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Sample records for sdss giant arcs

  1. TWO LENSED z {approx_equal} 3 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES DISCOVERED IN THE SDSS GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, Benjamin P.; Gladders, Michael D.; Sharon, Keren; Wuyts, Eva; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Rigby, J. R.; Dahle, Hakon

    2010-11-01

    We report the discovery of two strongly lensed z {approx} 3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) discovered as u-band dropouts as part of the SDSS Giant Arcs Survey (SGAS). The first, SGAS J122651.3+215220 at z = 2.9233, is lensed by one of several sub-clusters, SDSS J1226+2152, in a complex massive cluster at z = 0.43. Its (g, r, i) magnitudes are (21.14, 20.60, 20.51) which translate to surface brightnesses, {mu} {sub g,r,i}, of (23.78, 23.11, 22.81). The second, SGAS J152745.1+065219, is an LBG at z = 2.7593 lensed by the foreground SDSS J1527+0652 at z = 0.39, with (g, r, z) = (20.90, 20.52, 20.58) and {mu} {sub g,r,z} = (25.15, 24.52, 24.12). Moderate resolution spectroscopy confirms the redshifts suggested by photometric breaks and shows both absorption and emission features typical of LBGs. Lens mass models derived from combined imaging and spectroscopy reveal that SGAS J122651.3+215220 is a highly magnified source (M {approx_equal} 40), while SGAS J152745.1+065219 is magnified by no more than M {approx_equal} 15. Compared with LBG survey results, the luminosities and lensing-corrected magnitudes suggest that SGAS J122651.3+215220 is among the faintest {approx_equal}20% of LBGs in that sample. SGAS J152745.1+065219, on the other hand, has an unlensed r-band apparent magnitude similar to that of the 'Cosmic Eye', which places it near the mean of LBG survey results over similar redshifts.

  2. SDSS J2222+2745: A Gravitationally Lensed Sextuple Quasar with a Maximum Image Separation of 15.''1 Discovered in the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, H.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Bayliss, M. B.; Wuyts, E.; Abramson, L. E.; Koester, B. P.; Groeneboom, N.; Brinckmann, T. E.; Kristensen, M. T.; Lindholmer, M. O.; Nielsen, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2013-08-01

    We report the discovery of a unique gravitational lens system, SDSS J2222+2745, producing five spectroscopically confirmed images of a zs = 2.82 quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster at zl = 0.49. We also present photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a sixth lensed image of the same quasar. The maximum separation between the quasar images is 15.''1. Both the large image separations and the high image multiplicity are in themselves rare among known lensed quasars, and observing the combination of these two factors is an exceptionally unlikely occurrence in present data sets. This is only the third known case of a quasar lensed by a cluster, and the only one with six images. The lens system was discovered in the course of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey, in which we identify candidate lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and target these for follow-up and verification with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope. Multi-band photometry obtained over multiple epochs from 2011 September to 2012 September reveals significant variability at the ~10%-30% level in some of the quasar images, indicating that measurements of the relative time delay between quasar images will be feasible. In this lens system, we also identify a bright (g = 21.5) giant arc corresponding to a strongly lensed background galaxy at zs = 2.30. We fit parametric models of the lens system, constrained by the redshift and positions of the quasar images and the redshift and position of the giant arc. The predicted time delays between different pairs of quasar images range from ~100 days to ~6 yr. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  3. SDSS J2222+2745: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED SEXTUPLE QUASAR WITH A MAXIMUM IMAGE SEPARATION OF 15.''1 DISCOVERED IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, H.; Groeneboom, N.; Gladders, M. D.; Abramson, L. E.; Sharon, K.; Bayliss, M. B.; Wuyts, E.; Koester, B. P.; Brinckmann, T. E.; Kristensen, M. T.; Lindholmer, M. O.; Nielsen, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2013-08-20

    We report the discovery of a unique gravitational lens system, SDSS J2222+2745, producing five spectroscopically confirmed images of a z{sub s} = 2.82 quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster at z{sub l} = 0.49. We also present photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a sixth lensed image of the same quasar. The maximum separation between the quasar images is 15.''1. Both the large image separations and the high image multiplicity are in themselves rare among known lensed quasars, and observing the combination of these two factors is an exceptionally unlikely occurrence in present data sets. This is only the third known case of a quasar lensed by a cluster, and the only one with six images. The lens system was discovered in the course of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey, in which we identify candidate lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and target these for follow-up and verification with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope. Multi-band photometry obtained over multiple epochs from 2011 September to 2012 September reveals significant variability at the {approx}10%-30% level in some of the quasar images, indicating that measurements of the relative time delay between quasar images will be feasible. In this lens system, we also identify a bright (g = 21.5) giant arc corresponding to a strongly lensed background galaxy at z{sub s} = 2.30. We fit parametric models of the lens system, constrained by the redshift and positions of the quasar images and the redshift and position of the giant arc. The predicted time delays between different pairs of quasar images range from {approx}100 days to {approx}6 yr.

  4. A New Survey for Giant Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Oguri, Masamune; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Strauss, Michael A.; Inada, Naohisa; Kayo, Issha; Lin, Huan; Lampeitl, Hubert; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2006-11-15

    We report on the first results of an imaging survey to detect strong gravitational lensing targeting the richest clusters selected from the photometric data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with follow-up deep imaging observations from the Wisconsin Indiana Yale NOAO (WIYN) 3.5m telescope and the University of Hawaii 88-inch telescope (UH88). The clusters are selected from an area of 8000 deg{sup 2} using the Red Cluster Sequence technique and span the redshift range 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 0.6, corresponding to a comoving cosmological volume of {approx} 2Gpc{sup 3}. Our imaging survey thus targets a volume more than an order of magnitude larger than any previous search. A total of 240 clusters were imaged of which 141 had sub-arcsecond image quality. Our survey has uncovered 16 new lensing clusters with definite giant arcs, an additional 12 systems for which the lensing interpretation is very likely, and 9 possible lenses which contain shorter arclets or candidate arcs which are less certain and will require further observations to confirm their lensing origin. The number of new cluster lenses detected in this survey is likely > 30. Among these new systems are several of the most dramatic examples of strong gravitational lensing ever discovered with multiple bright arcs at large angular separation. These will likely become 'poster-child' gravitational lenses similar to Abell 1689 and CL0024+1654. The new lenses discovered in this survey will enable future systematic studies of the statistics of strong lensing and its implications for cosmology and our structure formation paradigm.

  5. THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF GIANT ARCS IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon

    2011-01-20

    We measure the redshift distribution of a sample of 28 giant arcs discovered as a part of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey. Gemini/GMOS-North spectroscopy provides precise redshifts for 24 arcs, and 'redshift desert' constrains for the remaining 4 arcs. This is a direct measurement of the redshift distribution of a uniformly selected sample of bright giant arcs, which is an observable that can be used to inform efforts to predict giant arc statistics. Our primary giant arc sample has a median redshift z = 1.821 and nearly two-thirds of the arcs, 64%, are sources at z {approx}> 1.4, indicating that the population of background sources that are strongly lensed into bright giant arcs resides primarily at high redshift. We also analyze the distribution of redshifts for 19 secondary strongly lensed background sources that are not visually apparent in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging, but were identified in deeper follow-up imaging of the lensing cluster fields. Our redshift sample for the secondary sources is not spectroscopically complete, but combining it with our primary giant arc sample suggests that a large fraction of all background galaxies that are strongly lensed by foreground clusters reside at z {approx}> 1.4. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that our well-selected, spectroscopically complete primary giant arc redshift sample can be reproduced with a model distribution that is constructed from a combination of results from studies of strong-lensing clusters in numerical simulations and observational constraints on the galaxy luminosity function.

  6. Globular and Open Clusters Observed by SDSS/SEGUE: the Giant Stars

    DOE PAGES

    Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Clem, James L.; ...

    2015-12-18

    We present griz observations for the clusters M92, M13 and NGC 6791 and gr photometry for M71, Be 29 and NGC 7789. In addition we present new membership identifications for all these clusters, which have been observed spectroscopically as calibrators for the SDSS/SEGUE survey; this paper focuses in particular on the red giant branch stars in the clusters. In a number of cases, these giants were too bright to be observed in the normal SDSS survey operations, and we describe the procedure used to obtain spectra for these stars. For M71, also present a new variable reddening map and amore » new fiducial for the gr giant branch. For NGC 7789, we derived a transformation from Teff to g-r for giants of near solar abundance, using IRFM Teff measures of stars with good ugriz and 2MASS photometry and SEGUE spectra. The result of our analysis is a robust list of known cluster members with correctly dereddened and (if needed) transformed gr photometry for crucial calibration efforts for SDSS and SEGUE.« less

  7. GLOBULAR AND OPEN CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY SDSS/SEGUE: THE GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Connor, Thomas; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Harding, Paul; Clem, James L.; An, Deokkeun; Casagrande, Luca; Rockosi, Constance; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-15

    We present griz observations for the clusters M92, M13 and NGC 6791 and gr photometry for M71, Be 29 and NGC 7789. In addition we present new membership identifications for all these clusters, which have been observed spectroscopically as calibrators for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)/SEGUE survey; this paper focuses in particular on the red giant branch stars in the clusters. In a number of cases, these giants were too bright to be observed in the normal SDSS survey operations, and we describe the procedure used to obtain spectra for these stars. For M71, we also present a new variable reddening map and a new fiducial for the gr giant branch. For NGC 7789, we derived a transformation from T{sub eff} to g–r for giants of near solar abundance, using IRFM T{sub eff} measures of stars with good ugriz  and 2MASS photometry and SEGUE spectra. The result of our analysis is a robust list of known cluster members with correctly dereddened and (if needed) transformed gr photometry for crucial calibration efforts for SDSS and SEGUE.

  8. Globular and Open Clusters Observed by SDSS/SEGUE: the Giant Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Clem, James L.; An, Deokkeun; Connor, Thomas; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Casagrande, Luca; Rockosi, Constance; Yanny, Brian; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-12-18

    We present griz observations for the clusters M92, M13 and NGC 6791 and gr photometry for M71, Be 29 and NGC 7789. In addition we present new membership identifications for all these clusters, which have been observed spectroscopically as calibrators for the SDSS/SEGUE survey; this paper focuses in particular on the red giant branch stars in the clusters. In a number of cases, these giants were too bright to be observed in the normal SDSS survey operations, and we describe the procedure used to obtain spectra for these stars. For M71, also present a new variable reddening map and a new fiducial for the gr giant branch. For NGC 7789, we derived a transformation from Teff to g-r for giants of near solar abundance, using IRFM Teff measures of stars with good ugriz and 2MASS photometry and SEGUE spectra. The result of our analysis is a robust list of known cluster members with correctly dereddened and (if needed) transformed gr photometry for crucial calibration efforts for SDSS and SEGUE.

  9. Broadband Photometry of 105 Giant Arcs: Redshift Constraints and Implications for Giant Arc Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    We measure the photometric properties of 105 giant arcs that were identified in systematic searches for galaxy-cluster-scale strong lenses in the Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The cluster lenses span 0.2 < zl < 1.2 in redshift, with a median \\bar{z}_{l}=0.58. Using broadband color criteria we sort the entire arc sample into redshift bins based on u-g and g-r colors, and also r-z colors for the ~90% of arcs that have z-band data. This analysis yields broad redshift constraints with 71+5 - 4% of the arcs at z >= 1.0, 64+6 - 4% at z >= 1.4, 56+5 - 4% at z >= 1.9, and 21+4 - 2% at z >= 2.7. The remaining 29+03 - 5% have z < 1. The inferred median redshift is \\bar{z}_{s} = 2.0+/- 0.1, in good agreement with a previous determination from a smaller sample of brighter arcs (g <~ 22.5). This agreement confirms that zs = 2.0 ± 0.1 is the typical redshift for giant arcs with g <~ 24 that are produced by cluster-scale strong lenses and that there is no evidence for strong evolution in the redshift distribution of arcs over a wide range of g-band magnitudes (20 <= g <=24). Establishing that half of all giant arcs are at z >~ 2 contributes significantly toward relieving the tension between the number of arcs observed and the number expected in a ΛCDM cosmology, but there is considerable evidence to suggest that a discrepancy persists. Additionally, this work confirms that forthcoming large samples of giant arcs will supply the observational community with many magnified galaxies at z >~ 2. Based on observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR), a collaboration between CNP-Brazil, NOAO, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Michigan State University and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) on Mauna Kea, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the

  10. Early Giant Planet Candidates from the SDSS-III MARVELS Planet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Neil; Ge, J.; Li, R.; Sithajan, S.; Chen, Y.; Shi, J.; Ma, B.; Liu, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first discoveries of giant planet candidates from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey. These candidates are found using the new MARVELS data pipeline developed at UF from scratch over the past two years. Unlike the old data pipeline, this pipeline carefully corrects most of the instrument effects (such as trace, slant, distortion, drifts and dispersion) and observation condition effects (such as illumination profile). The result is long-term RV precisions that approach the photon limits in many cases and has yielded four giant planet candidates of ~1-6 Jupiter mass from only the initial fraction of data processed with the new techniques. More survey data is being processed which will likely lead to discoveries of additional giant planet candidates that will be verified and characterized with follow-up observations by the MARVELS team. The MARVELS survey has produced the largest homogeneous RV measurements of 3300 V=7.6-12 FGK stars with well defined cadence 27 RV measurements over 2 years). The MARVELS RV data and other follow-up data (photometry, high contrast imaging, high resolution spectroscopy and RV measurements) will explore the diversity of giant planet companion formation and evolution around stars with a broad range in metallicity ([Fe/H -1.5-0.5), mass ( 0.6-2.5M(sun)), and environment (thin disk and thick disk), and will help to address the key scientific questions identified for the MARVELS survey including, but not limited to: Do metal poor stars obey the same trends for planet occurrence as metal rich stars? What is the distribution of giant planets around intermediate-mass stars and binaries? Is the “planet desert” within 0.6 AU in the planet orbital distribution of intermediate-mass stars real?

  11. Giant Planet Candidates, Brown Dwarfs, and Binaries from the SDSS-III MARVELS Planet Survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Neil; Ge, Jian; Li, Rui; de Lee, Nathan M.; Heslar, Michael; Ma, Bo; SDSS-Iii Marvels Team

    2015-01-01

    We report the discoveries of giant planet candidates, brown dwarfs, and binaries from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey. The finalized 1D pipeline has provided 18 giant planet candidates, 16 brown dwarfs, and over 500 binaries. An additional 96 targets having RV variability indicative of a giant planet companion are also reported for future investigation. These candidates are found using the advanced MARVELS 1D data pipeline developed at UF from scratch over the past three years. This pipeline carefully corrects most of the instrument effects (such as trace, slant, distortion, drifts and dispersion) and observation condition effects (such as illumination profile, fiber degradation, and tracking variations). The result is long-term RV precisions that approach the photon limits in many cases for the ~89,000 individual stellar observations. A 2D version of the pipeline that uses interferometric information is nearing completion and is demonstrating a reduction of errors to half the current levels. The 2D processing will be used to increase the robustness of the detections presented here and to find new candidates in RV regions not confidently detectable with the 1D pipeline. The MARVELS survey has produced the largest homogeneous RV measurements of 3300 V=7.6-12 FGK stars with a well defined cadence of 27 RV measurements over 2 years. The MARVELS RV data and other follow-up data (photometry, high contrast imaging, high resolution spectroscopy and RV measurements) will explore the diversity of giant planet companion formation and evolution around stars with a broad range in metallicity (Fe/H -1.5-0.5), mass ( 0.6-2.5M(sun)), and environment (thin disk and thick disk), and will help to address the key scientific questions identified for the MARVELS survey including, but not limited to: Do metal poor stars obey the same trends for planet occurrence as metal rich stars? What is the distribution of giant planets around intermediate-mass stars and binaries? Is the 'planet desert

  12. Combined strong and weak lensing analysis of 28 clusters from the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Masamune; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Dahle, Hâkon; Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Koester, Benjamin P.

    2012-03-01

    We study the mass distribution of a sample of 28 galaxy clusters using strong and weak lensing observations. The clusters are selected via their strong lensing properties as part of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey (SGAS) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Mass modelling of the strong lensing information from the giant arcs is combined with weak lensing measurements from deep Subaru/Suprime-cam images to primarily obtain robust constraints on the concentration parameter and the shape of the mass distribution. We find that the concentration cvir is a steep function of the mass, cvir∝M-0.59±0.12vir, with the value roughly consistent with the lensing-bias-corrected theoretical expectation for high-mass (˜1015 h-1 M⊙) clusters. However, the observationally inferred concentration parameters appear to be much higher at lower masses (˜1014 h-1 M⊙), possibly a consequence of the modification to the inner density profiles provided by baryon cooling. The steep mass-concentration relation is also supported from direct stacking analysis of the tangential shear profiles. In addition, we explore the 2D shape of the projected mass distribution by stacking weak lensing shear maps of individual clusters with prior information on the position angle from strong lens modelling, and find significant evidence for a large mean ellipticity with the best-fitting value of = 0.47 ± 0.06 for the mass distribution of the stacked sample. We find that the luminous cluster member galaxy distribution traces the overall mass distribution very well, although the distribution of fainter cluster galaxies appears to be more extended than the total mass. a Photometric redshifts estimated from the SDSS data, as spectroscopic cluster redshifts are not available for these clusters. b Based on the spectroscopy of the brightest cluster galaxy at Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. c We use deep Rc-band images retrieved from SMOKA instead of obtaining r-band follow-up images. This field

  13. X-ray Arcs Tell The Tale Of Giant Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    Long ago, a giant eruption occurred in a nearby galaxy and plunged it into turmoil. Now NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed the remains of that explosion in the form of two enormous arcs of hot gas. This discovery can help astronomers better understand the cause and effect of violent outbursts from the vicinity of supermassive black holes in the centers of many so-called "active" galaxies. Scientists from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) report that two arc-like structures of multimillion-degree gas in the galaxy Centaurus A appear to be part of a ring 25,000 light years in diameter. The size and location of the ring suggest that it could have been produced in a titanic explosion that occurred about ten million years ago. A composite image of the galaxy made with radio (red and green), optical (yellow-orange), and X-ray data (blue) presents a stunning tableau of a tumultuous galaxy. A broad band of dust and cold gas is bisected at an angle by opposing jets of high-energy particles blasting away from the supermassive black hole in the nucleus. Lying in a plane perpendicular to the jets are the two large arcs of X-ray emitting hot gas. "Putting all the images together was the key to understanding what Chandra showed," said Margarita Karovska, lead author on a paper in the September 20, 2002, issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "Suddenly it all clicked in, as with a giant puzzle, and the images fit together to make a complete picture of the galaxy geometry that was not at all apparent before." The team proposes that the orientation of the arcs of hot gas perpendicular to the jet and the symmetry of the projected ring with respect to the center of the galaxy could be evidence that the ring is the result of a giant eruption in the nucleus of the galaxy 10 million years ago. This explosion may have produced a galaxy-sized shock wave that has been moving outward at speeds of a million miles per hour. The age of 10 million years for the

  14. %Effective Characterizing high-latitude K dwarfs and giants with %ugriz Sloan SDSS colors and Kepler 2 light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. C.

