The venom selectively induces the rate of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cells as reflected by morphological and cell cycle studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scientific evidence demonstrating the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by A. bicolor scorpion venom. PMID:27721540

  4. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes

    PubMed Central

    Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Fjellheim, Siri; Guda, Chittibabu; Jansen, Robert K.; Luo, Hong; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Rognli, Odd Arne; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera to six published grass chloroplast genomes reveal that gene content and order are similar but two microstructural changes have occurred. First, the expansion of the IR at the SSC/IRa boundary that duplicates a portion of the 5′ end of ndhH is restricted to the three genera of the subfamily Pooideae (Agrostis, Hordeum and Triticum). Second, a 6 bp deletion in ndhK is shared by Agrostis, Hordeum, Oryza and Triticum, and this event supports the sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. Repeat analysis identified 19–37 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity of at least 90%. Seventeen of the 26 shared repeats are found in all the grass chloroplast genomes examined and are located in the same genes or intergenic spacer (IGS) regions. Examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 16–21 potential polymorphic SSRs. Five IGS regions have 100% sequence identity among Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum bicolor, whereas no spacer regions were identical among Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, H. vulgare and A. stolonifera despite their close phylogenetic relationship. Alignment of EST sequences and DNA coding sequences identified six C–U conversions in both Sorghum bicolor and H. vulgare but only one in A. stolonifera. Phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes of 38 taxa using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods provide moderate support for a sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. PMID:17534593

  5. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Nichols, John W.; Secord, Anne L.; McCarty, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  6. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Felderhoff, Terry J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance locimore » present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. In addition, genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.« less

  7. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance loci in Sorghum bicolor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Felderhoff, Tery J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance locimore » present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Lastly, further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.« less

  8. Adult tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Housatonic River, Massachusetts, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Dummer, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were captured and banded at six sites that differed in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination levels in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, from 2000 through 2004 to test the prediction that apparent survival rates of females in more contaminated areas were lower than those from less contaminated areas. We also tested whether plumage coloration affected over-winter survival and whether concentrations of PCBs in eggs differed between birds that did and that did not return the following year. Apparent survival rates were calculated using mark?recapture methods and compared using Akaike's Information Criterion. Model-adjusted survival rates ranged from 0.365 to 0.467 for PCB-contaminated females and between 0.404 and 0.476 for reference females. Models with either survival or capture probability modeled as functions of treatment (degree of PCB contamination), year, and age received some support. The model-averaged parameter estimate reflecting a treatment effect for high-PCB birds was negative ( = -0.046, SE() = 0.0939). Fifty-four percent of the total model weights involved models in which survival was a function of PCB treatment. Eggs were collected for contaminant analyses from a random sample of females that did and that did not return the following year. Concentrations of total PCBs were the same or higher in the eggs of females that returned compared to the eggs of those that did not return at both the highly and the moderately contaminated PCB sites. This may have resulted from higher-quality females with higher lipid reserves being more likely than lower-quality females to return the following year. Percentage lipid was positively correlated with total PCBs in eggs. Survival rates were similar among swallows with brown versus blue plumage.

  9. Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is globally produced as a source of food, feed, fiber and fuel. Grain and sweet sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including stem sugar and juice accumulation, plant height as well as grain and biomass production. The first whole genome sequence of a grain sorghum is available, but additional genome sequences are required to study genome-wide and intraspecific variation for dissecting the genetic basis of these important traits and for tailor-designed breeding of this important C4 crop. Results We resequenced two sweet and one grain sorghum inbred lines, and identified a set of nearly 1,500 genes differentiating sweet and grain sorghum. These genes fall into ten major metabolic pathways involved in sugar and starch metabolisms, lignin and coumarin biosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, stress responses and DNA damage repair. In addition, we uncovered 1,057,018 SNPs, 99,948 indels of 1 to 10 bp in length and 16,487 presence/absence variations as well as 17,111 copy number variations. The majority of the large-effect SNPs, indels and presence/absence variations resided in the genes containing leucine rich repeats, PPR repeats and disease resistance R genes possessing diverse biological functions or under diversifying selection, but were absent in genes that are essential for life. Conclusions This is a first report of the identification of genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sorghum. High-density SNP and indel markers reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and the molecular breeding of this important crop and related species. PMID:22104744

  10. Using deep RNA sequencing for the structural annotation of the laccaria bicolor mycorrhizal transcriptome.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, P. E.; Trivedi, G.; Sreedasyam, A.; Lu, V.; Podila, G. K.; Collart, F. R.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Alabama

    2010-07-06

    Accurate structural annotation is important for prediction of function and required for in vitro approaches to characterize or validate the gene expression products. Despite significant efforts in the field, determination of the gene structure from genomic data alone is a challenging and inaccurate process. The ease of acquisition of transcriptomic sequence provides a direct route to identify expressed sequences and determine the correct gene structure. We developed methods to utilize RNA-seq data to correct errors in the structural annotation and extend the boundaries of current gene models using assembly approaches. The methods were validated with a transcriptomic data set derived from the fungus Laccaria bicolor, which develops a mycorrhizal symbiotic association with the roots of many tree species. Our analysis focused on the subset of 1501 gene models that are differentially expressed in the free living vs. mycorrhizal transcriptome and are expected to be important elements related to carbon metabolism, membrane permeability and transport, and intracellular signaling. Of the set of 1501 gene models, 1439 (96%) successfully generated modified gene models in which all error flags were successfully resolved and the sequences aligned to the genomic sequence. The remaining 4% (62 gene models) either had deviations from transcriptomic data that could not be spanned or generated sequence that did not align to genomic sequence. The outcome of this process is a set of high confidence gene models that can be reliably used for experimental characterization of protein function. 69% of expressed mycorrhizal JGI 'best' gene models deviated from the transcript sequence derived by this method. The transcriptomic sequence enabled correction of a majority of the structural inconsistencies and resulted in a set of validated models for 96% of the mycorrhizal genes. The method described here can be applied to improve gene structural annotation in other species, provided that there

  11. Reproduction in male swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor): puberty and the effects of season

    PubMed Central

    Paplinska, Justyna Zofia; Moyle, Richard L C; Wreford, Nigel G; Temple-Smith, Peter D M; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2007-01-01

    This study describes pubertal changes in testes and epididymides and seasonal changes in the adult male reproductive organs and plasma androgen concentrations of the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor). Pre-pubescent males had testes with solid seminiferous cords and spermatogenesis only to the stage of gonocytes. Their epididymides had empty lumina along their entire length. The testes of three males undergoing puberty had some lumen formation and mitotic activity. Their epididymides were similar in appearance to those of adult males but were entirely devoid of any cells within the lumen of the duct. Three other pubescent males showed full lumen formation in the testes and spermatogenesis up to the elongating spermatid stage. Their epididymides were similar in appearance to those of adult males but with no spermatozoa in the duct. However, cells of testicular origin were found in the lumen of the duct in all regions suggesting that testicular fluids and immature germ cells shed into the rete testes flow through the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis before the release of mature testicular spermatozoa. The weights of testes and epididymides of adult males showed no change throughout the year but prostate weight and plasma androgen concentrations varied significantly with season, with maximums in spring and summer and minimums in winter. The volume fraction of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules was significantly lower in winter than in summer; but, despite this, maturing spermatozoa were found in the testes throughout the year. Females in the area conceived year-round, suggesting that seasonal changes in the male reproductive tract did not prevent at least some males from breeding throughout the year. PMID:17764525

  12. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    J Felderhoff, Terry; M McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. PMID:27194807

  13. The Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeoyl-CoA O-Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alexander M; Sattler, Steven A; Regner, Matt; Jones, Jeffrey P; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2016-09-01

    Caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase responsible for methylation of the meta-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) on the pathway to monolignols, with their ring methoxylation status characteristic of guaiacyl or syringyl units in lignin. In order to better understand the unique class of type 2 O-methyltransferases from monocots, we have characterized CCoAOMT from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCCoAOMT), including the SAM binary complex crystal structure and steady-state enzyme kinetics. Key amino acid residues were validated with site-directed mutagenesis. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicated a sequential binding mechanism for SbCCoAOMT, wherein SAM binds prior to caffeoyl-CoA, and the enzyme showed allosteric behavior with respect to it. 5-Hydroxyferuloyl-CoA was not a substrate for SbCCoAOMT. We propose a catalytic mechanism in which lysine-180 acts as a catalytic base and deprotonates the reactive hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-CoA. This deprotonation is facilitated by the coordination of the reactive hydroxyl group by Ca(2+) in the active site, lowering the pKa of the 3'-OH group. Collectively, these data give a new perspective on the catalytic mechanism of CCoAOMTs and provide a basis for the functional diversity exhibited by type 2 plant OMTs that contain a unique insertion loop (residues 208-231) conferring affinity for phenylpropanoid-CoA thioesters. The structural model of SbCCoAOMT can serve as the basis for protein engineering approaches to enhance the nutritional, agronomic, and industrially relevant properties of sorghum. PMID:27457122

  14. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    J. Felderhoff, Terry; M. McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. PMID:27194807

  15. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    J Felderhoff, Terry; M McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-07-07

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.

  16. Degranulation of eosinophilic granule cells in neurofibromas and gastrointestinal tract in the bicolor damselfish.

    PubMed

    Schmale, Michael C; Vicha, Dale; Cacal, Saul M

    2004-07-01

    Damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) is a neoplastic disease affecting bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus Poey) on Florida reefs. Previous studies have demonstrated high densities of eosinophilic granule containing cells (EGC), the proposed equivalent of mast cells in fishes, in neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (mpnst) in DNF. These lesions are similar to those in the disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in humans, which contain large numbers of mast cells. In the present study, experiments were conducted to measure the response of EGC in these tumors as well as in the submucosa of the digestive tract to the mast cell degranulating agent compound 48/80. Degranulation of these cells was visible by light microscopy and characterized by conspicuous swelling of granules and often by the presence of free granules adjacent to the EGC. Degranulation occurred by release of intact granules (diacytosis), as reported in other fishes, rather than by fusion of granules with the cell membrane (exocytosis) as reported in mast cells in mammals. Baseline levels of EGC exhibiting degranulation ranged from 20-26% in the submucosa to 30% in tumors. Within 1-2h of exposure to compound 48/80, significant increases in average levels of degranulation were observed, to 67% in the gut and 72% in tumors. Degranulation was significantly more extensive in the tumors than in the gut. The outermost edges of the tumors contained significantly higher densities of EGC but these cells exhibited lower rates of degranulation than those in the inner regions of tumors. These observations support the hypothesis that the EGC present in neurofibromas and mpnst in DNF are equivalent to the mast cell component in neurofibromas in NF1.

  17. Reproduction in male swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor): puberty and the effects of season.

    PubMed

    Paplinska, Justyna Zofia; Moyle, Richard L C; Wreford, Nigel G; Temple-Smith, Peter D M; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2007-10-01

    This study describes pubertal changes in testes and epididymides and seasonal changes in the adult male reproductive organs and plasma androgen concentrations of the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor). Pre-pubescent males had testes with solid seminiferous cords and spermatogenesis only to the stage of gonocytes. Their epididymides had empty lumina along their entire length. The testes of three males undergoing puberty had some lumen formation and mitotic activity. Their epididymides were similar in appearance to those of adult males but were entirely devoid of any cells within the lumen of the duct. Three other pubescent males showed full lumen formation in the testes and spermatogenesis up to the elongating spermatid stage. Their epididymides were similar in appearance to those of adult males but with no spermatozoa in the duct. However, cells of testicular origin were found in the lumen of the duct in all regions suggesting that testicular fluids and immature germ cells shed into the rete testes flow through the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis before the release of mature testicular spermatozoa. The weights of testes and epididymides of adult males showed no change throughout the year but prostate weight and plasma androgen concentrations varied significantly with season, with maximums in spring and summer and minimums in winter. The volume fraction of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules was significantly lower in winter than in summer; but, despite this, maturing spermatozoa were found in the testes throughout the year. Females in the area conceived year-round, suggesting that seasonal changes in the male reproductive tract did not prevent at least some males from breeding throughout the year.

  18. Using Deep RNA Sequencing for the Structural Annotation of the Laccaria Bicolor Mycorrhizal Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Peter E.; Trivedi, Geetika; Sreedasyam, Avinash; Lu, Vincent; Podila, Gopi K.; Collart, Frank R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate structural annotation is important for prediction of function and required for in vitro approaches to characterize or validate the gene expression products. Despite significant efforts in the field, determination of the gene structure from genomic data alone is a challenging and inaccurate process. The ease of acquisition of transcriptomic sequence provides a direct route to identify expressed sequences and determine the correct gene structure. Methodology We developed methods to utilize RNA-seq data to correct errors in the structural annotation and extend the boundaries of current gene models using assembly approaches. The methods were validated with a transcriptomic data set derived from the fungus Laccaria bicolor, which develops a mycorrhizal symbiotic association with the roots of many tree species. Our analysis focused on the subset of 1501 gene models that are differentially expressed in the free living vs. mycorrhizal transcriptome and are expected to be important elements related to carbon metabolism, membrane permeability and transport, and intracellular signaling. Of the set of 1501 gene models, 1439 (96%) successfully generated modified gene models in which all error flags were successfully resolved and the sequences aligned to the genomic sequence. The remaining 4% (62 gene models) either had deviations from transcriptomic data that could not be spanned or generated sequence that did not align to genomic sequence. The outcome of this process is a set of high confidence gene models that can be reliably used for experimental characterization of protein function. Conclusions 69% of expressed mycorrhizal JGI “best” gene models deviated from the transcript sequence derived by this method. The transcriptomic sequence enabled correction of a majority of the structural inconsistencies and resulted in a set of validated models for 96% of the mycorrhizal genes. The method described here can be applied to improve gene structural

  19. Macropodicoptes mironovi n. g., n. sp. (Acariformes: Sarcoptidae), a new mange mite from Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest) (Diprotodonia: Macropodidae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V

    2012-09-01

    A new mange mite species, Macropodicoptes mironovi n. g., n. sp. (Acariformes: Sarcoptidae), is described from Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest) (Diprotodontia: Macropodidae) from the Taronga Western Plains Zoo at Dubbo, NSW, Australia. This is the fourth species and third genus allocated to the sarcoptid subfamily Diabolicoptinae, whose representatives exclusively parasitise marsupials. The new genus differs from Diabolicoptes Fain & Domrow, 1974, in both sexes, by the proportions of the gnathosoma, the shape of many hysterosomal setae and the absence of setae e1, pRII-II, sRIII and solenidion ω3I; and, in males, by the lack of fusion of coxal apodemes I. PMID:22890378

  20. Macropodicoptes mironovi n. g., n. sp. (Acariformes: Sarcoptidae), a new mange mite from Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest) (Diprotodonia: Macropodidae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V

    2012-09-01

    A new mange mite species, Macropodicoptes mironovi n. g., n. sp. (Acariformes: Sarcoptidae), is described from Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest) (Diprotodontia: Macropodidae) from the Taronga Western Plains Zoo at Dubbo, NSW, Australia. This is the fourth species and third genus allocated to the sarcoptid subfamily Diabolicoptinae, whose representatives exclusively parasitise marsupials. The new genus differs from Diabolicoptes Fain & Domrow, 1974, in both sexes, by the proportions of the gnathosoma, the shape of many hysterosomal setae and the absence of setae e1, pRII-II, sRIII and solenidion ω3I; and, in males, by the lack of fusion of coxal apodemes I.

  1. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    PubMed

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size. PMID:19554765

  2. Ethylene and jasmonic acid act as negative modulators during mutualistic symbiosis between Laccaria bicolor and Populus roots.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Khachane, Amit; Ouassou, Malika; Sundberg, Björn; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis

    2014-04-01

    The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid have interconnecting roles during the response of plant tissues to mutualistic and pathogenic symbionts. We used morphological studies of transgenic- or hormone-treated Populus roots as well as whole-genome oligoarrays to examine how these hormones affect root colonization by the mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N. We found that genes regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were regulated in the late stages of the interaction between L. bicolor and poplar. Both ethylene and jasmonic acid treatments were found to impede fungal colonization of roots, and this effect was correlated to an increase in the expression of certain transcription factors (e.g. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1) and a decrease in the expression of genes associated with microbial perception and cell wall modification. Further, we found that ethylene and jasmonic acid showed extensive transcriptional cross-talk, cross-talk that was opposed by salicylic acid signaling. We conclude that ethylene and jasmonic acid pathways are induced late in the colonization of root tissues in order to limit fungal growth within roots. This induction is probably an adaptive response by the plant such that its growth and vigor are not compromised by the fungus. PMID:24383411

  3. Laccaria bicolor aquaporin LbAQP1 is required for Hartig net development in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    PubMed

    Navarro-RóDenas, Alfonso; Xu, Hao; Kemppainen, Minna; Pardo, Alejandro G; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2015-11-01

    The development of ectomycorrhizal associations is crucial for growth of many forest trees. However, the signals that are exchanged between the fungus and the host plant during the colonization process are still poorly understood. In this study, we have identified the relationship between expression patterns of Laccaria bicolor aquaporin LbAQP1 and the development of ectomycorrhizal structures in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings. The peak expression of LbAQP1 was 700-fold higher in the hyphae within the root than in the free-living mycelium after 24 h of direct interaction with the roots. Moreover, in LbAQP1 knock-down strains, a non-mycorrhizal phenotype was developed without the Hartig net and the expression of the mycorrhizal effector protein MiSSP7 quickly declined after an initial peak on day 5 of interaction of the fungal hyphae with the roots. The increase in the expression of LbAQP1 required a direct contact of the fungus with the root and it modulated the expression of MiSSP7. We have also determined that LbAQP1 facilitated NO, H2 O2 and CO2 transport when heterologously expressed in yeast. The report demonstrates that the L. bicolor aquaporin LbAQP1 acts as a molecular signalling channel, which is fundamental for the development of Hartig net in root tips of P. tremuloides.

  4. Genetic variation within and among species of Cloacina (Strongyloidea: Cloacinine) from the swamp wallaby, Wallabia bicolor (Marsupialia: Macropodidae).

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, Mary A; Beveridge, Ian; Chilton, Neil B; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-12-01

    This study examined genetic variation within and among species of Cloacina found in the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) collected at different localities along the eastern coast of Australia, and evaluated geographical distance as a potential driver for genetic variation. The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to characterize individuals of 11 morphospecies of Cloacina that parasitize W. bicolor. The results of the molecular analyses revealed multiple genotypes for the nine morphospecies of Cloacina (i.e. Cloacina annulata, Cloacina edwardsi, Cloacina eos, Cloacina gallardi, Cloacina mawsonae, Cloacina papillata, Cloacina papillatissima, Cloacina pollux, and Cloacina wallabiae) for which multiple individuals were available for analysis. However, phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data revealed that for each morphospecies, there was no subdivision of individuals into distinct clades based on geographical region from which they were collected. Additional studies are needed to determine the drivers of genetic variation in cloacinid nematodes, and hence increase our understanding of the diversity of parasitic nematodes in macropodid marsupials.

  5. Anatomical and hydraulic properties of sorghum roots exposed to water deficit. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, R.T.; Jordan, W.R.; Drew, M.C. )

    1991-05-01

    The effects of a severe water stress in the upper 0-0.15 m rooting zone on development of the exodermis, endodermis and xylem and on radial (Lp) and axial (Ls) hydraulic conductances were studied for Sorghum bicolor. Lp and Lx were based on water flow rates obtained by applying a negative hydrostatic pressure to the proximal xylem ends of excised roots placed in aerated nutrient solution. The same roots were stained with fluorescent berberine and acid phloroglucinol to describe the development of the exodermal and endodermal cell walls from formation of the Casparian band (State I), to deposition of suberin lamellae (State II), and lignification (State III). Lp of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 80% lower in stressed roots than in unstressed controls. At 0.01 and 0.07 m from the root apex, stressed roots were in State III while control roots were in States I and II, respectively. SEM-image analysis for stressed roots indicated that in the exodermis a greater proportion of the cross sectional area was occupied by lignified walls than in the endodermis. Cellufluor, an apoplastic tracer, was blocked at the lignified exodermis even at 0.01 m from the apex in stressed roots. Uranin, a symplastic tracer, was taken up only in the apical region in stressed roots but farther from the apex in the controls. Lx of 7.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 90% lower in stressed roots compared with the controls. Cellufluor test and image analysis showed that although the protoxylem and early metaxylem were conductive in both treatments, stress caused more than a 50% reduction in the diameter of the xylem elements. Results suggest that lignification of the exodermis and endodermis to a large extent decreased apoplastic and symplastic flows and hence Lp in stressed roots. The low Lx in stressed roots was due to a decrease in the diameters of the conductive xylem elements.

  6. DArT markers: diversity analyses and mapping in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Emma S; Xia, Ling; Jordan, David R; Halloran, Kirsten; Parh, Dipal K; Huttner, Eric; Wenzl, Peter; Kilian, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Background The sequential nature of gel-based marker systems entails low throughput and high costs per assay. Commonly used marker systems such as SSR and SNP are also dependent on sequence information. These limitations result in high cost per data point and significantly limit the capacity of breeding programs to obtain sufficient return on investment to justify the routine use of marker-assisted breeding for many traits and particularly quantitative traits. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT™) is a cost effective hybridisation-based marker technology that offers a high multiplexing level while being independent of sequence information. This technology offers sorghum breeding programs an alternative approach to whole-genome profiling. We report on the development, application, mapping and utility of DArT™ markers for sorghum germplasm. Results A genotyping array was developed representing approximately 12,000 genomic clones using PstI+BanII complexity with a subset of clones obtained through the suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) method. The genotyping array was used to analyse a diverse set of sorghum genotypes and screening a Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) mapping population. Over 500 markers detected variation among 90 accessions used in a diversity analysis. Cluster analysis discriminated well between all 90 genotypes. To confirm that the sorghum DArT markers behave in a Mendelian manner, we constructed a genetic linkage map for a cross between R931945-2-2 and IS 8525 integrating DArT and other marker types. In total, 596 markers could be placed on the integrated linkage map, which spanned 1431.6 cM. The genetic linkage map had an average marker density of 1/2.39 cM, with an average DArT marker density of 1/3.9 cM. Conclusion We have successfully developed DArT markers for Sorghum bicolor and have demonstrated that DArT provides high quality markers that can be used for diversity analyses and to construct medium-density genetic linkage maps. The

  7. Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of Sorghum bicolor caffeic acid O-methyltransferase and the structural impact of three brown midrib12 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) acting as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from Sorghum bicolor (SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, to form sinapaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the red...

  8. Elucidation of the structure and reaction mechanism of Sorghum bicolor hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and its structural relationship to other CoA-dependent transferases and synthases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (SbHCT) from Sorghum bicolor participates in an early step of the phenylpropanoid pathway, exchanging CoA esterified to p-coumaric acid with shikimic or quinic acid, as intermediates in the biosynthesis of the monolignols coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. In order to...

  9. A detailed RFLP map of Sorghum bicolor x S. propinquum, suitable for high-density mapping, suggests ancestral duplication of Sorghum chromosomes or chromosomal segments.

    PubMed

    Chittenden, L M; Schertz, K F; Lin, Y R; Wing, R A; Paterson, A H

    1994-03-01

    The first "complete" genetic linkage map of Sorghum section Sorghum is described, comprised of ten linkage groups putatively corresponding to the ten gametic chromosomes of S. bicolor and S. propinquum. The map includes 276 RFLP loci, predominately detected by PstI-digested S. bicolor genomic probes, segregating in 56 F2 progeny of a cross between S. bicolor and S. propinquum. Although prior cytological evidence suggests that the genomes of these species are largely homosequential, a high level of molecular divergence is evidenced by the abundant RFLP and RAPD polymorphisms, the marked deviations from Mendelian segregation in many regions of the genome, and several species-specific DNA probes. The remarkable level of DNA polymorphism between these species will facilitate development of a high-density genetic map. Further, the high level of DNA polymorphism permitted mapping of multiple loci for 21 (8.2%) DNA probes. Linkage relationships among eight (38%) of these probes suggest ancestral duplication of three genomic regions. Mapping of 13 maize genomic clones in this cross was consistent with prior results. Mapping of heterologous cDNAs from rice and oat suggests that it may be feasible to extend comparative mapping to these distantly-related species, and to ultimately generate a detailed description of chromosome rearrangements among cultivated Gramineae. Limited investigation of a small number of RFLPs showed several alleles common to S. bicolor and S. Halepense ("johnson-grass"), but few alleles common to S. propinquum and S. halepense, raising questions about the origin of S. halepense.

  10. PCBs and DDE in Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) Eggs and Nestlings from an Estuarine PCB Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess the transfer of breeding ground contaminants from an estuarine system. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes locat...

  11. Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block--or mitigate--the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

  12. Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes

    PubMed Central

    Plett, Jonathan M.; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J.; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block—or mitigate—the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

  13. Nutritional status and ion uptake response of Gynura bicolor DC. between Porous-tube and traditional hydroponic growth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System (PTNDS) also offer high control of the root environment which is designed to provide a means for accurate environmental control and to allow for two-phase flow separation in microgravity. This study compared the effects of PTNDS and traditional hydroponic cultures on biomass yield, nutritional composition and antioxidant defense system (T-AOC, GSH, H2O2 and MDA) of G. bicolor, and ionic concentration (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2 PO4-, SO42-) of nutrient solution during planting period in controlled environment chambers. The results indicated that the biomass production and yield of G. bicolor grown in PTNDS were higher than in hydroponic culture, although Relative water content (RWC), leaf length and shoot height were not significantly different. PTNDS cultivation enhanced calories from 139.5 to 182.3 kJ/100 g dry matter, and carbohydrate from 4.8 to 7.3 g/100 g dry matter and reduced the amount of protein from 7.3 to 4.8 g/100 g dry matter and ash from 1.4 to1.0 g/100 g dry matter, compared with hydroponic culture. PTNDS cultivation accumulated the nutrition elements of Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn, and reduced Na concentration. T-AOC and GSH contents were significantly lower in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture in the first harvest. After the first harvest, the contents of MDA and H2O2 were significantly higher in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture. However, the activity of T-AOC and GSH and H2O2 and MDA contents had no significant differences under both cultures after the second and third harvest. Higher concentrations of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were found in nutrient solution of plants grown in hydroponics culture compared to PTNDS, wherein lower concentrations of NO3-, H2 PO4- and SO42- occurred. Our results demonstrate that PTNDS culture has more

  14. Effect of sward surface height and level of herbage depletion on bite features of cattle grazing Sorghum bicolor swards.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, L; Carvalho, P C F; Mezzalira, J C; Bremm, C; Galli, J R; Gregorini, P

    2013-09-01

    To maximize herbage DMI, pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) and level of herbage depletion (HD) must be such that variables determining short-term herbage intake such as bite mass (BM) and bite rate (BR) are optimized. The objective of this study was to determine a SSH target and the level of HD as a proportion of the SSH that optimizes BM and BR of beef heifers grazing Sorghum bicolor swards. Two experiments were conducted using 2 S. bicolor swards and 4 beef heifers (25 mo old; 322 kg BW). Experiment 1 compared the effect of 6 pregrazing SSH, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 cm, on BM, BR, and jaw movements. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of HD level as a proportion of SSH (0.17, 0.34, 0.50, 0.67 and 0.84) on BM, BR, and jaw movements using the optimal pregrazing SSH defined in Exp. 1. Short-term herbage DMI was estimated using a double-weighing technique and corrected for insensible BW loss. Herbage DMI was subsequently used to calculate the BM. Net eating time and jaw movements for apprehension and manipulation + mastication during grazing as well as total jaw movements were determined using the IGER (Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research) behavior recorders. Bite rate and the number of total jaw movements per gram herbage DMI were derived from jaw movement count and measurements of herbage DMI. The results of Exp. 1 showed low and high SSH constraint the ease of herbage harvesting. Greater BM are maintained until a SSH of 50 cm is reached (P < 0.05) and then decline at greater SSH due to herbage dispersion. The nonbiting jaw movement rate increased at greater SSH whereas BR decreased (P < 0.05). For both variables, the turning point was close to a SSH of 50 cm. Experiment 2 showed that such an optimization of BM and BR was maintained until an HD level of 0.34 was reached (P < 0.05). There was a linear increase in both the total jaw movements per unit herbage DMI and the nonbiting jaw movements rate (manipulation + mastication) subsequent to levels

  15. Mercury and other element exposure to tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting on Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Johnson, K.M.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in water were reported in the prairie wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, ND. In order to determine whether wildlife associated with these wetlands was exposed to and then accumulated higher mercury concentrations than wildlife living near more permanent wetlands (e.g. lakes), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from nests near seasonal wetlands, semi-permanent wetlands, and lakes. Mercury concentrations in eggs collected near seasonal wetlands were higher than those collected near semi-permanent wetlands or lakes. In contrast, mercury concentrations in nestling livers did not differ among wetland types. Mercury and other element concentrations in tree swallow eggs and nestlings collected from all wetlands were low. As suspected from these low concentrations, mercury concentrations in sample eggs were not a significant factor explaining the hatching success of the remaining eggs in each clutch.

  16. Bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals for white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bo; Dai, Qian; Zhang, Huichao; Liao, Chen; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu; Zhuo, Ningze; Jiang, Qingsong; Shi, Fenghua; Wang, Haibo

    2014-09-07

    We synthesized bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2} (CIS)/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs), in which Mn{sup 2+} ions and the CIS core were separated with a ZnS layer, and both Mn{sup 2+} ions and CIS cores could emit simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the epitaxial growth of ZnS shell on the CuInS{sub 2} core, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum indicated that Mn{sup 2+} ions were on the lattice points of ZnS shell. By integrating these bicolor NCs with commercial InGaN-based blue-emitting diodes, tricolor white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 83 were obtained.

  17. Removal of trace metals by Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus in a site polluted by industrial wastes: a field experience.

    PubMed

    Marchiol, L; Fellet, G; Perosa, D; Zerbi, G

    2007-05-01

    Using the perspective of full scale application of phytoremediation techniques, research is focusing on the optimization of agronomic practices. Two annual high biomass yield crops, Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus, were grown in a polymetallic soil. The experimental site, polluted by pyrite cinders, is located in an industrial site that has been listed in the clean-up national priority list since 2001. Specific aims of this work were to observe the concentration of metals in plants during the crop cycle and to establish the amount of metal removed by the crops. The field trial, arranged in a randomized block design, started in 2005. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were: As 309, Cd 4.29, Co 50.9, Cu 1527 and Zn 980mg kg(-1). The crops grown on the polluted soil received mineral fertilization (Fert) and organic amendment (Org), while plants in control soil (Ctrl) did not receive anything. The plots were watered during the crop cycle during two drought periods, using a sprinkler irrigation system. The phytoextraction potential of crops was estimated during the whole growth cycle and the plant biomass that was collected in each sampling date was ICP-analyzed. Plant-biomass growth curves were obtained. The concentrations of the metals in the shoots and in the total plant biomass were recorded. Finally, the metal removal was calculated for the harvestable parts of the crops. The amelioration of the nutritive status of the substrate that resulted, was highly effective for the biomass yield. However, fertilization and soil amendment did not heighten the concentration of metals in the harvestable tissue of the plants during the crop cycle. In some cases, organic matter appeared to bind the elements making them less available for the plants. The evaluation of the potential of phytoremediation of our plants compared to other crops in terms of metal removal was positive. Our results of metal removal are consistent with the results from other in situ

  18. Can't take the heat: Temperature-enhanced toxicity in the mayfly Isonychia bicolor exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Camp, A A; Buchwalter, D B

    2016-09-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticide usage has increased globally in recent decades. Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are potent insect neurotoxicants that may pose a threat to non-target aquatic organisms, such as aquatic insects. In nature, insects typically live in thermally fluctuating conditions, which may significantly alter both contaminant exposures and affects. Here we investigate the relationship between temperature and time-to-effect for imidacloprid toxicity with the aquatic insect Isonychia bicolor, a lotic mayfly. Additionally, we examined the mechanisms driving temperature-enhanced toxicity including metabolic rate, imidacloprid uptake rate, and tissue bioconcentration. Experiments included acute toxicity tests utilizing sublethal endpoints and mortality, as well as respirometry and radiotracer assays with [(14)C] imidacloprid. Further, we conducted additional uptake experiments with a suite of aquatic invertebrates (including I. bicolor, Neocloeon triangulifer, Macaffertium modestum, Pteronarcys proteus, Acroneuria carolinensis, and Pleuroceridae sp) to confirm and contextualize our findings from initial experiments. The 96h EC50 (immobility) for I. bicolor at 15°C was 5.81μg/L which was approximately 3.2 fold lower than concentrations associated with 50% mortality. Assays examining the impact of temperature were conducted at 15, 18, 21, and 24°C and demonstrated that time-to-effect for sublethal impairment and immobility was significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Uptake experiments with [(14)C] imidacloprid revealed that initial uptake rates were significantly increased with increasing temperature for I. bicolor, as were oxygen consumption rates. Further, in the separate experiment with multiple species across temperatures 15, 20, and 25°C, we found that all the aquatic insects tested had significantly increased imidacloprid uptake with increasing temperatures, with N. triangulifer accumulating the most imidacloprid on a mass

  19. Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Strom, Sean M.; Patnode, Kathleen A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33–8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A similar pattern of declining exposure was present in the 2010s as well. Although exposure to PCBs in eggs along the Sheboygan River at sites downstream of Sheboygan Falls has declined by ~60 % since the mid-1990s (8.69 down to 3.27 μg/g) there still seems to be residual pockets of contamination that are exposing some individuals (~25 %) to PCB contamination, similar to exposure found in the 1990s. The exposure patterns in eggs and nestlings among sites, and the changes between the two decades, are further validated by accumulation rate information.

  20. Chromosomal damage and EROD induction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) along the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Bigorgne, Emilie; Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Erickson, Richard A; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schultz, Sandra; Custer, Christine M; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Matson, Cole W

    2015-07-01

    The health of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) was assessed in 2010 and 2011 using biomarkers at six sites downriver of Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area, a tributary into the UMR, and a nearby lake. Chromosomal damage was evaluated in nestling blood by measuring the coefficient of variation of DNA content (DNA CV) using flow cytometry. Cytochrome P450 1A activity in nestling liver was measured using the ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) assay, and oxidative stress was estimated in nestling livers via determination of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio GSSG/GSH, total sulfhydryl, and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH). A multilevel regression model (DNA CV) and simple regressions (EROD and oxidative stress) were used to evaluate biomarker responses for each location. Chromosomal damage was significantly elevated at two sites on the UMR (Pigs Eye and Pool 2) relative to the Green Mountain Lake reference site, while the induction of EROD activity was only observed at Pigs Eye. No measures of oxidative stress differed among sites. Multivariate analysis confirmed an increased DNA CV at Pigs Eye and Pool 2, and elevated EROD activity at Pigs Eye. These results suggest that the health of tree swallows has been altered at the DNA level at Pigs Eye and Pool 2 sites, and at the physiological level at Pigs Eye site only.

