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Sample records for scr aftertreatment system

  1. LPV gain-scheduled control of SCR aftertreatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisami-Azad, Mona; Mohammadpour, Javad; Grigoriadis, Karolos M.; Harold, Michael P.; Franchek, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and some of other polluting emissions produced by diesel engines are usually lower than those produced by gasoline engines. While great strides have been made in the exhaust aftertreatment of vehicular pollutants, the elimination of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) from diesel vehicles is still a challenge. The primary reason is that diesel combustion is a fuel-lean process, and hence there is significant unreacted oxygen in the exhaust. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a well-developed technology for power plants and has been recently employed for reducing NO x emissions from automotive sources and in particular, heavy-duty diesel engines. In this article, we develop a linear parameter-varying (LPV) feedforward/feedback control design method for the SCR aftertreatment system to decrease NO x emissions while keeping ammonia slippage to a desired low level downstream the catalyst. The performance of the closed-loop system obtained from the interconnection of the SCR system and the output feedback LPV control strategy is then compared with other control design methods including sliding mode, and observer-based static state-feedback parameter-varying control. To reduce the computational complexity involved in the control design process, the number of LPV parameters in the developed quasi-LPV (qLPV) model is reduced by applying the principal component analysis technique. An LPV feedback/feedforward controller is then designed for the qLPV model with reduced number of scheduling parameters. The designed full-order controller is further simplified to a first-order transfer function with a parameter-varying gain and pole. Finally, simulation results using both a low-order model and a high-fidelity and high-order model of SCR reactions in GT-POWER interfaced with MATLAB/SIMULINK illustrate the high NO x conversion efficiency of the closed-loop SCR system using the proposed parameter-varying control law.

  2. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk.

    PubMed

    Tadano, Yara S; Borillo, Guilherme C; Godoi, Ana Flávia L; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O B; Valebona, Fábio B; Errera, Marcelo R; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NOx, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NOx and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH3, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NOx and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH3 concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Combustion driven ammonia generation strategies for passive ammonia SCR system

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, Joel G.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.

    A method for controlling ammonia generation in an exhaust gas feedstream output from an internal combustion engine equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system including a first aftertreatment device includes executing an ammonia generation cycle to generate ammonia on the first aftertreatment device. A desired air-fuel ratio output from the engine and entering the exhaust aftertreatment system conducive for generating ammonia on the first aftertreatment device is determined. Operation of a selected combination of a plurality of cylinders of the engine is selectively altered to achieve the desired air-fuel ratio entering the exhaust aftertreatment system.

  4. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C.

    2002-06-01

    included system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)« less

  5. Method and system for SCR optimization

    DOEpatents

    Lefebvre, Wesley Curt [Boston, MA; Kohn, Daniel W [Cambridge, MA

    2009-03-10

    Methods and systems are provided for controlling SCR performance in a boiler. The boiler includes one or more generally cross sectional areas. Each cross sectional area can be characterized by one or more profiles of one or more conditions affecting SCR performance and be associated with one or more adjustable desired profiles of the one or more conditions during the operation of the boiler. The performance of the boiler can be characterized by boiler performance parameters. A system in accordance with one or more embodiments of the invention can include a controller input for receiving a performance goal for the boiler corresponding to at least one of the boiler performance parameters and for receiving data values corresponding to boiler control variables and to the boiler performance parameters. The boiler control variables include one or more current profiles of the one or more conditions. The system also includes a system model that relates one or more profiles of the one or more conditions in the boiler to the boiler performance parameters. The system also includes an indirect controller that determines one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions to satisfy the performance goal for the boiler. The indirect controller uses the system model, the received data values and the received performance goal to determine the one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions. The system model also includes a controller output that outputs the one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions.

  6. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; James E. Parks, II; Pihl, Josh A.

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH 3 production via a passivemore » SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH 3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH 3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH 3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH 3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. At an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 °C, an NH 3:NOX ratio of 1.15:1 (achieved through longer rich cycle timing) resulted in 99.7 % NOX conversion. Increasing NH 3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH 3 emissions resulted. At higher underfloor temperatures, NH 3 oxidation over the SCR limited NH 3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied, greater than 99 % NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while

  7. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    DOE PAGES

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; James E. Parks, II; Pihl, Josh A.; ...

    2016-04-05

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH 3 production via a passivemore » SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH 3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH 3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH 3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH 3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. At an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 °C, an NH 3:NOX ratio of 1.15:1 (achieved through longer rich cycle timing) resulted in 99.7 % NOX conversion. Increasing NH 3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH 3 emissions resulted. At higher underfloor temperatures, NH 3 oxidation over the SCR limited NH 3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied, greater than 99 % NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while

  8. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three-way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in the oxygen-rich exhaust. Thus, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest.more » In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. 15% excess NH3 production over a 1:1 NH3:NOX ratio was required (via longer rich cycle timing) to achieve 99.7% NOX conversion at an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 C. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher temperatures, NH3 oxidation becomes important and limits NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied here, greater than 99% NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering

  9. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  10. SCR SYSTEMS FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS: PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING EURO 4 EMISSION STANDARDS IN 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, W; Huethwohl, G; Maurer, B

    2003-08-24

    Emissions of diesel engines contain some components, which support the generation of smog and which are classified hazardous. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is a powerful tool to reduce the NOx and Particulate emissions. The NOx-emission can be reduced by the SCR technology. SCR stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. A reduction agent has to be injected into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst. On the catalyst the NOx is reduced to N2 (Nitrogen) and H2O (Water). This catalytic process was developed in Japan about 30 years ago to reduce the NOx emission of coal-fired power plants. The first reduction agent used wasmore » anhydrous ammonia (NH3). SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. To day, SCR technology is the most promising technology to fulfill the new European Regulations EURO 4 and EURO 5 being effective Oct. 2005 and Oct. 2008. The efficient NOx reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfill the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NOx emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. The infrastructure

  11. A particle filter for ammonia coverage ratio and input simultaneous estimations in Diesel-engine SCR system

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fenzhu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Kai

    2018-01-01

    As NOx emissions legislation for Diesel-engines is becoming more stringent than ever before, an aftertreatment system has been widely used in many countries. Specifically, to reduce the NOx emissions, a selective catalytic reduction(SCR) system has become one of the most promising techniques for Diesel-engine vehicle applications. In the SCR system, input ammonia concentration and ammonia coverage ratio are regarded as essential states in the control-oriental model. Currently, an ammonia sensor placed before the SCR Can is a good strategy for the input ammonia concentration value. However, physical sensor would increase the SCR system cost and the ammonia coverage ratio information cannot be directly measured by physical sensor. Aiming to tackle this problem, an observer based on particle filter(PF) is investigated to estimate the input ammonia concentration and ammonia coverage ratio. Simulation results through the experimentally-validated full vehicle simulator cX-Emission show that the performance of observer based on PF is outstanding, and the estimation error is very small. PMID:29408924

  12. A particle filter for ammonia coverage ratio and input simultaneous estimations in Diesel-engine SCR system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kangfeng; Ji, Fenzhu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Kai; Yang, Shichun

    2018-01-01

    As NOx emissions legislation for Diesel-engines is becoming more stringent than ever before, an aftertreatment system has been widely used in many countries. Specifically, to reduce the NOx emissions, a selective catalytic reduction(SCR) system has become one of the most promising techniques for Diesel-engine vehicle applications. In the SCR system, input ammonia concentration and ammonia coverage ratio are regarded as essential states in the control-oriental model. Currently, an ammonia sensor placed before the SCR Can is a good strategy for the input ammonia concentration value. However, physical sensor would increase the SCR system cost and the ammonia coverage ratio information cannot be directly measured by physical sensor. Aiming to tackle this problem, an observer based on particle filter(PF) is investigated to estimate the input ammonia concentration and ammonia coverage ratio. Simulation results through the experimentally-validated full vehicle simulator cX-Emission show that the performance of observer based on PF is outstanding, and the estimation error is very small.

  13. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... This section does not apply for SCR systems using the engine's fuel as the reductant. (a) The... computer memory all incidents of engine operation with inadequate reductant injection or reductant quality...

  14. H2O absorption tomography in a diesel aftertreatment system using a polymer film for optical access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze; Sanders, Scott T.; Backhaus, Jacob A.; Munnannur, Achuth; Schmidt, Niklas M.

    2017-12-01

    Film-optical-access H2O absorption tomography is, for the first time, applied to a practical diesel aftertreatment system. A single rotation stage and a single translation stage are used to move a single laser beam to obtain each of the 3480 line-of-sight measurements used in the tomographic reconstruction. It takes 1 h to acquire one image in a 60-view-angle measurement. H2O images are acquired in a 292.4-mm-diameter selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can with a 5-mm spatial resolution at temperatures in the 158-185 °C range. When no liquid H2O is injected into the gas, the L1 norm-based uniformity index is 0.994, and the average mole fraction error is - 6% based on a separate FTIR measurement. When liquid water is injected through the reductant dosing system designed to inject diesel exhaust fluid, nonuniformity is observed, as evidenced by measured uniformity indices for H2O in the 0.977-0.986 range. A mixing plate installed into the system is able to improve the uniformity of the H2O mole fraction.

  15. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. 1033.112 Section 1033.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... computer memory all incidents of engine operation with inadequate reductant injection or reductant quality...

  16. Vanadium and tungsten release from V-based selective catalytic reduction diesel aftertreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Gerald; Ottinger, Nathan A.; Cremeens, Christopher M.

    2015-03-01

    Vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (V-SCR) catalysts are currently used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in worldwide diesel applications including Euro IV, V, and VI as well as U.S. nonroad Tier 4 Final. Although V-SCR catalysts are attractive because of their high NOx conversion, low cost, resistance to sulfur poisoning, and ability to reduce hydrocarbon emissions, there is concern that V-SCR washcoat material (e.g., vanadium and tungsten) and its derivatives may be released into the atmosphere, potentially harming human health and the environment. In this study, vanadium and tungsten release measurements are made with both a reactor- and engine-based approach in order to determine the potential release of these metals from diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems that contain a V-SCR catalyst. Results for a commercially available V-SCR reveal that both V and W release begin at 500 °C, and both reactor- and engine-based methods are capable of measuring qualitatively similar release. Emissions with the engine-based method are higher at all temperatures evaluated, likely due to this method's ability to capture particle-phase and vapor-phase emissions which become particle-bound after their evolution from the catalyst surface. Certification relevant data (NRTC and NRSC) from a nonroad engine is used to understand probable emissions from V-SCR aftertreatment architectures. Finally, results from a V-SCR catalyst formulated for improved thermal durability illustrate that it is possible to increase the maximum temperature for V-SCR catalysts. This comprehensive understanding of the temperature dependence of vanadium and tungsten volatility can be used to further analyze the full impact of diesel aftertreatment on exhaust emissions and their impact on human health and environmental toxicity.

  17. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL00-0605: Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Pihl, Josh A; West, Brian H; Toops, Todd J

    2011-10-01

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT), also known as NOx adsorber catalyst regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar enginemore » installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Under full-load, rated speed conditions, injection of fuel upstream of the DOC reduced the fuel penalty for a given level of NOx reduction by 10-20%. GC-MS showed that fuel compounds were 'cracked' into smaller hydrocarbon species over the DOC, particularly light alkenes. GC-MS analysis of HC species entering and exiting the LNT showed high utilization of light alkenes, followed by mono-aromatics; branched alkanes passed through the LNT largely unreacted. Follow-on experiments at a 'road load' condition were conducted, revealing that the NOx reduction was better without the DOC at lower temperatures. The improved performance was attributed to the large swings in the NOx adsorber core temperature. Split-injection experiments were conducted with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and three pure HC compounds: 1-pentene, toluene, and iso-octane. The pure compound

  18. Pollutant emissions from vehicles with regenerating after-treatment systems in regulatory and real-world driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Novak, Philippe

    2008-07-15

    Regenerating exhaust after-treatment systems are increasingly employed in passenger cars in order to comply with regulatory emission standards. These systems include pollutant storage units that occasionally have to be regenerated. The regeneration strategy applied, the resultant emission levels and their share of the emission level during normal operation mode are key issues in determining realistic overall emission factors for these cars. In order to investigate these topics, test series with four cars featuring different types of such after-treatment systems were carried out. The emission performance in legislative and real-world cycles was monitored as well as at constant speeds. The extra emissions determined during regeneration stages are presented together with the methodology applied to calculate their impact on overall emissions. It can be concluded that exhaust after-treatment systems with storage units cause substantial overall extra emissions during regeneration mode and can appreciably affect the emission factors of cars equipped with such systems, depending on the frequency of regenerations. Considering that the fleet appearance of vehicles equipped with such after-treatment systems will increase due to the evolution of statutory pollutant emission levels, extra emissions originating from regenerations of pollutant storage units consequently need to be taken into account for fleet emission inventories. Accurately quantifying these extra emissions is achieved by either conducting sufficient repetitions of emission measurements with an individual car or by considerably increasing the size of the sample of cars with comparable after-treatment systems.

  19. Development and analysis of SCR requirements tables for system scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Morrison, Jeffery L.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the use of scenarios to develop and refine requirement tables for parts of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing EOSDIS as part of its Mission-To-Planet-Earth (MTPE) project to accept instrument/platform observation requests from end-user scientists, schedule and perform requested observations of the Earth from space, collect and process the observed data, and distribute data to scientists and archives. Current requirements for the system are managed with tools that allow developers to trace the relationships between requirements and other development artifacts, including other requirements. In addition, the user community (e.g., earth and atmospheric scientists), in conjunction with NASA, has generated scenarios describing the actions of EOSDIS subsystems in response to user requests and other system activities. As part of a research effort in verification and validation techniques, this paper describes our efforts to develop requirements tables from these scenarios for the EOSDIS Core System (ECS). The tables specify event-driven mode transitions based on techniques developed by the Naval Research Lab's (NRL) Software Cost Reduction (SCR) project. The SCR approach has proven effective in specifying requirements for large systems in an unambiguous, terse format that enhance identification of incomplete and inconsistent requirements. We describe development of SCR tables from user scenarios and identify the strengths and weaknesses of our approach in contrast to the requirements tracing approach. We also evaluate the capabilities of both approach to respond to the volatility of requirements in large, complex systems.

  20. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Binmore » 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  1. Systems and methods to reduce reductant consumption in exhaust aftertreament systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.

    Systems, apparatus and methods are provided for reducing reductant consumption in an exhaust aftertreatment system that includes a first SCR device and a downstream second SCR device, a first reductant injector upstream of the first SCR device, and a second reductant injector between the first and second SCR devices. NOx conversion occurs with reductant injection by the first reductant injector to the first SCR device in a first temperature range and with reductant injection by the second reductant injector to the second SCR device when the temperature of the first SCR device is above a reductant oxidation conversion threshold.

  2. Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Proceduremore » emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.« less

  3. Transformation of mercury speciation through the SCR system in power plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-min; Pan, Wei-ping

    2007-01-01

    Coal-fired utility boilers are now identified as the largest source of mercury in the United States. There is speculation that the installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for reduction of NOx can also prompt the oxidation and removal of mercury. In this paper, tests at six full-scale power plants with similar type of the SCR systems are conducted to investigate the effect of the SCR on the transformation of mercury speciation. The results show that the SCR system can achieve more than 70%-80% oxidation of elemental mercury and enhance the mercury removal ability in these units. The oxidation of elemental mercury in the SCR system strongly depends on the coal properties and the operation conditions of the SCR systems. The content of chloride in the coal is the key factor for the oxidization process and the maximum oxidation of elemental mercury is found when chloride content changes from 400 to 600 ppm. The sulfur content is no significant impact on oxidation of elemental mercury.

  4. Characterizing emission rates of regulated pollutants from model year 2012+ heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with DPF and SCR systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yang, Jiacheng; Cocker, David; Karavalakis, Georgios; Johnson, Kent C; Durbin, Thomas D

    2018-04-01

    The regulated emissions of five 2012 and newer, low-mileage, heavy-duty Class 8 diesel trucks equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were evaluated over test cycles representing urban, highway, and stop-and-go driving on a chassis dynamometer. NOx emissions over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) ranged from 0.495 to 1.363g/mi (0.136 to 0.387g/bhp-hr) for four of the normal emitting trucks. For those trucks, NOx emissions were lowest over the cruise (0.068 to 0.471g/mi) and high-speed cruise (0.067 to 0.249g/mi) cycles, and highest for the creep cycle (2.131 to 9.468g/mi). A fifth truck showed an anomaly in that it had never regenerated throughout its relatively short operating lifetime due to its unusual, unladed service history. This truck exhibited NOx emissions of 3.519g/mi initially over the UDDS, with UDDS NOx emissions decreasing to 0.39g/mi after a series of parked regenerations. PM, THC, and CO emissions were found to be very low for most of the testing conditions, due to the presence of the DPF/SCR aftertreatment system, and were comparable to background levels in some cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical Simulations of SCR DeNOx System for a 660MW coal-fired power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongqiang, Deng; Zhongming, Mei; Yijun, Mao; Nianping, Liu; Guoming, Yin

    2018-06-01

    Aimed at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) DeNOx system of a 660 MW coal-fired power station, which is limited by low denitrification efficiency, large ammonia consumption and over-high ammonia escape rate, numerical simulations were conducted by employing STAR-CCM+ (CFD tool). The simulations results revealed the problems existed in the SCR DeNOx system. Aimed at limitations of the target SCR DeNOx system, factors affecting the denitrification performance of SCR, including the structural parameters and ammonia injected by the ammonia nozzles, were optimized. Under the optimized operational conditions, the denitrification efficiency of the SCR system was enhanced, while the ammonia escape rate was reduced below 3ppm. This study serves as references for optimization and modification of SCR systems.

  6. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC)more » and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during

  7. Exhaust after-treatment system with in-cylinder addition of unburnt hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kesse, Mary L.

    2007-10-30

    Certain exhaust after-treatment devices, at least periodically, require the addition of unburnt hydrocarbons in order to create reductant-rich exhaust conditions. The present disclosure adds unburnt hydrocarbons to exhaust from at least one combustion chamber by positioning, at least partially within a combustion chamber, a mixed-mode fuel injector operable to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a first spray pattern with a small average angle relative to a centerline of the combustion chamber and a second spray pattern with a large average angle relative to the centerline of the combustion chamber. An amount of fuel is injected in the first spray pattern into a non-combustible environment within the at least one combustion chamber during at least one of an expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. The exhaust with the unburnt amount of fuel is moved into an exhaust passage via an exhaust valve.

  8. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diagnostic system must monitor reductant quality and tank levels and alert operators to the need to refill... specified in § 1033.110 and an audible alarm. You do not need to separately monitor reductant quality if you include an exhaust NOX sensor (or other sensor) that allows you to determine inadequate reductant quality...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diagnostic system must monitor reductant quality and tank levels and alert operators to the need to refill... specified in § 1033.110 and an audible alarm. You do not need to separately monitor reductant quality if you include an exhaust NOX sensor (or other sensor) that allows you to determine inadequate reductant quality...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diagnostic system must monitor reductant quality and tank levels and alert operators to the need to refill... specified in § 1033.110 and an audible alarm. You do not need to separately monitor reductant quality if you include an exhaust NOX sensor (or other sensor) that allows you to determine inadequate reductant quality...

  11. Phenomenological methodology for assessing the influence of flow conditions on the acoustic response of exhaust aftertreatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A. J.; Arnau, F. J.; Piqueras, P.; Sanchis, E. J.; Tartoussi, H.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing limits of standards on aerosol and gaseous emissions from internal combustion engines have led to the progressive inclusion of different exhaust aftertreatment systems (EATS) as a part of the powertrain. Regulated emissions are generally abated making use of devices based on monolithic structures with different chemical functions. As a side effect, wave transmission across the device is affected and so is the boundary at the exhaust line inlet, so that the design of the latter is in turn affected. While some models are available for the prediction of these effects, the geometrical complexity of many devices makes still necessary in many cases to rely on experimental measurements, which cannot cover all the diversity of flow conditions under which these devices operate. To overcome this limitation, a phenomenological methodology is proposed in this work that allows for the sound extrapolation of experimental results to flow conditions different from those used in the measurements. The transfer matrix is obtained from tests in an impulse rig for different excitation amplitudes and mean flows. The experimental coefficients of the transmission matrix of the device are fitted to Fourier series. It allows treating the influence of the flow conditions on the acoustic response, which is manifested on changes in the characteristic periods, separately from the specific properties of every device. In order to provide predictive capabilities to the method, the Fourier series approach is coupled to a gas dynamics model able to account for the sensitivity of propagation velocity to variations in the flow conditions.

  12. Radio-Frequency-Controlled Urea Dosing for NH₃-SCR Catalysts: NH₃ Storage Influence to Catalyst Performance under Transient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Reitmeier, Willibald; Burger, Katharina; Hien, Markus; Grass, Philippe; Kubinski, David; Visser, Jaco; Moos, Ralf

    2017-11-28

    Current developments in exhaust gas aftertreatment led to a huge mistrust in diesel driven passenger cars due to their NO x emissions being too high. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with ammonia (NH₃) as reducing agent is the only approach today with the capability to meet upcoming emission limits. Therefore, the radio-frequency-based (RF) catalyst state determination to monitor the NH₃ loading on SCR catalysts has a huge potential in emission reduction. Recent work on this topic proved the basic capability of this technique under realistic conditions on an engine test bench. In these studies, an RF system calibration for the serial type SCR catalyst Cu-SSZ-13 was developed and different approaches for a temperature dependent NH₃ storage were determined. This paper continues this work and uses a fully calibrated RF-SCR system under transient conditions to compare different directly measured and controlled NH₃ storage levels, and NH₃ target curves. It could be clearly demonstrated that the right NH₃ target curve, together with a direct control on the desired level by the RF system, is able to operate the SCR system with the maximum possible NO x conversion efficiency and without NH₃ slip.

  13. NOx emissions from Euro IV busses with SCR systems associated with urban, suburban and freeway driving patterns.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mingliang; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Xin; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Liang, Bin

    2013-05-01

    NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs) have become the most important sources of pollutants affecting urban air quality in China. In recent years, a series of emission control strategies and diesel engine polices have been introduced that require advanced emission control technology. China and Europe mostly have used Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with urea to meet the Euro IV diesel engine emission standard. In this study, two Euro IV busses with SCR were tested by using potable emission measurement system (PEMS) to assess NOx emissions associated with urban, suburban and freeway driving patterns. The results indicated that with the SCR system, the urea injection time for the entire driving period increased with higher vehicle speed. For freeway driving, the urea injection time covered 71%-83% of the driving period; the NOx emission factors from freeway driving were lower than those associated with urban and suburban driving. Unfortunately, the NOx emission factors were 2.6-2.8-, 2.3-2.7- and 2.2-2.3-fold higher than the Euro IV standard limits for urban, suburban and freeway driving, respectively; NOx emission factors (in g/km and g/(kW·h)) from the original vehicles (without SCR) were higher than their corresponding vehicles with SCR for suburban and freeway driving. Compared with the IVE model results, the measured NOx emission factors were 1.60-1.16-, 1.77-1.27-, 2.49-2.44-fold higher than the NOx predicted by the IVE model for urban and suburban driving, respectively. Thus, an adjustment of emission factors is needed to improve the estimation of Euro IV vehicle emissions in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radio-Frequency-Controlled Urea Dosing for NH3-SCR Catalysts: NH3 Storage Influence to Catalyst Performance under Transient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Reitmeier, Willibald; Burger, Katharina; Hien, Markus; Grass, Philippe; Kubinski, David; Visser, Jaco; Moos, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Current developments in exhaust gas aftertreatment led to a huge mistrust in diesel driven passenger cars due to their NOx emissions being too high. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with ammonia (NH3) as reducing agent is the only approach today with the capability to meet upcoming emission limits. Therefore, the radio-frequency-based (RF) catalyst state determination to monitor the NH3 loading on SCR catalysts has a huge potential in emission reduction. Recent work on this topic proved the basic capability of this technique under realistic conditions on an engine test bench. In these studies, an RF system calibration for the serial type SCR catalyst Cu-SSZ-13 was developed and different approaches for a temperature dependent NH3 storage were determined. This paper continues this work and uses a fully calibrated RF-SCR system under transient conditions to compare different directly measured and controlled NH3 storage levels, and NH3 target curves. It could be clearly demonstrated that the right NH3 target curve, together with a direct control on the desired level by the RF system, is able to operate the SCR system with the maximum possible NOx conversion efficiency and without NH3 slip. PMID:29182589

  15. Adaptive Model Predictive Control of Diesel Engine Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction or SCR is coming into worldwide use for diesel engine emissions reduction for on- and off-highway vehicles. These applications are characterized by broad operating range as well as rapid and unpredictable changes in operating conditions. Significant nonlinearity, input and output constraints, and stringent performance…

  16. Process identification of the SCR system of coal-fired power plant for de-NOx based on historical operation data.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Shi, Raoqiao; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin

    2018-05-08

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, as one principal flue gas treatment method employed for the NO x emission control of the coal-fired power plant, is nonlinear and time-varying with great inertia and large time delay. It is difficult for the present SCR control system to achieve satisfactory performance with the traditional feedback and feedforward control strategies. Although some improved control strategies, such as the Smith predictor control and the model predictive control, have been proposed for this issue, a well-matched identification model is essentially required to realize a superior control of the SCR system. Industrial field experiment is an alternative way to identify the SCR system model in the coal-fired power plant. But it undesirably disturbs the operation system and is costly in time and manpower. In this paper, a process identification model of the SCR system is proposed and developed by applying the asymptotic method to the sufficiently excited data, selected from the original historical operation database of a 350 MW coal-fired power plant according to the condition number of the Fisher information matrix. Numerical simulations are carried out based on the practical historical operation data to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. Results show that the proposed model can efficiently achieve the process identification of the SCR system.

  17. Using SCR methods to analyze requirements documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Morrison, Jeffery

    1995-01-01

    Software Cost Reduction (SCR) methods are being utilized to analyze and verify selected parts of NASA's EOS-DIS Core System (ECS) requirements documentation. SCR is being used as a spot-inspection tool. Through this formal and systematic approach of the SCR requirements methods, insights as to whether the requirements are internally inconsistent or incomplete as the scenarios of intended usage evolve in the OC (Operations Concept) documentation. Thus, by modelling the scenarios and requirements as mode charts using the SCR methods, we have been able to identify problems within and between the documents.

  18. FreedomCAR - Aftertreatment Subsystem Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa A. Prentiss

    2005-09-30

    The primary objective of this program was to develop generic aftertreatment technologies applicable for LDV and LDT engines ranging from 55 kW to 200kW, to develop an optimized and integrated aftertreatment system for a LDT (Light Duty Truck) type vehicle, and to demonstrate the technology which will enable light duty diesel engines to meet Federal Tier II regulation with minimum impact on fuel economy. Specifically, the development targets for emissions reduction and fuel injection penalty are given below: (1) NOx conversion efficiency > 90% (hot), > 84% (combined); (2) PM conversion efficiency > 90% (hot), > 84% (combined); (3) Fuelmore » penalty over FTP-75 Less than 5%; and (4) Fuel penalty at Cruise condition Less than 3%. Development of cost-effective, highly efficient diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems in combination with very low engine out emission combustion development are essential elements for realization of Federal Tier II emission standards for Light Duty Trucks and Vehicles. Evaluation of several aftertreatment technologies was completed as part of this program. A combination of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, NOx Adsorbing Catalyst and Catalyzed Soot Filter was found to provide the levels of conversion efficiency required to achieve the emission targets. While early systems required relatively large catalyst volumes, external dosing, sulfur traps, full bypass configurations and high levels of Platinum metals; the final system is a compact, scalable, flow-through, fully-integrated and engine-managed aftertreatment system capable of commercial application for Light Duty Vehicles and Trucks. NOx adsorber/particulate filter technology is particularly attractive for Light Duty applications due to the lower exhaust flow and temperature requirements as compared to Heavy Duty engines. Despite these strong positive aspects, NOx Adsorbers are challenged by their regeneration requirements and susceptibility to sulfur poisoning and thermal degradation

  19. Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System

    SciTech Connect

    LeePhD, John; TzanetakisPhD, Tom; Travers, Michael

    With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modificationmore » to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles. Overall lower CO2 emissions and fuel consumption were also measured for naphtha due in part to its higher heating value and higher hydrogen to carbon ratio. Engine-out and tailpipe NOx emissions were lower for naphtha fuel at the same catalyst conversion levels and measured particulate matter (PM) emissions were also lower when using naphtha due to its higher volatility and lower aromatic content compared to ULSD. To help assess the potential impact on diesel particulate filter design and operation, engine-out PM samples were collected and characterized at the B50 operating point. A significant reduction in elemental carbon (EC) within the particulate emissions was found when using naphtha compared to ULSD.« less

  20. Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L

    2009-05-15

    Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further

  1. A study on post impingement effects of urea-water solution spray on the heated wall of automotive SCR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahariar, G. M. H.; Wardana, M. K. A.; Lim, O. T.

    2018-04-01

    The post impingement effects of urea-water solution spray on the heated wall of automotive SCR systems was numerically investigated in a constant volume chamber using STAR CCM+ CFD code. The turbulence flow was modelled by realizable k-ε two-layer model together with standard wall function and all y+ treatment was applied along with two-layer approach. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used for the modelling of multi phase flow. Urea water solution (UWS) was injected onto the heated wall for the wall temperature of 338, 413, 473, 503 & 573 K. Spray development after impinging on the heated wall was visualized and measured. Droplet size distribution and droplet evaporation rates were also measured, which are vital parameters for the system performance but still not well researched. Specially developed user defined functions (UDF) are implemented to simulate the desired conditions and parameters. The investigation reveals that wall temperature has a great impact on spray development after impingement, droplet size distribution and evaporation. Increasing the wall temperature leads to longer spray front projection length, smaller droplet size and faster droplet evaporation which are preconditions for urea crystallization reduction. The numerical model and parameters are validated comparing with experimental data.

  2. Study on the characters of control valve for ammonia injection in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system of coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Che; Li, Tao; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Yanming

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the characters of two control valves used for ammonia injection in SCR system are discussed. The linear/quadratic character between pressure drop/outlet flow rate and valve opening/dynamic pressure inlet are investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and response surface analysis (RSA) methods. The results show that the linear character of brake valve is significantly better than butterfly valve, which means that the brake valve is more suitable for ammonia injection adjustment than the butterfly valve.

  3. Modeling the Fault Tolerant Capability of a Flight Control System: An Exercise in SCR Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chris; Cortellessa, Vittorio; DelGobbo, Diego; Mili, Ali; Napolitano, Marcello

    2000-01-01

    In life-critical and mission-critical applications, it is important to make provisions for a wide range of contingencies, by providing means for fault tolerance. In this paper, we discuss the specification of a flight control system that is fault tolerant with respect to sensor faults. Redundancy is provided by analytical relations that hold between sensor readings; depending on the conditions, this redundancy can be used to detect, identify and accommodate sensor faults.

  4. Effect of advanced aftertreatment for PM and NOx reduction on heavy-duty diesel engine ultrafine particle emissions.

    PubMed

    Herner, Jorn Dinh; Hu, Shaohua; Robertson, William H; Huai, Tao; Chang, M-C Oliver; Rieger, Paul; Ayala, Alberto

    2011-03-15

    Four heavy-duty and medium-duty diesel vehicles were tested in six different aftertreament configurations using a chassis dynamometer to characterize the occurrence of nucleation (the conversion of exhaust gases to particles upon dilution). The aftertreatment included four different diesel particulate filters and two selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices. All DPFs reduced the emissions of solid particles by several orders of magnitude, but in certain cases the occurrence of a volatile nucleation mode could increase total particle number emissions. The occurrence of a nucleation mode could be predicted based on the level of catalyst in the aftertreatment, the prevailing temperature in the aftertreatment, and the age of the aftertreatment. The particles measured during nucleation had a high fraction of sulfate, up to 62% of reconstructed mass. Additionally the catalyst reduced the toxicity measured in chemical and cellular assays suggesting a pathway for an inverse correlation between particle number and toxicity. The results have implications for exposure to and toxicity of diesel PM.

  5. Evaluation of Exhaust Emissions from Three Diesel-Hybrid Cars and Simulation of After-Treatment Systems for Ultralow Real-World NOx Emissions.

    PubMed

    Franco, Vicente; Zacharopoulou, Theodora; Hammer, Jan; Schmidt, Helge; Mock, Peter; Weiss, Martin; Samaras, Zissis

    2016-12-06

    Hybridization offers great potential for decreasing pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel cars. However, an assessment of the real-world emissions performance of modern diesel hybrids is missing. Here, we test three diesel-hybrid cars on the road and benchmark our findings with two cars against tests on the chassis dynamometer and model simulations. The pollutant emissions of the two cars tested on the chassis dynamometer were in compliance with the relevant Euro standards over the New European Driving Cycle and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure. On the road, all three diesel-hybrids exceeded the regulatory NO x limits (average exceedance for all trips: +150% for the Volvo, +510% for the Peugeot, and +550% for the Mercedes-Benz) and also showed elevated on-road CO 2 emissions (average exceedance of certification values: +178, +77, and +52%, respectively). These findings point to a wide discrepancy between certified and on-road CO 2 and suggest that hybridization alone is insufficient to achieve low-NO x emissions of diesel powertrains. Instead, our simulation suggests that properly calibrated selective catalytic reduction filter and lean-NO x trap after-treatment technologies can reduce the on-road NO x emissions to 0.023 and 0.068 g/km on average, respectively, well below the Euro 6 limit (0.080 g/km).

  6. Modeling reacting gases and aftertreatment devices for internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depcik, Christopher David

    As more emphasis is placed worldwide on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, automobile manufacturers have to create more efficient engines. Simultaneously, legislative agencies want these engines to produce fewer problematic emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. In response, newer combustion methods, like homogeneous charge compression ignition and fuel cells, are being researched alongside the old standard of efficiency, the compression ignition or diesel engine. These newer technologies present a number of benefits but still have significant challenges to overcome. As a result, renewed interest has risen in making diesel engines cleaner. The key to cleaning up the diesel engine is the placement of aftertreatment devices in the exhaust. These devices have shown great potential in reducing emission levels below regulatory levels while still allowing for increased fuel economy versus a gasoline engine. However, these devices are subject to many flow control issues. While experimental evaluation of these devices helps to understand these issues better, it is impossible to solve the problem through experimentation alone because of time and cost constraints. Because of this, accurate models are needed in conjunction with the experimental work. In this dissertation, the author examines the entire exhaust system including reacting gas dynamics and aftertreatment devices, and develops a complete numerical model for it. The author begins by analyzing the current one-dimensional gas-dynamics simulation models used for internal combustion engine simulations. It appears that more accurate and faster numerical method is available, in particular, those developed in aeronautical engineering, and the author successfully implements one for the exhaust system. The author then develops a comprehensive literature search to better understand the aftertreatment devices. A number of these devices require a secondary injection of fuel or reductant in the exhaust stream

  7. Preface: Challenges for Catalytic Exhaust Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-03-31

    This special issue of Catalysis Today continues the tradition established since the 18th NAM in Cancun, 2003, of publishing the highlights coming from these catalytic after-treatment technologies sessions, where this volume contains 18 papers based on oral and poster presentations of the 23rd NAM, 2013. The guest editors would like to thank all of the catalyst scientists and engineers who presented in the "Emission control" sessions, and especially the authors who contributed to this special issue of Catalysis Today.

  8. Evaluation of fuel-borne sodium effects on a DOC-DPF-SCR heavy-duty engine emission control system: Simulation of full-useful life

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J.; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Toops, Todd J.

    Here we report that for renewable fuels to displace petroleum, they must be compatible with emissions control devices. Pure biodiesel contains up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg metals, which have the potential to degrade diesel emissions control systems. This study aims to address these concerns, identify deactivation mechanisms, and determine if a lower limit is needed. Accelerated aging of a production exhaust system was conducted on an engine test stand over 1001 h using 20% biodiesel blended into ultra-low sulfur diesel (B20) doped with 14 ppm Na. This Na level is equivalent tomore » exposure to Na at the uppermost expected B100 value in a B20 blend for the system full-useful life. During the study, NOx emissions exceeded the engine certification limit of 0.33 g/bhp-hr before the 435,000-mile requirement. Replacing aged diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices with new degreened parts showed that each device contributed equally to the NOx increase. Following this systems-based evaluation, a detailed investigation of the individual components was completed. Na was determined to have minimal impact on DOC activity. For this system, it is estimated that B20-Na resulted in 50% more ash into the DPF. However, the Na did not diffuse into the cordierite DPF nor degrade its mechanical properties. The SCR degradation was found to be caused by a small amount of precious group metals (PGM) contamination that increased NH3 oxidation, and lowered NOx reduction. Therefore, we determined that the primary effect of Na in this study is through increased ash in the DPF rather than deactivation of the catalytic activity.« less

  9. Evaluation of fuel-borne sodium effects on a DOC-DPF-SCR heavy-duty engine emission control system: Simulation of full-useful life

    DOE PAGES

    Lance, Michael J.; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Toops, Todd J.; ...

    2016-10-17

    Here we report that for renewable fuels to displace petroleum, they must be compatible with emissions control devices. Pure biodiesel contains up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg metals, which have the potential to degrade diesel emissions control systems. This study aims to address these concerns, identify deactivation mechanisms, and determine if a lower limit is needed. Accelerated aging of a production exhaust system was conducted on an engine test stand over 1001 h using 20% biodiesel blended into ultra-low sulfur diesel (B20) doped with 14 ppm Na. This Na level is equivalent tomore » exposure to Na at the uppermost expected B100 value in a B20 blend for the system full-useful life. During the study, NOx emissions exceeded the engine certification limit of 0.33 g/bhp-hr before the 435,000-mile requirement. Replacing aged diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices with new degreened parts showed that each device contributed equally to the NOx increase. Following this systems-based evaluation, a detailed investigation of the individual components was completed. Na was determined to have minimal impact on DOC activity. For this system, it is estimated that B20-Na resulted in 50% more ash into the DPF. However, the Na did not diffuse into the cordierite DPF nor degrade its mechanical properties. The SCR degradation was found to be caused by a small amount of precious group metals (PGM) contamination that increased NH3 oxidation, and lowered NOx reduction. Therefore, we determined that the primary effect of Na in this study is through increased ash in the DPF rather than deactivation of the catalytic activity.« less

  10. Evaluation of Fuel-Borne Sodium Effects on a DOC-DPF-SCR Heavy-Duty Engine Emission Control System: Simulation of Full-Useful Life

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael; Wereszczak, Andrew; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-04-05

    For renewable fuels to displace petroleum, they must be compatible with emissions control devices. Pure biodiesel contains up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg metals, which have the potential to degrade diesel emissions control systems. This study aims to address these concerns, identify deactivation mechanisms, and determine if a lower limit is needed. Accelerated aging of a production exhaust system was conducted on an engine test stand over 1,001 hr using B20 doped with 14 ppm Na. During the study, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exceeded the engine certification limit of 0.33 g/bhp-hr beforemore » the 435,000-mile requirement. Replacing aged diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices with new degreened parts showed that each device contributed equally to the NOx increase. Following this systems-based evaluation, a detailed investigation of the individual components was completed. Na was determined to have minimal impact on DOC activity. For this system, it is estimated that B20-Na resulted in 50% more ash into the DPF. However, the Na did not diffuse into the cordierite DPF nor degrade its mechanical properties. The SCR degradation was found to be caused by a small amount of precious group metals contamination that increased ammonia oxidation, and lowered NOx reduction. Therefore, it was determined that the primary effect of Na in this study is through increased ash in the DPF rather than deactivation of the catalytic activity.« less

  11. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    DOEpatents

    Aardahl, Christopher L [Richland, WA; Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou [West Richland, WA; Chanda, Ashok [Peoria, IL; Habeger, Craig F [West Richland, WA; Koshkarian, Kent A [Peoria, IL; Park, Paul W [Peoria, IL

    2006-07-25

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  12. Combined effect of fuel-design and after-treatment system on reduction of local and global emissions from CI engine.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, S; Geo, V Edwin; Martin, Leenus Jesu; Nagalingam, B

    2018-03-22

    This experimental study aims to mitigate harmful emissions from a CI engine using bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) approach. The engine used for this experimental work is a single cylinder CI engine with a rated power of 5.2 kW at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The BECCS approach is a combination of plant-based biofuels and carbon capture and storage (CCS) system. The whole investigation was done in four phases: (1) Substituting diesel with Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) (2) Equal volume blending of Orange oil (ORG) with KOME (3) 20% blending of n-butanol (B) with KOME-ORG blend (4) CCS system with zeolite based non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) and mono ethanolamine (MEA) based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system with KOME-ORG + B20 blend. The experimental results show that substitution of diesel with KOME reduces smoke emission, but increases NO and CO 2 emission. KOME-ORG blend reduces CO 2 and smoke emissions with high NO emission due to combustion improvement. In comparison with the sole combustion of KOME at full load condition, the combination of KOME-ORG + B20 as bio-fuel with zeolite based post-combustion treatment system resulted in a maximum reduction of NO, smoke and CO 2 emission by 41%, 19% and 15% respectively.