    2016-09-01

    This work describes how Sloan SDSS ugr colors and Kepler 2 (K2) light curves can go a long way towards identifying and characterizing two unbiased tracers of the halo population, K dwarfs ˜1 kpc distant and red K giants of the remote halo, without additional spectroscopy. We first compare observed stellar effective temperatures Teff and dereddened (g-r)0 colors for K stars to \\cite{castellikurucz03} models. This shows that in lightly-reddened halo fields, Teff is determined to 150 K for K dwarfs (and to 100 K for K giants) from (g-r)0 alone. We then consider the u-g vs. g-r diagram for K stars with 15 < r < 18.5 in the K2 field C8 at l ˜ 129.4°, b ˜ -57.4° failed The high-quality \\cite{Bhattietal10} photometry in the Stripe 82 region of C8 suggests 99 % are likely to be K dwarfs, located at a height z ˜ 750 pc above the plane of the Galaxy. The metallicity sensitivity of the u-g vs. g-r diagram reveals that most of these K dwarfs have [Fe/H] > -1.0 and [α/Fe] ˜ 0, which is typical for their Galactic distance and position (\\cite{Haydenetal15} 2015, Fig. 4). Finally, we suggest Kepler 2 as an efficient way to identify the trace population of remote K giants, using asteroseismology rather than spectroscopy. In giants but not in dwarfs, p-mode oscillations like those of the Sun occur at frequencies detectable at long cadence. To reduce dwarf contamination, we have proposed K giant targets for K2 that are largely restricted to the u-g vs. g-r region where most cool red giants fall but few dwarfs do. The metallicity bias so introduced is small compared to that of previous wide-field surveys such as SEGUE (\\cite{Xueetal14} 2014). Although halo giants are rare, K2 imaging of the halo fields C8 and C10 with SDSS photometry could locate and estimate [Fe/H] for 50 to 100 red giants > 50 kpc distant.

  15. The Detection and Statistics of Giant Arcs behind CLASH Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Seitz, Stella; Zitrin, Adi; Merten, Julian; Maoz, Dani; Frye, Brenda; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zheng, Wei; Bradley, Larry; Vega, Jesus; Koekemoer, Anton

    2016-02-01

    We developed an algorithm to find and characterize gravitationally lensed galaxies (arcs) to perform a comparison of the observed and simulated arc abundance. Observations are from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Simulated CLASH images are created using the MOKA package and also clusters selected from the high-resolution, hydrodynamical simulations, MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH sample. The algorithm's arc elongation accuracy, completeness, and false positive rate are determined and used to compute an estimate of the true arc abundance. We derive a lensing efficiency of 4 ± 1 arcs (with length ≥6″ and length-to-width ratio ≥7) per cluster for the X-ray-selected CLASH sample, 4 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MOKA-simulated sample, and 3 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MUSIC-simulated sample. The observed and simulated arc statistics are in full agreement. We measure the photometric redshifts of all detected arcs and find a median redshift zs = 1.9 with 33% of the detected arcs having zs > 3. We find that the arc abundance does not depend strongly on the source redshift distribution but is sensitive to the mass distribution of the dark matter halos (e.g., the c-M relation). Our results show that consistency between the observed and simulated distributions of lensed arc sizes and axial ratios can be achieved by using cluster-lensing simulations that are carefully matched to the selection criteria used in the observations.

  16. THE DETECTION AND STATISTICS OF GIANT ARCS BEHIND CLASH CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Bingxiao; Zheng, Wei; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton; Seitz, Stella; Zitrin, Adi; Merten, Julian; Maoz, Dani; Frye, Brenda; Vega, Jesus

    2016-02-01

    We developed an algorithm to find and characterize gravitationally lensed galaxies (arcs) to perform a comparison of the observed and simulated arc abundance. Observations are from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Simulated CLASH images are created using the MOKA package and also clusters selected from the high-resolution, hydrodynamical simulations, MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH sample. The algorithm's arc elongation accuracy, completeness, and false positive rate are determined and used to compute an estimate of the true arc abundance. We derive a lensing efficiency of 4 ± 1 arcs (with length ≥6″ and length-to-width ratio ≥7) per cluster for the X-ray-selected CLASH sample, 4 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MOKA-simulated sample, and 3 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MUSIC-simulated sample. The observed and simulated arc statistics are in full agreement. We measure the photometric redshifts of all detected arcs and find a median redshift z{sub s} = 1.9 with 33% of the detected arcs having z{sub s} > 3. We find that the arc abundance does not depend strongly on the source redshift distribution but is sensitive to the mass distribution of the dark matter halos (e.g., the c–M relation). Our results show that consistency between the observed and simulated distributions of lensed arc sizes and axial ratios can be achieved by using cluster-lensing simulations that are carefully matched to the selection criteria used in the observations.

  17. Newton's Radii, Maupertuis' Arc Length, and Voltaire's Giant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Given two arc length measurements along the perimeter of an ellipse--one taken near the long diameter, the other taken anywhere else--how do you find the lengths of major and minor axes? This was a problem of great interest from the time of Newton's "Principia" until the mid-eighteenth century when France launched twin geodesic…

  18. Newton's Radii, Maupertuis' Arc Length, and Voltaire's Giant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Given two arc length measurements along the perimeter of an ellipse--one taken near the long diameter, the other taken anywhere else--how do you find the lengths of major and minor axes? This was a problem of great interest from the time of Newton's "Principia" until the mid-eighteenth century when France launched twin geodesic…

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Red giant star sample from SDSS (Chen+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.; Carrell, K.; Zhao, J. K.; Tan, K. F.; Nissen, P. E.; Wei, P.

    2017-05-01

    Based on the SDSS DR9 database, we selected stars with (g-r)0 color in the range of 0.1 to 1.0 mag, and log g less than 3.5 dex for each metallicity bin ranging from [Fe/H]<-3.0 to [Fe/H]=0.0 with a step of 0.2 dex, and obtained their spectra. In the selection and subsequent analysis, stellar parameters (temperature, gravity, and [Fe/H]) are based on the most recent update of the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP; Lee et al. 2008AJ....136.2022L, 2008, J/AJ/136/2050, 2011, J/AJ/141/90; Allende Prieto et al. 2008AJ....136.2070A; Smolinski et al. 2011, J/AJ/141/89). As described in Ahn et al. (2012ApJS..203...21A), the updated SSPP adopts a much-improved color-temperature relation from the InfraRed Flux Method Casagrande et al. (2010, J/A+A/512/A54), and the estimates of surface gravity and metallicity have been thoroughly recalibrated based on results from high-resolution observations. An estimate of the internal uncertainties of the SSPP is ~50 K for Teff, ~0.12 dex for log g, and ~0.10 dex for [Fe/H]. In order to avoid early-type stars, we limit the stars to have SSPP temperatures from 3000 K to 10000 K and a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 10. (1 data file).

  20. The 8 O'Clock Arc: A Serendipitous Discovery of a Strongly Lensed Lyman Break Galaxy in the SDSS DR4 Imaging Data

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Lin, Huan; Diehl, H.Thomas; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2006-11-01

    We report on the serendipitous discovery of the brightest Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) currently known, a galaxy at z = 2.73 that is being strongly lensed by the z = 0.38 Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) SDSS J002240.91+143110.4. The arc of this gravitational lens system, which we have dubbed the ''8 o'clock arc'' due to its time of discovery, was initially identified in the imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 (SDSS DR4); followup observations on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system and led to the identification of the arc's spectrum as that of an LBG. The arc has a spectrum and a redshift remarkably similar to those of the previous record-holder for brightest LBG (MS 1512-cB58, a.k.a ''cB58''), but, with an estimated total magnitude of (g,r,i) = (20.0,19.2,19.0) and surface brightness of ({mu}{sub g}, {mu}{sub r}, {mu}{sub i}) = (23.3, 22.5, 22.3) mag arcsec{sup -2}, the 8 o'clock arc is thrice as bright. The 8 o'clock arc, which consists of three lensed images of the LBG, is 162{sup o}(9.6'') long and has a length-to-width ratio of 6:1. A fourth image of the LBG--a counter-image--can also be identified in the ARC 3.5m g-band images. A simple lens model for the system assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid potential yields an Einstein radius of {theta}{sub Ein} = 2.91'' {+-} 0.14'', a total mass for the lensing LRG (within the 10.6 {+-} 0.5 h{sup -1} kpc enclosed by the lensed images) of 1.04 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}, and a magnification factor for the LBG of 12.3{sub -3.6}{sup +15}. The LBG itself is intrinsically quite luminous ({approx} 6 x L{sub *}) and shows indications of massive recent star formation, perhaps as high as 160 h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}.

  1. Patterns of seismogenesis for giant plate-boundary earthquakes in island-arc-type subduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, S. H.

    2006-12-01

    The global record of giant earthquake occurrence in subduction zones during the instrumental and historical eras is woefully short; only about 16 events with magnitudes above 8.4 are reasonably well documented since 1700. We find no examples of giant (M > 8.4) interplate thrust events and/or wide-ranging tsunamis sourced in the classic island arcs with fast backarc spreading (Bonin, Marianas, Tonga-Kermadec, Vanuatu, and South Scotia). The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 (SAE) ruptured a sector of the INDIA-BURMA subduction boundary and evidently had no known historical antecedents, suggesting that the return time may be many centuries to millennia and consistent with low convergence rates. Moreover, the persistence of rupture to the north in the weakly volcanic Nicobar/Andaman sector gives one pause to reflect on the assumption that island arcs, especially those with active back-arc spreading such as the Marianas, do not produce great interplate- thrust earthquakes. The Andaman/Nicobar subduction segment is an unusual island arc. Only two arc volcanoes occur between the convergent plate boundary west of the Andamans and the backarc ridge/transform system to the east. Backarc spreading in the Andaman/ Nicobar segment is unusual because the NNW spreading directions are nearly parallel to the trench/deformation-front as do the INDIA-BURMA plate motions across it. This geometry suggests that arc-normal extension, trench migration and associated slab normal motions may not mechanically decouple this subduction system. The Nicobar sector of the rupture for the 2004 event is roughly 200 km wide judging from the aftershock distribution; a distribution that persists to the east under the Nicobar Islands, suggesting that the plate-boundary dip is very shallow in that latitude range. If this is correct, then the down-dip limitation on seismogenic slip set by serpentinized forearc mantle (Hyndman et al., 2003) may not control rupture width as it apparently does for many

  2. Giant stellar arcs in the Large Magellanic Cloud: a possible link with past activity of the Milky Way nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Yuri N.

    2013-02-01

    The origin of the giant stellar arcs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains a controversial issue, one that has been discussed since 1966. No other star/cluster arc is so perfect a segment of a circle; moreover, there is another similar arc nearby. Many hypotheses were advanced to explain these arcs and all but one of these was disproved. It was proposed in 2004 that the origin of these arcs was a bow shock from the jet that is intermittently fired by the Milky Way nucleus; during its last episode of activity the jet was pointed toward the LMC. Quite recently, evidence for such a jet indeed appeared. We suggest that it was once energetic enough to trigger star formation in the LMC, and if the jet opening angle was about 2° then it could push out H i gas from a region of about 2 kpc in size, forming a cavity LMC4, but also squeeze two dense clouds that occurred in the same area, causing the formation of stars along their surfaces facing the core of the Milky Way. As a result, spherical segments of stellar shells might arise, visible now as the arcs named the Quadrant and Sextant, the apexes of which point towards the centre of the Milky Way. The orientation of both arcs could be the key to unlocking their origin. Here we give data that confirm the above hypothesis, amongst which are the radial velocities of stars inside and outside the larger of the LMC arcs. The probability is low that a jet from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) points towards a nearby galaxy and triggers star formation there, but a few other examples are now known or suspected.

  3. PROBING SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS OF ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS THROUGH SPIRALS AND ARCS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyosun; Taam, Ronald E. E-mail: taam@tonic.astro.northwestern.edu

    2012-01-10

    Recent observations of strikingly well-defined spirals in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars point to the existence of binary companions in these objects. In the case of planet- or brown-dwarf-mass companions, we investigate the observational properties of the spiral-onion shell wakes due to the gravitational interaction of these companions with the outflowing circumstellar matter. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations at high resolution show that the substellar mass objects produce detectable signatures, corresponding to density contrasts (10%-200%) and arm separations (10-400 AU) at 100 AU distance from the central star, for the wake induced by a Jupiter to brown-dwarf-mass object orbiting a solar mass AGB star. In particular, the arm pattern propagates in the radial direction with a speed depending on the local wind speed and sound speed, implying possible variations of the arm separation in the wind acceleration region and/or in a slow wind with significant temperature variation. The pattern propagation speeds of the inner and outer boundaries differ by twice the sound speed, leading to the overlap of high-density boundaries in slow winds and producing a subpattern of the spiral arm feature. Vertically, the wake forms concentric arcs with angular sizes anticorrelated to the wind Mach number. We provide an empirical formula for the peak density enhancement as a function of the mass, orbital distance, and velocity of the object as well as the wind and local sound speed. In typical conditions of AGB envelopes, the arm-interarm density contrast can be greater than 30% of the background density within a distance of {approx}10 (M{sub p} /M{sub J} ) AU for the object mass M{sub p} in units of Jupiter mass M{sub J} . These results suggest that such features may probe unseen substellar mass objects embedded in the winds of AGB stars and may be useful in planning future high-sensitivity/resolution observations with the Atacama Large

  4. Galaxy Halo Truncation and Giant Arc Surface Brightness Reconstruction in the Cluster MACSJ1206.2-0847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Suyu, Sherry H.; Halkola, Aleksi; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Coe, Dan; Monna, Anna; Rosati, Piero; Grillo, Claudio; Balestra, Italo; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Zheng, Wei; Høst, Ole; Lemze, Doron; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, Leonidas; Bradley, Larry; Molino, Alberto; Nonino, Mario; Mercurio, Amata; Scodeggio, Marco; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo; Jouvel, Stephanie; Kelson, Daniel; Lahav, Ofer; Medezinski, Elinor; Melchior, Peter; Merten, Julian; Riess, Adam

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, particularly focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has a significant amount of intracluster light that is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. The cluster lenses 12 background galaxies into multiple images and one galaxy at z = 1.033 into a giant arc and its counterimage. The multiple image positions and the surface brightness (SFB) distribution of the arc, which is bent around several cluster members, are sensitive to the cluster galaxy halo properties. We model the cluster mass distribution with a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and the galaxy halos with two parameters for the mass normalization and the extent of a reference halo assuming scalings with their observed near-infrared light. We match the multiple image positions at an rms level of 0.''85 and can reconstruct the SFB distribution of the arc in several filters to a remarkable accuracy based on this cluster model. The length scale where the enclosed galaxy halo mass is best constrained is about 5 effective radii—a scale in between those accessible to dynamical and field strong-lensing mass estimates on the one hand and galaxy-galaxy weak-lensing results on the other hand. The velocity dispersion and halo size of a galaxy with m 160W, AB = 19.2 and M B, Vega = -20.7 are σ = 150 km s-1 and r ≈ 26 ± 6 kpc, respectively, indicating that the halos of the cluster galaxies are tidally stripped. We also reconstruct the unlensed source, which is smaller by a factor of ~5.8 in area, demonstrating the increase in morphological information due to lensing. We conclude that this galaxy likely has star-forming spiral arms with a red (older) central component.

  5. A new giant luminous arc gravitational lens associated with a z = 0.62 galaxy cluster, and the environments of distant radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Mark

    1993-01-01

    In the course of a survey investigating the cluster environments of distant 3CR radio galaxies, I have identified a previously unknown 'giant luminous arc' gravitational lens. The lensing cluster is associated with the radio galaxy 3C 220.1 at z = 0.62 and is the most distant cluster now known to produce such arcs. I present imaging and spectroscopic observations of the cluster and the arc, and discuss the implications for the cluster mass. At z greater than 0.6 the cluster velocity dispersions implied by such giant arcs may provide an interesting constraint on theories of large scale structure formation. The parent investigation in which this arc was identified concerns galaxy clusters and radio galaxy environments at 0.35 less than z less than 0.8. At the present epoch, powerful FR 2 radio galaxies tend to be found in environments of poor or average galaxy density. In contrast, at the higher redshifts investigated here, richer group and cluster environments are common. I present additional data on other clusters from this survey, and discuss its extension to z greater than 1 through a program of near-infrared and optical imaging.

  6. GALAXY HALO TRUNCATION AND GIANT ARC SURFACE BRIGHTNESS RECONSTRUCTION IN THE CLUSTER MACSJ1206.2-0847

    SciTech Connect

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Monna, Anna; Suyu, Sherry H.; Halkola, Aleksi; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Bradley, Larry; Rosati, Piero; Grillo, Claudio; Host, Ole; Balestra, Italo; Zheng, Wei; Lemze, Doron; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, Leonidas; Molino, Alberto [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia , C and others

    2013-09-10

    In this work, we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, particularly focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has a significant amount of intracluster light that is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. The cluster lenses 12 background galaxies into multiple images and one galaxy at z = 1.033 into a giant arc and its counterimage. The multiple image positions and the surface brightness (SFB) distribution of the arc, which is bent around several cluster members, are sensitive to the cluster galaxy halo properties. We model the cluster mass distribution with a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and the galaxy halos with two parameters for the mass normalization and the extent of a reference halo assuming scalings with their observed near-infrared light. We match the multiple image positions at an rms level of 0.''85 and can reconstruct the SFB distribution of the arc in several filters to a remarkable accuracy based on this cluster model. The length scale where the enclosed galaxy halo mass is best constrained is about 5 effective radii-a scale in between those accessible to dynamical and field strong-lensing mass estimates on the one hand and galaxy-galaxy weak-lensing results on the other hand. The velocity dispersion and halo size of a galaxy with m{sub 160W,AB} = 19.2 and M{sub B,Vega} = -20.7 are {sigma} = 150 km s{sup -1} and r Almost-Equal-To 26 {+-} 6 kpc, respectively, indicating that the halos of the cluster galaxies are tidally stripped. We also reconstruct the unlensed source, which is smaller by a factor of {approx}5.8 in area, demonstrating the increase in morphological information due to lensing. We conclude that this galaxy likely has star-forming spiral arms with a red (older) central component.

  7. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, David I.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Santosh, M.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to their province scale similarities, the different giant gold deposit styles show contrasting critical controls at the district to deposit scale. For orogenic gold deposits, the giants appear to have formed by conjunction of a greater number of parameters to those that control smaller deposits, with resultant geometrical and lithostratigraphic complexity as a guide to their location. There are few giant IRGS due to their inferior fluid-flux systems relative to orogenic gold deposits, and those few giants are essentially preservational exceptions. Many Carlin-type deposits are giants due to the exceptional conjunction of both structural and lithological parameters that caused reactive and permeable rocks, enriched in syngenetic gold, to be located below an impermeable cap along antiformal “trends”. Hydrocarbons probably played an important role in concentrating metal. The supergiant Post-Betze deposit has additional ore zones in strain heterogeneities surrounding the pre-gold Goldstrike stock. All unequivocal IOCG deposits are giant or near-giant deposits in terms of gold-equivalent resources, partly due to economic factors for this relatively poorly understood, low Cu-Au grade deposit type. The supergiant Olympic Dam deposit, the most shallowly formed deposit among the larger IOCGs, probably owes its origin to eruption of volatile-rich hybrid magma at surface, with formation of a large maar and intense and widespread brecciation, alteration and Cu-Au-U deposition in a huge rock volume.