  1. Chemically Induced Cuticle Mutation Affecting Epidermal Conductance to Water Vapor and Disease Susceptibility in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed Central

    Jenks, M. A.; Joly, R. J.; Peters, P. J.; Rich, P. J.; Axtell, J. D.; Ashworth, E. N.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of Sorghum bicolor bloomless (bm) mutants with altered epicuticular wax (EW) structure uncovered a mutation affecting both EW and cuticle deposition. The cuticle of mutant bm-22 was about 60% thinner and approximately one-fifth the weight of the wild-type parent P954035 (WT-P954035) cuticles. Reduced cuticle deposition was associated with increased epidermal conductance to water vapor. The reduction in EW and cuticle deposition increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Exserohilum turcicum. Evidence suggests that this recessive mutation occurs at a single locus with pleiotropic effects. The independently occurring gene mutations of bm-2, bm-6, bm-22, and bm-33 are allelic. These chemically induced mutants had essentially identical EW structure, water loss, and cuticle deposition. Furthermore, 138 F2 plants from a bm-22 x WT-P954035 backcross showed no recombination of these traits. This unique mutation in a near-isogenic background provides a useful biological system to examine plant cuticle biosynthesis, physiology, and function. PMID:12232280

  2. Expression pattern of the alpha-kafirin promoter coupled with a signal peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Norazlina; Sant, Rajnesh; Bokan, Milovan; Steadman, Kathryn J; Godwin, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss) were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP.

  3. Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Strom, Sean M; Patnode, Kathleen A; Christian Franson, J

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33-8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A similar pattern of declining exposure was present in the 2010s as well. Although exposure to PCBs in eggs along the Sheboygan River at sites downstream of Sheboygan Falls has declined by ~60 % since the mid-1990s (8.69 down to 3.27 μg/g) there still seems to be residual pockets of contamination that are exposing some individuals (~25 %) to PCB contamination, similar to exposure found in the 1990s. The exposure patterns in eggs and nestlings among sites, and the changes between the two decades, are further validated by accumulation rate information.

  4. Physiological parameters of salt tolerance during germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of the same subtropical origin.

    PubMed

    Bafeel, Sameera Omar

    2014-09-01

    Salt-tolerant ecotypes (or cultivars, varieties, etc.) of different plant species have been long known to evolve in nature. In the past few years, plant breeders have made significant achievements regarding salt tolerance in a number of potential crops using artificial selection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and screening of the natural sea water (Red sea) tolerance of 7 Saudi local (Baish, Jazan; 17.388086, 42.524070) cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench; Poaceae) with respect to the performance of some physiological parameters such as germination, shoot and root development which could be recommended to local farmers and plant breeders. The shoot growth of the studied sorghum cultivars were significantly affected by the exposure to sea water. Root growth was different among cultivars even when treated with normal water. The cultivar C3 (mix white and red seeds) was observed as more salt tolerant and cultivar C4 (whitish seeds) was more salt sensitive on the basis of the germination-ability and shoot development. Cultivar C3 was also observed to produce better seeds compared with the other cultivars. Results of this experiment can be useful to the local sorghum growing farmers or as a genetic resource for the development of sorghum cultivars with improved germination under salt stress. PMID:25183939

  5. Chromosomal damage and EROD induction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) along the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Bigorgne, Emilie; Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Erickson, Richard A; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schultz, Sandra; Custer, Christine M; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Matson, Cole W

    2015-07-01

    The health of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) was assessed in 2010 and 2011 using biomarkers at six sites downriver of Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area, a tributary into the UMR, and a nearby lake. Chromosomal damage was evaluated in nestling blood by measuring the coefficient of variation of DNA content (DNA CV) using flow cytometry. Cytochrome P450 1A activity in nestling liver was measured using the ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) assay, and oxidative stress was estimated in nestling livers via determination of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio GSSG/GSH, total sulfhydryl, and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH). A multilevel regression model (DNA CV) and simple regressions (EROD and oxidative stress) were used to evaluate biomarker responses for each location. Chromosomal damage was significantly elevated at two sites on the UMR (Pigs Eye and Pool 2) relative to the Green Mountain Lake reference site, while the induction of EROD activity was only observed at Pigs Eye. No measures of oxidative stress differed among sites. Multivariate analysis confirmed an increased DNA CV at Pigs Eye and Pool 2, and elevated EROD activity at Pigs Eye. These results suggest that the health of tree swallows has been altered at the DNA level at Pigs Eye and Pool 2 sites, and at the physiological level at Pigs Eye site only. PMID:25777616

  6. Chromosomal damage and EROD induction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) along the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emilie Bigorgne,; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Erickson, Richard A.; Karouna, Natalie; Schultz, Sandra; Custer, Christine M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Cole W. Matson,

    2015-01-01

    The health of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) was assessed in 2010 and 2011 using biomarkers at six sites downriver of Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area, a tributary into the UMR, and a nearby lake. Chromosomal damage was evaluated in nestling blood by measuring the coefficient of variation of DNA content (DNA CV) using flow cytometry. Cytochrome P450 1A activity in nestling liver was measured using the ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) assay, and oxidative stress was estimated in nestling livers via determination of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio GSSG/GSH, total sulfhydryl, and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH). A multilevel regression model (DNA CV) and simple regressions (EROD and oxidative stress) were used to evaluate biomarker responses for each location. Chromosomal damage was significantly elevated at two sites on the UMR (Pigs Eye and Pool 2) relative to the Green Mountain Lake reference site, while the induction of EROD activity was only observed at Pigs Eye. No measures of oxidative stress differed among sites. Multivariate analysis confirmed an increased DNA CV at Pigs Eye and Pool 2, and elevated EROD activity at Pigs Eye. These results suggest that the health of tree swallows has been altered at the DNA level at Pigs Eye and Pool 2 sites, and at the physiological level at Pigs Eye site only.

  7. Increased thyroid hormone levels in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands of the athabasca oil sands.

    PubMed

    Gentes, Marie-Line; McNabb, Anne; Waldner, Cheryl; Smits, Judit E G

    2007-08-01

    The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are one of the world's largest reserves of crude oil. Oil sands mining companies are now investigating the ecological impacts of reclamation strategies in which wetlands are used for the bioremediation of waste materials. To examine the endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals in Oil Sands Process Materials (OSPM), thyroid hormone concentrations were measured in plasma and thyroid glands of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands partly filled with mine tailings. Plasma triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations and thyroxine (T(4)) content within thyroid glands were elevated in nestlings from OSPM sites compared to those from the reference site. Results suggested enhanced hormone synthesis by the thyroid glands independently of activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis, as well as increased deiodination of T(4) into T(3) in peripheral tissues. This might have resulted from exposure to oil sands associated chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and from environmental factors such as food availability. Modulation of thyroid function might have negative effects on metabolism, behavior, feather development, and molt, which could compromise postfledging survival.

  8. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages. PMID:23751551

  9. Expression pattern of the alpha-kafirin promoter coupled with a signal peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Norazlina; Sant, Rajnesh; Bokan, Milovan; Steadman, Kathryn J; Godwin, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss) were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP. PMID:22315514

  10. Identification of bioconversion quantitative trait loci in the interspecific cross Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum.

    PubMed

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Goff, Valorie; Jin, Huizhe; Kong, Wenqian; Paterson, Andrew H; Feltus, F Alex

    2013-09-01

    For lignocellulosic bioenergy to be economically viable, genetic improvements must be made in feedstock quality including both biomass total yield and conversion efficiency. Toward this goal, multiple studies have considered candidate genes and discovered quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with total biomass accumulation and/or grain production in bioenergy grass species including maize and sorghum. However, very little research has been focused on genes associated with increased biomass conversion efficiency. In this study, Trichoderma viride fungal cellulase hydrolysis activity was measured for lignocellulosic biomass (leaf and stem tissue) obtained from individuals in a F5 recombinant inbred Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum mapping population. A total of 49 QTLs (20 leaf, 29 stem) were associated with enzymatic conversion efficiency. Interestingly, six high-density QTL regions were identified in which four or more QTLs overlapped. In addition to enzymatic conversion efficiency QTLs, two QTLs were identified for biomass crystallinity index, a trait which has been shown to be inversely correlated with conversion efficiency in bioenergy grasses. The identification of these QTLs provides an important step toward identifying specific genes relevant to increasing conversion efficiency of bioenergy feedstocks. DNA markers linked to these QTLs could be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at increasing overall bioenergy yields concomitant with selection of high total biomass genotypes.

  11. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages.

  12. Analysis of genetic variation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes with various agronomical traits using SPAR methods.

    PubMed

    Satish, Lakkakula; Shilpha, Jayabalan; Pandian, Subramani; Rency, Arockiam Sagina; Rathinapriya, Periyasamy; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Largia, Muthiah Joe Virgin; Kumar, Are Ashok; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2016-01-15

    Genetic variation among 45 genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) representing seven subpopulations was assessed using three single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods viz., inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD). Totally 15 ISSR, 8 RAPD and 7 DAMD primers generated 263 amplification products, accounting for 84.6% polymorphism across all the genotypes. The Mantel's test of correlation revealed the best correlation between ISSR and cumulative data with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.84. Assessment of population diversity indicated that the maximum intra population genetic diversity was recorded among high FeZn lines (HFL) having maximum values of Nei's genetic diversity (h) (0.244), Shannon information index (I) (0.368) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) (72.65%) while the corresponding lowest values of 0.074, 0.109 and 17.95% respectively were observed among the members of MDT subpopulation. The mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) and the gene flow (Nm) between populations were observed to be 0.396 and 0.7680 respectively. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that maximum genetic variation exists within populations (95%) than among populations (5%). Thus the information obtained from this study could be utilized in sorghum breeding programmes for the development of varieties with improved nutrition and agronomic values in future.

  13. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families.

  14. Identification of bioconversion quantitative trait loci in the interspecific cross Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum.

    PubMed

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Goff, Valorie; Jin, Huizhe; Kong, Wenqian; Paterson, Andrew H; Feltus, F Alex

    2013-09-01

    For lignocellulosic bioenergy to be economically viable, genetic improvements must be made in feedstock quality including both biomass total yield and conversion efficiency. Toward this goal, multiple studies have considered candidate genes and discovered quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with total biomass accumulation and/or grain production in bioenergy grass species including maize and sorghum. However, very little research has been focused on genes associated with increased biomass conversion efficiency. In this study, Trichoderma viride fungal cellulase hydrolysis activity was measured for lignocellulosic biomass (leaf and stem tissue) obtained from individuals in a F5 recombinant inbred Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum mapping population. A total of 49 QTLs (20 leaf, 29 stem) were associated with enzymatic conversion efficiency. Interestingly, six high-density QTL regions were identified in which four or more QTLs overlapped. In addition to enzymatic conversion efficiency QTLs, two QTLs were identified for biomass crystallinity index, a trait which has been shown to be inversely correlated with conversion efficiency in bioenergy grasses. The identification of these QTLs provides an important step toward identifying specific genes relevant to increasing conversion efficiency of bioenergy feedstocks. DNA markers linked to these QTLs could be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at increasing overall bioenergy yields concomitant with selection of high total biomass genotypes. PMID:23836384

  15. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  16. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Genetic Diversity of the Critically Endangered Primate, the Pied Tamarin (Saguinus bicolor): Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Farias, Izeni P; Santos, Wancley G; Gordo, Marcelo; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed DNA at 9 microsatellite loci from hair samples of 73 pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) located in 3 urban forest fragments and a biological reserve in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The forest fragments had become isolated from the continuous forest 6-15 years prior to the time of sampling. Tests for reduction in population size showed that all groups from the urban forest fragments had undergone genetic bottlenecks. Pied tamarins in this region historically formed one biological population, and the fragments were connected by high levels of gene flow. These results indicate the need to implement a conservation plan that allows for connectivity between the urban fragments, as well as protection from further constriction. Such connectivity could be achieved via the creation and protection of corridors. In addition to the current population trends explained by anthropogenic actions, the species also shows a trend of long-term demographic decline that has resulted in approximately an order of magnitude decrease and began 13 thousand years ago.

  17. Comparative population genetics of the panicoid grasses: sequence polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium and selection in a diverse sample of sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Martha T; Mitchell, Sharon E; White, Gemma M; Gallego, Javier; Kukatla, Rakesh; Wing, Rod A; Paterson, Andrew H; Kresovich, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Levels of genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are critical factors in association mapping methods as well as in identification of loci that have been targets of selection. Maize, an outcrosser, has a high level of sequence variation and a limited extent of LD. Sorghum, a closely related but largely self-pollinating panicoid grass, is expected to have higher levels of LD. As a first step in estimation of population genetic parameters in sorghum, we surveyed 27 diverse S. bicolor accessions for sequence variation at a total of 29,186 bp in 95 short regions derived from genetically mapped RFLPs located throughout the genome. Consistent with its higher level of inbreeding, the extent of LD is at least severalfold greater in sorghum than in maize. Total sequence variation in sorghum is about fourfold lower than that in maize, while synonymous variation is fivefold lower, suggesting a smaller effective population size in sorghum. Because we surveyed a species-wide sample, the mating system, which primarily affects population-level diversity, may not be primarily responsible for this difference. Comparisons of polymorphism and divergence suggest that both directional and diversifying selection have played important roles in shaping variation in the sorghum genome. PMID:15166170

  18. Poplar root exudates contain compounds that induce the expression of MiSSP7 in Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Communication between organisms is crucial for their survival, especially for sessile organisms such as plants that depend upon interactions with mutualistic organisms to maximize their nutrient acquisition. This communication can take the form of the exchange of volatile compounds, metabolites or effectors - small protein signals secreted from the colonizing cell that change the biology of the host cell.  We recently characterized the first mutualistic effector protein from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, a small secreted protein named MiSSP7 encoded by Laccaria bicolor.  Ectomycorrhizal fungi are soil-borne mutualistic organisms whose hyphae wrap around host roots and grow into the root apoplastic space where the fungus exchanges nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in return for plant derived sugars.  The MiSSP7 protein is induced by root exudates and is highly expressed throughout the root colonization process.  Its presence was responsible for alterations to the plant transcriptomic profile, a mechanism by which MiSSP7 may aid in the formation of the symbiotic interface. Here we further discuss the implications of these findings and, further, we demonstrate that the production of MiSSP7 is induced by two flavonoids, rutin and quercitrin, a class of compounds normally found within the exudates of plant roots.  We also consider the interesting similarities between the mechanisms of effector induction and action between pathogenic and mutualistic fungi.  

  19. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using TPS1 gene for enhancing tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Yellisetty, Varalaxmi; Reddy, L A; Mandapaka, Maheswari

    2015-09-01

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the transgene is integrated into the cells of already differentiated tissues, the T 0 plants were chimeric and stable integration was observed in T1 generation. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression in the seedlings and spikelets of emerging cob was the first indication of transformability in T0 generation which was further confirmed by PCR analysis using hpt and TPS1 gene-specific primers. Screening on 25 mg/L hygromycin combined with PCR analysis was used for selection of transformants in the T1 generation. Transformation efficiencies ranged between 34-38% and 26-34% using pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1, respectively. Molecular characterization of the T2 transgenics using PCR, RT-PCR and Southern blot analyses further revealed the integration, expression and inheritance of the transgene. These results indicate the feasibility of the method to generate transgenics with pCAM-BIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1. The abiotic stress tolerance of TPS1 transgenics developed in the present study was evident by the ability of the transformants to tolerate 200 mM NaCl as well as higher root growth and biomass. PMID:26440081

  20. Most photorespiratory genes are preferentially expressed in the bundle sheath cells of the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Florian; Streubel, Monika; Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of C4 plants is the division of labor between two different photosynthetic cell types, the mesophyll and the bundle sheath cells. C4 plants are of polyphyletic origin and, during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis, the expression of thousands of genes was altered and many genes acquired a cell type-specific or preferential expression pattern. Several lines of evidence, including computational modeling and physiological and phylogenetic analyses, indicate that alterations in the expression of a key photorespiration-related gene, encoding the glycine decarboxylase P subunit, was an early and important step during C4 evolution. Restricting the expression of this gene to the bundle sheath led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. We were interested in whether the expression of genes related to photorespiration remains bundle sheath specific in a fully optimized C4 species. Therefore we analyzed the expression of photorespiratory and C4 cycle genes using RNA in situ hybridization and transcriptome analysis of isolated mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor. It turns out that the C4 metabolism of Sorghum is based solely on the NADP-dependent malic enzyme pathway. The majority of photorespiratory gene expression, with some important exceptions, is restricted to the bundle sheath. PMID:26976818

  1. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Sarath, Gautam; Palmer, Nathan A; Baird, Lisa; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Dien, Bruce S; Boateng, Akwasi A; Ge, Zhengxiang; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Twigg, Paul; Clemente, Thomas E; Sattler, Scott E

    2016-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target for altering the abundance and composition of lignin. The global regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism may include MYB transcription factors, whose expression levels have been correlated with changes in secondary cell wall composition and the levels of several other aromatic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonoids. While transcription factors correlated with downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway have been identified in several grass species, few transcription factors linked to activation of this pathway have been identified in C4 grasses, some of which are being developed as dedicated bioenergy feedstocks. In this study we investigated the role of SbMyb60 in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which is a drought-tolerant, high-yielding biomass crop. Ectopic expression of this transcription factor in sorghum was associated with higher expression levels of genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and led to higher abundances of syringyl lignin, significant compositional changes to the lignin polymer and increased lignin concentration in biomass. Moreover, transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing SbMyb60 also displayed ectopic lignification in leaf midribs and elevated concentrations of soluble phenolic compounds in biomass. Results indicate that overexpression of SbMyb60 is associated with activation of monolignol biosynthesis in sorghum. SbMyb60 represents a target for modification of plant cell wall composition, with the potential to improve biomass for renewable uses. PMID:26712107

  2. Determination of the phenolic content and antioxidant potential of crude extracts and isolated compounds from leaves of Cordia multispicata and Tournefortia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Correia Da Silva, Thiago B; Souza, Vivian Karoline T; Da Silva, Ana Paula F; Lyra Lemos, Rosangela P; Conserva, Lucia M

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts and four flavonoids isolated from leaves of two Boraginaceae species (Cordia multispicata Cham. and Tournefortia bicolor Sw.) were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, DPPH free radical scavenging and inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid by FTC method. For comparison, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and BHT were used. In general, extracts from T. bicolor (68.8 +/- 0.001 to > 1000 mg/g) showed higher phenolic content than C. multispicata (66.1 +/- 0.009 to 231 +/- 0.07 mg/g), and also scavenged radicals (IC(50) 12.8 +/- 2.5 to 437 +/- 3.5 mg/L) and inhibited lipid peroxide formation (IC(50) 51.2 +/- 2.29 to 89 +/- 0.59 mg/L). For these extracts a good correlation between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed, suggesting that T. bicolor is richer in phenolic compounds and that it could serve as a new source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals with potential applications. Chromatographic procedures monitored by antioxidant assays afforded seven compounds, which were identified by spectral analyses (IR, MS and 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with reported data as being trans-phytol (1), taraxerol (2), 3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (4), quercetin (5), tiliroside (6), and rutin (7). Compounds (4-7) were also evaluated and were effective as DPPH quenching (IC(50) 7.7 +/- 3.6 to 79.3 +/- 3.4 mg/L) and as inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 80.1 +/- 0.98 to 88.7 +/- 3.62 mg/L). This is the first report on the total phenolic content, radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of these species.

  3. The influence of phosphorus availability and Laccaria bicolor symbiosis on phosphate acquisition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and rhizospheric carbon flux in Populus tremuloides.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shalaka; Naik, Dhiraj; Cumming, Jonathan R

    2014-07-01

    Many forest tree species are dependent on their symbiotic interaction with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi for phosphorus (P) uptake from forest soils where P availability is often limited. The ECM fungal association benefits the host plant under P limitation through enhanced soil exploration and increased P acquisition by mycorrhizas. To study the P starvation response (PSR) and its modification by ECM fungi in Populus tremuloides, a comparison was made between nonmycorrhizal (NM) and mycorrhizal with Laccaria bicolor (Myc) seedlings grown under different concentrations of phosphate (Pi) in sand culture. Although differences in growth between NM and Myc plants were small, Myc plants were more effective at acquiring P from low Pi treatments, with significantly lower k m values for root and leaf P accumulation. Pi limitation significantly increased the activity of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol-dependent peroxidase in leaves and roots to greater extents in NM than Myc P. tremuloides. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity also increased in NM plants under P limitation, but was unchanged in Myc plants. Formate, citrate, malonate, lactate, malate, and oxalate and total organic carbon exudation by roots was stimulated by P limitation to a greater extent in NM than Myc plants. Colonization by L. bicolor reduced the solution Pi concentration thresholds where PSR physiological changes occurred, indicating that enhanced Pi acquisition by P. tremuloides colonized by L. bicolor altered host P homeostasis and plant stress responses to P limitation. Understanding these plant-symbiont interactions facilitates the selection of more P-efficient forest trees and strategies for tree plantation production on marginal soils.

  4. Distribution and sequence analysis of the centromere-associated repetitive element CEN38 of Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Zwick, M S; Islam-Faridi, M N; Zhang, H B; Hodnett, G L; Gomez, M I; Kim, J S; Price, H J; Stelly, D M

    2000-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of a large-insert genomic clone, BAC 22B2, previously suggested that Sorghum bicolor (2n = 20) has the tetraploid architecture A(b)A(b)B(b)B(b). Here, we report on BAC 22B2 subclone pCEN38 (1047-bp insert) as related to sorghum and sugarcane. Mitotic FISH of six different subclones of BAC 22B2 showed that pCEN38 produced the strongest specificity to the A(b) subgenome and signal occurred primarily near centromeres. Southern blots of pCEN38 to 21 crop plants revealed a narrow taxonomic distribution. Meiotic metaphase I FISH positioned pCEN38 sequences near active centromeres. Pachytene FISH revealed that the distributions are trimodal in several B(b) and possibly all sorghum chromosomes. DNA sequencing revealed that the pCEN38 fragment contains three tandemly repeated dimers (<280 bp) of the same sequence family found in sorghum clone pSau3A10, and that each dimer consists of two divergent monomers (<140 bp). Sequence comparisons revealed homology between the pCEN38 monomers and the SCEN 140 bp tandem repeat family of sugarcane. FISH of pCEN38 yielded signal in centromere regions of most but not all sugarcane chromosomes. Results suggest that sugarcane and sorghum share at least one ancestor harboring elements similar to pCEN38 and SCEN and that each species had an ancestor in which the repetitive element was weakly present or lacking. PMID:11118410

  5. Genetic Regulation of Development in Sorghum bicolor: VI. The ma(3) Allele Results in Abnormal Phytochrome Physiology.

    PubMed

    Childs, K L; Pratt, L H; Morgan, P W

    1991-10-01

    Physiological processes controlled by phytochrome were examined in three near-isogenic genotypes of Sorghum bicolor, differing at the allele of the third maturity gene locus. Seedlings of 58M (ma(3) (R)ma(3) (R)) did not show phytochrome control of anthocyanin synthesis. In contrast, seedlings of 90M (ma(3)ma(3)) and 100M (Ma(3)Ma(3)) demonstrated reduced anthocyanin synthesis after treatment with far red and reversal of the far red effect by red. De-etiolation of 48-hour-old 90M and 100M dark-grown seedlings occurred with 48 hours of continuous red. Dark-grown 58M seedlings did not de-etiolate with continuous red treatment. Treatment of seedlings with gibberellic acid or tetcyclacis, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, did not alter anthocyanin synthesis. Levels of chlorophyll and anthocyanin were lower in light-grown 58M seedlings than in 90M and 100M. Etiolated seedlings of all three genotypes have similar amounts of photoreversible phytochrome. Crude protein extracts from etiolated seedlings were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. Phytochrome was visualized with Pea-25, a monoclonal antibody directed to phytochrome from etiolated peas. The samples from all three genotypes contained approximately equivalent amounts of a prominent, immunostaining band at 126 kD. However, the sample from 58M did not show a fainter, secondary band at 123 kD that was present in 90M and 100M. The identity and importance of this secondary band at 123 kD is unknown. We propose that 58M is a phytochrome-related mutant that contains normal amounts of photoreversible phytochrome and normal phytochrome protein when grown in the dark. PMID:16668457

  6. Heterotic Trait Locus (HTL) Mapping Identifies Intra-Locus Interactions That Underlie Reproductive Hybrid Vigor in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis. PMID:22761720

  7. Management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosae) and NPK fertilizer levels.

    PubMed

    Isah, K M; Kumar, Niranjan; Lagoke, S T O; Atayese, M O

    2013-11-15

    Trials were conducted in the screen house of Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa (09 degrees 18'N; 05 degrees 04'E) in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during October-December, 2008 and January-March, 2009. The objective was to evaluate the effect of management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and NPK fertilizer levels. The trials were laid out in split-split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. The main-plot treatments consisted of three sorghum varieties; SAMSORG 3, ICSVIII and SAMSORG 14 while the sub-plot treatments consisted of inoculations; Striga mixed with Glomus, Striga only and Glomus only as well as no inoculation control. The sub-sub-plot treatments were made up of NPK fertilizer levels; (100 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)), (50 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)) and (0 kg N, 0 kg P2O5, 0 kg K2O ha(-1)). The result obtained showed that sorghum variety SAMSORG 3 were taller, having more vigour and lower reaction to Striga parasitism which resulted in the crop producing higher dry matter compared to the other two varieties. The plots inoculated with Striga only supported shorter plants of sorghum varieties, higher vigour and lower reaction score to Striga compared to Striga mixed with Glomus. It is obvious in this study that the crop performance increases with increase in the rates of NPK fertilizer applied. PMID:24511701

  8. The synergistic effect of drought and light stresses in sorghum and pearl millet. [Pennisetum glaucum; Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Masojidek, M.; Trivedi, S.; Halshaw, L.; Alexiou, A.; Hall, D.O. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought stress and high irradiance and their combination were studied under laboratory conditions using young plants of a very drought-resistant variety, ICMH 451, of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and three varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) - one drought-resistant from India, one drought-tolerant from Texas, and one drought-sensitive variety from France. CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and photosystem II fluorescence in leaves were analyzed in parallel with photosynthetic electron transport, photosystem II fluorescence, and chlorophyll-protein composition in chloroplasts isolated from these leaves. High irradiance slightly increased CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and electron transport activities of irrigated plants but not fluorescence. Drought stress (less than {minus}1 megapascal) depressed CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effect of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport activities and fluorescence in chloroplasts (but not photosystem I activity). The synergistic or distinctive effect of drought and high irradiance is discussed. The experiments with pearl millet and three varieties of sorghum showed that different responses of plants to drought and light stresses can be monitored by plant physiological and biochemical techniques. Some of these techniques may have a potential for selection of stress-resistant varieties using seedlings.

  9. Distribution, structure and biosynthetic gene families of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ermawar, Riksfardini A; Collins, Helen M; Byrt, Caitlin S; Betts, Natalie S; Henderson, Marilyn; Shirley, Neil J; Schwerdt, Julian; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-04-01

    In cereals, the presence of soluble polysaccharides including (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan has downstream implications for human health, animal feed and biofuel applications. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is a versatile crop, but there are limited reports regarding the content of such soluble polysaccharides. Here, the amount of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan present in sorghum tissues was measured using a Megazyme assay. Very low amounts were present in the grain, ranging from 0.16%-0.27% (w/w), while there was a greater quantity in vegetative tissues at 0.12-1.71% (w/w). The fine structure of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, as denoted by the ratio of cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl residues, was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ranged from 2.6-3:1 in the grain, while ratios in vegetative tissues were lower at 2.1-2.6:1. The distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan was examined using a specific antibody and observed with fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Micrographs showed a variable distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan influenced by temporal and spatial factors. The sorghum orthologs of genes implicated in the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in other cereals, such as the Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) F and H gene families were defined. Transcript profiling of these genes across sorghum tissues was carried out using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, indicating that, as in other cereals, CslF6 transcripts dominated.

  10. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] leaf sheath dye protects against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to determine the protective effect of dietary inclusion of sorghum leaf sheath dye on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups I and II were fed a basal diet, while groups III and IV were fed diets containing 0.5% and 1% sorghum leaf sheath dye, respectively, for 20 days before cisplatin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), and the experiment was terminated at 3 days after cisplatin injection. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant capacity. Cisplatin caused a significant (P<.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase [GST], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) and nonenzymatic (glutathione [GSH] and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with a concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content; however, there was a significant (P<.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with a significant (P<.05) decrease in the tissue MDA content, after consumption of diets containing sorghum leaf sheath dye. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of sorghum leaf sheath dye caused a marked reduction in the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase after cisplatin administration. However, the ability of the dye to prevent significant cisplatin-induced alteration of both plasma and liver antioxidant indices suggests an antioxidant mechanism of action. Hence, this protective effect of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath dye against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats reflects its potential and beneficial role in the prevention of liver damage associated with cisplatin administration.

  11. Impact of metagenomic DNA extraction procedures on the identifiable endophytic bacterial diversity in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Maropola, Mapula Kgomotso Annah; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Trindade, Marla

    2015-05-01

    Culture-independent studies rely on the quantity and quality of the extracted environmental metagenomic DNA (mDNA). To fully access the plant tissue microbiome, the extracted plant mDNA should allow optimal PCR applications and the genetic content must be representative of the total microbial diversity. In this study, we evaluated the endophytic bacterial diversity retrieved using different mDNA extraction procedures. Metagenomic DNA from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stem and root tissues were extracted using two classical DNA extraction protocols (CTAB- and SDS-based) and five commercial kits. The mDNA yields and quality as well as the reproducibility were compared. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) was used to assess the impact on endophytic bacterial community structures observed. Generally, the classical protocols obtained high mDNA yields from sorghum tissues; however, they were less reproducible than the commercial kits. Commercial kits retrieved higher quality mDNA, but with lower endophytic bacterial diversities compared to classical protocols. The SDS-based protocol enabled access to the highest sorghum endophytic diversities. Therefore, "SDS-extracted" sorghum root and stem microbiome diversities were analysed via 454 pyrosequencing, and this revealed that the two tissues harbour significantly different endophytic communities. Nevertheless, both communities are dominated by agriculturally important genera such as Microbacterium, Agrobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas; which have previously been shown to play a role in plant growth promotion. This study shows that DNA extraction protocols introduce biases in culture-independent studies of environmental microbial communities by influencing the mDNA quality, which impacts the microbial diversity analyses and evaluation. Using the broad-spectrum SDS-based DNA extraction protocol allows the recovery of the most

  12. Genetic structure of juvenile cohorts of bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) along the Mesoamerican barrier reef: chaos through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, R. I.; Sale, P. F.; Dixon, B.; Heath, Daniel D.

    2009-03-01

    Dispersal in marine systems is a critical component of the ecology, evolution, and conservation of such systems; however, estimating dispersal is logistically difficult, especially in coral reef fish. Juvenile bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) were sampled at 13 sites along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS), the barrier reefs on the east coast of Central America extending from the Yucatan, Mexico to Honduras, to evaluate genetic structure among recently settled cohorts. Using genotype data at eight microsatellite loci genetic structure was estimated at large and small spatial scales using exact tests for allele frequency differences and hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Isolation-by-distance models of divergence were assessed at both spatial scales. Results showed genetic homogeneity of recently settled S. partitus at large geographic scales with subtle, but significant, genetic structure at smaller geographic scales. Genetic temporal stability was tested for using archived juvenile S. partitus collected earlier in the same year (nine sites), and in the previous year (six sites). The temporal analyses indicated that allele frequency differences among sites were not generally conserved over time, nor were pairwise genetic distances correlated through time, indicative of temporal instability. These results indicate that S. partitus larvae undergo high levels of dispersal along the MBRS, and that the structure detected at smaller spatial scales is likely driven by stochastic effects on dispersal coupled with microgeographic effects. Temporal variation in juvenile cohort genetic signature may be a fundamental characteristic of connectivity patterns in coral reef fishes, with various species and populations differing only in the magnitude of that instability. Such a scenario provides a basis for the reconciliation of conflicting views regarding levels of genetic structuring in S. partitus and possibly other coral reef fish species.

  13. The genomic relationship between cultivated sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and Johnsongrass [S. halepense (L.) Pers.]: a re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hoang-Tang; Liang, G H

    1988-08-01

    The genomic relationship between cultivated sorghum [Sorghum bicolar (L.) Moench, race bicolor, De Wet, 2n=20] and Johnsongrass [S. halepense (L.) Pers., 2n=40] has been a subject of extensive studies. Nevertheless, there is no general consensus concerning the ploidy level and the number of genomes present in the two species. This research tested the validity of four major genomic models that have been proposed previously for the two species by studying chromosome behaviors in the parental species, 30-chromosome hybrids [sorghum, (2n=20) x Johnsongrass, (2n=40)], 40-chromosome hybrids [sorghum, (2n=40) x Johnsongrass, (2n=40)] and 60-chromosome amphiploids. Chromosome pairings of amphiploids are reported for the first time. Chromosomes of cultivated sorghums paired exclusively as 10 bivalents, whereas Johnsongrass had a maximum configuration of 5 ring quadrivalents with occasional hexavalents and octovalents. In contrast, 40-chromosome cultivated sorghum had up to 9 ring quadrivalents and 1 hexavalent. Pairing in the 30-chromosome hybrids showed a maximum of 10 trivalents, and that in the 40-chromosome hybrids exhibited 8 quadrivalents, 5 of which were rings, together with a few hexavalents. Amphiploid plants showed up to 3 ring hexavalents, 1 chain hexavalent and a chain of 12 chromosomes. The data suggest that cultivated sorghum is a tetraploid species with the genomic formula AAB1B1, and Johnsongrass is a segmental auto-allo-octoploid, AAAA B1B1B2B2. The model is further substantiated by chromosome pairing in amphiploid plants whose proposed genomic formula is AAAAAA B1B1B1B1 B2B2.

  14. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  15. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from three species of swallows in the genus Tachycineta: T. albilinea, T. bicolor and T. leucorrhoa.

    PubMed

    Makarewich, C A; Stenzler, L M; Ferretti, V; Winkler, D W; Lovette, I J

    2009-03-01

    We describe 30 microsatellite loci developed from three species of swallows in the genus Tachycineta: T. bicolor (tree swallow), T. albilinea (mangrove swallow), and T. leucorrhoa (white-rumped swallow). These commonly studied birds nest in secondary cavities and are distributed from Alaska to Argentina. Primer pairs were designed for each species individually and tested for cross-amplification in 40-48 individuals of all three species. Polymorphism ranged from 5 to 65 alleles per locus (mean = 19.1). These markers will allow comparative studies of extra-pair paternity rates among members of the genus as well as the assessment of population structure. PMID:21564713

  16. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV

  17. Effect of cadmium stress and inoculation with a heavy-metal-resistant bacterium on the growth and enzyme activity of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Muratova, Anna; Lyubun, Yelena; German, Kristina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the influence of the heavy-metal-resistant rhizobacterial inoculant Rhodococcus ruber N7 on the growth and enzyme activity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. under cadmium stress was investigated in quartz sand pot experiments. The effect of cadmium and bacterium on the plant biomass accumulation, photosynthetic pigments, protein content, and the activities of plant-tissue enzymes such as peroxidase, laccase, and tyrosinase were estimated. It was shown that the presence of cadmium in the sand influenced the roots to a greater extent than it influenced the aerial parts of sorghum. This is manifested as increased protein content, reduced activity of peroxidase, and increased activity of laccase. Compared with cadmium stress, inoculation of plants with rhizobacterium R. ruber N7 has a stronger (and often opposite) effect on the biochemical parameters of sorghum, including a decrease in the concentration of protein in the plant, but increased the activity of peroxidase, laccase, and tyrosinase. Under cadmium contamination of sand, R. ruber N7 successfully colonizes the roots of Sorghum bicolor, survives in its root zone, and contributes to the accumulation of the metal in the plant roots, thereby reducing the concentration of the pollutant in the environment.