  13. EVALUATION OF MERCURY SPECIATION AT POWER PLANTS USING SCR AND SNCR NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and flue gas-conditioning systems have on total mercury emissions and on the speciation of mercury. If SCR and/or SNCR systems enhance mercury conversion/capture, the...

  14. EVALUATION OF MERCURY SPECIATION AT POWER PLANTS USING SCR AND SNCR CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and flue gas-conditioning systems have on total mercury emissions and on the speciation of mercury. If SCR and/or SNCR systems enhance mercury conversion/capture, the...

  15. POWER PLANT EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF SCR TECHNOLOGY ON MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results of research on the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have on speciation and total emissions of mercury. Although SCR systems are designed to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx), they may oxidize elemental mercury (Hg0) to Hg2+, which is m...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... events. See paragraph (e) of this section for how to adjust ramped-modal testing. See paragraph (f) of... intended event during which emission levels change while the system restores aftertreatment performance... events that are expected to occur on average less than once over the applicable transient duty cycle or...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... events. See paragraph (e) of this section for how to adjust ramped-modal testing. See paragraph (f) of... intended event during which emission levels change while the system restores aftertreatment performance... events that are expected to occur on average less than once over the applicable transient duty cycle or...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... events. See paragraph (e) of this section for how to adjust ramped-modal testing. See paragraph (f) of... intended event during which emission levels change while the system restores aftertreatment performance... events that are expected to occur on average less than once over the applicable transient duty cycle or...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... events. See paragraph (e) of this section for how to adjust ramped-modal testing. See paragraph (f) of... intended event during which emission levels change while the system restores aftertreatment performance... events that are expected to occur on average less than once over the applicable transient duty cycle or...

  20. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF SCR ON MERCURY SPECIATION AND EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of an investigation on the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has on both the total emissions and the speciation of mercury (Hg). SCR systems can be used as multipollutant technologies if they enhance Hg conversion/capture. Previous pil...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.655 - Special certification provisions for-Category 3 engines with aftertreatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... demonstrating for certification that catalyst-equipped engines (or engines equipped with other aftertreatment... engine-out emissions comply with the Tier 2 standards. The catalyst material or other aftertreatment... points. This catalyst or aftertreatment testing may be performed on a benchscale. (c) Engineering...

  2. Hydrothermal Aging Effects on Fe/SSZ-13 and Fe/Beta NH3–SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Szanyi, János; Wang, Yilin

    Cu/SSZ-13 has been successfully commercialized as a diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment SCR catalyst in the past few years. This catalyst, however, displays undesirable NH3-SCR selectivity at elevated reaction temperature (≥ 350 C) after hydrothermal aging. Fe/zeolites, despite the fact that most of them degrade beyond tolerance after hydrothermal aging at temperatures ≥ 650 C, typically maintain good SCR selectivities. In recent years, Fe/beta has been identified as one of the more robust Fe/zeolites for use in NH3-SCR, where activity maintains even after hydrothermal aging at 750 C. Very recently, we, for the first time, synthesized and tested NH3-SCR performance formore » fresh and hydrothermally aged Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts. This study demonstrated that Fe/SSZ-13 is also a promising robust SCR catalyst, especially for high-temperature applications. In the present study, we compare catalytic performance between Fe/SSZ-13 and Fe/beta with similar Fe loadings and Si/Al ratios. Special attention is paid to effects from hydrothermal aging, aiming to understanding similarities and differences between these two catalysts. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.« less

  3. Using a PFET To Commutate an SCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. B.; Ripple, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Accidental turn-on prevented. PFET diverts load current around SCR to prevent false SCR triggering from current and voltage switching transients. New circuit used in all types of single phase and polyphase inverters and in buck-boost-, and flyback regulators.

  4. An SCR inverter for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latos, T.; Bosack, D.; Ehrlich, R.; Jahns, T.; Mezera, J.; Thimmesch, D.

    1980-01-01

    An inverter for an electric vehicle propulsion application has been designed and constructed to excite a polyphase induction motor from a fixed propulsion battery source. The inverter, rated at 35kW peak power, is fully regenerative and permits vehicle operation in both the forward and reverse directions. Thyristors are employed as the power switching devices arranged in a dc bus commutated topology. This paper describes the major role the controller plays in generating the motor excitation voltage and frequency to deliver performance similar to dc systems. Motoring efficiency test data for the controller are presented. It is concluded that an SCR inverter in conjunction with an ac induction motor is a viable alternative to present dc vehicle propulsion systems on the basis of performance and size criteria.

  5. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The

  6. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices including diesel particulate filters (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep+idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photo-oxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary and secondary fine particulate matter from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after three hours of oxidation at typical urban VOC : NOx ratios (3:1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the non-methane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas

  7. Fe/SSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIR/Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Kollar, Marton; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.

    2015-03-01

    Using a traditional aqueous solution ion-exchange method under a protecting atmosphere of N2, an Fe/SSZ-13 catalyst active in NH3-SCR was synthesized. Mössbauer and FTIR spectroscopies were used to probe the nature of the Fe sites. In the fresh sample, the majority of Fe species are extra-framework cations. The likely monomeric and dimeric ferric ions in hydrated form are [Fe(OH)2]+ and [HO-Fe-O-Fe-OH]2+, based on Mössbauer measurements. During the severe hydrothermal aging (HTA) applied in this study, a majority of cationic Fe species convert to FeAlOx and clustered FeOx species, accompanied by severe dealumination of the SSZ-13 framework. The clustered FeOx speciesmore » do not give a sextet Mössbauer spectrum, indicating that these are highly disordered. However, some Fe species in cationic positions remain after aging as determined from Mössbauer measurements and CO/NO FTIR titrations. NO/NH3 oxidation reaction tests reveal that dehydrated cationic Fe are substantially more active in catalyzing oxidation reactions than the hydrated ones. For NH3-SCR, enhancement of NO oxidation under ‘dry’ conditions promotes SCR rates below ~300 • C. This is due mainly to contribution from the “fast” SCR channel. Above ~300 • C, enhancement of NH3 oxidation under ‘dry’ conditions, however, becomes detrimental to NOx conversions. The HTA sample loses much of the SCR activity below ~300 • C; however, above ~400 • C much of the activity remains. This may suggest that the FeAlOx and FeOx species become active at such elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the high-temperature activity may be maintained by the remaining extra-framework cationic species. For potential practical applications, Fe/SSZ-13 may be used as a co-catalyst for Cu/CHA as integral aftertreatment SCR catalysts on the basis of the stable high temperature activity after hydrothermal aging. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable

  8. Development of super-clean diesel engine and combustor using nonthermal plasma hybrid aftertreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Masaaki

    2015-10-01

    One of important and successful environmental applications of atmospheric-pressure corona discharge or plasma is electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which have been widely used for coal- or oil-fired boilers in electric power plants and particulate matter control emitted from industries such as glass melting furnace system, etc. In the ESPs, steady high voltage is usually applied to a pair of electrodes (at least, one of these has sharp edge). Unsteady pulsed high voltage is often applied for the collection of high-resistivity particulate matter (PM) to avoid reverse corona phenomena which reduce the collection efficiency of the ESPs. It was found that unsteady high voltage can treat hazardous gaseous components (NOx, SOx, hydrocarbon, and CO, etc.) in the exhaust gas, and researches were shifted from PM removal to hazardous gases aftertreatment with unsteady corona discharge induced plasmas. In the paper, recent results on diesel engine and industrial boiler emission controls are mainly reviewed among these our research topics.

  9. Destruction of PCDD/Fs by SCR from flue gases of municipal waste incinerator and metal smelting plant.

    PubMed

    Chang, Moo Been; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Shu Hao; Yeh, Jhy Wei

    2007-01-01

    Partitioning of PCDD/F congeners between vapor/solid phases and removal and destruction efficiencies achieved with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for PCDD/Fs at an existing municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and metal smelting plant (MSP) in Taiwan are evaluated via stack sampling and analysis. The MWI investigated is equipped with electrostatic precipitators (EP, operating temperature: 230 degrees C), wet scrubbers (WS, operating temperature: 70 degrees C) and SCR (operating temperature: 220 degrees C) as major air pollution control devices (APCDs). PCDD/F concentration measured at stack gas of the MWI investigated is 0.728 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). The removal efficiency of WS+SCR system for PCDD/Fs reaches 93% in the MWI investigated. The MSP investigated is equipped with EP (operating temperature: 240 degrees C) and SCR (operating temperature: 290 degrees C) as APCDs. The flue gas sampling results also indicate that PCDD/F concentration treated with SCR is 1.35 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). The SCR system adopted in MSP can remove 52.3% PCDD/Fs from flue gases (SCR operating temperature: 290 degrees C, Gas flow rate: 660 kN m(3)/h). In addition, the distributions of PCDD/F congeners observed in the flue gases of the MWI and MSP investigated are significantly different. This study also indicates that the PCDD/F congeners measured in the flue gases of those two facilities are mostly distributed in vapor phase prior to the SCR system and shift to solid phase (vapor-phase PCDD/Fs are effectively decomposed) after being treated with catalyst. Besides, the results also indicate that with SCR highly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners can be transformed to lowly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners probably by dechlorination, while the removal efficiencies of vapor-phase PCDD/Fs increase with increasing chlorination.

  10. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  11. Low NOx combustion and SCR flow field optimization in a low volatile coal fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Tan, Houzhang; Wang, Yibin; Yang, Fuxin; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2018-08-15

    Low NO x burner redesign and deep air staging have been carried out to optimize the poor ignition and reduce the NO x emissions in a low volatile coal fired 330 MW e boiler. Residual swirling flow in the tangentially-fired furnace caused flue gas velocity deviations at furnace exit, leading to flow field unevenness in the SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system and poor denitrification efficiency. Numerical simulations on the velocity field in the SCR system were carried out to determine the optimal flow deflector arrangement to improve flow field uniformity of SCR system. Full-scale experiment was performed to investigate the effect of low NO x combustion and SCR flow field optimization. Compared with the results before the optimization, the NO x emissions at furnace exit decreased from 550 to 650 mg/Nm³ to 330-430 mg/Nm³. The sample standard deviation of the NO x emissions at the outlet section of SCR decreased from 34.8 mg/Nm³ to 7.8 mg/Nm³. The consumption of liquid ammonia reduced from 150 to 200 kg/h to 100-150 kg/h after optimization. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The effect of pre- and after-treatment of sevoflurane on central ischemia tolerance and the underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, with continuous research efforts targeted at studying the effects of pre- and after-treatment of inhaled anesthetics, significant progress has been made regarding the common clinical use of low concentrations of inhaled sevoflurane and its effect on induced central ischemia tolerance by pre- and post-treatment. In this study, we collected, analyzed, classified, and summarized recent literature regarding the effect of sevoflurane on central ischemia tolerance and its related mechanisms. In addition, we provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of sevoflurane to protect the central nervous system and other important organs against ischemic injury. PMID:29556553

  13. Experimental study on the particulate matter and nitrogenous compounds from diesel engine retrofitted with DOC+CDPF+SCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Lou, Diming; Tan, Piqiang; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations will mandate the retrofit of after-treatment devices for in-use diesel vehicles, in order to reduce their substantial particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions. In this paper, a combination of DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), CDPF (catalytic diesel particulate filter) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction) retrofit for a heavy-duty diesel engine was employed to perform experiment on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the particulate matter emissions including particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), particle size distributions and nitrogenous compounds emissions including NOX, nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOX, nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) slip. In addition, the urea injection was also of our concern. The results showed that the DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit almost had no adverse effect on the engine power and fuel consumption. Under the test loads, the upstream DOC and CDPF reduced the PN and PM by an average of 91.6% and 90.9%, respectively. While the downstream SCR brought about an average decrease of 85% NOX. Both PM and NOX emission factors based on this retrofit were lower than China-Ⅳ limits (ESC), and even lower than China-Ⅴ limits (ESC) at medium and high loads. The DOC and CDPF changed the particle size distributions, leading to the increase in the proportion of accumulation mode particles and the decrease in the percentage of nuclear mode particles. This indicates that the effect of DOC and CDPF on nuclear mode particles was better than that of accumulation mode ones. The upstream DOC could increase the NO2/NOX ratio to 40%, higher NO2/NOX ratio improved the efficiency of CDPF and SCR. Besides, the N2O emission increased by an average of 2.58 times after the retrofit and NH3 slip occurred with the average of 26.7 ppm. The rate of urea injection was roughly equal to 8% of the fuel consumption rate. The DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit was proved a feasible and effective measurement in terms

  14. Smart command recognizer (SCR) - For development, test, and implementation of speech commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Carol A.; Bunnell, John W.; Krones, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    The SCR, a rapid prototyping system for the development, testing, and implementation of speech commands in a flight simulator or test aircraft, is described. A single unit performs all functions needed during these three phases of system development, while the use of common software and speech command data structure files greatly reduces the preparation time for successive development phases. As a smart peripheral to a simulation or flight host computer, the SCR interprets the pilot's spoken input and passes command codes to the simulation or flight computer.

  15. Effects of NOX Storage Component on Ammonia Formation in TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control in Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    A prototype three-way catalyst (TWC) with NOX storage component was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly-rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst.more » Adding a NOX storage component to a TWC provides two benefits in the context of a passive SCR system: (1) enabling longer lean operation by storing NOX upstream and preserving NH3 inventory on the downstream SCR catalyst; and (2) increasing the quantity and rate of NH3 production during rich operation. Since the fuel penalty associated with passive SCR NOX control depends on the fraction of time that the engine is running rich rather than lean, both benefits (longer lean times and shorter rich times achieved via improved NH3 production) will decrease the passive SCR fuel penalty. However, these benefits are primarily realized at low to moderate temperatures (300-500 °C), where the NOX storage component is able to store NOX, with little to no benefit at higher temperatures (>500 °C), where NOX storage is no longer effective. This study discusses engine parameters and control strategies affecting the NH3 generation over a TWC with NOX storage component.« less

  16. The J3 SCR model applied to resonant converter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avant, R. L.; Lee, F. C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The J3 SCR model is a continuous topology computer model for the SCR. Its circuit analog and parameter estimation procedure are uniformly applicable to popular computer-aided design and analysis programs such as SPICE2 and SCEPTRE. The circuit analog is based on the intrinsic three pn junction structure of the SCR. The parameter estimation procedure requires only manufacturer's specification sheet quantities as a data base.

  17. Operational Characteristics of an SCR-Based Pulse Generating Circuit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    of OUTC can further be explained by the RC time constants involved in the charging and discharging of OUTC during each pulse . When the SCR is...CHARACTERISTICS OF AN SCR-BASED PULSE GENERATING CIRCUIT by Wing Chien Christopher Chang December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Gamani Karunasiri Co...COVERED December 20 14 Master ’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN SCR-BASED PULSE GENERATING CIRCUIT 6

  18. SCR-1: Design and Construction of a Small Modular Stellarator for Magnetic Confinement of Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillas, L.; Vargas, V. I.; Alpizar, A.; Asenjo, J.; Carranza, J. M.; Cerdas, F.; Gutiérrez, R.; Monge, J. I.; Mora, J.; Morera, J.; Peraza, H.; Queral, V.; Rojas, C.; Rozen, D.; Saenz, F.; Sánchez, G.; Sandoval, M.; Trimiño, H.; Umaña, J.; Villegas, L. F.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes briefly the design and construction of a small modular stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma, called Stellarator of Costa Rica 1, or SCR-1; developed by the Plasma Physics Group of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, PlasmaTEC. The SCR-1 is based on the small Spanish stellarator UST_1, created by the engineer Vicente Queral. The SCR-1 will employ stainless steel torus-shaped vacuum vessel with a major radius of 460.33 mm and a cross section radius of 110.25mm. A typical SCR-1 plasma will have an average radius 42.2 mm and a volume of 8 liters (0.01 m3), and an aspect ratio of 5.7. The magnetic resonant field will be 0.0878 T, and a period of 2 (m=2) with a rotational transform of 0.3. The magnetic field will be provided by 12 modular coils, with 8 turns each, with an electrical current of 8704 A per coil (1088 A per turn of each coil). This current will be fed by a bank of cell batteries. The plasma will be heated by ECRH with magnetrons of a total power of 5kW, in the first harmonic at 2.45GHz. The expected electron temperature and density are 15 eV and 1017 m-3 respectively with an estimated confinement time of 7.30 x 10-4 ms. The initial diagnostics on the SCR-1 will consist of a Langmuir probe, a heterodyne microwave interferometer, and a field mapping system. The first plasma of the SCR-1 is expected at the end of 2011.

  19. Aftertreatment Technologies for Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.D.

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this program was to explore a combination of advanced injection control and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from a Tier 2 off-highway diesel engine to Tier 3 emission targets while maintaining fuel efficiency. The engine used in this investigation was a 2004 4.5L John Deere PowerTechTM; this engine was not equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Under the original CRADA, the principal objective was to assess whether Tier 3 PM emission targets could be met solely by increasing the rail pressure. Although high rail pressuremore » will lower the total PM emissions, it has a contrary effect to raise NOx emissions. To address this effect, a urea-SCR system was used to determine whether the enhanced NOx levels, associated with high rail pressure, could be reduced to Tier 3 levels. A key attraction for this approach is that it eliminates the need for a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) to remove PM emissions. The original CRADA effort was also performed using No.2 Diesel fuel having a maximum sulfur level of 500 ppm. After a few years, the CRADA scope was expanded to include exploration of advanced injection strategies to improve catalyst regeneration and to explore the influence of urea-SCR on PM formation. During this period the emission targets also shifted to meeting more stringent Tier 4 emissions for NOx and PM, and the fuel type was changed to ultra-low sulfur Diesel (ULSD) having a maximum sulfur concentration of 15 ppm. New discoveries were made regarding PM formation at high rail pressures and the influences of oxidation catalysts and urea-SCR catalysts. These results are expected to provide a pathway for lower PM and NOx emissions for both off- and on-highway applications. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. Review of the research results were carried out on a regular basis (annual reports and meetings) followed by

  20. Detail view of northwest side of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of northwest side of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation, showing portion of concrete gutter drainage system and asphalt floor tiles, camera facing north - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  1. Method to monitor HC-SCR catalyst NOx reduction performance for lean exhaust applications

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Michael B [Macomb Township, MI; Schmieg, Steven J [Troy, MI; Sloane, Thompson M [Oxford, MI; Hilden, David L [Shelby Township, MI; Mulawa, Patricia A [Clinton Township, MI; Lee, Jong H [Rochester Hills, MI; Cheng, Shi-Wai S [Troy, MI

    2012-05-29

    A method for initiating a regeneration mode in selective catalytic reduction device utilizing hydrocarbons as a reductant includes monitoring a temperature within the aftertreatment system, monitoring a fuel dosing rate to the selective catalytic reduction device, monitoring an initial conversion efficiency, selecting a determined equation to estimate changes in a conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the monitored temperature and the monitored fuel dosing rate, estimating changes in the conversion efficiency based upon the determined equation and the initial conversion efficiency, and initiating a regeneration mode for the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the estimated changes in conversion efficiency.

  2. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Wallace J.

    1999-01-01

    A power controller device which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the "reset" input of a R-S flip flop, while an "0" crossing detector controls the "set" input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the "reset" and "set" inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations.

  3. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, W.J.

    1999-04-06

    A power controller device is disclosed which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the ``reset`` input of a R-S flip flop, while an ``0`` crossing detector controls the ``set`` input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the ``reset`` and ``set`` inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations. 9 figs.

  4. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  5. 40 CFR 1042.655 - Special certification provisions for-Category 3 engines with aftertreatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... devices) comply with applicable emission standards. You must use good engineering judgment for all aspects... points. This catalyst or aftertreatment testing may be performed on a benchscale. (c) Engineering analysis. Include with your application a detailed engineering analysis describing how the test data...

  6. 40 CFR 1042.655 - Special certification provisions for-Category 3 engines with aftertreatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... devices) comply with applicable emission standards. You must use good engineering judgment for all aspects... points. This catalyst or aftertreatment testing may be performed on a benchscale. (c) Engineering analysis. Include with your application a detailed engineering analysis describing how the test data...

  7. 40 CFR 1033.535 - Adjusting emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events that occur during testing. See paragraph (e) of... adjust discrete-mode testing. For this section, “regeneration” means an intended event during which... section, “infrequent” refers to regeneration events that are expected to occur on average less than once...

  8. 40 CFR 1033.535 - Adjusting emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events that occur during testing. See paragraph (e) of... adjust discrete-mode testing. For this section, “regeneration” means an intended event during which... section, “infrequent” refers to regeneration events that are expected to occur on average less than once...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.535 - Adjusting emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events that occur during testing. See paragraph (e) of... adjust discrete-mode testing. For this section, “regeneration” means an intended event during which... section, “infrequent” refers to regeneration events that are expected to occur on average less than once...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.535 - Adjusting emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adjusting emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices. 1033.535 Section 1033.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

  11. 40 CFR 1033.535 - Adjusting emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adjusting emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices. 1033.535 Section 1033.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

  12. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program from 1977 to mid-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1980-01-01

    The supersonic cruise research (SCR) program, initiated in July 1972, includes system studies and the following disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emission impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. In a coordinated effort to provide a sound basis for any future consideration that may be given by the United States to the development of an acceptable commercial supersonic transport, integration of the technical disciplines was undertaken, analytical tools were developed, and wind tunnel, flight, and laboratory investigations were conducted. The present bibliography covers the time period from 1977 to mid-1980. It is arranged according to system studies and the above five SCR disciplines. There are 306 NASA reports and 135 articles, meeting papers, and company reports cited.

  13. An experimental investigation of the effect of temperature and space velocity on the performance of a cu-zeolite flow-through SCR and a SCR catalyst on a DPF with and without PM loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Vaibhav

    The heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engines use the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and urea injection based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems in sequential combination, to meet the US EPA 2010 PM and NOx emission standards. The SCR along with a NH 3 slip control catalyst (AMOX) offer NOx reduction >90 % with NH3 slip <20 ppm. However, there is a strong desire to further improve the NOx reduction performance of such systems, to meet the California Optional Low NOx Standard implemented since 2015. Integrating SCR functionality into a diesel particulate filter (DPF), by coating the SCR catalyst on the DPF, offers potential to reduce the system cost and packaging weight/ volume. It also provides opportunity to increases the SCR volume without affecting the overall packaging, to achieve NO x reduction efficiencies >95 %. In this research, the NOx reduction and NH3 storage performance of a Cu-zeolite SCR and Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst on DPF (SCRFRTM) were experimentally investigated based on the engine experimental data at steady state conditions. The experimental data for the production-2013-SCR and the SCRFRTM were collected (with and without PM loading in the SCRFRTM) on a Cummins ISB 2013 engine, at varying inlet temperatures, space velocities, inlet NOx concentrations and NO2/NOx ratios, to evaluate the NOx reduction, NH3 storage and NH 3 slip characteristics of the SCR catalyst. The SCRFRTM was loaded with 2 and 4 g/L of PM prior to the NOx reduction tests to study the effect of PM loading on the NOx reduction and NH3 storage performance of the SCRFRTM. The experimental setup and test procedures for evaluation of NOx reduction performance of the SCRFRTM, with and without PM loading in the SCRFRTM are described. The 1-D SCR model developed at MTU was calibrated to the engine experimental data obtained from the seven NOx reduction tests conducted with the production-2013-SCR. The performance of the 1-D SCR model was validated by

  14. Study on the Ingredient Proportions and After-Treatment of Laser Sintering Walnut Shell Composites

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanling; Jiang, Ting; Li, Jian; Jiang, Kaiyi; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To alleviate resource shortage, reduce the cost of materials consumption and the pollution of agricultural and forestry waste, walnut shell composites (WSPC) consisting of walnut shell as additive and copolyester hot melt adhesive (Co-PES) as binder was developed as the feedstock of selective laser sintering (SLS). WSPC parts with different ingredient proportions were fabricated by SLS and processed through after-treatment technology. The density, mechanical properties and surface quality of WSPC parts before and after post processing were analyzed via formula method, mechanical test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Results show that, when the volume fraction of the walnut shell powder in the WSPC reaches the maximum (40%), sintered WSPC parts have the smallest warping deformation and the highest dimension precision, although the surface quality, density, and mechanical properties are low. However, performing permeating resin as the after-treatment technology could considerably increase the tensile, bending and impact strength by 496%, 464%, and 516%, respectively. PMID:29207485

  15. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.

    2011-04-01

    An accelerated durability test method determined the potential impact of biodiesel ash impurities, including engine testing with multiple diesel particulate filter substrate types, as well as diesel oxidation catalyst and selective catalyst reduction catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of a DPF after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in thermal shock resistance. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher hydrocarbon slip and a reduction in NO2 formation. The SCR catalyst experiencedmore » a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging. The SCR catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF and exposed to B20 exhaust suffered a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. The results of this study suggest that long-term operation with B20 at the current specification limits for alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities will adversely impact the performance of DOC, DPF and SCR systems.« less

  16. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND RESPONSES TO POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF SCR AND WET SCRUBBERS ON SUBMICRON PARTICULATE EMISSIONS AND PLUME CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers on coal-fired boilers have led to substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). However, observations of pilot- and full-scale tes...

  18. STUDY OF MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST IN AN ENTRAINED-FLOW REACTOR UNDER SIMULATED PRB CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bench-scale entrained-flow reactor system was constructed for studying elemental mercury oxidation under selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction conditions. Simulated flue gas was doped with fly ash collected from a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired boiler ...

  19. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  20. Regenerative Snubber For GTO-Commutated SCR Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed regenerative snubbing circuit substituted for dissipative snubbing circuit in inverter based on silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) commutated by gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO). Intended to reduce loss of power that occurs in dissipative snubber. Principal criteria in design: low cost, simplicity, and reliability.

  1. Experimental research of technology activating catalysts for SCR DeNOx in boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xi; Yang, Zhengde; Li, Yan; Chen, Donglin

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve activity of the catalysts used in SCR DeNOx system of flue gas, a series of catalysts activated by different activating liquids under varied conditions in boiler directly were conducted. Then these catalysts were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and BET technology. And NO conversions of the activated catalysts were studied and compared with that of inactivated catalyst. The above experiment shows that NO conversion of the activated catalyst can be up to 99%, which 30% higher than that of inactivated catalyst, so activity of catalysts were improved greatly. Furthermore, optimal activating liquid labeled L2 and effective technology parameters were gained in the experiment.

  2. Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.

    2013-10-15

    With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the muchmore » lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.« less

  3. 40 CFR 1039.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjust emission results from engines using aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events. For this section, “regeneration” means an intended event during which emission levels change while the... section, “infrequent” refers to regeneration events that are expected to occur on average less than once...

  4. 40 CFR 1039.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjust emission results from engines using aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events. For this section, “regeneration” means an intended event during which emission levels change while the... section, “infrequent” refers to regeneration events that are expected to occur on average less than once...

  5. 40 CFR 1039.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjust emission results from engines using aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events. For this section, “regeneration” means an intended event during which emission levels change while the... section, “infrequent” refers to regeneration events that are expected to occur on average less than once...

  6. 40 CFR 1039.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjust emission results from engines using aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events. For this section, “regeneration” means an intended event during which emission levels change while the... section, “infrequent” refers to regeneration events that are expected to occur on average less than once...

  7. 40 CFR 1039.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjust emission results from engines using aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events. For this section, “regeneration” means an intended event during which emission levels change while the... section, “infrequent” refers to regeneration events that are expected to occur on average less than once...

  8. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM 2.5 , Σ 15 PAHs, Σ 11 NPAHs, Σ 5 Hopanes and Σ 6 Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM 2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM 2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

  9. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83–99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments. PMID:25709535

  10. New mechanistic insights in the NH 3-SCR reactions at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggeri, Maria Pia; Selleri, Tomasso; Nova, Isabella

    2016-05-06

    The present study is focused on the investigation of the low temperature Standard SCR reaction mechanism over Fe- and Cu-promoted zeolites. Different techniques are employed, including in situ DRIFTS, transient reaction analysis and chemical trapping techniques. The results present strong evidence of nitrite formation in the oxidative activation of NO and of their role in SCR reactions. These elements lead to a deeper understanding of the standard SCR chemistry at low temperature and can potentially improve the consistency of mechanistic mathematical models. Furthermore, comprehension of the mechanism on a fundamental level can contribute to the development of improved SCR catalysts.

  11. The protective effect of SCR(15-18) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Xian, Jinhong; He, Li; Luo, Xue; Tan, Bing; Yang, Yongtao; Liu, Gaoke; Wang, Zhengqing

    2011-10-01

    Soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1), a potent inhibitor of complement activation, has been shown to protect brain cells against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (CI/R) injury due to its decay-accelerating activity for C3/C5 convertase and co-factor activity for C3b/C4b degradation. However, the effect of short consensus repeats (SCRs) 15-18, one of active domains of sCR1 with high C3b/C4b degradability, has not been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the protective effect of recombinant SCR(15-18) protein in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal CI/R injury. Recombinant SCR(15-18) protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and refolded to its optimal bioactivity. Seventy-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: sham-operated group, CI/R group, and SCR(15-18)+CI/R group pretreated with 20 mg/kg SCR(15-18) protein. After 2 hours of MCAO and subsequent 24 hours of reperfusion, rats were evaluated for neurological deficits and cerebral infarction. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation, C3b deposition, and morphological changes in cerebral tissue were also estimated. SCR(15-18) pretreatment induced a 20% reduction of infarct size and an improvement of neurological function with 22·2% decrease of neurological deficit scores. Inhibition of cerebral neutrophils infiltration by SCR(15-18) was indicated from the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity in SCR(15-18)+CI/R rats. Decreased C3b deposition and improved morphological changes were also found in cerebral tissue of SCR(15-18)-treated rats. Our studies suggest a definitive moderately protective effect of SCR(15-18) against CI/R damage and provide preclinical experimental evidence supporting the possibility of using it as a small anti-complement therapeutic agent for CI/R injury therapy.

  12. STUDY OF SPECIATION OF MERCURY UNDER SIMULATED SCR NOX EMISSION CONTROL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper focuses on the impact of SCR on elemental mercury (Hg0) oxidation. It describes the results of bench-scale experiments conducted to investigate Hg0 oxidation in the presence of simulated coal combustion flue gases and under SCR reaction conditions. Flue gas mixtures wit...

  13. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associ-ated with retrofit applications of selec-tive catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxides (NOX) con-trol technology capable of providing NOX reductions...

  14. Detail view of southeast corner of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of southeast corner of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation, showing Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Tower concrete pier in background, camera facing north - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  15. Characterization of horizontally transferred β-fructofuranosidase (ScrB) genes in Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Doucet, D; Mittapalli, O

    2014-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an important invasive insect pest of Fraxinus spp. that feeds on host tissues containing high levels of sucrose. However, little is known about how it digests sucrose. Here, using larval midgut transcriptome data and preliminary genome sequence efforts, two β-fructofuranosidase-encoding ScrB genes, AplaScrB-1 and AplaScrB-2, were identified, and proved to reside within the A. planipennis genome. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that they were acquired by A. planipennis via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria, possibly an event independent from that reported in bark beetles (eg ScrB genes). Microsynteny between A. planipennis DNA scaffold #2042940, which hosts AplaScrB-1, and a region in the Tribolium castaneum chromosome LG4 suggested that A. planipennis gained this gene after the separation of Buprestidae and Tenebrionidae. Although both of the putative AplaScrB proteins have conserved β-fructofuranosidase motifs, only AplaScrB-2 was predicted to be a secretory protein. Expression of AplaScrB-1 seemed constitutive during development and in all tissues examined, whereas AplaScrB-2 showed a peak expression in adults and in the midgut. We propose that acquisition of these genes by A. planipennis from bacteria is adaptive, and specifically AplaScrB-2 is involved in breaking down dietary sucrose to obtain energy for development. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. 77 FR 488 - Control of Emissions From New Highway Vehicles and Engines; Approval of New Scheduled Maintenance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... and engine manufacturers began planning to meet those requirements by optimizing engine designs for low emissions and adding high-efficiency aftertreatment systems. Manufacturers examined the use of... recirculation, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). SCR systems use a nitrogen-containing reducing agent...

  17. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.

    2011-06-01

    It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts.more » The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher HC slip and a reduction in NO{sub 2} formation. The metal-zeolite SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000 mile equivalent aging. This catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF, showed a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle.« less

  18. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Quarterly report No. 7, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the amonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japanmore » and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO, and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), and the Electric Power Research Institute.« less

  19. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the amonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japanmore » and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO, and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), and the Electric Power Research Institute.« less

  20. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters.

  1. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  2. Location plan for Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Location plan for Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, October 8, 1943 - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  3. Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, showing conditions before construction, May 28, 1943, this drawing shows the Bonita Ridge access road retaining wall and general conditions at Bonita Ridge before the construction of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  4. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Tritscher, T.; Richter, R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Wehrle, G.; Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2010-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA) and the corresponding SOA formation at atmospherically relevant concentrations for three in-use diesel vehicles with different exhaust aftertreatment systems. One vehicle lacked exhaust aftertreatment devices, one vehicle was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and the third vehicle used both a DOC and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The experiments presented here were obtained from the vehicles at conditions representative of idle mode, and for one car in addition at a speed of 60 km/h. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was used to measure the organic aerosol (OA) concentration and to obtain information on the chemical composition. For the conditions explored in this paper, primary aerosols from vehicles without a particulate filter consisted mainly of black carbon (BC) with a low fraction of organic matter (OM, OM/BC < 0.5), while the subsequent aging by photooxidation resulted in a consistent production of SOA only for the vehicles without a DOC and with a deactivated DOC. After 5 h of aging ~80% of the total organic aerosol was on average secondary and the estimated "emission factor" for SOA was 0.23-0.56 g/kg fuel burned. In presence of both a DOC and a DPF, only 0.01 g SOA per kg fuel burned was produced within 5 h after lights on. The mass spectra indicate that POA was mostly a non-oxidized OA with an oxygen to carbon atomic ratio (O/C) ranging from 0.10 to 0.19. Five hours of oxidation led to a more oxidized OA with an O/C range of 0

  5. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Tritscher, T.; Richter, R.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Wehrle, G.; Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2010-06-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA) and the corresponding SOA formation at atmospherically relevant concentrations for three in-use diesel vehicles with different exhaust aftertreatment systems. One vehicle lacked exhaust aftertreatment devices, one vehicle was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and the final vehicle used both a DOC and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The experiments presented here were obtained from the vehicles at conditions representative of idle mode, and for one car in addition at a speed of 60 km/h. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was used to measure the organic aerosol (OA) concentration and to obtain information on the chemical composition. For the conditions explored in this paper, primary aerosols from vehicles without a particulate filter consisted mainly of black carbon (BC) with a low fraction of organic matter (OM, OM/BC<0.5), while the subsequent aging by photooxidation resulted in a consistent production of SOA only for the vehicles without a DOC and with a deactivated DOC. After 5 h of aging ~80% of the total organic aerosol was on average secondary and the estimated "emission factor" for SOA was 0.23-0.56 g/kg fuel burned. In presence of both a DOC and a DPF, primary particles with a mobility diameter above 5 nm were 300±19 cm-3, and only 0.01 g SOA per kg fuel burned was produced within 5 h after lights on. The mass spectra indicate that POA was mostly a non-oxidized OA with an oxygen to carbon atomic ratio (O/C) ranging from 0.097 to 0

  6. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a modern diesel engine equipped with catalyzed emission control systems.

    PubMed

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Exhaust emissions of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, 12 2005 WHO chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine were investigated. Testing included configurations composed of different combinations of aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), copper zeolite urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR), iron zeolite SCR, and ammonia slip catalyst. Results were compared to a baseline engine out configuration. Testing included the use of fuel that contained the maximum expected chlorine (Cl) concentration of U.S. highway diesel fuel and a Cl level 1.5 orders of magnitude above. Results indicate there is no risk for an increase in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from modern diesel engines with catalyzed aftertreatment when compared to engine out emissions for configurations tested in this program. These results, along with PAH results, compare well with similar results from modern diesel engines in the literature. The results further indicate that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan emissions from modern diesel engines both with and without aftertreatment are below historical values reported in the literature as well as the current inventory value.

  7. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-10-30

    Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Perspective on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NO with NH 3 by Supported V 2O 5 –WO 3/TiO 2 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jun-Kun; Wachs, Israel E.

    We report the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO x with NH 3 to harmless N 2 and H 2O plays a crucial role in reducing highly undesirable NO x acid gas emissions from large utility boilers, industrial boilers, municipal waste plants, and incinerators. The supported V 2O 5 –WO 3/TiO 2 catalysts have become the most widely used industrial catalysts for these SCR applications since introduction of this technology in the early 1970s. Lastly, this Perspective examines the current fundamental understanding and recent advances of the supported V 2O 5 –WO 3/TiO 2 catalyst system: (i) catalyst synthesis, (ii)more » molecular structures of titaniasupported vanadium and tungsten oxide species, (iii) surface acidity, (iv) catalytic active sites, (v) surface reaction intermediates, (vi) reaction mechanism, (vii) ratedetermining- step, and (viii) reaction kinetics.« less

  9. A Perspective on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NO with NH 3 by Supported V 2O 5 –WO 3/TiO 2 Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Lai, Jun-Kun; Wachs, Israel E.

    2018-06-04

    We report the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO x with NH 3 to harmless N 2 and H 2O plays a crucial role in reducing highly undesirable NO x acid gas emissions from large utility boilers, industrial boilers, municipal waste plants, and incinerators. The supported V 2O 5 –WO 3/TiO 2 catalysts have become the most widely used industrial catalysts for these SCR applications since introduction of this technology in the early 1970s. Lastly, this Perspective examines the current fundamental understanding and recent advances of the supported V 2O 5 –WO 3/TiO 2 catalyst system: (i) catalyst synthesis, (ii)more » molecular structures of titaniasupported vanadium and tungsten oxide species, (iii) surface acidity, (iv) catalytic active sites, (v) surface reaction intermediates, (vi) reaction mechanism, (vii) ratedetermining- step, and (viii) reaction kinetics.« less

  10. Lean NO x reduction over Ag/alumina catalysts via ethanol-SCR using ethanol/gasoline blends

    DOE PAGES

    Gunnarsson, Fredrik; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.; ...