  8. TRACING SAGITTARIUS STRUCTURE WITH SDSS AND SEGUE IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Yanny, Brian; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie; Fiorentin, Paola Re; Harding, Paul

    2009-08-01

    We show that the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream can be traced with very red K/M-giant stars, selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry. A subset of these stars are spectroscopically confirmed with SEGUE and SDSS spectra, and the distance scale of 2MASS and SDSS M giants is calibrated to the RR Lyrae distance scale. The absolute magnitude of the K/M-giant stars at the tip of the giant branch is M{sub g{sub 0}}=-1.0. The line-of-sight velocities of the M giant and blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars that are spatially coincident with the Sgr dwarf tidal stream are consistent with those of previous authors, reinforcing the need for new models that can explain all of the Sgr tidal debris stream observations. We estimate stellar densities along the tidal tails that can be used to help constrain future models. The K/M giant, BHB, and F-turnoff stars in the lower surface brightness tidal stream that is adjacent to the main leading Sgr dwarf tidal tail have velocities and metallicities that are similar to those of the stars in the leading tidal tail. The ratio of K/M giants to BHBs and BHBs to F-turnoff stars are also similar for both branches of the leading tidal tail. We show that there is an additional low-metallicity tidal stream near the Sgr trailing tidal tail.

  9. Source-plane reconstruction of the giant gravitational arc in A2667: A candidate Wolf-Rayet galaxy at z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Covone, Giovanni; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan; Izzo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Very Large Telescope imaging and spectroscopic data of a bright lensed galaxy at z = 1.0334 in the lensing cluster A2667. Using this high-resolution imaging, we present an updated lens model that allows us to fully understand the lensing geometry and reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc gives a unique opportunity to view the structure of a high-redshift disk galaxy. We find that the lensed galaxy of A2667 is a typical spiral galaxy with a morphology similar to the structure of its counterparts at higher redshift, z ∼ 2. The surface brightness of the reconstructed source galaxy in the z {sub 850} band reveals the central surface brightness I(0) = 20.28 ± 0.22 mag arcsec{sup –2} and a characteristic radius r{sub s} = 2.01 ± 0.16 kpc at redshift z ∼ 1. The morphological reconstruction in different bands shows obvious negative radial color gradients for this galaxy. Moreover, the redder central bulge tends to contain a metal-rich stellar population, rather than being heavily reddened by dust due to high and patchy obscuration. We analyze the VIMOS/integral field unit spectroscopic data and find that, in the given wavelength range (∼1800-3200 Å), the combined arc spectrum of the source galaxy is characterized by a strong continuum emission with strong UV absorption lines (Fe II and Mg II) and shows the features of a typical starburst Wolf-Rayet galaxy, NGC 5253. More specifically, we have measured the equivalent widths of Fe II and Mg II lines in the A2667 spectrum, and obtained similar values for the same wavelength interval of the NGC 5253 spectrum. Marginal evidence for [C III] 1909 emission at the edge of the grism range further confirms our expectation.

  10. Source-plane Reconstruction of the Giant Gravitational Arc in A2667: A Candidate Wolf-Rayet Galaxy at z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuo; Covone, Giovanni; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan; Izzo, Luca; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Very Large Telescope imaging and spectroscopic data of a bright lensed galaxy at z = 1.0334 in the lensing cluster A2667. Using this high-resolution imaging, we present an updated lens model that allows us to fully understand the lensing geometry and reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc gives a unique opportunity to view the structure of a high-redshift disk galaxy. We find that the lensed galaxy of A2667 is a typical spiral galaxy with a morphology similar to the structure of its counterparts at higher redshift, z ~ 2. The surface brightness of the reconstructed source galaxy in the z 850 band reveals the central surface brightness I(0) = 20.28 ± 0.22 mag arcsec-2 and a characteristic radius rs = 2.01 ± 0.16 kpc at redshift z ~ 1. The morphological reconstruction in different bands shows obvious negative radial color gradients for this galaxy. Moreover, the redder central bulge tends to contain a metal-rich stellar population, rather than being heavily reddened by dust due to high and patchy obscuration. We analyze the VIMOS/integral field unit spectroscopic data and find that, in the given wavelength range (~1800-3200 Å), the combined arc spectrum of the source galaxy is characterized by a strong continuum emission with strong UV absorption lines (Fe II and Mg II) and shows the features of a typical starburst Wolf-Rayet galaxy, NGC 5253. More specifically, we have measured the equivalent widths of Fe II and Mg II lines in the A2667 spectrum, and obtained similar values for the same wavelength interval of the NGC 5253 spectrum. Marginal evidence for [C III] 1909 emission at the edge of the grism range further confirms our expectation.

  11. THE LICK/SDSS LIBRARY. I. SYNTHETIC INDEX DEFINITION AND CALIBRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Franchini, M.; Morossi, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Malagnini, M. L.; Chavez, M. E-mail: morossi@oats.inaf.i E-mail: malagnini@oats.inaf.i

    2010-08-10

    A new synthetic library of spectral feature indices, Lick/Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), for stellar population studies is presented. Lick/SDSS is computed from synthetic spectra with resolving power R = 1800 to fully exploit the content of the spectroscopic SDSS-DR7 stellar database. The Lick/SDSS system is based on the Lick/IDS one complemented with a UV index in the wavelength region of Ca II H and K lines. The system is well suited to study {alpha}-element abundances in F, G, and K stars. The reliability of synthetic indices in reproducing the behaviors of observational ones with effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity, and {alpha}-element abundances is tested by using empirical stellar libraries (ELODIE, INDO-U.S., and MILES) and the SDSS-DR7 spectroscopic database. The importance of using the same temperature scale in comparing theoretical and observational indices is discussed. The full consistency between Lick/SDSS and observational indices derived from the above mentioned stellar libraries is assessed. The comparison with indices computed from SDSS-DR7 spectra evidences good consistency for 'dwarf' stars and significant disagreement for 'giant' stars due to systematic overestimation of the stellar T {sub eff} by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline.

  12. Chemical Cartography with SDSS-III APOGEE: DR12 Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Michael R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Bovy, Jo; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hearty, Fred; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; García Pérez, Ana; Robin, Annie; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Beers, Timothy C.; Apogee Team

    2015-01-01

    The SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph provides an unprecedented view of the Milky Way disk, due in part to its ability to observe in the infrared, where the effects of extinction are significantly reduced compared to optical surveys. We present updated results on mean metallicity and chemical abundance gradients using the full three years of APOGEE1 observations and new results of the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and the [α/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane at different locations in the Milky Way disk. Our sample comprises nearly high signal-to-noise observations of nearly 100,000 red giant stars taken from SDSS DR12. These observations span the entire Milky Way visible from the northern hemisphere, ranging from the bulge to the edge of the disk (0

  13. Discovery of an exceptionally bright giant arc at z = 2.369, gravitationally lensed by the Planck cluster PSZ1 G311.65-18.48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, H.; Aghanim, N.; Guennou, L.; Hudelot, P.; Kneissl, R.; Pointecouteau, E.; Beelen, A.; Bayliss, M.; Douspis, M.; Nesvadba, N.; Hempel, A.; Gronke, M.; Burenin, R.; Dole, H.; Harrison, D.; Mazzotta, P.; Sunyaev, R.

    2016-05-01

    As part of an all-sky follow-up of the Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster candidates detected in the first 14 months of data, we are observing cluster candidates in the southern sky in the optical imaging and spectroscopy through an ESO Large Programme. Inspection of ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) R-and z-band imaging data from our programme has revealed an unusually large and bright arc in the field of PSZ1 G311.65-18.48. We establish the basic photometric and morphological properties of the arc and provide conclusive evidence for the gravitational lensing nature of this object. Guided by the NTT images, we have obtained a long-slit spectrum with IMACS on the Magellan-I Baade Telescope, covering a part of the arc and the brightest cluster galaxy of PSZ1 G311.65-18.48. Our imaging data confirm the presence of a galaxy cluster coinciding (within 0.´6) with the position of the Planck SZ source. The arc is separated by ~30″ from the brightest cluster galaxy, which closely coincides with the center of curvature of the arc. A photometric analysis yields integrated (Vega) magnitudes of (R,z,J,Ks) = (17.82,17.38,16.75,15.43) for the arc, more than one magnitude brighter than any previously known lensed arc at z ~ 2-3. The arc is a vigorously star-forming galaxy at z = 2.369, while the Planck SZ cluster lens is at z = 0.443.Even when allowing for lensing magnifications as high as μ = 100 still leads to the conclusion that the source galaxy is among the intrinsically most luminous normal (i.e., non-AGN) galaxies known at z ~ 2-3. FITS files of all the reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/L4

  14. Detecting active comets with SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Solontoi, Michael; Ivezic, Zeljko; West, Andrew A.; Claire, Mark; Juric, Mario; Becker, Andrew; Jones, Lynne; Hall, Patrick B.; Kent, Steve; Lupton, Robert H.; Quinn, Tom; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Princeton U. Observ.

    2010-12-01

    Using a sample of serendipitously discovered active comets in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we develop well-controlled selection criteria for greatly increasing the efficiency of comet identification in the SDSS catalogs. After follow-up visual inspection of images to reject remaining false positives, the total sample of SDSS comets presented here contains 19 objects, roughly one comet per 10 million other SDSS objects. The good understanding of selection effects allows a study of the population statistics, and we estimate the apparent magnitude distribution to r {approx} 18, the ecliptic latitude distribution, and the comet distribution in SDSS color space. The most surprising results are the extremely narrow range of colors for comets in our sample (e.g. root-mean-square scatter of only {approx}0.06 mag for the g-r color), and the similarity of comet colors to those of jovian Trojans. We discuss the relevance of our results for upcoming deep multi-epoch optical surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and estimate that LSST may produce a sample of about 10,000 comets over its 10-year lifetime.

  15. Target Selection for the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.; De Lee, Nathan; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mack, Claude E., III; Dhital, Saurav; Hebb, Leslie; Ge, Jian

    2015-06-01

    We present the target selection process for the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III. MARVELS is a medium-resolution (R ∼ 11,000) multi-fiber spectrograph capable of obtaining radial velocities for 60 objects at a time in order to find brown dwarfs and giant planets. The survey was configured to target dwarf stars with effective temperatures approximately between 4500 and 6250 K. For the first 2 years MARVELS relied on low-resolution spectroscopic pre-observations to estimate the effective temperature and log (g) for candidate stars and then selected suitable dwarf stars from this pool. Ultimately, the pre-observation spectra proved ineffective at filtering out giant stars; many giants were incorrectly classified as dwarfs, resulting in a giant contamination rate of ∼30% for the first phase of the MARVELS survey. Thereafter, the survey instead applied a reduced proper motion cut to eliminate giants and used the Infrared Flux Method to estimate effective temperatures, using only extant photmetric and proper-motion catalog information. The target selection method introduced here may be useful for other surveys that need to rely on extant catalog data for selection of specific stellar populations.

  16. Discover an Asteroid Using SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramseyer, Elizabeth A.

    2006-12-01

    Every Fall, the Apache Point Observatory repeatedly images the skies near declination 0 degrees in a quest to see first light from distant supernovae. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) uses the data from these images to map the Universe. These data are made available on the internet for use by the public. While analyzing these images, we discovered the presence of a transient light source that subsequent analysis showed our ?mystery object? to be an asteroid. We present here the details of the analysis that allowed us to determine the identity of our ?mystery object.? Learn how you can access the SDSS database and make your own discovery!

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The SDSS Photometric Catalog, Release 3 (Abazajian+ 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazajian, K.; et al.

    2005-07-01

    The present catalog is a subset of the third data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), restricted to primary and secondary photo objects (i.e. objects from PhotoPrimary of PhotoSecondary tables) and restricted to the columns described in the "Byte-by-Byte" description below. The complete SDSS data release 3 catalog is available from http://www.sdss.org/dr3/ The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) will map in detail one-quarter of the entire sky, determining the positions and absolute brightnesses of more than 100 million celestial objects. It will also measure the distances to more than a million galaxies and quasars. Apache Point Observatory, site of the SDSS telescopes, is operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC). Funding for the SDSS has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS is a joint project of The University of Chicago, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, The Johns Hopkins University, the Korean Scientist Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. All details about ADSS at http://www.sdss.org/dr3/ (1 data file).

  18. SDSS DR2 Merging pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, S. S.; Tucker, D. L.; SDSS Collaboration

    2004-05-01

    We present and analyze a catalog of 9,000 Merging pairs candidates to g=21 from the imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Second Data Release (DR2). Candidates were selected using an automated algorithm (Allam et al. 2004) that is efficient in its selection of galaxy pairs. We highlight possible science applications of such a large photometric sample of merging pais and discuss future improvements, including incorporating magnitudes and pushing to higher redshifts and fainter pairs.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The SDSS Photometric Catalog, Release 7 (Adelman-McCarthy+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman-McCarthy, J. K.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    The present catalog is a subset of the data release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), restricted to primary and secondary photo objects (i.e. objects from PhotoPrimary of PhotoSecondary tables) and restricted to the columns described in the "Byte-by-Byte" description below. The complete SDSS data release 7 catalog is available from http://www.sdss.org/dr7/. Compared to data release 6 (Cat. II/282), this subset includes in addition the 'clean' flag. This seventh release represents the completion of the SDSS Legacy project, which consists of an imaging survey in five bands (ugriz) over a contiguous 7646 sq.degrees high-latitude elliptical region in the Northern Galactic Cap, plus an additional 750 sq.degrees in the Southern Galactic Cap, together with spectroscopy of complete samples of galaxies and quasars covering about 8200 sq.degrees. The total imaging area in the Legacy survey is 8423 sq.degrees. Funding for the SDSS has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS is a joint project of The University of Chicago, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, The Johns Hopkins University, the Korean Scientist Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. Apache Point Observatory, site of the SDSS telescopes, is operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC). All details about SDSS-DR7 at http://www.sdss.org/dr7/ (1 data file).

  20. The SOAR Gravitational Arc Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makler, M.; Furlanetto, C.; Santiago, B. X.; Caminha, G. B.; Cypriano, E.; Cibirka, N.; Pereira, M. E. S.; Bom, C. R. D.; Lima, M. P.; Brandt, C. H.; Neto, A. F.; Estrada, J.; Lin, H.; Hao, J.; McKay, T. M.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first results of the SOAR Gravitational Arc Survey (SOGRAS). The survey imaged 47 clusters in two redshift intervals centered at z=0.27 and z=0.55, targeting the richest clusters in each interval. Images were obtained in the g', r' and i' bands with a median seeing of 0.83, 0.76 and 0.71 arcsec, respectively, in these filters. Most of the survey clusters are located within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe-82 region and all of them are in the SDSS footprint. We present the first results of the survey, including the 6 best strong lensing systems, photometric and morphometric catalogs of the galaxy sample, and cross matches of the clusters and galaxies with complementary samples (spectroscopic redshifts, photometry in several bands, X-ray and Sunyaev Zel'dovich clusters, etc.), exploiting the synergy with other surveys in Stripe-82. We apply several methods to characterize the gravitational arc candidates, including the Mediatrix method (Bom et al. 2012) and ArcFitting (Furlanetto et al. 2012), and for the subtraction of galaxy cluster light. Finally, we apply strong lensing inversion techniques to the best systems, providing constraints on their mass distribution. The analyses of a spectral follow-up with Gemini and the derived dynamical masses are presented in a poster submitted to this same meeting (Cibirka et al.). Deeper follow-up images with Gemini strengthen the case for the strong lensing nature of the candidates found in this survey.

  1. IRTF Observations of Lensed Star-Forming Galaxies Identified in the SDSS Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allyn Smith, J.; Allam, S. S.; Tucker, D. L.; Lin, H.; SDSS Bright Arcs Search Team

    2009-12-01

    The SDSS Bright Arcs Search Team (see poster by H. Lin et al. #478.02) has been carrying out an ongoing systematic search for bright, strongly-lensed, high-redshift galaxies in samples of SDSS luminous red galaxies, clusters, and interacting/merging galaxy pairs. So far we have spectroscopically confirmed a dozen lensing systems, with source galaxy redshifts z = 0.4 - 2.7, with 6 of these among the brightest known z > 2 lensed galaxies, including the 8 O'Clock Arc (Allam et al. 2007) and the Clone (Lin et al. 2008). Here, we report on our JHK imaging of several of these confirmed lensed systems based upon observations taken with the SpeX and NSFCAM2 on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Further, we discuss our future plans for NIR imaging of this sample.

  2. The SDSS data archive server

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Eric H., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Archive Server (DAS) provides public access to data files produced by the SDSS data reduction pipeline. This article discusses challenges in public distribution of data of this volume and complexity, and how the project addressed them. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)1 is an astronomical survey of covering roughly one quarter of the night sky. It contains images of this area, a catalog of almost 300 million objects detected in those images, and spectra of more than a million of these objects. The catalog of objects includes a variety of data on each object. These data include not only basic information but also fit parameters for a variety of models, classifications by sophisticated object classification algorithms, statistical parameters, and more. If the survey contains the spectrum of an object, the catalog includes a variety of other parameters derived from its spectrum. Data processing and catalog generation, described more completely in the SDSS Early Data Release2 paper, consists of several stages: collection of imaging data, processing of imaging data, selection of spectroscopic targets from catalogs generated from the imaging data, collection of spectroscopic data, processing of spectroscopic data, and loading of processed data into a database. Each of these stages is itself a complex process. For example, the software that processes the imaging data determines and removes some instrumental signatures in the raw images to create 'corrected frames', models the point spread function, models and removes the sky background, detects objects, measures object positions, measures the radial profile and other morphological parameters for each object, measures the brightness of each object using a variety of methods, classifies the objects, calibrates the brightness measurements against survey standards, and produces a variety of quality assurance plots and diagnostic tables. The complexity of the spectroscopic data

  3. Lithium Abundance in M3 Red Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, Rashad; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the abundance of lithium in the red giant star vZ 1050 (SK 291) in the globular cluster M3. A previous survey of giants in the cluster showed that like IV-101, vZ 1050 displays a prominent Li I 6707 Å feature. vZ 1050 lies on the blue side of the red giant branch about 1.3 magnitudes above the level of the horizontal branch, and may be an asymptotic giant branch star. A high resolution spectrum of M3 vZ1050 was obtained with the ARC 3.5m telescope and the ARC Echelle Spectrograph (ARCES). Atmospheric parameters were determined using Fe I and Fe II lines from the spectrum using the MOOG spectral analysis program, and the lithium abundance was determined using spectrum synthesis.

  4. SDSS spectroscopic survey of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Schlegel, D.; Uomoto, A.; Bond, N.; Beers, T.; Allende Prieto, C.; Wilhelm, R.; Lee, Y.Sun; Sivarani, T.; Juric, M.; Lupton, R.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LBL, Berkeley /Johns Hopkins U. /Princeton U. /Michigan State U. /Texas U. /Texas Tech. /UC, Santa Cruz /Fermilab /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Drexel U.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is also producing a massive spectroscopic database. They discuss determination of stellar parameters, such as effective temperature, gravity and metallicity from SDSS spectra, describe correlations between kinematics and metallicity, and study their variation as a function of the position in the Galaxy. They show that stellar parameter estimates by Beers et al. show a good correlation with the position of a star in the g-r vs. u-g color-color diagram, thereby demonstrating their robustness as well as a potential for photometric parameter estimation methods. Using Beers et al. parameters, they find that the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way stars at a few kpc from the galactic plane is bimodal with a local minimum at [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] {approx} -1.3. The median metallicity for the low-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] < =1.3 subsample is nearly independent of Galactic cylindrical coordinates R and z, while it decreases with z for the high-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] > -1.3 sample. they also find that the low-metallicity sample has {approx} 2.5 times larger velocity dispersion and that it does not rotate (at the {approx} 10 km/s level), while the rotational velocity of the high-metallicity sample decreases smoothly with the height above the galactic plane.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The SDSS Photometric Catalog, Release 5 (Adelman-McCarthy+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman-McCarthy, J. K.; et al.