  18. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; He, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In order to study the adaptation ability of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Yellow River Delta, the sweet sorghum variety Mart was used in this study to determine the roles of different saline-alkaline ratio stress treatment during seed germination to seedling stage. The results showed that Na+ concentration had a significant impact on the seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival of sweet sorghum. Increasing Na+ concentration led to a decline in germination rate, final germination percentage, survival percentage, plant height, and dry weight per plant, a prolonged mean time of germination, as well as loss of improvement effect of low-Na+ concentration. The interaction effect of Na+ concentration and pH on the mean time of germination and germination rate was not significant (p<0.05). However, under the condition of low-Na+ concentration (100 mM), high pH reduced the mean time of germination and increased the germination rate, without decline in final germination percentage and survival percentage. Therefore, at least in the duration of seed germination to the harvest period in the research, the sweet sorghum was resistant to the pH stress (≥9.04) when the Na+ concentration was below 100 mM. When suffered from the saline-alkaline stress, the seedling of sweet sorghum was characterized by ecological adaptive features, such as decreased stem ratio and chlorophyll b content in leaves and increased root ratio and chlorophyll a content, in order to maintain the uptakes of water and nutrient, and carbon assimilation. When the stress intensified, the lipid oxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), increased in sweet sorghum seedlings. However, the increasing of soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and gatalase (CAT)) was only founded in neutral low-Na+ concentration treatment (A1), which indicated that high-salt concentration and pH all elicited harmful effects

  19. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  20. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; He, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In order to study the adaptation ability of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Yellow River Delta, the sweet sorghum variety Mart was used in this study to determine the roles of different saline-alkaline ratio stress treatment during seed germination to seedling stage. The results showed that Na+ concentration had a significant impact on the seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival of sweet sorghum. Increasing Na+ concentration led to a decline in germination rate, final germination percentage, survival percentage, plant height, and dry weight per plant, a prolonged mean time of germination, as well as loss of improvement effect of low-Na+ concentration. The interaction effect of Na+ concentration and pH on the mean time of germination and germination rate was not significant (p<0.05). However, under the condition of low-Na+ concentration (100 mM), high pH reduced the mean time of germination and increased the germination rate, without decline in final germination percentage and survival percentage. Therefore, at least in the duration of seed germination to the harvest period in the research, the sweet sorghum was resistant to the pH stress (≥9.04) when the Na+ concentration was below 100 mM. When suffered from the saline-alkaline stress, the seedling of sweet sorghum was characterized by ecological adaptive features, such as decreased stem ratio and chlorophyll b content in leaves and increased root ratio and chlorophyll a content, in order to maintain the uptakes of water and nutrient, and carbon assimilation. When the stress intensified, the lipid oxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), increased in sweet sorghum seedlings. However, the increasing of soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and gatalase (CAT)) was only founded in neutral low-Na+ concentration treatment (A1), which indicated that high-salt concentration and pH all elicited harmful effects

  1. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. I. Immunological parameters.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Boermans, H J; Ng, P; Campbell, G D; Struger, J

    1998-12-25

    The degree of pesticide exposure and its effects on the immune system and its development were determined in 16-d-old tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) chicks from 4 sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, during 1994-1995. Persistent contaminant residues were measured in tree swallow eggs and in each chick hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity; body, immune organ, and liver masses; lymphocyte blastogenesis response; respiratory burst and phagocytic responses; hemarological evaluation; and histological development of thymus, bursa of fabricius, and spleen were determined. Chemicals sprayed on apple orchards were mainly ethylene bisdithiocarbamate and myclobutanil fungicides and organophosphorus, carbamate, and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. During the period between oviposition of the first egg in each nest to d 16 after hatching, individual nests in orchards were exposed to between 4 and 11 individual chemical applications and up to 3 mixtures of pesticide sprays. Concentrations of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead and arsenic residues in tree swallow eggs and liver were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE, which was as high as 2.29 microg/g wet weight in eggs. EROD activity was not different among sites. Organochlorine and trace metal residues and EROD activity were not correlated with any immune parameter. In sprayed birds, we found a significantly increased blastogenic response to pokeweed mitogen (12.5 microg/ml). However, nests were initiated over a period of several weeks and we also found changes in other tree swallow immune parameters that were related to the date of chick collection. Hematological parameters, bursal and thymic masses, phagocytic response, and thymic development were all correlated with the day the chicks were 16 d of age. After accounting for the collection date of birds from each nest, we found cell proliferation in the cortex and delayed thymic

  2. Map-Based Cloning of Sbbmc, a Major Locus Controlling the Profuse Wax Trait of Sorghum: a Case Study in Unlocking the Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Sorghum bicolor via Integrated Physiological and Genomic Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most valuable “fail safe” cereal crop species and is a rich repository of genes for abiotic stress tolerance that await discovery. As an example, Sorghum exhibits cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (bloom) on sheaths and leaves that serves as key...

  3. Examining the efficacy of a genotyping-by-sequencing technique for population genetic analysis of the mushroom Laccaria bicolor and evaluating whether a reference genome is necessary to assess homology

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew W.; Wickett, Norman J.; Grabowski, Paul; Fant, Jeremie; Borevitz, Justin; Mueller, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the diversity and ecological importance of Fungi, there is a lack of population genetic research on these organisms. The reason for this can partially be explained by their cryptic nature and difficulty in identifying genets. Additionally, the difficulty (relative to plants and animals) in developing molecular markers for fungal population genetics contributes to the lack of research in this area. This study examines the ability of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to generate SNPs in Laccaria bicolor. Eighteen samples of morphologically identified L. bicolor from the United States and Europe were selected for this project. The RAD sequencing method produced anywhere from 290 K to over three million reads. Mapping these reads to the genome of L. bicolor resulted in 84 K to 940 K unique reads from individual samples. Results indicate that incorporation of non-L. bicolor taxa into the analysis resulted in a precipitous drop in shared loci among samples., suggests the potential of these methods to identify cryptic species. F-statistics were easily calculated, although an observable “noise” was detected when using the “All Loci” treatment versus filtering loci to those present in at least 50% of the individuals. The data were analyzed using tests of Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, population genetic statistics (FIS and FST), and population structure analysis using the program STRUCTURE. The results provide encouraging feedback regarding the potential utility of these methods and their data for population genetic analysis. We were unable to draw conclusions of life history of L. bicolor populations from this data set, given the small sample size. The results of this study indicate the potential of these methods to address population genetics and general life history questions in the Agaricales. Further research is necessary to explore the specific application of these methods in the Agaricales or other fungal groups. PMID:25361831

  4. A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. Results A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R 2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 μg.mgDW-1.h-1. Conclusions This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall

  5. Newcastle disease in a zoo affecting demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J

    1981-07-01

    Newcastle disease virus could be isolated from demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures. All of these birds died without prominent symptoms and had no typical pathological lesions. Identification and characterisation studies of the viruses were performed in CEF cultures and embryos. Serological cross reactions could be detected between NDV strain B1 and the new isolates by haemagglutination inhibition and plaque reduction tests. Electron microscopic examination revealed particles with paramyxovirus morphology. Inoculation of susceptible cockerels resulted in severe clinical symptoms and mortality. The distribution of lesions in the digestive tract indicates that the isolated viruses are of the velogenic viscerotropic type.

  6. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    SciTech Connect

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  7. Alkylresorcinol Synthases Expressed in Sorghum bicolor Root Hairs Play an Essential Role in the Biosynthesis of the Allelopathic Benzoquinone Sorgoleone[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel; Rimando, Agnes M.; Clemente, Thomas E.; Schröder, Joachim; Dayan, Franck E.; Nanayakkara, N.P. Dhammika; Pan, Zhiqiang; Noonan, Brice P.; Fishbein, Mark; Abe, Ikuro; Duke, Stephen O.; Baerson, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is considered to be an allelopathic crop species, producing phytotoxins such as the lipid benzoquinone sorgoleone, which likely accounts for many of the allelopathic properties of Sorghum spp. Current evidence suggests that sorgoleone biosynthesis occurs exclusively in root hair cells and involves the production of an alkylresorcinolic intermediate (5-[(Z,Z)-8′,11′,14′-pentadecatrienyl]resorcinol) derived from an unusual 16:3Δ9,12,15 fatty acyl-CoA starter unit. This led to the suggestion of the involvement of one or more alkylresorcinol synthases (ARSs), type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) that produce 5-alkylresorcinols using medium to long-chain fatty acyl-CoA starter units via iterative condensations with malonyl-CoA. In an effort to characterize the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the pentadecyl resorcinol intermediate, a previously described expressed sequence tag database prepared from isolated S. bicolor (genotype BTx623) root hairs was first mined for all PKS-like sequences. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that three of these sequences were preferentially expressed in root hairs, two of which (designated ARS1 and ARS2) were found to encode ARS enzymes capable of accepting a variety of fatty acyl-CoA starter units in recombinant enzyme studies. Furthermore, RNA interference experiments directed against ARS1 and ARS2 resulted in the generation of multiple independent transformant events exhibiting dramatically reduced sorgoleone levels. Thus, both ARS1 and ARS2 are likely to participate in the biosynthesis of sorgoleone in planta. The sequences of ARS1 and ARS2 were also used to identify several rice (Oryza sativa) genes encoding ARSs, which are likely involved in the production of defense-related alkylresorcinols. PMID:20348430

  8. Elevated CO2 enhances photosynthetic efficiency, ion uptake and antioxidant activity of Gynura bicolor DC. grown in a porous-tube nutrient delivery system under simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Liu, H; Dong, C; Fu, Y; Liu, H

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that plants can grow under space conditions, however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interaction with other factors (e.g., CO2 , ion radiation, etc. Our aim was to test whether elevated CO2 could provide 'protection' to Gynura bicolor against the damaging effects of simulated microgravity (SM) on photosynthesis, ion uptake and antioxidant activity. As compared to G. bicolor grown in ambient CO2 with no SM (ACO2 ), growth and yield of the plants increased under elevated ambient CO2 with no SM (ECO2 ) and decreased under ACO2 +SM, whereas there was no significant effect on ECO2 +SM. Reductions in the content of Chl a, carotenoids and Chl a+b were 17.9%, 20.7% and 17.9% under ACO2 +SM, respectively, but under ECO2 there was a significant effect on all photosynthetic pigments except Chl b, compared to ACO2 . Photosynthesis was improved under ECO2 with SM and such an improvement was associated with improved water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. Furthermore, SM caused a reduction in ion absorption rate, except for Ca(2+) , while ECO2 increased the uptake rate. Finally, the activity of SOD, POD and the content of MDA and H2 O2 were enhanced under SM treatments and were highest in ACO2 +SM. In contrast, T-AOC activity and GSH content significantly declined in ACO2 +SM compared to other treatments. These results suggest that ACO2 is not sufficient to counteract SM impact, but the increase is usually caused by improvement in CO2 nutrition in ECO2 +SM in comparison with ACO2 +SM.

  9. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Jacobaea maritima (L.) Pelser & Meijden and Jacobaea maritima subsp. bicolor (Willd.) B. Nord. & Greuter (Asteraceae) collected wild in Croatia and Sicily, respectively.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Antonella; Venditti, Alessandro; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Formisano, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the chemical compositions of the essential oils from aerial parts (JmA) and radices (JmR) of Jacobaea maritima (L.) Pelser & Meijden, collected in Croatia, and of Jacobaea maritima subsp. bicolor (Willd.) B. Nord. & Greuter, collected in Sicily, were evaluated by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil from J. maritima, both in JmA and JmR, were pentacosane (15.7%), heptacosane (13.1%) and nonacosane (8.1%) whereas the essential oil from J. maritima subsp. bicolor was characterised by the presence of hexadecanoic acid (14.6%), caryophyllene oxide (9.3%) and hexahydrofarnesylacetone (6.5%). The comparison of the essential oil with other studied oils of the genus Jacobaea is discussed.

  10. K(+) accumulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the salt gland cells of Limonium bicolor accompanies increased rates of salt secretion under NaCl treatment using NanoSIMS.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhong-Tao; Deng, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Shi-Chao; Liang, Xue; Yuan, Fang; Hao, Jia-Long; Zhang, Jian-Chao; Sun, Shu-Feng; Wang, Bao-Shan

    2015-09-01

    Recretohalophytes with specialized salt-secreting structures (salt glands) can secrete excess salts from plant, while discriminating between Na(+) and K(+). K(+)/Na(+) ratio plays an important role in plant salt tolerance, but the distribution and role of K(+) in the salt gland cells is poorly understood. In this article, the in situ subcellular localization of K and Na in the salt gland of the recretohalophyte Limonium bicolor Kuntze is described. Samples were prepared by high-pressure freezing (HPF), freeze substitution (FS) and analyzed using NanoSIMS. The salt gland of L. bicolor consists of sixteen cells. Higher signal strength of Na(+) was located in the apoplast of salt gland cells. Compared with control, 200 mM NaCl treatment led to higher signal strength of K(+) and Na(+) in both cytoplasm and nucleus of salt gland cells although K(+)/Na(+) ratio in both cytoplasm and nucleus were slightly reduced by NaCl. Moreover, the rate of Na(+) secretion per salt gland of L. bicolor treated with 200 mM NaCl was five times that of controls. These results suggest that K(+) accumulation both in the cytoplasm and nucleus of salt gland cells under salinity may play an important role in salt secretion, although the exact mechanism is unknown.

  11. Do Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) attend to the head or body orientation of a perched avian predator?

    PubMed

    Kyle, Steven C; Freeberg, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Individuals of many prey species adjust their foraging behavior in response to the presence of a predator. Responding to predators takes time away from searching for and exploiting food resources. To balance between the need to avoid predation and the need to forage, individuals should attend to cues from predators that indicate risk. Two such cues might be the predator's head orientation (where it might be looking) and body orientation (where it might be moving). In the current study, flocks of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis, and tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, were presented with perched hawk and owl models. Predator model head and body orientation were independently manipulated relative to a feeding station birds were using. Chickadees and titmice avoided the feeders more when the heads of the models were facing toward the feeders compared to facing away from the feeders. Calling behavior of birds was also affected by head orientation of the models. No effect of predator body orientation on chickadee and titmouse behavior was detected. The results indicate that when chickadees and titmice detect a perched avian predator, they assess risk primarily based upon its head orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, using a novel statistical approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Read, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    A novel application of a commonly used statistical approach was used to examine differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener Patterns among locations and sample matrices in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed in western Massachusetts. USA. The most prevalent PCB congeners in tree swallow tissue samples from the Housatonic River watershed were Ballsmitter Zell numbers 153. 138 180, 187 149, 101, and 170. These congeners were seven of the eight most prevalent congeners in Aroclor (R) 1260, the PCB mixture that was the primary source of contamination in the Housatonic River system. Using paired-Euclidean distances and tolerance limits, it was demonstrated that conuener patterns in swallow tissues from sites on the main stem of the Housatonic River were more similar to one another than to two sites upstream of the contamination or from a nearby reference area. The congener patterns also differed between the reference area and the two upstream tributaries and between the two tributaries. These pattern differences were the same in both pipper (eggs or just hatched nestlings) and 12-day-old nestling samples. Lower-chlorinated congeners appeared to be metabolized in nestlings and pippers compared to diet. and metabolized more in pippers compared to nestlings. Euclidean distances and tolerance limits provide a simple and statistically valid method to compare PCB congener patterns among groups. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Assessment of Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumx P. glaucum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) trap crops for the management of Chilo partellus on maize.

    PubMed

    Hari, N S; Jindal, J

    2009-04-01

    Two Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumxP. glaucum) hybrids, namely PBN 83 and PBN 233 and one sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) variety, SL 44, were assessed for their potential role as a trap crop in the management of the stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on maize. Oviposition preference and larval survival and development were determined for different test plants under laboratory and screen house conditions. Further, field dispersal of C. partellus larvae was assessed between Napier millet and maize crops. Results from no-choice and dual-choice tests indicated that Napier millet hybrids were preferred for oviposition over maize by C. partellus moths. Sorghum was, however, not preferred over maize in this respect. Napier millet hybrids were poor larval hosts, and a rapid decline in larval numbers was noticed within the first five days after hatching and virtually no larvae survived to pupation. Leaf area eaten by the borer larvae was significantly less on these hybrids than on maize or sorghum. Plant damage was more severe in maize and sorghum than Napier millet hybrids. No appreciable larval shift was noticed from Napier millet hybrids to the adjoining maize crop. The evaluated Napier millet hybrids, therefore, had potential for use as trap crop in C. partellus management. Sorghum, however, did not hold promise in this respect.

  14. Exposure and effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Rosiu, C.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River northwest of Providence (RI, USA) in 2000 and 2001 were some of the highest ever reported in avian tissues. Mean concentrations in eggs ranged from 300 to >1,000 pg/g wet weight at the two most contaminated ponds, Allendale and Lyman. Mean egg concentrations at Greystone, the upstream reference pond, were 12 and 29 pg/g. Positive accumulation rates and concentrations in diet samples from 12-day-old nestlings indicated that the contamination was accumulated locally. Concentrations in diet of between 71 and 219 pg/g wet weight were more than 6 and 18 times higher than concentrations considered safe for birds (10?12 pg/g). Hatching success was negatively associated with concentration of TCDD in eggs. Only about half the eggs hatched at Allendale compared with >77% at Greystone. The national average for hatching success in successful nests is 85%. No other contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury, were present in any sample at concentrations known to affect avian reproduction. Three bioindicators, half-peak coefficient of geometric variation, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, and brain asymmetry were assessed relative to TCDD contamination.

  15. Genetic Divergence in Northern Benin Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Landraces as Revealed by Agromorphological Traits and Selection of Candidate Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dossou-Aminon, Innocent; Loko, Laura Yêyinou; Adjatin, Arlette; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B. K.; Dansi, Alexandre; Rakshit, Sujay; Cissé, Ndiaga; Patil, Jagannath Vishnu; Agbangla, Clément; Sanni, Ambaliou; Akoègninou, Akpovi; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72–10.57 tons/ha), panicle weight (15–215.95 g), days to 50% flowering (57–200 days), and plant height (153.27–636.5 cm) were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight (r = 0.901,  P = 0.000) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.247,  P = 0.000). UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering), high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha), and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm). The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin. PMID:25729773

  16. Organic amendments impact the availability of heavy metal(loid)s in mine-impacted soil and their phytoremediation by Penisitum americanum and Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Huang, Qing

    2016-02-01

    The amendment of contaminated soil with organic materials is considered to be an environmentally friendly technique to immobilize heavy metal(loid)s and minimize their subsequent bioaccumulation in plants. This study focuses on the effects of different amendment techniques, such as the use of activated carbons (granulated or powder) and farmyard manure at various application rates (2 and 5 %). These techniques were applied on heavy metal(loid)s such as Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, and Al that were present in mine-impacted soil and caused bioaccumulation in cultivated plants. The results showed that, compared with the control, almost all the techniques significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in the amended soil. The bioaccumulation of heavy metal(loid)s in Penisitum americanum and Sorghum bicolor was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced with all techniques, while Zn and Cd concentrations increased with the use of farmyard manure. Also compared with the control, plant growth was significantly decreased with the use of activated carbons, particularly with powder activated carbons, while farmyard manure (at 5 %) significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased plant growth. Among the amendment techniques, powdered activated carbons (at 5 %) were best at reducing the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in soil and plant accumulation. However, it negatively affected the growth of selected plant species.

  17. Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucoside Dhurrin in Seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and Partial Purification of the Enzyme System Involved 1

    PubMed Central

    Halkier, Barbara Ann; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    1989-01-01

    The cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin is rapidly synthesized in etiolated seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The dhurrin content of the seedlings increases sigmoidally with the germination time. Shoots of 10 centimeters height contain 850 nanomoles of dhurrin per shoot corresponding to 6% of the dry weight. The biosynthetic activity sharply rises upon germination and reaches a maximum level of 10 nanomoles dhurrin/(hour × shoot) after 48 hours when the shoots are 3 centimeters high. This maximum level is followed by a sharp decline in activity when germination time exceeds 65 hours. Dhurrin and the dhurrin-synthesizing enzyme system are primarily located in the upper part of the etiolated shoot where both are evenly distributed between the coleoptile, the primary leaves and the upper 0.5 centimeter of the first internode including the shoot apex. Dhurrin constitutes 30% of the dry weight of the upper 1.2 centimeter of 10 centimeter high shoots. The seed and root contain neither dhurrin nor the dhurrin-synthesizing enzyme system. The codistribution of dhurrin and the enzyme system throughout the seedling indicates that production and storage sites are located within the same cell. Purification of the dhurrin-synthesizing enzyme by gel filtration or by sucrose gradient centrifugations results in a tenfold increase in specific activity. Further purification is accompained by a decline in specific activity due to loss of essential components as demonstrated by reconstitution experiments. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666964

  18. Regioselective and stereospecific hydroxylation of GR24 by Sorghum bicolor and evaluation of germination inducing activities of hydroxylated GR24 stereoisomers toward seeds of Striga species.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kotomi; Ishiwa, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Hitomi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2015-09-15

    Bioconversion of GR24, the most widely used synthetic strigolactone (SL), by hydroponically grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and biological activities of hydroxylated GR24 stereoisomers were studied. Analysis of extracts and exudates of sorghum roots previously fed with a racemic and diastereomeric mixture of GR24, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), confirmed uptake of GR24 and suggested its conversion to mono-hydroxylated products. Two major GR24 metabolites, 7-hydroxy-GR24 and 8-hydroxy-GR24, were identified in the root extracts and exudates by direct comparison of chromatographic behavior with a series of synthetic mono-hydroxylated GR24 analogues. Separate feeding experiments with each of the GR24 stereoisomers revealed that the hydroxylated products were derived from 2'-epi-GR24, an evidence of sterical recognition of the GR24 molecule by sorghum. Trans-4-hydroxy-GR24 isomers derived from all GR24 stereoisomers were detected in the exudates as minor metabolites. The synthetic hydroxy-GR24 isomers induced germination of Striga hermonthica in decreasing order of C-8>C-7>C-6>C-5>C-4. In contrast the stereoisomers having the same configuration of orobanchol, irrespective of position of hydroxylation, induced germination of Striga gesnerioides. The results confirm previous reports on structural requirements of SLs and ascribe a critical role to hydroxylation, but not to the position of the hydroxyl group in the AB part of the molecule, in induction of S. gesnerioides seed germination.

  19. Genetic divergence in northern Benin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) landraces as revealed by agromorphological traits and selection of candidate genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dossou-Aminon, Innocent; Loko, Laura Yêyinou; Adjatin, Arlette; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B K; Dansi, Alexandre; Rakshit, Sujay; Cissé, Ndiaga; Patil, Jagannath Vishnu; Agbangla, Clément; Sanni, Ambaliou; Akoègninou, Akpovi; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72-10.57 tons/ha), panicle weight (15-215.95 g), days to 50% flowering (57-200 days), and plant height (153.27-636.5 cm) were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight (r = 0.901, P = 0.000) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.247, P = 0.000). UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering), high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha), and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm). The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin.

  20. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.A.; Koster, M.D.; Chek, A.A.; Hussell, D.J.T.; Jock, K.

    1995-03-01

    In 1991, the authors collected red-winged blackbird (Agelauis phoeniceus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings, and sediment samples from 2 wetland sites in the Great lakes and St. Lawrence River basin. They analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury and found that biota contained contaminant concentrations which were one to two orders of magnitude above those in sediments. Maximum concentrations of contaminants were found in Akwesasne, St. Lawrence river (PCBs = 18,558.8 ng/g in red-winged blackbird eggs, oxychlordane = 58.8/g and mirex = 40.1 ng/g in tree swallow eggs); Mud Creek, Lake Erie and Cootes Paradise. Despite the migratory habits of red-winged blackbirds and tree swallows, agreement among biota and sediment in geographic variation of contaminant concentrations supports the use of these animals as biomonitors of persistent chemicals. Although chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in red-winged blackbird eggs were significantly correlated with sediment contamination, the local nature of the tree swallow chick diet suggests that nestlings would be the best indicator of local contaminant trends.

  1. Analysis of the Optimal Duration of Behavioral Observations Based on an Automated Continuous Monitoring System in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor): Is One Hour Good Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Lendvai, Ádám Z.; Akçay, Çağlar; Ouyang, Jenny Q.; Dakin, Roslyn; Domalik, Alice D.; St John, Prianka S.; Stanback, Mark; Moore, Ignacio T.; Bonier, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior often rely on human observation, which introduces a number of limitations on sampling. Recent developments in automated logging of behaviors make it possible to circumvent some of these problems. Once verified for efficacy and accuracy, these automated systems can be used to determine optimal sampling regimes for behavioral studies. Here, we used a radio-frequency identification (RFID) system to quantify parental effort in a bi-parental songbird species: the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). We found that the accuracy of the RFID monitoring system was similar to that of video-recorded behavioral observations for quantifying parental visits. Using RFID monitoring, we also quantified the optimum duration of sampling periods for male and female parental effort by looking at the relationship between nest visit rates estimated from sampling periods with different durations and the total visit numbers for the day. The optimum sampling duration (the shortest observation time that explained the most variation in total daily visits per unit time) was 1h for both sexes. These results show that RFID and other automated technologies can be used to quantify behavior when human observation is constrained, and the information from these monitoring technologies can be useful for evaluating the efficacy of human observation methods. PMID:26559407

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, using a novel statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Read, Lorraine B

    2006-07-01

    A novel application of a commonly used statistical approach was used to examine differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns among locations and sample matrices in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed in western Massachusetts, USA. The most prevalent PCB congeners in tree swallow tissue samples from the Housatonic River watershed were Ballsmitter Zell numbers 153, 138, 180, 187, 149, 101, and 170. These congeners were seven of the eight most prevalent congeners in Aroclor 1260, the PCB mixture that was the primary source of contamination in the Housatonic River system. Using paired-Euclidean distances and tolerance limits, it was demonstrated that congener patterns in swallow tissues from sites on the main stem of the Housatonic River were more similar to one another than to two sites upstream of the contamination or from a nearby reference area. The congener patterns also differed between the reference area and the two upstream tributaries and between the two tributaries. These pattern differences were the same in both pipper (eggs or just hatched nestlings) and 12-day-old nestling samples. Lower-chlorinated congeners appeared to be metabolized in nestlings and pippers compared to diet, and metabolized more in pippers compared to nestlings. Euclidean distances and tolerance limits provide a simple and statistically valid method to compare PCB congener patterns among groups.

  3. Nuclear genes from Tx CMS maintainer lines are unable to maintain atp6 RNA editing in any anther cell-type in the sorghum bicolor A3 cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Howad, W; Tang, H V; Pring, D R; Kempken, F

    1999-08-01

    RNA editing and cytoplasmic male sterility are two important phenomena associated with higher plant mitochondria. We recently have shown a potential function of RNA editing in CMS development. The frequency of atp6 RNA editing was specifically reduced in anthers of male-sterile Sorghum bicolor, which increased in frequency in partially restored progeny. Here we present data that show that the loss of RNA editing capability also occurs in a second nuclear background that allows the expression of male sterility. Loss of RNA editing thus appears to be associated with unique combinations of male-sterile cytoplasm and non-restoring nuclear backgrounds. In addition, the reduction of RNA editing affects both gametophytic and sporophytic anther cell-types but not other floral tissues. An analysis of F(2) plants exhibiting different levels of fertility indicates a co-segregation of fertility restoration and atp6 RNA editing. The atp6 transcript abundance is similar in seedlings and anthers of male-sterile, partially restored, and male-fertile lines and thus is not associated with loss of atp6 RNA editing in anthers. A model for RNA editing and male sterility based on the data available is presented. Functional correlations with other CMS systems are also discussed.

  4. Effects of metals and sediment particle size on the species composition of the epifauna of Pinna bicolor near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Trevor J.; Young, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Pinna bicolor (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) were transplanted between four sites near a lead smelter. The species composition of their epifauna (sessile and mobile) was examined in relation to characteristics of both sediments and seston at the sites. Seventy-two taxa were distinguished in the epifaunal community. Substantial differences were found in the short-term sensitivity of some of the species to concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in sediments and to sediment particle size. The short-term sensitivity of many species to metals or sediment particle size explained their long-term distribution pattern. Twenty-three taxa were identified as significantly characterizing the faunal differences. Of these, eleven (four molluscs, four bryozoans, two barnacles and one ascidian) were affected by both sediment metal concentration and particle size, and eight (four molluscs, one bryozoan, one polychaete, one hydroid and one barnacle) were affected by metal contamination but not particle size. Of all fauna examined, the Bryozoa were the most metal-sensitive. Four species, Smittina raigii (Bryozoa), Galeolaria sp. 1 (Polychaeta), Epopella simplex (Cirripedia) and Monia ione (Pelecypoda) were identified by their short- and long-term sensitivity to metal contamination, and absence of sensitivity to sediment particle size, as suitable species for monitoring the effects of metal contamination on the epifauna. The implications of the results for toxicity-testing are discussed.

  5. PCBs and DDE in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from an estuarine PCB superfund site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayaraman, Saro; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise M.; Pruell, Richard J.; Rocha, Kenneth J.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Cantwell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess contaminant bioaccumulation from estuarine breeding grounds into these aerial insectivores. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated estuary, the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site (NBH, Massachusetts, USA), and a reference salt marsh, Fox Hill (FH, Jamestown, Rhode Island, USA). Sediments, eggs, and nestlings were compared on a ng g−1 wet weight basis for total PCBs and DDE (1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene), metabolite of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). NBH samples contained high concentrations of PCBs compared to FH for sediment (36,500 and 0.2), eggs (11,200 and 323), and nestlings (16,800 and 26). PCB homologue patterns linked tree swallow contamination to NBH sediment. NBH samples were also contaminated with DDE compared to FH for sediment (207 and 0.9) and nestlings (235 and 30) but not for eggs (526 and 488), suggesting both NBH and nonbreeding ground sources for DDE. The relationships between sediment and tree swallow egg and nestling PCBs were similar to those reported for freshwater sites. Like some highly contaminated freshwater sites, NBH PCB bioaccumulation had little apparent effect on reproductive success.

  6. Development of genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers using whole-genome shotgun sequences of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).

    PubMed

    Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Ando, Tsuyu; Mizubayashi, Tatsumi; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with a high degree of polymorphism contribute to the molecular dissection of agriculturally important traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). We designed 5599 non-redundant SSR markers, including regions flanking the SSRs, in whole-genome shotgun sequences of sorghum line ATx623. (AT/TA)n repeats constituted 26.1% of all SSRs, followed by (AG/TC)n at 20.5%, (AC/TG)n at 13.7% and (CG/GC)n at 11.8%. The chromosomal locations of 5012 SSR markers were determined by comparing the locations identified by means of electronic PCR with the predicted positions of 34 008 gene loci. Most SSR markers had a similar distribution to the gene loci. Among 970 markers validated by fragment analysis, 67.8% (658 of 970) markers successfully provided PCR amplification in sorghum line BTx623, with a mean polymorphism rate of 45.1% (297 of 658) for all SSR loci in combinations of 11 sorghum lines and one sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf) line. The product of 5012 and 0.678 suggests that approximately 3400 SSR markers could be used to detect SSR polymorphisms and that more than 1500 (45.1% of 3400) markers could reveal SSR polymorphisms in combinations of Sorghum lines. PMID:19363056

  7. New method for visualization of silica phytoliths in Sorghum bicolor roots by fluorescence microscopy revealed silicate concentration-dependent phytolith formation.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Milan; Martinka, Michal; Cigáň, Marek; Ravaszová, Frederika; Lux, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Silica phytoliths are microscopic structures of amorphous hydrated silica (SiO2 · nH2O) formed by specialized plant cells. Besides their biological roles, physical, chemical, and structural properties of biogenic silica offer a wide spectrum of applications in many fields of industry and technology. Therefore, processes involved in their formation recently become a very interesting topic to study. However, optical transparency and microscopic sizes of silica phytoliths do not allow their visualization and localization by classical light microscopy methods. Their observation thus requires phytolith isolation, technically difficult or lengthy sample preparation procedures, or a work with toxic chemicals. In this paper we are proposing a novel method for visualization of silica phytoliths in Sorghum bicolor root endodermal cells by fluorescence microscopy using alkali mounting solution (pH 12). This method offers an easy and quick preparation of the samples and high contrast imaging. Based on our results we can assume that the proposed fluorescent method for silica phytolith investigation allows observation of multiple samples in relatively short time period and thus might be applicable also for high-throughput screenings. Using this method we found out that after a 3-day cultivation of sorghum plants the minimal needed concentration of sodium silicate, limiting the formation of silica phytoliths in the root endodermis, was 25 µmol dm(-3). The positive correlation of sodium silicate concentration in the substrate with the phytolith diameter was also observed.

  8. Evidence for the involvement of hydraulic root or shoot adjustments as mechanisms underlying water deficit tolerance in two Sorghum bicolor genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sutka, Moira R; Manzur, Milena E; Vitali, Victoria A; Micheletto, Sandra; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-03-15

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is an ancient drought-tolerant crop with potential to sustain high yields even in those environments where water is limiting. Understanding the performance of this species in early phenological stages could be a useful tool for future yield improvement programs. The aim of this work was to study the response of Sorghum seedlings under water deficit conditions in two genotypes (RedLandB2 and IS9530) that are currently employed in Argentina. Morphological and physiological traits were studied to present an integrated analysis of the shoot and root responses. Although both genotypes initially developed a conserved and indistinguishable response in terms of drought tolerance parameters (growth rate, biomass reallocation, etc.), water regulation displayed different underlying strategies. To avoid water loss, both genotypes adjusted their plant hydraulic resistance at different levels: RedLandB2 regulated shoot resistance through stomata (isohydric strategy), while IS9530 controlled root resistance (anisohydric strategy). Moreover, only in IS9530 was root hydraulic conductance restricted in the presence of HgCl2, in agreement with water movement through cell-to-cell pathways and aquaporins activity. The different responses between genotypes suggest a distinct strategy at the seedling stage and add new information that should be considered when evaluating Sorghum phenotypic plasticity in changing environments. PMID:26803215

  9. Investigations of potential endocrine disruption and sexual dimorphism in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with a range of PCB body burdens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Bakst, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) elicit endocrine disruptive effects in many species, including birds. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied at eight sites, located in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York, with a range of PCB contamination to determine effects on gender and gonadal development of nestling offipring. Blood samples were collected from nestlings and genetic sex was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of sex chromatin in nucleated red blood cells. Gonads were excised and fixed for subsequent gross and histologic examination. PCB analyses of twelve-day old nestlings indicated that residue concentrations varied considerably among the eight sites. Of the 145 nestlings examined anatomically, the phenotypic sex ratio was 53% female and 47% male. No intersexes were observed. Histological observations revealed some variation such as numbers of spermatogonia and stages of follicular development among individuals. Genotypic evaluation of the 145 nestlings revealed complete concordance with phenotypic observations. Although there were significant differences in PCB exposure among study sites, there was no evidence of abnormal gonadal development or anatomical gender alteration in nestling Tree swallows.