    2016-09-04

    This paper focuses on the activity for lean NO x reduction over sol-gel synthesized silver alumina (Ag/Al 2O 3) catalysts, with and without platinum doping, using ethanol (EtOH), EtOH/C 3H 6 and EtOH/gasoline blends as reducing agents. The effect of ethanol concentration, both by varying the hydrocarbon-to-NO x ratio and by alternating the gasoline concentration in the EtOH/gasoline mixture, is investigated. High activity for NO x reduction is demonstrated for powder catalysts for EtOH and EtOH/C 3H 6 as well as for monolith coated catalysts (EtOH and EtOH/gasoline). The results show that pure Ag/Al 2O 3 catalysts display higher NOmore » x reduction and lower light-off temperature as compared to the platinum doped samples. The 4 wt.% Ag/Al 2O 3 catalyst displays 100% reduction in the range 340–425 °C, with up to 37% selectivity towards NH 3. These results are also supported by DRIFTS (Diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy) experiments. Finally, the high ammonia formation could, in combination with an NH 3-SCR catalyst, be utilized to construct a NO x reduction system with lower fuel penalty cf. stand alone HC-SCR. In addition, it would result in an overall decrease in CO 2 emissions.« less

  11. The development and application of SCR denitrification technology in power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junnan

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, the emission of the nitrogen oxides (NOX) has been increasing with the years of the thermal power plant. The environment pollution caused by the emission of quantities of nitrogen oxides became more and more serious, so people now put more emphasis on the control of the emission of the nitrogen oxides. Especially, our country and the society are paying much more attention to the environment protection and the environment problems cannot be neglected. In this paper, we introduced the related research background of the technology of SCR denitrification which was as the symbol of the technology of the catalytic denitrification and discussed the reaction principles of the SCR denitrification and frequently used catalysts, the process of the technology, and the configuration. In the end, we pointed the way of the future research of the technology of the SCR denitrification.

  12. A comparative study on methods of improving SCR for ship detection in SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Haitao; Shi, Hongji; Tao, Yunhong; Ma, Li

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge about ship positions plays a critical role in a wide range of maritime applications. To improve the performance of ship detector in SAR image, an effective strategy is improving the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) before conducting detection. In this paper, we present a comparative study on methods of improving SCR, including power-law scaling (PLS), max-mean and max-median filter (MMF1 and MMF2), method of wavelet transform (TWT), traditional SPAN detector, reflection symmetric metric (RSM), scattering mechanism metric (SMM). The ability of SCR improvement to SAR image and ship detection performance associated with cell- averaging CFAR (CA-CFAR) of different methods are evaluated on two real SAR data.

  13. Reformer assisted lean NO.sub.x catalyst aftertreatment system and method

    DOEpatents

    Kalyanaraman, Mohan [Media, PA; Park, Paul W [Peoria, IL; Ragle, Christie S [Havana, IL

    2010-06-29

    A method and apparatus for catalytically processing a gas stream passing therethrough to reduce the presence of NO.sub.x therein, wherein the apparatus includes a first catalyst composed of a silver-containing alumina that is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a first temperature range, a second catalyst composed of a copper-containing zeolite located downstream from the first catalyst, wherein the second catalyst is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a lower second temperature range relative to the first temperature range, a hydrocarbon compound for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst to provide a reductant, and a reformer for reforming a portion of the hydrocarbon compound into H.sub.2 and/or oxygenated hydrocarbon for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst. The second catalyst is adapted to facilitate the reaction of reducing NOx into N.sub.2, whereby the intermediates are produced via the first catalyst reacting with NOx and hydrocarbons.

  14. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program from 1980 to 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1984-01-01

    A bibliography for the Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) and Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) Programs is presented. An annotated bibliography for the last 123 formal reports and a listing of titles for 44 articles and presentations is included. The studies identifies technologies for producing efficient supersonic commercial jet transports for cruise Mach numbers from 2.0 to 2.7.

  15. HYBRID SNCR-SCR TECHNOLOGIES FOR NOX CONTROL: MODELING AND EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hybrid process of homogeneous gas-phase selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) followed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) was investigated through experimentation and modeling. Measurements, using NO-doped flue gas from a gas-fired 29 kW test combu...

  16. EVALUATION OF SCR CATALYSTS FOR COMBINED CONTROL OF NOX AND MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents two-task, bench- and pilot-scale research on the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal combustion flue gases. In task I, a bench-scale reactor was used to study the oxidatio...

  17. View of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation, showing Fire Control Stations (Buildings 621 and 622) and concrete stairway (top left) camera facing southwest - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  18. Using the SCR Specification Technique in a High School Programming Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward; McKim, James C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the underlying ideas of the Software Cost Reduction (SCR) approach to requirements specifications. Results of applying this approach to the teaching of programing to high school students indicate that students perform better in writing programs. An appendix provides two examples of how the method is applied to problem solving. (MDH)

  19. Algorithms Based on CWT and Classifiers to Control Cardiac Alterations and Stress Using an ECG and a SCR

    PubMed Central

    Villarejo, María Viqueira; Zapirain, Begoña García; Zorrilla, Amaia Méndez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG) for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and J48) have been used, respectively. The designed algorithm analyses the ECG signal and is able to detect the heart rate (99.42%), arrhythmia (93.48%) and extrasystoles (99.29%). The detection of stress level is complemented with Skin Conductance Response (SCR), whose success is 94.02%. The heart rate variability does not show added value to the stress detection in this case. With this pulsimeter, it is possible to prevent and detect anomalies for a non-intrusive way associated to a telemedicine system. It is also possible to use it during physical activity due to the fact the CWT minimizes the motion artifacts. PMID:23666135

  20. Algorithms based on CWT and classifiers to control cardiac alterations and stress using an ECG and a SCR.

    PubMed

    Villarejo, María Viqueira; Zapirain, Begoña García; Zorrilla, Amaia Méndez

    2013-05-10

    This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG) for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and J48) have been used, respectively. The designed algorithm analyses the ECG signal and is able to detect the heart rate (99.42%), arrhythmia (93.48%) and extrasystoles (99.29%). The detection of stress level is complemented with Skin Conductance Response (SCR), whose success is 94.02%. The heart rate variability does not show added value to the stress detection in this case. With this pulsimeter, it is possible to prevent and detect anomalies for a non-intrusive way associated to a telemedicine system. It is also possible to use it during physical activity due to the fact the CWT minimizes the motion artifacts.

  1. A SCR Model Calibration Approach with Spatially Resolved Measurements and NH 3 Storage Distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Xiaobo; Parker, Gordon G.; Johnson, John H.; ...

    2014-11-27

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a technology used for reducing NO x emissions in the heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine exhaust. In this study, the spatially resolved capillary inlet infrared spectroscopy (Spaci-IR) technique was used to study the gas concentration and NH 3 storage distributions in a SCR catalyst, and to provide data for developing a SCR model to analyze the axial gaseous concentration and axial distributions of NH 3 storage. A two-site SCR model is described for simulating the reaction mechanisms. The model equations and a calculation method was developed using the Spaci-IR measurements to determine the NH 3more » storage capacity and the relationships between certain kinetic parameters of the model. Moreover, a calibration approach was then applied for tuning the kinetic parameters using the spatial gaseous measurements and calculated NH3 storage as a function of axial position instead of inlet and outlet gaseous concentrations of NO, NO 2, and NH 3. The equations and the approach for determining the NH 3 storage capacity of the catalyst and a method of dividing the NH 3 storage capacity between the two storage sites are presented. It was determined that the kinetic parameters of the adsorption and desorption reactions have to follow certain relationships for the model to simulate the experimental data. Finally, the modeling results served as a basis for developing full model calibrations to SCR lab reactor and engine data and state estimator development as described in the references (Song et al. 2013a, b; Surenahalli et al. 2013).« less

  2. Exhaust particle and NOx emission performance of an SCR heavy duty truck operating in real-world conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Pirjola, Liisa; Matilainen, Pekka; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-02-01

    Particle and NOx emissions of an SCR equipped HDD truck were studied in real-world driving conditions using the "Sniffer" mobile laboratory. Real-time CO2 measurement enables emission factor calculation for NOx and particles. In this study, we compared three different emission factor calculation methods and characterised their suitability for real-world chasing experiments. The particle number emission was bimodal and dominated by the nucleation mode particles (diameter below 23 nm) having emission factor up to 1 × 1015 #/kgfuel whereas emission factor for soot (diameter above 23 nm that is consistent with the PMP standard) was typically 1 × 1014 #/kgfuel. The effect of thermodenuder on the exhaust particles indicated that the nucleation particles consisted mainly of volatile compounds, but sometimes there also existed a non-volatile core. The nucleation mode particles are not controlled by current regulations in Europe. However, these particles consistently form under atmospheric dilution in the plume of the truck and constitute a health risk for the human population that is exposed to those. Average NOx emission was 3.55 g/kWh during the test, whereas the Euro IV emission limit over transient testing is 3.5 g NOx/kWh. The on-road emission performance of the vehicle was very close to the expected levels, confirming the successful operation of the SCR system of the tested vehicle. Heavy driving conditions such as uphill driving increased both the NOx and particle number emission factors whereas the emission factor for soot particle number remains rather constant.

  3. Seismotectonic Models of the Three Recent Devastating SCR Earthquakes in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Kayal, J.

    2007-12-01

    During the last decade, three devastating earthquakes, the Killari 1993 (Mb 6.3), Jabalpur 1997 (Mb 6.0) and the Bhuj 2001 (Mw 7.7) occurred in the Stable Continental Region (SCR), Peninsular India. First, the September 30, 1993 Killari earthquake (Mb 6.3) occurred in the Deccan province of central India, in the Latur district of Maharashtra state. The local geology in the area is obscured by the late Cretaceous-Eocene basalt flows, referred to as the Deccan traps. This makes it difficult to recognize the geological surface faults that could be associated with the Killari earthquake. The epicentre was reported at 18.090N and 76.620E, and the focal depth at 7 +/- 1 km was precisely estimated by waveform inversion (Chen and Kao, 1995). The maximum intensity reached to VIII and the earthquake caused a loss of about 10,000 lives and severe damage to property. The May 22, 1997 Jabalpur earthquake (Mb 6.0), epicentre at 23.080N and 80.060E, is a well studied earthquake in the Son-Narmada-Tapti (SONATA) seismic zone. A notable aspects of this earthquake is that it was the first significant event in India to be recorded by 10 broadband seismic stations which were established in 1996 by the India Meteorological Department (IMD). The focal depth was well estimated using the "converted phases" of the broadband seismograms. The focal depth was given in the lower crust at a depth of 35 +/- 1 km, similar to the moderate earthquakes reported from the Amazona ancient rift system in SCR of South America. Maximum MSK intensity of the Jabalpur earthquake reached to VIII in the MSK scale and this earthquake killed about 50 people in the Jabalpur area. Finally, the Bhuj earthquake (MW 7.7) of January 26, 2001 in the Gujarat state, northwestern India, was felt across the whole country, and killed about 20,000 people. The maximum intensity level reached X. The epicenter of the earthquake is reported at 23.400N and 70.280E, and the well estimated focal depth at 25 km. A total of about

  4. Low temperature NH3-SCR of NO over an unexpected Mn-based catalyst: Promotional effect of Mg doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, De; He, Feng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Qi, Kai; Xie, Junlin; Li, Fengxiang; Yu, Chongqinq

    2018-01-01

    MnOx/TiO2 catalysts doped with Mg have been prepared with the impregnation method. Surprisingly, 7% Mg-MnOx/TiO2 catalyst containing more Mn3+ ions showed superior low-temperature SCR activity and stability. Mg doping resulted in some adverse effects on the phases, BET surface areas, reducibility, NH3 adsorption, and morphology structures. However, according to the SCR performance, these effects were thought to be rather limited in comparison with the catalytic properties of MgMn2O4 which might stem from the enhancement of NH3-SCR activity and stability. Meanwhile, based on the in situ DRIFTS tests, the NH3-SCR reaction route of MnOx/TiO2 and Mg doped MnOx/TiO2 catalysts depended on the kind of gas (NH3 or NO) pre-adsorbed on the catalyst.

  5. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles and SCR Maintenance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    May 23, 2012, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking with revisions related to emissions controls on diesel-powered emergency vehicles and revisions related to scheduled maintenance intervals for diesel engines and vehicles using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

  6. Effects of copper loading on NH3-SCR and NO oxidation over Cu impregnated CHA zeolite

    DOE PAGES

    Akter, Nusnin; Chen, Xianyin; Parise, John; ...

    2017-11-25

    Cu/CHA catalysts with various Cu loadings (0.5 wt%–6.0 wt%) were synthesized via incipient wetness impregnation. The catalysts were then applied to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH 3 and NO oxidation reaction. XRD and N 2 adsorption-desorption data showed that CHA structure was maintained with the incorporation of Cu, while specific surface areas decreased with increasing Cu loading. At intermediate Cu loading, 4 wt%, the highest NH 3-SCR activity was observed with ~98% N2 selectivity from 150°C to 300°C. Small amounts of water, 2%, slightly increased NO conversion in addition to the remarkable N 2O and NOmore » 2 reduction at high temperature. Water effects are attributed to the improved Cu ion reducibility and mobility. NO oxidation results provided no relation between NO 2 formation and SCR activity. Physicochemical properties, NO conversion, N 2 selectivity, and activation energy data showed that impregnated samples’ molecular structure and catalytic activity are comparable to the conventional ion-exchanged (IE) samples’ ones.« less

  7. High voltage series resonant inverter ion engine screen supply. [SCR series resonant inverter for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Shank, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A high-voltage, high-power LC series resonant inverter using SCRs has been developed for an Ion Engine Power Processor. The inverter operates within 200-400Vdc with a maximum output power of 2.5kW. The inverter control logic, the screen supply electrical and mechanical characteristics, the efficiency and losses in power components, regulation on the dual feedback principle, the SCR waveforms and the component weight are analyzed. Efficiency of 90.5% and weight density of 4.1kg/kW are obtained.

  8. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  9. In situ DRIFTS investigation of NH3-SCR reaction over CeO2/zirconium phosphate catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiulin; Fan, Jie; Ning, Ping; Song, Zhongxian; Liu, Xin; Wang, Lanying; Wang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Long, Kaixian

    2018-03-01

    A series of ceria modified zirconium phosphate catalysts were synthesized for selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia (NH3-SCR). Over 98% NOx conversion and 98% N2 selectivity were obtained by the CeO2/ZrP catalyst with 20 wt.% CeO2 loading at 250-425 °C. The interaction between CeO2 and zirconium phosphate enhanced the redox abilities and surface acidities of the catalysts, resulting in the improvement of NH3-SCR activity. The in situ DRIFTS results indicated that the NH3-SCR reaction over the catalysts followed both Eley-Rideal and Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms. The amide (sbnd NH2) groups and the NH4+ bonded to Brønsted acid sites were the important intermediates of Eley-Rideal mechanism.

  10. Low emission turbo compound engine system

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk,; Carl, T

    2011-05-31

    A diesel or HHCI engine has an air intake and an exhaust for products of combustion. A pair of turbochargers receive the products of combustion in a series relationship and an exhaust aftertreatment device receive the products of combustion from the downstream turbine. A power turbine receives the output from the exhaust aftertreatment device and an EGR system of the power turbine passes a selected portion of the output to a point upstream of the upstream turbocharger compressor. A device adds fuel to the aftertreatment device to regenerate the particulate filter and the power turbine recoups the additional energy. Themore » power turbine may be used to drive accessories or the prime output of the engine.« less

  11. On the hydrothermal stability of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Feng; Szanyi, Janos

    2018-05-07

    Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts have been extensively studied in the past decade or so. Hydrothermal stability of these catalysts has been identified as the most important criterion for application. In this perspective, we describe recent atomic-level understanding of their hydrothermal stability. In particular, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is shown to rather accurately quantify isolated Cu(II) ions and CuO clusters in fresh and aged catalysts to demonstrate the remarkable hydrothermal stability for Cu 2+ ions located in 6-membered ring windows, and the conversion of [Cu(OH)] + ions in Chabazite cages to CuO clusters. The hydrothermal stability difference of the two isolated Cu(II)more » ions is confirmed with DFT simulations and the conversion of [Cu(OH)] + to CuO is proposed to involve formation, migration and condensation of Cu(OH) 2 intermediates. The structural destructive role of CuO clusters is attributed to mesopore formation from their migration, which more severely damages the catalysts than dealumination. Lastly, perspectives are given on new strategies for low-temperature NO x removal, rational design and refinement of Cu/SSZ-13, and development of new Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts with even better performance than the state-of-the-art Cu/SSZ-13.« less

  12. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  13. Impact of sulfation and desulfation on NO x reduction using Cu-chabazite SCR catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Brookshear, Daniel William; Nam, Jeong -Gil; Nguyen, Ke; ...

    2015-06-05

    This bench reactor study investigates the impact of gaseous sulfur on the NO x reduction activity of Cu-chabazite SCR (Cu-CHA) catalysts at SO 2 concentrations representative of marine diesel engine exhaust. After two hours of 500 ppm SO 2 exposure at 250 and 400 °C in the simulated diesel exhaust gases, the NO x reduction activity of the sulfated Cu-CHA SCR catalysts is severely degraded at evaluation temperatures below 250 °C; however, above 250 °C the impact of sulfur exposure is minimal. EPMA shows that sulfur is located throughout the washcoat and along the entire length of the sulfated samples.more » Interestingly, BET measurements reveal that the sulfated samples have a 20% decrease in surface area. Moreover, the sulfated samples show a decrease in NO x/nitrate absorption during NO exposure in a DRIFTS reactor which suggests that Cu sites in the catalyst are blocked by the presence of sulfur. SO 2 exposure also results in an increase in NH 3 storage capacity, possibly due to the formation of ammonium sulfate species in the sulfated samples. In all cases, lean thermal treatments as low as 500 °C reverse the effects of sulfur exposure and restore the NO x reduction activity of the Cu-CHA catalyst to that of the fresh condition.« less

  14. Speciation analysis and leaching behaviors of selected trace elements in spent SCR catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zejun; Wang, Lele; Tang, Hao; Sun, Zhijun; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yi; Su, Sheng; Hu, Song; Wang, Yi; Xu, Kai; Liu, Liang; Ling, Peng; Xiang, Jun

    2018-09-01

    This study investigated heavy metal chemical speciation and leaching behavior from a board-type spent selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst containing high concentrations of vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. A three-step sequential extraction method, standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and leaching characteristic tests have been performed. It was found that the mobility of six heavy metals in the spent SCR catalyst was significantly different. The mobility of the six heavy metals exhibited the following order: Ni > Zn > V > Cr > As > Cu. Meanwhile, TCLP test results revealed relatively high Zn and Cr leaching rate of 83.20% and 10.35%, respectively. It was found that leaching rate was positively correlated with available contents (sum of acid soluble, reducible and oxidizable fractions). Leaching characteristics tests indicated that pH substantially affected the leaching of these heavy metals. In particular, the leaching of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was positively influenced by strong acid, while V and As were easily released in the presence of strong acid and strong alkali (pH < 3 or pH > 11). In terms of kinetics, the leaching of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and As within the spent catalyst was dominated by erosion and dissolution processes, which were rapid reaction processes. V was released in large amounts within 1 h, but its leaching amount sharply decreased with time due to readsorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On the hydrothermal stability of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Szanyi, Janos

    Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts have been extensively studied in the past decade or so. Hydrothermal stability of these catalysts has been identified as the most important criterion for application. In this perspective, we describe recent atomic-level understanding of their hydrothermal stability. In particular, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is shown to rather accurately quantify isolated Cu(II) ions and CuO clusters in fresh and aged catalysts to demonstrate the remarkable hydrothermal stability for Cu 2+ ions located in 6-membered ring windows, and the conversion of [Cu(OH)] + ions in Chabazite cages to CuO clusters. The hydrothermal stability difference of the two isolated Cu(II)more » ions is confirmed with DFT simulations and the conversion of [Cu(OH)] + to CuO is proposed to involve formation, migration and condensation of Cu(OH) 2 intermediates. The structural destructive role of CuO clusters is attributed to mesopore formation from their migration, which more severely damages the catalysts than dealumination. Lastly, perspectives are given on new strategies for low-temperature NO x removal, rational design and refinement of Cu/SSZ-13, and development of new Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts with even better performance than the state-of-the-art Cu/SSZ-13.« less

  16. Diverging functions of Scr between embryonic and post-embryonic development in a hemimetabolous insect, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Chesebro, John; Hrycaj, Steven; Mahfooz, Najmus; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Hemimetabolous insects undergo an ancestral mode of development in which embryos hatch into first nymphs that resemble miniature adults. While recent studies have shown that homeotic (hox) genes establish segmental identity of first nymphs during embryogenesis, no information exists on the function of these genes during post-embryogenesis. To determine whether and to what degree hox genes influence the formation of adult morphologies, we performed a functional analysis of Sex combs reduced (Scr) during post-embryonic development in Oncopeltus fasciatus. The main effect was observed in prothorax of Scr-RNAi adults, and ranged from significant alterations in its size and shape to a near complete transformation of its posterior half toward a T2-like identity. Furthermore, while the consecutive application of Scr-RNAi at both of the final two post-embryonic stages (fourth and fifth) did result in formation of ectopic wings on T1, the individual applications at each of these stages did not. These experiments provide two new insights into evolution of wings. First, the role of Scr in wing repression appears to be conserved in both holo- and hemimetabolous insects. Second, the prolonged Scr-depletion (spanning at least two nymphal stages) is both necessary and sufficient to restart wing program. At the same time, other structures that were previously established during embryogenesis are either unaffected (T1 legs) or display only minor changes (labium) in adults. These observations reveal a temporal and spatial divergence of Scr roles during embryonic (main effect in labium) and post-embryonic (main effect in prothorax) development. PMID:19382295

  17. Diverging functions of Scr between embryonic and post-embryonic development in a hemimetabolous insect, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Chesebro, John; Hrycaj, Steven; Mahfooz, Najmus; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2009-05-01

    Hemimetabolous insects undergo an ancestral mode of development in which embryos hatch into first nymphs that resemble miniature adults. While recent studies have shown that homeotic (hox) genes establish segmental identity of first nymphs during embryogenesis, no information exists on the function of these genes during post-embryogenesis. To determine whether and to what degree hox genes influence the formation of adult morphologies, we performed a functional analysis of Sex combs reduced (Scr) during post-embryonic development in Oncopeltus fasciatus. The main effect was observed in prothorax of Scr-RNAi adults, and ranged from significant alterations in its size and shape to a near complete transformation of its posterior half toward a T2-like identity. Furthermore, while the consecutive application of Scr-RNAi at both of the final two post-embryonic stages (fourth and fifth) did result in formation of ectopic wings on T1, the individual applications at each of these stages did not. These experiments provide two new insights into evolution of wings. First, the role of Scr in wing repression appears to be conserved in both holo- and hemimetabolous insects. Second, the prolonged Scr-depletion (spanning at least two nymphal stages) is both necessary and sufficient to restart wing program. At the same time, other structures that were previously established during embryogenesis are either unaffected (T1 legs) or display only minor changes (labium) in adults. These observations reveal a temporal and spatial divergence of Scr roles during embryonic (main effect in labium) and post-embryonic (main effect in prothorax) development.

  18. L-Cysteine inhibits root elongation through auxin/PLETHORA and SCR/SHR pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Mao, Jie-Li; Zhao, Ying-Jun; Li, Chuan-You; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2015-02-01

    L-Cysteine plays a prominent role in sulfur metabolism of plants. However, its role in root development is largely unknown. Here, we report that L-cysteine reduces primary root growth in a dosage-dependent manner. Elevating cellular L-cysteine level by exposing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to high L-cysteine, buthionine sulphoximine, or O-acetylserine leads to altered auxin maximum in root tips, the expression of quiescent center cell marker as well as the decrease of the auxin carriers PIN1, PIN2, PIN3, and PIN7 of primary roots. We also show that high L-cysteine significantly reduces the protein level of two sets of stem cell specific transcription factors PLETHORA1/2 and SCR/SHR. However, L-cysteine does not downregulate the transcript level of PINs, PLTs, or SCR/SHR, suggesting that an uncharacterized post-transcriptional mechanism may regulate the accumulation of PIN, PLT, and SCR/SHR proteins and auxin transport in the root tips. These results suggest that endogenous L-cysteine level acts to maintain root stem cell niche by regulating basal- and auxin-induced expression of PLT1/2 and SCR/SHR. L-Cysteine may serve as a link between sulfate assimilation and auxin in regulating root growth. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on fine particle emission from two coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission abatement of coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) requires large-scaled installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which would reduce secondary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (by reducing nitrate aerosol) in the atmosphere. However, our field measurement of two CFPPs equipped with SCR indicates a significant increase of SO42- and NH4+ emission in primary PM2.5, due to catalytic enhancement of SO2 oxidation to SO3 and introducing of NH3 as reducing agent. The subsequent formation of (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4 aerosol is commonly concentrated in sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) with a bimodal pattern. The measurement at the inlet of stack also showed doubled primary PM2.5 emission by SCR operation. This effect should therefore be considered when updating emission inventory of CFPPs. By rough estimation, the enhanced primary PM2.5 emission from CFPPs by SCR operation would offset 12% of the ambient PM2.5 concentration reduction in cities as the benefit of national NOx emission abatement, which should draw attention of policy-makers for air pollution control.

  20. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, W.S.; Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test programmore » was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.« less

  1. Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program publications for fiscal year 1977 through fiscal year 1979: Preliminary bibliography. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1979-01-01

    Approximately 512 bibliographies are presented for the time period from FY 77 to FY 79. Several non-SCR publications and a few papers not included in the last publication are included. Topics include propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, materials and structure, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control.

  2. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  3. Adsorption of Vanadium (V) from SCR Catalyst Leaching Solution and Application in Methyl Orange.

    PubMed

    Sha, Xuelong; Ma, Wei; Meng, Fanqing; Wang, Ren; Fuping, Tian; Wei, Linsen

    2016-12-01

      In this study, we explored an effective and low-cost catalyst and its adsorption capacity and catalytic capacity for Methyl Orange Fenton oxidation degradation were investigated. The catalyst was directly prepared by reuse of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) after saturated adsorption of vanadium (V) from waste SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) catalyst. The obtained catalyst was characterized by FTIR, XPS and the results showed that vanadium (V) adsorption process of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was non-redox reaction. The effects of pH, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms of adsorption were assessed. Adsorption of vanadium (V) ions by Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be well described by the Sips isotherm model which controlled by the mixed surface reaction and diffusion (MSRDC) adsorption kinetic model. The results show that vanadium (V) was mainly adsorbed on external surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The separation-recovering tungsten (VI) and vanadium (V) from waste SCR catalyst alkaline solution through pH adjustment was also investigated in this study. The results obtained from the experiments indicated that tungsten (VI) was selectively adsorbed from vanadium (V)/tungsten (VI) mixed solution in certain acidic condition by Fe3O4 nanoparticle to realize their recovery. Tungsten (V) with some impurity can be obtained by releasing from adsorbent, which can be confirmed by ICP-AES. The Methyl Orange degradation catalytic performance illustrated that the catalyst could improve Fenton reaction effectively at pH = 3.0 compare to Fe3O4 nanoparticles alone. Therefore, Fe3O4 nanoparticle adsorbed vanadium (V) has a potential to be employed as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst in the present contribution, and its catalytic activity was mainly evaluated in terms of the decoloration efficiency of Methyl Orange.

  4. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOEpatents

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  5. Transformation of Active Sites in Fe/SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts during Hydrothermal Aging: A Spectroscopic, Microscopic, and Kinetics Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kovarik, Libor; Washton, Nancy M.; Kukkadapu, Ravi

    Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts (Si/Al = 12, Fe loadings 0.37% and 1.20%) were prepared via solution ion-exchange, and hydrothermally aged at 600, 700 and 800 C. The fresh and aged catalysts were characterized with surface area/pore volume analysis, Mössbauer, solid-state MAS NMR, NO titration FTIR spectroscopies, and TEM and APT imaging. Hydrothermal aging causes dealumination of the catalysts, and transformation of various Fe sites. The latter include conversion of free Fe2+ ions to dimeric Fe(III) species, the agglomeration of isolated Fe-ions to Fe-oxide clusters, and incorporation of Al into the Fe-oxide species. These changes result in complex influences on standard SCR andmore » NO/NH3 oxidation reactions. In brief, mild aging causes catalyst performance enhancement for SCR, while harsh aging at 800 C deteriorates SCR performance. In comparison to Fe/zeolites more prone to hydrothermal degradation, this study demonstrates that via the utilization of highly hydrothermally stable Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts, more accurate correlations between various Fe species and their roles in SCR related chemistries can be made. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.« less

  6. SCR atmosphere induced reduction of oxidized mercury over CuO-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Shaokang; Wu, Chang-Yu; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-06-16

    CuO-CeO2/TiO2 (CuCeTi) catalyst synthesized by a sol-gel method was employed to investigate mercury conversion under a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) atmosphere (NO, NH3 plus O2). Neither NO nor NH3 individually exhibited an inhibitive effect on elemental mercury (Hg(0)) conversion in the presence of O2. However, Hg(0) conversion over the CuCeTi catalyst was greatly inhibited under SCR atmosphere. Systematic experiments were designed to investigate the inconsistency and explore the in-depth mechanisms. The results show that the copresence of NO and NH3 induced reduction of oxidized mercury (Hg(2+), HgO in this study), which offset the effect of catalytic Hg(0) oxidation, and hence resulted in deactivation of Hg(0) conversion. High NO and NH3 concentrations with a NO/NH3 ratio of 1.0 facilitated Hg(2+) reduction and therefore lowered Hg(0) conversion. Hg(2+) reduction over the CuCeTi catalyst was proposed to follow two possible mechanisms: (1) direct reaction, in which NO and NH3 react directly with HgO to form N2 and Hg(0); (2) indirect reaction, in which the SCR reaction consumed active surface oxygen on the CuCeTi catalyst, and reduced species on the CuCeTi catalyst surface such as Cu2O and Ce2O3 robbed oxygen from adjacent HgO. Different from the conventionally considered mechanisms, that is, competitive adsorption responsible for deactivation of Hg(0) conversion, this study reveals that oxidized mercury can transform into Hg(0) under SCR atmosphere. Such knowledge is of fundamental importance in developing efficient and economical mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants.

  7. Developing the multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnasri, Mahmoud; Airey, Gordon; Thom, Nick

    2018-04-01

    While most published work from Europe has been concerned with evaluating binders' resistance to rutting based on their stiffness (deformation resistance), work originating in the US has mainly been concerned with ranking binders based on their recoverability in a multiple stress form. This paper details the design of a new modified multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test. The test is designed to evaluate binders' rutting resistance based on two rutting resistance mechanisms: stiffness and recoverability. A preliminary investigation is presented in this paper followed by details of the design of the new modified test. A 40/60 penetration grade bitumen and bitumen-filler mastics prepared with three filler concentrations (35%, 50%, and 65% filler content by mass of mastic) were tested. In addition, two polymer modified bitumens (PMBs) using the same base bitumen type were examined for validation. Two parameters are introduced to characterise the short and long recovery in the new test. In terms of stiffness, the test allows the behaviour of binders at different stress levels and loading cycles to be studied and produces a new parameter that can quantify the degree of modification. Finally, a relationship between nonlinearity and normal force in the test was investigated.

  8. The black rock series supported SCR catalyst for NO x removal.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin; Luo, Hang; Tang, Qing; Du, Jun; Liu, Zuohua; Tao, Changyuan

    2017-09-01

    Black rock series (BRS) is of great potential for their plenty of valued oxides which include vanadium, iron, alumina and silica oxides, etc. BRS was used for directly preparing of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst by modifying its surface texture with SiO 2 -TiO 2 sols and regulating its catalytic active constituents with V 2 O 5 and MoO 3 . Consequently, 90% NO removal ratio was obtained within 300-400 °C over the BRS-based catalyst. The structure and properties of the BRS-based catalyst were characterized by the techniques of N 2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H 2 -temperature programmed reduction (H 2 -TPR), and NH 3 -temperature programmed desorption (NH 3 -TPD). The results revealed that the BRS-based catalyst possesses favorable properties for NO x removal, including highly dispersed active components, abundant surface-adsorbed oxygen O α , well redox property, and numerous Brønsted acid sites. Particularly, the BRS-based catalyst exhibited considerable anti-poisoning performance compared with commercial TiO 2 -based catalyst. The former catalyst shows a NO conversion surpassing 80% from 300 to 400 °C for potassium poisoning, and a durability of SO 2 and H 2 O exceeding 85% at temperatures from 300 to 450 °C.

  9. Does NGAL reduce costs? A cost analysis of urine NGAL (uNGAL) & serum creatinine (sCr) for acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Amay; Rizzo, John A; Canetta, Pietro; Forster, Catherine; Sise, Meghan; Maarouf, Omar; Singer, Eugenia; Elger, Antje; Elitok, Saban; Schmidt-Ott, Kai; Barasch, Jonathon; Nickolas, Thomas L

    2017-01-01

    Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for acute kidney injury (AKI) in the Emergency Department (ED), but its economic impact has not been investigated. We hypothesized that uNGAL used in combination with serum creatinine (sCr) would reduce costs in the management of AKI in patients presenting to the ED in comparison to using sCr alone. A cost simulation model was developed for clinical algorithms to diagnose AKI based on sCr alone vs. uNGAL plus sCr (uNGAL+sCr). A cost minimization analysis was performed to determine total expected costs for patients with AKI. uNGAL test characteristics were validated with eight-hundred forty-nine patients with sCr ≥1.5 from a completed study of 1635 patients recruited from EDs at two U.S. hospitals from 2007-8. Biomarker test, AKI work-up, and diagnostic imaging costs were incorporated. For a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients, the model predicted that the expected costs were $900 per patient (pp) in the sCr arm and $950 in the uNGAL+sCr arm. uNGAL+sCr resulted in 1,578 fewer patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment than sCr alone (2,013 vs. 436 pts) at center 1 and 1,973 fewer patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment than sCr alone at center 2 (2,227 vs. 254 patients). Although initial evaluation costs at each center were $50 pp higher in with uNGAL+sCr, total costs declined by $408 pp at Center 1 and by $522 pp at Center 2 due to expected reduced delays in diagnosis and treatment. Sensitivity analyses confirmed savings with uNGAL + sCr for a range of cost inputs. Using uNGAL with sCr as a clinical diagnostic test for AKI may improve patient management and reduce expected costs. Any cost savings would likely result from avoiding delays in diagnosis and treatment and from avoidance of unnecessary testing in patients given a false positive AKI diagnosis by use of sCr alone.

  10. Does NGAL reduce costs? A cost analysis of urine NGAL (uNGAL) & serum creatinine (sCr) for acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Canetta, Pietro; Forster, Catherine; Sise, Meghan; Maarouf, Omar; Singer, Eugenia; Elger, Antje; Elitok, Saban; Schmidt-Ott, Kai; Barasch, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for acute kidney injury (AKI) in the Emergency Department (ED), but its economic impact has not been investigated. We hypothesized that uNGAL used in combination with serum creatinine (sCr) would reduce costs in the management of AKI in patients presenting to the ED in comparison to using sCr alone. Materials and methods A cost simulation model was developed for clinical algorithms to diagnose AKI based on sCr alone vs. uNGAL plus sCr (uNGAL+sCr). A cost minimization analysis was performed to determine total expected costs for patients with AKI. uNGAL test characteristics were validated with eight-hundred forty-nine patients with sCr ≥1.5 from a completed study of 1635 patients recruited from EDs at two U.S. hospitals from 2007–8. Biomarker test, AKI work-up, and diagnostic imaging costs were incorporated. Results For a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients, the model predicted that the expected costs were $900 per patient (pp) in the sCr arm and $950 in the uNGAL+sCr arm. uNGAL+sCr resulted in 1,578 fewer patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment than sCr alone (2,013 vs. 436 pts) at center 1 and 1,973 fewer patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment than sCr alone at center 2 (2,227 vs. 254 patients). Although initial evaluation costs at each center were $50 pp higher in with uNGAL+sCr, total costs declined by $408 pp at Center 1 and by $522 pp at Center 2 due to expected reduced delays in diagnosis and treatment. Sensitivity analyses confirmed savings with uNGAL + sCr for a range of cost inputs. Discussion Using uNGAL with sCr as a clinical diagnostic test for AKI may improve patient management and reduce expected costs. Any cost savings would likely result from avoiding delays in diagnosis and treatment and from avoidance of unnecessary testing in patients given a false positive AKI diagnosis by use of sCr alone. PMID:28542336

  11. Enhanced low-temperature NH3-SCR performance of MnOx/CeO2 catalysts by optimal solvent effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaojiang; Kong, Tingting; Chen, Li; Ding, Shimin; Yang, Fumo; Dong, Lin

    2017-10-01

    A series of MnOx/CeO2 catalysts were prepared by modulating the solvents (deionized water (DW), anhydrous ethanol (AE), acetic acid (AA), and oxalic acid (OA) solution) with the purpose of improving the low-temperature NH3-SCR performance, broadening the operating temperature window, and enhancing the H2O + SO2 resistance. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by means of N2-physisorption, XRD, EDS mapping, Raman, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD, and in situ DRIFTS technologies. Furthermore, the catalytic performance and H2O + SO2 resistance were evaluated by NH3-SCR model reaction. The obtained results indicate that MnOx/CeO2 catalyst prepared with oxalic acid solution as a solvent exhibits the best catalytic performance among these catalysts, which shows above 80% NO conversion during a wide operating temperature range of 100-250 °C and good H2O + SO2 resistance for low-temperature NH3-SCR reaction. This is related to that oxalic acid solution can promote the dispersion of MnOx and enhance the electron interaction between MnOx and CeO2, which are beneficial to improving the physicochemical property of MnOx/CeO2 catalyst, and further lead to the enhancement of catalytic performance and good H2O + SO2 resistance.

  12. Integrability and nonintegrability of quantum systems. II. Dynamics in quantum phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Feng, Da Hsuan; Yuan, Jian-Min

    1990-12-01

    Based on the concepts of integrability and nonintegrability of a quantum system presented in a previous paper [Zhang, Feng, Yuan, and Wang, Phys. Rev. A 40, 438 (1989)], a realization of the dynamics in the quantum phase space is now presented. For a quantum system with dynamical group scrG and in one of its unitary irreducible-representation carrier spaces gerhΛ, the quantum phase space is a 2MΛ-dimensional topological space, where MΛ is the quantum-dynamical degrees of freedom. This quantum phase space is isomorphic to a coset space scrG/scrH via the unitary exponential mapping of the elementary excitation operator subspace of scrg (algebra of scrG), where scrH (⊂scrG) is the maximal stability subgroup of a fixed state in gerhΛ. The phase-space representation of the system is realized on scrG/scrH, and its classical analogy can be obtained naturally. It is also shown that there is consistency between quantum and classical integrability. Finally, a general algorithm for seeking the manifestation of ``quantum chaos'' via the classical analogy is provided. Illustrations of this formulation in several important quantum systems are presented.