    2007-03-01

    The present catalog is a subset of the data release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), restricted to primary and secondary photo objects (i.e. objects from PhotoPrimary of PhotoSecondary tables) and restricted to the columns described in the "Byte-by-Byte" description below. The complete SDSS data release 5 catalog is available from http://www.sdss.org/dr5/ The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) will map in detail one-quarter of the entire sky, determining the positions and absolute brightnesses of more than 100 million celestial objects. It will also measure the distances to more than a million galaxies and quasars. Apache Point Observatory, site of the SDSS telescopes, is operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC). Funding for the SDSS has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS is a joint project of The University of Chicago, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, The Johns Hopkins University, the Korean Scientist Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. All details about ADSS at http://www.sdss.org/dr5/ (1 data file).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The SDSS Photometric Catalog, Release 4 (Adelman-McCarthy+, 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman-McCarthy, J. K.; et al.

    2005-11-01

    The present catalog is a subset of the data release 4 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), restricted to primary and secondary photo objects (i.e. objects from PhotoPrimary of PhotoSecondary tables) and restricted to the columns described in the "Byte-by-Byte" description below. The complete SDSS data release 4 catalog is available from http://www.sdss.org/dr4/ The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) will map in detail one-quarter of the entire sky, determining the positions and absolute brightnesses of more than 100 million celestial objects. It will also measure the distances to more than a million galaxies and quasars. Apache Point Observatory, site of the SDSS telescopes, is operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC). Funding for the SDSS has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS is a joint project of The University of Chicago, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, The Johns Hopkins University, the Korean Scientist Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. All details about ADSS at http://www.sdss.org/dr4/ (1 data file).

  7. A paradigm change -the giant Lachlan Orocline: consequence of microcontinent ingestion, stalled subduction and southeast-directed Siluro-Devonian subduction rollback superimposed on a single accreted Ordovician arc assemblage: the Lachlan Fold Belt of eastern Australia. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayley, R. A.; Musgrave, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Reviews of the Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB) from the 1990s to the present highlight challenges understanding it within the long-prevailing paradigm of an unusually wide and squat, composite orogen, comprising an amalgamation of multiple linear, orogen-parallel accretion or rifting events, and multiple arc complexes, some developed independently yet simultaneously. Tectonic models attribute geometry (structural vergence 'reversals' between west, central and eastern portions), sedimentary relationships, width and magmatic history to several coeval subduction zones of opposing polarity, or to large-scale juxtapositions along strike-slip faults, such as the mid- to Late Silurian Baragwanath Transform. Multiple subduction models explain vergence reversals, but don't fit key Ordovician palaeogeographic constraints, or Proterozoic microcontinents such as western Tasmania and its northern extension the Selwyn Block. Pure strike-slip fault models fail to explain large scale vergence reversals, and new aeromagnetic data show some do not occur where interpreted. A new concept is needed. Complexity within the adjacent New England Fold Belt has been attributed to oroclinal folding and fragmentation, so it's surprising this has not been seriously considered for the LFB, given roll-back is recognised as critical to its post-Ordovician evolution. A reason for hesitation - poor LFB exposure. Fortunately, Victoria has LFB exposure across its width. Modern structural and stratigraphic mapping is complete, augmented by aeromagnetic, gravity and deep seismic data. Victoria constrains a new geodynamic model: a solution for the whole LFB. It develops the idea that only one, continent-dipping, subduction zone was active in the LFB in the Ordovician-Early Devonian. Mega-folding about vertical axes in the Silurian reoriented the orogen into a giant Z-shaped orocline, giving the appearance of ';multiple' coeval systems of opposing dip when simple cross-sections are constructed across it. New

  8. SDSS DR7 superclusters. Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einasto, M.; Liivamägi, L. J.; Tago, E.; Saar, E.; Tempel, E.; Einasto, J.; Martínez, V. J.; Heinämäki, P.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: We study the morphology of a set of superclusters drawn from the SDSS DR7. Methods: We calculate the luminosity density field to determine superclusters from a flux-limited sample of galaxies from SDSS DR7 and select superclusters with 300 and more galaxies for our study. We characterise the morphology of superclusters using the fourth Minkowski functional V3, the morphological signature (the curve in the shapefinder's K1-K2 plane) and the shape parameter (the ratio of the shapefinders K1/K2). We investigate the supercluster sample using multidimensional normal mixture modelling. We use Abell clusters to identify our superclusters with known superclusters and to study the large-scale distribution of superclusters. Results: The superclusters in our sample form three chains of superclusters; one of them is the Sloan Great Wall. Most superclusters have filament-like overall shapes. Superclusters can be divided into two sets; more elongated superclusters are more luminous, richer, have larger diameters and a more complex fine structure than less elongated superclusters. The fine structure of superclusters can be divided into four main morphological types: spiders, multispiders, filaments, and multibranching filaments. We present the 2D and 3D distribution of galaxies and rich groups, the fourth Minkowski functional, and the morphological signature for all superclusters. Conclusions: Widely different morphologies of superclusters show that their evolution has been dissimilar. A study of a larger sample of superclusters from observations and simulations is needed to understand the morphological variety of superclusters and the possible connection between the morphology of superclusters and their large-scale environment.

  9. Cathodic arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  10. Star Formation at z = 2.481 in the Lensed Galaxy SDSS J1110 = 6459. I. Lens Modeling and Source Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Traci L.; Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Wuyts, Eva; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Florian, Michael; Murray, Katherine T.

    2017-07-01

    Using the combined resolving power of the Hubble Space Telescope and gravitational lensing, we resolve star-forming structures in a z˜ 2.5 galaxy on scales much smaller than the usual kiloparsec diffraction limit of HST. SGAS J111020.0+645950.8 is a clumpy, star-forming galaxy lensed by the galaxy cluster SDSS J1110+6459 at z=0.659, with a total magnification ˜ 30× across the entire arc. We use a hybrid parametric/non-parametric strong lensing mass model to compute the deflection and magnification of this giant arc, reconstruct the light distribution of the lensed galaxy in the source plane, and resolve the star formation into two dozen clumps. We develop a forward-modeling technique to model each clump in the source plane. We ray-trace the model to the image plane, convolve with the instrumental point-spread function (PSF), and compare with the GALFIT model of the clumps in the image plane, which decomposes clump structure from more extended emission. This technique has the advantage, over ray-tracing, of accounting for the asymmetric lensing shear of the galaxy in the image plane and the instrument PSF. At this resolution, we can begin to study star formation on a clump-by-clump basis, toward the goal of understanding feedback mechanisms and the buildup of exponential disks at high redshift. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program # 13003.

  11. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Aihara, Hiroaki; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anderson, Scott F.; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Bosman, Casey T.; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, W. N.; Breslauer, Ben; Brewington, Howard J.; Brinkmann, J.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burger, Dan; Busca, Nicolas G.; Campbell, Heather; Cargile, Phillip A.; Carithers, William C.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Carr, Michael A.; Chang, Liang; Chen, Yanmei; Chiappini, Cristina; Comparat, Johan; Connolly, Natalia; Cortes, Marina; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cunha, Katia; da Costa, Luiz N.; Davenport, James R. A.; Dawson, Kyle; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; de Simoni, Fernando; Dean, Janice; Dhital, Saurav; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eiting, Jacob M.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Dutra Ferreira, Leticia; Fitzgerald, Greg; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Ford, Eric B.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García Pérez, Ana Elia; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ge, Jian; Ghezzi, Luan; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Gilmore, G.; Girardi, Léo; Gott, J. Richard; Gould, Andrew; Grebel, Eva K.; Gunn, James E.; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Harding, Paul; Harris, David W.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Inada, Naohisa; Ivans, Inese I.; Jiang, Linhua; Jiang, Peng; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jordan, Cathy; Jordan, Wendell P.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kazin, Eyal; Kirkby, David; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapp, G. R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Koesterke, Lars; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Kron, Richard G.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lang, Dustin; Lawler, James E.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Lee, Brian L.; Lee, Young Sun; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Liu, Jian; Long, Daniel C.; Loomis, Craig P.; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Lupton, Robert H.; Ma, Bo; Ma, Zhibo; MacDonald, Nicholas; Mack, Claude; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Makler, Martin; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; Maseman, Paul; Masters, Karen L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McDonald, Patrick; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Mena Requejo, Olga; Ménard, Brice; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Morrison, Heather L.; Mullally, Fergal; Muna, Demitri; Murayama, Hitoshi; Myers, Adam D.; Naugle, Tracy; Neto, Angelo Fausti; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Paegert, Martin; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pandey, Parul; Parejko, John K.; Pâris, Isabelle; Pellegrini, Paulo; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Pfaffenberger, Robert; Pforr, Janine; Phleps, Stefanie; Pichon, Christophe; Pieri, Matthew M.; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Ramos, Beatriz H. F.; Reid, I. Neill; Reyle, Celine; Rich, James; Richards, Gordon T.; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio J.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Roe, Natalie A.; Rollinde, Emmanuel; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossetto, Bruno; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basilio; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo; Schlegel, David J.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Sellgren, Kris; Shelden, Alaina; Sheldon, Erin; Shetrone, Matthew; Shu, Yiping; Silverman, John D.; Simmerer, Jennifer; Simmons, Audrey E.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smee, Stephen; Smith, Verne V.; Snedden, Stephanie A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stockett, Mark H.; Stollberg, Todd; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Tojeiro, Rita; Tremonti, Christy A.; Vargas Magaña, Mariana; Verde, Licia; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; White, Martin; White, Simon D. M.; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Yanny, Brian; Yasuda, Naoki; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Young, Erick; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Bo

    2011-09-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8), which was made public in 2011 January and includes SDSS-I and SDSS-II images and spectra reprocessed with the latest pipelines and calibrations produced for the SDSS-III investigations. This paper presents an overview of the four surveys that comprise SDSS-III. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Lyα forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation feature of large-scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z < 0.7 and at z ≈ 2.5. SEGUE-2, an already completed SDSS-III survey that is the continuation of the SDSS-II Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE), measured medium-resolution (R = λ/Δλ ≈ 1800) optical spectra of 118,000 stars in a variety of target categories, probing chemical evolution, stellar kinematics and substructure, and the mass profile of the dark matter halo from the solar neighborhood to distances of 100 kpc. APOGEE, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, will obtain high-resolution (R ≈ 30,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >= 100 per resolution element), H-band (1.51 μm < λ < 1.70 μm) spectra of 105 evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for ~15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet

  12. Stability of Neptune's ring arcs in question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Christophe; Terrile, Richard J.; Smith, Bradford A.; Schneider, Glenn; Becklin, E. E.

    1999-08-01

    Although all four of the gas-giant planets in the Solar System have ring systems, only Neptune exhibits `ring arcs'-stable clumps of dust that are discontinuous from each other. Two basic mechanisms for confining the dust to these arcs have been proposed. The firstrelies on orbital resonances with two shepherding satellites, while the second invokes a single satellite (later suggested to be Galatea) to produce the observed ring arc structures. Here we report observations of the ring arcs and Galatea, which show that there isa mismatch between the locations of the arcs and the site of Galatea's co-rotation inclined resonance. This result calls into question Galatea's sole role in confining the arcs.

  13. A Study of E+A Galaxies Through SDSS-MaNGA Integral Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wally, Muhammad; Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Liu, Allen; Falcone, Julia; Wallack, Nicole Lisa; James, Olivia; Liu, Charles

    2017-01-01

    We outline the selection process and analysis of sixteen E+A galaxies observed by the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey as a part of the fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). We present their Integral field spectroscopy and analyze their spatial distribution of stellar ages, metallicities and other stellar population properties. We can potentially study the variation in these properties as a function of redshift. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through The National Science Foundation.

  14. A Statistical Study of Brown Dwarf Companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; De Lee, Nathan M.; Lee, Brian L.; Fleming, Scott W.; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Varosi, Frank; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Li, Rui; Agol, Eric; MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present 23 new Brown Dwarf (BD) candidates from the Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III). The BD candidates were selected from the processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida 2D pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over the 1D pipeline results included in the SDSS Data Release 12. This sample is the largest BD yield from a single radial velocity survey. Of the 23 candidates, 18 are around main sequence stars and 5 are around giant stars. Given a giant contamination rate of ~24% for the MARVELS survey, we find a BD occurrence rate around main sequence stars of ~0.7%, which agrees with previous studies and confirms the BD desert, while the BD occurrence rate around the MARVELS giant stars is ~0.6%. Preliminary results show that our new candidates around solar type stars support a two population hypothesis, where BDs are divided at a mass of ~42.5 MJup. BDs less massive than 42.5 MJup have eccentricity distributions consistent with planet-planet scattering models, where BDs more massive than 42.5 MJup have both period and eccentricity distributions similar to that of stellar binaries. Special Brown Dwarf systems such as multiple BD systems and highly eccentric BDs will also be presented.

  15. Update on the SDSS-III MARVELS data pipeline development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Ge, J.; Thomas, N. B.; Petersen, E.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Sithajan, S.; Shi, J.; Ouyang, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    MARVELS (Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey), as one of the four surveys in the SDSS-III program, has monitored over 3,300 stars during 2008-2012, with each being visited an average of 26 times over a 2-year window. Although the early data pipeline was able to detect over 20 brown dwarf candidates and several hundreds of binaries, no giant planet candidates have been reliably identified due to its large systematic errors. Learning from past data pipeline lessons, we re-designed the entire pipeline to handle various types of systematic effects caused by the instrument (such as trace, slant, distortion, drifts and dispersion) and observation condition changes (such as illumination profile and continuum). We also introduced several advanced methods to precisely extract the RV signals. To date, we have achieved a long term RMS RV measurement error of 14 m/s for HIP-14810 (one of our reference stars) after removal of the known planet signal based on previous HIRES RV measurement. This new 1-D data pipeline has been used to robustly identify four giant planet candidates within the small fraction of the survey data that has been processed (Thomas et al. this meeting). The team is currently working hard to optimize the pipeline, especially the 2-D interference-fringe RV extraction, where early results show a 1.5 times improvement over the 1-D data pipeline. We are quickly approaching the survey baseline performance requirement of 10-35 m/s RMS for 8-12 solar type stars. With this fine-tuned pipeline and the soon to be processed plates of data, we expect to discover many more giant planet candidates and make a large statistical impact to the exoplanet study.

  16. WISE Photometry for 400 Million SDSS Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Schlegel, David J.

    2016-02-01

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use a “forced photometry” technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star-galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our “unWISE” coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. However, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the “official” WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  17. WISE PHOTOMETRY FOR 400 MILLION SDSS SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Schlegel, David J.

    2016-02-15

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use a “forced photometry” technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star–galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our “unWISE” coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. However, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the “official” WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  18. WISE Photometry for 400 million SDSS sources

    DOE PAGES

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Schlegel, David J.

    2016-01-28

    Here, we present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We also use a "forced photometry" technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star-galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our "unWISE" coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Manymore » sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. But, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the "official" WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.« less

  19. Elements of arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This paper looks at the following arc welding techniques: (1) shielded metal-arc welding; (2) submerged-arc welding; (3) gas metal-arc welding; (4) flux-cored arc welding; (5) electrogas welding; (6) gas tungsten-arc welding; and (7) plasma-arc welding.

  20. OVI absorbers in SDSS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stephan

    We conducted a systematic search for signatures of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) in Quasar spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3 (DR3), focusing on finding intervening absorbers via detection of their O VI doublet. We present a search algorithm, and criteria for distinguishing candidates from spurious Lyman a forest lines. In addition, we compare our findings with simulations of the Lyman a forest in order to estimate the detectability of O VI doublets over various redshift intervals. We obtain a sample of 1866 O VI doublet candidates with rest-frame equivalent width >= 0.05 λ in 855 AGN spectra (out of 3702 objects with redshifts in the range accessible for O VI detection). This sample is subdivided into 3 groups according to the likelihood of being real and the potential for follow-up observation of the candidate. The group with the cleanest and most secure candidates is comprised of 145 candidates. 69 of these reside at a velocity separation >= 5000 km/s from the QSO, and can therefore be classified tentatively as intervening absorbers. Most of these absorbers have not been picked up by earlier, automated QSO absorption line detection algorithms. This sample increases the number of known O VI absorbers at redshifts beyond z abs >= 2.7 substantially. We propose to obtain observations of some of the candidates with the best signatures for O VI doublets with high signal-to-noise and high resolution in order to better constrain the physical state of the absorbers. We then focused on a subsample of 387 AGN sightlines with an average S/N >= 5: 0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r >= 0:19 ? A for the O VI 1032 λ component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density DN/Dz for redshifts z abs >= 2:8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending

  1. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Aihara, Hiroaki; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anderson, Scott F.; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Eric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert; /Johns Hopkins U. /Michigan State U.

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Ly{alpha} forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature of large scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z < 0.7 and at z {approx} 2.5. SEGUE-2, a now-completed continuation of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, measured medium-resolution (R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} 1800) optical spectra of 118,000 stars in a variety of target categories, probing chemical evolution, stellar kinematics and substructure, and the mass profile of the dark matter halo from the solar neighborhood to distances of 100 kpc. APOGEE, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, will obtain high-resolution (R {approx} 30,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {ge} 100 per resolution element), H-band (1.51 {micro}m < {lambda} < 1.70 {micro}m) spectra of 10{sup 5} evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for {approx} 15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s{sup -1}, {approx} 24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of January 2011, SDSS-III has obtained

  2. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Giant Cell Arteritis Giant Cell Arteritis Fast Facts Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is ... polymyalgia rheumatica (also called PMR). What is giant cell arteritis? GCA is a type of vasculitis or ...

  3. The 8 O'clock Arc: current and future follow-up plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, D. L.; Lin, H.; Diehl, H.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Annis, J.; Frieman, J. A.; Brinchmann, J.; Shapley, A.; Strauss, M.; Tremonti, C.; Martin, C.; Baker, A.; Lutz, D.; Smith, J.; Kubik, D.; Kubo, J.; Scarpine, V.; McGinnis, D.; Estrada, J.; Schneider, D.; Kochanek, C.; Gladders, M.; Hall, P.

    2007-05-01

    The newly discovered brightest lensed Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) currently known (the 8 O'clock Arc, Allam et al. 2007), will allow several follow-up observations, as well as the creation of new tools for searching for similar bright gravitationally lensed objects in the SDSS data set. Here we discuss the photometric properties of the 8 O'clock Arc, and briefly describe a search program for similar candidate and our future plans.

  4. The Third Image of the Large-Separation Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, Masamune; Ofek, Eran O.; Inada, Naohisa; Morokuma, Tomoki; Falco, Emilio E.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Kayo, Issha; Broadhurst, Tom; Richards, Gordon T.