  10. Differential expression of metallothioneins in response to heavy metals and their involvement in metal tolerance in the symbiotic basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Sudhakara; Prasanna, Lakshmi; Marmeisse, R; Fraissinet-Tachet, L

    2014-10-01

    Cysteine-rich peptides such as metallothioneins (MTs) are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in many eukaryotes. We report the characterization and expression of two MT genes, LbMT1 and LbMT2 from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor under metal stress conditions. LbMT1 and LbMT2 differ with respect to the length of the encoded peptides (58 versus 37 aa, respectively) and also by their expression patterns in response to metals. The expression levels of both LbMT1 and LbMT2 increased as a function of increased external Cu concentration, the expression levels for LbMT2 were always significantly higher compared with those of LbMT1. Only LbMT1, but not LbMT2, responded to Cd supply in the range of 25-100 µM while Zn did not affect the transcription of either LbMT1 or LbMT2. Both genes also responded to oxidative stress, but to a lesser extent compared to their responses to either Cu or Cd stress. Heterologous complementation assays in metal-sensitive yeast mutants indicated that both LbMT1 and LbMT2 encode peptides capable of conferring higher tolerance to both Cu and Cd. The present study identified LbMTs as potential determinants of the response of this mycorrhizal fungus to Cu and Cd stress.

  11. Do Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) attend to the head or body orientation of a perched avian predator?

    PubMed

    Kyle, Steven C; Freeberg, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Individuals of many prey species adjust their foraging behavior in response to the presence of a predator. Responding to predators takes time away from searching for and exploiting food resources. To balance between the need to avoid predation and the need to forage, individuals should attend to cues from predators that indicate risk. Two such cues might be the predator's head orientation (where it might be looking) and body orientation (where it might be moving). In the current study, flocks of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis, and tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, were presented with perched hawk and owl models. Predator model head and body orientation were independently manipulated relative to a feeding station birds were using. Chickadees and titmice avoided the feeders more when the heads of the models were facing toward the feeders compared to facing away from the feeders. Calling behavior of birds was also affected by head orientation of the models. No effect of predator body orientation on chickadee and titmouse behavior was detected. The results indicate that when chickadees and titmice detect a perched avian predator, they assess risk primarily based upon its head orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27195595

  12. Transfer of the cytochrome P450-dependent dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts for light-driven synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Karcher, Daniel; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Martens, Helle Juel; Ruf, Stephanie; Kroop, Xenia; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Pribil, Mathias; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bock, Ralph; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Plant chloroplasts are light-driven cell factories that have great potential to act as a chassis for metabolic engineering applications. Using plant chloroplasts, we demonstrate how photosynthetic reducing power can drive a metabolic pathway to synthesise a bio-active natural product. For this purpose, we stably engineered the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into the chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its synthesis from the amino acid tyrosine is catalysed by two membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble glucosyltransferase (UGT85B1), and is dependent on electron transfer from a P450 oxidoreductase. The entire pathway was introduced into the chloroplast by integrating CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 into a neutral site of the N. tabacum chloroplast genome. The two P450s and the UGT85B1 were functional when expressed in the chloroplasts and converted endogenous tyrosine into dhurrin using electrons derived directly from the photosynthetic electron transport chain, without the need for the presence of an NADPH-dependent P450 oxidoreductase. The dhurrin produced in the engineered plants amounted to 0.1–0.2% of leaf dry weight compared to 6% in sorghum. The results obtained pave the way for plant P450s involved in the synthesis of economically important compounds to be engineered into the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and demonstrate that their full catalytic cycle can be driven directly by photosynthesis-derived electrons. PMID:26969746

  13. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-09-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier.

  14. Concentrations and spatial patterns of organic contaminants in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at United States and binational Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 2010–2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, were sampled across the Great Lakes basin in 2010 through 2015 to provide a system-wide assessment of current exposure to organic contaminants. The results provide information identified as critical by regulators to assess the “bird or animal deformity or reproductive problems” beneficial use impairment. Eggs were collected from 69 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs), some with multiple sites, and 10 sites not listed as an AOC. Concentrations of organic contaminants in eggs were quantified and compared with background and reproductive effect thresholds. Approximately 30% of AOCs had geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at or below average background exposure (0.34 μg/g wet wt). Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was minimal, and only 3 of 27 AOCs and 1 non-AOC had geometric mean concentrations that exceeded background for tree swallows (96 ng/g wet wt). Concentrations of both PCBs and PBDEs were 10 to 20 times below the lower limit associated with impaired hatching success. In contrast, geometric mean concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) toxic equivalents (TEQs) at the Saginaw River and Bay AOC and Midland, Michigan, USA (a non-AOC site), exceeded the lower limit for hatching effects (181 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). The rest of the sites had geometric mean concentrations of PCDD-F TEQs below background levels (87 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). Other organic contaminants, including p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mirex, heptachlor, and chlordane, were at or below background or adverse effect concentrations.

  15. Evaluation of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] Reference Genes in Various Tissues and under Abiotic Stress Conditions for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Data Normalization.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Reddy, Palakolanu; Srinivas Reddy, Dumbala; Sivasakthi, Kaliamoorthy; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Vadez, Vincent; Sharma, Kiran K

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable gene expression data from qPCR depends on stable reference gene expression for potential gene functional analyses. In this study, 15 reference genes were selected and analyzed in various sample sets including abiotic stress treatments (salt, cold, water stress, heat, and abscisic acid) and tissues (leaves, roots, seedlings, panicle, and mature seeds). Statistical tools, including geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder, were utilized to assess the suitability of reference genes based on their stability rankings for various sample groups. For abiotic stress, PP2A and CYP were identified as the most stable genes. In contrast, EIF4α was the most stable in the tissue sample set, followed by PP2A; PP2A was the most stable in all the sample set, followed by EIF4α. GAPDH, and UBC1 were the least stably expressed in the tissue and all the sample sets. These results also indicated that the use of two candidate reference genes would be sufficient for the optimization of normalization studies. To further verify the suitability of these genes for use as reference genes, SbHSF5 and SbHSF13 gene expression levels were normalized using the most and least stable sorghum reference genes in root and water stressed-leaf tissues of five sorghum varieties. This is the first systematic study of the selection of the most stable reference genes for qPCR-related assays in Sorghum bicolor that will potentially benefit future gene expression studies in sorghum and other closely related species.

  16. Transfer of the cytochrome P450-dependent dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts for light-driven synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Karcher, Daniel; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Martens, Helle Juel; Ruf, Stephanie; Kroop, Xenia; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Pribil, Mathias; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bock, Ralph; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-04-01

    Plant chloroplasts are light-driven cell factories that have great potential to act as a chassis for metabolic engineering applications. Using plant chloroplasts, we demonstrate how photosynthetic reducing power can drive a metabolic pathway to synthesise a bio-active natural product. For this purpose, we stably engineered the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into the chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its synthesis from the amino acid tyrosine is catalysed by two membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble glucosyltransferase (UGT85B1), and is dependent on electron transfer from a P450 oxidoreductase. The entire pathway was introduced into the chloroplast by integrating CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 into a neutral site of the N. tabacum chloroplast genome. The two P450s and the UGT85B1 were functional when expressed in the chloroplasts and converted endogenous tyrosine into dhurrin using electrons derived directly from the photosynthetic electron transport chain, without the need for the presence of an NADPH-dependent P450 oxidoreductase. The dhurrin produced in the engineered plants amounted to 0.1-0.2% of leaf dry weight compared to 6% in sorghum. The results obtained pave the way for plant P450s involved in the synthesis of economically important compounds to be engineered into the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and demonstrate that their full catalytic cycle can be driven directly by photosynthesis-derived electrons. PMID:26969746

  17. Determination of the Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase and the Structural Impact of Three brown midrib12 Mutations1[W

    PubMed Central

    Green, Abigail R.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Barr, John T.; Jones, Jeffrey P.; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E.; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-01-01

    Using S-adenosyl-methionine as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the observed reduction in the lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio of three brown midrib12 mutants that carry COMT gene missense mutations, we determined the apo-form and S-adenosyl-methionine binary complex SbCOMT crystal structures and established the ternary complex structure with 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde by molecular modeling. These structures revealed many features shared with monocot ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and dicot alfalfa (Medicago sativa) COMTs. SbCOMT steady-state kinetic and calorimetric data suggest a random bi-bi mechanism. Based on our structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic results, we propose that the observed reactivity hierarchy among 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxycinnamyl (and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamyl) aldehyde, alcohol, and acid substrates arises from the ability of the aldehyde to stabilize the anionic intermediate that results from deprotonation of the 5-hydroxyl group by histidine-267. Additionally, despite the presence of other phenylpropanoid substrates in vivo, sinapaldehyde is the preferential product, as demonstrated by its low Km for 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. Unlike its acid and alcohol substrates, the aldehydes exhibit product inhibition, and we propose that this is due to nonproductive binding of the S-cis-form of the aldehydes inhibiting productive binding of the S-trans-form. The S-cis-aldehydes most likely act only as inhibitors, because the high rotational energy barrier around the 2-propenyl bond prevents S-trans-conversion, unlike alcohol substrates, whose low 2-propenyl bond rotational energy barrier enables rapid S-cis/S-trans-interconversion. PMID:24948836

  18. Evaluating cytochrome p450 in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) by monooxygenase activity and immunohistochemistry: Possible nonlethal assessment by skin immunohistochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Kutay, A.L.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Six-month-old lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were injected intraperitoneally with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) in corn oil or in vehicle alone. Liver samples were taken and stored at -80 degrees C until microsome preparation and monooxygenase assay. Skin samples were placed in buffered formalin for subsequent immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). Lesser scaup treated with BNF at 20 or 100 mg/kg body weight showed approximately 6- to 18-fold increases in four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase). No IHC response was observed for CYP1A in the skin of vehicle-injected ducks, whereas in the skin from BNF-treated ducks, the positive IHC response was of similar magnitude for both dose levels of BNF. Tree swallows injected with BNF at 100 mg/kg, but not at. 20 mg/kg, showed significant increases (approximately fivefold) in hepatic microsomal O-dealkylase activities. Cytochrome P4501A was undetectable by IHC response in skin from corn oil-treated swallows, but positive IHC responses were observed in the skin of one of five swallows at 20 mg/kg and four of five swallows at 100 mg/kg. Although these data do not allow construction of significant dose-response curves, the IHC responses for CYP1A in skin support the possible use of this nonlethal approach for biomonitoring contaminant exposure of birds. In addition, the CYP1A signal observed at the bases of emerging feathers suggest that these might provide less invasive sampling sites for IHC analysis of CYP1A.

  19. Subtle genetic connectivity between Mexican Caribbean and south-western Gulf of Mexico reefs: the case of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas Sánchez, C. A.; Pérez España, H.; Rivera Madrid, R.; Salas Monreal, D.; Arias González, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Efficient reef management strategies rely on detailed knowledge of biological exchange dynamics. At present, available connectivity information on Mexican Atlantic reefs is scarce, particularly concerning the Veracruz Reef System (VRS), which is located in the south-western Gulf of Mexico. This study used a hierarchically nested sampling design to evaluate the levels of genetic connectivity both within and between the Mexican Caribbean (MC) and VRS reef regions; all of the studied reefs are marine protected areas. Microsatellites were used as genetic markers, and bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits were used as a biological model. The paired genetic differentiation index between regions ( Fst (ENA) = 0.008) was lower than the global index ( Fst (ENA) = 0.027), suggesting that the stronger restrictions to gene flow may be located inside the regions rather than between them. The AMOVA results supported this explanation, as the differences were only non-significant between regions. In the VRS, Santiaguillo reef was associated with low genetic connectivity levels, whilst within the MC region the group formed by Chinchorro Bank and Cozumel exhibited a restriction to gene flow with Puerto Morelos, their northernmost reef. Despite their spatial separation, reefs from different regions (Puerto Morelos and Anegada de Adentro) showed the lowest, albeit significant, genetic difference, meaning that a subtle genetic connectivity exists at the regional scale. The detected composite flow pattern is likely related to self-recruitment and cohesive dispersal processes interacting with current patterns, which may favour genetic connections under specific conditions. The results presented here suggest that coral reef management in the Mexican Atlantic Ocean should consider large scale measures in addition to appropriate local actions to protect reef fish populations.

  20. Silicon-mediated changes in polyamine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid are involved in silicon-induced drought resistance in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lina; Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Wang, Wenhua; Cao, Dan; Deng, Xiping; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-07-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates drought stress has been widely reported, but the mechanism it underlying remains unclear. Here, morphologic and physiological changes were investigated in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings treated with silicon and exposed to PEG-simulated drought stress for seven days. Drought stress dramatically decreased growth parameters (biomass, root/shoot ratio, leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic rate), while silicon application reduced the drought-induced decreases in those parameters. Leaf relative water content and transpiration rate were maintained at high levels compared to those in seedlings without silicon. The soluble sugar contents were increased, but the proline contents and the osmotic potential were decreased, showing that osmotic adjustment did not contribute to the silicon induced-drought resistance. Furthermore, levels of both free and conjugated polyamines (PAs) levels, including putrescine, spermidine and spermine, were all found to be increased by silicon under drought stress both in leaf and root. Meanwhile, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, was markedly decreased by supplemental silicon. Several key PA synthesis genes were upregulated by silicon under drought stress. These results suggest that silicon improves sorghum drought resistance by mediating the balance of PAs and ethylene levels. In leaf, the increased PAs and decreased ACC help to retard leaf senescence. In root, the balance between PAs and ACC participates in the modulation of root plasticity, increases the root/shoot ratio, and contributes to an increase in water uptake. These results suggest that silicon increases drought resistance through regulating several important physiological processes in plants.

  1. Transcriptomic analysis comparing stay-green and senescent Sorghum bicolor lines identifies a role for proline biosynthesis in the stay-green trait.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stephanie M; Cummins, Ian; Lim, Fei Ling; Slabas, Antoni R; Knight, Marc R

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is an important cereal crop grown on the arid and semi-arid regions of >98 different countries. These regions are such that this crop is often subjected to low water conditions, which can compromise yields. Stay-green sorghum plants are able to retain green leaf area for longer under drought conditions and as such have higher yields than their senescent counterparts. However, the molecular and physiological basis of this drought tolerance is yet to be fully understood. Here, a transcriptomic approach was used to compare gene expression between stay-green (B35) and senescent (R16) sorghum varieties. Ontological analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts identified an enrichment of genes involved with the 'response to osmotic stress' Gene Ontology (GO) category. In particular, delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase 2 (P5CS2) was highly expressed in the stay-green line compared with the senescent line, and this high expression was correlated with higher proline levels. Comparisons of the differentially expressed genes with those that lie in known stay-green qualitative trait loci (QTLs) revealed that P5CS2 lies within the Stg1 QTL. Polymorphisms in known cis-elements were identified in the putative promoter region of P5CS2 and these could be responsible for the differences in the expression of this gene. This study provides greater insight into the stay-green trait in sorghum. This will be greatly beneficial not only to improve our understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms in sorghum, but also to facilitate the improvement of future sorghum cultivars by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  2. Evaluation of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] Reference Genes in Various Tissues and under Abiotic Stress Conditions for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Data Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar Reddy, Palakolanu; Srinivas Reddy, Dumbala; Sivasakthi, Kaliamoorthy; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Vadez, Vincent; Sharma, Kiran K.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable gene expression data from qPCR depends on stable reference gene expression for potential gene functional analyses. In this study, 15 reference genes were selected and analyzed in various sample sets including abiotic stress treatments (salt, cold, water stress, heat, and abscisic acid) and tissues (leaves, roots, seedlings, panicle, and mature seeds). Statistical tools, including geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder, were utilized to assess the suitability of reference genes based on their stability rankings for various sample groups. For abiotic stress, PP2A and CYP were identified as the most stable genes. In contrast, EIF4α was the most stable in the tissue sample set, followed by PP2A; PP2A was the most stable in all the sample set, followed by EIF4α. GAPDH, and UBC1 were the least stably expressed in the tissue and all the sample sets. These results also indicated that the use of two candidate reference genes would be sufficient for the optimization of normalization studies. To further verify the suitability of these genes for use as reference genes, SbHSF5 and SbHSF13 gene expression levels were normalized using the most and least stable sorghum reference genes in root and water stressed-leaf tissues of five sorghum varieties. This is the first systematic study of the selection of the most stable reference genes for qPCR-related assays in Sorghum bicolor that will potentially benefit future gene expression studies in sorghum and other closely related species. PMID:27200008

  3. The OCL3 promoter from Sorghum bicolor directs gene expression to abscission and nutrient-transfer zones at the bases of floral organs

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Krishna K.; Roche, Dominique J.; Clemente, Tom E.; Ge, Zhengxiang; Carman, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims During seed fill in cereals, nutrients are symplasmically unloaded to vascular parenchyma in ovules, but thereafter nutrient transport is less certain. In Zea mays, two mechanisms of nutrient passage through the chalaza and nucellus have been hypothesized, apoplasmic and symplasmic. In a recent study, nutrients first passed non-selectively to the chalazal apoplasm and were then selectively absorbed by the nucellus before being released to the endosperm apoplasm. This study reports that the promoter of OUTER CELL LAYER3 (PSbOCL3) from Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) directs gene expression to chalazal cells where the apoplasmic barrier is thought to form. The aims were to elucidate PSbOCL3 expression patterns in sorghum and relate them to processes of nutrient pathway development in kernels and to recognized functions of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) IV transcription factor family to which the promoter belongs. Methods PSbOCL3 was cloned and transformed into sorghum as a promoter–GUS (β-glucuronidase) construct. Plant tissues from control and transformed plants were then stained for GUS, and kernels were cleared and characterized using differential interference contrast microscopy. Key Results A symplasmic disconnect between the chalaza and nucellus during seed fill is inferred by the combination of two phenomena: differentiation of a distinct nucellar epidermis adjacent to the chalaza, and lysis of GUS-stained chalazal cells immediately proximal to the nucellar epidermis. Compression of the GUS-stained chalazal cells during kernel maturation produced the kernel abscission zone (closing layer). Conclusions The results suggest that the HD-Zip IV transcription factor SbOCL3 regulates kernel nutrition and abscission. The latter is consistent with evidence that members of this transcription factor group regulate silique abscission and dehiscence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, the findings suggest that processes of floral organ

  4. Targeted mapping of quantitative trait locus regions for rhizomatousness in chromosome SBI-01 and analysis of overwintering in a Sorghum bicolor × S. propinquum population.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Jacob D; Murray, Seth C; Burson, Byron L; Klein, Robert R; Jessup, Russell W

    2013-01-01

    While rhizome formation is intimately associated with perennialism and the derived benefit of sustainability, the introduction of this trait into temperate-zone adapted Sorghum cultivars requires precise knowledge of the genetics conditioning this trait in order to minimize the risk of weediness (e.g., Johnsongrass, S. halepense) while maximizing the productivity of perennial sorghum. As an incremental step towards dissecting the genetics of perennialism, a segregating F4 heterogeneous inbred family derived from a cross between S. bicolor and S. propinquum was phenotyped in both field and greenhouse environments for traits related to over-wintering and rhizome formation. An unseasonably cold winter in 2011 provided high selection pressure, and hence 74.8 % of the population did not survive. This severe selection pressure for cold tolerance allowed the resolution of two previously unidentified over-wintering quantitative trait locus (QTL) and more powerful correlation models than previously reported. Conflicting with previous reports, a maximum of 33 % of over-wintering variation could be explained by above-ground shoot formation from rhizomes; however, every over-wintering plant exhibited rhizome growth. Thus, while rhizome formation is required for over-wintering, other factors also determine survival in this interspecific population. The fine mapping of a previously reported rhizome QTL on sorghum chromosome SBI-01 was conducted by targeting this genomic region with additional simple sequence repeat markers. Fine mapping reduced the 2-LOD rhizome QTL interval from ~59 to ~14.5 Mb, which represents a 75 % reduction in physical distance and a 53 % reduction in the number of putative genes in the locus. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-012-9778-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis comparing stay-green and senescent Sorghum bicolor lines identifies a role for proline biosynthesis in the stay-green trait

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephanie M.; Cummins, Ian; Lim, Fei Ling; Slabas, Antoni R.; Knight, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is an important cereal crop grown on the arid and semi-arid regions of >98 different countries. These regions are such that this crop is often subjected to low water conditions, which can compromise yields. Stay-green sorghum plants are able to retain green leaf area for longer under drought conditions and as such have higher yields than their senescent counterparts. However, the molecular and physiological basis of this drought tolerance is yet to be fully understood. Here, a transcriptomic approach was used to compare gene expression between stay-green (B35) and senescent (R16) sorghum varieties. Ontological analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts identified an enrichment of genes involved with the ‘response to osmotic stress’ Gene Ontology (GO) category. In particular, delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase 2 (P5CS2) was highly expressed in the stay-green line compared with the senescent line, and this high expression was correlated with higher proline levels. Comparisons of the differentially expressed genes with those that lie in known stay-green qualitative trait loci (QTLs) revealed that P5CS2 lies within the Stg1 QTL. Polymorphisms in known cis-elements were identified in the putative promoter region of P5CS2 and these could be responsible for the differences in the expression of this gene. This study provides greater insight into the stay-green trait in sorghum. This will be greatly beneficial not only to improve our understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms in sorghum, but also to facilitate the improvement of future sorghum cultivars by marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:26320239

  6. The UDP-glucose:p-hydroxymandelonitrile-O-glucosyltransferase that catalyzes the last step in synthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor. Isolation, cloning, heterologous expression, and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Jones, P R; Moller, B L; Hoj, P B

    1999-12-10

    The final step in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor is the transformation of the labile cyanohydrin into a stable storage form by O-glucosylation of (S)-p-hydroxymandelonitrile at the cyanohydrin function. The UDP-glucose:p-hydroxymandelonitrile-O-glucosyltransferase was isolated from etiolated seedlings of S. bicolor employing Reactive Yellow 3 chromatography with UDP-glucose elution as the critical step. Amino acid sequencing allowed the cloning of a full-length cDNA encoding the glucosyltransferase. Among the few characterized glucosyltransferases, the deduced translation product showed highest overall identity to Zea mays flavonoid-glucosyltransferase (Bz-Mc-2 allele). The substrate specificity of the enzyme was established using isolated recombinant protein. Compared with endogenous p-hydroxymandelonitrile, mandelonitrile, benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid were utilized at maximum rates of 78, 13, and 4%, respectively. Surprisingly, the monoterpenoid geraniol was glucosylated at a maximum rate of 11% compared with p-hydroxymandelonitrile. The picture that is emerging regarding plant glucosyltransferase substrate specificity is one of limited but extended plasticity toward metabolites of related structure. This in turn ensures that a relatively high, but finite, number of glucosyltransferases can give rise to the large number of glucosides found in plants.

  7. Preliminary results of laboratory toxicity tests with the mayfly, Isonychia bicolor (Ephemeroptera: Isonychiidae) for development as a standard test organism for evaluating streams in the Appalachian coalfields of Virginia and West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi Shontia; Currie, Rebecca J; Cherry, Donald S

    2010-10-01

    Selecting the most appropriate test species for sediment and water column assays has been a primary goal for ecotoxicologists. Standard test organisms and established test guidelines exist, but the USEPA-recommended species may not be the most sensitive organisms to anthropogenic inputs. This paper describes preliminary results of toxicity tests with the mayfly, Isonychia bicolor (Ephemeroptera). Results suggested that Isonychia were moderately sensitive to NaCl after 96 h with an average LC(50) value of 3.10 g NaCl per liter. This value decreased after 7 days of exposure, resulting in a mean LC(50) value of 1.73 g NaCl per liter. When exposed to a coal-mine-processed effluent, Isonychia generated LC(50) values that ranged from 13% to 39% effluent. I. bicolor were more sensitive to the coal processing effluent than Ceriodaphnia dubia with conductivity lowest observable effects concentration (LOEC) values for mayfly survivorship that ranged from 1,508 to 4,101 microS/cm, while LOEC values for C. dubia reproduction ranged from 2,132 to 4,240 microS/cm.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and multiple stressors influence the reproduction of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting at wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Tiffany T; Letcher, Robert J; Thomas, Philippe; Fernie, Kim J

    2014-02-15

    Reproductive success of birds is influenced by maternal factors, ambient temperatures, predation, food supply, and/or exposure to environmental contaminants e.g., flame retardants (FRs). Reproduction of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) was compared among waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and a reference reservoir in Ontario, Canada (2007-2010), to determine the importance of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) FRs within a complex contaminant cocktail, relative to natural and biological factors known to influence avian reproduction. The birds primarily consumed insects emerging from the reference reservoir and WWTP outflows, where effluent mixed with receiving waters. FR egg concentrations were dominated by 5 PBDE congeners (∑5PBDEs): 2,2'.4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2'4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), with much lower concentrations of decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and novel FRs. Although higher than ∑5PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) egg concentrations were unlikely to affect the swallows' reproduction. Clutch size and timing, fledging, breeding success, and predation, varied significantly among sites, generally being poorer at WWTP1 and better at WWTP2. The early reproductive stages were sensitive to some FRs at measured concentrations. The ∑5PBDEs, maternal age, and minimum ambient temperatures predicted onset of egg laying in the most parsimonious statistical model, and there were positive relationships between egg size and HBCDD or BDE-209 concentrations. However, there were no significant correlations with any reproductive measures, individual BDE congeners or low concentrations of novel FRs, in this first such report for novel FRs and wild birds. Tree swallows are passerines, and passerines may differ from birds of prey

  9. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    SciTech Connect

    P Yu

    2011-12-31

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at {approx}1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure {beta}-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH{sub 3} anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH{sub 2} anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH{sub 3} symmetric) and 2848 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 2} asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH{sub 3} to CH{sub 2} ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and multiple stressors influence the reproduction of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting at wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Tiffany T; Letcher, Robert J; Thomas, Philippe; Fernie, Kim J

    2014-02-15

    Reproductive success of birds is influenced by maternal factors, ambient temperatures, predation, food supply, and/or exposure to environmental contaminants e.g., flame retardants (FRs). Reproduction of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) was compared among waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and a reference reservoir in Ontario, Canada (2007-2010), to determine the importance of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) FRs within a complex contaminant cocktail, relative to natural and biological factors known to influence avian reproduction. The birds primarily consumed insects emerging from the reference reservoir and WWTP outflows, where effluent mixed with receiving waters. FR egg concentrations were dominated by 5 PBDE congeners (∑5PBDEs): 2,2'.4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2'4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), with much lower concentrations of decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and novel FRs. Although higher than ∑5PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) egg concentrations were unlikely to affect the swallows' reproduction. Clutch size and timing, fledging, breeding success, and predation, varied significantly among sites, generally being poorer at WWTP1 and better at WWTP2. The early reproductive stages were sensitive to some FRs at measured concentrations. The ∑5PBDEs, maternal age, and minimum ambient temperatures predicted onset of egg laying in the most parsimonious statistical model, and there were positive relationships between egg size and HBCDD or BDE-209 concentrations. However, there were no significant correlations with any reproductive measures, individual BDE congeners or low concentrations of novel FRs, in this first such report for novel FRs and wild birds. Tree swallows are passerines, and passerines may differ from birds of prey

  11. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. II. Sex and thyroid hormone concentrations and testes development.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Van Der Kraak, G J; Ng, P; Smits, J E; Hontela, A

    1998-12-25

    To investigate the effects of pesticides on wild birds, sex (17beta-estradiol; testosterone) and thyroid (triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentrations, body mass, and testes mass were measured and the development of testes was evaluated in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in four sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, in 1995-1996. In orchards, birds were exposed to asmany as 11 individual spray events and five sprays of mixtures of chemicals. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, lead, and arsenic concentrations were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE concentrations, which ranged from 0.36 to 2.23 microg/g wet weight in eggs. These persistent compounds were not correlated with any endocrine response measured in tree swallows. In 16-d-old male tree swallow chicks, body mass and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), testosterone, and T3 in plasma showed no significant differences between sprayed and nonsprayed groups and among sites within those groups. However, T3 concentrations were slightly elevated in the sprayed group compared to the nonsprayed group, and there was a significant and positive correlation between T3 and the number of mixtures of sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 16-d-old female chicks, there were no significant differences among spray treatments or sites and no correlations with spray exposure for testosterone, estradiol, or T3 in plasma. Body mass was correlated positively with T3 and negatively with estradiol but showed no differences among spray exposure groups or sites. Histology of testes of 16-d-old male chicks indicated there were no significant differences among sprayed and nonsprayed birds in testes mass, area, or diameter, or the presence of Leydig cells in the interstitium, the distribution of the Sertoli cells, or the occurrence of heterophils in the testicular interstitium. For the percentage of spermatogonia present on

  12. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  13. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  14. In vitro binding of Sorghum bicolor transcription factors ABI4 and ABI5 to a conserved region of a GA 2-OXIDASE promoter: possible role of this interaction in the expression of seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Cantoro, Renata; Crocco, Carlos Daniel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis; Rodríguez, María Verónica

    2013-12-01

    The precise adjustment of the timing of dormancy release according to final grain usage is still a challenge for many cereal crops. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] shows wide intraspecific variability in dormancy level and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Both embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism play an important role in the expression of dormancy of the developing sorghum grain. In previous works, it was shown that, simultaneously with a greater embryo sensitivity to ABA and higher expression of SbABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (SbABI4) and SbABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (SbABI5), dormant grains accumulate less active GA4 due to a more active GA catabolism. In this work, it is demonstrated that the ABA signalling components SbABI4 and SbABI5 interact in vitro with a fragment of the SbGA 2-OXIDASE 3 (SbGA2ox3) promoter containing an ABA-responsive complex (ABRC). Both transcription factors were able to bind the promoter, although not simultaneously, suggesting that they might compete for the same cis-acting regulatory sequences. A biological role for these interactions in the expression of dormancy of sorghum grains is proposed: either SbABI4 and/or SbABI5 activate transcription of the SbGA2ox3 gene in vivo and promote SbGA2ox3 protein accumulation; this would result in active degradation of GA4, thus preventing germination of dormant grains. A comparative analysis of the 5'-regulatory region of GA2oxs from both monocots and dicots is also presented; conservation of the ABRC in closely related GA2oxs from Brachypodium distachyon and rice suggest that these species might share the same regulatory mechanism as proposed for grain sorghum.

  15. New sericothripine thrips of South America (Thysanoptera, Thripidae, Neohydatothrips)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-seven species of Hydatothrips and Neohydatothrips occurring in South America are reviewed. Five new species of Neohydatothrips are described. An additional species from Asia, Neohydatothrips samayunkur Kudo, a pest of marigolds and various crops, has been transported via commerce into Europe,...

  16. Species-richness in Neotropical Sericothripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Lima, Élison Fabrício B; Mound, Laurence A

    2016-09-08

    Two of the three recognized genera of Sericothripinae are known from the Neotropics, and 14 new species from this area are here described in this subfamily. Illustrated keys are provided to females of seven species of Hydatothrips, and 41 species of Neohydatothrips, mainly from Brazil but including all recorded species south of the border between Mexico and USA. Plant species on which breeding has been recorded are indicated where possible, notes are provided on the few species of economic importance, and a key is appended to second instar larvae of seven species. Neohydatothrips burungae (Hood) stat. rev. and N. aztecus Johansen stat. rev. are recalled from synonymy with Neohydatothrips signifer (Priesner), and N. denigratus (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized with N. burungae. Hydatothrips williamsi (Hood) comb. n. is relocated from Neohydatothrips, and as this produces a homonym in the genus, Hydatothrips tareei nom. nov. is proposed for Hydatothrips williamsi Mound & Tree from Australia.

  17. Species-richness in Neotropical Sericothripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Lima, Élison Fabrício B; Mound, Laurence A

    2016-01-01

    Two of the three recognized genera of Sericothripinae are known from the Neotropics, and 14 new species from this area are here described in this subfamily. Illustrated keys are provided to females of seven species of Hydatothrips, and 41 species of Neohydatothrips, mainly from Brazil but including all recorded species south of the border between Mexico and USA. Plant species on which breeding has been recorded are indicated where possible, notes are provided on the few species of economic importance, and a key is appended to second instar larvae of seven species. Neohydatothrips burungae (Hood) stat. rev. and N. aztecus Johansen stat. rev. are recalled from synonymy with Neohydatothrips signifer (Priesner), and N. denigratus (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized with N. burungae. Hydatothrips williamsi (Hood) comb. n. is relocated from Neohydatothrips, and as this produces a homonym in the genus, Hydatothrips tareei nom. nov. is proposed for Hydatothrips williamsi Mound & Tree from Australia. PMID:27615957

  18. A new species of Danothrips from Southwestern China (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yajin; Xie, Yonghui; Zhang, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    Danothrips salicis sp. n. is described from young leaves of Salix sp. in Southwestern China. This species is similar to D. moundi, D. theifolii and D. trifasciatus, but can be distinguished by the colour of the fore wing, the median longitudinal split on tergite X of females, and in males by the situation of the median short thorn-like setae on tergite IX. PMID:27615912

  19. First description of the male of Yaobinthrips yangtzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yajin; Xie, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    The monobasic Thripinae genus Yaobinthrips has been known only from females, and the objective here is to provide a description of the male. A member of the Frankliniella genus-group, the type species, yangtzei Zhang et al. (2010) was described from specimens taken in Sichuan Province of Southwestern China from the flowers of Dalbergia yunnanensis [Fabaceae]. In April, 2015 a sample of both sexes of this thrips species was taken from the white flowers of the same plant species, but in Yunnan Province. This plant is actually widespread in southwestern China in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou Provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Provinces, growing at an elevation ranging from 1400 to 2200 meters, and flowering from April to May (Li et al. 2007). PMID:27395534

  20. Management of winter weeds affects Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dispersal.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kennedy, G G

    2012-04-01

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) naturally disperses from winter weeds to crops in spring, causing direct and indirect damage. Field preparation before planting includes use of herbicides or cultivation to kill unwanted vegetation, which adversely affects F. fusca host plants and potentially influences F. fusca dispersal. Common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.), infested with F. fusca, was used as a model to study effects of timing and type of vegetation management on adult dispersal. Infested weeds were caged and F. fusca weekly dispersal was monitored using sticky traps. Weed management treatments performed at an early (14 April-11 May) or late (2 wk after early treatment) date consisted of glyphosate, paraquat, disking, hoeing, or untreated control. Late glyphosate and hoeing treatments resulted in cumulative dispersal statistically similar to or greater than from control plots. Compared with the control, significantly more F. fusca dispersed from the glyphosate and hoeing plots during the 3 wk after treatment. More thrips dispersed from the late paraquat treatment 1 wk post-application than from the control. Dispersal from the disked treatment and early paraquat treatment was similar to that of the control 1- to 3-wk post-treatment. Early treatments resulted in significantly smaller cumulative dispersal than the control in all but one instance. Late disking and paraquat treatments resulted in cumulative F. fusca captures that were statistically similar or less than that in the control. Winter weed management type and timing affect F. fusca dispersal magnitude and duration.

  1. [Taxonomic revision of the Haplothrips-Karnyothrips group (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)].