  13. Sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13: Synthesis and application as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Prodinger, Sebastian; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Wang, Yilin

    For the first time, sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13, obtained by modifying an existing synthesis procedure, was shown to be an effective and stable catalyst for selective catalytic reduction reactions, such as NO reduction. Characterization of the materials with X-ray diffraction, N2-physisorption and 27Al MAS NMR shows that hydrothermal aging, simulating SCR reaction conditions, is more destructive in respect to dealumination for smaller particles prior to Cu-exchange. However, the catalytic performance and hydrothermal stability for Cu/SSZ-13 is independent of the particle size. In particular, the stability of tetrahedral framework Al is improved in the sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts of comparable Cu loading. This indicatesmore » that variations in the Al distribution for different SSZ-13 synthesis procedures have a more critical influence on stabilizing isolated Cu-ions during harsh hydrothermal aging than the particle size. This study is of high interest for applications in vehicular DeNOx technologies where high loadings of active species on wash coats can be achieved by using sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13. The authors would like to thank B. W. Arey and J. J. Ditto for performing electron microscope imaging. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. S. P and M. A. D also acknowledge support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under the Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.« less

  14. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  15. Euro 6 Unregulated Pollutant Characterization and Statistical Analysis of After-Treatment Device and Driving-Condition Impact on Recent Passenger-Car Emissions.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Simon; Liu, Yao; Louis, Cédric; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; Chaumond, Agnès; André, Michel

    2017-05-16

    This study aims to measure and analyze unregulated compound emissions for two Euro 6 diesel and gasoline vehicles. The vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer under various driving cycles: Artemis driving cycles (urban, road, and motorway), the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the World Harmonized Light-Duty Test Cycle (WLTC) for Europe, and world approval cycles. The emissions of unregulated compounds (such as total particle number (PN) (over 5.6 nm); black carbon (BC); NO 2 ; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); carbonyl compounds; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) were measured with several online devices, and different samples were collected using cartridges and quartz filters. Furthermore, a preliminary statistical analysis was performed on eight Euro 4-6 diesel and gasoline vehicles to study the impacts of driving conditions and after-treatment and engine technologies on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants. The results indicate that urban conditions with cold starts induce high emissions of BTEX and carbonyl compounds. Motorway conditions are characterized by high emissions of particle numbers and CO, which mainly induced by gasoline vehicles. Compared with gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles equipped with catalyzed or additive DPF emit fewer particles but more NO x and carbonyl compounds.

  16. NH3-SCR denitration catalyst performance over vanadium-titanium with the addition of Ce and Sb.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Zhen; Yu, Fei; Cheng, Kai; Wei, Yuechang; Duan, Aijun; Jiang, Guiyuan

    2015-05-01

    Selective catalytic reduction technology using NH3 as a reducing agent (NH3-SCR) is an effective control method to remove nitrogen oxides. TiO2-supported vanadium oxide catalysts with different levels of Ce and Sb modification were prepared by an impregnation method and were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), Raman and Hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR). The catalytic activities of V5CexSby/TiO2 catalysts for denitration were investigated in a fixed bed flow microreactor. The results showed that cerium, vanadium and antimony oxide as the active components were well dispersed on TiO2, and the catalysts exhibited a large number of d-d electronic transitions, which were helpful to strengthen SCR reactivity. The V5CexSby/TiO2 catalysts exhibited a good low temperature NH3-SCR catalytic activity. In the temperature range of 210 to 400°C, the V5CexSby/TiO2 catalysts gave NO conversion rates above 90%. For the best V5Ce35Sb2/TiO2 catalyst, at a reaction temperature of 210°C, the NO conversion rate had already reached 90%. The catalysts had different catalytic activity with different Ce loadings. With the increase of Ce loading, the NO conversion rate also increased. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of water vapor on NH3-NO/NO2 SCR performance of fresh and aged MnOx-NbOx-CeO2 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Si, Zhichun; Wu, Xiaodong; Weng, Duan; Wu, Zhenwei

    2015-05-01

    A MnOx-NbOx-CeO2 catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3 was prepared by a sol-gel method, and characterized by NH3-NO/NO2 SCR catalytic activity, NO/NH3 oxidation activity, NOx/NH3 TPD, XRD, BET, H2-TPR and in-situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The results indicate that the MnOx-NbOx-CeO2 catalyst shows excellent low temperature NH3-SCR activity in the temperature range of 150-300°C. Water vapor inhibits the low temperature activity of the catalyst in standard SCR due to the inhibition of NOx adsorption. As the NO2 content increases in the feed, water vapor does not affect the activity in NO2 SCR. Meanwhile, water vapor significantly enhances the N2 selectivity of the fresh and the aged catalysts due to its inhibition of the decomposition of NH4NO3 into N2O. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Development of Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor and Controls for Advanced Low Pressure Drop Systems to Reduce Engine Fuel Consumption (06B)

    SciTech Connect

    Sappok, Alexander; Ragaller, Paul; Bromberg, Leslie

    This project developed a radio frequencybased sensor for accurate measurement of diesel particulate filter (DPF) loading with advanced low pressuredrop aftertreatment systems. The resulting technology demonstrated engine efficiency improvements through optimization of the combined engineaftertreatment system while reducing emissions, system cost, and complexity to meet the DOE program objectives.

  19. Experimental and Computational Interrogation of Fast SCR Mechanism and Active Sites on H-Form SSZ-13

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sichi; Zheng, Yang; Gao, Feng

    Experiment and density functional theory (DFT) models are combined to develop a unified, quantitative model of the mechanism and kinetics of fast selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO/NO2 mixtures over H-SSZ-13 zeolite. Rates, rate orders, and apparent activation energies collected under differential conditions reveal two distinct kinetic regimes. First-principles thermodynamics simulations are used to determine the relative coverages of free Brønsted sites, chemisorbed NH4+ and physisorbed NH3 as a function of reaction conditions. First-principles metadynamics calculations show that all three sites can contribute to the rate-limiting N-N bond forming step in fast SCR. The results are used to parameterize amore » kinetic model that encompasses the full range of reaction conditions and recovers observed rate orders and apparent activation energies. Observed kinetic regimes are related to changes in most-abundant surface intermediates. Financial support was provided by the National Science Foundation GAOLI program under award number 1258690-CBET. We thank the Center for Research Computing at Notre« less

  20. Sulfur resistance of Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalysts for low-temperature NH3–SCR

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenjing; Cui, Shitong; Street, Jason; Luo, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst prepared using a simple impregnation method demonstrated a better low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 (NH3–SCR) activity in comparison with the sol-gel method. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst loading with 20% Ce had the best low-temperature activity and achieved a NO conversion rate higher than 90% at 140–260°C with a 99.7% NO conversion rate at 180°C. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst only had a 6% NO conversion rate decrease after 100 ppm of SO2 was added to the stream. When SO2 was removed from the stream, the catalyst was able to recover completely. The crystal structure, morphology, textural properties and valence state of the metals involving the novel catalysts were investigated using X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. The decrease of NH3–SCR performance in the presence of 100 ppm SO2 was due to the decrease of the surface area, change of the pore structure, the decrease of Ce4+ and Mn4+ concentration and the formation of the sulfur phase chemicals which blocked the active sites and changed the valence status of the elements. PMID:29657791

  1. Sulfur resistance of Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalysts for low-temperature NH3-SCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Quan; Yang, Wenjing; Cui, Shitong; Street, Jason; Luo, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst prepared using a simple impregnation method demonstrated a better low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 (NH3-SCR) activity in comparison with the sol-gel method. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst loading with 20% Ce had the best low-temperature activity and achieved a NO conversion rate higher than 90% at 140-260°C with a 99.7% NO conversion rate at 180°C. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst only had a 6% NO conversion rate decrease after 100 ppm of SO2 was added to the stream. When SO2 was removed from the stream, the catalyst was able to recover completely. The crystal structure, morphology, textural properties and valence state of the metals involving the novel catalysts were investigated using X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. The decrease of NH3-SCR performance in the presence of 100 ppm SO2 was due to the decrease of the surface area, change of the pore structure, the decrease of Ce4+ and Mn4+ concentration and the formation of the sulfur phase chemicals which blocked the active sites and changed the valence status of the elements.

  2. Effects of diesel exhaust aftertreatment devices on concentrations and size distribution of aerosols in underground mine air.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Schnakenberg, George H; Hummer, Ion A; Cauda, Emanuele; Janisko, Samuel I; Patts, Larry D

    2009-09-01

    Three types of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems, three types of high-temperature disposable filter elements (DFEs), and one diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC) were evaluated in underground mine conditions for their effects on the concentrations and size distributions of diesel aerosols. Those effects were compared with the effects of a standard muffler. The experimental work was conducted directly in an underground environment using a unique diesel laboratory developed in an underground experimental mine. The DPF systems reduced total mass of aerosols in the mine air approximately 10-fold for light-load and 20-fold or more for high-load test conditions. The DFEs offered similar reductions in aerosol mass concentrations. The efficiency of the new DFEs significantly increased with accumulation of operating time and buildup of diesel particulate matter in the porous structure of the filter elements. A single laundering process did not exhibit substantial effects on performance of the filter element The effectiveness of DPFs and DFEs in removing aerosols by number was strongly influenced by engine operating mode. The concentrations of nucleation mode aerosols in the mine air were found to be substantially higher for both DPFs and DFEs when the engine was operated at high-load modes than at low-load modes. The effects of the DOC on mass and number concentrations of aerosols in mine air were relatively minor when compared to those of the DPF and DFE systems.

  3. Combination of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend and SCR catalyst assembly to reduce emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yunbo; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Dong, Hongyi; Li, Rulong

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the efforts to reduce NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine using both ethanol-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx over an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst and a biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel) on an engine bench test are discussed. Compared with diesel fuel, use of BE-diesel increased PM emissions by 14% due to the increase in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of PM, but it greatly reduced the Bosch smoke number by 60%-80% according to the results from 13-mode test of European Stationary Cycle (ESC) test. The SCR catalyst was effective in NOx reduction by ethanol, and the NOx conversion was approximately 73%. Total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO emissions increased significantly during the SCR of NOx process. Two diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) assemblies were used after Ag/Al2O3 converter to remove CO and HC. Different oxidation catalyst showed opposite effect on PM emission. The PM composition analysis revealed that the net effect of oxidation catalyst on total PM was an integrative effect on SOF reduction and sulfate formation of PM. The engine bench test results indicated that the combination of BE-diesel and a SCR catalyst assembly could provide benefits for NOx and PM emissions control even without using diesel particle filters (DPFs).

  4. The enhanced resistance to K deactivation of Ce/TiO2 catalyst for NH3-SCR reaction by the modification with P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-yuan; Guo, Rui-tang; Hu, Chang-xing; Sun, Peng; Pan, Wei-guo; Liu, Shu-ming; Sun, Xiao; Liu, Shuai-wei; Liu, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The deactivation of SCR catalyst caused by K species contained in the fly ash would suppress its DeNOx performance. In this study, it was manifested that the modification of Ce/TiO2 catalyst with P could enhance its K tolerance. To understand the promotion mechanism, the fresh and poisoned catalyst samples were subjected to the characterization techniques including BET, XRD, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD and in situ DRIFT. The results elucidated that the introduction of P species could increase the reducibility of Ce species and generate more surface chemisorbed oxygen, along with the strengthened surface acidity for NH3 adsorption. It seemed that the NH3-SCR reaction mechanism over Ce/TiO2 catalyst was a combination of L-H mechanism (<200 °C) and E-R mechanism (≥200 °C). After the addition of P species, the NO oxidation over Ce/TiO2 catalyst was also accelerated, accompanied by the broadened temperature window for the NH3-SCR reaction under the control of L-H mechanism. The promoted NH3 species adsorption and the generated more NO2 over P-Ce/TiO2 catalyst were conducive to the NH3-SCR reaction through L-H pathway, which might be the primary reason for its good K resistance.

  5. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  6. The phosphotransferase system-dependent sucrose utilization regulon in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains is located in a variable chromosomal region containing iap sequences.

    PubMed

    Treviño-Quintanilla, Luis Gerardo; Escalante, Adelfo; Caro, Alma Delia; Martínez, Alfredo; González, Ricardo; Puente, José Luis; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The capacity to utilize sucrose as a carbon and energy source (Scr(+) phenotype) is a highly variable trait among Escherichia coli strains. In this study, seven enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains from different sources were studied for their capacity to grow using sucrose. Liquid media cultures showed that all analyzed strains have the Scr(+) phenotype and two distinct groups were defined: one of five and another of two strains displaying doubling times of 67 and 125 min, respectively. The genes conferring the Scr(+) phenotype in one of the fast-growing strains (T19) were cloned and sequenced. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that this strain possesses the scr regulon genes scrKYABR, encoding phosphoenolpyruvate:phosphotransferase system-dependent sucrose transport and utilization activities. Transcript level quantification revealed sucrose-dependent induction of scrK and scrR genes in fast-growing strains, whereas no transcripts were detected in slow-growing strains. Sequence comparison analysis revealed that the scr genes in strain T19 are almost identical to those present in the scr regulon of prototype EPEC E2348/69 and in both strains, the scr genes are inserted in the chromosomal intergenic region of hypothetical genes ygcE and ygcF. Comparison of the ygcE-ygcF intergenic region sequence of strains MG1655, enterohemorrhagic EDL933, uropathogenic ECFT073 and EPEC T19-E2348/69 revealed that the number of extragenic highly repeated iap sequences corresponded to nine, four, two and none, respectively. These results show that the iap sequence-containing chromosomal ygcE-ygcF intergenic region is highly variable in E. coli. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Simultaneous oxidation of Hg0 and NH3-SCR of NO by nanophase Ce x Zr y Mn z O2 at low temperature: the interaction and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wanrong; Zeng, Zheng; Lu, Pei; Xing, Yi; Wei, Jianjun; Yue, Huifang; Li, Rui

    2018-03-10

    Simultaneous oxidation of Hg 0 and NH 3 -SCR of NO by catalyst is one of the key methods for co-purification of coal-fired flue gas. Till now, the interaction between the oxidation of Hg 0 and NH 3 -SCR of NO and its mechanism have not clarified. In this study, a series of nanophase Ce x Zr y Mn z O 2 was prepared for the simultaneous oxidation of Hg 0 and NH 3 -SCR of NO at low temperature. The catalysts were characterized using surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed techniques, and several types of microscopy and spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the Ce 0.47 Zr 0.22 Mn 0.31 O 2 exhibited superior Hg 0 removal efficiency (> 99%) and NO conversion efficiency (> 90%) even at 150 °C, and it also exhibited a good durability in the presence of SO 2 and H 2 O. The excellent performance of Ce 0.47 Zr 0.22 Mn 0.31 O 2 on co-purifying Hg 0 and NO was due to the stronger synergistic effects of Ce-Zr-Mn in Ce 0.47 Zr 0.22 Mn 0.31 O 2 than that of the others, which was illustrated by the characterization results of XPS, XRD, and FT-IR. Moreover, it was found that the NO conversion of Ce 0.47 Zr 0.22 Mn 0.31 O 2 could be slightly influenced by Hg 0 and was decreased about 4% to the max, while that of Hg 0 could rarely be affected by the selected catalytic reduction process of NO. It might be due to the co-purification mechanism of NO and Hg 0 . The mechanism of the simultaneous oxidation of Hg 0 and NH 3 -SCR of NO was mainly due to the synergetic effect on the mobility of surface oxygen and the activation of lattice oxygen of Ce 0.47 Zr 0.22 Mn 0.31 O 2 . The effect of the oxidation of Hg 0 on the NH 3 -SCR of NO was mainly due to the absorbed Hg 0 /Hg 2+ on the surface of Ce 0.47 Zr 0.22 Mn 0.31 O 2 , which attenuated the formation of NH 3(ad) , -NH 2(ad) , and NH 4 + on its acid sites. Similarly, the NH 3 -SCR of NO process could hardly influence the oxidation of Hg 0 when NO and Hg 0 were co-purified.

  8. [Effects of Chinese herbal enema therapy combined basic treatment on BUN, SCr, UA, and IS in chronic renal failure patients].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chuan; Wu, Yu-Chi; Lin, Qi-Zhan

    2012-09-01

    To assess the clearance role and safety of Chinese herbal enema therapy (CHET) in clearing enterogenic uremic toxins in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients, thus providing evidence for further optimizing the comprehensive treatment. Using nonrandomized concurrent control trial, 96 CRF inpatients of Department of Nephropathy, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, from March 2010 to December 2010 were assigned to the treatment group and the control group according to their willingness. All patients were treated with basic treatment referring to clinical plans in the non-dialysis phase, while those in the treatment group were additionally treated with CHET, once daily, 2 weeks as one therapeutic course. The symptoms, serum enterogenic uremic toxin levels [including indoxyl sulfate (IS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and uric acid (UA)], and serum creatinine (SCr) were observed in the two groups between and after treatment. The adverse reactions were also monitored during the treatment period. The clinical efficacy and safety were also assessed. Totally 84 patients completed this clinical observation, 48 in the treatment group and 36 in the control group. The levels of SCr, BUN, and IS were obviously lower in the treatment group after treatment, showing statistical difference when compared with before treatment (P<0.01). There was no statistical difference in each index in the control group between before and after treatment (P>0.05). The post-treatment the IS level was lower in the treatment group than in the control group with statistical difference (P<0.05). Symptoms like fatigue, soreness of waist and knees, constipation and edema were partially relieved in both groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). The ratios of anorexia and nausea in patients of the treatment group was lowered after treatment (P<0.05). Besides, patients in the treatment group could defecate for more than once daily during the enema treatment period, dominated as rotten and soft feces

  9. Effect of Si/Al ratio on catalytic performance of hydrothermally aged Cu-SSZ-13 for the NH3-SCR of NO in simulated diesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuai; Cheng, Jin; Zheng, Changkun; Ye, Qing; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Kang, Tianfang; Dai, Hongxing

    2017-10-01

    The hydrothermal stability of the CuSSZ-13 samples with various Si/Al ratios was examined. The NO conversions in the NH3-SCR and NH3 oxidation were measured. Physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by means of a number of analytical techniques. It is shown that the NH3-SCR activity and hydrothermal stability of the CuSSZ-13 samples decreased with the rise in Si/Al ratio. Such decreases were attributed to the drop in the amount of the isolated Cu2+ in the D6R and CHA cage of the CuSSZ-13 samples. Part of the isolated Cu2+ ions were transformed to CuO after hydrothermal aging treatment, especially in the high-Si/Al-ratio samples. A large amount of the aggregated CuO destroyed the skeleton structure of SSZ-13, leading to the deactivation of the samples.

  10. System and method for controlling an engine based on ammonia storage in multiple selective catalytic reduction catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sun, MIn; Perry, Kevin L.

    2015-11-20

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a storage estimation module and an air/fuel ratio control module. The storage estimation module estimates a first amount of ammonia stored in a first selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst and estimates a second amount of ammonia stored in a second SCR catalyst. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the first amount, the second amount, and a temperature of a substrate disposed in the second SCR catalyst.

  11. Comparison of preparation methods for ceria catalyst and the effect of surface and bulk sulfates on its activity toward NH3-SCR.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huazhen; Ma, Lei; Yang, Shijian; Li, Junhua; Chen, Liang; Wang, Wei; Hao, Jiming

    2013-11-15

    A series of CeO2 catalysts prepared with sulfate (S) and nitrate (N) precursors by hydrothermal (H) and precipitation (P) methods were investigated in selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 (NH3-SCR). The catalytic activity of CeO2 was significantly affected by the preparation methods and the precursor type. CeO2-SH, which was prepared by hydrothermal method with cerium (IV) sulfate as a precursor, showed excellent SCR activity and high N2 selectivity in the temperature range of 230-450 °C. Based on the results obtained by temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), transmission infrared spectra (IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), the excellent performance of CeO2-SH was correlated with the surface sulfate species formed in the hydrothermal reaction. These results indicated that sulfate species bind with Ce(4+) on the CeO2-SH catalyst, and the specific sulfate species, such as Ce(SO4)2 or CeOSO4, were formed. The adsorption of NH3 was promoted by these sulfate species, and the probability of immediate oxidation of NH3 to N2O on Ce(4+) was reduced. Accordingly, the selective oxidation of NH3 was enhanced, which contributed to the high N2 selectivity in the SCR reaction. However, the location of sulfate on the CeO2-SP catalyst was different. Plenty of sulfate species were likely deposited on CeO2-SP surface, covering the active sites for NO oxidation, which resulted in poor SCR activity in the test temperature range. Moreover, the resistance to alkali metals, such as Na and K, was improved over the CeO2-SH catalyst. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of air jet erosion profiles in metal mesh supported SCR plate catalyst based on glass fiber concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajath, S.; Nandakishora, Y.; Siddaraju, C.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    This paper explains the evaluation of erosion profiles in metal mesh supported SCR plate catalyst structures in which the glass fibers concentration in the catalyst material is considered as prime factor for erosion resistance and mechanical strength. The samples are prepared and tested at the specified and constant conditions like velocity as 30m/s, sand flow rate as 2g/min, average particle diameter 300 µm and all these samples were tested at different angles at impact preferably 15°,30°,45°,60°,75°,and 90° as per ASTM G76 standards. Say, if 5% glass fibers are present in catalyst material, then erosion resistance increases, but the density of glass fibers is very less because each glass fiber is approximately 20 microns in diameter and weight of individual is negligible. The composition in which 2% fiber is present has slightly higher erosion comparatively, but 3% glass fibers or more foreign inclusion like excessive binders can be eliminated that contributes much for the conversion of NOx. So 2% -3% glass fibers are preferred and optimized based on NOx conversion and erosion resistance property.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ScrY, a specific bacterial outer membrane porin.

    PubMed

    Forst, D; Schülein, K; Wacker, T; Diederichs, K; Kreutz, W; Benz, R; Welte, W

    1993-01-05

    The sucrose-specific outer membrane porin ScrY of Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from Escherichia coli K-12 strain KS 26 containing the plasmid pPSO112. The protein was purified to homogeneity by differential extraction of the cell envelope in the presence of the detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate and lauryl (dimethyl)-amine oxide (LDAO). The porin had apparent molecular weights of 58 kDa and 120 kDa for the monomer and for the trimer, respectively, on SDS/PAGE. The purified trimers were crystallized using poly(ethylene glycol) 2000 and the detergents octylglucoside (OG) and hexyl-(dimethyl)-amine oxide (C6DAO). X-ray diffraction of the crystals showed reflections to 2.3 A. The space group of the crystals was R3 and the lattice constants of the hexagonal axes were a = b = 112.85 A and c = 149.9 A. The crystal volume per unit of protein molecular weight was 3.47 A3/Da.

  14. NH 3-SCR on Cu, Fe and Cu + Fe exchanged beta and SSZ-13 catalysts: Hydrothermal aging and propylene poisoning effects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Aiyong; Wang, Yilin; Walter, Eric D.

    Cu, Fe and Cu + Fe ion exchanged Beta and SSZ-13 catalysts were prepared by solution ion exchange using commercial NH 4/Beta, and NH 4/SSZ-13 that was prepared in-house. To study hydrothermal aging effects, Beta supported catalysts were aged hydrothermally at 700 °C and SSZ-13 supported catalysts were aged at 750 °C. In order to reveal the effects of Fe addition in the co-exchanged catalysts, these catalysts were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), 27Al-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 27Al-NMR) and propylene coking followed with temperature programmed reaction (TPR), and further testedmore » with standard NH 3-SCR with and without the presence of propylene. Collectively, the catalyst characterizations and reaction testing indicated minor beneficial effects of Fe addition in Cu,Fe/Beta, where NH 3-SCR activity, N 2 selectivity and hydrothermal stability were all slightly improved. In contrast, Fe addition did not show apparent beneficial effects in low-temperature SCR for the Cu,Fe/SSZ-13 case. In conclusion, at elevated reaction temperatures, however, the presence of Fe indeed considerably improved NO conversion and N 2 selectivity for the hydrothermally aged Cu,Fe/SSZ-13 catalyst in the presence of propylene.« less

  15. NH 3-SCR on Cu, Fe and Cu + Fe exchanged beta and SSZ-13 catalysts: Hydrothermal aging and propylene poisoning effects

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Aiyong; Wang, Yilin; Walter, Eric D.; ...

    2017-10-07

    Cu, Fe and Cu + Fe ion exchanged Beta and SSZ-13 catalysts were prepared by solution ion exchange using commercial NH 4/Beta, and NH 4/SSZ-13 that was prepared in-house. To study hydrothermal aging effects, Beta supported catalysts were aged hydrothermally at 700 °C and SSZ-13 supported catalysts were aged at 750 °C. In order to reveal the effects of Fe addition in the co-exchanged catalysts, these catalysts were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), 27Al-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 27Al-NMR) and propylene coking followed with temperature programmed reaction (TPR), and further testedmore » with standard NH 3-SCR with and without the presence of propylene. Collectively, the catalyst characterizations and reaction testing indicated minor beneficial effects of Fe addition in Cu,Fe/Beta, where NH 3-SCR activity, N 2 selectivity and hydrothermal stability were all slightly improved. In contrast, Fe addition did not show apparent beneficial effects in low-temperature SCR for the Cu,Fe/SSZ-13 case. In conclusion, at elevated reaction temperatures, however, the presence of Fe indeed considerably improved NO conversion and N 2 selectivity for the hydrothermally aged Cu,Fe/SSZ-13 catalyst in the presence of propylene.« less

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europemore » on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.« less

  17. Influence of catalyst synthesis method on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH 3 with V 2O 5-WO 3/TiO 2 catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    He, Yuanyuan; Ford, Michael E.; Zhu, Minghui; ...

    2016-04-14

    We compared the molecular structures, surface acidity and catalytic activity for NO/NH 3/O 2 SCR of V 2O 5-WO 3/TiO 2 catalysts for two different synthesis methods: co-precipitation of aqueous vanadium and tungsten oxide precursors with TiO(OH) 2 and by incipient wetness impregnation of the aqueous precursors on a reference crystalline TiO 2 support (P25; primarily anatase phase). Bulk analysis by XRD showed that co-precipitation results in small and/or poorly ordered TiO 2(anatase) particles and that VO x and WO x do not form solid solutions with the bulk titania lattice. Surface analysis of the co-precipitated catalyst by High Sensitivity-Lowmore » Energy Ion Scattering (HS-LEIS) confirms that the VO x and WO x are surface segregated for the co-precipitated catalysts. In situ Raman and IR spectroscopy revealed that the vanadium and tungsten oxide components are present as surface mono-oxo O = VO 3 and O = WO 4 sites on the TiO 2 supports. Co-precipitation was shown for the first time to also form new mono-oxo surface VO 4 and WO 4 sites that appear to be anchored at surface defects of the TiO 2 support. IR analysis of chemisorbed ammonia showed the presence of both surface NH 3 * on Lewis acid sites and surface NH 4 +* on Brønsted acid sites. TPSR spectroscopy demonstrated that the specific SCR kinetics was controlled by the redox surface VO 4 species and that the surface kinetics was independent of TiO 2 synthesis method or presence of surface WO 5 sites. SCR reaction studies revealed that the surface WO5 sites possess minimal activity below ~325 °C and their primary function is to increase the adsorption capacity of ammonia. A relationship between the SCR activity and surface acidity was not found. The SCR reaction is controlled by the surface VO 4 sites that initiate the reaction at ~200 °C. The co-precipitated catalysts were always more active than the corresponding impregnated catalysts. Finally, we ascribe the higher activity of the co

  18. Origin and control of instability in SCR/triac three-phase motor controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearth, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The energy savings and reactive power reduction functions initiated by the power factor controller (PFC) are discussed. A three-phase PFC with soft start is examined analytically and experimentally to determine how well it controls the open loop instability and other possible modes of instability. The detailed mechanism of the open loop instability is determined and shown to impose design constraints on the closed loop system. The design is shown to meet those constraints.

  19. Improved SCR ac Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latos, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery would provide a complete electric vehicle power train with the exception of the mechanical transmission and drive wheels was designed. In such a system, the motor controller converts the dc electrical power available at the battery terminals to ac electrical power for the induction motor in response to the drivers commands. The performance requirements of a hypothetical electric vehicle with an upper weight bound of 1590 kg (3500 lb) were used to determine the power rating of the controller. Vehicle acceleration capability, top speed, and gradeability requisites were contained in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Schedule 227a(d) driving cycle. The important capabilities contained in this driving cycle are a vehicle acceleration requirement of 0 to 72.4 kmph (0 to 45 mph) in 28 seconds a top speed of 88.5 kmph (55 mph), and the ability to negotiate a 10% grade at 48 kmph (30 mph). A 10% grade is defined as one foot of vertical rise per 10 feet of horizontal distance.

  20. Passive SCR for lean gasoline NO X control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH 3 generation

    DOE PAGES

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Parks, James E.; Pihl, Josh A.; ...

    2016-02-18

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NO X) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH 3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH 3 is then used to reduce NO X emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratiomore » and spark timing, on NH 3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NO X reduction, NH 3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. We found air-fuel equivalence ratio to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH 3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH 3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NO X emissions and, thereby, NH 3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NO X during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. Ultimately, a 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.« less

  1. Passive SCR for lean gasoline NO X control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH 3 generation

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Parks, James E.; Pihl, Josh A.

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NO X) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH 3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH 3 is then used to reduce NO X emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratiomore » and spark timing, on NH 3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NO X reduction, NH 3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. We found air-fuel equivalence ratio to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH 3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH 3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NO X emissions and, thereby, NH 3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NO X during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. Ultimately, a 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.« less

  2. The Solar Neighborhood. 23. CCD Photometric Distance Estimates of SCR Targets-77 M Dwarf Systems Within 25 pc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    These distances are estimated using a combination of new VRI photometry acquired at CTIO and JHK magnitudes extracted from 2MASS . The estimates are...Survey ( 2MASS ) to reveal new nearby red objects in the southern sky (Deacon et al. 2005; Deacon & Hambly 2007). This paper focuses specifically on new...more complete discussions). As we entered the 21st century, large sky surveys such as 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006), DENIS (The Denis Consortium 2005

  3. Empathy, Einfühlung, and aesthetic experience: the effect of emotion contagion on appreciation of representational and abstract art using fEMG and SCR.

    PubMed

    Gernot, Gerger; Pelowski, Matthew; Leder, Helmut

    2017-03-17

    Since the advent of the concept of empathy in the scientific literature, it has been hypothesized, although not necessarily empirically verified, that empathic processes are essential to aesthetic experiences of visual art. We tested how the ability to "feel into" ("Einfühlung") emotional content-a central aspect of art empathy theories-affects the bodily responses to and the subjective judgments of representational and abstract paintings. The ability to feel into was measured by a standardized pre-survey on "emotional contagion"-the ability to pick up and mirror, or in short to "feel into", emotions, which often overlaps with higher general or interpersonal empathetic abilities. Participants evaluated the artworks on several aesthetic dimensions (liking, valence, moving, and interest), while their bodily reactions indicative of empathetic engagement (facial electromyography-EMG, and skin conductance responses-SCR) were recorded. High compared to low emotion contagion participants showed both more congruent and more intense bodily reactions (EMG and SCR) and aesthetic evaluations (higher being moved, valence, and interest) and also liked the art more. This was largely the case for both representational and abstract art, although stronger with the representational category. Our findings provide tentative evidence for recent arguments by art theorists for a close "empathic" mirroring of emotional content. We discuss this interpretation, as well as a potential tie between emotion contagion and a general increase in emotion intensity, both of which may impact, in tandem, the experience and evaluation of art.

  4. Method and apparatus for effecting light-off of a catalytic converter in a hybrid powertrain system

    DOEpatents

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Spohn, Brian L

    2013-07-02

    A powertrain system includes a hybrid transmission and an internal combustion engine coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment device. A method for operating the powertrain system includes operating the hybrid transmission to generate tractive torque responsive to an operator torque request with the internal combustion engine in an engine-off state so long as the tractive torque is less than a threshold. The internal combustion engine is operated in an engine-on state at preferred operating conditions to effect light-off of the exhaust aftertreatment device and the hybrid transmission is coincidentally operated to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request when the operator torque request exceeds the threshold. The internal combustion engine is then operated in the engine-on state to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request.

  5. Arabidopsis SHR and SCR transcription factors and AUX1 auxin influx carrier control the switch between adventitious rooting and xylogenesis in planta and in in vitro cultured thin cell layers.

    PubMed

    Della Rovere, F; Fattorini, L; D'Angeli, S; Veloccia, A; Del Duca, S; Cai, G; Falasca, G; Altamura, M M

    2015-03-01

    Adventitious roots (ARs) are essential for vegetative propagation. The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) affect primary/lateral root development, but their involvement in AR formation is uncertain. LAX3 and AUX1 auxin influx carriers contribute to primary/lateral root development. LAX3 expression is regulated by SHR, and LAX3 contributes to AR tip auxin maximum. In contrast, AUX1 involvement in AR development is unknown. Xylogenesis is induced by auxin plus cytokinin as is AR formation, but the genes involved are largely unknown. Stem thin cell layers (TCLs) form ARs and undergo xylogenesis under the same auxin plus cytokinin input. The aim of this research was to investigate SHR, SCR, AUX1 and LAX3 involvement in AR formation and xylogenesis in intact hypocotyls and stem TCLs in arabidopsis. Hypocotyls of scr-1, shr-1, lax3, aux1-21 and lax3/aux1-21 Arabidopsis thaliana null mutant seedlings grown with or without auxin plus cytokinin were examined histologically, as were stem TCLs cultured with auxin plus cytokinin. SCR and AUX1 expression was monitored using pSCR::GFP and AUX1::GUS lines, and LAX3 expression and auxin localization during xylogenesis were monitored by using LAX3::GUS and DR5::GUS lines. AR formation was inhibited in all mutants, except lax3. SCR was expressed in pericycle anticlinally derived AR-forming cells of intact hypocotyls, and in cell clumps forming AR meristemoids of TCLs. The apex was anomalous in shr and scr ARs. In all mutant hypocotyls, the pericycle divided periclinally to produce xylogenesis. Xylary element maturation was favoured by auxin plus cytokinin in shr and aux1-21. Xylogenesis was enhanced in TCLs, and in aux1-21 and shr in particular. AUX1 was expressed before LAX3, i.e. in the early derivatives leading to either ARs or xylogenesis. AR formation and xylogenesis are developmental programmes that are inversely related, but they involve fine-tuning by the same proteins, namely SHR

  6. New insights into Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalyst acidity. Part I: Nature of acidic sites probed by NH 3 titration

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jinyong; Gao, Feng; Kamasamudram, Krishna

    In this work we investigated an unusual acidity feature of a Cu/SSZ-13 catalyst used in selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (NH3-SCR). In particular, this catalyst showed two distinct NH3 desorption peaks in NH3-TPD measurements, in contrast to single, unresolved desorption peaks observed for other Cu-exchanged zeolites conventionally used in the SCR studies, including its isostructural but chemically different analogue Cu/SAPO-34. We further observed that the intensities of the two TPD peaks, which represented the amount of stored NH3, changed in opposite directions in response to progressive mild hydrothermal aging, while the total storage capacity was preserved. We proposedmore » an explanation for this remarkable behavior, by using model reference samples and additional characterization techniques. At least three NH3 storage sites were identified: two distinct populations of Cu sites responsible for low-temperature NH3 storage, and Brønsted acid sites responsible for high-temperature NH3 storage. Contrary to the commonly accepted mechanism that Brønsted acid site loss during hydrothermal aging is driven by dealumination, we concluded that the decline in the number of Brønsted acid sites upon mild hydrothermal aging for Cu/SSZ-13 was not due to dealumination, but rather transformation of Cu sites, i.e., gradual conversion of ZCuOH (Cu2+ singly coordinated with Zeolite) to Z2Cu (Cu2+ doubly coordinated with Zeolite). This transformation was responsible for the increased low-temperature desorption peak in NH3-TPD since each ZCuOH adsorbed ~1 NH3 molecule while each Z2Cu adsorbed ~2 NH3 molecules under the conditions used here. These findings were used in Part II of this series of studies to develop a method for quantifying hydrothermal ageing of industrial Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts. Authors would like to thank Randall Jines for his help with collecting the reactor data, Nancy W. Washton for measuring the NMR data and Tamas Varga for in-situ XRD

  7. Acid treatment and formation of MnWO4 belts for NH3-SCR performance of MnWOx/TiO2 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zekai; Lu, Weizhe; Zhang, Xinying; Liu, Huayan; Lu, Hanfeng

    2018-06-01

    NH3-SCR is an important technology to remove NOx, and non-V based catalysts development is still a hot topic in the field. To improve N2 selectivity, acid treatment was carried out to modify the properties of a MnWOx/TiO2 catalyst. Influences of acid concentration, time and temperature on the catalyst were investigated. The TEM results showed that the acid treatment removed more MnO2 species than Mn2O3 and MnWO4 and disclosed more crystal faces of the active species. The active species even formed hollow structures by Ostwald ripening mechanism, which was then corroded by acid to form the nanobelts on the surface. The working temperature window of the MnWOx/TiO2 catalyst was thereby moved to the high temperature attitude and the N2 selectivity is clearly improved.

  8. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2016-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT) are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems that target PM and NOx emissions, respectively, have recently become standard equipment on new HDDT. DPFs can also be installed on older engines as a retrofit device. Previous work has shown that DPF and SCR systems can reduce NOx and BC emissions by up to 70% and 90%, respectively, compared to modern trucks without these after-treatment controls (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). DPFs can have the undesirable side-effect of increasing ultrafine particle (UFP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. While SCR systems can partially mitigate DPF-related NO2 increases, these systems can emit nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. We report new results from a study of HDDT emissions conducted in fall 2015 at the Port of Oakland and Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. We report pollutant emission factors (g kg-1) for emitted NOx, NO2, BC, PM2.5, UFP, and N2O on a truck-by-truck basis. Using a roadside license plate recognition system, we categorize each truck by its engine model year and installed after-treatment controls. From this, we develop emissions profiles for trucks with and without DPF and SCR. We evaluate the effectiveness of these devices as a function of their age to determine whether degradation is an issue. We also compare the emission profiles of trucks traveling at low speeds along a level, arterial road en route to the port and at high speeds up a 4% grade highway approaching the tunnel. Given the climate impacts of BC and N2O, we also examine the global warming potential of emissions from trucks with and without DPF and SCR.

  9. Characterization of Co and Fe-MCM-56 catalysts for NH3-SCR and N2O decomposition: An in situ FTIR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybek, Justyna; Gil, Barbara; Roth, Wieslaw J.; Skoczek, Monika; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Chmielarz, Lucjan

    2018-05-01

    Two-step preparation of iron and cobalt-containing MCM-56 zeolites has been undertaken to evaluate the influence of their physicochemical properties in the selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR or DeNOx) of NO using NH3 as a reductant. Zeolites were prepared by the selective leaching of the framework cations by concentrated HNO3 solution and NH4F/HF mixture and consecutively, introduction of Co and Fe heteroatoms, in quantities below 1 wt%. Further calcination allowed to obtain highly dispersed active species. Their evaluation and speciation was realized by adsorption of pyridine and NO, followed by FTIR spectroscopy. Both Fe-MCM-56 zeolites showed excellent activities (maximum NO conversion 92%) with high selectivity to dinitrogen (above 99%) in the high temperature NH3-SCR process. High catalytic activity of Fe-MCM-56 zeolites was assigned to the formation of stable nitrates, delivering NO to react with NH3 at higher temperatures and suppressing the direct NO oxidation. It was found that more nitrates was formed in Fe-MCM-56 (HNO3) than in Fe-MCM-56 (HF/NH4F) and that could compensate for the lower Fe loading, resulting in very similar catalytic activity of both catalysts. At the same time both Co-and Fe-MCM-56 zeolites were moderately active in direct N2O decomposition, with maximum N2O conversion not higher than 80% and activity window starting at 500 °C. This phenomenon was expected since both types of catalysts contained well dispersed active centers, not beneficial for this reaction.