    2008-02-22

    We identify a third image in the unique quasar lens SDSS J1029+2623, the second known quasar lens produced by a massive cluster of galaxies. The spectrum of the third image shows similar emission and absorption features, but has a redder continuum than the other two images which can be explained by differential extinction or microlensing. We also identify several lensed arcs. Our observations suggest a complicated structure of the lens cluster at z {approx} 0.6. We argue that the three lensed images are produced by a naked cusp on the basis of successful mass models, the distribution of cluster member galaxies, and the shapes and locations of the lensed arcs. Lensing by a naked cusp is quite rare among galaxy-scale lenses but is predicted to be common among large-separation lensed quasars. Thus the discovery can be viewed as support for an important theoretical prediction of the standard cold dark matter model.

  5. Performance of the SDSS-III MARVELS New Data Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Ge, J.; Thomas, N. B.; Shi, J.; Petersen, E.; Ouyang, Y.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Sithajan, S.

    2013-01-01

    As one of the four surveys in the SDSS-III program, MARVELS (Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey) had monitored over 3,300 stars during 2008-2012 with each observed about 27 times over a 2-year window. MARVELS has successfully produced over 20 brown dwarf candidates and several hundreds of binaries. However, the early data pipeline has large long term systematic errors and cannot reliably produce giant planet candidates. Our new MARVELS pipeline team, with the assistance of UF Department of Mathematics, has made great progress in dealing with the long-term systematic errors over the past 9 months. We redesigned the entire pre-processing procedure to handle various types of systematic effects caused by the instrument (such as trace, slant and distortion) and observation condition changes (such as illumination profile). We explored several advanced methods to precisely extract the RV signal from the processed spectra. We also developed a new simulation program to model all of these effects and used it to test the performance of our new pipeline. Our goal is to deliver a new pipeline to meet the survey baseline performance 10-35 m/s for the survey stars) by the end of 2012. We will report the fundamental performance of the pipeline and lessons learned from the pipeline development.

  6. Candidate members of the Pal 5, GD-1, Cetus Polar and Orphan tidal stellar halo streams from SDSS DR9, LAMOST DR3 and APOGEE catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang-Wei; Yanny, Brian; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Bai, Zong-Rui; Wu, Yue; Dong, Yi-Qiao; Lei, Ya-Juan; Yuan, Hai-Long; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Zhang, Yong

    2017-05-01

    We present candidate members of the Pal 5, GD-1, Cetus Polar and Orphan tidal stellar streams found in LAMOST DR3, SDSS DR9 and APOGEE catalogs. In LAMOST DR3, we find 20, 4 and 24 high confidence candidates of tidal streams GD-1, Cetus Polar and Orphan respectively. We also list 59, 118 and 10 high confidence candidates of tidal streams Cetus Polar, Orphan and Pal 5, respectively from the SDSS DR9 spectroscopic catalog. Furthermore, we find seven high confidence candidates of the Pal 5 tidal stream in the APOGEE data. Compared with SDSS, the new candidates from LAMOST DR3 are brighter, so that together, more of the color-magnitude diagram, including the giant branch, can be explored. Analysis of the SDSS data shows that there are three metallicity peaks associated with the Orphan stream which also exhibit some spatial separation. The LAMOST data confirm multiple metallicities in this stream. The metallicity, given by the higher resolution APOGEE instrument, of the Pal 5 tidal stream is [Fe/H] ˜ -1.2, higher than that given earlier by SDSS spectra. Many previously unidentified stream members are tabulated here for the first time, along with existing members, allowing future researchers to further constrain the orbits of these objects as they move within the Galaxy’s dark matter potential.

  7. Detailed abundances in EMP dwarfs from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbordone, Luca; Caffau, Elisabetta; Bonifacio, Piercarlo

    2012-09-01

    We report on the current status of an ongoing survey to select extremely metal poor (EMP) turn-off (TO) stars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra, and determine their detailed chemical composition through high resolution follow-up. So far, 26 stars have been observed with UVESatVLT and X-SHOOTERatVLT, all but two showing an iron content below [Fe/H]=-3. Among them we detected the current record holder for the lowest total metallicity (SDSS J102915+172927, Z=10-5 Zsolar), four carbon-enhanced extremely metal poor objects (CEMP), as well as subsets with enhanced Ni and Mn. Lithium abundances or upper limits were derived, confirming the previously detected ``meltdown'' of the Spite plateau for metallicities below about [Fe/H]=-2.8. SDSS J102915+172927 in particular shows no detectable Li I 670.8 doublet, leading to an upper limit of A(Li)<1.1, hinting to an even deeper Li depletion in TO stars below [Fe/H]=-4. Spectroscopic follow-up is currently being prosecuted by the recently started ESO large program TOPoS, aiming to observe about 80 more EMP candidates.

  8. SN Typing for the SDSS SN Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth S.; /Wellesley Coll. /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    In the fall of 2004 the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 2.5m telescope scanned the southern equatorial stripe for approximately 20 nights over the space of two months. Light curves for over four dozen supernovae (SNe) were collected over time using five colored filters ugriz that together had a range of approximately 3000{angstrom} to 10500{angstrom}. 22 SNe were spectroscopically confirmed with follow-up observation. Using the data obtained in the Fall 2004 campaign, preparations are now being made for the Supernova Survey of the SDSS II, a three-year extension of the original project. One main goal of the Supernova Survey will be to identify and study type Ia SNe of up to redshift {approx}0.4, the intermediate ''redshift desert'', as well as enabling further study of other types of SNe including type 1b/c and peculiar SNe. Most of the SNe found will not have spectra taken, due to time and cost constraints. Thus it would be advantageous to be able to robustly type SNe solely from the light curves obtained by the SDSS telescope prior to, or even without ever obtaining a spectrum. Using light curves of well-observed SNe templates were constructed for comparison with unknown SNe in order to photometrically type them.

  9. Identifying Remote Halo Giants in High-Latitude Fields with Kepler 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2016-08-01

    This work sketches how SDSS ugr colors and Kepler 2 in halo fields can identify red giants 50 - 100 kpc distant with minimal metallicity bias. For these mildly-reddened, metal-poor giants, (g-r)o yields the effective temperature T eff to 100 K. K2 can detect the p-mode oscillations of red giants and measure their frequency of maximum power νmax. This sets the luminosity L bol and thus the distance, plus an estimate of metallicity [Fe/H].

  10. Follow up observations of SDSS and CRTS candidate cataclysmic variables

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, Paula; Vasquez-Soltero, Stephanie; Everett, Mark E.; Silva, David R.; Howell, Steve B.; Landolt, Arlo U.; Bond, Howard E. E-mail: dsilva@noao.edu E-mail: landolt@rouge.phys.lsu.edu

    2014-10-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of 11 and 35 potential cataclysmic variables, respectively, from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, and vsnet alerts. The photometry results include quasi-periodic oscillations during the decline of V1363 Cyg, nightly accretion changes in the likely Polar (AM Herculis binary) SDSS J1344+20, eclipses in SDSS J2141+05 with an orbital period of 76 ± 2 minutes, and possible eclipses in SDSS J2158+09 at an orbital period near 100 minutes. Time-resolved spectra reveal short orbital periods near 80 minutes for SDSS J0206+20, 85 minutes for SDSS J1502+33, and near 100 minutes for CSS J0015+26, RXS J0150+37, SDSS J1132+62, SDSS J2154+15, and SDSS J2158+09. The prominent He II line and velocity amplitude of SDSS J2154+15 are consistent with a Polar nature for this object, while the absence of this line and a low velocity amplitude argue against this classification for RXS J0150+37. Single spectra of 10 objects were obtained near outburst and the rest near quiescence, confirming the dwarf novae nature of these objects.

  11. The Fall 2004 SDSS Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Sako, M.

    2005-04-13

    In preparation for the Supernova Survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) II, a proposed 3-year extension to the SDSS, we have conducted an early engineering and science run during the fall of 2004, which consisted of approximately 20 scheduled nights of repeated imaging of half of the southern equatorial stripe. Transient supernova-like events were detected in near real-time and photometric measurements were made in the five SDSS filter bandpasses with a cadence of {approx} 2 days. Candidate type Ia supernovae (SNe) were pre-selected based on their colors, light curve shape, and the properties of the host galaxy. Follow-up spectroscopic observations were performed with the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5m telescope and the 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope to confirm their types and measure the redshifts. The 2004 campaign resulted in 22 spectroscopically confirmed SNe, which includes 16 type Ia, 5 type II, and 1 type Ib/c. These SN Ia will help fill in the sparsely sampled redshift interval of z = 0.05-0.35, the so-called ''redshift desert'', in the Hubble diagram. Detailed investigation of the spectral properties of these moderate-redshift SNe Ia will also provide a bridge between local SNe and high-redshift objects, and will help us understand the systematics for future cosmological applications that require high photometric precision. Finally, the large survey volume also provides the opportunity to select unusual supernovae for spectroscopic study that are poorly sampled in other surveys. We report on some of the early results from this program and discuss potential future applications.

  12. The Fall 2004 SDSS Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Masao; Romani, Roger; Frieman, Josh; Adelman-McCarthy, Jen; Becker, Andrew; Dejongh, Fritz; Dilday, Ben; Estrada, Juan; Hendry, John; Holtzman, Jon; Kaplan, Jared; Kessler, Rick; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miknaitis, Gajus; Riess, Adam; Tucker, Douglas; Barentine, John; Blandford, Roger; Brewington, Howard; Dembicky, Jack; Harvanek, Mike; Hawley, Suzanne; Hogan, Craig; Johnston, David; Kahn, Steve; Ketzeback, Bill; Kleinman, Scot; Krzesinski, Jerzy; Lamenti, Dennis; Long, Dan; McMillan, Russet; Newman, Peter; Nitta, Atsuko; Nichol, Robert; Scranton, Ryan; Sheldon, Erin; Snedden, Stephanie; Stoughton, Chris; York, Don; SDSS Collaboration

    In preparation for the Supernova Survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) II, a proposed 3-year extension to the SDSS, we have conducted an early engineering and science run during the fall of 2004, which consisted of approximately 20 scheduled nights of repeated imaging of half of the southern equatorial stripe. Transient supernova-like events were detected in near real-time and photometric measurements were made in the five SDSS filter bandpasses with a cadence of ~ 2 days. Candidate type Ia supernovae (SNe) were pre-selected based on their colors, light curve shape, and the properties of the host galaxy. Follow-up spectroscopic observations were performed with the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5m telescope and the 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope to confirm their types and measure the redshifts. The 2004 campaign resulted in 22 spectroscopically confirmed SNe, which includes 16 type Ia, 5 type II, and 1 type Ib/c. These SN Ia will help fill in the sparsely sampled redshift interval of z = 0.05-0.35, the so-called 'redshift desert', in the Hubble diagram. Detailed investigation of the spectral properties of these moderate-redshift SNe Ia will also provide a bridge between local SNe and high-redshift objects, and will help us understand the systematics for future cosmological applications that require high photometric precision. Finally, the large survey volume also provides the opportunity to select unusual supernovae for spectroscopic study that are poorly sampled in other surveys. We report on some of the early results from this program and discuss potential future applications.

  13. A Terabyte Analysis Machine for SDSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annis, James; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Ruthsmandorfer, Kurt; Stoughton, Chris

    2001-08-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey data has driven us to design the Terabyte Analysis Machine, a high-I/O compute cluster built on a cluster of commodity computers, a fiber channel network, and a large disk tower; on Linux, on a new cluster file system called GFS, and on the sophisticated SX database. Our initial implementation is a 7 dual processor nodes with 500 Gb of local disk and 730 Gb of global disk. We expect to use the TAM to search the first 1000 sq-degrees of the SDSS for clusters of galaxies. .

  14. The FAST Initiative: Fostering a More Inclusive SDSS Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Chanover, Nancy J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Liu, Charles; Mason, Paul A.; Pando, Jesus; Rice, Emily L.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Sanchez-Gallego, Jose Ramon; Lucatello, Sara; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Belfiore, Francesco; Cherinka, Brian; Feuillet, Diane; Jones, Amy; Masters, Karen; Simmons, Audrey; Ross, Ashley; Stassun, Keivan G.; Tayar, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The success of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) hinges on tapping into a diverse talent base. From our experience, however, it is clear that simply allowing access to SDSS data is not enough to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities in the collaboration. For this reason, the SDSS collaboration instituted the Faculty and Student Team (FAST) Program, which pairs teams of faculty and students from underrepresented groups with SDSS partners to build serious, long-term research collaborations. Our intent is to build capacity at the faculty level to propagate SDSS research to students in the long-term. We present the FAST initiative in detail and outline results from the first 1.5 years of the program.

  15. SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Pecanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S.; Koester, D.; Krzesinski, J.; Dufour, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Bergeron, P.; Yip, Ching-Wa; Harris, Hugh C.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Althaus, L.; Corsico, A.

    2013-01-15

    We present a new catalog of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 spectroscopic catalog. We find 20,407 white dwarf spectra, representing 19,712 stars, and provide atmospheric model fits to 14,120 DA and 1011 DB white dwarf spectra from 12,843 and 923 stars, respectively. These numbers represent more than a factor of two increase in the total number of white dwarf stars from the previous SDSS white dwarf catalogs based on DR4 data. Our distribution of subtypes varies from previous catalogs due to our more conservative, manual classifications of each star in our catalog, supplementing our automatic fits. In particular, we find a large number of magnetic white dwarf stars whose small Zeeman splittings mimic increased Stark broadening that would otherwise result in an overestimated log g if fit as a non-magnetic white dwarf. We calculate mean DA and DB masses for our clean, non-magnetic sample and find the DB mean mass is statistically larger than that for the DAs.

  16. Spatially Resolved Stellar Populations Of Nearby Post-Starburst Galaxies In SDSS-IV MaNGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Charles; Betances, Ashley; Bonilla, Alaina Marie; Gonzalez, Andrea; Migliore, Christina; Goddard, Daniel; Masters, Karen; SDSS-IV MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    We have selected five galaxies in the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) project of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) identified as post-starburst (E+A) systems, in the transition between "blue cloud" and "red sequence" galaxies. We measure the equivalent widths of the Balmer series, D4000 break, and metal lines across each galaxy, and produce maps of the stellar age, stellar mass, and metallicities of each galaxy using FIREFLY, a full spectral analysis code. We have found that the measured properties of the galaxies overall generally matches well with single-aperture SDSS spectra from which the original post-starburst identifications were made. The variation in the spatial distributions of the stellar populations, in particular the A-stars, give us insight into the details of the transitional E+A quenching phase. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement No. SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  17. The Formation of COINS: Equity and Inclusion in SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Sanchez-Gallego, Jose Ramon; Chanover, Nancy J.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lucatello, Sara; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Belfiore, Francesco; Cherinka, Brian; Feuillet, Diane; Jones, Amy; Masters, Karen; Simmons, Audrey; Ross, Ashley; Stassun, Keivan G.; Tayar, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    In the era of large surveys, collaborations like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are becoming a new normal for many scientists, and collaboration policies and climate have a considerable affect on scientific careers. As such, it is essential that collaborations actively strive to include all scientists regardless of gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, career stage, geographic location, economic background, social and cultural backgrounds, and all possible intersections thereof. We report on the formation and progress of the Committee On INclusiveness in the SDSS (COINS). COINS was formed to assess the SDSS-IV project and collaboration's climate and demographics, to recommend new policies or practices with regard to increasing inclusiveness, and to assist in the implementation of these new activities where necessary. We report on our current activities, which include ongoing support for the SDSS Research Experience for Undergraduates program, support for the SDSS Faculty and Student Teams initiative, administering and analyzing the SDSS demographic surveys, working towards collaboration meeting inclusiveness and accessibility, and adopting strategies for integrating and mentoring new members. We welcome input from SDSS members and non-members about how to work towards a more equitable and inclusive collaboration.

  18. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The SDSS Supernova Survey was one of those three components of SDSS and SDSS-II, a 3-year extension of the original SDSS that operated from July 2005 to July 2008. The Supernova Survey was a time-domain survey, involving repeat imaging of the same region of sky every other night, weather permitting. The primary scientific motivation was to detect and measure light curves for several hundred supernovae through repeat scans of the SDSS Southern equatorial stripe 82 (about 2.5? wide by ~120? long). Over the course of three 3-month campaigns SDSS-II SN discovered and measured multi-band lightcurves for ~500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z=0.05-0.4. In addition, the project harvested a few hundred light curves for SNe Ia and discovered about 80 spectroscopically confirmed core-collapse supernovae (supernova types Ib/c and II).

  19. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, David H.; Beers, T.; Blanton, M.; Eisenstein, D.; Ford, H.; Ge, J.; Gillespie, B.; Gunn, J.; Klaene, M.; Knapp, G.; Kron, R.; Majewski, S.; Nichol, R.; O'Connell, R. W.; Raddick, M. J.; Rockosi, C.; Roe, N.; Schiavon, R.; Schneider, D.; Schlegel, D.; Skrutskie, M.; Snedden, S.; Strauss, M.; Wan, X.; White, M.

    2007-12-01

    Continuing the extraordinary legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), SDSS-III will use the wide-field spectroscopic capabilities of the APO 2.5-meter telescope to carry out four surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters; the structure, dynamics, and chemical evolution of the Milky Way; and the structure of giant planet systems. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will measure redshifts of 1.5 million luminous red galaxies and Lyman-alpha absorption towards 160,000 high redshift quasars. By using the baryon acoustic oscillation scale as a physically calibrated ruler, BOSS will determine the cosmic distance scale with percent-level precision at z=0.2-0.7 and z=2-3. SEGUE-2, an extension of the SDSS-II program SEGUE (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration), will obtain optical spectra of 350,000 stars (resolution R=2,000, typical S/N=25) to probe the kinematics and chemical evolution of the outer Galaxy. The APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) will use high-resolution (R=20,000, S/N=100) H-band spectroscopy to penetrate interstellar dust obscuration, measuring radial velocities and detailed elemental abundance patterns of 100,000 red giant stars across the full range of the Galactic bulge, bar, disk, and halo. Together, SEGUE-2 and APOGEE will provide a picture of the Milky Way that is unprecedented in scope, richness, and detail. The Multi-Object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will use fiber-fed interferometric spectrographs to monitor the radial velocities of 11,000 bright stars with the precision and cadence needed to detect gas giant planets having orbital periods from several hours to two years. MARVELS will provide a critical statistical data set for testing theories of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. The six-year SDSS-III program (2008-2014) is international in scope, with participating institutions from the U.S., Europe, and

  20. Weld arc simulator

    DOEpatents

    Burr, Melvin J.

    1990-01-30

    An arc voltage simulator for an arc welder permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  1. Weld arc simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.J.

    1989-03-01

    An arc voltage simulator for an arc welder permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  2. Weld arc simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.J.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes an arc voltage simulator for an arc welder which permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  3. Extremely metal-poor stars from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, H.-G.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Behara, N. T.; González Hernández, J. I.; Sbordone, L.

    2008-12-01

    We give a progress report on the activities within the CIFIST Team related to the search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's (SDSS) spectroscopic catalogue. So far, the search has provided 25 candidates with metallicities around or smaller than -3. For 15 candidates, high-resolution spectroscopy with UVES at the VLT has confirmed their EMP status. Work is under way to extend the search to the SDSS's photometric catalogue by augmenting the SDSS photometry and by gauging the capabilities of X-shooter when going to significantly fainter targets.