    PubMed

    Retana-Salazar, Axel P; Soto-Rodríguez, Gerardo A

    2007-06-01

    The generic group ("ensemble") Haplothrips-Karnyothrips is reviewed, following the most recently published criteria for distinguishing generic characters. We establish a new diagnosis for each genus. A review of a Central American collection is included and a new genus of Phlaeothripidae is described from the Central Pacific of Costa Rica from specimens collected on Cyperaceae flowers during the dry season. The genus can be distinguished by widely separated maxillary stylets, absent maxillary bridge, pelta shape and the setae B1, which measures two thirds of the tube length. We include a key based on characters of phylogenetic importance. PMID:19069772

  2. The occurrence and composition of thrips (Thysanoptera) species on leek.

    PubMed

    Pobozniak, M; Bujak, P; Rataj, S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the population density and species composition of thrips infesting crops of leek in south Poland. The flight activity of thrips was monitored using blue sticky traps and plant samples were taken to record the number of adult and larvae of thrips on leek. In 2004, the thrips were caught into blue sticky traps from the middle of June to the end of second decade of October. The first peak flight activity was noticed on the beginning of the third decade of July. The next peak flight activity was recorded in the middle and at the end of August. In 2004 the rapid growth of the numerousness of adult thrips was recorded at the third decade of September. The evident growth of the number of the adult thrips was continued until the third decade of October. Thrips larvae were observed from the second decade of September to the third decade of October. In 2005 the highest number of adult thrips on both cultivars was noticed at the third decade of July and this corresponded to a period of intensive flight activity. 2004, the most numerous species was Thrips tabaci Lindeman, which amounted to the 98.5% of the total number of collected thrips. The second most numerous species was Frankliniella intonsa Trybom (1.1%). In 2005, the most dominant was Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) (78.3%). The percentage participation of Thrips tabaci Lindeman was 9.8%.

  3. The occurrence and species composition of thrips (Thysanoptera) on onion.

    PubMed

    Pobozniak, Maria; Palacz, Anna; Rataj, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the population density and species composition of thrips infesting crops of onion in South Poland. The flight activity of thrips was monitored using blue sticky traps and plant samples were taken to record the number of adult and Larvae of thrips on onion. In 2004 the thrips were caught into blue sticky traps from the start of June to the end of the first decade of September. The peak flight activity was noticed in the middle of July. In 2004 the significant growth of the numerousness of adult thrips on onion grown from seeds was recorded in the middle and in the third decade of August, whereas on onion grown from sets in the first decade of August. Thrips larvae were not observed during the whole vegetation season. In 2005, the thrips were caught into blue sticky traps form the half of June to the first decade of September. The peak flight activity was noticed in the first decade of August. In 2005 the rapid growth of the numerousness of adult thrips on onion grown from seeds was recorded in the third decade of July. The highest number of adult thrips on onion grown from sets was noticed at the beginning of August. Thrips larvae were observed on onion grown from seeds in the third decade of July and at the end of the second decade of August. In both years of observations the most numerous species was Frankliniella intonsa Tryb. The second most numerous species was Thrips tabaci Lindeman. In 2004, the most numerous species was predacious Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall.

  4. An Evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Performance on Different Plant Leaves Based on Life History Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. PMID:25673049

  5. An evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) performance on different plant leaves based on life history characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc.

  6. Ultrasound (US) enhances the hydration of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grains.

    PubMed

    Patero, Tatiane; Augusto, Pedro E D

    2015-03-01

    The water activity (Aw) reduction technique is widely used to preserve different food products, which are further rehydrated in order to be processed or consumed. The food hydration is time-consuming and, thus, a limiting unit operation during process. Therefore, there is an ongoing need to enhance the mass transfer phenomena during processing. The ultrasound technology (US) has been widely studied to improve different mass transfer processes of food. However, there is a lack of knowledge in relation to its application in the hydration process. This work evaluated the hydration process of sorghum seeds, comparing the effect of heating and ultrasound application in order to improve the hydration rate. The sorghum hydration kinetic was described by Peleg Model, whose parameters were evaluated for both processes. The US increased both water uptake rate (related to Peleg k₁ parameter) and equilibrium moisture content (related to Peleg k₂ parameter). The time for reach 90% of the control process equilibrium moisture content was 40% lower when the US was applied. The effect of processing at 53 °C was higher than applying US at the evaluated power, and its limitations were discussed. The effect of combining both ultrasound and heating application was negligible when it was compared to the heated process. The obtained results highlighted that the US technology can be successfully used to optimize the hydration process of grains with directly industrial application.

  7. Phytochemical concentrations and biological activities of Sorghum bicolor alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Pangloli, Philipus; Jones, Lynsey; McClure, Angela; Patel, Anjali

    2016-08-10

    Sorghum is an important cereal with reported health benefits. The objectives of this study were to measure the biological activities of alcoholic extracts of ten sorghum varieties and to determine the association between the color of the extracts and their biological activities. Variation on concentrations of bioactives among sorghum varieties was observed with ethanolic extracts giving higher concentrations than methanolic extracts. The color of the extracts significantly correlated with the concentrations of bioactives and with nitric oxide scavenging activity. Freeze-dried ethanol extract is more potent than freeze-dried methanol extract and caused cytotoxicity to A27801AP and PTX-10 OVCA with ED50 values of 0.69 and 1.29 mg mL(-1), respectively. Pre-treatment of OVCA with ethanol extract led to chemosensitization to paclitaxel and the proliferation and colony formation of OVCA cells were reduced by 14.7 to 44.6% and 36.4 to 40.1%, respectively. Sorghum is a potential source of colorants with health promoting properties. This is the first report on the capability of sorghum alcoholic extracts to cause cytotoxicity and chemosensitize ovarian cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27406291

  8. Sarcoptic mange in a wild swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor).

    PubMed

    Holz, P H; Orbell, G M B; Beveridge, I

    2011-11-01

    A wild adult male swamp wallaby from Victoria was found to be infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions were confined predominantly to the head and shoulders. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in a swamp wallaby. PMID:22008126

  9. Molecular Breeding of Sorghum bicolor, A Novel Energy Crop.

    PubMed

    Ordonio, Reynante; Ito, Yusuke; Morinaka, Yoichi; Sazuka, Takashi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Currently, molecular breeding is regarded as an important tool for the improvement of many crop species. However, in sorghum, recently heralded as an important bioenergy crop, progress in this field has been relatively slow and limited. In this review, we present existing efforts targeted at genetic characterization of sorghum mutants. We also comprehensively review the different attempts made toward the isolation of genes involved in agronomically important traits, including the dissection of some sorghum quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We also explore the current status of the use of transgenic techniques in sorghum, which should be crucial for advancing sorghum molecular breeding. Through this report, we provide a useful benchmark to help assess how much more sorghum genomics and molecular breeding could be improved.

  10. Silicification in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars with different drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lux, Alexander; Luxová, Miroslava; Hattori, Taiichiro; Inanaga, Shinobu; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2002-05-01

    Sorghum belongs to a group of economically important, silicon accumulating plants. X-ray microanalysis coupled with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of fresh root endodermal and leaf epidermal samples confirms histological and cultivar specificity of silicification. In sorghum roots, silicon is accumulated mostly in endodermal cells. Specialized silica aggregates are formed predominantly in a single row in the form of wall outgrowths on the inner tangential endodermal walls. The density of silica aggregates per square mm of inner tangential endodermal cell wall is around 2700 and there is no significant difference in the cultivars with different content of silicon in roots. In the leaf epidermis, silicon deposits were present in the outer walls of all cells, with the highest concentration in specialized idioblasts termed 'silica cells'. These cells are dumb-bell shaped in sorghum. In both the root endodermis and leaf epidermis, silicification was higher in a drought tolerant cultivar Gadambalia compared with drought sensitive cultivar Tabat. Silicon content per dry mass was higher in leaves than in roots in both cultivars. The values for cv. Gadambalia in roots and leaves are 3.5 and 4.1% Si, respectively, and for cv. Tabat 2.2 and 3.3%. However, based on X-ray microanalysis the amount of Si deposited in endodermal cell walls in drought tolerant cultivar (unlike the drought susceptible cultivar) is higher than that deposited in the leaf epidermis. The high root endodermal silicification might be related to a higher drought resistance.

  11. Biology of Thripinema nicklewoodi (Tylenchida), an Obligate Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera) Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Judy M.; Heinz, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis, a serious pest of agricultural crops, is difficult to manage because chemical and biological control measures frequently fail to affect F. occidentalis in their preferred microhabitats. Parasitism by the host-specific, entomopathogenic nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi may provide a much-needed alternative to current control strategies. Infection does not cause death of the host; rather, the result is sterilization that leads to suppression of F. occidentalis populations. We describe a simple rearing method and the results from studies aimed at providing details on its biology-both essential first steps to examining its biological control potential. All F. occidentalis life stages are susceptible to infection, but to varying degrees (most susceptible to least susceptible): female pupae, second instar larvae, first instar larvae, male pupae, adult females, adult males. Nematodes emerge from female and male F. occidentalis for approximately 15 and 9 days, with approximately 14 and 7 nematodes emerging per day, respectively. Females and males are short-lived outside of the host, with mean survival rates ranging between 7 and 86 hours. Transmission does not occur in the soil but rather on or within plant structures that are preferred microhabitats visited by F. occidentalis. Results from a dose-response study suggest that augmentative applications of T. nicklewoodi may be useful to generate increased infection rates and subsequent suppression of F. occidentalis populations. PMID:19265952

  12. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Tropea Garzia, Giovanna; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  13. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Garzia, Giovanna Tropea; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  14. Temporal and spatial distribution of an invasive thrips species Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersion of a new invasive thrips species, chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, was studied on three hosts, i.e., cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in the greenhouse and under field conditions in Homestead, Florida. The study of horizo...

  15. Sequential sampling plans for western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on greenhouse cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Wang, K; Shipp, J L

    2001-04-01

    The development of cost-effective and reliable sampling programs for the management of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on greenhouse cucumbers is important for getting growers to adopt economic injury levels and economic thresholds. The objectives of this study were to develop two sequential sampling plans. A fixed-precision sequential sampling plan was designed for estimating F. occidentalis adult density at a fixed-precision level on cucumber flowers. Also, a sequential sampling plan for classifying thrips population levels as below or above economic thresholds was developed to assist in decision making for the timing of pesticide applications. Both sequential sampling plans were validated using a resampling simulation technique on nine independent data sets ranging in density from 1.25 to 12.95 adults per flower. With the fixed-precision sampling plan, average means obtained in 100 repeated simulation runs were within the 95% CI of the estimated mean for all data sets. Appropriate levels of precision for the different population densities were recommended based on the simulation results. With sequential sampling for classifying the population levels of thrips in terms of an economic threshold, it has the advantage of requiring smaller sample sizes to determine the population status when the population densities differ greatly from the critical density (i.e., economic threshold). However, this plan needs a great number of samples when population density is close to the critical density. In this case, use of a combination of both sampling plans is recommended. PMID:11332857

  16. The first micropterous species of the southern European genus Kakothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Marullo, Rita; Ravazzi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The European genus Kakothrips Williams includes seven species (ThripsWiki 2015) that are known to be flower-living mainly on Fabaceae plants. The genus is recorded across Europe from Morocco to England, and eastwards to Syria and Iran (zur Strassen 2003). Only K. pisivorus (Westwood) is known from northern Europe, and this is the senior synonym of the type species K. robustus (Uzel) (Collins 2010). Closely related to Frankliniella, the species share with the members of that genus the character states of ctenidia present on tergite VIII anterolateral to the spiracles, and a complete row of setae on both longitudinal veins of the fore wing. Also, the pronotal anteromarginal and anteroangular setae are half as long as the posteroangular setae. The character states of the genus Kakothrips include: ocellar setae pair III arising between posterior ocelli; fore tarsus with an apical tooth, laterally; pronotal posterior margin without a pair of small setae between the major posteromarginal setae. In some of the species the males bear a pair of stout tubercles laterally on tergite VIII, and sternites III-VI or III-VII of males have a transverse pore plate. All the described species are known only from macropterae, and they are similar to each other in structure. A few distinguishing characters include colour of body, fore wings and antennal segments; the shape, length and position of the fore tarsal tooth; size of body, antennal segments, and major setae; and in males, shape of sternal pore plates, and length of setae on tergite IX. PMID:27395885

  17. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the globally invasive plant pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the highest profile thrips species to invade the U.S. in the last ten years is the chilli thrips. This thrips is difficult to identify due to few distinct morphological characters and molecular data suggest that it is actually a complex containing multiple, morphologically indistinguishable, ...

  18. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana for management of citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in California blueberries.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Deane K; Haviland, David R; Stanghellini, M E; Morsel, Joseph G

    2013-10-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus and mango fruits. This insect has broadened its host range to become a significant pest of commercial blueberries grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California. We evaluated Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) for control of citrus thrips in blueberries grown under two watering regimes (drip irrigation with and without overhead sprinklers) and using two fungal formulations (commercially available spores in suspension vs. colonized seed) over two sampling periods, that is, for two 3-d periods after treatment. We found significant differences in thrips densities as a function of water regime treatment and fungal formulation. Thrips levels were reduced significantly with both fungal treatments at 3 d after treatment, but at 6 d, only results with colonized seed differed from the control treatment. These data suggest entomopathogenic fungi might be useful for control of citrus thrips on blueberries in particular situations (in organic production or as a resistance management tool) but that traditional pesticides will likely remain the preferred management option. PMID:24224239

  19. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction. PMID:26375283

  20. Systemic effects of neem on western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Thoeming, G; Borgemeister, C; Sétamou, M; Poehling, H M

    2003-06-01

    The systemic effects of neem on the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), were investigated in laboratory trials using green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in arena and microcosm experiments. In arena experiments, systemic effects of neem against western flower thrips larvae on primary bean leaves were observed with maximum corrected mortality of 50.6%. In microcosm experiments using bean seedlings, higher efficacy in the control of western flower thrips were observed with soil applications of neem on a substrate mixture (i.e., Fruhstorfer Erde, Type P, and sand) in a 1:1 ratio (93% corrected mortality) compared with application on the commercial substrate only (76% corrected mortality). However, longer persistence of neem was observed with soil application on the commercial substrate, which showed effects against thrips for up to 6 d after application. In addition to systemic effects observed on all foliage-feeding stages of western flower thrips, mortality on contact and repellent effects were observed on soil-inhabiting stages after soil applications of neem. Finally, bean seedlings grown from seeds pregerminated for 3 d in neem emulsion were also toxic to western flower thrips. PMID:12852622

  1. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Rasool, Akhtar; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5ʹ (DNA barcode) region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27%) at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%). BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius) showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips. PMID:26741134

  2. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction. PMID:26375283

  3. Evolution of asexuality via different mechanisms in grass thrips (thysanoptera: Aptinothrips).

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Schwander, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    Asexual lineages can derive from sexual ancestors via different mechanisms and at variable rates, which affects the diversity of the asexual population and thereby its ecological success. We investigated the variation and evolution of reproductive systems in Aptinothrips, a genus of grass thrips comprising four species. Extensive population surveys and breeding experiments indicated sexual reproduction in A. elegans, asexuality in A. stylifer and A. karnyi, and both sexual and asexual lineages in A. rufus. Asexuality in A. stylifer and A. rufus coincides with a worldwide distribution, with sexual A. rufus lineages confined to a limited area. Inference of molecular phylogenies and antibiotic treatment revealed different causes of asexuality in different species. Asexuality in A. stylifer and A. karnyi has most likely genetic causes, while it is induced by endosymbionts in A. rufus. Endosymbiont-community characterization revealed presence of Wolbachia, and lack of other bacteria known to manipulate host reproduction. However, only 69% asexual A. rufus females are Wolbachia-infected, indicating that either an undescribed endosymbiont causes asexuality in this species or that Wolbachia was lost in several lineages that remained asexual. These results open new perspectives for studies on the maintenance of mixed sexual and asexual reproduction in natural populations.

  4. Australian thrips of the Haplothrips lineage (Insecta: Thysanoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Mound, Laurence A.; Minaei, Kambiz

    2007-12-01

    Water is important and ubiquitous and surprisingly not understood. Just because is it common, does not mean its understood "Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars-mere globs of gas atoms. I too can see the stars on a desert night, and feel them. But do I see less or more? ... What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why? It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined it." - Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, 1963. (Cited in the introduction to Chapter 3 of "The Snowflake, Winter's Secret Beauty, Text by Kenneth Libbrecht, Photography by Patricia Rasmussen.) 1. Highlight the fact that water is still one of the most active and challenging research areas in chemistry and physics 2. Describe in general terms why water is unique from the point of view of its properties o Large dipole-moment o Very polarizable o Involved in is own chemistry (e.g. auto ionization defining the pH scale) • Atomic view: o Oxygen and Hydrogen. o Hydrogen is a quantum mechanical in nature. Classical physics is no good. o Water’s Charge-charge interaction described by classical physics laws (e.g. Coulomb) o The statistical mechanics of water. Why counting is important. o You need the full arsenal of theoretical methods to understand water • Waters well known bulk properties do not explain waters anomalies o Surface tension, heat capacity • Understanding the microscopic nature of water and how this gives rise to the known bulk quantities is the thrust of state-of-the-art research o Hydrogen bonding o Liquid structure o The so-called “spherical cow” model gets you no where with water o There are 10s-100s of different water models available in the scientific literature. It is a hard business • All of life takes place at the interfaces of solid, liquid, and gas o Biology takes advantage of waters varying properties in different geometries (e.g. confined, surfaces, etc. o Water behaves differently in confined environments • Water is the most abundant greenhouse gas o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of the radiation budget of the earth o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of weather.

  5. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction.

  6. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided. PMID:27396014

  7. Life History Characteristics of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Constant and Fluctuating Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2015-06-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) are sympatric pests of many greenhouse and field crops in Korea. We compared the influence of constant (27.3°C) and fluctuating temperatures (23.8-31.5°C, with an average of 27.3°C) on the life table characteristics of F. occidentalis and F. intonsa held at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h and 45±5% relative humidity. The development times of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa were significantly affected by temperature fluctuation, species, and sex. The development time from egg to adult of F. intonsa was shorter than that for F. occidentalis at both constant and fluctuating temperatures. Survival of immature life stages was higher under fluctuating than constant temperature for both thrips species. The total and daily production of first instars was higher in F. intonsa (90.4 and 4.2 at constant temperature, and 95.7 and 3.9 at fluctuating temperatures) than that of F. occidentalis (58.7 and 3.3 at constant temperature, and 60.5 and 3.1 at fluctuating temperatures) under both constant and fluctuating temperatures. The percentage of female offspring was greater in F. intonsa (72.1-75.7%) than in F. occidentalis (57.4-58.7%) under both temperature regimes. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was higher at constant temperature than at fluctuating temperature for both thrips species. F. intonsa had a higher rm value (0.2146 and 0.2004) than did F. occidentalis (0.1808 and 0.1733), under both constant and fluctuating temperatures, respectively. The biological response of F. occidentalis and F. intonsa to constant and fluctuating temperature was found to be interspecifically different, and F. intonsa may have higher pest potential than F. occidentalis based on the life table parameters we are reporting first here.

  8. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-02-12

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided.

  9. Species of Thripinae (Thysanoptera) from bamboo in Malaysia, with one new species and six new records.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of Thripinae that inhabit bamboo are recorded from Malaysia. Clypeothrips idrisi sp.n. is described as a second species in the genus, and Trichromothrips bruncurrum Reyes is considered a syn.n. of Neocorynothrips asiaticus Ramakrishna & Margabandhu. Six species are newly recorded from Malaysia: N. asiaticus, Okajimaella tubercula, Simulothrips banpoti, Stenchaetothrips bambusicola, S. bambusae and S. spinalis. Seven species of Stenchaetothrips are now known from Malaysia. Illustrations and descriptions of each species are provided.

  10. Influence of temperature on the development, reproduction and longevity of Ceratothripoides claratris (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Premachandra, W T S D; Borgemeister, C; Chabi-Olaye, A; Poehling, H-M

    2004-08-01

    Ceratothripoides claratris (Shumsher) is a serious pest attacking tomatoes in Thailand. Temperature-dependent development of C. claratris was studied at seven constant temperatures, i.e. 22, 25, 27, 30, 34, 35 and 40 degrees C. Pre-adult survivorship was greatest (95%) at 25 and 30 degrees C and shortest at 22 degrees C. Egg-to-adult time decreased within the range of 20 to 30 degrees C and at 34 degrees C it started to increase. The lower thermal threshold for egg-to-adult development was estimated at 16 and 18 degrees C by linear regression and the modified Logan model, respectively. The optimum temperature for egg-to-adult development was estimated at 32-33 degrees C by the modified Logan model. The influence of temperature on reproduction and longevity of C. claratris was determined at 25, 30 and 35 and 40 degrees C. Both inseminated and virgin females failed to reproduce at 40 degrees C. Virgin females produced only male offspring, confirming arrhenotoky. The sex ratio of the offspring of fertilized females was strongly female-biased, except at 25 degrees C. Mean total fecundity per female and mean daily total fecundity per female were highest for both virgin and inseminated females at 30 degrees C. Female longevity was longest at 25 degrees C and shortest at 40 degrees C. Male longevity was longest at 30 degrees C and shortest at 40 degrees C. The net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was greatest at 30 degrees C while, mean generation time (G) and the doubling time (t) were highest at 25 degrees C. The finite rate of increase (lambda) was fairly constant (1.1-1.5 days) over the three temperatures tested. The pest potential of C. claratris for tropical Asia is discussed.

  11. Minute pollinators: The role of thrips (Thysanoptera) as pollinators of pointleaf manzanita, Arctostaphylos pungens (Ericaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eliyahu, Dorit; McCall, Andrew C.; Lauck, Marina; Trakhtenbrot, Ana; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2015-01-01

    The feeding habits of thrips on plant tissue, and their ability to transmit viral diseases to their host plants, have usually placed these insects in the general category of pests. However, the characteristics that make them economically important, their high abundance and short- and long-distance movement capability, may also make them effective pollinators. We investigated this lesser-known role of thrips in pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens), a Southwestern US shrub. We measured the abundance of three species of thrips (Orothrips kelloggii, Oligothrips oreios, and Frankliniella occidentalis), examined their pollen-carrying capability, and conducted an exclusion experiment in order to determine whether thrips are able to pollinate this species, and if they do, whether they actually contribute to the reproductive success of the plant. Our data suggest that indeed thrips pollinate and do contribute significantly to reproductive success. Flowers exposed to thrips only produced significantly more fruit than did flowers from which all visitors were excluded. The roles of thrips as antagonists/mutualists are examined in the context of the numerous other floral visitors to the plant. PMID:26207155

  12. Detection and Localization of Wolbachia in Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Saurav, Gunjan Kumar; Daimei, Guisuibou; Rana, Vipin Singh; Popli, Sonam; Rajagopal, Raman

    2016-06-01

    Thrips palmi Karny is a globally distributed polyphagous agricultural pest. It causes huge economic loss by its biological behaviors like feeding, reproduction and transmission of tospoviruses. Since T. palmi shows close morphological similarities with other thrips species, we employed mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene as a molecular marker. BLAST analysis of this sequence helped us to identify the collected specimen as T. palmi. We observed the female to male ratio of about 3:1 from collected samples and suspected the presence of Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia was detected by PCR using genus specific primers of 16S rRNA gene. Further confirmation of Wolbachia strain was achieved by conducting PCR amplification of three ubiquitous genes ftsZ, gatB and groEL. A phylogenetic tree was constructed with concatenated sequences of ftsZ and gatB gene to assign supergroup to Wolbachia. Finally, we localized Wolbachia in abdominal region of the insect using fluorescent in situ hybridization with the help of confocal microscope. Our result confirmed the presence of Wolbachia supergroup B strain for the first time in T. palmi. PMID:27570308

  13. Transmission of Iris yellow spot virus by Frankliniella fusca and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Pappu, Hanu R; Diffie, Stan; Riley, David G; Gitaitis, Ron D

    2012-02-01

    Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) affects onion production in the United States and worldwide. The presence of IYSV in Georgia was confirmed in 2003. Two important thrips species that transmit tospoviruses, the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Lindeman)) and the tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca (Hinds)) are known to infest onion in Georgia. However, T. tabaci is the only confirmed vector of IYSV. Experiments were conducted to test the vector status of F. fusca in comparison with T. tabaci. F. fusca and T. tabaci larvae and adults reared on IYSV-infected hosts were tested with antiserum specific to the nonstructural protein of IYSV through an antigen coated plate ELISA. The detection rates for F. fusca larvae and adults were 4.5 and 5.1%, respectively, and for T. tabaci larvae and adults they were 20.0 and 24.0%, respectively, indicating that both F. fusca and T. tabaci can transmit IYSV. Further, transmission efficiencies of F. fusca and T. tabaci were evaluated by using an indicator host, lisianthus (Eustoma russellianum (Salisbury)). Both F. fusca and T. tabaci transmitted IYSV at 18.3 and 76.6%, respectively. Results confirmed that F. fusca also can transmit IYSV but at a lower efficiency than T. tabaci. To attest if low vector competency of our laboratory-reared F. fusca population affected its IYSV transmission capability, a Tomato spotted wilt virus (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) transmission experiment was conducted. F. fusca transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus at a competent rate (90%) suggesting that the transmission efficiency of a competent thrips vector can widely vary between two closely related viruses.

  14. Infestation of Caliothrips phaseoli (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Bean Cultivars Grown in the Winter, Rainy, and Dry Seasons in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal; Costa, Eduardo Neves; De Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha; Da Silva, Anderson Gonçalves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars less susceptible to Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood) in different growing seasons, to evaluate whether climatic conditions influence plant resistance to C. phaseoli infestation, and to investigate the preferred plant part for insect feeding. Eighteen common bean cultivars were evaluated in the winter season, and 19 cultivars were assessed in the rainy and dry seasons, under field conditions in the municipality of Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Infestation of C. phaseoli nymphs in the upper and lower parts of the beans plants was recorded at weekly intervals from 25 days after plant emergence (DAE) to 60 DAE. In the winter season, the cultivars 'IAC Galante,' 'IAC Centauro,' 'IAC Carioca Eté,' and 'IAC Formoso' had significantly lower number of thrips than the cultivar 'IAC Diplomata.' In the rainy season, the cultivars 'IAC Harmonia' and 'IPR Siriri' had the lowest thrips infestation, differing from the cultivars 'BRS Pontal' and 'IAC Una.' The bean cultivars were equally susceptible to C. phaseoli in the dry season. The results suggest that C. phaseoli nymphs prefer to infest leaves of the lower part of bean plants, like most generalist herbivorous insects. In the winter and dry seasons, the highest thrips infestation was observed at 60 DAE, while in the rainy season, it was recorded from 32 to 46 DAE. Overall, C. phaseoli infestation on bean cultivars was not influenced by either temperature, relative humidity, or rainfall.

  15. Occurrence in Japan of Frankliniella hemerocallis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), with description of the larva and key to Frankliniella species from Japan.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Masami; Okajima, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence in Japan of the daylily thrips, Frankliniella hemerocallis, is confirmed. This thrips probably originated in Asia or Eurasia, because it is highly specific to Hemerocallis [Liliaceae] which is native to these areas. This thrips feeds on leaf, stem and petals rather than pollen. The second instar larva is described, and a key provided to the adults of Frankliniella species recorded from Japan. PMID:26258207

  16. New tropical fruit hosts of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its relative abundance on them in South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scritothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in the southeast region of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. During scouting and sampling various hosts at different commercial nursery locations in Florida (Miami-Dade Count...

  17. Ambaeolothrips: a new genus of Neotropical Aeolothripidae (Thysanoptera), with observations on the type-species from mango trees in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence; Cavalleri, Adriano; O'donnell, Cheryle; Infante, Francisco; Ortiz, Antonio; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Ambaeolothrips gen. n. is diagnosed for three Neotropical species: the type species romanruizi Ruiz-De la Cruz et al. comb. n. from Mexico, microstriatus Hood comb. n. from Panama, and pampeanus sp. n. from southern Brazil. Variation is discussed among character states that are used in the generic classification of the family Aeolothripidae, including segmentation of the antennae and maxillary palps, sculpture of the metanotum and presence of sternal discal setae. New field observations on the biology of romanruizi indicate that this species is phytophagous in flowers and on leaves, with no evidence of predation on the larvae of other thrips. PMID:27395682

  18. Evaluation and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Tao; Li, Hong-Bo; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as a reliable and reproducible technique for studying gene expression analysis. For accurate results, the normalization of data with reference genes is particularly essential. Once the transcriptome sequencing of Frankliniella occidentalis was completed, numerous unigenes were identified and annotated. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of reference genes used in F. occidentalis. In this work, seven candidate reference genes, including actin, 18S rRNA, H3, tubulin, GAPDH, EF-1 and RPL32, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, Normfinder and the comparative ΔCt method. Because the rankings of the reference genes provided by each of the four programs were different, we chose a user-friendly web-based comprehensive tool RefFinder to get the final ranking. The result demonstrated that EF-1 and RPL32 displayed the most stable expression in different developmental stages; RPL32 and GAPDH showed the most stable expression at high temperatures, while 18S and EF-1 exhibited the most stable expression at low temperatures. In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes in F. occidentalis for gene expression profiling under different experimental conditions. The choice of internal standard is very important in the normalization of the target gene expression levels, thus validating and selecting the best genes will help improve the quality of gene expression data of F. occidentalis. What is more, these validated reference genes could serve as the basis for the selection of candidate reference genes in other insects.

  19. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the rotation program. Therefore, by incorporating entomopathogenic organisms into insecticide rotation programs, greenhouse producers can decrease costs without affecting suppression, as well as diminish selection pressure on western flower thrips adult populations, which may avoid or delay resistance development. PMID:26470338

  20. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  1. A new record of Holarctic genus Odontothrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from India with a new species.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The Holarctic genus Odontothrips of Megalurothrips genus-group was established by Amyot & Serville in 1843 with type species Thrips phaleratus Haliday (Mound & Palmer 1981, Mirab-balou & Chen 2011). This genus is known by 32 species from the Palearctic and Nearctic regions (ThripsWiki 2015), and these species are flower-living and mainly associated with flowers of family Fabaceae (Xie et al. 2010). The pest status of Odontothrips species is uncertain, but some species are reported to cause superficial damage to the flowers on which they feed. O. confusus Priesner is reported as a pest on lucerne in France and Czech Republic (Pitkin 1972), and also on legumes in Romania (Pustai et al. 2015). O. loti (Haliday) is reported as a major pest on Alfalfa in north China, where it feeds on tender leaves and causes leaf curling, whitening and withering (Kou et al. 2011). PMID:27395891

  2. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the rotation program. Therefore, by incorporating entomopathogenic organisms into insecticide rotation programs, greenhouse producers can decrease costs without affecting suppression, as well as diminish selection pressure on western flower thrips adult populations, which may avoid or delay resistance development.

  3. A novel mitochondrial genome architecture in thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera): extreme size asymmetry among chromosomes and possible recent control region duplication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-partite mitochondrial genomes are very rare in animals but have been found previously in two insect orders with highly rearranged genomes, the Phthiraptera (parasitic lice), and the Psocoptera (booklice/barklice). We provide the first report of a multi-partite mitochondrial genome architecture...

  4. Effectiveness of different emulsifiers for neem oil against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and the warehouse moth (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Schroer, S; Sermann, H; Reichmuth, C; Büttner, C

    2001-01-01

    The neem tree produces highly specified acting insecticides mainly in its seeds. By pressurizing or extracting the seeds an insecticide oil can be manufactured. For successful application emulsifiers are needed to render the oil soluble in water. The heavy oil has to be stable in emulsion, but on the other hand the surfactant should not reduce the ecological property of the neem oil. The emulsifiers Lutensol TO10, Emulan ELP, Rimulgan and Tween 80 and for comparison the formulation NeemAzal-T/S were tested in their emulsion stability, as well as in their insecticidal effects towards two different insect pests: The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the ware house moth Ephestia elutella. The emulsifiers were applied purely, and in different contents mixed in neem oil. Data showed significant differences of mortality and development on the tested pests. Lutensol TO10 and Emulan ELP caused spontaneous mortality on the western flower thrips and an additive efficacy when mixed with neem oil. Rimulgan led to mortality of the larvae of the warehouse moth. NeemAzal showed in both bioassays the highest efficacy of 95% mortality. PMID:12425067

  5. The Old-World genus Ceratothripoides (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with a new genus for related New-World species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key is provided to five Old World species that comprise the genus Ceratothripoides Bagnall, and the species C. revelatus (Priesner) is recalled from synonymy with C. brunneus Bagnall. Five New World species previously placed in this genus are here allocated to Retanathrips Mound & Nickle gen.n., w...

  6. Bell and banana pepper exhibit mature-plant resistance to tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus transmitted by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kahn, N D; Kennedy, G G

    2009-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) causes annual economic losses in pepper, Capsicum annuum L., across the southern United States and is transmitted by several species of thrips, including the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). Reduced virus transmission and symptom severity as plant age increases is known as mature-plant resistance. TSWV transmission to pepper plants was examined in three and four age classes in field and greenhouse trials, respectively. In the field trial, 'Camelot' bell pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca 37, 51, or 65 d postsowing. Two greenhouse trials of Camelot bell and one trial each of 'Bounty' and 'Pageant' banana pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca, 43, 57, 71, or 85; 48, 62, 75, or 90; 42, 56, 70, or 84; and 43, 57, 71, or 85 d postsowing, respectively. Linear and hyperbolic regressions of percentage of infected plants per block on days postsowing indicated mature-plant resistance in all trials. All models were significant, but hyperbolic curves better fit the data than linear models. Hyperbolic models were used to calculate the number of days posttransplant at which a 50% decrease from the predicted percentage of infected plants at transplant age (42 d postsowing) was expected. This was referred to as days posttransplant-50 (DPT50). DPRT50 occurred within 9 days posttransplant age for all trials, indicating that early TSWV management in pepper is critical.

  7. Evaluation of a push-pull strategy for the management of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles

    2014-10-01

    A push-pull strategy for managing the anthophilous Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) in pepper and increasing conservation biological control was evaluated. Push components of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulch and foliar applications of kaolin and the pull component of sunflower companion plants were evaluated in replicated field experiments in 2011 and 2012. Adult F. bispinosa rapidly colonized and reproduced in the peppers and sunflowers during early flowering, but populations declined later, as numbers of the predatory Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) increased in both hosts. Numbers of F. bispinosa were reduced by kaolin during early pepper flowering. Thrips numbers were increased on some of the later sample dates, apparently due to reduced predation that resulted from negative effects of kaolin and UV-reflective mulch on Orius populations. Numbers of thrips increased in peppers with companion plants during the first week of flowering each year, followed by declines in thrips numbers during the next 2 wk in 2011. There was little effect each year of the companion plants on the numbers of Orius in the pepper flowers. There was one date in 2011 and no dates in 2012 in which UV-reflective mulch or kaolin acted in concert with the presence of the companion plants to reduce thrips numbers in the main crop of pepper. Yield effects were not attributed to thrips damage. We conclude that sunflower companion plants did not act additively or synergistically with kaolin or UV-reflective mulch to reduce thrips and increase Orius populations in pepper.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Frankliniella intonsa: insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes at lower taxonomic levels in Thysanoptera.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dankan; Tang, Yunxia; Hu, Min; Liu, Fengquan; Zhang, Dongfang; Fan, Jiaqin

    2014-10-01

    Thrips is an ideal group for studying the evolution of mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the genus and family due to independent rearrangements within this order. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the flower thrips Frankliniella intonsa has been completed and annotated in this study. The circular genome is 15,215bp in length with an A+T content of 75.9% and contains the typical 37 genes and it has triplicate putative control regions. Nucleotide composition is A+T biased, and the majority of the protein-coding genes present opposite CG skew which is reflected by the nucleotide composition, codon and amino acid usage. Although the known thrips have massive gene rearrangements, it showed no reversal of strand asymmetry. Gene rearrangements have been found in the lower taxonomic levels of thrips. Three tRNA genes were translocated in the genus Frankliniella and eight tRNA genes in the family Thripidae. Although the gene arrangements of mt genomes of all three thrips species differ massively from the ancestral insect, they are all very similar to each other, indicating that there was a large rearrangement somewhere before the most recent common ancestor of these three species and very little genomic evolution or rearrangements after then. The extremely similar sequences among the CRs suggest that they are ongoing concerted evolution. Analyses of the up and downstream sequence of CRs reveal that the CR2 is actually the ancestral CR. The three CRs are in the same spot in each of the three thrips mt genomes which have the identical inverted genes. These characteristics might be obtained from the most recent common ancestor of this three thrips. Above observations suggest that the mt genomes of the three thrips keep a single massive rearrangement from the common ancestor and have low evolutionary rates among them.