  10. Characterization of Co and Fe-MCM-56 catalysts for NH3-SCR and N2O decomposition: An in situ FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Justyna; Gil, Barbara; Roth, Wieslaw J; Skoczek, Monika; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Chmielarz, Lucjan

    2018-05-05

    Two-step preparation of iron and cobalt-containing MCM-56 zeolites has been undertaken to evaluate the influence of their physicochemical properties in the selective catalytic reduction (NH 3 -SCR or DeNOx) of NO using NH 3 as a reductant. Zeolites were prepared by the selective leaching of the framework cations by concentrated HNO 3 solution and NH 4 F/HF mixture and consecutively, introduction of Co and Fe heteroatoms, in quantities below 1wt%. Further calcination allowed to obtain highly dispersed active species. Their evaluation and speciation was realized by adsorption of pyridine and NO, followed by FTIR spectroscopy. Both Fe-MCM-56 zeolites showed excellent activities (maximum NO conversion 92%) with high selectivity to dinitrogen (above 99%) in the high temperature NH 3 -SCR process. High catalytic activity of Fe-MCM-56 zeolites was assigned to the formation of stable nitrates, delivering NO to react with NH 3 at higher temperatures and suppressing the direct NO oxidation. It was found that more nitrates was formed in Fe-MCM-56 (HNO 3 ) than in Fe-MCM-56 (HF/NH 4 F) and that could compensate for the lower Fe loading, resulting in very similar catalytic activity of both catalysts. At the same time both Co-and Fe-MCM-56 zeolites were moderately active in direct N 2 O decomposition, with maximum N 2 O conversion not higher than 80% and activity window starting at 500°C. This phenomenon was expected since both types of catalysts contained well dispersed active centers, not beneficial for this reaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective catalytic reduction system and process using a pre-sulfated zirconia binder

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.

    2010-06-29

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process with a palladium catalyst for reducing NOx in a gas, using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system, the catalyst system comprising (ZrO.sub.2)SO.sub.4, palladium, and a pre-sulfated zirconia binder. The inclusion of a pre-sulfated zirconia binder substantially increases the durability of a Pd-based SCR catalyst system. A system for implementing the disclosed process is further provided.

  12. New Insight into SO2 Poisoning and Regeneration of CeO2-WO3/TiO2 and V2O5-WO3/TiO2 Catalysts for Low-Temperature NH3-SCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liwen; Wang, Chizhong; Chang, Huazhen; Wu, Qingru; Zhang, Tao; Li, Junhua

    2018-06-19

    In this study, the poisoning effects of SO 2 on the V 2 O 5 -WO 3 /TiO 2 (1%VWTi) and CeO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 (5%CeWTi) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts were investigated in the presence of steam, and also the regeneration of deactivated catalysts was studied. After pretreating the catalysts in a flow of NH 3 + SO 2 + H 2 O + O 2 at 200 °C for 24 h, it was observed that the low-temperature SCR (LT-SCR) activity decreased significantly over the 1%VWTi and 5%CeWTi catalysts. For 1%VWTi, NH 4 HSO 4 (ABS) was the main product detected after the poisoning process. Both of NH 4 HSO 4 and cerium sulfate species were formed on the poisoned 5%CeWTi catalyst, indicating that SO 2 reacted with Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ , even in the presence of high concentration of NH 3 . The decrease of BET specific surface area, NO x adsorption capacity, the ratio of chemisorbed oxygen, and reducibility were responsible for the irreversible deactivation of the poisoned 5%CeWTi catalyst. Meanwhile, the LT-SCR activity could be recovered over the poisoned 1%VWTi after regeneration at 400 °C, but not for the 5%CeWTi catalyst. For industrial application, it is suggested that the regeneration process can be utilized for 1%VWTi catalysts after a period of time after NH 4 HSO 4 accumulated on the catalysts.

  13. SO2-tolerant and H2O-promoting Pt/C catalysts for efficient NO removal via fixed-bed H2-SCR.

    PubMed

    Tu, Baosheng; Shi, Nian; Sun, Wei; Cao, Limei; Yang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Pt supports on carbon black powder (Vulcan XC-72) were synthesized via a hydrothermal method for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with H 2 in the presence of 2 vol% O 2 over a wide temperature of 20-300 °C. The results showed that the 3 and 5 wt% Pt/C catalysts resulted in high NO conversion (>90 %) over a temperature range of 120 to 300 °C, and the maximum NO conversion of 98.6 % was achieved over 5 wt% Pt/C at 120 °C. Meanwhile, the influence of SO 2 and H 2 O on the catalyst performance of 3 wt% Pt/C was investigated. The catalysts exhibited good SO 2 poisoning resistance when the SO 2 concentration was lower than 260 ppm. Moreover, a positive effect on NO conversion was detected with the addition of 3 and 5 vol% H 2 O in the feed gas stream. Graphical abstract TEM image and good NO conversion performance of the Pt/C catalysts.

  14. Bph32, a novel gene encoding an unknown SCR domain-containing protein, confers resistance against the brown planthopper in rice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Juansheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Wu, Xianting; Lu, Xianjun; Zeng, Lihua; Lv, Jianqun; Su, Xiangwen; Luo, Hong; Ren, Guangjun

    2016-11-23

    An urgent need exists to identify more brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) resistance genes, which will allow the development of rice varieties with resistance to BPH to counteract the increased incidence of this pest species. Here, using bioinformatics and DNA sequencing approaches, we identified a novel BPH resistance gene, LOC_Os06g03240 (MSU LOCUS ID), from the rice variety Ptb33 in the interval between the markers RM19291 and RM8072 on the short arm of chromosome 6, where a gene for resistance to BPH was mapped by Jirapong Jairin et al. and renamed as "Bph32". This gene encodes a unique short consensus repeat (SCR) domain protein. Sequence comparison revealed that the Bph32 gene shares 100% sequence identity with its allele in Oryza latifolia. The transgenic introgression of Bph32 into a susceptible rice variety significantly improved resistance to BPH. Expression analysis revealed that Bph32 was highly expressed in the leaf sheaths, where BPH primarily settles and feeds, at 2 and 24 h after BPH infestation, suggesting that Bph32 may inhibit feeding in BPH. Western blotting revealed the presence of Pph (Ptb33) and Tph (TN1) proteins using a Penta-His antibody, and both proteins were insoluble. This study provides information regarding a valuable gene for rice defence against insect pests.

  15. Bph32, a novel gene encoding an unknown SCR domain-containing protein, confers resistance against the brown planthopper in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Juansheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Wu, Xianting; Lu, Xianjun; Zeng, Lihua; Lv, Jianqun; Su, Xiangwen; Luo, Hong; Ren, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    An urgent need exists to identify more brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) resistance genes, which will allow the development of rice varieties with resistance to BPH to counteract the increased incidence of this pest species. Here, using bioinformatics and DNA sequencing approaches, we identified a novel BPH resistance gene, LOC_Os06g03240 (MSU LOCUS ID), from the rice variety Ptb33 in the interval between the markers RM19291 and RM8072 on the short arm of chromosome 6, where a gene for resistance to BPH was mapped by Jirapong Jairin et al. and renamed as “Bph32”. This gene encodes a unique short consensus repeat (SCR) domain protein. Sequence comparison revealed that the Bph32 gene shares 100% sequence identity with its allele in Oryza latifolia. The transgenic introgression of Bph32 into a susceptible rice variety significantly improved resistance to BPH. Expression analysis revealed that Bph32 was highly expressed in the leaf sheaths, where BPH primarily settles and feeds, at 2 and 24 h after BPH infestation, suggesting that Bph32 may inhibit feeding in BPH. Western blotting revealed the presence of Pph (Ptb33) and Tph (TN1) proteins using a Penta-His antibody, and both proteins were insoluble. This study provides information regarding a valuable gene for rice defence against insect pests. PMID:27876888

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are synthesized using two methods: solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and one-pot synthesis. SSIE is conducted by calcining SAPO-34/CuO mixtures at elevated temperatures. For the one-pot synthesis method, Cu-containing chemicals (CuO and CuSO4) are added during gel preparation. A high-temperature calcination step is also needed for this method. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. In Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE, Cu presents bothmore » as isolated Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuO. The former is highly active and selective in NH3-SCR, while the latter catalyzes a side reaction; notably, the non-selective oxidation of NH3 above 350 ºC. Using the one-pot method followed by a high-temperature aging treatment, it is possible to form Cu SAPO-34 samples with predominately isolated Cu2+ ions at low Cu loadings. However at much higher Cu loadings, isolated Cu2+ ions that bind weakly with the CHA framework and CuO clusters also form. These Cu moieties are very active in catalyzing non-selective NH3 oxidation above 350 ºC. Low-temperature reaction kinetics indicate that Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE have core-shell structures where Cu is enriched in the shell layers; while Cu is more evenly distributed within the one-pot samples. Reaction kinetics also suggest that at low temperatures, the local environment next to Cu2+ ion centers plays little role on the overall catalytic properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the

  17. Novel Co- or Ni-Mn binary oxide catalysts with hydroxyl groups for NH3-SCR of NOx at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fengyu; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Zhao, Shunzheng; Wang, Jiangen; Shi, Yiran; Meng, Xiaomi

    2018-06-01

    Novel hydroxyl-containing Me-Mn binary oxides (Me = Co, Ni) were prepared for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 by a combined complexation-esterification method. The binary oxides of Co-MnOx and Ni-MnOx with mixed crystal phases of Mn3O4 and Co3O4, Mn2O3 and NiMnO3 were obtained at 550 °C. SCR activity decreased in the order of Mn3O4-Co3O4-OH > Mn2O3-NiMnO3-OH > Mn2O3-OH > Mn3O4-OH, benefiting from the high concentration of chemisorbed oxygen and effective electron transformation of cations. Mn2O3-containing catalysts had better selectivity to N2 than those containing Mn3O4. Higher selectivity to N2O over Mn3O4-containing catalysts was attributed to the depth dehydrogenation of coordinated NH3 by the active oxygen species with lower Mnsbnd O band energy. The typical Eley-Rideal mechanism over Mn3O4-OH and Mn3O4-Co3O4-OH, and the additional formation pathway of NH4NO3 species over Mn2O3-OH and Mn2O3-NiMnO3-OH catalysts were proposed via the in-situ DRIFTS experiments. Although the Co and Ni elements had a good role in delaying the poisoning of SO2, these catalysts were eventually sulfated by SO2 over the postponement, which might due to the metal sulfate and ammonia hydrogensulfite species.

  18. Length-weight relationship and a relative condition factor equation for lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) from the St Clair River system (Michigan, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Nichols, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Several USA state, federal, and Canadian agencies study lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the St Clair River and Lake St Clair, collectively referred to hereafter as the St Clair River (SCR) system. Previously, there has been no set standard for determining condition for SCR system lake sturgeon. Condition measures the variation from the expected weight for length as an indicator of fatness, general well-being, gonad development, etc. The aim of this project was to determine the length weight relationship of lake sturgeon caught from the SCR system, from which a relative condition factor (Kn) equation could be derived. Total length (TL, mm) and weight (W, kg) were measured for 1074 lake sturgeon (101 males and 16 females were identifiable) collected by setline and bottom trawl from the SCR system in May-September, 1997-2002. Analysis of covariance found no difference in the length-weight relationship between sampling gear or sex. Least-squares regression of log10W ?? log10TL produced the overall equation logW = 3.365logTL - 9.320. Using the exponential form of the slope and y-intercept, relative condition factor for lake sturgeon from the SCR system can be calculated as Kn - W/[(4.786 ?? 10-10)(TL3.365)]. Equations for males and females were also developed. Overall, body condition was significantly correlated with both age and girth; no significant difference in Kn by sex was found. In general, the SCR lake sturgeon population was near the upper ends of growth and condition ranges listed in the literature, comparable with those populations that are at similar latitudes. Although condition factors should be interpreted with caution, proper use of a standard equation provides a non-lethal measure of overall fish health that can be used by biologists and managers in ongoing efforts to restore lake sturgeon throughout the Great Lakes. ?? 2005 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  19. Length-weight relationship and a relative condition factor equation for lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) from the St. Clair River system (Michigan, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Thomas, Michael V.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2005-01-01

    Several USA state, federal, and Canadian agencies study lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the St Clair River and Lake St Clair, collectively referred to hereafter as the St Clair River (SCR) system. Previously, there has been no set standard for determining condition for SCR system lake sturgeon. Condition measures the variation from the expected weight for length as an indicator of fatness, general well-being, gonad development, etc. The aim of this project was to determine the length-weight relationship of lake sturgeon caught from the SCR system, from which a relative condition factor (Kn) equation could be derived. Total length (TL, mm) and weight (W, kg) were measured for 1074 lake sturgeon (101 males and 16 females were identifiable) collected by setline and bottom trawl from the SCR system in May-September, 1997-2002. Analysis of covariance found no difference in the length-weight relationship between sampling gear or sex. Least-squares regression of log10W x log10TL produced the overall equation logW = 3.365logTL - 9.320. Using the exponential form of the slope and y-intercept, relative condition factor for lake sturgeon from the SCR system can be calculated as Kn = W/ [(4.786 x 10-10)(TL3.365)]. Equations for males and females were also developed. Overall, body condition was significantly correlated with both age and girth; no significant difference in Kn by sex was found. In general, the SCR lake sturgeon population was near the upper ends of growth and condition ranges listed in the literature, comparable with those populations that are at similar latitudes. Although condition factors should be interpreted with caution, proper use of a standard equation provides a non-lethal measure of overall fish health that can be used by biologists and managers in ongoing efforts to restore lake sturgeon throughout the Great Lakes.

  20. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stuart R.

    2013-11-25

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economymore » of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.« less

  1. Effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction systems on reducing gaseous emissions from an engine using diesel and biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Borillo, Guilherme C; Tadano, Yara S; Godoi, Ana F L; Santana, Simone S M; Weronka, Fernando M; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Potgieter, Johannes H; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this investigation was to quantify organic and inorganic gas emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. Using a bench dynamometer, the emissions from the following mixtures were evaluated using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer: low-sulfur diesel (LSD), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20). For all studied fuels, the use of the SCR system yielded statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower NOx emissions. In the case of the LSD and ULSD fuels, the SCR system also significantly reduced emissions of compounds with high photochemical ozone creation potential, such as formaldehyde. However, for all tested fuels, the SCR system produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher emissions of N2O. In the case of LSD, the NH3 emissions were elevated, and in the case of ULSD and B20 fuels, the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and total hydrocarbon of diesel (HCD) emissions were significantly higher.

  2. A Consideration of Stable Operating Power Limits of HVDC System Composed of Voltage Source Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Hiroo; Takahashi, Choei; Kishibe, Hideto; Sato, Hiromichi

    The stable operating power limits of a small scale HVDC system composed of voltage source converters (VSC-HVDC system) are analyzed with a simple model. The VSC-HVDC system could operate where the AC system must be somewhat larger in capacity than the VSC-HVDC system capacity. The stable operating power limits were between one and two times the SCR (short circuit ratio). When the inverter of the VSC-HVDC system was operated with lead reactive (capacitive) power control conditions, the stable operating limits were increased through AC voltage stabilization. When the inverter was a STATCOM operation, it could operate regardless of the SCR but regions within allowable AC voltage variations.

  3. The enhancement of CuO modified V2O5-WO3/TiO2 based SCR catalyst for Hg° oxidation in simulated flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuanmin; Jia, Wenbo; Liu, Songtao; Cao, Yue

    2018-04-01

    CuO modified V2O5-WO3/TiO2 based SCR catalysts prepared by improved impregnation method were investigated to evaluate the catalytic activity for elemental mercury (Hg°) oxidation in simulated flue gas at 150-400 °C. Nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the catalysts. It was found that V0.8WTi-Cu3 catalyst exhibited the superior Hg° oxidation activity and wide operating temperature window at the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 3 × 105 h-1. The BET and XRD results showed that CuO was well loaded and highly dispersed on the catalysts surface. The XPS results suggested that the addition of CuO generated abundant chemisorbed oxygen, which was due to the synergistic effect between CuO and V2O5. The existence of the redox cycle of V4+ + Cu2+ ↔ V5+ + Cu+ in V0.8WTi-Cu3 catalyst enhanced Hg° oxidation activity. The effects of flue gas components (O2, NO, SO2 and H2O) on Hg° oxidation over V0.8WTi-Cu3 catalyst were also explored. Moreover, the co-presence of NO and NH3 remarkably inhibited Hg° oxidation, which was due to the competitive adsorption and reduction effect of NH3 at SCR condition. Fortunately, this inhibiting effect was gradually scavenged with the decrease of GHSV. The mechanism of Hg° oxidation was also investigated.

  4. Investigating Diesel Engines as an Atmospheric Source of Isocyanic Acid in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, D.; Jathar, S.; Heppding, C.; Link, M.; Akherati, A.; Kleeman, M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO), an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments and biomass burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3-90 mg kg-fuel-1) but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter) produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational data sets for HNCO in urban areas but under-predicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass burning) and wintertime conditions

  5. Investigating diesel engines as an atmospheric source of isocyanic acid in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, Shantanu H.; Heppding, Christopher; Link, Michael F.; Farmer, Delphine K.; Akherati, Ali; Kleeman, Michael J.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Veres, Patrick R.; Roberts, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO), an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments, and biomass-burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3-90 mg kg fuel-1) but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter) produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational datasets for HNCO in urban areas but underpredicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of ˜ 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass burning) and wintertime

  6. Cosmic-ray record in solar system matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Lal, D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (SCR) with bodies in the solar system is discussed, and what the record of that interaction reveals about the history of the solar system is considered. The influence of the energy, charge, and mass of the particles on the interaction is addressed, showing long-term average fluxes of solar protons, predicted production rates for heavy-nuclei tracks and various radionuclides as a function of depth in lunar rock, and integral fluxes of protons emitted by solar flares. The variation of the earth's magnetic field, the gardening of the lunar surface, and the source of meteorites and cosmic dust are studied using the cosmic ray record. The time variation of GCR, SCR, and VH and VVH nuclei is discussed for both the short and the long term.

  7. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  8. High voltage DC switchgear development for multi-kW space power system: Aerospace technology development of three types of solid state power controllers for 200-1100VDC with current ratings of 25, 50, and 80 amperes with one type utilizing an electromechanical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    Three types of solid state power controllers (SSPC's) for high voltage, high power DC system applications were developed. The first type utilizes a SCR power switch. The second type employes an electromechanical power switch element with solid state commutation. The third type utilizes a transistor power switch. Significant accomplishments include high operating efficiencies, fault clearing, high/low temperature performance and vacuum operation.

  9. Uniformity index measurement technology using thermocouples to improve performance in urea-selective catalytic reduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangki; Oh, Jungmo

    2018-05-01

    The current commonly used nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction techniques employ hydrocarbons (HCs), urea solutions, and exhaust gas emissions as the reductants. Two of the primary denitrification NOx (DeNOx) catalyst systems are the HC-lean NOx trap (HC-LNT) catalyst and urea-selective catalytic reduction (urea-SCR) catalyst. The secondary injection method depends on the type of injector, injection pressure, atomization, and spraying technique. In addition, the catalyst reaction efficiency is directly affected by the distribution of injectors; hence, the uniformity index (UI) of the reductant is very important and is the basis for system optimization. The UI of the reductant is an indicator of the NOx conversion efficiency (NCE), and good UI values can reduce the need for a catalyst. Therefore, improving the UI can reduce the cost of producing a catalytic converter, which are expensive due to the high prices of the precious metals contained therein. Accordingly, measurement of the UI is an important process in the development of catalytic systems. Two of the commonly used methods for measuring the reductant UI are (i) measuring the exhaust emissions at many points located upstream/downstream of the catalytic converter and (ii) acquisition of a reductant distribution image on a section of the exhaust pipe upstream of the catalytic converter. The purpose of this study is to develop a system and measurement algorithms to measure the exothermic response distribution in the exhaust gas as the reductant passes through the catalytic converter of the SCR catalyst system using a set of thermocouples downstream of the SCR catalyst. The system is used to measure the reductant UI, which is applied in real-time to the actual SCR system, and the results are compared for various types of mixtures for various engine operating conditions and mixer types in terms of NCE.

  10. Effects of Si/Al Ratio on Cu/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR Catalysts: Implications for the active Cu species and the Roles of Brønsted Acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Washton, Nancy M.; Wang, Yilin

    2015-09-03

    Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts with three Si/Al ratios of 6, 12 and 35 were synthesized with Cu incorporation via solution ion exchange. The implications of varying Si/Al ratios on the nature of the multiple Cu species that can be present in the SSZ-13 zeolite are a major focus of this work, as highlighted by the results of a variety of catalyst characterization and reaction kinetics measurements. Specifically, catalysts were characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction by H2 (H2-TPR), NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and DRIFTS and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties were examined using NO oxidation,more » ammonia oxidation, and standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) reactions on selected catalysts under differential conditions. Besides indicating possible variably active multiple Cu species for these reactions, the measurements are also used to untangle some of the complexities caused by the interplay between redox of Cu ion centers and Brønsted acidity. All three reactions appear to follow a redox reaction mechanism, yet the roles of Brønsted acidity are quite different. For NO oxidation, increasing Si/Al ratio lowers Cu redox barriers, thus enhancing reaction rates. Brønsted acidity appears to play essentially no role for this reaction. For standard NH3-SCR, residual Brønsted acidity plays a significant beneficial role at both low- and high-temperature regimes. For NH3 oxidation, no clear trend is observed suggesting both Cu ion center redox and Brønsted acidity play important and perhaps competing roles. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE

  11. Diesel NO(x) aftertreatment by combined process using temperature swing adsorption, NO(x) reduction by nonthermal plasma, and NO(x) recirculation: improvement of the recirculation process.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kuwahara, Takuya; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2012-09-15

    NO(x) emitted from a stationary diesel engine generator was treated with a hybrid system comprising NO(x) reduction by nonthermal plasma (NTP) and temperature swing adsorption (TSA) driven by engine waste heat. TSA produces a low-volume gas mixture of N(2) and highly concentrated NO(x), which is effectively reduced by NTP treatment. Improved treatment performance and efficiency are achieved by re-injecting the NTP-treated gas mixture into the engine intake. The system comprises two switchable adsorption chambers; the operation of this system was simulated by using a one-chamber system. The maximum energy efficiency for NO(x) treatment is 200 g(NO(2))/kWh. The respective contributions of NTP and injection of N(2) and NO(x) to the performance were theoretically analyzed. The analysis predicts that high energy efficiency and high NO(x)-removal efficiency can be simultaneously achieved with this system but miniaturization of the adsorption chambers will be a challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. System and method of DPF passive enhancement through powertrain torque-speed management

    DOEpatents

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Frazier, Timothy R.

    2015-11-24

    This disclosure provides a method and system for determining recommendations for vehicle operation that reduce soot production in view of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) of an exhaust aftertreatment system. Recommendations generated can reduce excessive particulate matter (PM) production during transient engine events and provide for operating conditions favorable for passive regeneration. In this way, less frequent active regeneration of the DPF is needed and/or more opportunities are provided for passive regeneration. The system and method can utilize location and terrain information to anticipate and project a window of operation in view of reducing soot production and soot loading of the DPF, or provide the operator with instruction when such opportunities are present or will soon be encountered.

  13. Length-weight relationship and a relative condition factor equation for lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) from the St. Clair River system (Michigan, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Thomas, Michael V.; Nichols, Susan Jerrine

    2005-01-01

    Several USA state, federal, and Canadian agencies study lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the St Clair River and Lake St Clair, collectively referred to hereafter as the St Clair River (SCR) system. Previously, there has been no set standard for determining condition for SCR system lake sturgeon. Condition measures the variation from the expected weight for length as an indicator of fatness, general well-being, gonad development, etc. The aim of this project was to determine the length–weight relationship of lake sturgeon caught from the SCR system, from which a relative condition factor (Kn) equation could be derived. Total length (TL, mm) and weight (W, kg) were measured for 1074 lake sturgeon (101 males and 16 females were identifiable) collected by setline and bottom trawl from the SCR system in May–September, 1997–2002. Analysis of covariance found no difference in the length–weight relationship between sampling gear or sex. Least-squares regression of log10W × log10TL produced the overall equation logW = 3.365logTL − 9.320. Using the exponential form of the slope and y-intercept, relative condition factor for lake sturgeon from the SCR system can be calculated as Kn = W/[(4.786 × 10−10)(TL3.365)]. Equations for males and females were also developed. Overall, body condition was significantly correlated with both age and girth; no significant difference in Kn by sex was found. In general, the SCR lake sturgeon population was near the upper ends of growth and condition ranges listed in the literature, comparable with those populations that are at similar latitudes. Although condition factors should be interpreted with caution, proper use of a standard equation provides a non-lethal measure of overall fish health that can be used by biologists and managers in ongoing efforts to restore lake sturgeon throughout the Great Lakes.

  14. A study on the indirect urea dosing method in the Selective Catalytic Reduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzeżański, M.; Sala, R.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the results of studies on concept solution of dosing urea in a gas phase in a selective catalytic reduction system. The idea of the concept was to heat-up and evaporate the water urea solution before introducing it into the exhaust gas stream. The aim was to enhance the processes of urea converting into ammonia, what is the target reductant for nitrogen oxides treatment. The study was conducted on a medium-duty Euro 5 diesel engine with exhaust line consisting of DOC catalyst, DPF filter and an SCR system with a changeable setup allowing to dose the urea in liquid phase (regular solution) and to dose it in a gas phase (concept solution). The main criteria was to assess the effect of physical state of urea dosed on the NOx conversion ratio in the SCR catalyst. In order to compare both urea dosing methods a special test procedure was developed which consisted of six test steps covering a wide temperature range of exhaust gas generated at steady state engine operation condition. Tests were conducted for different urea dosing quantities defined by the a equivalence ratio. Based on the obtained results, a remarkable improvement in NOx reduction was found for gas urea application in comparison to the standard liquid urea dosing. Measured results indicate a high potential to increase an efficiency of the SCR catalyst by using a gas phase urea and provide the basis for further scientific research on this type of concept.

  15. Model predictive control of a lean-burn gasoline engine coupled with a passive selective catalytic reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pingen; Lin, Qinghua; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.

    Lean-burn gasoline engines have demonstrated 10–20% engine efficiency gain over stoichiometric engines and are widely considered as a promising technology for meeting the 54.5 miles-per-gallon (mpg) Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard by 2025. Nevertheless, NOx emissions control for lean-burn gasoline for meeting the stringent EPA Tier 3 emission standards has been one of the main challenges towards the commercialization of highly-efficient lean-burn gasoline engines in the United States. Passive selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, which consist of a three-way catalyst and SCR, have demonstrated great potentials of effectively reducing NOx emissions for lean gasoline engines but may cause significant fuelmore » penalty due to ammonia generation via rich engine combustion. The purpose of this study is to develop a model-predictive control (MPC) scheme for a lean-burn gasoline engine coupled with a passive SCR system to minimize the fuel penalty associated with passive SCR operation while satisfying stringent NOx and NH3 emissions requirements. Simulation results demonstrate that the MPC-based control can reduce the fuel penalty by 47.7% in a simulated US06 cycle and 32.0% in a simulated UDDS cycle, compared to the baseline control, while achieving over 96% deNOx efficiency and less than 15 ppm tailpipe ammonia slip. The proposed MPC control can potentially enable high engine efficiency gain for highly-efficient lean-burn gasoline engine while meeting the stringent EPA Tier 3 emission standards.« less

  16. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  17. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  18. Optimization research on the concentration field of NO in selective catalytic reduction flue gas denitration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qingyu; Zhang, Guoqiang; Che, Kai; Shao, Shikuan; Li, Yanfei

    2017-08-01

    Taking 660 MW generator unit denitration system as a study object, an optimization and adjustment method shall be designed to control ammonia slip, i.e. adjust ammonia injection system based on NO concentration distribution at inlet/outlet of the denitration system to make the injected ammonia distribute evenly. The results shows that, this method can effectively improve NO concentration distribution at outlet of the denitration system and decrease ammonia injection amount and ammonia slip concentration. Reduce adverse impact of SCR denitration process on the air preheater to realize safe production by guaranteeing that NO discharge shall reach the standard.

  19. Long-Term Fuel-Specific NO x and Particle Emission Trends for In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles in California.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Molly J; Bishop, Gary A

    2018-05-15

    Two California heavy-duty fleets have been measured in 2013, 2015, and 2017 using the On-Road Heavy-Duty Measurement System. The Port of Los Angeles drayage fleet has increased in age by 3.3 model years (4.2-7.5 years old) since 2013, with little fleet turnover. Large increases in fuel-specific particle emissions (PM) observed in 2015 were reversed in 2017, returning to near 2013 levels, suggesting repairs and or removal of high emitting vehicles. Fuel-specific oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) emissions of this fleet have increased, and NO x after-treatment systems do not appear to perform ideally in this setting. At the Cottonwood weigh station in northern California, the fleet age has declined (7.8 to 6 years old) since 2013 due to fleet turnover, significantly lowering the average fuel-specific emissions for PM (-87%), black carbon (-76%), and particle number (-64%). Installations of retrofit-diesel particulate filters in model year 2007 and older vehicles have further decreased particle emissions. Cottonwood fleet fuel-specific NO x emissions have decreased slightly (-8%) during this period; however, newer technology vehicles with selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) promise an additional factor of 4-5 further reductions in the long-haul fleet emissions as California transitions to an all SCR-equipped fleet.

  20. Data and Summaries for Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-Fired Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Table 1 summarizes and explanis the Operating Conditions of the SCR Reactor used in the Benzene-Destruction.Table 2 summarizes and explains the Experimental Design and Test Results.Table 3 summarizes and explains the Estimates for Individual Effects and Cross Effects Obtained from the Linear Regression Models for Destruction of C6H6 and Reduction of NO.Fig. 1 shows the Down-flow SCR reactor system in detail.Fig. 2 shows the graphical summary of the Effect of the inlet C6H6 concentration to the SCR reactor on the destruction of C6H6.Fig.3 shows the summary of Carbon mass balance for C6H6 destruction promoted by the V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Lee , C., Y. Zhao, S. Lu, and W.R. Stevens. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Polutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 30(3): 2240-2247, (2016).

  1. Genotype-phenotype correlations of low frequency variants in the complement system in renal disease and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Geerlings, M J; Volokhina, E B; de Jong, E K; van de Kar, N; Pauper, M; Hoyng, C B; van den Heuvel, L P; den Hollander, A I

    2018-06-11

    Genetic alterations in the complement system have been linked to a variety of diseases, including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We performed sequence analysis of the complement genes CFH, CFI, and C3 in 866 aHUS/C3G and 697 AMD patients. In total we identified 505 low frequency alleles, representing 121 unique variants, of which 51 are novel. CFH contained the largest number of unique low frequency variants (n=64; 53%), followed by C3 (n=32; 26%) and CFI (n=25; 21%). A substantial number of variants were found in both patients groups (n=48; 40%), while 41 (34%) variants were found only in aHUS/C3G and 32 (26%) variants were AMD-specific. Genotype-phenotype correlations between the disease groups identified a higher frequency of protein-altering alleles in SCR20 of Factor H (FH), and in the serine protease domain of Factor I (FI) in aHUS/C3G patients. In AMD a higher frequency of protein-altering alleles was observed in SCR3, SCR5 and SCR7 of FH, the SRCR domain of FI, and in the MG3 domain of C3. In conclusion, we observed a substantial overlap of variants between aHUS/C3G and AMD, however, there is a distinct clustering of variants within specific domains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of a Plant Transcriptional Regulatory Network Using Transient Expression Systems.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Triviño, Sara; Long, Yuchen; Scheres, Ben; Blilou, Ikram

    2017-01-01

    In plant biology, transient expression systems have become valuable approaches used routinely to rapidly study protein expression, subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and transcriptional activity prior to in vivo studies. When studying transcriptional regulation, luciferase reporter assays offer a sensitive readout for assaying promoter behavior in response to different regulators or environmental contexts and to confirm and assess the functional relevance of predicted binding sites in target promoters. This chapter aims to provide detailed methods for using luciferase reporter system as a rapid, efficient, and versatile assay to analyze transcriptional regulation of target genes by transcriptional regulators. We describe a series of optimized transient expression systems consisting of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts, infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, and human HeLa cells to study the transcriptional regulations of two well-characterized transcriptional regulators SCARECROW (SCR) and SHORT-ROOT (SHR) on one of their targets, CYCLIN D6 (CYCD6).Here, we illustrate similarities and differences in outcomes when using different systems. The plant-based systems revealed that the SCR-SHR complex enhances CYCD6 transcription, while analysis in HeLa cells showed that the complex is not sufficient to strongly induce CYCD6 transcription, suggesting that additional, plant-specific regulators are required for full activation. These results highlight the importance of the system and suggest that including heterologous systems, such as HeLa cells, can provide a more comprehensive analysis of a complex gene regulatory network.

  3. System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.

  4. On-road measurement of regulated pollutants from diesel and CNG buses with urea selective catalytic reduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiadong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Lijun; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Jiaqiang; Feng, Xiangyu

    2014-12-01

    In this study, emissions from 13 buses operated in Beijing, including two Euro-III diesel buses, four Euro-IV diesel buses, three Euro-V diesel buses and four Euro-V CNG buses, were characterized in real world conditions. All of the buses tested were fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems except for the Euro-III diesel buses. A SEMTECH-DS was used for testing the gaseous pollutants, and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used for measuring of particle numbers and size distributions. A comparison was made based on emission performance of these buses by employing the VSP approach and fuel- based emissions factors. Diesel buses emitted less CO and THC but more NOx and PM pollutants than CNG buses. The NOx reduction efficiencies of the SCR systems for CNG buses were higher because of the high exhaust temperature and high NO2/NOx ratio, whereas the efficiencies for diesel buses were lower. This resulted in extremely low NOx emissions from CNG buses, but the high NO2/NOx ratio needs further study. Failures of urea injection in the SCR systems were detected in this research, which resulted in very high NOx emissions. The CNG buses also emitted smaller numbers of particles and less particle mass with the presence of oxidation catalysts. Diesel buses satisfying the Euro-V standard performed better than Euro-IV and Euro-III diesel buses in terms of emission performance, except for more nuclei mode particles. Most of time, the Euro-IV diesel buses show no advantages in CO and NOx emissions compared with the Euro-III diesel buses.

  5. Driver braking behavior analysis to improve autonomous emergency braking systems in typical Chinese vehicle-bicycle conflicts.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jingliang; Li, Renjie; Hou, Lian; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Guofa; Li, Shengbo Eben; Cheng, Bo; Gao, Hongbo

    2017-11-01

    Bicycling is one of the fundamental modes of transportation especially in developing countries. Because of the lack of effective protection for bicyclists, vehicle-bicycle (V-B) accident has become a primary contributor to traffic fatalities. Although AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) systems have been developed to avoid or mitigate collisions, they need to be further adapted in various conflict situations. This paper analyzes the driver's braking behavior in typical V-B conflicts of China to improve the performance of Bicyclist-AEB systems. Naturalistic driving data were collected, from which the top three scenarios of V-B accidents in China were extracted, including SCR (a bicycle crossing the road from right while a car is driving straight), SCL (a bicycle crossing the road from left while a car is driving straight) and SSR (a bicycle swerving in front of the car from right while a car is driving straight). For safety and data reliability, a driving simulator was employed to reconstruct these three scenarios and some 25 licensed drivers were recruited for braking behavior analysis. Results revealed that driver's braking behavior was significantly influenced by V-B conflict types. Pre-decelerating behaviors were found in SCL and SSR conflicts, whereas in SCR the subjects were less vigilant. The brake reaction time and brake severity in lateral V-B conflicts (SCR and SCL) was shorter and higher than that in longitudinal conflicts (SSR). The findings improve their applications in the Bicyclist-AEB and test protocol enactment to enhance the performance of Bicyclist-AEB systems in mixed traffic situations especially for developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-layer effects and to promote mixing. You may orient the crankcase exhaust tube's outlet in any direction... includes any applicable aftertreatment devices. (b) Aftertreatment configuration. If you do not use the... configurations. (2) You may use exhaust tubing that is not from the in-use exhaust system upstream of any...

  7. Burner ignition system

    DOEpatents

    Carignan, Forest J.

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  8. Garrett Electric Boosting Systems (EBS) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Arnold; Craig Balis; Pierre Barthelet

    2005-03-31

    Turbo diesel engine use in passenger cars in Europe has resulted in 30-50% improvement in fuel economy. Diesel engine application is particularly suitable for US because of vehicle size and duty cycle patterns. Adopting this technology for use in the US presents two issues--emissions and driveability. Emissions reduction technology is being well addressed with advanced turbocharging, fuel injection and catalytic aftertreatment systems One way to address driveability is to eliminate turbo lag and increase low speed torque. Electrically assisted turbocharging concepts incorporated in e-Turbo{trademark} designs do both The purpose of this project is to design and develop an electrically assistedmore » turbocharger, e-Turbo{trademark}, for diesel engine use in the US. In this report, early design and development of electrical assist technology is described together with issues and potential benefits. In this early phase a mathematical model was developed and verified. The model was used in a sensitivity study. The results of the sensitivity study together with the design and test of first generation hardware was fed into second generation designs. In order to fully realize the benefits of electrical assist technology it was necessary to expand the scope of work to include technology on the compressor side as well as electronic controls concepts. The results of the expanded scope of work are also reported here. In the first instance, designs and hardware were developed for a small engine to quantify and demonstrate benefits. The turbo size was such that it could be applied in a bi-turbo configuration to an SUV sized V engine. Mathematical simulation was used to quantify the possible benefits in an SUV application. It is shown that low speed torque can be increased to get the high performance expected in US, automatic transmission vehicles. It is also shown that e-Turbo{trademark} can be used to generate modest amounts of electrical power and supplement the alternator

  9. Dedicated exhaust gas recirculation control systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sczomak, David P.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Keating, Edward J.

    An engine control system of a vehicle includes a fuel control module that controls fuel injection of a first cylinder of an engine based on a first target air/fuel ratio that is fuel lean relative to a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio and that controls fuel injection of a second cylinder of the engine based on a second target air/fuel ratio that is fuel rich relative to stoichiometry. The first cylinder outputs exhaust to a first three way catalyst (TWC), and the second cylinder outputs exhaust to an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve. An EGR control module controls opening of the EGRmore » valve to: (i) a second TWC that reacts with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust and outputs ammonia to a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst; and (ii) a conduit that recirculates exhaust back to an intake system of the engine.« less

  10. ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance System Window Manager Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Mike W.; Innis, John D.; Miller, Steven P.; Wagner, Lucas G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling languages have made it feasible to formally specify and analyze the behavior of large system components. Synchronous data flow languages, such as Lustre, SCR, and RSML-e are particularly well suited to this task, and commercial versions of these tools such as SCADE and Simulink are growing in popularity among designers of safety critical systems, largely due to their ability to automatically generate code from the models. At the same time, advances in formal analysis tools have made it practical to formally verify important properties of these models to ensure that design defects are identified and corrected early in the lifecycle. This report describes how these tools have been applied to the ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance Window Manager being developed by Rockwell Collins Inc. This work demonstrates how formal methods can be easily and cost-efficiently used to remove defects early in the design cycle.

  11. Evaluation of infrared thermography body temperature and collar-mounted accelerometer and acoustic technology for predicting time of ovulation of cows in a pasture-based system.

    PubMed

    Talukder, S; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Clark, C E F; Celi, P

    2015-03-01

    were 0.82, 0.54, and 0.75, respectively. Alerts generated by SCR HR LD tags based on a lower activity threshold level had high sensitivity and may be able to detect a high proportion of cows in ovulatory periods in pasture-based system; however, the specificities and positive predictive value were lower than the visual assessment of mounting indicators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation shielding of astronauts in interplanetary flights: the CREAM surveyor to Mars and the magnetic lens system for a spaceship.