  4. Type Ia Supernova Rate from SDSS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krughoff, K. Simon; Connolly, A. J.; Scranton, R.; Frieman, J.; SubbaRao, M.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of the Type Ia supernova rate is essential to our understanding of the star formation history of the Universe. Lately, high redshift measurements of the Type Ia rate have been receiving a lot of publicity, but understanding supernovae in the local universe is also important.In particular, comparison of detection methods and the associated rate measurements at low redshift can improve methods at higher redshift. We present a novel approach for detecting Type Ia supernovae in single epoch spectroscopic observations. Application of this method to the SDSS spectroscopic sample finds 100 supernovae resulting in a luminosity weighted rate of 0.24±0.01 SNu at z=0.1. Our measurement is in good agreement with others at low redshift. We discuss the application of this method to high redshift spectroscopic samples. This work was funded by the NSF through grant 0851007.

  5. Quasar Absorption Lines and SDSS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Emileigh Suzanne; Scott, Jennifer E.; Oldak, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the sightlines of 45 low redshift quasars (0.06 < z < 0.85) observed with HST/COS that lie within the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use both the SDSS DR12 galaxy photometric data, including photometric redshifts, and the measured properties of the absorbers along with the known absorption characteristics of the intergalactic medium and the circumgalactic medium of galaxies to assign the most probable galaxy matches for each absorber in the sample, using estimated galaxy luminosities and virial radii as a discriminator. We show that the scheme can recover known galaxy-absorber matches found from spectroscopic data and thus provides a method for identifying likely pairs in photometric data sets as well as targets for spectroscopic follow up.

  6. QSO color selection in the SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, H.J.; Yanny, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) will image 10,000 square degrees in the north galactic cap in five filters. We hope to identify and obtain spectra for about 100,000 quasars brighter than 20th magnitude in this area. The selection will be primarily on the basis of point spread function and colors, but we will also identify quasars from a catalog of FIRST radio sources. The selection areas in color space must be determined during the testing period prior to the official start of the survey. This task may determine the length of the test period. In anticipation of this becoming the critical path, we have written a body of software that will allow us to quickly analyze a set of multicolor data and make a first cut at the selection limits.

  7. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  8. Extreme Red Quasars in SDSS-BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia; Paris, Isabelle; Herbst, Hanna; Villforth, Carolin; Alexandroff, Rachael; Ross, Nicholas; Greene, Jenny; Strauss, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Red quasars are believed to mark a critical transition stage of massive galaxy evolution when a blowout of gas and dust truncates the initial starburst and provides our first visible views of a luminous central AGN. Red quasars could therefore have unusual properties associated with a young evolution stage, such as higher accretion rates, higher rates of mergers and interactions, and more common or more powerful outflows capable of driving a galaxy-wide blowout (e.g., compared to normal blue quasars in presumably more evolved galaxy hosts). The recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey (BOSS) of SDSS-III has discovered many more faint quasars with higher redshifts and redder colors than any previous large survey. We combine BOSS spectra with SDSS and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometry of nearly 100,000 quasars to identify and characterize the red quasar population at redshifts >2. We find a number of strong trends with the amount of reddening/obscuration. For example, red quasars are 5 to 8 times more likely to have broad absorption lines and other "intrinsic" absorption lines that identify quasar-driven outflows. Perhaps most interesting is that extreme red quasars (ERQs), selected via rest-frame UV to near-IR colors similar to Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs), have uniquely exotic emission line properties that include extreme velocity shifts between lines and the broadest and most blueshifted [OIII] lines yet discovered (with FWHMs reaching >3000 km/s). We will discuss the implications of these results for models of the structure and evolution of quasars and their host galaxy environments.

  9. Giant Magnons Meet Giant Gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, Diego M.

    2008-07-28

    We study the worldsheet reflection matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. The D-brane corresponds to a maximal giant graviton that wraps an S{sup 3} inside S{sup 5}. In the gauge theory, the open string is described by a spin chain with boundaries. We focus on open strings with a large SO(6) charge and define an asymptotic boundary reflection matrix. Using the symmetries of the problem, we review the computation of the boundary reflection matrix, up to a phase. We also discuss weak and strong coupling computations where we obtain the overall phase factor and test our exact results.

  10. Mapping the Milky Way's Halo out to 500 kpc: New M Giants selected from UKIDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochanski, John J.; Willman, B.; West, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of photometrically identified halo M giants in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS). The UKIDSS LAS Data Release 8 covers 2700 square degrees with yJHK photometry, down to faint limits about 3 magnitudes deeper than 2MASS. UKIDSS LAS DR8 is thus >4 times larger in effective volume than the 2MASS halo map. Combined with ugriz photometry from SDSS, our M giant sample extends to 500 kpc, the first to extend beyond 100 kpc and the first to utilize SDSS photometry to discriminate against quasars. We use this sample to search for new tidal debris structures in the distant halo and to constrain the recent merger history of the Milky Way. Spectroscopic follow-up will facilitate the study of Milky Way halo kinematics. We acknowledge the financial support of NSF AST-1151462.

  11. Properties of Isolated Galaxies in the SDSS DR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, D. L.; Allam, S. S.; SDSS Collaboration

    2004-05-01

    We analyze the properties of a sample of ˜4,500 isolated galaxies selected from the SDSS DR2 photometric data following well defined criteria (Tucker & Allam 2003). The results are briefly discussed.

  12. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  13. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR1 was the first major data release, providing images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  14. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 2

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR2 provides provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  15. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 5

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR5 provides provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  16. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 3

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR3 provides provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  17. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): Data Release 4

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the most ambitious and influential surveys in the history of astronomy.Over eight years of operations (SDSS-I, 2000-2005; SDSS-II, 2005-2008), it obtained deep, multi-color images covering more than a quarter of the sky and created 3-dimensional maps containing more than 930,000 galaxies and more than 120,000 quasars. The SDSS used a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, equipped with two powerful special-purpose instruments. SDSS data have supported fundamental work across an extraordinary range of astronomical disciplines, including the properties of galaxies, the evolution of quasars, the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxy companions of the Milky Way and M31, asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system, and the large scale structure and matter and energy contents of the universe. (Taken from home page of www.sdss.org). DR4 provides provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download.

  18. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF SDSS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Nagai, Daisuke; Zheng Zheng; Shen Yue

    2012-08-10

    We present an estimate of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over the full range of one- and two-halo scales, 0.02 h{sup -1} Mpc < r{sub p} < 120 h{sup -1} Mpc. This was achieved by combining data from SDSS DR7 on large scales and Hennawi et al. (with appropriate statistical corrections) on small scales. Our combined clustering sample is the largest spectroscopic quasar clustering sample to date, containing {approx}48, 000 quasars in the redshift range 0.4 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.5 with median redshift 1.4. We interpret these precise 2PCF measurements within the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework and constrain the occupation functions of central and satellite quasars in dark matter halos. In order to explain the small-scale clustering, the HOD modeling requires that a small fraction of z {approx} 1.4 quasars, f{sub sat} = (7.4 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, be satellites in dark matter halos. At z {approx} 1.4, the median masses of the host halos of central and satellite quasars are constrained to be M{sub cen} = 4.1{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and M{sub sat} = 3.6{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }, respectively. To investigate the redshift evolution of the quasar-halo relationship, we also perform HOD modeling of the projected 2PCF measured by Shen et al. for SDSS quasars with median redshift 3.2. We find tentative evidence for an increase in the mass scale of quasar host halos-the inferred median mass of halos hosting central quasars at z {approx} 3.2 is M{sub cen} = 14.1{sup +5.8}{sub -6.9} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }. The cutoff profiles of the mean occupation functions of central quasars reveal that quasar luminosity is more tightly correlated with halo mass at higher redshifts. The average quasar duty cycle around the median host halo mass is inferred to be f{sub q

  19. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  20. Stellar SEDs from 0.3 to 2.5 μm: Tracing the Stellar Locus and Searching for Color Outliers in the SDSS and 2MASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, K. R.; Ivezić, Ž.; Schlegel, D.; Finkbeiner, D.; Padmanabhan, N.; Lupton, R. H.; Agüeros, M. A.; Bochanski, J. J.; Hawley, S. L.; West, A. A.; Seth, A.; Kimball, A.; Gogarten, S. M.; Claire, M.; Haggard, D.; Kaib, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Sesar, B.

    2007-12-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) are rich resources for studying stellar astrophysics and the structure and formation history of the Galaxy. As new surveys and instruments adopt similar filter sets, it is increasingly important to understand the properties of the ugrizJHKs stellar locus, both to inform studies of "normal" main-sequence stars and enable robust searches for point sources with unusual colors. Using a sample of ~600,000 point sources detected by SDSS and 2MASS, we tabulate the position and width of the ugrizJHKs stellar locus as a function of g - i color, and provide accurate polynomial fits. We map the Morgan-Keenan spectral type sequence to the median stellar locus by using synthetic photometry of spectral standards and by analyzing 3000 SDSS stellar spectra with a custom spectral typing pipeline, described in the Appendix to this paper. We develop an algorithm to calculate a point source's minimum separation from the stellar locus in a seven-dimensional color space, and use it to robustly identify objects with unusual colors, as well as spurious SDSS/2MASS matches. Analysis of a final catalog of 2117 color outliers identifies 370 white-dwarf/M dwarf (WDMD) pairs, 93 QSOs, and 90 M giant/carbon star candidates, and demonstrates that WDMD pairs and QSOs can be distinguished on the basis of their J - Ks and r - z colors. We also identify a group of objects with correlated offsets in the u - g versus g - r and g - r versus r - i color-color spaces, but subsequent follow-up is required to reveal the nature of these objects. Future applications of this algorithm to a matched SDSS-UKIDSS catalog may well identify additional classes of objects with unusual colors by probing new areas of color-magnitude space.

  1. Low pressure arc electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenn, P. D.; Richter, R.

    1970-01-01

    Reducing the pressure in the vicinity of the arc attachment point by allowing the gas to flow through a supersonic nozzle minimizes local heating rates, prevents ablation, and increases the efficiency of coaxial gas-flow arcs.

  2. The SDSS-III DR12 MARVELS radial velocity data release: the first data release from the multiple object Doppler exoplanet survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Li, Rui; Senan Seieroe Grieves, Nolan; Ma, Bo; de Lee, Nathan M.; Lee, Brian C.; Liu, Jian; Bolton, Adam S.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Weaver, Benjamin; SDSS-Iii Marvels Team

    2015-01-01

    We present the first data release from the SDSS-III Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) through the SDSS-III DR12. The data include 181,198 radial velocity (RV) measurements for a total of 5520 different FGK stars with V~7.6-12, of which more than 80% are dwarfs and subdwarfs while remainders are GK giants, among a total of 92 fields nearly randomly spread out over the entire northern sky taken with a 60-object MARVELS dispersed fixed-delay interferometer instrument over four years (2008-2012). There were 55 fields with a total of 3300 FGK stars which had 14 or more observations over about 2-year survey window. The median number of observations for these plates is 27 RV measurements. This represents the largest homogeneous sample of precision RV measurements of relatively bright stars. In this first released data, a total of 18 giant planet candidates, 16 brown dwarfs, and over 500 binaries with additional 96 targets having RV variability indicative of a giant planet companion are reported. The released data were produced by the MARVELS finalized 1D pipeline. We will also report preliminary statistical results from the MARVELS 2D data pipeline which has produced a median RV precision of ~30 m/s for stable stars.

  3. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  4. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in SDSS/SEGUE. I. Carbon Abundance Estimation and Frequency of CEMP Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Masseron, Thomas; Plez, Bertrand; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Yanny, Brian; Lucatello, Sara; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela

    2013-10-17

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the SDSS and SEGUE. By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N > 15 to a precision better than 0.35 dex. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] > +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] < -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] < -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] < -3.5. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] < -2.5. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] < -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] < -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to distance from the Galactic mid-plane (|Z| < 5 kpc), the frequency of the CEMP giants does not increase at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -2.5), but rather, decreases, due to the dilution of C-rich material in stars that have undergone mixing with CNO-processed material from their interiors. The frequency of CEMP stars near the main-sequence turnoff, which are not expected to have experienced mixing, increases for [Fe/H] < -3.0. [abridged

  5. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  6. The Third Image of the Large-Separation Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Masamune; Ofek, Eran O.; Inada, Naohisa; Morokuma, Tomoki; Falco, Emilio E.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Kayo, Issha; Broadhurst, Tom; Richards, Gordon T.

    2008-03-01

    We identify a third image in the unique quasar lens SDSS J1029+2623, the second known quasar lens produced by a massive cluster of galaxies. The spectrum of the third image shows similar emission and absorption features but has a redder continuum than the other two images, which can be explained by differential extinction or microlensing. We also identify several lensed arcs. Our observations suggest a complicated structure of the lens cluster at z ≈ 0.6. We argue that the three lensed images are produced by a naked cusp on the basis of successful mass models, the distribution of cluster member galaxies, and the shapes and locations of the lensed arcs. Lensing by a naked cusp is quite rare among galaxy-scale lenses but is predicted to be common among large-separation lensed quasars. Thus the discovery can be viewed as support for an important theoretical prediction of the standard cold dark matter model. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. This work is based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Use of the UH 2.2 m telescope for the observations is supported by NAOJ.

  7. The SDSS-II/SEGUE Spectroscopic Parameter Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young S.; Beers, T. C.; Sivarani, T.; Wilhelm, R.; Allende Prieto, C.; Norris, J. E.; Fiorentin, P. R.; Bailer-Jones, C. A.; SEGUE Calibration Team

    2006-12-01

    The Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) is one of three key projects in SDSS-II. SEGUE is in the process of obtaining ugriz imaging of some 3500 square degrees of sky outside of the SDSS-I footprint, with special attention being given to scans of lower galactic latitudes in order to better probe the disk/halo interface in the Galaxy. Over one-third of the imaging has already been completed. SEGUE is also obtaining R = 2000 sectroscopy over the wavelenth range 380 900 nm for 250,000 stars in 200 selected areas over the sky available from Apache Point, New Mexico. The spectroscopic candidates are selected on the basis of ugriz photometry to populate some 16 target categories of stars chosen to explore the nature of the stellar populations in the Galaxy as a function of distance from the Sun (from 0.5 kpc to over 100 kpc). The SEGUE data clearly require automated analysis tools in order to extract the maximum amount of useful information. In this contribution we describe the development and execution of the SEGUE spectroscopic analysis pipeline, which makes use of multiple approaches (including spectral matching, neural network analysis, line index calculations, etc.) in order to estimate the fundamental stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and [Fe/H]). These approaches are in the process of being extended to include determinations of other elemental abundances (e.g., C, Na, Mg) that the SDSS spectra probe. Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS Web Site is http://www.sdss.org/.

  8. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  9. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2013-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution {enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection} and rapid frame rates {enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements}.We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere {10^20 J}.HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing {not achievable from the ground} is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  10. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2014-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution (enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection) and rapid frame rates (enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements).We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere (10^20 J).HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing (not achievable from the ground) is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  11. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2012-10-01

    The 2009 impact on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution {enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection} and rapid frame rates {enabling the 2010 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements}.We propose a Target of Opportunity program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere.HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing {not achievable from the ground} is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  12. CALIBRATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS OBTAINED FROM THE FIRST YEAR OF SDSS-III APOGEE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mészáros, Sz.; Allende Prieto, C.; Holtzman, J.; García Pérez, A. E.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Hearty, F. R.; Majewski, S. R.; Schiavon, R. P.; Basu, S.; Bizyaev, D.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Cunha, K.; Epstein, C.; Johnson, J. A.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; García, R. A.; Kallinger, T.; Koesterke, L.; and others

    2013-11-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a three-year survey that is collecting 10{sup 5} high-resolution spectra in the near-IR across multiple Galactic populations. To derive stellar parameters and chemical compositions from this massive data set, the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) has been developed. Here, we describe empirical calibrations of stellar parameters presented in the first SDSS-III APOGEE data release (DR10). These calibrations were enabled by observations of 559 stars in 20 globular and open clusters. The cluster observations were supplemented by observations of stars in NASA's Kepler field that have well determined surface gravities from asteroseismic analysis. We discuss the accuracy and precision of the derived stellar parameters, considering especially effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity; we also briefly discuss the derived results for the abundances of the α-elements, carbon, and nitrogen. Overall, we find that ASPCAP achieves reasonably accurate results for temperature and metallicity, but suffers from systematic errors in surface gravity. We derive calibration relations that bring the raw ASPCAP results into better agreement with independently determined stellar parameters. The internal scatter of ASPCAP parameters within clusters suggests that metallicities are measured with a precision better than 0.1 dex, effective temperatures better than 150 K, and surface gravities better than 0.2 dex. The understanding provided by the clusters and Kepler giants on the current accuracy and precision will be invaluable for future improvements of the pipeline.

  13. The composition of a disrupted extrasolar planetesimal at SDSS J0845+2257 (Ton 345)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Koester, D.; Toloza, O.; Pala, A. F.; Breedt, E.; Parsons, S. G.

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed study of the metal-polluted DB white dwarf SDSS J0845+2257 (Ton 345). Using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and Very Large Telescope spectroscopy, we have detected hydrogen and 11 metals in the atmosphere of the white dwarf. The origin of these metals is almost certainly the circumstellar disc of dusty and gaseous debris from a tidally disrupted planetesimal, accreting at a rate of 1.6 × 1010 g s-1. Studying the chemical abundances of the accreted material demonstrates that the planetesimal had a composition similar to the Earth, dominated by rocky silicates and metallic iron, with a low water content. The mass of metals within the convection zone of the white dwarf corresponds to an asteroid of at least ˜130-170 km in diameter, although the presence of ongoing accretion from the debris disc implies that the planetesimal was probably larger than this. While a previous abundance study of the accreted material has shown an anomalously high mass fraction of carbon (15 per cent) compared to the bulk Earth, our independent analysis results in a carbon abundance of just 2.5 per cent. Enhanced abundances of core material (Fe, Ni) suggest that the accreted object may have lost a portion of its mantle, possibly due to stellar wind stripping in the asymptotic giant branch. Time series spectroscopy reveals variable emission from the orbiting gaseous disc, demonstrating that the evolved planetary system at SDSS J0845+2257 is dynamically active.

  14. Optical+NIR Quasar Selection with the SDSS and UKIDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sajjan S.; Mahon, R. G.; Richards, G. T.; Hewett, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the details of an optical+near-IR quasar selection technique, which utilizes near-IR data from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the SDSS's deep "Stripe 82" region, which covers over 200 deg2. Our selection methods primarily consist of isolating potential candidates in giK and gJK color space, in which there exists a significant separation of the stellar locus from the quasar locus. Additionally, we discuss secondary techniques such as comparison of catalog magnitudes with aperture photometry, analysis of SDSS and UKIDSS morphological type classifications, and flag cuts. Our primary color-cut selections include most quasars with redshifts below 3.4, significantly increasing the completeness both to dust reddened quasars and quasars with redshifts z 2.7 in the SDSS footprint. A simple color cut in the UKIDSS LAS Stripe 82 regions reveals 4200 quasar candidates down to K=18. These NIR selections have been used to contribute to the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), which is one of the four surveys of the SDSS-III collaboration. We additionally intend to use our NIR techniques to perform an 8-dimensional optical+NIR Bayesian selection of quasars for the AAOmege UKIDSS SDSS (AUS) survey.