  9. Specificity of accumulation and transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in two genera, Frankliniella and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Sakurai, T; Murai, T; Maeda, T

    2004-12-01

    The accumulation and transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was examined in second instar larvae and adults of two thrips genera, Frankliniella and Thrips. The species tested were F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. intonsa (Trybom), T. tabaciLindeman, T. setosus Moulton, T. palmi Karny and T. hawaiiensis (Morgan). In a standard petunia leaf disc assay, the efficiencies of TSWV transmission by two species of Frankliniella were higher than those of any Thrips species in the adult stage. A triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) showed that large amounts of the TSWV-nucleocapsid (N) protein were present in the ELISA-positive larvae of each species, with the exception of T. palmi. The ELISA titre of and the proportion of virus-infected individuals of the two Frankliniella species increased or did not significantly change from the larval to the adult stages, whereas those of the four Thrips species decreased significantly. These results show that the specificity of virus transmission by adult thrips is probably affected by the amount of viral N protein accumulation in the adults and that the accumulation pattern from the larval to the adult stages is in between the two genera tested in the present study.

  10. Evaluation of a push-pull strategy for the management of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles

    2014-10-01

    A push-pull strategy for managing the anthophilous Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) in pepper and increasing conservation biological control was evaluated. Push components of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulch and foliar applications of kaolin and the pull component of sunflower companion plants were evaluated in replicated field experiments in 2011 and 2012. Adult F. bispinosa rapidly colonized and reproduced in the peppers and sunflowers during early flowering, but populations declined later, as numbers of the predatory Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) increased in both hosts. Numbers of F. bispinosa were reduced by kaolin during early pepper flowering. Thrips numbers were increased on some of the later sample dates, apparently due to reduced predation that resulted from negative effects of kaolin and UV-reflective mulch on Orius populations. Numbers of thrips increased in peppers with companion plants during the first week of flowering each year, followed by declines in thrips numbers during the next 2 wk in 2011. There was little effect each year of the companion plants on the numbers of Orius in the pepper flowers. There was one date in 2011 and no dates in 2012 in which UV-reflective mulch or kaolin acted in concert with the presence of the companion plants to reduce thrips numbers in the main crop of pepper. Yield effects were not attributed to thrips damage. We conclude that sunflower companion plants did not act additively or synergistically with kaolin or UV-reflective mulch to reduce thrips and increase Orius populations in pepper. PMID:25199151

  11. Carbon/Nitrogen Imbalance Associated with Drought-Induced Leaf Senescence in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daoqian; Wang, Shiwen; Xiong, Binglin; Cao, Beibei; Deng, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress triggers mature leaf senescence, which supports plant survival and remobilization of nutrients; yet leaf senescence also critically decreases post-drought crop yield. Drought generally results in carbon/nitrogen imbalance, which is reflected in the increased carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio in mature leaves, and which has been shown to be involved in inducing leaf senescence under normal growth conditions. Yet the involvement of the carbon/nitrogen balance in regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence is unclear. To investigate the role of carbon/nitrogen balance in drought-induced senescence, sorghum seedlings were subjected to a gradual soil drought treatment. Leaf senescence symptoms and the C:N ratio, which was indicated by the ratio of non-structural carbohydrate to total N content, were monitored during drought progression. In this study, leaf senescence developed about 12 days after the start of drought treatment, as indicated by various senescence symptoms including decreasing photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm) and chlorophyll content, and by the differential expression of senescence marker genes. The C:N ratio was significantly enhanced 10 to 12 days into drought treatment. Leaf senescence occurred in the older (lower) leaves, which had higher C:N ratios, but not in the younger (upper) leaves, which had lower C:N ratios. In addition, a detached leaf assay was conducted to investigate the effect of carbon/nitrogen availability on drought-induced senescence. Exogenous application of excess sugar combined with limited nitrogen promoted drought-induced leaf senescence. Thus our results suggest that the carbon/nitrogen balance may be involved in the regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence. PMID:26317421

  12. Natural variation in synthesis and catabolism genes influences dhurrin content in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanogenic glucosides are natural compounds found in over 1,000 species of angiosperms that produce HCN and are deemed undesirable for agricultural use. However, these compounds are important components of primary defensive mechanisms of many plant species. One of the best-studied cyanogenic glucos...

  13. Ethanol Fermentation Performance of Grain Sorghums (Sorghum bicolor) with Modified Endosperm Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.; Jampala, B; Robbins, A; Hays, D; Yan, S; Xu, F; Rooney, W; Peterson, G; Shi, Y; Wang, D

    2010-01-01

    We tested 13 sorghum entries (lines and hybrids) with different endosperm matrices for ethanol production using a laboratory dry grind process. Waxy and heterowaxy samples had the highest efficiencies. Free amino nitrogen (FAN) contents in sorghum samples were positively related to the fermentation rate during fermentation (R{sup 2} = 0.8618). Dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from different sorghums had significantly different crude protein and crude fat contents. Residual starch content in DDGS ranged from 0.60% for the most efficient sample to 2.66% for the least efficient sample. This study showed that the HD lines (TX1, TX3, TX5, TX7, and TX9) with modified endosperm protein matrix have several attributes desirable for ethanol production: easily pasted starch granules, significantly higher FAN content in finished mashes, 30-45% faster ethanol fermentation rate during early stages, and 50-60% higher lysine content in DDGS.

  14. Visual orientation performances of desert ants (Cataglyphis bicolor) toward astromenotactic directions and horizon landmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, R.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental data, on the visual orientation of desert ants toward astromenotactic courses and horizon landmarks involving the cooperation of different direction finding systems, are given. Attempts were made to: (1) determine if the ants choose a compromise direction between astromenotactic angles and the direction toward horizon landmarks when both angles compete with each other or whether they decide alternatively; (2) analyze adaptations of the visual system to the special demands of direction finding by astromenotactic orientation or pattern recognition; and (3) determine parameters of visual learning behavior. Results show separate orientation mechanisms are responsible for the orientation of the ant toward astromenotactic angles and horizon landmarks. If both systems compete with each other, the ants switch over from one system to the other and do not perform a compromise direction.

  15. Proteome profiling of seed from inbred and mutant line of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum is a major staple food, with fifth rank among the cereals world-wide, considering its importance for food and feed applications. Cereals are main part of human nutrition and strategic resources. In this study, we executed a comprehensive proteomic study to investigate the seed storage ...

  16. Anatomical and biochemical studies of bicolored flower development in Muscari latifolium.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yinyan; Lou, Qian; Li, Huibo; Yue, Juan; Liu, Yali; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-12-01

    The inflorescence of the broad-leafed grape hyacinth, Muscari latifolium, shows an interesting, two-tone appearance with the upper flowers being pale blue and the lower ones purple. To elucidate the mechanism of the differential color development, anatomical research was carried out and a cytological study of the colored protoplasts in which the shapes of the cells accumulating anthocyanin were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Next, vacuolar pH was recorded using a pH meter with a micro combination pH electrode, and the sap's metal-ion content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The anthocyanin and co-pigment composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chemical analyses reveal that the difference in metal-ion content of the two parts was not great. The vacuolar pHs of the upper and lower flowers were 5.91 and 5.84, respectively, with the difference being nonsignificant. HPLC results indicate that the dihydroflavonol and flavonol contents are also very similar in the two sorts of flower. However, the upper flowers contained only delphinidin, whereas the lower flowers also contained cyanidin. The total anthocyanin content in the lower flowers was 4.36 mg g(-1), which is approximately seven times higher than in the upper flowers, while the delphinidin content is four times higher. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis established that the two-tone flower was a result of different expressions of the F3'5'H, F3'H and DFR genes, and these lead to different amounts of anthocyanin. PMID:23677687

  17. Genetic mapping and characterization of an epicuticular wax (bloom) gene SbBI, in sorghum bicolor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes involved in wax production can have significant potential in enhancing drought tolerance in many crop species. Here, we describe the genetic mapping and characterization of the gene, bloom (Sb Bl), involved in the expression of profuse white fluffy epicuticular wax in sorghum. Genetic mapping...

  18. Accelerating Seed Germination and seedling development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) through hydro-priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembele, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Mali, a West Africa Sahelian country, is characterized by a strong dependence on rain-fed agriculture and a low adaptive capacity, making it one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change worldwide. Moreover, although with high uncertainties, most climate models used for the region recognize a growing uncertainty in the onset of the rainy season, which demands urgent adaptation measures. Early-season drought limits crops germination, and hence growth, and yield during rainfed depending production as is common now in Mali, West Africa. Crops germination and establishment could be improved by using seed priming, a process that dry seeds take up water to initiate the primary stages of germination, but the amount of water added is not enough for completing germination. The effects of hydro-priming (distilled, tap, rain, river and well water) were evaluated for three priming durations (4, 8 and 12 hour) in 2014 and 2015. Monitored were seed germination and seedling development of nine sorghum genotypes. Preliminary results showed that hydro-priming significantly improved germination rate, germination speed, number of seminal root, rate of survival and seedling vigour index, compared to non-primed seed treatments. However, seedling length, root length, shoot length and seedling dry weight did not differ significantly. Four out of the nine genotypes evaluated were attributed good seed quality and good response to hydro-priming. The priming with different sources of water resulted in higher seed germination (90%) and seedling development with well and river water, compared to the others. Seed germination rate, uniformity and speed were also enhanced by hydro-priming. It is argued that hydro-priming is a simple but effective method for improving seed germination and seedling development of sorghum. In addition hydro-priming is a safe, simple and inexpensive method to enhance germination. The most promising genotypes have consequently been included in consequent pot and field trials for further investigation. Keywords: Hydro-priming, tolerant, germination, Sorghum, West Africa, climate change adaption, early season drought. Keywords: Hydro-priming, tolerant, germination, Sorghum, West Africa, climate change adaption, early season drought.

  19. Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; da Silva, Letícia Linhares; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Tardin, Flávio Dessaune; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2015-04-01

    The content and stability (retention) to dry heat in a conventional oven (DHCO) and extrusion of tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum genotypes were evaluated. One hundred sorghum genotypes showed high variability in tocochromanol content (280.7-2962.4 μg/100g in wet basis) and 23% of the genotypes were classified as source of vitamin E. The total carotenoid varied from 2.12 to 85.46 μg/100g in one hundred sorghum genotypes. According to the genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols, the 100 genotypes were grouped into 7 groups. The retention of the total tocochromanols and α-tocopherol equivalent decreased after extrusion (69.1-84.8% and 52.4-85.0%, respectively) but increased after DHCO (106.8-114.7% and 109.9-115.8%, respectively). Sorghum carotenoids were sensitive to extrusion (30.7-37.1%) and DHCO (58.6-79.2%). In conclusion, the tocochromanols profile in sorghum varied widely and the genotypes presented high genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols. Sorghum was a source of tocochromanols, which increased after DHCO and decreased after extrusion. The carotenoid content in sorghum decreased after DHCO and extrusion.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) residing at eight locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve-day-old Tree Swallow nestlings were studied at eight sites exhibiting a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In addition to determining PCB concentrations in eggs, nestlings, and food items, hepatic cytochromes P450-associated monooxygenase activity quantified as a biomarker of exposure. Nestlings from several of the sites exhibited elevated PCB concentrations and P450 induction compared to a reference site, Furthermore, cytochromes P450 were correlated with PCB concentrations in nestling. Our findings indicate that likely routes of exposure include the direct materna! deposition of PCBs into the egg and the delivery of contaminated emerging aquatic insects to nestlings. We also examined reproductive and morphological parameters to determine if PCB exposure was adversely affecting swallows at these sites. Hatching success did not differ among sites. There were no dramatic effects on gross and histological gonadal morphology of nestlings, and there was complete concordance between phenotypic sex (gonadal morphology) and genotypic sex (as determined by PCR amplification of the sex chromosome). However, where nestling PCB exposure was substantial, clutch size and body weight differed from a reference site. Despite evidence of PCB exposure, only modest effects were observed in nestling swallows.

  1. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok Kumar; Munghate, Rajendra Sudhakar; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Polavarapu, Kavi Kishor B.; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum production is affected by a wide array of biotic constraints, of which sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata is the most important pest, which severely damages the sorghum crop during the seedling stage. Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, A. soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1's and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. The genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca) effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilized in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca) effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to specific combining ability (σ2s), dominance variance (σ2d), and lower predictability ratios than the variance due to general combining ability (σ2g) and additive variance (σ2a) for shoot fly resistance traits indicated the predominance of dominance type of gene action, whereas trichome density, leaf glossy score, and plant vigor score with high σ2g, additive variance, predictability ratio, and the ratio of general combining ability to the specific combining ability showed predominance of additive type of gene action indicating importance of heterosis breeding followed by simple selection in breeding shoot fly-resistant sorghums. Most of the traits exhibited high broadsense heritability, indicating high inheritance of shoot fly resistance traits. PMID:27200020

  2. Molecular mapping of the brace root traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ronggai; Han, Yucui; Lv, Peng; Du, Ruiheng; Liu, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    The presence and morphology of plant brace roots are important root architecture traits. Brace roots contribute significantly to effective anchorage and water and nutrient uptake during late growth and development, and more importantly, have a substantial influence on grain yield under soil flooding or water limited conditions. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie brace root traits. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for presence of brace roots from the sorghum landrace “Sansui” were mapped and associated molecular markers were identified. A linkage map was constructed with 109 assigned simple sequence repeat markers using a F2 mapping population derived from the cross Sansui/Jiliang 2. Two QTLs associated with presence of brace roots were localized on chromosomes 6 and 7. The major QTL on chromosome 7 between markers Dsenhsbm7 and Xcup 70 explained about 52.5% of the phenotypic variation, and the minor QTL on chromosome 6 was flanked by Xtxp127 and Xtxp6 and accounted for 7.0% of phenotypic variation. These results will provide information for the improvement of sorghum root architecture associated with brace roots. PMID:24987306

  3. Quantitative genetic analysis of agronomic and morphological traits in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok K.; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Munghate, Rajendra S.; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B.; Sharma, Hari C.

    2015-01-01

    The productivity in sorghum is low, owing to various biotic and abiotic constraints. Combining insect resistance with desirable agronomic and morphological traits is important to increase sorghum productivity. Therefore, it is important to understand the variability for various agronomic traits, their heritabilities and nature of gene action to develop appropriate strategies for crop improvement. Therefore, a full diallel set of 10 parents and their 90 crosses including reciprocals were evaluated in replicated trials during the 2013–14 rainy and postrainy seasons. The crosses between the parents with early- and late-flowering flowered early, indicating dominance of earliness for anthesis in the test material used. Association between the shoot fly resistance, morphological, and agronomic traits suggested complex interactions between shoot fly resistance and morphological traits. Significance of the mean sum of squares for GCA (general combining ability) and SCA (specific combining ability) of all the studied traits suggested the importance of both additive and non-additive components in inheritance of these traits. The GCA/SCA, and the predictability ratios indicated predominance of additive gene effects for majority of the traits studied. High broad-sense and narrow-sense heritability estimates were observed for most of the morphological and agronomic traits. The significance of reciprocal combining ability effects for days to 50% flowering, plant height and 100 seed weight, suggested maternal effects for inheritance of these traits. Plant height and grain yield across seasons, days to 50% flowering, inflorescence exsertion, and panicle shape in the postrainy season showed greater specific combining ability variance, indicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action/epistatic interactions in controlling the expression of these traits. Additive gene action in the rainy season, and dominance in the postrainy season for days to 50% flowering and plant height suggested G X E interactions for these traits. PMID:26579183

  4. Functional annotation of the transcriptome of Sorghum bicolor in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher plants exhibit remarkable phenotypic plasticity allowing them to adapt to an extensive range of environmental conditions. Sorghum is a cereal crop that exhibits exceptional tolerance to adverse conditions, in particular, water-limiting environments. This study utilized next generation sequencing (NGS) technology to examine the transcriptome of sorghum plants challenged with osmotic stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in order to elucidate genes and gene networks that contribute to sorghum's tolerance to water-limiting environments with a long-term aim of developing strategies to improve plant productivity under drought. Results RNA-Seq results revealed transcriptional activity of 28,335 unique genes from sorghum root and shoot tissues subjected to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress or exogenous ABA. Differential gene expression analyses in response to osmotic stress and ABA revealed a strong interplay among various metabolic pathways including abscisic acid and 13-lipoxygenase, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and plant defense pathways. Transcription factor analysis indicated that groups of genes may be co-regulated by similar regulatory sequences to which the expressed transcription factors bind. We successfully exploited the data presented here in conjunction with published transcriptome analyses for rice, maize, and Arabidopsis to discover more than 50 differentially expressed, drought-responsive gene orthologs for which no function had been previously ascribed. Conclusions The present study provides an initial assemblage of sorghum genes and gene networks regulated by osmotic stress and hormonal treatment. We are providing an RNA-Seq data set and an initial collection of transcription factors, which offer a preliminary look into the cascade of global gene expression patterns that arise in a drought tolerant crop subjected to abiotic stress. These resources will allow scientists to query gene expression and functional annotation in response to drought. PMID:22008187

  5. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) seedling growth in marginal soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has b...

  6. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties adopt strongly contrasting strategies in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C; Stepien, Piotr; Johnson, Giles N

    2014-10-01

    Sorghum is one of the most drought tolerant crops but surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms achieving this. We have compared physiological and biochemical responses to drought in two sorghum cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance. These closely related cultivars have starkly contrasting responses to water deficit. In the less tolerant Samsorg 40, drought induced progressive loss of photosynthesis. The more drought tolerant Samsorg 17 maintained photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content until the most extreme conditions. In Samsorg 40, there was a highly specific down-regulation of selected proteins, with loss of PSII and Rubisco but maintenance of PSI and cytochrome b6 f, allowing plants to maintain ATP synthesis. The nitrogen released allows for accumulation of glycine betaine and proline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of specific reengineering of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to drought. In contrast, in Samsorg 17 we detected no substantial change in the photosynthetic apparatus. Rather, plants showed constitutively high soluble sugar concentration, enabling them to maintain transpiration and photosynthesis, even in extremely dry conditions. The implications for these strikingly contrasted strategies are discussed in relation to agricultural and natural systems. PMID:24666264

  7. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seedling growth in marginal soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has ...

  8. ACCUMULATION OF PCB CONGENERS IN NESTLING TREE SWALLOWS (TACHYCINETA BICOLOR) ON THE HUDSON RIVER, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Together, these two papers establish a quantitative linkage between PCB concentrations in nestling tree swallows and in the insects that they consume. As such, these papers provide strong support for the use of nestling swallows as a biomonitoring species for exposure assessment ...

  9. Formulation of a liquid fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using vermicompost leachate.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; García-Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Rincón Rosales, Reiner; Abud-Archila, Miguel; María Angela, Oliva Llaven; Cruz, Marcos Joaquín Guillen; Dendooven, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Leachate from vermicomposting contains large amounts of plant nutrients and can be used as liquid fertilizer, but normally diluted to avoid plant damage. The amount of nutrients applied is thus reduced so that an additional fertilizer is required. We investigated how dilution of vermicompost leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected sorghum plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m(-1), contained 834 mg K(+) l(-1), 247 mg NO(3)(-)l(-1) and 168 mg PO(4)(3-) l(-1), was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65 % germination index. Vermicompost leachate can be used as liquid fertilizer for the cultivation of sorghum without dilution and mixed with 140-170 g l(-1) of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and 2-3 ml(-1) of dispersant and 0-1 ml l(-1) adherent. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth.

  10. Quantitative genetic analysis of agronomic and morphological traits in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok K; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Munghate, Rajendra S; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Sharma, Hari C

    2015-01-01

    The productivity in sorghum is low, owing to various biotic and abiotic constraints. Combining insect resistance with desirable agronomic and morphological traits is important to increase sorghum productivity. Therefore, it is important to understand the variability for various agronomic traits, their heritabilities and nature of gene action to develop appropriate strategies for crop improvement. Therefore, a full diallel set of 10 parents and their 90 crosses including reciprocals were evaluated in replicated trials during the 2013-14 rainy and postrainy seasons. The crosses between the parents with early- and late-flowering flowered early, indicating dominance of earliness for anthesis in the test material used. Association between the shoot fly resistance, morphological, and agronomic traits suggested complex interactions between shoot fly resistance and morphological traits. Significance of the mean sum of squares for GCA (general combining ability) and SCA (specific combining ability) of all the studied traits suggested the importance of both additive and non-additive components in inheritance of these traits. The GCA/SCA, and the predictability ratios indicated predominance of additive gene effects for majority of the traits studied. High broad-sense and narrow-sense heritability estimates were observed for most of the morphological and agronomic traits. The significance of reciprocal combining ability effects for days to 50% flowering, plant height and 100 seed weight, suggested maternal effects for inheritance of these traits. Plant height and grain yield across seasons, days to 50% flowering, inflorescence exsertion, and panicle shape in the postrainy season showed greater specific combining ability variance, indicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action/epistatic interactions in controlling the expression of these traits. Additive gene action in the rainy season, and dominance in the postrainy season for days to 50% flowering and plant height suggested G X E interactions for these traits. PMID:26579183

  11. Registration of perennial Sorghum bicolor x S. propinquum line 'PSH12TX09'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel sorghum x Sorghum propinquum recombinant inbred line, named PSSH12TX09, was identified that successfully overwintered across plant hardiness zones 8a, 8b, and 9a between 2013 and 2015. Overwintering perenniality of PSSH12TX09 exceeded 90% at all locations across both evaluation years, with ...

  12. Carbon/Nitrogen Imbalance Associated with Drought-Induced Leaf Senescence in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoqian; Wang, Shiwen; Xiong, Binglin; Cao, Beibei; Deng, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress triggers mature leaf senescence, which supports plant survival and remobilization of nutrients; yet leaf senescence also critically decreases post-drought crop yield. Drought generally results in carbon/nitrogen imbalance, which is reflected in the increased carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio in mature leaves, and which has been shown to be involved in inducing leaf senescence under normal growth conditions. Yet the involvement of the carbon/nitrogen balance in regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence is unclear. To investigate the role of carbon/nitrogen balance in drought-induced senescence, sorghum seedlings were subjected to a gradual soil drought treatment. Leaf senescence symptoms and the C:N ratio, which was indicated by the ratio of non-structural carbohydrate to total N content, were monitored during drought progression. In this study, leaf senescence developed about 12 days after the start of drought treatment, as indicated by various senescence symptoms including decreasing photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm) and chlorophyll content, and by the differential expression of senescence marker genes. The C:N ratio was significantly enhanced 10 to 12 days into drought treatment. Leaf senescence occurred in the older (lower) leaves, which had higher C:N ratios, but not in the younger (upper) leaves, which had lower C:N ratios. In addition, a detached leaf assay was conducted to investigate the effect of carbon/nitrogen availability on drought-induced senescence. Exogenous application of excess sugar combined with limited nitrogen promoted drought-induced leaf senescence. Thus our results suggest that the carbon/nitrogen balance may be involved in the regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence. PMID:26317421

  13. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. PMID:26500338

  14. Incidence and characterization of resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion fields in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, A; Khajehali, J; Van Leeuwen, T

    2016-05-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is the main pest of onion-growing fields in Isfahan and is mainly controlled by frequently spraying several insecticides. To investigate the resistance status and mechanisms, the susceptibility of ten field populations collected from Isfahan onion-growing regions were tested to several currently used pesticides. Resistance to the tested insecticides was observed in most populations when compared with the susceptible reference population. Enhanced detoxification, implicated by the use of inhibitors of major metabolic detoxification enzymes, was observed in the populations resistant to profenofos and chlorpyrifos. In the deltamethrin resistant populations, the amino acid substitution T929I was detected in the voltage gated sodium channel, which is known to confer pyrethroid resistance. These data are a first step towards more efficient resistance management tactics through early detection of resistant onion thrips in Iran. PMID:27017878

  15. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (<2 m) throughout the season. However, 4% of T. tabaci adults captured on sticky cards were at altitudes ≥2 m, and T. tabaci were also captured on UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV. PMID:26314037

  16. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.

    PubMed

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-09-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time.

  17. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (<2 m) throughout the season. However, 4% of T. tabaci adults captured on sticky cards were at altitudes ≥2 m, and T. tabaci were also captured on UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV.

  18. Investigating the effect of invasion characteristics on onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations in onions with a temperature-driven process model.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Stevens, Mark; Liu, De Li; Herron, Grant

    2009-12-01

    A temperature-driven process model was developed to describe the seasonal patterns of populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, in onions. The model used daily cohorts (individuals of the same developmental stage and daily age) as the population unit. Stage transitions were modeled as a logistic function of accumulated degree-days to account for variability in development rate among individuals. Daily survival was modeled as a logistic function of daily mean temperature. Parameters for development, survival, and fecundity were estimated from published data. A single invasion event was used to initiate the population process, starting at 1-100 d after onion emergence (DAE) for 10-100 d at the daily rate of 0.001-0.9 adults/plant/d. The model was validated against five observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations from two unsprayed sites in the Riverina, New South Wales, Australia, during 2003-2006. Performance of the model was measured by a fit index based on the proportion of variations in observed data explained by the model (R (2)) and the differences in total thrips-days between observed and predicted populations. Satisfactory matching between simulated and observed seasonal patterns was obtained within the ranges of invasion parameters tested. Model best-fit was obtained at invasion starting dates of 6-98 DAE with a daily invasion rate of 0.002-0.2 adults/plant/d and an invasion duration of 30-100 d. Under the best-fit invasion scenarios, the model closely reproduced the observed seasonal patterns, explaining 73-95% of variability in adult and larval densities during population increase periods. The results showed that small invasions of adult thrips followed by a gradual population build-up of thrips within onion crops were sufficient to bring about the observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations in onion. Implications of the model on timing of chemical controls are discussed.

  19. Manipulation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (Tospovirus) Via the Host Plant Nutrients to Enhance Its Transmission and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Shalileh, Sheida; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) influences the biology, performance, and behavioral patterns of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. In this study, using Capsicum annuum L. as the host plant, we aimed to determine the manipulation of F. occidentalis by TSWV through switching of the diet (+ or −TSWV) during vector’s development. Behavioral patterns, fitness, as well as vector performance were evaluated. The specific parameters investigated included longevity/survival, fecundity, development time, feeding, and preferential behavior. F. occidentalis were reared on either TSWV-infected (exposed) or healthy leaves (non-exposed) throughout their larval stages. The emerging adults were then individually transferred to either healthy or TSWV-infected leaf disks. This resulted into four treatments, consisting of exposed or non-exposed thrips reared on either infected or healthy leaf disks as adults. All F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV in their larval stages had shorter development time regardless of the adults’ diet. Whereas, the ones that were later reared on healthy leaf disks as adults recorded the highest longevity and reproduction rate. Furthermore, adults of F. occidentalis that were exposed to TSWV in their larval stages showed preference toward healthy leaf disks (−TSWV), whereas the non-exposed significantly preferred the infected leaf disks (+TSWV). These are further indications that TSWV modifies the nutritional content of its host plants, which influences vector’s biology and preferential behavior, in favor of its multiplication and dispersal. The findings offer additional explanation to the often aggressive spread of the virus in crop stands. PMID:27566527

  20. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  1. Low temperature–scanning electron microscopy to evaluate morphology and predation of Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae: Tetranychus species)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper evaluates the potential usefulness of low temperature-scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) to evaluate morphology and predation behavior of the six-spotted thrips (Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande) against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)). Morphological features...

  2. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.

    PubMed

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-09-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

  3. Two years research on efficiency of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory, to reduce damage caused by onion thrips(Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on leek.

    PubMed

    Gombac, P; Trdan, S

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and 2011, a field experiment was carried out at the Laboratory Field at the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the aim to investigate suitability of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L) and summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), for reducing damage caused by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) on leek (Allium porrum L.). Four leek cultivars--'Columbus', 'Forrest', 'Lancelot' and 'Lincoln'--were used in the research (Bejo Zaden B.V., Netherlands). In both years, the mean index of damage caused by feeding of the pest on the leek leaves increased from the first evaluation (13 July 2009 and 18 June 2011) in both treatments with intercrops and in control treatment (without intercrop). Leek grown with birdsfoot trefoil as intercrop was in both years statistically the least damaged from thrips. Also summer savory was efficient in the same context in comparison with control treatment. In year 2009 cultivar 'Lancelot' was the least damaged in all treatments, and in year 2011 'Lancelot' and 'Forrest'. In both years intercrop and cultivar also had a significant influence on the yield of leek. The highest yield was obtained on the control plots, meanwhile birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory were pretty competitive and yield of leek grown with them as intercrops was therefore significantly lower.

  4. Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  5. Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Beauveria bassiana strains were evaluated for control of western flower thrips. Strain RSB was the most virulent, causing 69-96% mortality at concentrations of 1×104 – 1×107 conidia mL-1, 10 days after inoculation of first instars. In greenhouse trials, RSB applied to broccoli foliage signifi...

  6. Evaluation of visual and olfactory cues for sampling three thrips species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in deciduous forests of the northern United States.

    PubMed

    Rieske, L K; Raffa, K F

    2003-06-01

    The introduced basswood thrips, Thrips calcaratus Uzel pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), and native basswood thrips, Neohydatothrips tiliae (Hood), form a thrips complex that attacks buds and foliage of basswood, Tilia americana L., trees in the northern United States. We assessed the potential for exploiting visual and olfactory cues to monitor these forest thrips. We tested blue, green, red, white, and yellow for thrips' response to visual stimuli, and anisaldehyde, ethyl nicotinate, and polar and nonpolar extracts of basswood buds or leaves for thrips' response to olfactory stimuli over a 2-yr period. Generally, yellow traps tended to elicit the greatest visual response from all three species. None of the species showed significant attraction to the test volatiles compared with controls. The introduced basswood thrips, which is closely associated with expanding buds, was the most abundant species, and occurred earlier in the spring than the two flower- or foliage-associated species. The implications of these behaviors are discussed with respect to a forest pest monitoring program.

  7. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence

    PubMed Central

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-01-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European ‘L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

  8. The Liothrips-lineage of thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) from Iran with the first record of micropterous morph of a Liothrips species.

    PubMed

    Minaei, Kambiz; Mound, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    A key is provided to the three Phlaeothripinae genera of the Liothrips-lineage known from Iran, Cephalothrips, Liothrips, and Liophloeothrips. Ataliothrips is placed as a new synonym of Liothrips, and the micropterous morph of L. reuteri described, this morph being unique among species of Liothrips. Illustrated keys are provided to the species of these genera recorded from Iran, all of which are considered to be leaf-feeding. In addition, a key is provided to the three species of Liophloeothrips from Europe, because L. hungaricus has been recorded from Iran although with no known voucher specimens.

  9. Commonly Intercepted Thrips at U.S. Ports-of-Entry from Africa, Europe, and the Mediterranean. IV. Miscellaneous thripine genera excluding Frankliniella, Iridothrips, and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 130 species of thrips occurring in Africa, Europe, and the Mediterranean region were intercepted by U. S. agricultural quarantine officers from shipments of plants and cut flowers at various ports-of-entry in the United States from 1983 to 1999. This paper is Part 4 of a guide to the iden...

  10. Winter weeds as inoculum sources of tomato spotted wilt virus and as reservoirs for its vector, Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in farmscapes of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Shrestha, Anita; Culbreath, Albert

    2014-04-01

    Thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a broad host range including crops and weeds. In Georgia, TSWV is known to consistently affect peanut, tomato, pepper, and tobacco production. These crops are grown from March through November. In the crop-free period, weeds are presumed to serve as a green bridge for thrips and TSWV. Previous studies have identified several winter weeds as TSWV and thrips hosts. However, their ability to influence TSWV transmission in crops is still not completely understood. To further understand these interactions, population dynamics of two prevalent vectors, viz., Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on selected winter weeds were monitored from October through April in four counties from 2004 to 2008. Peak populations were typically recorded in March. F. fusca and F. occidentalis adults were found on winter weeds and their percentages ranged from 0 to 68% in comparison with other adults. Immatures outnumbered all adults. Microcosm experiments indicated that the selected winter weeds differentially supported F. fusca reproduction and development. The time required to complete one generation (adult to adult) ranged from 11 to 16 d. Adult recovery ranged from 0.97 to 2.2 per female released. In addition, transmission assays revealed that thrips efficiently transmitted TSWV from peanut to weeds, the incidence of infection ranged from 10 to 55%. Back transmission assays with thrips from TSWV-infected weeds resulted in up to 75% TSWV infection in peanut. These whole-plant transmission and back transmission assays provide the basis for TSWV persistence in farmscapes year round.

  11. Regional and temporal variation in susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in onion fields in New York.