    PubMed

    Spillantini, P; Taccetti, F; Papini, P; Rossi, L; Casolino, M

    2001-01-01

    The radiation absorbed by astronauts during interplanetary flights is mainly due to cosmic rays of solar origin (SCR). In the most powerful solar flares the dose absorbed in few hours can exceed that cumulated in one year of exposition to the galactic component of cosmic rays (GCR). At energies above the minimum one needed to cross the walls of the spaceship there are extrapolations and guesses, but no data, on the angular distribution of SCR's, an information that is necessary for establishing whatever defence strategy. It was therefore proposed of sending to Mars a measurement device, that should continuously collect data during the travel, and possibly also in the orbit around Mars and on the Mars surface. The device should identify the particle and privilege the completeness in the measurement of its parameters. In fact the high energy electrons travel at speed of the light and could be used in the and future dangerous proton component. Also the much less abundant but individually more dangerous ions should be identified. The device should indeed include a magnetic spectrometer and a high granularity range telescope, and a good time of flight measurement. ASI is supporting an assessment study of a possible mission of such a device on board of the 2005 probe to Mars. A parallel technical study is also in progress to define the workable techniques and the possible configurations of a system of magnetic lenses for protecting the crew of a spaceship.

  13. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  14. Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.

    2013-04-08

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulatedmore » for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.« less

  15. Electric Boosting System for Light Truck/SUV Application

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Steve; Balis, Craig; Barthelet, Pierre

    2005-06-22

    Turbo diesel engine use in passenger cars in Europe has resulted in 30-50% improvement in fuel economy. Diesel engine application is particularly suitable for US because of vehicle size and duty cycle patterns. Adopting this technology for use in the US presents two issues--emissions and driveability. Emissions reduction technology is being well addressed with advanced turbocharging, fuel injection and catalytic aftertreatment systems. One way to address driveability is to eliminate turbo lag and increase low speed torque. Electrically assisted turbocharging concepts incorporated in e-TurboTM designs do both. The purpose of this project is to design and develop an electrically assistedmore » turbocharger, e-TurboTM, for diesel engine use in the US. In this report, early design and development of electrical assist technology is described together with issues and potential benefits. In this early phase a mathematical model was developed and verified. The model was used in a sensitivity study. The results of the sensitivity study together with the design and test of first generation hardware was fed into second generation designs. In order to fully realize the benefits of electrical assist technology it was necessary to expand the scope of work to include technology on the compressor side as well as electronic controls concepts. The results of the expanded scope of work are also reported here. In the first instance, designs and hardware were developed for a small engine to quantify and demonstrate benefits. The turbo size was such that it could be applied in a bi-turbo configuration to an SUV sized V engine. Mathematical simulation was used to quantify the possible benefits in an SUV application. It is shown that low speed torque can be increased to get the high performance expected in US, automatic transmission vehicles. It is also shown that e-TurboTM can be used to generate modest amounts of electrical power and supplement the alternator under most load

  16. Therapeutic inhibition of the complement system. Y2K update.

    PubMed

    Asghar, S S; Pasch, M C

    2000-09-01

    -transplantation in clinical practice a reality. Several recombinant variants of complement receptor 1 (CR1) have been produced. The most effective of these appears to be sCR1-SLe x, sCR1 part of which inhibits complement and carbohydrate Sle x moiety inhibits selectin mediated interactions of neutrophils and lymphocytes with endothelium. Although clinical trials of sCR1 in humans is eagerly awaited, several of the recombinant versions of sCR1 have been shown to suppress ischemia/reperfusion injury, thermal trauma, and immune complex mediated inflammation. They have also been shown to be effective in experimental models of systemic sclerosis, arthritis, myasthenia gravis, Guillain Barré syndrome and glomerulonephritis. Intravenous immunoglobulin, three of the most prominent properties of which are neutralization of autoantibody activity, suppression of autoantibody production and inhibition of complement activity, is being used in several diseases. These include autoimmune thrombocyopenic purpura, Kawasaki disease and several neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis and Guillain Barre syndrome. In many uncontrolled small scale studies intravenous immunoglobulin has been shown to be effective in many immunological including dermatological diseases; controlled clinical trials in a large number of patients with these diseases is needed to establish the efficacy. It is hoped that in future therapeutic inhibition of complement will be one of the major approaches to combat many human diseases.

  17. Experimental assessment of the potential to decrease diesel NOx emissions beyond minimum requirements for Euro 6 Real Drive Emissions (RDE) compliance.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios; Katsaounis, Dimitrios; Karamitros, Dimitrios; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Samaras, Zissis

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the potential for NO x emissions improvements on a typical Euro 6 diesel vehicle, following modifications to its emissions control system, under Real Drive Emissions (RDE) testing conditions. A commercially available car was selected and was first measured in its original configuration according to RDE on the road and an initial conformity factor (CF) of 5.4 was determined. Subsequent engine calibration and installation of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) device were conducted and tested on a fully transient engine dyno setup, which precisely reproduced the engine operation under the on-road RDE test. The NO x reduction achieved with those upgrades was 90%, leading to a CF of 0.53, with no CO 2 or fuel consumption penalty. These findings demonstrate that diesel vehicles can reach low NO x levels under real world driving conditions, when well-designed modern exhaust aftertreatment components are installed and properly calibrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tuneable diode laser spectroscopy correction factor investigation on ammonia measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nilton; El-Hamalawi, Ashraf; Baxter, Jim; Barrett, Richard; Wheatley, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Current diesel engine aftertreatment systems, such as Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) use ammonia (NH3) to reduce Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) into Nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O). However, if the reaction between NH3 and NOx is unbalanced, it can lead either NH3 or NOx being released into the environment. As NH3 is classified as a dangerous compound in the environment, its accurate measurement is essential. Tuneable Diode Laser (TDL) spectroscopy is one of the methods used to measure raw emissions inside engine exhaust pipes, especially NH3. This instrument requires a real-time exhaust temperature, pressure and other interference compounds in order to adjust itself to reduce the error in NH3 readings. Most researchers believed that exhaust temperature and pressure were the most influential factors in TDL when measuring NH3 inside exhaust pipes. The aim of this paper was to quantify these interference effects on TDL when undertaking NH3 measurement. Surprisingly, the results show that pressure was the least influential factor when compared to temperature, H2O, CO2 and O2 when undertaking NH3 measurement using TDL.

  19. 75 FR 39251 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...A public workshop is being held to discuss the operation of heavy-duty engines equipped with selective catalyst reduction (SCR). EPA will be reviewing its policies regarding the operation of SCR- equipped heavy-duty diesel engines without diesel exhaust fluid (DEF), with improper DEF, or when tampering (or some other defect in the SCR system) is detected.

  20. Characteristics of on-road NOx emissions from Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emissions measurement system.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sangil; Park, Yonghee; Park, Junhong; Kim, Jeongsoo; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Cha, Jun-Seok

    2017-01-15

    This paper presents the on-road nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions measurements from Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emissions measurement system on the predesigned test routes in the metropolitan area of Seoul, Korea. Six diesel vehicles were tested and the NO x emissions results were analyzed according to the driving routes, driving conditions, data analysis methods, and ambient temperatures. Total NO x emissions for route 1, which has higher driving severity than route 2, differed by -4-60% from those for route 2. The NO x emissions when the air conditioner (AC) was used were higher by 68% and 85%, on average, for routes 1 and 2, respectively, compared to when the AC was not used. The analytical results for NO x emissions by the moving averaging window method were higher by 2-31% compared to the power binning method. NO x emissions at lower ambient temperatures (0-5°C) were higher by 82-192% compared to those at higher ambient temperatures (15-20°C). This result shows that performance improvements of exhaust gas recirculation and the NO x after-treatment system will be needed at lower ambient temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biasing, operation and parasitic current limitation in single device equivalent to CMOS, and other semiconductor systems

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D.

    2003-09-23

    Disclosed are semiconductor devices including at least one junction which is rectifying whether the semiconductor is caused to be N or P-type, by the presence of applied gate voltage field induced carriers in essentially intrinsic, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at substantially equal doping levels, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at different doping levels, and containing a single metallurgical doping type, and functional combinations thereof. In particular, inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to conventional multiple device CMOS systems, which can be operated as modulators, are disclosed as are a non-latching SCR and an approach to blocking parasitic currents utilizing material(s) which form rectifying junctions with both N and P-type semiconductor whether metallurigically or field induced.

  2. system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.; Vijande, J.

    2017-07-01

    Using local central Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interactions reproducing the low-energy parameters and phase shifts of the nn system, and the latest updates of the nΛ and ΛΛ Nijmegen ESC08c potentials, we study the possible existence of a bound state. Our results indicate that the is unbound, being just above threshold. We discuss the role played by the 1 S 0 nn repulsive term of the Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interaction. Supported by COFAA-IPN (México), Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and EU FEDER (FPA2013-47443, FPA2015-69714-REDT, FPA2016-77177), Junta de Castilla y León (SA041U16) and Generalitat Valenciana PrometeoII/2014/066

  3. New insights from comprehensive on-road measurements of NOx, NO2 and NH3 from vehicle emission remote sensing in London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Rhys-Tyler, Glyn

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we report the first direct measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the UK using a vehicle emission remote sensing technique. Measurements of NO, NO2 and ammonia (NH3) from almost 70,000 vehicles were made spanning vehicle model years from 1985 to 2012. These measurements were carefully matched with detailed vehicle information data to understand the emission characteristics of a wide range of vehicles in a detailed way. Overall it is found that only petrol fuelled vehicles have shown an appreciable reduction in total NOx emissions over the past 15-20 years. Emissions of NOx from diesel vehicles, including those with after-treatment systems designed to reduce emissions of NOx, have not reduced over the same period of time. It is also evident that the vehicle manufacturer has a strong influence on emissions of NO2 for Euro 4/5 diesel cars and urban buses. Smaller-engined Euro 4/5 diesel cars are also shown to emit less NO2 than larger-engined vehicles. It is shown that NOx emissions from urban buses fitted with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are comparable to those using Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Euro V vehicles, while reductions in NOx of about 30% are observed for Euro IV and EEV vehicles. However, the emissions of NO2 vary widely dependent on the bus technology used. Almost all the NOx emission from Euro IV buses with SCR is in the form of NO, whereas EEV vehicles (Enhanced Environmentally friendly Vehicle) emit about 30% of the NOx as NO2. We find similarly low amounts of NO2 from trucks (3.5-12t and >12t). Finally, we show that NH3 emissions are most important for older generation catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles and SCR-equipped buses. The NH3 emissions from petrol cars have decreased by over a factor of three from the vehicles manufactured in the late 1990s compared with those manufactured in 2012. Tables of emission factors are presented for NOx, NO2 and NH3 together with uncertainties to assist the development of new emission

  4. Establishing a preoperative evaluation system for lumboperitoneal shunt: Approach to attenuate the risk of shunt failure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Yuan, Yikai; Zhang, Qiuming; Zhou, Yicheng; Li, Xuepei; Yu, Hang; Tian, Meng; Guan, Junwen

    2018-06-12

    Lumboperitoneal shunt (LPS) has been demonstrated an effective method for the treatment of communicating hydrocephalus in the presence of frequent shunt failure. To determine if establishing a preoperative evaluation system could benefit patients thus attenuating the risk of LPS failure. In this three-year study, treated by LPS, patients undergoing preoperative evaluation were included into study group and others without preoperative evaluation were included into control group. Perioperative conditions, including Keifer's hydrocephalus score (KHS), symptomatic control rate (SCR), Evans index, complications, long-term shunt revision rate, and quality of life (QOL), were synchronously investigated. 93 eligible patients were included in the study (study group: 51, control group: 42). The baseline characteristics of two groups were basically similar. The results showed patients in study group had better short-term improvement in symptoms and imageology, including higher SCR (Median, 62.5% vs 50%, P=0.001), more reduction in Evans index (0.08±0.05 vs 0.05±0.04, P=0.002), and lower incidence of postoperative complications (Median, 35.3% vs 57.1%, P=0.04). Similarly, the incidence of shunt revision in study group was dramatically lower than control group (Median, 15.7% vs 40.9%, P=0.006) in line with the revision-free curve (P=0.002), in which suggested most of patients received revision, if needed, within 3 months. Additionally, patients in study group had better QOL. In conclusion, patients who underwent the evaluation before LPS had better short-term and long-term outcomes, suggesting it would be a promising strategy to correctly select patients for LPS with prolonged favorable shunt outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Zhongshan score: a novel and simple anatomic classification system to predict perioperative outcomes of nephron-sparing surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Hang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-02-01

    In the zero ischemia era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), a new anatomic classification system (ACS) is needed to adjust to these new surgical techniques. We devised a novel and simple ACS, and compared it with the RENAL and PADUA scores to predict the risk of NSS outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 789 patients who underwent NSS with available imaging between January 2007 and July 2014. Demographic and clinical data were assessed. The Zhongshan (ZS) score consisted of three parameters. RENAL, PADUA, and ZS scores are divided into three groups, that is, high, moderate, and low scores. For operative time (OT), significant differences were seen between any two groups of ZS score and PADUA score (all P < 0.05). For ZS score, patients with moderate and high scores had longer warm ischemia time (WIT) and greater increase in SCr compared with low score (all P < 0.05). What is more, the differences between moderate and high scores classified by ZS score were borderline but trending toward significance in WIT (P = 0.064) and increase in SCr (P = 0.052). Interestingly, RENAL showed no significant difference between moderate and high complexity in OT, WIT, estimated blood loss, and increase in SCr. Compared with patients with a low score of ZS, those with a high or moderate score had 8.1-fold or 3.3-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P < 0.05). As for RENAL score, patients with a high or moderate score had 5.7-fold or 1.9-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P < 0.05). Patients with a high or moderate score of PADUA had 2.3-fold or 2.8-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P < 0.05). In the ROC curve analysis, ZS score had the greatest AUC for surgical complications (AUC = 0.632) and the conversion to radical nephrectomy (AUC = 0.845) (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, the ability of ZS score to predict the surgical complexity and surgical complications of NSS

  6. System and method for controlling ammonia levels in a selective catalytic reduction catalyst using a nitrogen oxide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    None

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes an air/fuel ratio determination module and an emission level determination module. The air/fuel ratio determination module determines an air/fuel ratio based on input from an air/fuel ratio sensor positioned downstream from a three-way catalyst that is positioned upstream from a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. The emission level determination module selects one of a predetermined value and an input based on the air/fuel ratio. The input is received from a nitrogen oxide sensor positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst. The emission level determination module determines an ammonia level basedmore » on the one of the predetermined value and the input received from the nitrogen oxide sensor.« less

  7. DoPET: an in-treatment monitoring system for proton therapy at 62 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, V.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M. G.; Camarlinghi, N.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Collini, F.; Cuttone, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Milluzzo, G.; Morrocchi, M.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F.; Sportelli, G.; Zaccaro, E.

    2016-12-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy is highly effective in treating cancer thanks to its conformal dose deposition. This superior capability in dose deposition has led to a massive growth of the treated patients around the world, raising the need of treatment monitoring systems. An in-treatment PET system, DoPET, was constructed and tested at CATANA beam-line, LNS-INFN in Catania, where 62 MeV protons are used to treat ocular melanoma. The PET technique profits from the beta+ emitters generated by the proton beam in the irradiated body, mainly 15-O and 11-C. The current DoPET prototype consists of two planar 15 cm × 15 cm LYSO-based detector heads. With respect to the previous versions, the system was enlarged and the DAQ up-graded during the years so now also anthropomorphic phantoms, can be fitted within the field of view of the system. To demonstrate the capability of DoPET to detect changes in the delivered treatment plan with respect to the planned one, various treatment plans were used delivering a standard 15 Gy fraction to an anthropomorphic phantom. Data were acquired during and after the treatment delivery up to 10 minutes. When the in-treatment phase was long enough (more than 1 minute), the corresponding activated volume was visible just after the treatment delivery, even if in presence of a noisy background. The after-treatment data, acquired for about 9 minutes, were segmented finding that few minutes are enough to be able to detect changes. These experiments will be presented together with the studies performed with PMMA phantoms where the DoPET response was characterized in terms of different dose rates and in presence of range shifters: the system response is linear up to 16.9 Gy/min and has the ability to see a 1 millimeter range shifter.

  8. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  9. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  10. Performance characterization of image and video analysis systems at Siemens Corporate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Visvanathan; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Greiffenhagen, Michael

    2000-06-01

    There has been a significant increase in commercial products using imaging analysis techniques to solve real-world problems in diverse fields such as manufacturing, medical imaging, document analysis, transportation and public security, etc. This has been accelerated by various factors: more advanced algorithms, the availability of cheaper sensors, and faster processors. While algorithms continue to improve in performance, a major stumbling block in translating improvements in algorithms to faster deployment of image analysis systems is the lack of characterization of limits of algorithms and how they affect total system performance. The research community has realized the need for performance analysis and there have been significant efforts in the last few years to remedy the situation. Our efforts at SCR have been on statistical modeling and characterization of modules and systems. The emphasis is on both white-box and black box methodologies to evaluate and optimize vision systems. In the first part of this paper we review the literature on performance characterization and then provide an overview of the status of research in performance characterization of image and video understanding systems. The second part of the paper is on performance evaluation of medical image segmentation algorithms. Finally, we highlight some research issues in performance analysis in medical imaging systems.

  11. NOx, NH3, N2O and PN real driving emissions from a Euro VI heavy-duty vehicle. Impact of regulatory on-road test conditions on emissions.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Villafuerte, Pablo; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Riccobono, Francesco; Bulgheroni, Claudia; Astorga, Covadonga; Perujo, Adolfo

    2017-12-31

    Euro VI emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) introduced for the first time limits for solid particle number (PN) and NH 3 emissions. EU regulation also includes a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) based test at type approval, followed by in-service conformity (ISC) testing. A comprehensive study on the real-time on-road emissions of NO x , NH 3 , N 2 O and PN from a Euro VI HDV equipped with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Diesel Particle Filter (DPF), a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system and an Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (AMOX) is presented. Our analyses revealed that up to 85% of the NO x emissions measured during the tests performed are not taken into consideration if the boundary conditions for data exclusion set in the current legislation are applied. Moreover, it was found that the highest NO x emissions were measured during urban operation. Analyses show that a large fraction urban of operation is not considered when 20% power threshold as boundary condition is applied. They also show that cold start emissions account for a large fraction of the total NO x emitted. Low emissions of PN (2.8×10 10 to 6.5×10 10 #/kWh) and NH 3 (1.0 to 2.2ppm) were obtained during the on-road tests, suggesting effectiveness of the vehicle's after-treatment (DPF and AMOX). Finally, a comparison between speed-based (as currently defined by Euro VI legislation) and land-use-based (using Geographic Information System (GIS)) calculation of shares of operation was performed. Results suggest that using GIS to categorize the shares of operation could result in different interpretations depending on the criteria adopted for their definition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of antiphospholipid antibody positivity on glomerular filtration rate markers in a group of systemic sclerosis patients - a 24-month observation.

    PubMed

    Wielosz, Ewa; Majdan, Maria; Koszarny, Arkadiusz; Dryglewska, Magdalena; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of changes in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during long-term observation in a group of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with and without chronic antiphospholipid (aPL) antibody positivity. The observation comprised 50 patients - 23 with diffuse cutaneous SSc - dcSSc and 27 limited cutaneous SSc - lcSSc. After 24 months we assessed 27 patients (9 died, 14 lost follow up); 24 patients (88%) were treated chronically with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). Patients were investigated for the presence of aPL: to cardiolipin and to β2 glycoprotein I in IgM and IgG classes. Serum levels of creatinine (S-Cr), cystatin C and creatinine clearance values were determined in all patients. According to the presence of a significant level of at least one of aPL antibodies, pts were divided into groups: group I aPL positive: 14 patients, group II aPL negative - 13 patients. We did not find significant differences in S-Cr, cystatin C levels and creatinine clearance before and after 24 months of observation between both groups. In follow up observations, the presence of anti-centromere antibodies was significantly more frequent in the aPL positive, as compared to the aPL negative group (p = 0.01). In follow up observations, the level of anticardiolipin antibodies in IgG class was significantly higher in dcSSc compared to lcSSc patients (p = 0.02). In long-term observation chronic positivity for aPL antibodies does not significantly decrease the GFR in patients with SSc treated with ACEIs.

  13. Smartphone-based support system (SoberDiary) coupled with a Bluetooth breathalyser for treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    You, Chuang-Wen; Chen, Yen-Chang; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Lee, Chao-Hui; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chu, Hao-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Relapse prevention in patients with alcohol dependence (AD) has long been a clinical challenge. It is vital to provide services with minial restrictions for patients to have access to continuous after-treatment care. The study was aimed to examine the benefits of a smartphone application (SoberDiary) coupled to a Bluetooth breathalyser to assist patients recovering from alcohol dependence (AD). This study recruited 38 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for AD and who were undergoing an outpatient maintenance program for abstinence. The participants were provided a breathalyser and smartphone-equipped SoberDiary and followed for 12weeks. The participants were divided into highly adherent (HA) and less adherent (LA) groups according to the medium number of reward points they were awarded for using the SoberDiary system throughout the follow-up period based on the average amount of time spent on using the application, the number of function modules they accessed, and the number of BrAC tests they completed each day. 19 of the patients were classified as HA and 19 patients were classified as LA group. Members of the HA group recorded fewer drinking days and drinks consumed per week, a higher cumulative number of abstinence days, a higher abstinence rate, less pronounced anxiety, and superior quality of life. The proposed smartphone-assisted support system coupled with a Bluetooth breathalyser might be a feasible supplement to conventional treatment for AD. Higher SoberDiary compliance appears to be associated with better clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Differences between emissions measured in urban driving and certification testing of heavy-duty diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Poornima; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Oshinuga, Adewale; Jiang, Yu; Durbin, Thomas D.; Johnson, Kent C.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from eight heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) equipped with three different exhaust aftertreatment systems (ATS) for controlling nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were quantified on a chassis dynamometer using driving schedules representative of stop-and-go and free-flow driving in metropolitan areas. The three control technologies were: 1) cooled exhaust gas recirculation (CEGR) plus a diesel particulate filter (DPF); 2) CEGR and DPF plus advanced engine controls; and 3) CEGR and DPF plus selective catalytic reduction with ammonia (SCR). Results for all control technologies and driving conditions showed PM emission factors were less than the standard, while selected non-regulated emissions (ammonia, carbonyls, and C4-C12 hydrocarbons) and a greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide) were at measurement detection limits. However, NOx emission factors depended on the control technology, engine calibration, and driving mode. For example, emissions from engines with cooled-exhaust gas recirculation (CEGR) were 239% higher for stop-and-go driving as compared with free-flow. For CEGR plus selective catalytic reduction (SCR), the ratio was 450%. A deeper analysis was carried out with the assumption that emissions measured for a drive cycle on either the chassis or in-use driving would be similar. Applying the same NTE rules to the chassis data showed emissions during stop-and-go driving often exceeded the certification standard and >90% of the driving did not fall within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) control area suggesting the NTE requirements do not provide sufficient emissions control under in-use conditions. On-road measurement of emissions using the same mobile lab while the vehicle followed a free-flow driving schedule verified the chassis results. These results have implications for scientists who build inventories using certification values instead of real world emission values and for metropolitan populations, who are exposed to elevated emissions. The differences in values

  15. The influence of the earth radiation on space target detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaofeng; Chen, FanSheng; Cuikun, .; Liuyan, .

    2017-05-01

    In the view of space remote sensing such as satellite detection space debris detection etc. visible band is usually used in order to have the all-weather detection capability, long wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection is also an important supplement. However, in the tow wave band, the earth can be a very strong interference source, especially in the dim target detecting. When the target is close to the earth, especially the LEO target, the background radiation of the earth will also enter into the baffle, and became the stray light through reflection, the stray light can reduce the signal to clutter ratio (SCR) of the target and make it difficult to be detected. In the visible band, the solar albedo by the earth is the main clutter source while in the LWIR band the radiation of the earth is the main clutter source. So, in this paper, we establish the energy transformation from the earth background radiation to the detection system to assess the effects of the stray light. Firstly, we discretize the surface of the earth to different unit, and using MODTRAN to calculate the radiation of the discrete point in different light and climate conditions, then, we integral all the radiation which can reach the baffle in the same observation angles to get the energy distribution, finally, according the target energy and the non-uniformity of the detector, we can calculate the design requirement of the system stray light suppression, which provides the design basis for the optical system.

  16. 40 CFR 1042.525 - How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section for how to adjust discrete-mode testing. For this section, “regeneration” means an... ramped-modal cycle, or on average less than once per typical mode in a discrete-mode test. (a) Developing... modes of a discrete-mode steady-state test. You may use either of the following different approaches for...

  17. Emissions Performance and In-Use Durability of Retrofit After-Treatment Technologies (SAE Paper 2014-01-2347)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-use testing of diesel emissoin control technologies is an integral component of EPA's verification program. EPA identified and recovered a variety of retrofit devices, installed on heavy-duty vehicles for test.

  18. Characterization of diesel particles: effects of fuel reformulation, exhaust aftertreatment, and engine operation on particle carbon composition and volatility.

    PubMed

    Alander, Timo J A; Leskinen, Ari P; Raunemaa, Taisto M; Rantanen, Leena

    2004-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are the major constituent of urban carbonaceous aerosol being linked to a large range of adverse environmental and health effects. In this work, the effects of fuel reformulation, oxidation catalyst, engine type, and engine operation parameters on diesel particle emission characteristics were investigated. Particle emissions from an indirect injection (IDI) and a direct injection (DI) engine car operating under steady-state conditions with a reformulated low-sulfur, low-aromatic fuel and a standard-grade fuel were analyzed. Organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles were quantified by a thermal-optical transmission analysis method and particle size distributions measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The particle volatility characteristics were studied with a configuration that consisted of a thermal desorption unit and an SMPS. In addition, the volatility of size-selected particles was determined with a tandem differential mobility analyzer technique. The reformulated fuel was found to produce 10-40% less particulate carbon mass compared to the standard fuel. On the basis of the carbon analysis, the organic carbon contributed 27-61% to the carbon mass of the IDI engine particle emissions, depending on the fuel and engine operation parameters. The fuel reformulation reduced the particulate organic carbon emissions by 10-55%. In the particles of the DI engine, the organic carbon contributed 14-26% to the total carbon emissions, the advanced engine technology, and the oxidation catalyst, thus reducing the OC/EC ratio of particles considerably. A relatively good consistency between the particulate organic fraction quantified with the thermal optical method and the volatile fraction measured with the thermal desorption unit and SMPS was found.

  19. Testing a linear time invariant model for skin conductance responses by intraneural recording and stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gerster, Samuel; Namer, Barbara; Elam, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Skin conductance responses (SCR) are increasingly analyzed with model‐based approaches that assume a linear and time‐invariant (LTI) mapping from sudomotor nerve (SN) activity to observed SCR. These LTI assumptions have previously been validated indirectly, by quantifying how much variance in SCR elicited by sensory stimulation is explained under an LTI model. This approach, however, collapses sources of variability in the nervous and effector organ systems. Here, we directly focus on the SN/SCR mapping by harnessing two invasive methods. In an intraneural recording experiment, we simultaneously track SN activity and SCR. This allows assessing the SN/SCR relationship but possibly suffers from interfering activity of non‐SN sympathetic fibers. In an intraneural stimulation experiment under regional anesthesia, such influences are removed. In this stimulation experiment, about 95% of SCR variance is explained under LTI assumptions when stimulation frequency is below 0.6 Hz. At higher frequencies, nonlinearities occur. In the intraneural recording experiment, explained SCR variance is lower, possibly indicating interference from non‐SN fibers, but higher than in our previous indirect tests. We conclude that LTI systems may not only be a useful approximation but in fact a rather accurate description of biophysical reality in the SN/SCR system, under conditions of low baseline activity and sporadic external stimuli. Intraneural stimulation under regional anesthesia is the most sensitive method to address this question. PMID:28862764

  20. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  1. Gas Turbine Heavy Hybrid Powertrain Variants. Opportunities and Potential for Systems Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David; Chambon, Paul H.

    2015-07-01

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains is currently inevitable, and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector. This capability is mainly attributed to (a) the potential for downsizing the engine, (b) the potential for recovering energy during braking and thus recharging the energy storage unit, and (c) the ability to minimize the operation of the engine outside of its most efficient brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) regime. Hybridization of the Class 8, heavy-duty (HD) powertrain is inherentlymore » challenging due to the expected long-haul driving requirements and limited opportunities for regenerative braking. The objective of this project is to develop control strategies aiming at optimizing the operation of a Class 8 HEV that features a micro-turbine as the heat engine. The micro-turbine application shows promise in fuel efficiency, even when compared to current diesel engines, and can meet regulated exhaust emissions levels with no exhaust after-treatment system. Both parallel and series HEV variants will be examined to understand the merits of each approach of the micro-turbine to MD advanced powertrain applications. These powertrain configurations enable new paradigms in operational efficiency, particularly in the Class 8 truck fleet. The successful development of these HEV variants will require a thorough technical understanding of the complex interactions between various energy sources and energy consumption components, for various operating modes. PACCAR will be integrating the first generation of their series HEV powertrain with a Brayton Energy micro-turbine into a Class 8 HD truck tractor that has both regional haul and local pick-up and delivery (P&D) components to its drive cycle. The vehicle will be deployed into fleet operation for a

  2. Yang-Monti Principle in Bridging Long Ureteral Defects: Cases Report and A Systemic Review.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jun Sheng; He, Qiqi; Li, Yuzhuo; Shi, Wei; Wu, Gongjin; Yue, Zhongjin

    2017-07-02

    Ureteric substitution using the Yang-Monti principle was reported as a modification of simple ileal ureter replacement. During April 2013 to June in 2015, 2 patients underwent ileal ureteral substitution using a reconfigured ileal segment of Yang Monti principle in our clinical center. Some slight modifications were made and then follow-up were carried out up to 12 months. For these 2 cases, no significant intra/post-operative complications occurred. In 1 year follow up, serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of both patients decreased to normal.Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renogram and pyelogram showed a stable split renal function. To better understand the Yang-Monti principle and potential risks and complications, we conduct an systemic review by searching PubMed, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library database from January 1996 through June 2016. 10 out of 644 publications were identified, which included 269 patients from cohort studies. The most usual indications for Yang-monti therapy were iatrogenic stricture and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Infection and ileus were indicated as themain short time postoperative complications while the fistula and re- strictures happened in long-term. In general,we believe Yang-Monti Principle is a safer and efficient technique for clinical partial and complete ureteral defects if patients and potential risks could be well prepared.

  3. 40 CFR 1039.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and turbochargers are not aftertreatment. Aircraft..., modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission-control system. Brake power... suppression operations. Emission-control system means any device, system, or element of design that controls...

  4. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION MERCURY FIELD SAMPLING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report details an investigation on the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and flue gas conditioning on the speciation and removal of mercury at power plants. If SCR and/or SNCR systems enhance mercury conversion/capture, t...

  5. 77 FR 497 - Control of Emissions From New Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines: Approval of New Scheduled...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... replenishment of the nitrogen-containing reducing agent for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies... NO X reduction requirements for their diesel engines. SCR systems use a nitrogen-containing reducing... balance between the dictates of operating nonroad equipment (which requires DEF tanks of small enough...

  6. SCR and GCR exposure ages of plagioclase grains from lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etique, P.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of solar wind implanted Ar-36 in mineral grains extracted from lunar soils show that they were exposed to the solar wind on the lunar surface for an integrated time of 10E4 to 10E5 years. From the bulk soil 61501 plagioclase separates of 8 grain size ranges was prepared. The depletion of the implanted gases was achieved by etching aliquot samples of 4 grain sizes to various degrees. The experimental results pertinent to the present discussion are: The spallogenic Ne is, as in most plagioclases from lunar soils, affected by diffusive losses and of no use. The Ar-36 of solar wind origin amounts to (2030 + or - 100) x 10E-8 ccSTP/g in the 150 to 200 mm size fraction and shows that these grains were exposed to the solar wind for at least 10,000 years. The Ne-21/Ne-22 ratio of the spallogenic Ne is 0.75 + or - 0.01 and in very good agreement with the value of this ratio in a plagioclase separate from rock 76535. This rock has had a simple exposure history and its plagioclases have a chemical composition quite similar to those studied. In addition to the noble gases, the heavy particle tracks in an aliquot of the 150 to 200 mm plagioclase separate were investigated and found 92% of the grains to contain more than 10E8 tracks/sq cm. This corresponds to a mean track density of (5 + or - 1) x 10E8 tracks/sq cm. The exploration of the exposure history of the plagioclase separates from the soil 61501 do not contradict the model for the regolith dynamics but also fail to prove it.

  7. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOEpatents

    Kass, Michael Delos [Oak Ridge, TN; Graves, Ronald Lee [Knoxville, TN; Storey, John Morse Elliot [Oak Ridge, TN; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Charles Scott [Knoxville, TN; Thomas, John Foster [Powell, TN

    2007-08-21

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  8. Evaluation of mechanical properties in metal wire mesh supported selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajath, S.; Siddaraju, C.; Nandakishora, Y.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate certain specific mechanical properties of certain stainless steel wire mesh supported Selective catalytic reduction catalysts structures wherein the physical properties of the metal wire mesh and also its surface treatments played vital role thereby influencing the mechanical properties. As the adhesion between the stainless steel wire mesh and the catalyst material determines the bond strength and the erosion resistance of catalyst structures, surface modifications of the metal- wire mesh structure in order to facilitate the interface bonding is therefore very important to realize enhanced level of mechanical properties. One way to enhance such adhesion properties, the stainless steel wire mesh is treated with the various acids, i.e., chromic acid, phosphoric acid including certain mineral acids and combination of all those in various molar ratios that could generate surface active groups on metal surface that promotes good interface structure between the metal- wire mesh and metal oxide-based catalyst material and then the stainless steel wire mesh is dipped in the glass powder slurry containing some amount of organic binder. As a result of which the said catalyst material adheres to the metal-wire mesh surface more effectively that improves the erosion profile of supported catalysts structure including bond strength.

  9. Study on novel and promising NH3-SCR catalysts on glass fiber cloth for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Junlin; Li, Fengxiang; Hu, Hua; Qi, Kai; He, Feng; Fang, De

    2017-05-01

    MnO x , Mn/TiO2 and Fe-Mn/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by precipitation-impregnation method. The MnO x catalyst shows the highest activity for the reduction of NO with NH3 at the temperature range of 80 °C to 140 °C, and achieves more than 98% of NO conversion at 140 °C. The MnO x catalyst loaded on glass fiber cloth (GFC) was prepared by impregnation method, and the effects of preparation conditions were studied. It turns out that the catalyst particle size, loading capacity and catalyst varieties make a great difference to catalytic performance. In addition, the catalyst with aluminum sol as a binder has the higher catalytic activity but poor ability of anti-sulfur and anti-water poisoning, compared with the catalyst using silica sol binder. Further, MnO x , Mn/TiO2 and Fe-Mn/TiO2 powders were loaded onto GFC using XRD, HRTEM, TGA, SEM, BET, H2-TPR and NH3-TPD to systematically characterize the various physico-chemical properties and denitrition activity. The results indicate that the changes of active components, specific surface area, microstructure, reducibility and suface acidity of the three kinds of catalysts lead to different catalytic activities.

  10. An SCR inverter with an integral battery charger for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thimmeach, D.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating an onboard battery charger into the inverter previously developed under a NASA contract is successfully demonstrated. The rated output power of the resulting isolated battery charger is 3.6 kW at 220 Vac with an 86 percent efficiency and a 95 percent power factor. Also achieved are improved inverter efficiency (from 90 to 93 percent at 15 kW motor shaft power), inverter peak power capability (from 26 to 34 kW), and reduced weight and volume of the combined inverter/charger package (47 kg, 49 x 44 x 24 cm). Some major conclusions are that using the inverter commutation circuitry to perform the battery charging function is advantageous, and that the input-commutated thyristor inverter has the potential to be an excellent inverter and battery charger for use in electric vehicle applications.

  11. 77 FR 34149 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles and SCR Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... soot. Since this burning can involve extra heat and/or oxygen or oxygen- containing compounds, this... fuel consumption. This loss in performance may be noticed by the vehicle operator in terms of poor... excessive amounts of trapped PM begin to oxidize at high temperatures (i.e., DPF regeneration temperatures...

  12. Zeolite-based SCR catalysts and their use in diesel engine emission treatment

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Yang, Xiaofan

    2016-08-02

    A catalyst comprising a zeolite loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.+3, wherein the catalyst decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust. The trivalent metal ions are selected from, for example, trivalent transition metal ions, trivalent main group metal ions, and/or trivalent lanthanide metal ions. In particular embodiments, the catalysts are selected from Cu--Fe-ZSM5, Cu--La-ZSM-5, Fe--Cu--La-ZSM5, Cu--Sc-ZSM-5, and Cu--In-ZSM5. The catalysts are placed on refractory support materials and incorporated into catalytic converters.

  13. Hydrothermally stable, low-temperature NO.sub.x reduction NH.sub.3-SCR catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Yang, Xiaofan

    2016-10-25

    A catalyst composition includes a heterobimetallic zeolite characterized by a chabazite structure loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.3+. The catalyst composition decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust and is suitable for operation in a catalytic converter.

  14. Hydrothermally stable, low-temperature NO.sub.x reduction NH.sub.3-SCR catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-03-24

    A catalyst composition includes a heterobimetallic zeolite characterized by a chabazite structure loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.3+. The catalyst composition decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust and is suitable for operation in a catalytic converter.

  15. Zeolite-based SCR catalysts and their use in diesel engine emission treatment

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-03-24

    A catalyst comprising a zeolite loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.+3, wherein the catalyst decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust. The trivalent metal ions are selected from, for example, trivalent transition metal ions, trivalent main group metal ions, and/or trivalent lanthanide metal ions. In particular embodiments, the catalysts are selected from Cu--Fe-ZSM5, Cu--La-ZSM-5, Fe--Cu--La-ZSM5, Cu--Sc-ZSM-5, and Cu--In-ZSM5. The catalysts are placed on refractory support materials and incorporated into catalytic converters.

  16. Mechanistic Investigation of Ethanol SCR of NOx over Ag/Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William L; Fisher, Galen; Toops, Todd J

    2012-01-01

    A 2 wt.% Ag/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied for the ethanol selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} from 200 to 550 C and space velocities between 30,000 h{sup -1} and 140,000 h{sup -1}. Peak NO{sub x} conversions reached 85% at 400 C, and an activation energy was determined to be 57 kJ/mol with a feed of ethanol to NO{sub x} or HC{sub 1}/NO{sub x} = 3. Up to 80% of the NO is oxidized to NO{sub 2} at 250 C, but overall NO{sub x} conversion is only 15%. Interestingly, ethanol oxidation occurs at much lower temperatures than NO{sub x}more » reduction; at 250 C, ethanol oxidation is 80% when flowing ethanol + NO + O{sub 2}. This increased reactivity, compared to only 15% when flowing only ethanol + O{sub 2}, combined with the observation that NO is not oxidized to NO{sub 2} in the absence of ethanol illustrates a synergistic relationship between the reactants. To further investigate this chemistry, a series of DRIFTS experiments were performed. To form nitrates/nitrites on the catalysts it was necessary to include ethanol in the feed with NO. These nitrates/nitrites were readily formed when flowing NO{sub 2} over the catalyst. It is proposed that ethanol adsorbs through an ethoxy-intermediate that results in atomic hydrogen on the surface. This hydrogen aids the release of NO{sub 2} from Ag to the gas-phase which, can be subsequently adsorbed at {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sites away from Ag. The disappearance of these nitrates/nitrites at higher temperatures proceeds in parallel with the increase in NO{sub x} reduction reactivity between 300 and 350 C observed in the kinetic study. It is therefore proposed that the consumption of nitrates is involved in the rate determining step for this reaction.« less

  17. Determination of the mechanical parameters of rock mass based on a GSI system and displacement back analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwang-Song; Hu, Nai-Lian; Sin, Chung-Sik; Rim, Song-Ho; Han, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Chol-Nam

    2017-08-01

    It is very important to obtain the mechanical paramerters of rock mass for excavation design, support design, slope design and stability analysis of the underground structure. In order to estimate the mechanical parameters of rock mass exactly, a new method of combining a geological strength index (GSI) system with intelligent displacment back analysis is proposed in this paper. Firstly, average spacing of joints (d) and rock mass block rating (RBR, a new quantitative factor), surface condition rating (SCR) and joint condition factor (J c) are obtained on in situ rock masses using the scanline method, and the GSI values of rock masses are obtained from a new quantitative GSI chart. A correction method of GSI value is newly introduced by considering the influence of joint orientation and groundwater on rock mass mechanical properties, and then value ranges of rock mass mechanical parameters are chosen by the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Secondly, on the basis of the measurement result of vault settlements and horizontal convergence displacements of an in situ tunnel, optimal parameters are estimated by combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and numerical simulation analysis using FLAC3D. This method has been applied in a lead-zinc mine. By utilizing the improved GSI quantization, correction method and displacement back analysis, the mechanical parameters of the ore body, hanging wall and footwall rock mass were determined, so that reliable foundations were provided for mining design and stability analysis.