  15. Millijansky Radio Variability in SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H.; White, R. L.; Richards, G. T.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg2. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f var > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  16. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H.; White, R. L.; Richards, G. T.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  17. Spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging of the gravitational lens SDSS J1206+4332

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnello, Adriano; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Suyu, Sherry H.; Treu, Tommaso; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Mason, Charlotte; Bradač, Maruša; Auger, Matthew W.

    2016-06-01

    We present spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive optics (LGSAO) images of the doubly imaged lensed quasar SDSS J1206+4332. We revise the deflector redshift proposed previously to zd = 0.745, and measure for the first time its velocity dispersion σ = (290 ± 30) km s-1. The LGSAO data show the lensed quasar host galaxy stretching over the astroid caustic thus forming an extra pair of merging images, which was previously thought to be an unrelated galaxy in seeing limited data. Owing to the peculiar geometry, the lens acts as a natural coronagraph on the broad-line region of the quasar so that only narrow C III]emission is found in the fold arc. We use the data to reconstruct the source structure and deflector potential, including nearby perturbers. We reconstruct the point-spread function (PSF) from the quasar images themselves, since no additional point source is present in the field of view. From gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics, we find the slope of the total mass density profile to be γ' = -log ρ/log r = 1.93 ± 0.09. We discuss the potential of SDSS J1206+4332 for measuring a time-delay distance (and thus H0 and other cosmological parameters), or as a standard ruler, in combination with the time-delay published by the COSMOGRAIL collaboration. We conclude that this system is very promising for cosmography. However, in order to achieve competitive precision and accuracy, an independent characterization of the PSF is needed. Spatially resolved kinematics of the deflector would reduce the uncertainties further. Both are within the reach of current observational facilities.

  18. New resources to explore the old galaxy: Mining the SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Allende Prieto et al.

    2003-07-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is collecting photometry and intermediate resolution spectra for {approx} 10{sup 5} stars in the thick-disk and stellar halo of the Milky Way. This massive dataset can be used to infer the properties of the stars that make up these structures, and considerably deepen our vision of the old components of the Galaxy. We devise tools for automatic analysis of the SDSS photometric and spectroscopic data based on plane-parallel line-blanketed LTE model atmospheres and fast optimization algorithms. A preliminary study of about 5000 stars in the Early Data Release gives a hint of the vast amount of information that the SDSS stellar sample contains.

  19. Counts of low-Redshift SDSS quasar candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeljko Ivezic et al.

    2004-03-12

    We analyze the counts of low-redshift quasar candidates selected using nine-epoch SDSS imaging data. The co-added catalogs are more than 1 mag deeper than single-epoch SDSS data, and allow the selection of low-redshift quasar candidates using UV-excess and also variability techniques. The counts of selected candidates are robustly determined down to g = 21.5. This is about 2 magnitudes deeper than the position of a change in the slope of the counts reported by Boyle et al. (1990, 2000) for a sample selected by UV-excess, and questioned by Hawkins & Veron (1995), who utilized a variability-selected sample. Using SDSS data, we confirm a change in the slope of the counts for both UV-excess and variability selected samples, providing strong support for the Boyle et al. results.

  20. Grey Milky Way extinction from SDSS stellar photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbikov, Evgeny; Brosch, Noah

    2010-01-01

    We report results concerning the distribution and properties of galactic extinction at high galactic latitudes derived from stellar statistics using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use the classical Wolf diagram method to identify regions with extinction, and derive the extinction and the extinction law of the dust using all five SDSS spectral bands. We estimate the distance to the extinguishing medium using simple assumptions about the stellar populations in the line of sight. We report the identification of three extinguishing clouds, each a few tens of pc wide, producing 0.2-0.4 mag of g'-band extinction, located 1-2 kpc away or 0.5-1 kpc above the Galactic plane. All clouds exhibit grey extinction, i.e. almost wavelength independent in the limited spectral range of the SDSS. We discuss the implication of this finding on general astrophysical questions.

  1. New Ultracool and Halo White Dwarf Candidates in SDSS Stripe 82

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    identified a sample of ∼6000 cool white dwarfs from SDSS Data Release 3 ( DR3 ) using reduced proper motions (RPMs), based on SDSS and USNO-B combined data...sample of 33 halo white dwarf candi- dates from their study employing the SDSS DR3 and USNO-B cat- alogues. The combination of their larger sky

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The SDSS Photometric Catalogue, Release 12 (Alam+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, S.; et al.

    2016-03-01

    Data Release 12 (DR12) is the final data release of the SDSS-III, containing all SDSS observations through July 2014. It includes the complete dataset of the BOSS and APOGEE surveys, and also newly includes stellar radial velocity measurements from MARVELS. The principal changes from previous versions are summarized at http://www.sdss.org/dr12/whatsnew/ (1 data file).

  3. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800

  4. A Gaia-PS1-SDSS (GPS1) Proper Motion Catalog Covering 3/4 of the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hai-Jun; Gupta, Prashansa; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martin, Nicolas F.; Liu, Chao; Goldman, Bertrand; Platais, Imants; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Waters, Christopher Z.

    2017-09-01

    We combine Gaia DR1, PS1, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and 2MASS astrometry to measure proper motions for 350 million sources across three-fourths of the sky down to a magnitude of {m}r˜ 20. Using positions of galaxies from PS1, we build a common reference frame for the multi-epoch PS1, single-epoch SDSS and 2MASS data, and calibrate the data in small angular patches to this frame. As the Gaia DR1 excludes resolved galaxy images, we choose a different approach to calibrate its positions to this reference frame: we exploit the fact that the proper motions of stars in these patches are linear. By simultaneously fitting the positions of stars at different epochs of—Gaia DR1, PS1, SDSS, and 2MASS—we construct an extensive catalog of proper motions dubbed GPS1. GPS1 has a characteristic systematic error of less than 0.3 {mas} {{yr}}-1 and a typical precision of 1.5-2.0 {mas} {{yr}}-1. The proper motions have been validated using galaxies, open clusters, distant giant stars, and QSOs. In comparison with other published faint proper motion catalogs, GPS1's systematic error (< 0.3 {mas} {{yr}}-1) should be nearly an order of magnitude better than that of PPMXL and UCAC4 (> 2.0 {mas} {{yr}}-1). Similarly, its precision (˜1.5 {mas} {{yr}}-1) is a four-fold improvement relative to PPMXL and UCAC4 (˜6.0 {mas} {{yr}}-1). For QSOs, the precision of GPS1 is found to be worse (˜2.0-3.0 {mas} {{yr}}-1), possibly due to their particular differential chromatic refraction. The GPS1 catalog will be released online and be available via the VizieR Service and VO Service.

  5. WISE Photometry for 400 million SDSS sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Schlegel, David J.

    2016-01-28

    Here, we present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We also use a "forced photometry" technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star-galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our "unWISE" coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. But, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the "official" WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  6. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  7. New H-band Stellar Spectral Libraries for the SDSS-III/APOGEE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Allende Prieto, C.; Carrera, R.; Koesterke, L.; Edvardsson, B.; Castelli, F.; Plez, B.; Bizyaev, D.; Cunha, K.; García Pérez, A. E.; Gustafsson, B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Majewski, S. R.; Manchado, A.; Mészáros, Sz.; Shane, N.; Shetrone, M.; Smith, V. V.; Zasowski, G.

    2015-06-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has obtained high-resolution (R ˜ 22,500), high signal-to-noise ratio (\\gt 100) spectra in the H-band (˜1.5-1.7 μm) for about 146,000 stars in the Milky Way galaxy. We have computed spectral libraries with effective temperature ({{T}eff}) ranging from 3500 to 8000 K for the automated chemical analysis of the survey data. The libraries, used to derive stellar parameters and abundances from the APOGEE spectra in the SDSS-III data release 12 (DR12), are based on ATLAS9 model atmospheres and the ASSɛT spectral synthesis code. We present a second set of libraries based on MARCS model atmospheres and the spectral synthesis code Turbospectrum. The ATLAS9/ASSɛT ({{T}eff} = 3500-8000 K) and MARCS/Turbospectrum ({{T}eff} = 3500-5500 K) grids cover a wide range of metallicity (-2.5 ≤slant [M/H] ≤slant +0.5 dex), surface gravity (0 ≤ log g ≤slant 5 dex), microturbulence (0.5 ≤slant ξ ≤slant 8 km s-1), carbon (-1 ≤slant [C/M] ≤slant +1 dex), nitrogen (-1 ≤slant [N/M] ≤slant +1 dex), and α-element (-1 ≤slant [α/M] ≤slant +1 dex) variations, having thus seven dimensions. We compare the ATLAS9/ASSɛT and MARCS/Turbospectrum libraries and apply both of them to the analysis of the observed H-band spectra of the Sun and the K2 giant Arcturus, as well as to a selected sample of well-known giant stars observed at very high resolution. The new APOGEE libraries are publicly available and can be employed for chemical studies in the H-band using other high-resolution spectrographs.

  8. The Electric Giant Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woude, A.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Experimental Methods to Study Giant Resonances * Introduction * The Tools * Introduction * Tools for Isoscalar Scattering * INELASTIC α-SCATTERING * INELASTIC PROTON SCATTERING * Tools for Isovector Excitations * γ-ABSORPTION AND PARTICLE CAPTURE REACTIONS * CHARGE EXCHANGE REACTIONS - THE (π+, π0) REACTION * Tools For Isoscalar And Isovector Excitations * INELASTIC ELECTRON SCATTERING * GIANT RESONANCE EXCITATION BY FAST HEAVY IONS * From Multipole Cross Section To Multipole Strength * The Electric Isoscalar Resonances * The Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance * Systematics on the GMR * Compressibility and the Giant Monopole Resonance * Introduction * The Compressibility of nuclear matter from the GMR energies * Discussion * The Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance * General Trends In Medium-Heavy and Heavy Nuclei * The GQR In Light Nuclei * The Isoscalar 3- Strength, LEOR and HEOR * Isoscalar 4+ Strength * Miscellaneous; Isoscalar 1- and L > 4-Strength * The Electric Isovector Giant Resonances * The Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance: GDR * The Isovector Giant Monopole Resonances: IVGMR * The Isovector Quadrupole Resonance: IVGQR * The Effect of Ground State Deformation on the Shape of Giant Resonance: Microscopic Picture * Giant Resonances Built on Excited States * Introduction * Capture Reactions on Light Nuclei * Statistical decay of GDR γ Emission in Heavy Compound Systems * Introduction * Theoretical Predictions * Some Experimental Results * Summary and Outlook * Acknowledgements * General References * References

  9. Sensory ecology: giant eyes for giant predators?

    PubMed

    Partridge, Julian C

    2012-04-24

    Mathematical models suggest the enormous eyes of giant and colossal squid evolved to see the bioluminescence induced by the approach of predatory whales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long arc stabilities with various arc gas flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, K.; Takeda, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Noguchi, Y.

    2014-11-01

    A new arc torch for use in magnetically driven arc device was developed with a commercially available TIG welding arc torch. The torch has a water-cooling system to the torch nozzle and has a nozzle nut to supply a swirling-free plasma gas flow. Its endurance against arc thermal load is examined. Features of its generated arc are investigated.

  11. The milky way tomography with sdss

    SciTech Connect

    Juric, Mario; Ivezic, Zeljko; Brooks, Alyson; Lupton, Robert H.; Schlegel, David; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Bond, Nicholas; Rockosi, Constance M.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Gunn, James E.; Sumi, Takahiro; Schneider, Donald; Barentine, J.C.; Brewington, Howard J.; Brinkmann, J.; Fukugita, Masataka; Harvanek, Michael; Kleinman, S.J.; Krzesinski, Jurek; Long, Dan; /Princeton U. Observ. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Princeton U. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Apache Point Observ. /Tokyo U., ICRR /Mt. Suhora Observ., Cracow /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2005-10-01

    Using the photometric parallax method, we estimate the distances to {approx}48 million stars detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and map their three-dimensional number density distribution in the Galaxy. The currently available data sample the distance range from 100 pc to 15 kpc and cover 6,500 deg{sup 2} of sky, mostly at high galactic latitudes (|b| > 25). These stellar number density maps allow an investigation of the Galactic structure without any a priori assumptions about its components. The data show strong evidence for a Galaxy consisting of an oblate halo, disk components, and a number of localized overdensities. The number density distribution of stars in the Solar neighborhood (D < 1.5kpc) favors a model having a ''thin'' and a ''thick'' exponential disk, with scale heights and lengths of H{sub 1} {approx} 280 pc and L{sub 1} {approx} 2400pc, and H{sub 2} {approx} 1200pc and L{sub 2} {approx} 3500pc, respectively, and local thick-to-thin disk normalization {rho}{sub thick} (R{sub {circle_dot}})/{rho}{sub thin}(R{sub {circle_dot}}) = 4%. Fits applied to the entire dataset are significantly more uncertain due to the presence of clumps and overdensities. The halo power law index is very poorly constrained, but we find an oblate halo with c/a {approx} 0.5 to be strongly preferred. While roughly consistent with this simple model, the measured density distribution shows a number of statistically significant deviations from the model predictions. In addition to known features, such as the Monoceros stream, a remarkable density enhancement covering over a thousand square degrees of sky is detected towards the constellation of Virgo, at distances of {approx} 5-15 kpc. Compared to counts in a region symmetric with respect to the l = 0 line and with the same Galactic latitude, it is responsible for a factor of 2 number density excess, and may be a nearby tidal stream or a low-surface brightness dwarf galaxy merging with the Milky Way. The u - g color

  12. Welding arc plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  13. First Results From The SDSS-III Multi-object APO Radial-velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Mahadevan, S.; Lee, B.; Wan, X.; Groot, J.; Zhao, B.; Hearty, F.; van Eyken, J.; Chang, L.; Hanna, K.; Varosi, F.; Chen, Z.; Fleming, S.; Kane, S.; Malik, M.; Guo, P.; Leger, F.; Liu, J.; Ford, E. B.; Agol, E.; Gaudi, S.; Ford, H.; Schneider, D.; Holtzman, J.; Sivarani, T.; Walszczan, A.; Niedzielski, A.; Martin, E.; Snedden, S.; Pan, K.

    2008-09-01

    We present the first light results from the Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). MARVELS is part of the on-going Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III survey which started in July 2008 and will end in July 2014. The data are taken with a multi-object fixed delay interferometer coupled to a R=11,000 spectrograph capable of acquiring precision radial velocities (3-20 m/s depending on V magnitudes) for 60 objects simultaneously in the 3 degree field of view of the SDSS telescope. MARVELS is to monitor a total of 11,000 V=8-12 relatively bright survey stars over 800 square degrees over the 6 years. The survey stars include about 90% F8 and later type main sequence stars and subgiants, and 10% G and K giants with V=7.6-12. MARVELS will produce the largest statistically well defined sample of giant planets drawn from a large of host stars with a diverse set of masses, compositions, and ages which will be used to study exoplanet diversity and planet formation, migration & dynamical evolution. It will also possibly discover rare planet systems and identify signposts for lower-mass or more distant planets. The first two year survey data will be released to the public in 2011. A new planet in a spectroscopic binary system discovered in the MARVELS pilot program will also be reported. We would like to thank the W.M. Keck Foundation, Sloan Foundation, NSF, NASA and UF for support.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The SEGUE K giant survey. II. Distances of 6036 stars (Xue+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X.-X.; Ma, Z.; Rix, H.-W.; Morrison, H. L.; Harding, P.; Beers, T. C.; Ivans, I. I.; Jacobson, H. R.; Johnson, J.; Lee, Y. S.; Lucatello, S.; Rockosi, C. M.; Sobeck, J. S.; Yanny, B.; Zhao, G.; Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-08-01

    SDSS and its extensions use a dedicated 2.5m telescope to obtain ugriz imaging and resolution (defined as R=λ/Δλ)~2000 spectra for 640 (SDSS spectrograph) or 1000 (BOSS spectrograph) objects over a 7deg2 field. Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE), one of the key projects executed during SDSS-II and SDSS-III, obtained some 360000 spectra of stars in the Galaxy, selected to explore the nature of stellar populations from 0.5kpc to 100kpc (Yanny et al. 2009, cat. J/AJ/137/4377; and C. M. Rockosi et al., in preparation). Data from SEGUE is a significant part of the ninth SDSS public data release (DR9; Ahn et al. 2012, cat. V/139). The SEGUE project obtained spectra for a large number of different stellar types: 18 for SEGUE-1 (see Yanny et al. 2009, cat. J/AJ/137/4377, for details) and 11 for SEGUE-2 (C. M. Rockosi et al. in preparation). Three of these target types were specifically designed to detect K giants: these are designated "l-color K giants", "red K giants", and "proper-motion K giants." The K-giant targets from these three categories all have 0.5<(g-r)0<1.3, 0.5<(u-g)0<3.5, and proper motions smaller than 11mas/yr. We present a catalog containing the distance moduli, observed information, and SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP) atmospheric parameters for 6036 SEGUE K giants (see Table4). For each object in the catalog, we also list some of the basic observables such as (R.A., decl.), extinction-corrected apparent magnitudes and dereddened colors, as well as the information obtained from the spectra--heliocentric radial velocities plus SSPP atmospheric parameters. In addition, we provide the Bayesian estimates of the distance moduli, distances to the Sun, Galactocentric distances, the absolute magnitudes and their uncertainties, along with the distance moduli at (5%, 16%, 50%, 84%, 95%) confidence of L(DM). (2 data files).

  15. Request to monitor SDSS074545 for HST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2007-10-01

    Dr. Paula Szkody (University of Washington) has requested our help in monitoring the cataclysmic variable SDSS074545 (SDSS J074531.92+453829.5) for Hubble Space Telescope observations scheduled for the week of October 29-November 3 UT. SDSS074545 has not previously been seen in outburst, and is being observed as part of a larger study of pulsating white dwarf primaries in cataclysmic variables. In particular, Szkody and collaborators are investigating the effects that higher temperatures and larger rotation velocities caused by accretion have on the pulsation behavior. This object is very faint at quiescence, with V=19.1. AAVSO observations are requested to ensure that the object is indeed faint when observed with HST, as it could damage the instrument if it were to go into outburst. AAVSO observations will be used to make a "go"/"no go" decision when the observing window opens, and will also be used in the analysis of the resulting data. Observers should monitor this object nightly during the two weeks prior to the observing window, and intensively during the 24-48 hour period during which observations will be made. In the event of an outburst, please contact the AAVSO immediately. Please submit observations to the AAVSO International Database using the name SDSS074545.

  16. The SDSS Coadd: A Galaxy Photometric Redshift Catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Ribamar R.R.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Annis, James; Dodelson, Scott; Hao, Jiangang; Johnston, David; Kubo, Jeffrey; Lin, Huan; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simet, Melanie; /Chicago U.

    2011-11-01

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z's) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Coadd Data. We use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to calculate photo-z's and the Nearest Neighbor Error (NNE) method to estimate photo-z errors for {approx} 13 million objects classified as galaxies in the coadd with r < 24.5. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of {approx} 89, 000 galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey (CNOC2), the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3(DEEP2 DR3), the SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), the Visible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph - Very Large Telescope Deep Survey (VVDS) and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than {sigma}{sub 68} = 0.036. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  17. The Galactic Component of the SDSS All Point Source Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Matthew M.; Beers, T. C.; Sivarani, T.; Lee, Y.; Re Fiorentin, P.