    PubMed

    Shelton, A M; Nault, B A; Plate, J; Zhao, J Z

    2003-12-01

    Populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, from commercial onion fields in New York were evaluated for their susceptibility to the commonly used pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior T), using a novel system called the Thrips Insecticide Bioassay System (TIBS). To use TIBS, thrips are collected directly from the plant into an insecticide-treated 0.5-ml microcentrifuge tube that has a flexible plastic cap with a small well into which 0.08 ml of a 10% sugar-water solution with food colorant is deposited. The solution is sealed into the well with a small piece of stretched parafilm through which the thrips can feed on the solution. Thrips mortality is assessed after 24 h with the help of a dissecting stereoscope. In 2001, onion thrips populations were collected from 16 different sites and resistance ratios were >1,000 in five populations. Percent mortality at 100 ppm, a recommended field rate, varied from 9 to 100%, indicating high levels of variation in susceptibility. Particular instances of resistance appeared to be the result of practices within an individual field rather than a regional phenomenon. In 2002, we also observed large differences in onion thrips susceptibility, not only between individual fields but also between thrips collected in a single field at mid season and late season, again suggesting that insecticide-use practices within an individual field caused differences in susceptibility. Additional tests indicated no differences in susceptibility between adult and larval onion thrips populations and only relatively minor differences between populations collected from different parts of the same field. Using TIBS, several populations of onion thrips with different susceptibilities to lambda-cyhalothrin were identified and then subjected to lambda-cyhalothrin-treated onion plants. There was a highly significant positive relationship between percent mortality of thrips from TIBS and percent mortality from the treated onion plants, indicating that results from TIBS could be used to predict spray performance. These data suggest that use of TIBS for evaluating susceptibility to particular insecticides could be instrumental for developing a resistance management strategy for onion thrips. PMID:14977125

  12. Investigating the effect of invasion characteristics on onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations in onions with a temperature-driven process model.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Stevens, Mark; Liu, De Li; Herron, Grant

    2009-12-01

    A temperature-driven process model was developed to describe the seasonal patterns of populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, in onions. The model used daily cohorts (individuals of the same developmental stage and daily age) as the population unit. Stage transitions were modeled as a logistic function of accumulated degree-days to account for variability in development rate among individuals. Daily survival was modeled as a logistic function of daily mean temperature. Parameters for development, survival, and fecundity were estimated from published data. A single invasion event was used to initiate the population process, starting at 1-100 d after onion emergence (DAE) for 10-100 d at the daily rate of 0.001-0.9 adults/plant/d. The model was validated against five observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations from two unsprayed sites in the Riverina, New South Wales, Australia, during 2003-2006. Performance of the model was measured by a fit index based on the proportion of variations in observed data explained by the model (R (2)) and the differences in total thrips-days between observed and predicted populations. Satisfactory matching between simulated and observed seasonal patterns was obtained within the ranges of invasion parameters tested. Model best-fit was obtained at invasion starting dates of 6-98 DAE with a daily invasion rate of 0.002-0.2 adults/plant/d and an invasion duration of 30-100 d. Under the best-fit invasion scenarios, the model closely reproduced the observed seasonal patterns, explaining 73-95% of variability in adult and larval densities during population increase periods. The results showed that small invasions of adult thrips followed by a gradual population build-up of thrips within onion crops were sufficient to bring about the observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations in onion. Implications of the model on timing of chemical controls are discussed. PMID:20021751

  13. Manipulation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (Tospovirus) Via the Host Plant Nutrients to Enhance Its Transmission and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Shalileh, Sheida; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) influences the biology, performance, and behavioral patterns of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. In this study, using Capsicum annuum L. as the host plant, we aimed to determine the manipulation of F. occidentalis by TSWV through switching of the diet (+ or −TSWV) during vector’s development. Behavioral patterns, fitness, as well as vector performance were evaluated. The specific parameters investigated included longevity/survival, fecundity, development time, feeding, and preferential behavior. F. occidentalis were reared on either TSWV-infected (exposed) or healthy leaves (non-exposed) throughout their larval stages. The emerging adults were then individually transferred to either healthy or TSWV-infected leaf disks. This resulted into four treatments, consisting of exposed or non-exposed thrips reared on either infected or healthy leaf disks as adults. All F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV in their larval stages had shorter development time regardless of the adults’ diet. Whereas, the ones that were later reared on healthy leaf disks as adults recorded the highest longevity and reproduction rate. Furthermore, adults of F. occidentalis that were exposed to TSWV in their larval stages showed preference toward healthy leaf disks (−TSWV), whereas the non-exposed significantly preferred the infected leaf disks (+TSWV). These are further indications that TSWV modifies the nutritional content of its host plants, which influences vector’s biology and preferential behavior, in favor of its multiplication and dispersal. The findings offer additional explanation to the often aggressive spread of the virus in crop stands.

  14. Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol Induces Physiological Changes in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Seedlings under Suboptimal Soil Moisture Environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Jialin; Johnston, Christopher R; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhu, Kai; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    Osmopriming with PEG has potential to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment, especially under stress conditions. This research investigated germination performance, seedling establishment, and effects of osmopriming with PEG on physiology in sorghum seedlings and their association with post-priming stress tolerance under various soil moisture stress conditions. Results showed that seed priming increased the environmental range suitable for sorghum germination and has potential to provide more uniform and synchronous emergence. Physiologically, seed priming strengthened the antioxidant activities of APX, CAT, POD, and SOD, as well as compatible solutes including free amino acid, reducing sugar, proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein contents. As a result, seed priming reduced lipid peroxidation and stabilized the cell membrane, resulting in increased stress tolerance under drought or excessive soil moisture environments. Overall, results suggested that seed priming with PEG was effective in improving seed germination and seedling establishment of sorghum under adverse soil moisture conditions. Osmopriming effectively strengthened the antioxidant system and increased osmotic adjustment, likely resulting in increased stress tolerance.

  15. Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria

    PubMed Central

    Mekbib, Firew

    2007-01-01

    Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations). Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources. PMID:18162135

  16. Choline metabolism in glycinebetaine accumulating and non-accumulating near-isogenic lines of Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Peel, Gregory J; Mickelbart, Michael V; Rhodes, David

    2010-03-01

    Glycinebetaine (GB) is a compatible solute that is accumulated by some plant species, especially under conditions leading to tissue osmotic stress. Genetic modification for accumulation of GB in an attempt to produce more stress tolerant plants has been a focus for several groups in recent years. However, attempts to increase tissue GB concentrations have been unsuccessful, with many transgenic lines accumulating far lower concentrations than naturally-occurring GB accumulators. A better understanding of the metabolic regulation of GB synthesis is necessary for successful molecular breeding and biotechnology. We utilized previously developed near-isogenic lines for GB accumulation to characterize the biochemical basis for GB deficiency in maize and sorghum. Salinity resulted in increased accumulation of choline in both accumulating and non-accumulating lines. When grown in the presence of NaCl, GB-non-accumulating lines had increased concentrations of choline and phosphocholine, but not GB. Decreased GB synthesis can be explained from the increased concentrations of phosphocholine in planta and the strong inhibition of N-phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase by phosphocholine observed in vitro. The lack of GB accumulation in GB-/- homozygous NILs was not due to the lack of the putative choline monooxygenase (the enzyme responsible for choline oxidation to betaine aldehyde) gene or protein that we describe. The previously identified bet1 locus does not appear to be choline monooxygenase. However, the lack of GB synthesis does affect the synthesis and turnover of choline moieties in GB non-accumulating lines, which may lead to alterations in overall 1-carbon metabolism in plants.

  17. Physicochemical properties, morphological and X-ray pattern of chemically modified white sorghum starch. (Bicolor-Moench).

    PubMed

    Olayinka, O O; Adebowale, K O; Olu-Owolabi, I B

    2013-02-01

    Starch isolated from white sorghum was subjected to chemical modifications like oxidation, acetylation and acid thinning. Proximate composition of these, such as crude protein, crude fat, moisture content and ash content were studied. Wide angle X-ray diffractograms showed typical 'A' pattern characteristic of cereal starches, but significant differences were observed between the X-ray pattern of native and modified starches. Scanning electron microscopy revealed round and polygonal shapes for the starch granules with heterogeneous sizes and chemical modifications altered the starch granules morphology. Swelling power and solubility increased with increasing in temperature. Swelling power increased upon acetylation but decreased during acid thinning and oxidation. Solubility increased in these three modifications compared to the native starch.

  18. Genetic mapping of QTLs for sugar-related traits in a RIL population of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.

    PubMed

    Shiringani, Amukelani Lacrecia; Frisch, Matthias; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    The productivity of sorghum is mainly determined by quantitative traits such as grain yield and stem sugar-related characteristics. Substantial crop improvement has been achieved by breeding in the last decades. Today, genetic mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is considered a valuable tool for trait enhancement. We have investigated QTL associated with the sugar components (Brix, glucose, sucrose, and total sugar content) and sugar-related agronomic traits (flowering date, plant height, stem diameter, tiller number per plant, fresh panicle weight, and estimated juice weight) in four different environments (two locations) using a population of 188 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between grain (M71) and sweet sorghum (SS79). A genetic map with 157 AFLP, SSR, and EST-SSR markers was constructed, and several QTLs were detected using composite interval mapping (CIM). Further, additive x additive interaction and QTL x environmental interaction were estimated. CIM identified more than five additive QTLs in most traits explaining a range of 6.0-26.1% of the phenotypic variation. A total of 24 digenic epistatic locus pairs were identified in seven traits, supporting the hypothesis that QTL analysis without considering epistasis can result in biased estimates. QTLs showing multiple effects were identified, where the major QTL on SBI-06 was significantly associated with most of the traits, i.e., flowering date, plant height, Brix, sucrose, and sugar content. Four out of ten traits studied showed a significant QTL x environmental interaction. Our results are an important step toward marker-assisted selection for sugar-related traits and biofuel yield in sorghum. PMID:20229249

  19. Physiological parameters of salt tolerance during germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of the same subtropical origin

    PubMed Central

    Bafeel, Sameera Omar

    2014-01-01

    Salt-tolerant ecotypes (or cultivars, varieties, etc.) of different plant species have been long known to evolve in nature. In the past few years, plant breeders have made significant achievements regarding salt tolerance in a number of potential crops using artificial selection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and screening of the natural sea water (Red sea) tolerance of 7 Saudi local (Baish, Jazan; 17.388086, 42.524070) cultivars of sorghum (Sorghumbicolor L., Moench; Poaceae) with respect to the performance of some physiological parameters such as germination, shoot and root development which could be recommended to local farmers and plant breeders. The shoot growth of the studied sorghum cultivars were significantly affected by the exposure to sea water. Root growth was different among cultivars even when treated with normal water. The cultivar C3 (mix white and red seeds) was observed as more salt tolerant and cultivar C4 (whitish seeds) was more salt sensitive on the basis of the germination-ability and shoot development. Cultivar C3 was also observed to produce better seeds compared with the other cultivars. Results of this experiment can be useful to the local sorghum growing farmers or as a genetic resource for the development of sorghum cultivars with improved germination under salt stress. PMID:25183939

  20. Molecular characterization of a mutable pigmentation phenotype and isolation of the first active transposable element from Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Surinder; Brendel, Volker; Zhang, Jianbo; Axtell, John D.; Peterson, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of red phlobaphene pigments in sorghum grain pericarp is under the control of the Y gene. A mutable allele of Y, designated as y-cs (y-candystripe), produces a variegated pericarp phenotype. Using probes from the maize p1 gene that cross-hybridize with the sorghum Y gene, we isolated the y-cs allele containing a large insertion element. Our results show that the Y gene is a member of the MYB-transcription factor family. The insertion element, named Candystripe1 (Cs1), is present in the second intron of the Y gene and shares features of the CACTA superfamily of transposons. Cs1 is 23,018 bp in size and is bordered by 20-bp terminal inverted repeat sequences. It generated a 3-bp target site duplication upon insertion within the Y gene and excised from y-cs, leaving a 2-bp footprint in two cases analyzed. Reinsertion of the excised copy of Cs1 was identified by Southern hybridization in the genome of each of seven red pericarp revertant lines tested. Cs1 is the first active transposable element isolated from sorghum. Our analysis suggests that Cs1-homologous sequences are present in low copy number in sorghum and other grasses, including sudangrass, maize, rice, teosinte, and sugarcane. The low copy number and high transposition frequency of Cs1 imply that this transposon could prove to be an efficient gene isolation tool in sorghum. PMID:10611384

  1. Molecular analysis of two cDNAs encoding Xa1 and oxysterol binding proteins in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and subsequent microarray analysis, expression profiles of sorghum genes responsive to greenbug phloem-feeding were obtained and identified. Among the profiles, two cDNAs designated to MM73 and MM95 were identified to encode Xa1 (Xa1) and oxysterol ...

  2. Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol Induces Physiological Changes in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Seedlings under Suboptimal Soil Moisture Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Jialin; Johnston, Christopher R.; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhu, Kai; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    Osmopriming with PEG has potential to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment, especially under stress conditions. This research investigated germination performance, seedling establishment, and effects of osmopriming with PEG on physiology in sorghum seedlings and their association with post-priming stress tolerance under various soil moisture stress conditions. Results showed that seed priming increased the environmental range suitable for sorghum germination and has potential to provide more uniform and synchronous emergence. Physiologically, seed priming strengthened the antioxidant activities of APX, CAT, POD, and SOD, as well as compatible solutes including free amino acid, reducing sugar, proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein contents. As a result, seed priming reduced lipid peroxidation and stabilized the cell membrane, resulting in increased stress tolerance under drought or excessive soil moisture environments. Overall, results suggested that seed priming with PEG was effective in improving seed germination and seedling establishment of sorghum under adverse soil moisture conditions. Osmopriming effectively strengthened the antioxidant system and increased osmotic adjustment, likely resulting in increased stress tolerance. PMID:26469084

  3. Integration of experiments across diverse environments identifies the genetic determinants of variation in Sorghum bicolor seed element composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the bioavailable elemental nutrient content in the edible portions of the crop has the potential to increase the value of sorghum for human and animal nutrition. Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality are in part determined by the sequestration of sufficient mineral nutrients...

  4. Genome-wide association study of grain polyphenol concentrations in global sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Davina H; Hoffmann, Leo; Rooney, William L; Ramu, Punna; Morris, Geoffrey P; Kresovich, Stephen

    2014-11-12

    Identifying natural variation of health-promoting compounds in staple crops and characterizing its genetic basis can help improve human nutrition through crop biofortification. Some varieties of sorghum, a staple cereal crop grown worldwide, have high concentrations of proanthocyanidins and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We quantified total phenols, proanthocyanidins, and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in a global sorghum diversity panel (n = 381) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and characterized the patterns of variation with respect to geographic origin and botanical race. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 404,628 SNP markers identified novel quantitative trait loci for sorghum polyphenols, some of which colocalized with homologues of flavonoid pathway genes from other plants, including an orthologue of maize (Zea mays) Pr1 and a homologue of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TT16. This survey of grain polyphenol variation in sorghum germplasm and catalog of flavonoid pathway loci may be useful to guide future enhancement of cereal polyphenols.

  5. Highly efficient de novo mutant identification in a sorghum bicolor tilling population using the ComSeq approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening large populations for carriers of known or de novo rare SNPs is required both in Targeting induced local lesions IN genomes (TILLING) experiments in plants and analogously in screening human populations. We formerly suggested an approach that combines the celebrated mathematical field of c...

  6. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins from Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Bran

    PubMed Central

    Devi, P. Suganya; Kumar, M. Saravana; Das, S. Mohan

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in natural food colorants like carotenoids and anthocyanins with functional properties. Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content (4.7 mg/g of sorghum bran) followed by methanol (1.95 mg/g) and acetone (1 mg/g). Similarly, the highest total flavonoids (143 mg/g) and total phenolic contents (0.93 mg/g) were obtained in acidified methanol extracts than methanol and acetone extracts. To study the health benefits of anthocyanin from red sorghum bran, the total antioxidant activity was evaluated by biochemical and molecular methods. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acidified methanol extracts of anthocyanin in dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of the red sorghum bran was directly related to the total anthocyanin found in red sorghum bran. PMID:22400119

  7. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench): A new approach in ethnobiology

    PubMed Central

    Mekbib, Firew

    2009-01-01

    Background Sorghum is one of the main staple crops for the world's poorest and most food insecure people. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for thousands of years and hence the heritage of the crop is expected to be rich. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage has not been done before. Methods In order to assess the bioecocultural heritage of sorghum by folksongs various research methods were employed. These included focus group discussions with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 120 farmers, and key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents. Relevant secondary data was also collected from the museum curators and historians. Results The crop is intimately associated with the life of the farmers. The association of sorghum with the farmers from seed selection to utilization is presented using folksongs. These include both tune and textual (ballad stories or poems) types. Folksongs described how farmers maintain a number of varieties on-farm for many biological, socio-economic, ecological, ethnological and cultural reasons. Farmers describe sorghum as follows: Leaf number is less than twenty; Panicle hold a thousand seeds; a clever farmer takes hold of it. In addition, they described the various farmers' varieties ethnobotanically by songs. The relative importance of sorghum vis-à-vis others crops is similarly explained in folksong terms. Conclusion The qualitative description of farmers' characterisation of the crop systems based on folksongs is a new system of appraising farmers' bioecocultural heritage. Hence, researchers, in addition to formal and quantitative descriptions, should use the folksong system for enhanced characterisation and utilization of bioecocultural heritages. In general, the salient characteristics of the folksongs used in describing the bioecocultural heritages are their oral traditions, varied function, communal or individual recreation and message transmissions. PMID:19575802

  8. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien M.; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G.; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E.

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0–15%) during conditioning or (0–25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  9. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in sorghum bicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target to alter the abundance and composition of lignin. The major regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism are myb transcription factors, which have been shown to modulate secondary cell wall compositi...

  10. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Daffalla, Hussien M; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0-15%) during conditioning or (0-25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed.

  11. Effects of egg order on organic and inorganic element concentrations and egg characteristics in tree swallows, tachycineta bicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.; Custer, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    The laying order of tree swallow eggs was identified from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA, and eggs were chemically analyzed individually to document possible effects of laying order on organic contaminant and inorganic element concentrations. Effects of laying order on other parameters such as egg weight, size, and lipid and moisture content also were assessed. Some effects of egg order on total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected, but the effect was not uniform across individual females or between years. In 2004, clutches with higher total PCBs tended to have concentrations decline across egg order, whereas clutches with lower concentrations of PCBs tended to increase across egg order. In contrast, in 2005, there was a tendency for concentrations to increase across egg order. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were highly variable within and among clutches in both years. The directionality of egg order associations (i.e., slopes) for trace elements was element dependent, was positive for Mn and Zn, was negative for B, and had no slope for Cr. Whole egg weight increased across egg order. Percentage lipid was variable within a clutch, with no pattern common across all females. Percentage lipid was also correlated with organic contaminant concentration. In highly contaminated environments, higher lipid content could have the unanticipated corollary of having higher concentrations of lipophilic contaminants such as PCBs. To reduce the effect of high variation within a clutch when assessing contamination exposure, it is recommended that two eggs per clutch be collected and pooled for chemical analysis. We further recommend that, as long as the two eggs are randomly collected, the additional effort needed to identify and collect specific eggs is not warranted. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  12. Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of sorghum bicolor caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cold acclimation is a key process in plants from temperate climates, the mechanisms sensing low temperature remain obscure. Here, we show that the accumulation of the organic acid fumaric acid, mediated by the cytosolic fumarase FUM2, is essential for cold acclimation of metabolism in the c...

  13. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Cell Wall Related Genes in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a Food, Fodder, and Biofuel Crop.

    PubMed

    Rai, Krishan M; Thu, Sandi W; Balasubramanian, Vimal K; Cobos, Christopher J; Disasa, Tesfaye; Mendu, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation. Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Chromosomal localization analysis of these genes revealed that about 65% of cell wall related genes were confined to four chromosomes (Chr. 1-4). Further, 56 tandem duplication events involving 169 genes were identified in these gene families which could be associated with expansion of genes within families in sorghum. Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. Expression analysis showed tissue specificity as well as differential expression under abiotic stress conditions. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches. PMID:27630645

  14. Identification of novel drought-responsive microRNAs and trans-acting siRNAs from Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench by high-throughput sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Amit; Smita, Shuchi; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar K.; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Pandey, Dev M.; Bansal, Kailash C.

    2015-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) namely microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs) play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and thus the control plant development and stress responses. In order to identify drought-responsive miRNAs and tasi-RNAs in sorghum, we constructed small RNA libraries from a drought tolerant (M35-1) and susceptible (C43) sorghum genotypes grown under control and drought stress conditions, and sequenced by Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Ninety seven conserved and 526 novel miRNAs representing 472 unique miRNA families were identified from sorghum. Ninety-six unique miRNAs were found to be regulated by drought stress, of which 32 were up- and 49 were down-regulated (fold change ≥ 2 or ≤ −2) at least in one genotype, while the remaining 15 miRNAs showed contrasting drought-regulated expression pattern between genotypes. A maximum of 17 and 18 miRNAs was differentially regulated under drought stress condition in the sensitive and tolerant genotypes, respectively. These results suggest that genotype dependent stress responsive regulation of miRNAs may contribute, at least in part, to the differential drought tolerance of sorghum genotypes. We also identified two miR390-directed TAS3 gene homologs and the auxin response factors as tasi-RNA targets. We predicted more than 1300 unique target genes for the novel and conserved miRNAs. These target genes were predicted to be involved in different cellular, metabolic, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and developmental processes. Genome-wide identification of stress-responsive miRNAs, tasi-RNAs and their targets identified in this study will be useful in unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying drought stress responses and genetic improvement of biomass production and stress tolerance in sorghum. PMID:26236318

  15. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  16. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Cell Wall Related Genes in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a Food, Fodder, and Biofuel Crop.

    PubMed

    Rai, Krishan M; Thu, Sandi W; Balasubramanian, Vimal K; Cobos, Christopher J; Disasa, Tesfaye; Mendu, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation. Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Chromosomal localization analysis of these genes revealed that about 65% of cell wall related genes were confined to four chromosomes (Chr. 1-4). Further, 56 tandem duplication events involving 169 genes were identified in these gene families which could be associated with expansion of genes within families in sorghum. Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. Expression analysis showed tissue specificity as well as differential expression under abiotic stress conditions. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches.

  17. Morpho-physiological characterization of cold-and pre-flowering drought tolerance in grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) inbreds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: The relationships between early-season cold temperature germination and preflowering drought stress in eight grain sorghum inbreds were assessed using morphophysiological traits. Study Design: Field was laid out in a randomized complete block design. Place and Duration: The experiment was condu...

  18. Genome- wide characterization of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) gene family of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]: a bioinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Neha; Jaiswal, Parul; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor (TF) complex with preferential binding to CCAAT elements of promoters, regulating gene expression in most of the higher eukaryotes. The availability of plant genome sequences have revealed multiple number of genes coding for the three subunits, namely NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC in contrast to single NF-Y gene for each subunit reported in yeast and animals. A total of 33 NF-YTF comprising of 8 NF-YA, 11 NF-YB and 14 NF-YC subunits were accessed from the sorghum genome. The bioinformatic characterization of NF-Y gene family of sorghum for gene structure, chromosome location, protein motif, phylogeny, gene duplication and in-silico expression under abiotic stresses have been attempted in the present study. The identified SbNF-Y genes are distributed on all the 10 chromosomes of sorghum with variability in the frequency and 18 out of 33 SbNF-Ys were found to be intronless. Segmental duplication event was found to be predominant feature based on gene duplication pattern study. Several orthologs and paralogs groups were disclosed through the comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of SbNF-Y proteins along with 36 Arabidopsis and 28 rice NF-Y proteins. In-silico expression analysis under abiotic stresses using rice transcriptome data revealed several of the sorghum NF-Y genes to be associated with salt, drought, cold and heat stresses.

  19. Molecular tagging and validation of microsatellite markers linked to the low germination stimulant gene (lgs) for Striga resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Satish, Kanuganti; Gutema, Zenbaba; Grenier, Cécile; Rich, Patrick J; Ejeta, Gebisa

    2012-04-01

    Striga is a devastating parasitic weed in Africa and parts of Asia. Low Striga germination stimulant activity, a well-known resistance mechanism in sorghum, is controlled by a single recessive gene (lgs). Molecular markers linked to the lgs gene can accelerate development of Striga-resistant cultivars. Using a high density linkage map constructed with 367 markers (DArT and SSRs) and an in vitro assay for germination stimulant activity towards Striga asiatica in 354 recombinant inbred lines derived from SRN39 (low stimulant) × Shanqui Red (high stimulant), we precisely tagged and mapped the lgs gene on SBI-05 between two tightly linked microsatellite markers SB3344 and SB3352 at a distance of 0.5 and 1.5 cM, respectively. The fine-mapped lgs region was delimited to a 5.8 cM interval with the closest three markers SB3344, SB3346 and SB3343 positioned at 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 cM, respectively. We validated tightly linked markers in a set of 23 diverse sorghum accessions, most of which were known to be Striga resistant, by genotyping and phenotyping for germination stimulant activity towards both S. asiatica and S. hermonthica. The markers co-segregated with Striga germination stimulant activity in 21 of the 23 tested lines. The lgs locus similarly affected germination stimulant activity for both Striga species. The identified markers would be useful in marker-assisted selection for introgressing this trait into susceptible sorghum cultivars. Examination of the sorghum genome sequence and comparative analysis with the rice genome suggests some candidate genes in the fine-mapped region (400 kb) that may affect strigolactone biosynthesis or exudation. This work should form a foundation for map-based cloning of the lgs gene and aid in elucidation of an exact mechanism for resistance based on low Striga germination stimulant activity.

  20. A meta-analysis of relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and performance across studies of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Bonier, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Habitats worldwide are increasingly being degraded by human activities, with environmental pollution representing a significant threat to species and ecosystems. The presence of persistent organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), has generated concern. Captive experiments and field studies have reported some evidence for detrimental effects of PCB exposure, but also significant variation across studies and species. Here, I use a meta-analytical approach to combine findings across 10 studies investigating effects of PCBs on performance (e.g. reproductive success, offspring growth) in free-ranging tree swallows, a common bioindicator species that accumulates high levels of PCBs at some contaminated sites. Contrary to predictions, five complementary analyses revealed no significant negative association between PCB exposure and performance in tree swallows. In fact, in one analysis, increased PCB exposure was associated with improved reproductive success. Possible explanations for these findings include several limitations of field studies, variation in the toxicity of different PCB congener mixtures found across sites included in the analysis, and variation in the degree of tolerance of PCB exposure among species (with high tolerance found in tree swallows). At this point, the available evidence from field studies does not demonstrate negative impacts of PCB exposure on tree swallow performance. PMID:27152205

  1. Morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated the potential of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Jihong; Li, Yinxin; Li, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a worldwide environmental problem, and remediation of Cd pollution is of great significance for food production as well as human health. Here, the responses of sweet sorghum cv. 'M-81E' to cadmium stress were studied for its potential as an energy plant in restoring soils contaminated by cadmium. In hydroponic experiments, the biomass of 'M-81E' showed no obvious change under 10 μM cadmium treatment. Cadmium concentration was the highest in roots of seedlings as well as mature plants, but in agricultural practice, the valuable and harvested parts of sweet sorghum are shoots, so promoting the translocation of cadmium to shoots is of great importance in order to improve its phytoremediation capacity. Further histochemical assays with dithizone staining revealed that cadmium was mainly concentrated in the stele of roots and scattered in intercellular space of caulicles. Moreover, the correlation analysis showed that Cd had a negative relationship with iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) in caulicles and leaves and a positive relationship with Fe in roots. These results implied that cadmium might compete with Fe, Zn, and Mn for the transport binding sites and further prevent their translocation to shoots. In addition, transmission electron microscopic observations showed that under 100 μM cadmium treatment, the structure of chloroplast was impaired and the cell wall of vascular bundle cells in leaves and xylem and phloem cells in roots turned thicker compared to control. In summary, morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated sweet sorghum can absorb cadmium and the growth is not negatively affected by mild level cadmium stress; thus, it is a promising material for the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils considering its economic benefit. This study also points out potential strategies to improve the phytoremediation capacity of sweet sorghum through genetic modification of transporters and cell wall components. PMID:27318481

  2. Transcriptional regulation of the sbeIIb genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and barley (Hordeum vulgare): importance of the barley sbeIIb second intron.

    PubMed

    Mutisya, Joel; Sun, Chuanxin; Palmqvist, Sara; Baguma, Yona; Odhiambo, Benjamin; Jansson, Christer

    2006-05-01

    The transcriptional activity of the sorghum sbeIIb gene, encoding starch branching enzyme IIb, is seed specific, with expression in both the endosperm and the embryo. In comparison, expression of barley sbeIIb is confined to the endosperm, whereas that of barley sbeIIa occurs in endosperm, embryonic and vegetative tissues. It has been suggested that the second intron of barley sbeIIb may be instrumental in conferring endosperm-specific expression. Therefore, to further investigate the regulatory mechanisms of barley and sorghum sbe, we examined the tissue-specific activity of the sorghum sbe promoter in transient assays of green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter constructs. We found that, when linked to the barley sbeIIb second intron, the sorghum sbeIIb promoter could not drive gfp transcription in sorghum or barley embryonic cells. Similar results were obtained for the barley sbeIIa promoter. Database searches showed that sequences homologous to the barley sbeIIb intron also exist in introns and flanking regions of some other grass genes. Deletion mutagenesis of the sorghum sbeIIb promoter identified the minimal promoters required for high- and low-level expression, respectively, but did not reveal any putative promoter elements crucial for expression. A sequence with similarity to the SURE element, implicated in sugar signaling, was located in the distal promoter region of sorghum sbeIIb, upstream of the minimal promoters. SURE elements are present in the proximal promoter regions of the sugar-regulated barley iso1 gene, and barley sbeIIb. In keeping in line with these observations, RNA-gel blot analyses demonstrated that expression of barley sbeIIb was sugar inducible, whereas that of sorghum sbeIIb was not.

  3. Exposure and effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Rosiu, C.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8 -tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in tree swallows (Tachycineta hicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River northwest of Providence (RI, USA) in 2000 and 2001 were some of the highest ever reported in avian tissues. Mean concentrations in eggs ranged from 300 to > 1,000 pg/g wet weight at the two most contaminated ponds, Allendale and Lyman. Mean egg concentrations at Greystone, the upstream reference pond, were 12 and 29 pg/g. Positive accumulation rates and concentrations in diet samples from 12-day-old nestlings indicated that the contamination was accumulated locally. Concentrations in diet of between 71 and 219 pg/g wet weight were more than 6 and 18 times higher than concentrations considered safe for birds (10- 12 pg/g). Hatching success was negatively associated with concentration of TCDD in eggs. Only about half the eggs hatched at Allendale compared with >77% at Greystone. The national average for hatching success in successful nests is 85%. No other contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury, were present in any sample at concentrations known to affect avian reproduction. Three bioindicators, half-peak coefficient of geometric variation, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, and brain asymmetry were assessed relative to TCDD contamination.

  4. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water.

  5. A meta-analysis of relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and performance across studies of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    PubMed

    Bonier, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Habitats worldwide are increasingly being degraded by human activities, with environmental pollution representing a significant threat to species and ecosystems. The presence of persistent organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), has generated concern. Captive experiments and field studies have reported some evidence for detrimental effects of PCB exposure, but also significant variation across studies and species. Here, I use a meta-analytical approach to combine findings across 10 studies investigating effects of PCBs on performance (e.g. reproductive success, offspring growth) in free-ranging tree swallows, a common bioindicator species that accumulates high levels of PCBs at some contaminated sites. Contrary to predictions, five complementary analyses revealed no significant negative association between PCB exposure and performance in tree swallows. In fact, in one analysis, increased PCB exposure was associated with improved reproductive success. Possible explanations for these findings include several limitations of field studies, variation in the toxicity of different PCB congener mixtures found across sites included in the analysis, and variation in the degree of tolerance of PCB exposure among species (with high tolerance found in tree swallows). At this point, the available evidence from field studies does not demonstrate negative impacts of PCB exposure on tree swallow performance.

  6. Combining Next Generation Sequencing with Bulked Segregant Analysis to Fine Map a Stem Moisture Locus in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Han, Yucui; Lv, Peng; Hou, Shenglin; Li, Suying; Ji, Guisu; Ma, Xue; Du, Ruiheng; Liu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum is one of the most promising bioenergy crops. Stem juice yield, together with stem sugar concentration, determines sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) is a gene mapping technique for identifying genomic regions containing genetic loci affecting a trait of interest that when combined with deep sequencing could effectively accelerate the gene mapping process. In this study, a dry stem sorghum landrace was characterized and the stem water controlling locus, qSW6, was fine mapped using QTL analysis and the combined BSA and deep sequencing technologies. Results showed that: (i) In sorghum variety Jiliang 2, stem water content was around 80% before flowering stage. It dropped to 75% during grain filling with little difference between different internodes. In landrace G21, stem water content keeps dropping after the flag leaf stage. The drop from 71% at flowering time progressed to 60% at grain filling time. Large differences exist between different internodes with the lowest (51%) at the 7th and 8th internodes at dough stage. (ii) A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling stem water content mapped on chromosome 6 between SSR markers Ch6-2 and gpsb069 explained about 34.7-56.9% of the phenotypic variation for the 5th to 10th internodes, respectively. (iii) BSA and deep sequencing analysis narrowed the associated region to 339 kb containing 38 putative genes. The results could help reveal molecular mechanisms underlying juice yield of sorghum and thus to improve total sugar yield.

  7. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains.

  8. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour.

  9. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from wheat (Triticum aestivum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), green gram (Vigna radiata), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as influenced by domestic food processing.

    PubMed

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2014-11-19

    Cereals (wheat and sorghum) and legumes (green gram and chickpea) commonly consumed in Asia and Africa were evaluated for polyphenolic content. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from these grains as influenced by domestic processing was also estimated. Total polyphenol content of wheat and sorghum was 1.20 and 1.12 mg/g respectively, which was increased by 49% and 20% respectively, on roasting. In contrast, a significant reduction of the same was observed in both the cereals after pressure-cooking, open-pan boiling, and microwave heating. Total flavonoids, which was 0.89 mg/g in native sorghum, reduced drastically after processing. Tannin content of both the cereals significantly increased on sprouting as well as roasting. Total polyphenol content reduced by 31% on sprouting but increased to 24% on roasting in green gram. Pressure-cooking (53%), open-pan boiling (64%), and microwave heating (>2-fold increase) significantly increased total polyphenol content in chickpea, while drastic reduction was observed in the total flavonoid content. Bioaccessible total polyphenols from these grains were in the following order: green gram > chickpea > wheat > sorghum. Domestic processing of these grains had minimal/no effect on the bioaccessible total flavonoid content. Not all the phenolic compounds present in them were bioaccessible. Concentration of bioaccessible phenolic compounds increased especially on sprouting and roasting of these grains, except chickpea, where sprouting significantly reduced the same (476 to 264 μg/g). Microwave heating significantly enhanced the concentration of bioaccessible polyphenols especially from chickpea. Thus, sprouting and roasting provided more bioaccessible polyphenols from the cereals and legumes studied. PMID:25340251

  10. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from wheat (Triticum aestivum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), green gram (Vigna radiata), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as influenced by domestic food processing.

    PubMed

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2014-11-19

    Cereals (wheat and sorghum) and legumes (green gram and chickpea) commonly consumed in Asia and Africa were evaluated for polyphenolic content. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from these grains as influenced by domestic processing was also estimated. Total polyphenol content of wheat and sorghum was 1.20 and 1.12 mg/g respectively, which was increased by 49% and 20% respectively, on roasting. In contrast, a significant reduction of the same was observed in both the cereals after pressure-cooking, open-pan boiling, and microwave heating. Total flavonoids, which was 0.89 mg/g in native sorghum, reduced drastically after processing. Tannin content of both the cereals significantly increased on sprouting as well as roasting. Total polyphenol content reduced by 31% on sprouting but increased to 24% on roasting in green gram. Pressure-cooking (53%), open-pan boiling (64%), and microwave heating (>2-fold increase) significantly increased total polyphenol content in chickpea, while drastic reduction was observed in the total flavonoid content. Bioaccessible total polyphenols from these grains were in the following order: green gram > chickpea > wheat > sorghum. Domestic processing of these grains had minimal/no effect on the bioaccessible total flavonoid content. Not all the phenolic compounds present in them were bioaccessible. Concentration of bioaccessible phenolic compounds increased especially on sprouting and roasting of these grains, except chickpea, where sprouting significantly reduced the same (476 to 264 μg/g). Microwave heating significantly enhanced the concentration of bioaccessible polyphenols especially from chickpea. Thus, sprouting and roasting provided more bioaccessible polyphenols from the cereals and legumes studied.