  18. Real-world exhaust temperature and engine load distributions of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles in various vocations.

    PubMed

    Boriboonsomsin, Kanok; Durbin, Thomas; Scora, George; Johnson, Kent; Sandez, Daniel; Vu, Alexander; Jiang, Yu; Burnette, Andrew; Yoon, Seungju; Collins, John; Dai, Zhen; Fulper, Carl; Kishan, Sandeep; Sabisch, Michael; Jackson, Doug

    2018-06-01

    Real-world vehicle and engine activity data were collected from 90 heavy-duty vehicles in California, United States, most of which have engine model year 2010 or newer and are equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The 90 vehicles represent 19 different groups defined by a combination of vocational use and geographic region. The data were collected using advanced data loggers that recorded vehicle speed, position (latitude and longitude), and more than 170 engine and aftertreatment parameters (including engine load and exhaust temperature) at the frequency of one Hz. This article presents plots of real-world exhaust temperature and engine load distributions for the 19 vehicle groups. In each plot, both frequency distribution and cumulative frequency distribution are shown. These distributions are generated using the aggregated data from all vehicle samples in each group.

  19. PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN'S DPF SYSTEM ON A TAXI FLEET IN THE PARIS AREA

    SciTech Connect

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    The use of Diesel engines has strongly increased during the last years and now represents 40% of the sales in Europe and up to 50% of the number of cars in circulation for some countries. This success is linked not only to the economical aspect of the use of such vehicles, but also to the recent technological improvements of these engines. The new technical solutions (high pressure direct injection, turbocharger) have indeed allowed the increase of these engine performances while decreasing their fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and noise level. From an environment point of view, Diesel engines are nevertheless penalizedmore » by their particulates and NOx emissions. The study and the treatment of the particulate, highly criticized for their potential impact on health, are the subject of numerous works of characterizations and developments. PSA Peugeot Citroen has recently (2000) launched its particulate filter technology on several types of vehicles (500,000 vehicles with DPF have been sold today). In order to evaluate the durability of this technology over a long period of time, a study program has been set-up by ADEME (French Environmental Agency), IFP Powertrain, PSA Peugeot Citroen and Taxis G7 (a Parisian taxis Company). The objective is to study the evolution of five taxis and their after-treatment system performances over 80,000km mileage--which corresponds to the recommended mileage before the first DPF maintenance--in hard urban driving conditions, as well over 120,000km, after the DPF maintenance and remanufacturing. More specifically, the following evaluations are being performed at regular intervals (around 20,000km): regulated gaseous pollutant emissions on NEDC cycle, particulate emissions and unregulated pollutant emissions. The results obtained until now have not shown any degradation of the particulate filter efficiency (more than 90%). This paper presents the methodology set-up, and the explanation of the first results obtained. Indeed, a

  20. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    PubMed

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ < 0.1) for all fuels over the FTP cycle. Aerosol emitted during filter regeneration is significantly more CCN active and hygroscopic; average κ values range from 0.242 to 0.439 and are as high as 0.843. Regardless of fuel, the current classification of "fresh" tailpipe emissions as nonhygroscopic remains true during nonregeneration operation. However, aftertreatment technologies such as DPF, will produce significantly more hygroscopic particles during regeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant enhancement of hygroscopic materials emitted during DPF regeneration of on-road diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  1. Energy consumption and energy-saving potential analysis of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000MW coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang; Zhang, Yongxin; Zheng, Chenghang; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Fu, Joshua S

    2018-05-10

    The pollutant abatement systems are widely applied in the coal-fired power sector and the energy consumption was considered an important part of the auxiliary power. An energy consumption analysis and assessment model of pollutant abatement systems in a power unit was developed based on the dynamic parameters and technology. The energy consumption of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000 MW coal-fired power unit which meet the ultra-low emission limits and the factors of operating parameters including unit load and inlet concentration of pollutants on the operating power were analyzed. The results show that the total power consumption of the pollutant abatement systems accounted for 1.27% of the gross power generation during the monitoring period. The WFGD system consumed 67% of the rate while the SCR and ESP systems consumed 8.9% and 24.1%. The power consumption rate of pollutant abatement systems decreased with the increase of unit load and increased with the increase of the inlet concentration of pollutants. The operation adjustment was also an effective method to increase the energy efficiency. For example, the operation adjustment of slurry circulation pumps could promote the energy-saving operation of WFGD system. Implication Statement The application of pollutant abatement technologies increases the internal energy consumption of the power plant, which will lead to an increase of power generation costs. The real-time energy consumption of the different pollutant abatement systems in a typical power unit is analyzed based on the dynamic operating data. Further, the influence of different operating parameters on the operating power of the system and the possible energy-saving potential are analyzed.

  2. 40 CFR 1068.501 - How do I report emission-related defects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Electronic control units, aftertreatment devices, fuel-metering components, EGR-system components, crankcase...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS Reporting Defects and Recalling Engines/Equipment § 1068.501 How do I report emission-related defects? This...

  3. 40 CFR 1068.501 - How do I report emission-related defects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Electronic control units, aftertreatment devices, fuel-metering components, EGR-system components, crankcase...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS Reporting Defects and Recalling Engines/Equipment § 1068.501 How do I report emission-related defects? This...

  4. 40 CFR 1068.501 - How do I report emission-related defects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Electronic control units, aftertreatment devices, fuel-metering components, EGR-system components, crankcase...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS Reporting Defects and Recalling Engines/Equipment § 1068.501 How do I report emission-related defects? This...

  5. 40 CFR 1068.501 - How do I report emission-related defects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Reporting Defects and... components or systems containing the following components: (i) Electronic control units, aftertreatment... control information labels. Note however, that § 1068.101(a)(1) prohibits the sale of engines/equipment...

  6. 40 CFR 1036.801 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF... the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and turbochargers are not aftertreatment. Aircraft... operation of any part of the emission control system. Averaging set has the meaning given in § 1036.740...

  7. Lubricant Formulations to Enhance Engine Efficiency in Modern Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Wai; Wong, Victor; Plumley, Michael

    2017-04-19

    The research program presented aimed to investigate, develop, and demonstrate low-friction, environmentally-friendly and commercially-feasible lubricant formulations that would significantly improve the mechanical efficiency of modern engines without incurring increased wear, emissions or deterioration of the emission-aftertreatment system.

  8. 40 CFR 1068.261 - What provisions apply for selling or shipping certified engines that are not yet in the certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... without air filters or other portions of the air intake system that are specifically identified by part... appropriate aftertreatment device and/or air filter, but without completing the assembly with all the... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL...

  9. 40 CFR 1068.261 - What provisions apply for selling or shipping certified engines that are not yet in the certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... without air filters or other portions of the air intake system that are specifically identified by part... appropriate aftertreatment device and/or air filter, but without completing the assembly with all the... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL...

  10. Bothrops asper snake venom and its metalloproteinase BaP-1 activate the complement system. Role in leucocyte recruitment.

    PubMed Central

    Farsky, S H; Gonçalves, L R; Gutiérrez, J M; Correa, A P; Rucavado, A; Gasque, P; Tambourgi, D V

    2000-01-01

    The venom of the snake Bothrops asper, the most important poisonous snake in Central America, evokes an inflammatory response, the mechanisms of which are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether B. asper venom and its purified toxins--phospholipases and metalloproteinase--activate the complement system and the contribution of the effect on leucocyte recruitment. In vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using Boyden's chamber model to investigate the ability of serum incubated with venom and its purified toxins to induce neutrophil migration. The complement consumption by the venom was evaluated using an in vitro haemolytic assay. The importance of complement activation by the venom on neutrophil migration was investigated in vivo by injecting the venom into the peritoneal cavity of C5-deficient mice. Data obtained demonstrated that serum incubated with crude venom and its purified metalloproteinase BaP-1 are able to induce rat neutrophil chemotaxis, probably mediated by agent(s) derived from the complement system. This hypothesis was corroborated by the capacity of the venom to activate this system in vitro. The involvement of C5a in neutrophil chemotaxis induced by venom-activated serum was demonstrated by abolishing migration when neutrophils were pre-incubated with antirat C5a receptor antibody. The relevance of the complement system in in vivo leucocyte mobilization was further demonstrated by the drastic decrease of this response in C5-deficient mice. Pre-incubation of serum with the soluble human recombinant complement receptor type 1 (sCR 1) did not prevent the response induced by the venom, but abolished the migration evoked by metalloproteinase-activated serum. These data show the role of the complement system in bothropic envenomation and the participation of metalloproteinase in the effect. Also, they suggest that the venom may contain other component(s) which can cause direct activation of C5a. PMID:11200361

  11. The implications of e-health system delivery strategies for integrated healthcare: lessons from England.

    PubMed

    Eason, Ken; Waterson, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the implications that different technical strategies for sharing patient information have for healthcare workers and, as a consequence, for the extent to which these systems provide support for integrated care. Four technical strategies were identified and the forms of coupling they made with healthcare agencies were classified. A study was conducted in England to examine the human and organizational implications of systems implemented by these four strategies. Results were used from evaluation reports of two systems delivered as part of the NPfIT (National Programme for Information Technology) and from user responses to systems delivered in two local health communities in England. In the latter study 40 clinical respondents reported the use of systems to support integrated care in six healthcare pathways. The implementation of a detailed care record system (DCRS) in the NPfIT was problematic because it could not meet the diverse needs of all healthcare agencies and it required considerable local customization. The programme evolved to allow different systems to be delivered for each local health community. A national Summary Care Record (SCR) was implemented but many concerns were raised about wide access to confidential patient information. The two technical strategies that required looser forms of coupling and were under local control led to wide user adoption. The systems that enabled data to be transferred between local systems were successfully used to support integrated care in specific healthcare pathways. The portal approach gave many users an opportunity to view patient data held on a number of databases and this system evolved over a number of years as a result of requests from the user community. The UK national strategy to deliver single shared database systems requires tight coupling between many users and has led to poor adoption because of the diverse needs of healthcare agencies. Sharing patient information has been more

  12. Mercury oxidation promoted by a selective catalytic reduction catalyst under simulated Powder River Basin coal combustion conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun W; Serre, Shannon D; Zhao, Yongxin; Lee, Sung Jun; Hastings, Thomas W

    2008-04-01

    A bench-scale reactor consisting of a natural gas burner and an electrically heated reactor housing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was constructed for studying elemental mercury (Hg(o)) oxidation under SCR conditions. A low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal combustion fly ash was injected into the entrained-flow reactor along with sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and trace Hg(o). Concentrations of Hg(o) and total mercury (Hg) upstream and downstream of the SCR catalyst were measured using a Hg monitor. The effects of HCl concentration, SCR operating temperature, catalyst space velocity, and feed rate of PRB fly ash on Hg(o) oxidation were evaluated. It was observed that HCl provides the source of chlorine for Hg(o) oxidation under simulated PRB coal-fired SCR conditions. The decrease in Hg mass balance closure across the catalyst with decreasing HCl concentration suggests that transient Hg capture on the SCR catalyst occurred during the short test exposure periods and that the outlet speciation observed may not be representative of steady-state operation at longer exposure times. Increasing the space velocity and operating temperature of the SCR led to less Hg(o) oxidized. Introduction of PRB coal fly ash resulted in slightly decreased outlet oxidized mercury (Hg2+) as a percentage of total inlet Hg and correspondingly resulted in an incremental increase in Hg capture. The injection of ammonia (NH3) for NOx reduction by SCR was found to have a strong effect to decrease Hg oxidation. The observations suggest that Hg(o) oxidation may occur near the exit region of commercial SCR reactors. Passage of flue gas through SCR systems without NH3 injection, such as during the low-ozone season, may also impact Hg speciation and capture in the flue gas.

  13. Psychological traits influence autonomic nervous system recovery following esophageal intubation in health and functional chest pain.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A D; Coen, S J; Kano, M; Worthen, S F; Rossiter, H E; Navqi, H; Scott, S M; Furlong, P L; Aziz, Q

    2013-12-01

    Esophageal intubation is a widely utilized technique for a diverse array of physiological studies, activating a complex physiological response mediated, in part, by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In order to determine the optimal time period after intubation when physiological observations should be recorded, it is important to know the duration of, and factors that influence, this ANS response, in both health and disease. Fifty healthy subjects (27 males, median age 31.9 years, range 20-53 years) and 20 patients with Rome III defined functional chest pain (nine male, median age of 38.7 years, range 28-59 years) had personality traits and anxiety measured. Subjects had heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), sympathetic (cardiac sympathetic index, CSI), and parasympathetic nervous system (cardiac vagal tone, CVT) parameters measured at baseline and in response to per nasum intubation with an esophageal catheter. CSI/CVT recovery was measured following esophageal intubation. In all subjects, esophageal intubation caused an elevation in HR, BP, CSI, and skin conductance response (SCR; all p < 0.0001) but concomitant CVT and cardiac sensitivity to the baroreflex (CSB) withdrawal (all p < 0.04). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that longer CVT recovery times were independently associated with higher neuroticism (p < 0.001). Patients had prolonged CSI and CVT recovery times in comparison to healthy subjects (112.5 s vs 46.5 s, p = 0.0001 and 549 s vs 223.5 s, p = 0.0001, respectively). Esophageal intubation activates a flight/flight ANS response. Future studies should allow for at least 10 min of recovery time. Consideration should be given to psychological traits and disease status as these can influence recovery. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of a combined Diesel particle filter-DeNOx system (DPN) on reactive nitrogen compounds emissions: a parameter study.

    PubMed

    Heeb, Norbert V; Haag, Regula; Seiler, Cornelia; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Wichser, Adrian; Ulrich, Andrea; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

    2012-12-18

    The impact of a combined diesel particle filter-deNO(x) system (DPN) on emissions of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) was studied varying the urea feed factor (α), temperature, and residence time, which are key parameters of the deNO(x) process. The DPN consisted of a platinum-coated cordierite filter and a vanadia-based deNO(x) catalyst supporting selective catalytic reduction (SCR) chemistry. Ammonia (NH₃) is produced in situ from thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid (HNCO). HNCO and NH₃ are both toxic and highly reactive intermediates. The deNO(x) system was only part-time active in the ISO8178/4 C1cycle. Urea injection was stopped and restarted twice. Mean NO and NO₂ conversion efficiencies were 80%, 95%, 97% and 43%, 87%, 99%, respectively, for α = 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2. HNCO emissions increased from 0.028 g/h engine-out to 0.18, 0.25, and 0.26 g/h at α = 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, whereas NH₃ emissions increased from <0.045 to 0.12, 1.82, and 12.8 g/h with maxima at highest temperatures and shortest residence times. Most HNCO is released at intermediate residence times (0.2-0.3 s) and temperatures (300-400 °C). Total RNC efficiencies are highest at α = 1.0, when comparable amounts of reduced and oxidized compounds are released. The DPN represents the most advanced system studied so far under the VERT protocol achieving high conversion efficiencies for particles, NO, NO₂, CO, and hydrocarbons. However, we observed a trade-off between deNO(x) efficiency and secondary emissions. Therefore, it is important to adopt such DPN technology to specific application conditions to take advantage of reduced NO(x) and particle emissions while avoiding NH₃ and HNCO slip.

  15. Who watches the watchers?: preventing fault in a fault tolerance library

    SciTech Connect

    Stanavige, C. D.

    The Scalable Checkpoint/Restart library (SCR) was developed and is used by researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to provide a fast and efficient method of saving and recovering large applications during runtime on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Though SCR protects other programs, up until June 2017, nothing was actively protecting SCR. The goal of this project was to automate the building and testing of this library on the varying HPC architectures on which it is used. Our methods centered around the use of a continuous integration tool called Bamboo that allowed for automation agents to be installed on the HPCmore » systems themselves. These agents provided a way for us to establish a new and unique way to automate and customize the allocation of resources and running of tests with CMake’s unit testing framework, CTest, as well as integration testing scripts though an HPC package manager called Spack. These methods provided a parallel environment in which to test the more complex features of SCR. As a result, SCR is now automatically built and tested on several HPC architectures any time changes are made by developers to the library’s source code. The results of these tests are then communicated back to the developers for immediate feedback, allowing them to fix functionality of SCR that may have broken. Hours of developers’ time are now being saved from the tedious process of manually testing and debugging, which saves money and allows the SCR project team to focus their efforts towards development. Thus, HPC system users can use SCR in conjunction with their own applications to efficiently and effectively checkpoint and restart as needed with the assurance that SCR itself is functioning properly.« less

  16. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2012-10-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel-1). In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg fuel)-1. An anti

  17. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  18. Sickle cell retinopathy: improving care with a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Menaa, Farid; Khan, Barkat Ali; Uzair, Bushra; Menaa, Abder

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) is the most representative ophthalmologic complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), a hemoglobinopathy affecting both adults and children. SCR presents a wide spectrum of manifestations and may even lead to irreversible vision loss if not properly diagnosed and treated at the earliest. Over the past decade, multidisciplinary research developments have focused upon systemic, genetic, and ocular risk factors of SCR, enabling the clinician to better diagnose and manage these patients. In addition, newer imaging and testing modalities, such as spectral domain-optical coherence tomography angiography, have resulted in the detection of subclinical retinopathy related to SCD. Innovative therapy includes intravitreal injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (eg, Lucentis ® [ranibizumab] or Eylea ® [aflibercept]) which appears comparatively safe and efficient, and may be combined with laser photocoagulation (LPC) for proliferative SCR. The effect of LPC alone does not significantly lead to the regression of advanced SCR, although it helps in avoiding hemorrhage and sight loss. This comprehensive article is based on 10-years retrospective (2007-2017) studies. It aims to present advances and recommendations in SCR theranostics while pointing out the requirement of combinatorial approaches for better management of SCR patients. To reach this goal, we identified and analyzed randomized original and review articles, clinical trials, non-randomized intervention studies, and observational studies using specified keywords in various databases (eg, Medline, Embase, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov).

  19. Research progress on catalytic denitrification technology in chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yezhi

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, due to the rising emission of NOx annually, attention has been aroused widely by people on more and more severe environmental problems. This paper first discusses applying NOx removal and control technologies and relating chemical principles. Of many technologies, selective reduction reaction (SCR) is the most widely used. Catalysts, the concentration of NOx at the entrance of SCR catalytic reactor, reaction temperature, NH3/NOx mole ratio and NH3 slip rate analyzed later contributes to the removal efficiency of NOx. Finally, the processing and configuration of SCR de-NOx system are briefly introduced.

  20. 40 CFR 1042.660 - Requirements for vessel manufacturers, owners, and operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... marine engines. (b) For vessels equipped with SCR systems requiring the use of urea or other reductants... (unless the malfunction is due to operation without adequate urea or other malmaintenance). (d) For each...

  1. Reducing diesel NOx and PM emissions of diesel buses and trucks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present investigation was development of a high efficiency : selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for reducing diesel nitrogen oxides (NOx) and : particulate matters of diesel trucks. The investigation was divided into two ...

  2. Real Driving NOx Emissions of European Trucks and Detection of Manipulated Emission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Adler, Tim; Krufczik, Chsristopher; Horbanski, Martin; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the most problematic pollutant in Europe and many other countries. NO2 has a negative impact for the health and the environment, and in most European cities the currently allowed mean annual limit of 40μg/m3 is exceeded. Vehicles, especially Diesel, are the most relevant source. They emit NOx (NO + NO2), and NO can also be converted to NO2 in the atmosphere. Thus vehicle NOx emissions are regulated in the EU with the EURO Norm Standard (e.g. EURO 6 since 1.1.2013 for trucks with 400mg/kWh). Trucks achieve these low emissions with complex emission after treatment systems. All EURO 6 trucks and almost all EURO 5 trucks use the SCR system consuming AdBlue to reduce the NOx emissions. Since the diesel emission scandal for cars, it is well known that real driving emissions (RDE) can be several times higher that the EURO Norm Standard. The main problem is that RDE are only randomly investigated. Here we present a study of NOx RDE of more than 250 randomly chosen trucks on German highways. The measurements were performed with a newly developed mobile NOx-ICAD + CO2 -instrument applying the plume chasing measurement principle, where the pollutants are investigated in the emission plume and were converted to emission factors to be compared to the EURO standard. For most trucks the brand, the model name, the country of registration and its EURO class could be determined and used in a statistical analysis. The observed NOx emission data show that typical truck RDE are in the range of the expected EURO Norm or slightly higher. However, almost every fourth truck from Eastern Europe show emissions much higher that the EURO Norm. This was not observed for German trucks. As the emissions increase up to a factor of 5 to 10 these view trucks contribute significantly to the air pollution. These high emissions clearly indicate a defect emission treatment system. Most likely it indicates illegal manipulated emissions systems where the AdBlue injection is

  3. Retrospective analysis of patients for development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis following conventional angiography using gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Hanno; Spagnuolo, Sara; Froehlich, Johannes M; Nievergelt, Helga; Dinkel, Hans-Peter; Gretener, Silvia; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2010-03-01

    The purpose was to retrospectively review the data of 27 patients with renal insufficiency who underwent conventional angiography with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GDBCA) as alternative contrast agents and assess the occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) together with associated potential risk factors. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was waived. Statistical analysis was performed for all available laboratory and clinical data, including dermatology reports. Type and amount of the GDBCA used were recorded for angiography and additional MRI studies, if applicable. Serum creatinine levels (SCr) pre- and post-angiography were recorded, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated. Ten female and 17 male patients who underwent angiography with GDBCA were included. The mean amount of GDBCA administered was 44 +/- 15.5 ml (range 15-60 ml) or 0.24 + 0.12 mmol/kg (range 0.1-0.53 mmol/kg). At the time of angiography all patients had renal insufficiency (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Mean eGFR pre-angiography was 26 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 33 ml/min/1.73 m(2) post-angiography. The mean follow-up period covers 28 months, range 1-84 months. Additional MRI studies with GDBCA administration were performed in 15 patients. One patient with typical skin lesions had developed biopsy-confirmed NSF. Conventional arterial angiography with GDBCA may play a role in the development of NSF in patients with renal insufficiency. Alternative contrast agents, such as CO(2) angiography or rather the use of low doses of iodinated contrast agents, should be considered in these patients.

  4. Systems autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

  5. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), Version 5.0 (User’s Guide)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-30

    provides tools for common modeling functions, as well as regridding, data decomposition, and communication on parallel computers. NRL/MR/7320--10...specified gncomDir. If running COAMPS at the DSRC (e.g. BABBAGE, DAVINCI , or EINSTEIN), the global NCOM files will be copied to /scr/[user]/COAMPS/data...the site (DSRC or local) and the platform (BABBAGE. DAVINCI , EINSTEIN, or local machine) on which COAMPS is being run. site=navy_dsrc (for DSRC

  7. ON THE PROMOTION OF AG-ZSM-5 BY CERIUM FOR THE SCR OF NO BY METHANE. (R825430)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Solar neighborhood XXXVIII. Nearby M dwarf systems (Winters+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. G.; Sevrinsky, R. A.; Jao, W.-C.; Henry, T. J.; Riedel, A. R.; Subasavage, J. P.; Lurie, J. C.; Ianna, P. A.; Finch, C. T.

    2017-07-01

    Stars reported here were targeted during the astrometry program because they were likely to be red dwarfs within 25pc with no previous published πtrig. Of the 151 systems, 93 are from previous compendia of proper motion stars, primarily based on work by Luyten (Luyten 1979nlcs.book.....L, 1980nltt.bookQ....L), and 58 are from our SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) search (Hambly et al. 2004AJ....128..437H; Henry et al. 2004AJ....128.2460H). The systems have μ=118-828mas/yr, with 143 having μ>180mas/yr, the canonical cutoff for Luyten's Two-Tenths (LTT) Catalog. For all but two objects (only one epoch of photometry was available for WT 1637 and LHS 2024 at the time of the paper), at least two epochs of absolute VJRKCIKC photometry on the Johnson-Kron-Cousins system were measured for each parallax field. Two V filters that are photometrically indistinguishable to 7 millimagnitudes (mmag) (Jao et al. 2011AJ....141..117J), one R filter, and one I filter were used for series of observations spanning 2-16years, depending on the star (the central wavelengths for the two VJ filters, the RKC filter, and the IKC filter are 5438Å, 5475Å, 6425Å, and 8075Å, respectively). The 2048*2046 Tektronix CCD camera on the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m with a pixel (px) scale of 0.401''/px was used for both astrometric and photometric observations. In order to mitigate the effects of image distortion at the edges of the CCD, only the central quarter of the chip was used, resulting in a 6.8*6.8 square field of view. Photometry in the near-infrared JHKs filters has been extracted from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; Cutri et al. 2003, Cat. II/246) and is rounded to the nearest hundredth magnitude in Table1. (5 data files).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young star systems observed with SALT (Riedel+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, A. R.; Alam, M. K.; Rice, E. L.; Cruz, K. L.; Henry, T. J.

    2017-11-01

    The sample of stars was drawn from the TINYMO survey (Riedel 2012PhDT.......100R). In that survey, nearby low-proper-motion M dwarfs in the southern hemisphere were identified in the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive (Hambly+ 2001MNRAS.326.1279H). We have obtained low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the SALT telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory in Sutherland, South Africa and the Robert Stoble Spectrograph (RSS), which provides optical spectroscopy between 3200 and 9000Å with a resolving power of up to 6000, depending on slit width. Observations were conducted in semesters 2013A and 2013B. In total, there are 165 spectra of the 79 stars: SCR 2237-2622 was only observed once, two stars (SCR 1816-6305, 2MASS 2004-3356) were observed three times, three stars (2MASS 0510-2340B, 2MASS 1207-3247, SCR 1842-5554A) were observed four times, and the remainder were observed twice. (5 data files).

  10. Event-related potential components as measures of aversive conditioning in humans.

    PubMed

    Bacigalupo, Felix; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    For more than 60 years, the gold standard for assessing aversive conditioning in humans has been the skin conductance response (SCR), which arises from the activation of the peripheral nervous system. Although the SCR has been proven useful, it has some properties that impact the kinds of questions it can be used to answer. In particular, the SCR is slow, reaching a peak 4-5 s after stimulus onset, and it decreases in amplitude after a few trials (habituation). The present study asked whether the late positive potential (LPP) of the ERP waveform could be a useful complementary method for assessing aversive conditioning in humans. The SCR and LPP were measured in an aversive conditioning paradigm consisting of three blocks in which one color was paired with a loud noise (CS+) and other colors were not paired with the noise (CS-). Participants also reported the perceived likelihood of being exposed to the noise for each color. Both SCR and LPP were significantly larger on CS+ trials than on CS- trials. However, SCR decreased steeply after the first conditioning block, whereas LPP and self-reports were stable over blocks. These results indicate that the LPP can be used to assess aversive conditioning and has several useful properties: (a) it is a direct response of the central nervous system, (b) it is fast, with an onset latency of 300 ms, (c) it does not habituate over time. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  12. Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

  13. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+.

  14. Serum creatinine can be used as a surrogate for glomerular filtration rate in single renal unit models.

    PubMed

    Gofrit, Ofer N; Orvieto, Marcelo A; Zorn, Kevin C; Steinberg, Gary D; Zagaja, Gregory P; Shalhav, Arieh L

    2009-02-01

    Single renal unit models are invaluable for studies in renal physiology, transplantation and response to ischemic injury. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is commonly used for evaluation of renal function. Measuring the GFR involves relatively complicated and expensive systems. In this study we determined whether serum creatinine (Scr) can predict the GFR in this model. Right laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in 46 female pigs weighing 25 kg-30 kg. Twelve days later the left kidney was exposed to various periods of warm ischemia (30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes). Scr and GFR (using the iohexol clearance method) were determined preoperatively and at postoperative days 1, 3, 8, 15, 22 and 29. A total of 244 pairs of Scr and GFR values were analyzed to determine a formula for predicting GFR (pGFR) from Scr. Scr range was 1.2 mg/dl -29 mg/dl and GFR range was 1.8 ml/min -180.5 ml/min. The empiric formula deduced from the database for calculating pGFR from Scr was: pGFR = (217 divided by Scr) minus 0.2. pGFR correlated well with the actual GFR (R(2) = 0.85). The graphs for pGFR were almost indistinguishable from the graphs for actual GFR in every single animal. The results and conclusions of the experiments using either actual or predicted GFR were identical. We conclude that in a single renal unit porcine model using ischemia as the insult to the kidney, expensive actual measurements of GFR can be reliably replaced by Scr based calculated GFR.

  15. In-line localized monitoring of catalyst activity in selective catalytic NO.sub.x reduction systems

    DOEpatents

    Muzio, Lawrence J [Laguna Niguel, CA; Smith, Randall A [Huntington Beach, CA

    2009-12-22

    Localized catalyst activity in an SCR unit for controlling emissions from a boiler, power plant, or any facility that generates NO.sub.x-containing flue gases is monitored by one or more modules that operate on-line without disrupting the normal operation of the facility. Each module is positioned over a designated lateral area of one of the catalyst beds in the SCR unit, and supplies ammonia, urea, or other suitable reductant to the catalyst in the designated area at a rate that produces an excess of the reductant over NO.sub.x on a molar basis through the designated area. Sampling probes upstream and downstream of the designated area draw samples of the gas stream for NO.sub.x analysis, and the catalyst activity is determined from the difference in NO.sub.x levels between the two probes.

  16. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Michael B [Macomb Township, MI

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  17. User’s Guide for the Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) Version 5.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-30

    provides tools for common modeling functions, as well as regridding, data decomposition, and communication on parallel computers. NRL/MR/7320...specified gncomDir. If running COAMPS at the DSRC (e.g. BABBAGE, DAVINCI , or EINSTEIN), the global NCOM files will be copied to /scr/[user]/COAMPS/data...the site (DSRC or local) and the platform (BABBAGE. DAVINCI , EINSTEIN, or local machine) on which COAMPS is being run. site=navy_dsrc (for DSRC

  18. Cardiovascular system

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood throughout the ... carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. ...

  19. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... do: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses ... like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has identified. Here's how it works. A ...

  20. Biliary system

    MedlinePlus

    The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum . This helps the body digest food. It also assists ... from the liver to the duodenum. The biliary system includes: The gallbladder Bile ducts and certain cells ...

  1. Discovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's Discovery Systems Project is given. The topics of discussion include: 1) NASA's Computing Information and Communications Technology Program; 2) Discovery Systems Program; and 3) Ideas for Information Integration Using the Web.

  2. Systems thinking.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  3. Crystal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  4. System considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Closing remarks and a general summary of the Alternative Energy Systems Seminar are presented. It was concluded from the seminar that the DOE programs described were focused on trying to make a commercial market develop for the various systems. The question addressed is how this is going to happen. To address this question, social, economical, political and technical aspects are considered with major emphasis placed on systems engineering to provide low cost efficient systems.

  5. Cogeneration Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    43 3000 TYPICAL MID-1978 COSTS, all overhead included 2000- Type of System: Double alkali flue gas desulfurization plus baghouse particulate removal...Figures 5, 6, and 8 also provide cost estimating data for oil- and natural gas -fired steam turbine systems. Figure 5 shows the steam- generating station of...to the ownership and operation of the system. For systems burning oil or natural gas , fuel will typically constitute 65-90% of the total life cycle

  6. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  7. The Solar Neighborhood. XXVII. Discovery of New Proper Motion Stars with μ >= 0farcs18 yr-1 in the Southern Sky with 16.5 < R 59F <= 18.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Mark R.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John P.; Hambly, Nigel C.

    2011-09-01

    Here we present 1584 new southern proper motion systems with μ >= 0farcs18 yr-1 and 16.5 > R 59F >= 18.0. This search complements the six previous SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky for stars within the same proper motion range, but with R 59F <= 16.5. As in previous papers, we present distance estimates for these systems and find that three systems are estimated to be within 25 pc, including one, SCR 1546-5534, possibly within the RECONS 10 pc horizon at 6.7 pc, making it the second nearest discovery of the searches. We find 97 white dwarf candidates with distance estimates between 10 and 120 pc, as well as 557 cool subdwarf candidates. The subdwarfs found in this paper make up nearly half of the subdwarf systems reported from our SCR searches and are significantly redder than those discovered thus far. The SCR searches have now found 155 red dwarfs estimated to be within 25 pc, including 10 within 10 pc. In addition, 143 white dwarf candidates and 1155 cool subdwarf candidates have been discovered. The 1584 systems reported here augment the sample of 4724 systems previously discovered in our SCR searches and imply that additional systems fainter than R 59F = 18.0 are yet to be discovered.

  8. Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Faced with complaints about lengthy and costly developments , rapid obsolescence, and excessive costs of ownership, we have all heard the following...microwave integrated circuits raises similar system and sub-system issues. Microprocessor developments raise new questions regarding the trade-offs between...imply the need for and utilization of more specialists, but future avionics developments will also require systems-oriented engineess. By definition

  9. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  10. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  11. Systemic Darwinism

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

  12. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  13. Immune system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter is an update on the swine Immune System. It will be Chapter 16 in the 11th Edition (2018) of Diseases of Swine. The chapter outlines all aspects of the swine immune system in development and in responses to infection and vaccination. It illustrates the tremendous influence that the immu...

  14. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  15. Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Boeing Commercial Airplane Company's Flight Control Department engineers relied on Langley developed software package known as ORACLS to develop an advanced control synthesis package for both continuous and discrete control system. Package was used by Boeing for computerized analysis of new system designs. Resulting applications include a multiple input/output control system for the terrain-following navigation equipment of the Air Forces B-1 Bomber, and another for controlling in flight changes of wing camber on an experimental airplane. ORACLS is one of 1,300 computer programs available from COSMIC.

  16. Electronic system

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  17. Comparison of absolute serum creatinine changes versus Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes consensus definitions for characterizing stages of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henry E.; Jain, Gaurav; Glassock, Richard J.; Warnock, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) system for classification of acute kidney injury (AKI) severity utilizes a staging schema based on relative changes in serum creatinine (sCr) concentration and urine output. This study compares the in-hospital mortality associated with KDIGO-defined AKI stages and AKI stages defined by absolute sCr increases (‘Delta-Creatinine’). Methods The study included an analysis of hospital discharge and laboratory data from an urban academic medical center over a 1-year period. Including adult in-patients undergoing two or more sCr measurements, the study classified AKI stages using the KDIGO consensus standards as well as absolute increases in sCr (‘Delta-Creatinine’); Stage 0, sCr increase <0.3 mg/dL, Stage 1, sCr increase 0.3–0.69 mg/dL, Stage 2, sCr increase 0.7–1.19 mg/dL and Stage 3, sCr increase ≥1.2 mg/dL or initiation of renal replacement therapy. The Delta-Creatinine cut-points were defined to optimize discrimination of in-patient mortality between AKI stages. The associations between KDIGO and Delta-Creatinine AKI stages and in-hospital mortality were compared using the time-dependent hazard ratios (HRs) and the net reclassification improvement (NRI). Results Of the 19 878 hospitalizations included in the analysis, the prevalence of AKI was 23.4% as defined by the KDIGO criteria. The Delta-Creatinine system discriminated the differences between adjacent AKI stages (i.e. 1 versus 0, 2 versus 1, 3 versus 3) earlier than the KDIGO system. The NRI between Delta-Creatinine and KDIGO for the prediction of mortality was 9.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2–13.2%]. Stratification by age, sex, race and history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) resulted in similar NRI values. Conclusion The Delta-Creatinine system, based on the absolute increases in sCr, provides a promising alternative to the KDIGO system for characterizing the severity of AKI and its associations with in-patient mortality

  18. Recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Medo, Matúš; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in recommender systems and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available algorithms and examine their roles in the future developments. In addition to algorithms, physical aspects are described to illustrate macroscopic behavior of recommender systems. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that recommendation has great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it interesting for physicists as well as interdisciplinary researchers.

  19. Septic Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The web site provides guidance and technical assistance for homeowners, government officials, industry professionals, and EPA partners about how to properly develop and manage individual onsite and community cluster systems that treat domestic wastewater.

  20. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  1. Microelectromechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Kaigham J.

    1995-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

  2. Certification Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The WaterSense Product Certification System outlines the process and procedures for the product certification to ensure that all WaterSense labeled products meet EPA's criteria for efficiency and performance.

  3. Lymph system

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002247.htm Lymph system To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  4. [Systems epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Huang, T; Li, L M

    2018-05-10

    The era of medical big data, translational medicine and precision medicine brings new opportunities for the study of etiology of chronic complex diseases. How to implement evidence-based medicine, translational medicine and precision medicine are the challenges we are facing. Systems epidemiology, a new field of epidemiology, combines medical big data with system biology and examines the statistical model of disease risk, the future risk simulation and prediction using the data at molecular, cellular, population, social and ecological levels. Due to the diversity and complexity of big data sources, the development of study design and analytic methods of systems epidemiology face new challenges and opportunities. This paper summarizes the theoretical basis, concept, objectives, significances, research design and analytic methods of systems epidemiology and its application in the field of public health.

  5. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  6. Bioculture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figliozzi, Gianine; Sato, Kevin Y.; Sun. Sidney

    2013-01-01

    The document is a 2 page fact sheet that describes the Bioculture system, how it may be used by researchers for life science research, how and when it will be installed and validated aboard the international space station.

  7. Initial antihyperglycemic drug therapy among 241 327 adults with newly identified diabetes from 2005 through 2010: a surveillance, prevention, and management of diabetes mellitus (SUPREME-DM) study.

    PubMed

    Raebel, Marsha A; Xu, Stanley; Goodrich, Glenn K; Schroeder, Emily B; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Segal, Jodi B; O'Connor, Patrick J; Nichols, Gregory A; Lawrence, Jean M; Kirchner, H Lester; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Butler, Melissa; Newton, Katherine M; Steiner, John F

    2013-10-01

    Among adults with incident diabetes, data are lacking about first antihyperglycemic initiation and whether medication choice aligns with recommendations. To identify predictors of initiating any antihyperglycemic, and specifically sulfonylurea versus metformin. This retrospective cohort study included 241 327 patients from 11 US health systems, 2005 through 2010. Assessments included antihyperglycemic initiation within 6 months of diabetes identification, first medication initiated, and initiation predictors. Only 40.3% (n = 97 350) started any antihyperglycemic; 75.2% (n = 73 221) started metformin. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) predicted initiating any antihyperglycemic (HbA1c >9%, relative risk [RR] = 3.94, 95% CI = 3.82, 4.07, vs HbA1c >6.5%-7%). Age modified the HbA1c effect: at higher HbA1c, likelihood of starting antihyperglycemics differed little across ages; at lower HbA1c, older patients were less likely to start antihyperglycemics (P < .001). Individuals with elevated serum creatinine (SCr) were more likely to started on sulfonylurea (SCr = 1.4-2, RR = 2.21 [2.05, 2.39]; SCr >2, RR = 2.75 [2.30, 3.29] vs normal SCr), particularly as HbA1c increased: patients with HbA1c 8%-9% and SCr >2 were 5.59 times (2.94, 10.65) more likely to start sulfonylurea versus those with HbA1c >6.5%-7% and normal SCr. Age predicted sulfonylurea initiation (20-39 years, RR = 0.87 [0.79, 0.95]; ≥ 80 years, RR = 2.41 [2.20, 2.65] vs 50-59 years). Among adults with incident diabetes, metformin was generally the first antihyperglycemic initiated. However, 59.7% did not start any antihyperglycemic at diabetes identification. HbA1c and age predict antihyperglycemic initiation; SCr and age predict sulfonylurea initiation.