  11. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Cell Wall Related Genes in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a Food, Fodder, and Biofuel Crop

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Krishan M.; Thu, Sandi W.; Balasubramanian, Vimal K.; Cobos, Christopher J.; Disasa, Tesfaye; Mendu, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation. Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Chromosomal localization analysis of these genes revealed that about 65% of cell wall related genes were confined to four chromosomes (Chr. 1–4). Further, 56 tandem duplication events involving 169 genes were identified in these gene families which could be associated with expansion of genes within families in sorghum. Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. Expression analysis showed tissue specificity as well as differential expression under abiotic stress conditions. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches. PMID:27630645

  12. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Cell Wall Related Genes in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a Food, Fodder, and Biofuel Crop

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Krishan M.; Thu, Sandi W.; Balasubramanian, Vimal K.; Cobos, Christopher J.; Disasa, Tesfaye; Mendu, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation. Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Chromosomal localization analysis of these genes revealed that about 65% of cell wall related genes were confined to four chromosomes (Chr. 1–4). Further, 56 tandem duplication events involving 169 genes were identified in these gene families which could be associated with expansion of genes within families in sorghum. Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. Expression analysis showed tissue specificity as well as differential expression under abiotic stress conditions. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches.

  13. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water. PMID:26341252

  14. Simple and economical assay systems for evaluation of phosphinothricin resistant transgenics of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. (L.) Moench., and pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    PubMed

    Harshavardhan, D; Santha, B; Rani, T S; Ulaganathan, K; Madhulety, T Y; Laxminarayana, C; Seetharama, N

    2003-02-01

    Five simple and rapid methods for evaluation of sorghum and pearl millet transgenics resistant to herbicide phosphinothricin (used as selectable marker) were studied. For rapid in vitro selection, three assays (establishment of sensitivity curves for embryogenic calli, determination of lethal doses for seed germination, and a rapid screening of cut young leaves based on the colour change of the medium) were established. For rapid screening of transgenic progeny, effects of in vivo Basta leaf spray and dip tests were studied at three different morphological stages. For all the above assays, LD50, and LD100 values were higher for pearl millet than sorghum. However, in both the crops, genotype effect was not significant. The assays standardized in the study were found to be effective for rapid, economical and mass-scale identification and characterization of transgenic plants of sorghum and pearl millet.

  15. Simultaneous detection of intracellular tumor mRNA with bi-color imaging based on a gold nanoparticle/molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guangming; Gao, Yuan; Li, Na; Yu, Zhengze; Zhuo, Linhai; Tang, Bo

    2011-09-26

    The successful treatment of most cancers depends on early detection. Tumor mRNA as a specific marker provides new avenues to monitor tumor progression in the early stages and assesses response to treatment. However, single tumor mRNA testing usually yields "false positive" results because cancer is associated with multiple tumor mRNA. It is indispensable to develop simple and effective approaches for the detection of multiple tumor mRNA. In this study, we used a combination of tumor-specific mRNA markers to avoid the inherent limitations associated with the single-marker technique. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) was assembled with a bi-molecular beacon (bi-MB), and termed AuNP/bi-MB, which simultaneously targeted to two types of tumor mRNA in breast cancer cells. This imaging agent could prevent effectively false positive results and provide comprehensive and dependable information for the early detection of cancer. It would be beneficial to identify the stage of tumor progression and assess treatment decisions with the real-time detection of the relative expression levels of tumor mRNA in cancer cells. This strategy would offer an appealing approach toward the early detection of cancer by using multianalysis of tumor mRNA.

  16. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on α-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Kaufman, Rhett C; Bean, Scott R; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S; Rose, Devin J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins on starch digestion in tannin-containing sorghum extracts and wholegrain flours from 12 sorghum varieties. Extracts reduced amylase activity in a tannin concentration-dependent manner when the extract was mixed with the enzyme before substrate (amylopectin) addition, with higher molecular weight tannins showing greater reduction. Conversely, when the extract and substrate were combined before enzyme addition an enhancement in amylase activity was experienced. In uncooked, cooked, and cooked and stored wholegrain sorghum flours, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches were not correlated with tannin content or molecular weight distribution. Resistant starch increased from 6.5% to 22-26% when tannins were added to starch up to 50% (starch weight). Tannin extracts both reduced and enhanced amylase activity depending on conditions, and, while these trends were clear in extracts, the effects on starch digestion in wholegrain flours was more complex.

  17. Chemical, sensory and rheological properties of porridges from processed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flours.

    PubMed

    Nnam, N M

    2001-01-01

    The chemical, sensory and rheological properties of porridges made from blends of sprouted sorghum, bambara groundnuts and fermented sweet potatoes were examined. Sorghum and bambara groundnuts were sprouted for 48 h while sweet potatoes were fermented for the same period. Blends were formulated from the processed ingredients in the ratio of 60:40:0, 57:42:1, 55:44:1 and 52:46:2 (protein basis) of sorghum, bambara groundnuts and sweet potatoes. Porridges were prepared from the composite flours and the traditional sorghum complementary food. Standard assay methods were used to evaluate the flours for nutrient composition. The porridges were also tested for sensory properties and viscosity. Processing increased the levels of most of the nutrients evaluated. Relative to the sorghum traditional complementary food, the composite flours had higher levels of lipids, protein, ash, crude fiber and minerals (p < 0.05). The porridges from the composite flours were generally liked slightly by the panelists and were about seven times less viscous than the porridge from the traditional sorghum complementary food. Use of the composite flours, particularly the 52:46:2 blend, as a traditional complementary food should be encouraged in Nigeria especially with the increasing cost of commercial complementary foods.

  18. Diversidad genetica de aislamientos de cornezuelo (Claviceps africana fredrickson, mantle, y de milliano) de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.] en Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, in which pathogenicity of two isolates of ergot (Claviceps africana) obtained from the same two locations, were evaluated on six hybrids and three male sterile sorghum lines. Also, a genetic variance indicated signif...

  19. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  20. Analyzing predation of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Mediterranean lettuce crops using molecular techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hoverflies are generalist predators of a great variety of primary pests. Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are two common pests in Mediterranean lettuce crops, where they occur alongside alternative prey (e.g., Collembola). ...

  1. Non-flowering Sorghum spp. hybrids: Perennial, sterile, high-biomass feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Sorghum spp. hybrids such as Columbusgrass (Sorghum almum Parodi; S. bicolor [L.] Moench x S. halepense [L.] Pers.) and the reciprocal hybridization (S. halepense x S. bicolor; e.g. Cv 'Krish') are high-biomass forage feedstocks. Utilization of such hybrids is limited, however, by both th...

  2. Evaluation of a Non-Flowering Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Sorghum spp. hybrids (PSSHs) such as Columbusgrass (Sorghum almum Parodi; S. bicolor [L.] Moench x S. halepense [L.] Pers.) and the reciprocal hybridization (S. halepense x S. bicolor; e.g. Cv 'Krish') are high-biomass feedstocks currently utilized as forage but with potential as dual-...

  3. Insect pests and diseases in bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and other grassy crops (e.g., grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, and hybrids involving sugarcane; sorghum; sudangrass, Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) de Wet and Harlan, and others) with potential for bioenergy production are susceptible...

  4. Multiple origins of parasitism in lice: phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA indicates that the Phthiraptera and Psocoptera are not monophyletic.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Anna; Barker, Stephen C

    2005-10-01

    The Paraneoptera (Hemipteroid Assemblage) comprises the orders Thysanoptera (thrips), Hemiptera (bugs), Phthiraptera (lice) and Psocoptera (booklice and barklice). The phylogenetic relationships among the Psocodea (Phthiraptera and Psocoptera), Thysanoptera and Hemiptera are unresolved, as are some relationships within the Psocodea. Here, we present phylogenetic hypotheses inferred from SSU rDNA sequences; the most controversial of which is the apparent paraphyly of the Phthiraptera, which are parasites of birds and mammals, with respect to one family of Psocoptera, the Liposcelididae. The order Psocoptera and the suborder that contains the Liposcelididae, the Troctomorpha, are also paraphyletic. The two remaining psocopteran suborders, the Psocomorpha and the Trogiomorpha, are apparently monophyletic. The Liposcelididae is most closely related to lice from the suborder Amblycera. These results suggest that the taxonomy of the Psocodea needs revision. In addition, there are implications for the evolution of parasitism in insects; parasitism may have evolved twice in lice or have evolved once and been subsequently lost in the Liposcelididae.

  5. Insecticidal Activity of α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone against Several Insect Pests.

    PubMed

    Datta, P K; Kim, C S; Hara, T; Itoh, E; Horiike, M

    1999-01-01

    α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone (tulipalin A), which has been found to possess effective insecticidal activity against Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera; Thripinae), was examined on several insect pests. This compound caused high mortality against thrips species such as Frankliniella occidentallis and Frankliniella intonsa. In addition, some mortality was observed against other agricultural pest species. It is considered that α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone has a wide spectrum of insecticidal activity.

  6. Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.

    PubMed

    Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods.

  7. Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera. PMID:25704094

  8. Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-02-23

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera.

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet and potato crops. Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Eschscholtz) are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particula...

  10. POLYCHLORINATED BYPHENOLS AND P,P'-DDE IN TREE SWALLOW EGGS AND NESTLINGS FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed biologically available contaminant concentrations in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from a marine Superfund site. Tree swallows are used widely to assess and monitor aquatic contamination due to their preference for nesting near water an...

  11. Purity assessment of condensed tannin fractions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unambiguous investigation of condensed tannin (CT) structure-activity relationships in biological systems requires the use of highly enriched CT fractions of defined chemical purity. Purification of CTs from Sorghum bicolor, Trifolium repens, Theobroma cacao, Lespedeza cuneata, Lotus pedunculatus, a...

  12. Range dynamics, rather than convergent selection, explain the mosaic distribution of red-winged blackbird phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Dufort, Matthew J; Keith Barker, F

    2013-12-01

    Geographic distributions of genetic and phenotypic characters can illuminate historical evolutionary processes. In particular, mosaic distributions of phenotypically similar populations can arise from parallel evolution or from irregular patterns of dispersal and colonization by divergent forms. Two phenotypically divergent forms of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) show a mosaic phenotypic distribution, with a "bicolored" form occurring disjunctly in California and Mexico. We analyzed the relationships among these bicolored populations and neighboring typical populations, using ∼600 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence data and 10 nuclear short tandem repeat loci. We find that bicolored populations, although separated by ∼3000 km, are genetically more similar to one other than they are to typical populations separated by ∼400 km. We also find evidence of ongoing gene flow among populations, including some evidence of asymmetric gene flow. We conclude that the current distribution of bicolored forms represents incomplete speciation, where recent asymmetric hybridization with typical A. phoeniceus is dividing the range of a formerly widespread bicolored form. This hypothesis predicts that bicolored forms may suffer extinction by hybridization. Future work will use fine-scaled geographical sampling and nuclear sequence data to test for hybrid origins of currently typical populations and to more precisely quantify the directionality of gene flow.

  13. Evolutionary fate of rhizome-specific genes in a non-rhizomatous Sorghum genotype.

    PubMed

    Jang, C S; Kamps, T L; Tang, H; Bowers, J E; Lemke, C; Paterson, A H

    2009-03-01

    What is the fate of organ-specific genes after the organ is lost? For Sorghum propinquum and Sorghum halepense genes that were previously shown to have rhizome-enriched expression, we have conducted comparative analysis of both coding regions and regulatory sequences in Sorghum bicolor (non-rhizomatousness) and S. propinquum (rhizomatousness). Most genes with rhizome-enriched expression appear to have similar numbers of paralogous copies in both genotypes, with only three of 24 genes studied showing significant differences in copy numbers. We detected no greater propensity for mutation in S. bicolor than in S. propinquum of genes with rhizome-enriched expression in the latter. Several cis-acting regulatory elements, particularly an Myb-binding core (AACGG) that is involved in the regulation of the mitotic cyclin, were more abundant in promoters of S. propinquum than in non-rhizomatous S. bicolor or Oryza sativa (rice). We suggest that many genes with rhizome-enriched expression in S. propinquum may serve multiple functions, with partial loss of some of these functions in S. bicolor but ongoing purifying selection acting to preserve the remaining functions. Expressed genes in polyploid S. halepense rhizomes appeared to be more frequently derived from the S. propinquum than the S. bicolor progenitor, but there was some evidence of formation of novel alleles and 'recruitment' of S. bicolor genes to rhizome-enriched expression in S. halepense, suggesting that polyploidy may have offered new evolutionary potential to S. halepense.

  14. Range dynamics, rather than convergent selection, explain the mosaic distribution of red-winged blackbird phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dufort, Matthew J; Keith Barker, F

    2013-01-01

    Geographic distributions of genetic and phenotypic characters can illuminate historical evolutionary processes. In particular, mosaic distributions of phenotypically similar populations can arise from parallel evolution or from irregular patterns of dispersal and colonization by divergent forms. Two phenotypically divergent forms of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) show a mosaic phenotypic distribution, with a “bicolored” form occurring disjunctly in California and Mexico. We analyzed the relationships among these bicolored populations and neighboring typical populations, using ∼600 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence data and 10 nuclear short tandem repeat loci. We find that bicolored populations, although separated by ∼3000 km, are genetically more similar to one other than they are to typical populations separated by ∼400 km. We also find evidence of ongoing gene flow among populations, including some evidence of asymmetric gene flow. We conclude that the current distribution of bicolored forms represents incomplete speciation, where recent asymmetric hybridization with typical A. phoeniceus is dividing the range of a formerly widespread bicolored form. This hypothesis predicts that bicolored forms may suffer extinction by hybridization. Future work will use fine-scaled geographical sampling and nuclear sequence data to test for hybrid origins of currently typical populations and to more precisely quantify the directionality of gene flow. PMID:24455125

  15. Possible repetitive DNA markers for Eusorghum and Parasorghum and their potential use in examining phylogenetic hypotheses on the origin of Sorghum species.

    PubMed

    Hoang-Tang; Dube, S K; Liang, G H; Kung, S D

    1991-04-01

    Genomic structures of two major species in section Eusorghum (Sorghum), Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum halepense, and their phylogenetic relationships with a species in section Parasorghum, Sorghum versicolor, were studied by using cloned repetitive DNA sequences from the three species. Of the five repetitive DNA clones isolated from S. bicolor and S. halepense, four produced qualitatively similar hybridization patterns with detectable variations in copy numbers of some of the restriction fragments on the Southern blots of the two genomic DNAs. One clone was shown to be diagnostic for S. halepense. Molecular analysis at the DNA level indicates that S. bicolor and S. halepense have similar but not identical genomes, consonant with differences in karyotypes, meiotic chromosome behaviors, morphology, and physiology of the species. In addition to five repetitive clones isolated from S. bicolor and S. halepense, eight more sequences were cloned from S. versicolor. Nine clones were found to be specific for either S. bicolor and S. halepense or S. versicolor. The remaining four had a moderate to strong homology with sequences present in all Sorghum species studied. We speculate that the genome in the common ancestor of Sorghum has differentiated to give rise to genomes of at least three major chromosome sizes; large, medium, and small, as seen at present. Amplifications, eliminations, rearrangements, and new syntheses of repetitive sequences may have been involved in genome differentiation of these species. The results also suggest that the S. versicolor genome has strongly diverged from the genomes of the two species in section Eusorghum.

  16. Synergistic effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in bioremediation of iron contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vartika; Gupta, Antriksh; Kaur, Parvinder; Singh, Simranjeet; Singh, Nasib; Gehlot, Praveen; Singh, Joginder

    2016-01-01

    Three Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from Glomus, Acaulospora and Scutellospora, and four plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolates related to genera Streptomyces, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus were found to be effective in phytoremediation of Fe(3+) contaminated soil where Pennisetum glaucum and Sorghum bicolor were growing as host plants. Co-inoculation of AMF and PGPR showed better results in comparison to either, AMF and PGPR under pot conditions. Both AMF and PGPR were able to produce siderophores. AMF and PGPR associated to P. glaucum and S. bicolor plants increased the extent of iron absorption. AMF and PGPR combination exhibited superior (p < 0.01) phytoremediation efficiency with P. glaucum compared to S. bicolor. These findings warrant further investigations of these synergistic interactions and large-scale in situ studies for bioremediation of iron-contaminated soils. PMID:26682583

  17. Impact of factitious foods and prey on the oviposition of the predatory mites Gaeolaelaps aculeifer and Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Campos, C; Wäckers, F L; Pekas, A

    2016-09-01

    The soil-dwelling predatory mites Gaeolaelaps aculeifer and Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) are important biocontrol agents of several pests (Astigmata, Thysanoptera, Diptera). There is little information regarding the use of factitious foods that potentially improve their mass rearing and population development once released in the field. Here we tested the suitability of several types of factitious food and prey for G. aculeifer and S. scimitus. Factitious foods included eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), hydrated encapsulated cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Anostraca: Artemiidae), two species of saprophytic nematodes (Panagrellus redivivus and Panagrellus sp.) (Nematoda: Panagrolaimidae) and pollen of cattail Typha angustifolia (Poales: Typhaceae). Parameters tested were oviposition over a 3-day period compared with controls provided with either second instars of the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or a mix of instars of the commercially used prey mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmatina: Acaridae) or the absence of food. Compared to the standard prey mite T. putrescentiae, G. aculeifer showed elevated oviposition when fed thrips larvae, E. kuehniella eggs, Artemia sp. cysts or the saprophytic P. redivivus. Oviposition by S. scimitus was high when provided with thrips larvae and P. redivivus, but not significantly different from oviposition on T. putrescentiae. Oviposition for both predatory mite species was very low or zero when provided with T. angustifolia pollen. Finally, G. aculeifer consumed significantly more thrips larvae than S. scimitus. The implication of these results for the mass-rearing of G. aculeifer and S. scimitus are discussed. PMID:27388446

  18. Pedigreed mutant library- a unique resource for sorghum improvement and genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a versatile crop used for food, feeder, fodder, and biofuel. Due to its superior resilience to drought and high temperature stresses and low soil fertility, sorghum is becoming increasingly important in meeting the growing need for food and energy in face of de...

  19. Registration of N641 and N642 waxy Grain Sorghum Genetic Stocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss-of-function mutations in the granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) gene result in an endosperm with a waxy appearance and a near absence of amylose starch. waxy grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines, AN641, BN641, and RN642 (PI 672150 to PI 672152) were developed jointly by the USDA...

  20. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  1. Tolerance of sweet sorghum to Meloidogyne incognita and crop effect on nematode population density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a sugar-producing crop that can be used for biofuel and plastics production, and the crop could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on sweet sorghum yield and sugar content has not been reported. Beca...

  2. Genomic selection of biomass traits in a global collection of 976 sorghum accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial genetic diversity exists in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a key lignocellulosic biofuel species in the United States. The implementation of genomic, genetic tools to select and enhance current germplasm will greatly accelerate new variety development. Our objectives in this study are to add...

  3. Genomic selection of biomass yield in a global collection of one thousand sorghum accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for a large, sustainable supply of biomass in lignocelluloses-based biofuel production requires the development of dedicated bioenergy crops. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has been identified as a key lignocellulosic biofuel species in the United States. The objectives in this study were to det...

  4. Registration of sorghum germplasm Tx3408 and Tx3409 with tolerance to sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis saccari (Zehntner)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) germplasm lines Tx3408 and Tx3409 were developed and released from Texas A&M AgriLife Research and the USDA-ARS in 2015. Both of these lines were developed from intentional crosses using the pedigree method of plant breeding. The breeding crosses for these l...

  5. Estimation methods and parameter assessment for ethanol yields from total soluble solids of sweet sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimation methods and evaluation of ethanol yield from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) based on agronomic production traits and juice characteristics is important for developing parents and inbred lines of sweet sorghum that can be used by the bio-ethanol industry. The objectives of th...

  6. General and specific combining ability of F1-hybrid sweet sorghum in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising biofuel crop that accumulates fermentable sugar in the stalk and can be directly fermented as bioethanol. Currently, most of sweet sorghum cultivars are pure lines. However, developing high-yielding hybrids has many advantages. To date there...

  7. Heterosis and combining ability of F1 hybrid sweet sorghum in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sugar-based biofuel crop that is well-suited to tropical environments. Most sweet sorghum cultivars are open-pollinated, but hybrids could offer yield and seed production advantages. Fifteen hybrids were generated among five female and three male pa...

  8. Crop rotation affects corn, grain sorghum, and soybean yields and nitrogen recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cropping system and fertilizer N studies are essential towards understanding production potential and yield stability of corn (Zea mays L.), grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in rain-fed environments. A no-till experiment (2007-13) was conduc...

  9. Identification of widely varying levels of resistance to meloidogyne incognita in sweet sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a potential bioenergy crop that could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US, where it would likely be rotated with cotton. The desirability of including sweet sorghum in a cotton cropping system will be influenced by sweet sorghum’s host ...

  10. Comparison of the Use of Gas Chromotography, Spectrophotometry, and Near Infrared Spectropscopy to Quantify Prussic Acid Potential in Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been shown to contain the cyanogenic glycoside dhurrin, which is responsible for the disorder known as prussic acid poisoning in livestock. The current standard method for estimating HCN uses spectrophotometery to measure the aglycone of the dhurrin, p-hydro...

  11. Herbicidal activity of formulated sorgoleone, a natural product of sorghum root exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The allelochemical, sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudates of Sorghum bicolor, was formulated as a wettable powder [WP] and evaluated as a natural herbicide on several weed and crop species under different growth conditions. Formulated sorgoleone suppressed germination and ...

  12. Reducing plant abiotic and biotic stress: Drought and attacks of greenbugs, corn leaf aphids, and virus disease in dryland sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-year spatial overlay patterns of plants, insects and soil water may yield insights for management for reducing biotic and abiotic stresses in dryland crops. A study of non-irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was conducted in a Pullman clay loam on the semi-arid High Plain of ...

  13. Genetic diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm in Mexico using AFLP and SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationships between lines and varieties of the sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) germplasm bank of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research, Mexico, using AFLP and SSR markers. The molecular markers ...

  14. Reactions of Sweet Corn Hybrids to Prevalent Diseases and Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 27-year summary is of University of Illinois sweet corn nurseries from 1984 to 2010, and includes the reactions of 800 hybrids to eight diseases and three herbicides. Commercially-available and pre-commercial hybrids included 547 shrunken-2 hybrids (317 yellow, 152 bi-color, and 78 white), 117 ...

  15. Sorgoleone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudate of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], is one of the most studied allelochemicals. The exudate also contains an equivalent amount of a lipid resorcinol analog as well as a number of minor sorgoleone congeners. Synthesis of sorgoleone...

  16. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  17. Potentials and Prospects of Sorghum Allelopathy in Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The promising allelopathic potential of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] opens a fruitful area of research to exploit this phenomenon in weed control and regulation of nutrient cycle. The data suggests that sorghum allelopathy can be exploited in different cropping practices such as cover crop,...

  18. Identification of an orthologous clade of peroxidases that respond to feeding by greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum) in c4 grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of specific peroxidases that respond to aphid herbivory is limited in C4 grasses, but could provide targets for improving defence against these pests. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) peroxidase (SbPrx-1; Sobic.002G416700) has been previously linked to biotic stress responses, and w...

  19. Tapping the US historic sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has gained an important role as a viable alternative to fossil fuels and a more profitable option than maize and sugarcane. Nevertheless, the actual narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum breeding programs is limiting the development of new biofuel varietie...

  20. Notes on three braconid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Doryctinae) parasitizing oak long-horned beetle, Massicus raddei (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a severe pest of Quercus spp. in China, together with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liangming; Yang, Zhongqi; Tang, Yanlong; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitize larvae of oak longhorn beetle Massicus raddei Blessig (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a serious wood borer pest in North China. Rhoptrocentrus quercusi sp. nov., is described as a new species and Doryctes petiolatus Shestakov, as well as Zombrus bicolor (Enderlein). The three species are idiobiont ectoparasitoids, and may have potential for biological control of oak longhorn beetle.

  1. Non-traditional Forages in a Managed Grazing System for Control of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep: Preliminary Work

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project compared lambs grazing forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) with lambs grazing brown mid-rib forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) x sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Piper) hybrid (BMR) to determine if anti-parasitic effects of chicory could be demonstrated. Lambs grazed these fo...

  2. Mercury and other element exposure in tree swallows nesting at low pH and neutral pH lakes in northern Wisconsin USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) demonstrate similar responses to lake pH and mercury (Hg) contamination in northern Wisconsin as do common loons (Gavia immer). Similar to common loons, Hg concentrations in the blood...

  3. An overview of CERES-Sorghum as implemented in the cropping systems model version 4.5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the fifth most important grain crop globally. It stands out for its diversity of plant types, end-uses, and roles in cropping systems. This diversity presents opportunities but also complicates evaluation of production options, especially under climate uncert...

  4. Registration of a diverse collection of sorghum genetic stocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 507 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genetic stocks (Reg. No. PI66327 through PI663723), originally curated by the late Dr. Keith F. Schertz, was registered. This collection is consisting of, among others, lines with distinct morphological and physiological attributes, irradiat...

  5. Pilot plant clarification of sweet sorghum juice and evaporation of raw and clarified juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fundamental processing areas identified by industry for the commercial, large-scale manufacture of liquid biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) is the clarification of juice to make it suitable for concentration into syrup for long-term storage, year-round...

  6. Cloning and expression analyses of Sucrose non-fermenting-1-Related Kinase 1 (SnRK1b) gene during development of sorghum and maize endosperm, and its implicated role in sugar-to-starch metabolic transition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A full-length cDNA clone, SbSnRK1b (1530 bp, GenBank accession no. EF544393), encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase homologue of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SNF1, was isolated from developing endosperm of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (Moench) L.]. Multiple sequence alignment data show...

  7. Morpho-physiological and proteome level responses to cadmium stress in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potentiality associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the pro...

  8. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential impacts of global climate change on crop productivity have drawn much attention in recent years. To investigate these impacts on grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] productivity, we calibrated the CERES-Sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT...

  9. Sequencing of an Anthracnose-resistant sorghum genotype and mapping of a major QTL reveal strong candidate genes for Anthracnose resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum sublineolum Henn. ex. Sacc. and Trotter 1913, is an economically damaging disease of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in hot and humid production regions of the world. Control of anthracnose is almost exclusively through the use of genet...

  10. Developmental and genetic analysis of a short leaf mutant, a key resource for plant architecture modification in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modification in plant architecture have been demonstrated as one of the major contributing factors that ushered in the Green Revolution resulting in achieving dramatic increases in grain yield for wheat and rice. For sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.), possible alteration in plant architecture is ...

  11. Biomass sorghum production and components under different irrigation/tillage systems for the southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeking renewable energy sources is necessary to reduce the US dependence on foreign oil. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) may be a reasonable alternative as an energy crop in the Southern U.S. because it is drought resistant. An experiment was developed to evaluate several types of sorghum as bioenergy...

  12. Genetic mapping of Sbbmc, a major locus controlling the profuse wax trait of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most valuable “fail safe” cereal crop species and is a rich repository of genes for abiotic stress tolerance that await discovery. As an example, Sorghum exhibits cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (bloom) on sheaths and leaves that serves as one...

  13. Do more seeds per panicle improve grain sorghum yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed number rather than seed mass is largely considered to be the most important yield component of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. An experimental sorghum hybrid with enhanced seed number (tri-seed) was grown at the Soil-Plant-Environment Research (SPER) facility, USDA-ARS, Bushland, ...

  14. Characterization of a multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum that displays significant enhancement in seed number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars and germplasm display branched inflorescence or panicle, characterized by spikelets composed of a single sessile, fertile floret that develop into viable seed and one or two adjacent sterile pedicellate florets (Monoseeded [MSD] trait). Based on total nu...

  15. Characterization of novel multi-seeded (msd) mutants of sorghum for increasing grain number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tribe Andropogoneae of the Poaceae family exhibits highly branched inflorescence known as panicle or tassel. Characteristically, each spikelet in a panicle or tassel comprise of a combination of sessile/fertile and sterile florets. In sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), the existing cultivars ...

  16. Response of sweet sorghum lines to stalk pathogens fusarium thapsinum and macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has potential for bioenergy. It is adapted to a variety of U.S. locations and the extracted juice can be directly fermented into ethanol. However, little research on fungal stalk rots has been reported, even though these diseases pose serious constraints f...

  17. Registration of two allelic erect leaf mutants of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two allelic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] erect leaf (erl) mutants were isolated from an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) mutant library developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, at Lubbock, Texas. The two mutants, erl1-1 and erl1-2, were isol...

  18. The Plant Bugs, or Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), of Cuba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant bugs, or Miridae (Heteroptera), of Cuba are reviewed. Prior to this study, 55 genera and about 80 species were known from Cuba. Heterocoris cyaneus Knight is synonymized under Heterocoris dilatataus Guérin-Menèville, new synonymy; and Adfalconia bicolor Maldonado, under Falconia semirasa...

  19. Development of hybrid sweet sorghum for the Southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  20. Evaluation of hybrid sweet sorghum as a biofuel crop for the southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  1. Heterosis and combining ability for yield components in hybrid sweet sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol....

  2. Targeted expression of SbMATE in the root distal transition zone is responsible for sorghum aluminum resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for crop production on acid soils that comprise significant portions of the world’s lands. Al resistance in the cereal crop, Sorghum bicolor, is mainly achieved by Al-activated root apical citrate exudation, which is mediated by the plasma ...

  3. Identification and mapping of a single recessive gene that confers resistance to the white sugarcane aphid in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Known for its resilience in arid environments, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a multi-functioning staple food crop grown around the world. Sorghum produces grain, sugar, and cellulose-material that can be used for: livestock feed, human consumption, ethanol production, and building materials. Despite...

  4. Crime and punishment in a roaming cleanerfish.

    PubMed

    Mills, Suzanne C; Côté, Isabelle M

    2010-12-01

    Cheating is common in cooperative interactions, but its occurrence can be controlled by various means ranging from rewarding cooperators to active punishment of cheaters. Punishment occurs in the mutualism involving the cleanerfish Labroides dimidiatus and its reef fish clients. When L. dimidiatus cheats, by taking scales and mucus rather than ectoparasites, wronged clients either chase or withhold further visits to the dishonest cleaner, which leads to more cooperative future interactions. Punishment of cheating L. dimidiatus may be effective largely because these cleaners are strictly site-attached, increasing the potential for repeated interactions between individual cleaners and clients. Here, we contrast the patterns of cheating and punishment in L. dimidiatus with its close relative, the less site-attached Labroides bicolor. Overall, L. bicolor had larger home ranges, cheated more often and, contrary to our prediction, were punished by cheated clients as frequently as, and not less often than, L. dimidiatus. However, adult L. bicolor, which had the largest home ranges, did not cheat more than younger conspecifics, suggesting that roaming, and hence the frequency of repeated interactions, has little influence on cheating and retaliation in cleaner-client relationships. We suggest that roaming cleaners offer the only option available to many site-attached reef fish seeking a cleaning service. This asymmetry in scope for partner choice encourages dishonesty by the partner with more options (i.e. L. bicolor), but to be cleaned by a cleaner that sometimes cheats may be a better option than not to be cleaned at all.

  5. Registration of N614, A3N615, N616, and N617 Shattercane Genetic Stocks with cytoplasmic or nuclear male-sterility and juicy or dry midribs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four shattercane [Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud) de Wet & Harlan] genetic stocks, N614, A3N615, N616, N617 (Reg. No. XXX, PI 665683 to 665686), with A3 cytoplasmic male-sterility or nuclear male-sterility gene ms3 containing either juicy (dd) or dry (DD) culms were developed joint...

  6. Mapping and candidate genes associated with saccharification yield in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potentially high-yielding hardy energy crop to produce lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification is a process by which hydrolytic enzymes break down lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Mapping and identifying genes und...

  7. Yield and morpho-agronomical evaluation of food-grade white sorghum hybrids grown in Southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a gluten-free grain that is gaining attention as a food crop that can be used in the management of celiac disease. At present, sorghum is widely grown in many semiarid regions of the world. New food-grade sorghum cultivars are of particular interest in...

  8. Argonomic practices of dryland grain sorghum maturity, yield, and test weight.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or milo, is drought tolerant, is easy to incorporate into winter wheat crop rotations, has a low cost of production compared to corn, and the late date of planting provides flexibility in early-season weed control. Grain sorghum is an important crop in so...

  9. A new cryptic species of Diatraea (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Crambinae) feeding on eastern gama grass and a novel host association with a braconid (Hymenoptera) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Diatraea currently consists of seven species in the United States, including Diatraea crambidoides (Grote), an economic pest of corn. Larvae of D. crambidoides are also reported to feed on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), sugar cane (Sacc...

  10. In search of annual legumes to improve forage sorghum yield and nutritive value in the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production is significant in the Southern High Plains of the USA and demand is increasing for greater forage dry matter (DM) yield with increased nutritive value. Forage sorghum (FS)[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is commonly used, although, it is low in crude protein (CP) and high in fiber....

  11. Producing sorghum biomass under different irrigation tillage systems for cellulosic bioenergy production in Southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeking alternative and renewable sources of energy is necessary. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) might be a reasonable alternative as an energy crop in Southeastern US, because it is drought and nematode resistant. The types of sorghum evaluated were: grain sorghum - NK300 (GS), high biomass forage so...

  12. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of lignin reduces the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for forage materials and feedstock for biofuels. In C4 grasses, the brown midrib phenotype has been linked to mutations to genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. For example, the Bmr6 gene in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has b...

  13. Carbon allocation below ground transfers and lipid turnover in a plant-microbial association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radioactive tracers were used to study the carbon allocation to above ground, coarse- and fine-roots, plant tissues, mycorrhizal lipids, below-ground respiration, and to soil in a mycorrhizal association. Sorghum bicolor was grown in soil with a non mycorrhizal microbial inoculum with and without Gl...

  14. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  15. Pathology in practice: Peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a Shubunkin goldfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) have been detected in many fish species, including goldfish, several species of snapper, coho salmon, the bicolor damselfish, and rainbow smelt. They originate from neural crest cells and generally occur along the subcutaneous nerves. A viral etiology has bee...

  16. Agronomic factors affecting dryland grain sorghum maturity and production in northeast Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important dryland crop in southeast Colorado, but expansion into northeast Colorado is thought to be limited due to the shorter growing season. The study examined whether sorghum production could be expanded into northeast Colorado. A 2-year study ...

  17. Spectral sensing of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) density using field spectrometry and radiometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., are aphid pests of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and other cereals worldwide. Greenbug and bird cherry-oat aphid infestati...

  18. Drought-induced changes in nitrogen partitioning between cyanide and nitrate in leaves and stems in sorghum grown at elevated CO2 are age dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] is the world’s fifth most important crop, grown for forage, grain, and as a biofuel. Fast growing and drought tolerant, it is considered a climate-change-ready crop. Two free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at Maricopa, Arizona, USA showed that, like othe...

  19. Three sorghum serpin recombinant proteins inhibit midgut trypsin activity and growth of corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genome contains at least 17 putative serpin (serine protease inhibitor) open reading frames, some of which are induced by pathogens. Recent transcriptome studies found that most of the putative serpins are expressed but their roles are unknown. Four sorghum serpins were...

  20. Evaluation of interallelic waxy, heterowaxy, and wild-type grain sorghum hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four near-isogenic Wheatland × Tx430 grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] hybrids differing in allelic status at the Waxy locus were grown in yield trials to determine their potential to expand existing sources of low-amylose starch. The hypothesis tested was that agronomic performance and gr...