  8. Shield system

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, D.R.; Chandler, J.R.; Church, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The SHIELD system is a powerful new computational tool for calculation of isotopic inventory, radiation sources, decay heat, and shielding assessment in part of the nuclear fuel cycle. The integrated approach used in this system permitss the communication and management of large fields of numbers efficiently thus permitting the user to address the technical rather than computer aspects of a problem. Emphasis on graphical outputs permits large fields of resulting numbers to be efficiently displayed.

  9. Systemic Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-31

    RT-119: Systemic Assurance Technical Report SERC -2015-TR-019-1 31 July 2015 Principal Investigator: Dr. William Scherlis, Carnegie...Contract No. HQ0034-13-D-0004 Task Order 0019, RT 119 Report No. SERC -2015-TR-019-RT119 July 15, 2015 Report Documentation Page Form...Technology The Systems Engineering Research Center ( SERC ) is a federally funded University Affiliated Research Center managed by Stevens Institute

  10. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. Formore » the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.« less

  12. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  13. Robotic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

  14. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  15. Systems Chronotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Annabelle; Innominato, Pasquale F; Dallmann, Robert; Rand, David A; Lévi, Francis A

    2017-04-01

    Chronotherapeutics aim at treating illnesses according to the endogenous biologic rhythms, which moderate xenobiotic metabolism and cellular drug response. The molecular clocks present in individual cells involve approximately fifteen clock genes interconnected in regulatory feedback loops. They are coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei, a hypothalamic pacemaker, which also adjusts the circadian rhythms to environmental cycles. As a result, many mechanisms of diseases and drug effects are controlled by the circadian timing system. Thus, the tolerability of nearly 500 medications varies by up to fivefold according to circadian scheduling, both in experimental models and/or patients. Moreover, treatment itself disrupted, maintained, or improved the circadian timing system as a function of drug timing. Improved patient outcomes on circadian-based treatments (chronotherapy) have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials, especially for cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, recent technological advances have highlighted large interpatient differences in circadian functions resulting in significant variability in chronotherapy response. Such findings advocate for the advancement of personalized chronotherapeutics through interdisciplinary systems approaches. Thus, the combination of mathematical, statistical, technological, experimental, and clinical expertise is now shaping the development of dedicated devices and diagnostic and delivery algorithms enabling treatment individualization. In particular, multiscale systems chronopharmacology approaches currently combine mathematical modeling based on cellular and whole-body physiology to preclinical and clinical investigations toward the design of patient-tailored chronotherapies. We review recent systems research works aiming to the individualization of disease treatment, with emphasis on both cancer management and circadian timing system-resetting strategies for improving chronic disease control and patient

  16. Microbiology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  17. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  18. Computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  19. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  20. System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  1. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  2. Metric System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Mod System, Dover, DE.

    This autoinstructional unit deals with the identification of units of measure in the metric system and the construction of relevant conversion tables. Students in middle school or in grade ten, taking a General Science course, can handle this learning activity. It is recommended that high, middle or low level achievers can use the program.…

  3. Mirror systems.

    PubMed

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Systems Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  5. Systems Chronotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Innominato, Pasquale F.; Dallmann, Robert; Rand, David A.; Lévi, Francis A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronotherapeutics aim at treating illnesses according to the endogenous biologic rhythms, which moderate xenobiotic metabolism and cellular drug response. The molecular clocks present in individual cells involve approximately fifteen clock genes interconnected in regulatory feedback loops. They are coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei, a hypothalamic pacemaker, which also adjusts the circadian rhythms to environmental cycles. As a result, many mechanisms of diseases and drug effects are controlled by the circadian timing system. Thus, the tolerability of nearly 500 medications varies by up to fivefold according to circadian scheduling, both in experimental models and/or patients. Moreover, treatment itself disrupted, maintained, or improved the circadian timing system as a function of drug timing. Improved patient outcomes on circadian-based treatments (chronotherapy) have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials, especially for cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, recent technological advances have highlighted large interpatient differences in circadian functions resulting in significant variability in chronotherapy response. Such findings advocate for the advancement of personalized chronotherapeutics through interdisciplinary systems approaches. Thus, the combination of mathematical, statistical, technological, experimental, and clinical expertise is now shaping the development of dedicated devices and diagnostic and delivery algorithms enabling treatment individualization. In particular, multiscale systems chronopharmacology approaches currently combine mathematical modeling based on cellular and whole-body physiology to preclinical and clinical investigations toward the design of patient-tailored chronotherapies. We review recent systems research works aiming to the individualization of disease treatment, with emphasis on both cancer management and circadian timing system–resetting strategies for improving chronic disease control and

  6. Burner systems

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Brian J.

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  7. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  8. Optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Shack, R. V.; Shannon, R. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is an otpical system used in a spacecraft to observe a remote surface and provide a spatial and spectral image of this surface. The optical system includes aspheric and spherical mirrors aligned to focus at a first focal plane an image of the surface, and a mirror at this first focal plane which reflects light back on to the spherical mirror. This spherical mirror collimates the light and directs it through a prism which disperses it. The dispersed light is then focused on an array of light responsive elements disposed at a second focal plane. The prism is designed such that it disperses light into components of different wavelengths, with the components of shorter wavelengths being dispersed more than the components of longer wavelengths to present at the second focal plane a distribution pattern in which preselected groupings of the components are dispersed over essentially equal spacing intervals.

  9. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  10. Using spatial capture–recapture to elucidate population processes and space-use in herpetological studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muñoz, David J.; Miller, David A.W.; Sutherland, Chris; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2016-01-01

    The cryptic behavior and ecology of herpetofauna make estimating the impacts of environmental change on demography difficult; yet, the ability to measure demographic relationships is essential for elucidating mechanisms leading to the population declines reported for herpetofauna worldwide. Recently developed spatial capture–recapture (SCR) methods are well suited to standard herpetofauna monitoring approaches. Individually identifying animals and their locations allows accurate estimates of population densities and survival. Spatial capture–recapture methods also allow estimation of parameters describing space-use and movement, which generally are expensive or difficult to obtain using other methods. In this paper, we discuss the basic components of SCR models, the available software for conducting analyses, and the experimental designs based on common herpetological survey methods. We then apply SCR models to Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus), to determine differences in density, survival, dispersal, and space-use between adult male and female salamanders. By highlighting the capabilities of SCR, and its advantages compared to traditional methods, we hope to give herpetologists the resource they need to apply SCR in their own systems.

  11. Unravelling Photocarrier Dynamics beyond the Space Charge Region for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wenrui; Yan, Danhua; Appavoo, Kannatassen; ...

    2017-04-18

    Semiconductor photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting require efficient carrier generation, separation, and transport at and beyond the space charge region (SCR) formed at the aqueous interface. The trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery governs the photoelectrode design and implies maximum water splitting efficiency at an electrode thickness equivalent to the light absorption depth. Here, using planar ZnO thin films as a model system, we identify the photocarriers beyond the SCR as another significant source to substantially enhance the PEC performance. The high-quality ZnO films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition feature very few deep trap states and supportmore » a long photocarrier lifetime. Combined with photoelectrochemical characterization, ultrafast spectroscopy, and numerical calculations, it is revealed that engineering the exciton concentration gradient by film thickness facilitates the inward diffusion of photocarriers from the neighboring illuminated region to the SCR and, therefore, achieves a record high quantum efficiency over 80% at a thickness far beyond its light absorption depth and the SCR width. Furthermore, these results elucidate the important role of the photocarriers beyond SCR for the PEC process and provide new insight into exploring the full potential for efficient photoelectrode materials with large exciton diffusivity.« less

  12. Salience Network Connectivity Modulates Skin Conductance Responses in Predicting Arousal Experience

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chenjie; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Quigley, Karen S.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences in arousal experience have been linked to differences in resting-state salience network connectivity strength. In this study, we investigated how adding task-related skin conductance responses (SCR), a measure of sympathetic autonomic nervous system activity, can predict additional variance in arousal experience. Thirty-nine young adults rated their subjective experience of arousal to emotionally evocative images while SCRs were measured. They also underwent a separate resting-state fMRI scan. Greater SCR reactivity (an increased number of task-related SCRs) to emotional images and stronger intrinsic salience network connectivity independently predicted more intense experiences of arousal. Salience network connectivity further moderated the effect of SCR reactivity: In individuals with weak salience network connectivity, SCR reactivity more significantly predicted arousal experience, whereas in those with strong salience network connectivity, SCR reactivity played little role in predicting arousal experience. This interaction illustrates the degeneracy in neural mechanisms driving individual differences in arousal experience and highlights the intricate interplay between connectivity in central visceromotor neural circuitry and peripherally expressed autonomic responses in shaping arousal experience. PMID:27991182

  13. Manufacture, distribution, and handling of nitrate salts for solar-thermal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, L. C.; Goldstein, S. L.

    1982-11-01

    The low cost and attractive physical properties of molten sodium/potassium nitrate salts were shown to be one of the most cost effective fluids for heat absorption and thermal energy storage in Solar Central Receiver (SCR) systems. Information related to the availability, transport, handling, and utilization of these salts for commercial size SCR applications is provided. The following items are reviewed: existing manufacturing processes for natural and synthetic nitrates; the upstream availability of raw materials; downstream existing and projected demand for these products in other sectors of the economy; and relevant handling and distribution technologies. Safety considerations and issues more directly related to the SCR facility, such as initial system charging, salt maintenance and regeneration, and disposal are also reviewed. Options for supply, surge storage, and initial charging are discussed for the 1 MWt to 300 MWe range of solar plant sizes.

  14. Profiling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A non-destructive testing system, originally developed for Langley Research Center, is sold commercially. The DyLASP Profilometer locates defects in composite and metallic materials and assemblies. It operates in real time and displays results as a contour map of the assembly with defects indicated by size and location. Applications are in non-destructive testing and evaluation, and the company will customize to user requirements.

  15. Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  16. CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  17. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  18. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  19. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  20. Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    Manual 91 - 710 Vol. 2 ( AFSPCMAN 91 - 710 V2). 8. Astrium EADS. 2010. cs.astrium.eads.net. April. 9. Astrium EADS. 2010. : http...of the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) Conference. Albuquerque, NM, February 24-27, (Phillips Lab PL-CP- 91 -3003, p. 3 ). 104. Sullivan, D. J...Chapter 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Chapter 18 - Propulsion Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  1. Bioregenerative system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design course is an eight semester credit multi-disciplinary engineering design course taught primarily to Engineering Science, Aerospace, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering seniors. This year the course project involved the design of the three interrelated loops: atmospheric, liquid nutrient and solid waste management, associated with growing higher plants to support man during long-term space missions. The project is complementary to the NASA Kennedy Space Center Controlled Environmental Life Support System (CELSS) project. The first semester the class worked on a preliminary design for a complete system. This effort included means for monitoring and control of composition, temperature, flow rate, etc., for the atmosphere and liquid nutrient solution; disease and contaminant monitoring and control; plant mechanical support, propagation and harvesting; solid and liquid waste recycling; and system maintenance and refurbishing. The project has significant biological, mechanical, electrical and Al/Robotics aspects. The second semester a small number of subsystems or components, identified as important and interesting during the first semester, were selected for detail design, fabrication, and testing. The class was supported by close cooperation with The Kennedy Space Center and by two teaching assistants. The availability of a dedicated, well equipped project room greatly enhanced the communication and team spirit of the class.

  2. Braking system

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  3. 76 FR 21909 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... the title, of a statewide automated data processing and information retrieval system. The system must.... Description: The information being collected is mandated by Section 454(16) of the Social Security Act which... State Case Registry (SCR) within their statewide automated child support systems, to include information...

  4. Short communication: Comparison of estrus characteristics in Holstein heifers by 2 activity monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Silper, B F; Madureira, A M L; Kaur, M; Burnett, T A; Cerri, R L A

    2015-05-01

    Two activity monitoring systems-Heatime (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) and IceTag (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, UK)-were compared on their ability to detect and quantify estrus expression. Holstein heifers (n=57) were fitted with Heatime (HT) and IceTag (IT) sensors from 12 mo of age until confirmation of pregnancy. Upon detection of high activity by HT, ovaries were scanned by ultrasound, a blood sample was collected for analysis of plasma estradiol, and signs of estrus (clear vaginal mucus, uterine muscle tone, visual mounting activity, standing to be mounted, or rump showing signs of repeated acceptance of mounts) were recorded. Because only estrus episodes detected by HT (n=111) were further evaluated, only the positive predictive value was measured. Heifers were housed in groups of 24 in a freestall pen. Data were analyzed using Proc CORR and GLM of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The positive predictive value was 84.7% (94/111) for HT and 98.7% (74/75) for IT. Estrus duration was recorded by HT as 14.3±4.1h [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and by IT as 15.0±4.0h; duration measurements were correlated (r=0.60). The mean duration difference was 0.74±3.52h. Recordings of onset and end of estrus by IT were 3.5±4.3h and 2.9±4.9h earlier than those by HT. The overlap in duration was 9h. Measurements of estrus intensity were correlated (r=0.63). Peak activity was 77.3±19.5 index value (approximately 7.7 SD from basal activity) on HT. The relative increase in activity measured by IT was 360±170% baseline value. Measurements of intensity and duration from HT were correlated (r=0.64) but those from IT were not (r=0.13). Plasma estradiol concentration (11.2±4.6pg/mL) was not correlated with preovulatory follicle diameter or with duration or intensity of estrus. Diameter of preovulatory follicle (15.7±2.6mm) had no correlation with duration of estrus and was only weakly correlated with intensity measured by either system. Baseline steps/hour was

  5. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  6. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  7. Purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T. (Inventor); Gibbons, Randall E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for prolonging the life of a granulated activated charcoal (GAC) water treatment device is disclosed in which an ultraviolet light transparent material is used to constrain water to flow over carbon surfaces. It is configured to receive maximum flux from a UV radiation source for the purpose of preventing microbial proliferation on the carbon surfaces; oxidizing organic contaminants adsorbed from the water onto the carbon surfaces and from biodegradation of adsorbed microbial forms; disinfecting water; and oxidizing organic contaminants in the water.

  8. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  9. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  10. FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W

    2011-12-29

    The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. Themore » baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The

  11. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  12. Transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  13. Measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, J. W. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A measurement system is described for providing an indication of a varying physical quantity represented by or converted to a variable frequency signal. Timing pulses are obtained marking the duration of a fixed number, or set, of cycles of the sampled signal and these timing pulses are employed to control the period of counting of cycles of a higher fixed and known frequency source. The counts of cycles obtained from the fixed frequency source provide a precise measurement of the average frequency of each set of cycles sampled, and thus successive discrete values of the quantity being measured. The frequency of the known frequency source is made such that each measurement is presented as a direct digital representation of the quantity measured.

  14. Exhaust Nozzles for Propulsion Systems with Emphasis on Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, Leonard E.

    1990-01-01

    This compendium summarizes the contributions of the NASA-Lewis and its contractors to supersonic exhaust nozzle research from 1963 to 1985. Two major research and technology efforts sponsored this nozzle research work; the U.S. Supersonic Transport (SST) Program and the follow-on Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program. They account for two generations of nozzle technology: the first from 1963 to 1971, and the second from 1971 to 1985. First, the equations used to calculate nozzle thrust are introduced. Then the general types of nozzles are presented, followed by a discussion of those types proposed for supersonic aircraft. Next, the first-generation nozzles designed specifically for the Boeing SST and the second-generation nozzles designed under the SCR program are separately reviewed and then compared. A chapter on throttle-dependent afterbody drag is included, since drag has a major effect on the off-design performance of supersonic nozzles. A chapter on the performance of supersonic dash nozzles follows, since these nozzles have similar design problems, Finally, the nozzle test facilities used at NASA-Lewis during this nozzle research effort are identified and discussed. These facilities include static test stands, a transonic wind tunnel, and a flying testbed aircraft. A concluding section points to the future: a third generation of nozzles designed for a new era of high speed civil transports to produce even greater advances in performance, to meet new noise rules, and to ensure the continuity of over two decades of NASA research.

  15. Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Arnant P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

  16. INDUSTRIAL BOILER RETROFIT FOR NOX CONTROL: COMBINED SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes retrofitting and testing a 590 kW (2 MBtu/hr), oil-fired, three-pass, fire-tube package boiler with a combined selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The system demonstrated 85% nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction w...

  17. Separation system

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  18. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  19. Airport Information Retrieval System (AIRS) System Design

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-07-01

    This report presents the system design for a prototype air traffic flow control automation system developed for the FAA's Systems Command Center. The design was directed toward the immediate automation of airport data for use in traffic load predicti...

  20. System safety education focused on system management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  1. Promotion of redox and stability features of doped Ce-W-Ti for NH3-SCR reaction over a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Han, Weiliang; Lu, Gongxuan; Lu, Jiangyin; Tang, Zhicheng; Zhen, Xinping

    2016-08-01

    In this study, transition metals Co, Mn, and Cu were introduced into a Ce-W-Ti catalyst to promote low-temperature catalytic activity. Among these metal-modified M/Ce-W-Ti catalysts (M represents Co, Mn, or Cu), the Cu/Ce-W-Ti catalyst with an optimized Cu content of 5 wt.% exhibited more than 90% conversion of nitrogen oxide (NOx) in the selective catalytic reduction by NH3 over a wide temperature range (260-400 °C). This catalyst likewise exhibited higher resistance to SO2 gas and water vapor under severe test conditions. On the basis of the characterization results by powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we concluded that the superior catalytic properties of the Cu/Ce-W-Ti catalyst could be attributed to the highly dispersed Cu species, which increased the contents of Ce3+ species and adsorbed oxygen species in the catalysts. In addition, the NH3 temperature-programmed desorption results demonstrated that the Cu species doped into the Ce-W-Ti catalysts optimized surface acid content.

  2. The SCR Ne-21 and Ar-38 in lunar rock 68815: The solar proton energy spectrum over the past 2 MYR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, D. H.; Rao, M. N.; Bogard, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    We determined concentration profiles of Ne-21, Ne-22, and Ar-38 produced by solar protons as a function of depth in oriented lunar rock 68815. A comparison with model predictions indicate a solar proton flux J(4(pi)(r); E greater than 10 MeV) of 100-125 p/sq. cm/s and a rigidity, R sub 0, of 85-100 MV, assuming an erosion rate of 1-2 mm/Myr. These results for 68815 and similar results on 61016 define the integrated solar proton energy spectrum at the moon over the past approximately 2 Myr.

  3. The results of an experimental indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing study, using the 'Screen of Green' (ScrOG) method-Yield, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Knight, Glenys; Hansen, Sean; Connor, Mark; Poulsen, Helen; McGovern, Catherine; Stacey, Janet

    2010-10-10

    The results of an indoor hydroponic Cannabis growth study are presented. It is intended that this work will be of assistance to those with an interest in determining an estimation of yield and value of Cannabis crops. Three cycles of six plants were grown over a period of 1 year in order to ascertain the potential yield of female flowering head material from such an operation. The cultivation methods used were selected to replicate typical indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing operations, such as are commonly encountered by the New Zealand Police. The plants were also tested to ascertain the percentage of the psychoactive chemical Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in the flowering head material, and were genetically profiled by STR analysis. Phenotypic observations are related to the data collected. The inexperience of the growers was evidenced by different problems encountered in each of the three cycles, each of which would be expected to negatively impact the yield and THC data obtained. These data are therefore considered to be conservative. The most successful cycle yielded an average of 881g (31.1oz) of dry, groomed female flowering head per plant, and over the whole study the 18 plants yielded a total of 12,360g (436.0oz), or an average of 687g (24.2oz) of dry head per plant. THC data shows significant intra-plant variation and also demonstrates inter-varietal variation. THC values for individual plants ranged from 4.3 to 25.2%. The findings of this study and a separate ESR research project illustrate that the potency of Cannabis grown in New Zealand has dramatically increased in recent years. DNA analysis distinguished distinct groups in general agreement with the phenotypic variation observed. One plant however, exhibiting a unique triallelic pattern at two of the five loci tested, while remaining phenotypically indistinguishable from three other plants within the same grow. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Method for treating engine exhaust by use of hydrothermally stable, low-temperature NO.sub.x reduction NH3-SCR catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Yang, Xiaofan

    2017-07-04

    A catalyst composition includes a heterobimetallic zeolite characterized by a chabazite structure loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.3+. The catalyst composition decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust and is suitable for operation in a catalytic converter.

  5. EFFECTS OF WATER VAPOR AND SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CE-AG-ZSM-5 FOR THE SCR OF NO WITH CH4. (R825430)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Mechanism of Hg(0) oxidation in the presence of HCl over a commercial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 SCR catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruihui; Xu, Wenqing; Tong, Li; Zhu, Tingyu

    2015-10-01

    Experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed reactor containing a commercial V2O5/WO3/TiO2 catalyst to investigate mercury oxidation in the presence of HCl and O2. Mercury oxidation was improved significantly in the presence of HCl and O2, and the Hg(0) oxidation efficiencies decreased slowly as the temperature increased from 200 to 400°C. Upon pretreatment with HCl and O2 at 350°C, the catalyst demonstrated higher catalytic activity for Hg(0) oxidation. Notably, the effect of pretreatment with HCl alone was not obvious. For the catalyst treated with HCl and O2, better performance was observed with lower reaction temperatures. The results showed that both HCl and Hg(0) were first adsorbed onto the catalyst and then reacted with O2 following its adsorption, which indicates that the oxidation of Hg(0) over the commercial catalyst followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Several characterization techniques, including Hg(0) temperature-programmed desorption (Hg-TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were employed in this work. Hg-TPD profiles showed that weakly adsorbed mercury species were converted to strongly bound species in the presence of HCl and O2. XPS patterns indicated that new chemisorbed oxygen species were formed by the adsorption of HCl, which consequently facilitated the oxidation of mercury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Supported Pd nanoclusters with enhanced hydrogen spillover for NOx removal via H2-SCR: the elimination of "volcano-type" behaviour.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhezhe; Li, Zongyuan; Liu, Yun-Quan; Yan, Shuai; Tong, Jianing; Wang, Duo; Ye, Yueyuan; Li, Shuirong

    2017-05-30

    A rational design of a Pd catalyst with highly dispersed Pd nanoclusters on an Al doped ceria-based oxide for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO x by hydrogen with excess O 2 was achieved. The supported Pd nanocluster shows a high hydrogen spillover ability and a NO x conversion of >84% within 100-300 °C.

  8. Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Schmieg, Steven J [Troy, MI; Blint, Richard J [Shelby Township, MI; Den, Ling [Sterling Heights, MI; Viola, Michael B [Macomb Township, MI; Lee, Jong-Hwan [Rochester Hills, MI

    2011-08-30

    A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

  9. Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

  10. System of Systems Analytic Workbench - 2017

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-31

    and transitional activities with key collaborators. The tools include: System Operational Dependency Analysis/System Developmental Dependency Analysis...in the methods of the SoS-AWB involve the following: 1. System Operability Dependency Analysis (SODA)/System Development Dependency Analysis...available f. Development of standard dependencies with combinations of low-medium-high parameters Report No. SERC-2017-TR-111

  11. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  12. Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real - time operating system , real-time programming language, real-time system, soft real-time system.

  13. Mechanical systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

  14. Automated skid data system.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-01-01

    The Data Systems and Analysis Section of the Virginia Highway & Transportation Research Council has been involved for sometime in the development of automated information systems for various types of roadway data. One of these systems, and the system...

  15. SciTech Connect

    Bagley, G. P.

    An SCR DC to DC converter is described which will operate at an output of 275 kW and will supply current to electron storage ring magnets requiring 5 h stability of 50 ppM. The operation of this modified chopper is described and design equations are presented, along with the system control loop description.

  16. Environmental Technology Verification: Test Report of Mobile Source Selective Catalytic Reduction--Nett Technologies, Inc., BlueMAX 100 version A urea-based selective catalytic reduction technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nett Technologies’ BlueMAX 100 version A Urea-Based SCR System utilizes a zeolite catalyst coating on a cordierite honeycomb substrate for heavy-duty diesel nonroad engines for use with commercial ultra-low–sulfur diesel fuel. This environmental technology verification (ETV) repo...

  17. Environmental Technology Verification Test Report of Mobile Source Selective Catalytic Reduction, Johnson Matthey SCCRT, Version 1, Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology with a Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Trap

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Johnson Matthey SCCRT, v.1 technology is a urea-based SCR system combined with a CCRT filter designed for on-highway light, medium, and heavy heavy-duty diesel, urban and non-urban, bus exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-or non-EGR-equipped engines for use with commercial ultra-...

  18. System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

    2005-01-01

    Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

  19. Operationalizing System Importance Measures for Assessing System of System Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrahasa, Rakshit

    In recent times, there has been a shift in focus from component level to system level analysis and an increasing effort to understand and design resilience into the system. Several efforts have been carried out in creating metrics to analyse resilience. Understanding and implementing system resilience in complex System of Systems will help us in building safer and resilient systems. System Importance Measures (SIMs) was formulated to analyse System of System resilience and help in designing a resilient SoS. Here, we operationalize these System Importance Measures for designing a resilient SoS. We first look at the existing methodology to improve the visual representation of system resilience and its usability. We demonstrate this using our first case study with a Naval warfare SoS. We incorporate probability into the SIM formulation. We expand the existing SIMs to quantify the effects of disruptions and mitigation likelihoods. We built a second case study based on Air transportation networks and demonstrated our expanded metrics in both the case studies. SIM based analysis of SoS resilience provides us with two different analysis of resilience, with and without probability. Having an outlook on how the resilience changes with a probability of disruptions can aid the designer making informed choices on design changes and help in creating a resilient SoS.

  20. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  1. THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD. XXV. DISCOVERY OF NEW PROPER MOTION STARS WITH 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} BETWEEN DECLINATIONS -47{sup 0} AND 00{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Mark R.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Henry, Todd J.

    2011-07-15

    We present 2817 new southern proper motion systems with 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} and declination between -47{sup 0} and 00{sup 0}. This is a continuation of the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky. We use the same photometric relations as previous searches to provide distance estimates based on the assumption that the objects are single main-sequence stars. We find 79 new red dwarf systems predicted to be within 25 pc, including a few new components of previously known systems. Two systems-SCR 1731-2452 at 9.5 pc and SCR 1746-3214 at 9.9 pc-are anticipatedmore » to be within 10 pc. We also find 23 new white dwarf (WD) candidates with distance estimates of 15-66 pc, as well as 360 new red subdwarf candidates. With this search, we complete the SCR sweep of the southern sky for stars with {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} and R{sub 59F} {<=} 16.5, resulting in a total of 5042 objects in 4724 previously unreported proper motion systems. Here we provide selected comprehensive lists from our SCR proper motion search to date, including 152 red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc (9 within 10 pc), 46 WDs (10 within 25 pc), and 598 subdwarf candidates. The results of this search suggest that there are more nearby systems to be found at fainter magnitudes and lower proper motion limits than those probed so far.« less

  2. The Solar Neighborhood. XXV. Discovery of New Proper Motion Stars with 0.40 sec/yr > mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr Between Declinations -47 deg and 00 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark R.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Finch, Charlie T.; Subasavage, John P.; Hambly, Nigel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present 2817 new southern proper motion systems with 0.40 sec/yr > mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr and declination between 47 deg and 00 deg. This is a continuation of the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky. We use the same photometric relations as previous searches to provide distance estimates based on the assumption that the objects are single main-sequence stars. We find 79 new red dwarf systems predicted to be within 25 pc, including a few new components of previously known systems. Two systems--SCR 1731-2452 at 9.5 pc and SCR 1746-3214 at 9.9 pc--are anticipated to be within 10 pc. We also find 23 new white dwarf (WD) candidates with distance estimates of 15-66 pc, as well as 360 new red subdwarf candidates. With this search, we complete the SCR sweep of the southern sky for stars with mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr and R(sub 59F) < or = 16.5, resulting in a total of 5042 objects in 4724 previously unreported proper motion systems. Here we provide selected comprehensive lists from our SCR proper motion search to date, including 152 red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc (9 within 10 pc), 46 WDs (10 within 25 pc), and 598 subdwarf candidates. The results of this search suggest that there are more nearby systems to be found at fainter magnitudes and lower proper motion limits than those probed so far.

  3. Horizontal fall arrest systems: rigid systems vs. flexible line systems.

    PubMed

    Lough, David

    2004-09-01

    There are many types of flexible and rigid systems on the market, both permanent and temporary. This article does not mean to encompass all possible systems or hazards and only intends to give an outline of what at a minimum should be examined to make an educated purchasing decision. In many instances, the buyer will use the same type of horizontal system for all situations. This is a good idea in some cases because it will reduce the need for training on a number of different systems, reduce system compatibility issues, and may reduce costs for installation, supply, and maintenance. This may not be the best idea if the hazard areas differ a great deal; as we have illustrated, one system may not function for all areas and tasks. The rigid system is typically the best solution simply based on the fact the worker won't fall as far as when he is connected to a flexible system, because of the elimination of any dynamic sag and horizontal energy absorber deployment. In any case, where you stop the worker from falling farther, you decrease the chance there may be an incident where the worker is injured. From a cost standpoint, flexible fall arrest systems typically are cheapest. In the end, safety professionals must balance the cost and effectiveness of the system to prevent an injury.

  4. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B; Silva, Thiago O B; Ingberman, Aline B G; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A; de Marchi, Mary Rosa R; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP(ESR)) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP(ESR) results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100cm(-1) and 1600cm(-1) indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  6. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  7. Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

  8. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  9. System Design of the SWRL Financial System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Masumi

    To produce various management and accounting reports in order to maintain control of SWRL (Southwest Regional Laboratory) operational and financial activities, a computer-based SWRL financial system was developed. The system design is outlined, and various types of system inputs described. The kinds of management and accounting reports generated…

  10. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  11. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  12. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  13. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2016-10-11

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  14. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  15. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  16. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Murray, Regan; Walker, La Tonya Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements tomore » water distribution system modeling tools.« less

  17. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  18. Collaborative Systems Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

  19. Root production method system

    Treesearch

    Wayne Lovelace

    2002-01-01

    The RPM system (Root Production Method) is a multistep production system of container tree production that places primary emphasis on the root system because the root system ultimately determines the tree's survival and performance in its outplanted environment. This particular container production system has been developed to facilitate volume production, in a...

  20. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Debois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire [Southern] sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m 3-mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper level of abstraction and detail. The LSST modeling includes the analysis and documenting the flow of command and control information and data between the suite of systems in the LSST observatory that are needed to carry out the activities of the survey. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  1. Systems Architecture for a Nationwide Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Abin, Jorge; Nemeth, Horacio; Friedmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture. The architecture model described here conceptualizes a federated framework of electronic health record systems, according to the IHE affinity model, HL7 standards, local standards on interoperability and security, as well as technical advice provided by AGESIC. It is the outcome of the research done by AGESIC and Systems Integration Laboratory (LINS) on the development and use of the e-Government Platform since 2008, as well as the research done by the team Salud.uy since 2013.

  2. From systems biology to systems biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Antony, Paul M A; Balling, Rudi; Vlassis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Systems Biology is about combining theory, technology, and targeted experiments in a way that drives not only data accumulation but knowledge as well. The challenge in Systems Biomedicine is to furthermore translate mechanistic insights in biological systems to clinical application, with the central aim of improving patients' quality of life. The challenge is to find theoretically well-chosen models for the contextually correct and intelligible representation of multi-scale biological systems. In this review, we discuss the current state of Systems Biology, highlight the emergence of Systems Biomedicine, and highlight some of the topics and views that we think are important for the efficient application of Systems Theory in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuous reduction of cyclic adsorbed and desorbed NO(x) in diesel emission using nonthermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Takuya; Nakaguchi, Harunobu; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2016-05-05

    Considering the recent stringent regulations governing diesel NO(x) emission, an aftertreatment system for the reduction of NO(x) in the exhaust gas has been proposed and studied. The proposed system is a hybrid method combining nonthermal plasma and NOx adsorbent. The system does not require precious metal catalysts or harmful chemicals such as urea and ammonia. In the present system, NO(x) in diesel emission is treated by adsorption and desorption by adsorbent as well as nonthermal plasma reduction. In addition, the remaining NO(x) in the adsorbent is desorbed again in the supplied air by residual heat. The desorbed NO(x) in air recirculates into the intake of the engine, and this process, i.e., exhaust gas components' recirculation (EGCR) achieves NO(x) reduction. Alternate utilization of two adsorption chambers in the system can achieve high-efficiency NO(x) removal continuously. An experiment with a stationary diesel engine for electric power generation demonstrates an energy efficiency of 154 g(NO2)/kWh for NO(x) removal and continuous NO(x) reduction of 70.3%. Considering the regulation against diesel emission in Japan, i.e., the new regulation to be imposed on vehicles of 3.5-7.5 ton since 2016, the present aftertreatment system fulfills the requirement with only 1.0% of engine power. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  5. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  6. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  7. Immune System Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  8. Multimode ergometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynum, B. G.; Gause, R. L.; Spier, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    System overcomes previous ergometer design and calibration problems including inaccurate measurements, large weight, size, and input power requirements, poor heat dissipation, high flammability, and inaccurate calibration. Device consists of lightweight, accurately controlled ergometer, restraint system, and calibration system.

  9. Environmental Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbush, F. M.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on environment control systems for electric flight systems are presented. Schematics and flow diagrams of fresh air source and air conditioning systems, and vapor cycle and air cycle parts lists are presented.

  10. Antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazdera, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Published report describes analytical development and simulation of braking system. System prevents wheels from skidding when brakes are applied, significantly reducing stopping distance. Report also presents computer simulation study on system as applied to aircraft.

  11. Connected motorcycle system performance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-15

    This project characterized the performance of Connected Vehicle Systems (CVS) on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning and wireless communication systems. Considering that Global Positioning System (GPS) and 5.9 GHz Dedicated Sh...

  12. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  13. Formation and removal of PCDD/Fs in a municipal waste incinerator during different operating periods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou Chuan; Hwang, Jyh Feng; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Moo Been

    2007-04-01

    The PCDD/F concentrations and removal efficiencies achieved with air pollution control devices (APCDs) during different operating periods (start-up, normal operation, and shut-down) at an existing municipal waste incinerator (MWI) in Taiwan are evaluated via stack sampling and analysis. The MWI investigated is equipped with electrostatic precipitators (EP), wet scrubbers (WS), and selective catalytic reduction system (SCR) as APCDs. The sampling results indicate that the PCDD/F concentrations at the EP inlet during start-up period were 15 times higher than that measured during normal operation period. The PCDD/F concentration observed at shut-down period was close to that measured at normal operation period. The CO concentration was between 400 and 1000 ppm during start-up period, which was about 50 times higher compared with the normal operation. Hence, combustion condition significantly affected the PCDD/F formation concentration during the waste incineration process. In addition, the distributions of the PCDD/F congeners were similar at different operating periods. During the normal operation and shut-down periods, the EP decreases the PCDD/F concentration (based on TEQ) by 18.4-48.6%, while the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs achieved with SCR system reaches 99.3-99.6%. Nevertheless, the PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with SCR was only 42% during the 19-h start-up period due to the low SCR operating temperature (195 degrees C).

  14. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Horn, D.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schalk, T. L.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Project Team

    2010-01-01

    The LSST is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire southern sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m three mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper levels of abstraction and detail. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  15. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  16. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  17. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  18. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; McGaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-02-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  19. Lightside Atmospheric Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Cushman, R. J.; Hultman, M. M.; Nason, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The system was studied as a replacement to the present baseline LiOH system for extended duration shuttle missions. The system consists of three subsystems: a solid amine water desorbed regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, a water vapor electrolysis oxygen generating system, and a Sabatier reactor carbon dioxide reduction system. The system is designed for use on a solar powered shuttle vehicle. The majority of the system's power requirements are utilized on the Sun side of each orbit, when solar power is available.

  20. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  1. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  2. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  3. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  4. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  5. Expert systems for MSFC power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Future space vehicles and platforms including Space Station will possess complex power systems. These systems will require a high level of autonomous operation to allow the crew to concentrate on mission activities and to limit the number of ground support personnel to a reasonable number. The Electrical Power Branch at NASA-Marshall is developing advanced automation approaches which will enable the necessary levels of autonomy. These approaches include the utilization of knowledge based or expert systems.

  6. Observing System Evaluations Using GODAE Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution is unlimite 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 20091228151 14. ABSTRACT Global ocean...forecast systems, developed under the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE), are a powerful means of assessing the impact of different...components of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Using a range of analysis tools and approaches, GODAE systems are useful for quantifying the

  7. Layout optimization of GGISCR structure for on-chip system level ESD protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jie; Dong, Shurong; Wong, Hei; Hu, Tao; Li, Xiang

    2016-12-01

    To improve the holding voltage, area efficiency and robustness, a comparative study on single finger, 4-finger and round shape layout of gate-grounded-nMOS incorporated SCR (GGISCR) devices are conducted. The devices were fabricated with a commercial 0.35 μm HV-CMOS process without any additional mask or process modification. To have a fair comparison, we develop a new Figure-of-Merit (FOM) modeling for the performance evaluation of these devices. We found that the ring type device which has an It2 value of 18.9 A is area efficient and has smaller effective capacitance. The different characteristics were explained with the different effective ESD currents in these layout structures.

  8. Dod Statistical Report on the Military Retirement System, Fiscal Year 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    44𔄁ɟ<’ ’C~.’.44 4 24 - - r..C"N0 347 򔒬 144. -~ ɘ~.~ g>20"-04.fl400 4’...-.(0 70407374.40404 *C’C’-7 Ct..’CL’I 04.4’ S(-cr7’’. 14 rI~7ɟ, 1’~707~7...00000 00000 00000. 00000 00000 00*04 .40000 0040 *0. N 0N 0000 *mN. 0 0 0 .000 0.000 00000 00000 0000 a00* 0.400* 00400c 00000 N NU 0 O* Nowo 0.0...0 4

  9. Precision digital control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  10. Immune System as a Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Igor M.; Dresser, D.

    2010-01-01

    As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements. Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response. This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena. PMID:21686066

  11. Computer Operating System Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    FACILITY The Computer Management Information Facility ( CMIF ) system was developed by Rapp Systems to fulfill the need at the CRF to record and report on...computer center resource usage and utilization. The foundation of the CMIF system is a System 2000 data base (CRFMGMT) which stores and permits access

  12. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  13. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  14. Systems 2020: Strategic Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-29

    research areas that enable agile, assured, efficient, and scalable systems engineering approaches to support the development of these systems. This...To increase development efficiency and ensure flexible solutions in the field, systems engineers need powerful, agile, interoperable, and scalable...design and development will be transformed as a result of Systems 2020, along with complementary enabling acquisition practice improvements initiated in

  15. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  16. Medical imaging systems

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  17. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  18. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  19. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  20. Coaches as System Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Knight, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership--of principals and coaches--must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement. Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform. The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand.…