    2007-12-01

    The SDSS-I and SEGUE projects have made significant contributions to our knowledge of the Galaxy's structure and formation history. The majority of stellar samples of these projects are constructed using cuts in SDSS ugriz color-space to targeted specific categories of stars. The selection effects imposed by the employed selection criteria limits the resulting samples use for the investigations of aspects of Galactic structure which require unbiased samples, such as stellar populations studies and luminosity function determinations. The Galactic component of the SDSS all point survey described in this work provides a unbiased stellar sample well suited for such studies. The all point source survey is comprised of 14800 stellar spectra randomly selected for observation with the SDSS spectrograph (R=2000)from a collection of point source objects with clean photometric observations and i-band magnitudes above 19.1. Not surprisingly, a large portion of the resulting sample consists of faint stars near limiting magnitude cutoff. Analysis of low luminosity portion of the sample is complicated by the poor quality of the obtained spectra, 59% of the sample has a average per pixel S/N less than 10. We describe refinements made to the SDSS Spectroscopic Parameter Pipeline (SSPP) to appropriately handle the low S/N component of the sample. We then detail the observed stellar parameter distributions from the refined SSPP for spectral type, [Fe/H], effective temperature, and radial velocity and compare the resulting distributions to predictions from the Robin et al. (2003) model using canonical galactic parameters. TCB, YSL, and TS acknowledge support from grant PHY 02-16783; Physics Frontier Center/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), awarded by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  18. Characterizing RR Lyraes using SDSS, Single-Epoch Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Stacy Scott; Wilhelm, Ronald J.; De Lee, Nathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Starting with Data Release-7, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has made available the single-epoch spectra (SES) that were previously combined to produce the final composite spectra available for stars and galaxies. These SES can be used to probe time-variability through spectral line strength variations. RR Lyrae stars (RRL) have typically been identified using periodic variations in their light curves. Today, using the SDSS-SES it is possible to, in some cases, identify RRL from changes in the line strengths of the Ca-IIK, H-$\\beta$, H-$\\gamma$, and H-$\\delta$ lines. Similarly, it is possible to construct composite spectra that are free of phase-blending, by grouping SES that have similar spectral line strengths, for an individual star. We have developed a method for comparing SES with synthetic spectra spanning a range of T = [5500,8500]K, log g = [1.0-4.0] and [Fe/H]=[-3.0-0.0] to produce temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities for all SES taken for a given star. Using this method we are able to search for variations in temperature that are 2-sigma beyond the computed uncertainty, indicating that spectral variation is occurring. We will show results using a sample of bright RRL stars of known pulsation phase and stars from SDSS-Stripe82 which have published light curves for several hundred RRLs. We will also present a temperature-phase diagram that shows stars with consistent phases can be produced allowing us to construct composite spectra that are of the same phase for a given star. This is crucially important to the accurate determination of metal abundance for stars in the SDSS spectral foot-print. We will also show details of the compiled Catalina Surveys for stars with SDSS spectroscopy.

  19. Investigating broad absorption line quasars with SDSS and UKIDSS .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Natasha; Hewett, P. C.

    The SDSS contains the largest set of spectroscopically confirmed broad line quasars ever compiled. Upon its completion, the UKIDSS LAS will provide a near-infrared counterpart to the SDSS, reaching 3 magnitudes deeper than 2MASS over a 4000 square degree area within the SDSS footprint. Combining the SDSS optical and UKIDSS near-infrared data, allows a new insight into the photometric and spectroscopic properties of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) relative to the quasar population as a whole. An accurate estimate of the intrinsic BALQSO fraction is essential for determining the BAL cloud covering fraction and the implications for the co-evolution of accreting supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. Defining a K-band limited sample of quasars makes clear the significantly redder distribution of i-K colours of the BALQSOs. The BALQSO i-K colour distribution enables us to estimate a lower limit to the intrinsic BALQSO fraction, computed to be ˜ 30 percent, significantly larger than the optical fraction of 15-20 percent found by several authors. We combined the high-quality SDSS spectra of the quasar sample to make several composite spectra based on i-K colour, and the properties of these composites are compared to a composite spectrum of unreddened quasars. If the origin of the wavelength dependent differences between the red and unreddened objects is ascribed to attenuation by dust, we find that the extinction curve of the material is intermediate in form between the steep SMC-like extinction curve and the recent, empirically determined, extinction curve presented by Gaskell & Benker (2007).

  20. On the fairness of the main galaxy sample of SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Ke-Lai; Ma, Bin; Pan, Jun; Feng, Long-Long

    2011-06-01

    Flux-limited and volume-limited galaxy samples are constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data releases DR4, DR6 and DR7 for statistical analysis. The two-point correlation functions ξ(s), monopole of three-point correlation functions ζ0, projected two-point correlation function wp and pairwise velocity dispersion σ12 are measured to test if galaxy samples are fair for these statistics. We find that with the increment of sky coverage of subsequent data releases in SDSS, ξ(s) of the flux-limited sample is extremely robust and insensitive to local structures at low redshift. However, for volume-limited samples fainter than L* at large scales s ≳ 10 h-1 Mpc, the deviation of ξ(s) from different SDSS data releases (DR7, DR6 and DR4) increases with the increment of absolute magnitude. The case of ζ0(s) is similar to that of ξ(s). In the weakly nonlinear regime, there is no agreement between ζ0 of different data releases in all luminosity bins. Furthermore, wp of volume-limited samples of DR7 in luminosity bins fainter than -Mr,0.1 = [18.5, 19.5] are significantly larger and σ12 of the two faintest volume-limited samples of DR7 display a very different scale dependence than results from DR4 and DR6. Our findings call for caution in understanding clustering analysis results of SDSS faint galaxy samples and higher order statistics of SDSS volume-limited samples in the weakly nonlinear regime. The first zero-crossing points of ξ(s) from volume-limited samples are also investigated and discussed.

  1. In the Arc

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-15

    NASA Cassini spacecraft image holds an unseen treasure orbiting within the bright arc of Saturn G ring: the tiny moonlet Aegaeon. Too small to be seen here, it is thought to be the source of the debris forming the bright arc in the lower right.

  2. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Hillary

    1995-03-06

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  3. WSTF electrical arc projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linley, Larry

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of these projects include the following: validate method used to screen wire insulation with arc tracking characteristics; determine damage resistance to arc as a function of source voltage and insulation thickness; investigate propagation characteristics of Kapton at low voltages; and investigate pyrolytic properties of polyimide insulated (Kapton) wire for low voltage (less than 35 VDC) applications. Supporting diagrams and tables are presented.

  4. WSTF electrical arc projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linley, Larry

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of these projects include the following: validate method used to screen wire insulation with arc tracking characteristics; determine damage resistance to arc as a function of source voltage and insulation thickness; investigate propagation characteristics of Kapton at low voltages; and investigate pyrolytic properties of polyimide insulated (Kapton) wire for low voltage (less than 35 VDC) applications. Supporting diagrams and tables are presented.

  5. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  6. Two for the Price of One: SB2s in the SDSS-III/APOGEE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail; Bender, Chad F.; Troup, Nicholas William; Beers, Timothy C.; de Lee, Nathan M.; Fleming, Scott W.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García Pérez, Ana; Hearty, Fred R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Apogee Team

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s) identified in H-band spectra from the SDSS-III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). The APOGEE survey utilizes high-resolution, high-signal-to-noise, multi-epoch, H-band spectra of primarily red giant branch stars to study the chemical and dynamical history of the Milky Way Galaxy. In order to identify the SB2 sample, we searched the data for double and triple peaks in the radial velocity cross-correlation functions (RVCCF) obtained through comparison of the observed spectra to synthetic template spectra covering a wide range of stellar parameters. We also consider the singular value decomposition (SVD) method to derive line broadening profiles and search for SB2s. The SB2 identification algorithm will be applied to all data from the APOGEE-2 survey so that SB2 systems are automatically flagged. APOGEE's multi-epoch spectroscopy of SB2s yields dynamically measured mass ratios and, in the case of eclipsing systems, facilitates determination of the true masses and radii. Results for some of the more remarkable SB2 systems will be presented, as will statistics with respect to the SB2 fraction in a large spectroscopic survey like APOGEE.

  7. Looking for very low-mass pre-main sequence objects with SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Suzanne L.,; Covey, K. R.; McGehee, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the process(es) by which brown dwarfs form is key to understanding their intrinsic nature. If their origins are within circumstellar disks they are akin to giant planets. If, on the other hand, they coalesce from molecular cloud cores, then they share a common lineage with low mass stars. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by investigation of young (< 10 Myr) substellar objects. If brown dwarfs are small failed stars, we expect to find very low mass analogs of the Classical T Tauris, with primordial magnetic fields from the molecular cloud collapse. Accretion onto these objects leads to characteristic magnetic activity signatures such as chromospheric and coronal emission resulting in an ultraviolet excess continuum. The Orion OB1b association (m-M = 7.9, 2 Myr) provides a laboratory for following the strength and occurrence of the accretion process as a function of mass. Studies of the substellar mass function within the sigma Orionis cluster at the southern end of the association indicate that brown dwarfs are common. Based on model isochrones and the SDSS M dwarf sequence we expect the 95% completeness limit of the 'Orion' scans to correspond to 0.1 and 0.03 solar masses for the u and g bands.

  8. Systematic Survey of the Correlation between Northern HECR Events and SDSS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, H.; Nishimichi, T.; Sato, K.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the spatial correlation between the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays (HECRs) detected by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) with energies above 4 × 10^{19} eV and the positions of galaxies observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) within z = 0.024. We systematically tested the dependence of the correlation on the redshift ranges and properties of the galaxies, i.e., absolute luminosity, color, and morphology, to understand where HECR sources are and what objects are HECR sources. In the systematic survey, we found potential signals of the positive correlation at small angular scale (< 10°) with the (non-penalized) chance probability less than 5% in intermediate redshift ranges. Then, we estimated penalized probabilities to compensate the trial effects of angular scan, and found that the strongest correlation is produced by early-type galaxies in 0.012 ≤ z < 0.018 at 90% C.L. The possible origin of HECRs which correlating galaxies imply is also discussed.

  9. The Very Small Scale Clustering of SDSS-II and SDSS-III Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscionere, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We measure the angular clustering of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 in order to probe the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies within their dark matter halos. Specifically, we measure the angular correlation function on very small scales (7 - 320‧‧) in a range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of -18 up to -21) that are constructed from the subset of SDSS that has been spectroscopically observed more than once (the so-called plate overlap region). We choose to measure angular clustering in this reduced survey footprint in order to minimize the effects of fiber collision incompleteness, which are otherwise substantial on these small scales. We model our clustering measurements using a fully numerical halo model that populates dark matter halos in N-body simulations to create realistic mock galaxy catalogs. The model has free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host halos. We adopt a flexible density profile for the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies that is similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the inner slope is allowed to vary. We find that the angular clustering of our most luminous samples (Mr < -20 and -21) suggests that luminous satellite galaxies have substantially steeper inner density profiles than NFW. Lower luminosity samples are less constraining, however, and are consistent with satellite galaxies having shallow density profiles. Our results confirm the findings of Watson et al. (2012) while using different clustering measurements and modeling methodology. With the new SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS; Dawson et al., 2013), we can measure how the same class of galaxy evolves over time. The BOSS CMASS sample is of roughly constant stellar mass and number density out to z ˜ 0.6. The clustering of these samples appears to evolve very little with redshift, and each of the

  10. A SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE STUDY OF THE DEBRIS DISKS AROUND FOUR SDSS WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkworth, C. S.; Girven, J. M.; Hoard, D. W.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Koester, D.

    2012-05-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope data of four isolated white dwarfs that were previously known to harbor circumstellar gaseous disks. Infrared Array Camera photometry shows a significant infrared excess in all of the systems, SDSS0738+1835, SDSS0845+2257, SDSS1043+0855, and SDSS1617+1620, indicative of a dusty extension to those disks. The 4.5 {mu}m excesses seen in SDSS0738, SDSS0845, and SDSS1617 are 7.5, 5.7, and 4.5 times the white dwarf contribution, respectively. In contrast, in SDSS1043, the measured flux density at 4.5 {mu}m is only 1.7 times the white dwarf contribution. We compare the measured IR excesses in the systems to models of geometrically thin, optically thick disks, and find that we are able to match the measured spectral energy distributions to within 3{sigma} of the uncertainties, although disks with unfeasibly hot inner dust temperatures generally provide a better fit than those below the dust sublimation temperature. Possible explanations for the dearth of dust around SDSS1043+0855 are briefly discussed. Including our previous study of SDSS1228+1040, all five white dwarfs with gaseous debris disks have significant amounts of dust around them. It is evident that gas and dust can coexist around these relatively warm, relatively young white dwarfs.

  11. A TWO-YEAR TIME DELAY FOR THE LENSED QUASAR SDSS J1029+2623

    SciTech Connect

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Wambsganss, Joachim; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Falco, Emilio E.; Oguri, Masamune; Dai, Xinyu

    2013-02-20

    We present 279 epochs of optical monitoring data spanning 5.4 years from 2007 January to 2012 June for the largest image separation (22.''6) gravitationally lensed quasar, SDSS J1029+2623. We find that image A leads the images B and C by {Delta} t {sub AB} = (744 {+-} 10) days (90% confidence); the uncertainty includes both statistical uncertainties and systematic differences due to the choice of models. With only a {approx}1% fractional error, the interpretation of the delay is limited primarily by cosmic variance due to fluctuations in the mean line-of-sight density. We cannot separate the fainter image C from image B, but since image C trails image B by only 2-3 days in all models, the estimate of the time delay between images A and B is little affected by combining the fluxes of images B and C. There is weak evidence for a low level of microlensing, perhaps created by the small galaxy responsible for the flux ratio anomaly in this system. Interpreting the delay depends on better constraining the shape of the gravitational potential using the lensed host galaxy, other lensed arcs, and the structure of the X-ray emission.

  12. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome.

  13. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, T.B.

    1989-05-09

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome. 3 figs.

  14. Arc spraying in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianjun

    2001-03-01

    Although are spraying is not a new technique, recent development of arc spraying device systems, spray wires, research on the coating mechanism, and the dynamic behavior of spraying make it a most active thermal spray process. In China, the arc spraying technique is the most efficient way for long life corrosion protection of steel structures. In addition, the arc spraying process is widely used for renovation and surface modification of machine components, mold making for plastic products, high-temperature corrosion resistance for waterwalls of boilers, antisliding coatings, self-lubricating coatings, etc.

  15. Tokamak ARC damage

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage.

  16. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  17. Metal halide arc discharge lamp having short arc length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzeroll, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A metal halide arc discharge lamp includes a sealed light-transmissive outer jacket, a light-transmissive shroud located within the outer jacket and an arc tube assembly located within the shroud. The arc tube assembly includes an arc tube, electrodes mounted within the arc tube and a fill material for supporting an arc discharge. The electrodes have a spacing such that an electric field in a range of about 60 to 95 volts per centimeter is established between the electrodes. The diameter of the arc tube and the spacing of the electrodes are selected to provide an arc having an arc diameter to arc length ratio in a range of about 1.6 to 1.8. The fill material includes mercury, sodium iodide, scandium tri-iodide and a rare gas, and may include lithium iodide. The lamp exhibits a high color rendering index, high lumen output and high color temperature.

  18. Arc Voltage Between Deion Grid Affected by Division of Arc in Magnetic Driven Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inuzuka, Yutaro; Yamato, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic driven arc has been applied to DC breaker and fault current limiters. However, it has not been researched, especially stagnation and re-strike of the arc. In this paper, the arc voltage between deion grid affected by division of arc in magnetic driven arc and arc behavior are measured by using the oscilloscope and HSVC (High Speed Video Camera). As a result, arc voltage increased because of division of the arc. The arc mean moving speed increases with increasing the external magnetic field. However, when the arc was not stalemate, the arc moving speed does not change so much. The arc re-strike time increases and stalemate time decreases with increasing the external magnetic field. Therefore, the anode spot moving speed increases 8 times because arc re-strike occurs easily with the external magnetic field. Thus, the erosion of electrodes decreases and the arc movement becomes the smooth. When the arc is divided, the arc voltage increased because of the electrode fall voltage. Therefore, the arc voltage increases with increasing the number of deion grid.

  19. Giant prostatic calculi

    PubMed Central

    Najoui, Mohammed; Qarro, Abdelmounaim; Ammani, Abdelghani; Alami, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Prostatic parenchymal calculi are common, usually incidental, findings on morphological examinations. They are typically asymptomatic and may be present in association with normal glands, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. However giant prostatic calculi are rare. Less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 35-year-old man with two giant prostatic calculi that replaced the entire gland. He underwent an open cystolithotomy, two giant stones were removed from the prostate, and we used a lithotripsy in situ for extraction of stone fragments. PMID:23565316

  20. Unstable giant gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena

    2006-03-15

    We find giant graviton solutions in Frolov's three parameter generalization of the Lunin-Maldacena background. The background we study has {gamma}-tilde{sub 1}=0 and {gamma}-tilde{sub 2}={gamma}-tilde{sub 3}={gamma}-tilde. This class of backgrounds provides a nonsupersymmetric example of the gauge theory/gravity correspondence that can be tested quantitatively, as recently shown by Frolov, Roiban, and Tseytlin. The giant graviton solutions we find have a greater energy than the point gravitons, making them unstable states. Despite this, we find striking quantitative agreement between the gauge theory and gravity descriptions of open strings attached to the giant.

  1. Galaxies and Mass: Lensing and Dynamical Measurements from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, T. A.

    2003-06-01

    Probing the relationship between galaxies and mass is a major goal of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In this contribution we describe measurements of galaxy-mass correlations using both lensing and dynamical probes. The observables we discuss include the projected mass density contrast measured in SDSS imaging data and luminous particle motions measured as part of the SDSS galaxy redshift survey. Both probes of mass are sensitive measures, varying significantly with galaxy luminosity for example. Interpreting these results is complex. As a first step, we obtain best fit model parameters for various toy models. This exercise reveals the importance of making the comparison between theory and observation at the observable level. We argue for the use of full simulations, including both large scale structure and galaxy formation prescriptions, in the interpretation of these measurements. We conclude with a first generation example of such a comparison.

  2. Robust detection of CID double stars in SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbaix, D.; Knapp, G. R.; Gunn, J. E.; Lupton, R. H.; Ivezić, Ž.; Siopis, C.; Rigaux, M.; Rubbens, A.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) offers a unique possibility of not only detecting colour induced displacement (CID) double stars but also confirming these detections. Methods: Successive cuts are applied to the SDSS data release (DR) 12 database to reduce the size of the sample under consideration. The resulting dataset is then screened with a criterion based on the distance and orientation of the photocentres in different photometric bands. Results: About 3200 distinct objects are classified as CID double stars, 40 of which are confirmed with at least a second detection. A consistency check further validates these detections. Full Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A96

  3. Revisiting the Hubble sequence in the SDSS DR7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Bernardi, M.; Mei, S.; S´Nchez Almeida, J.

    2011-11-01

    We present an automated morphological classification in 4 types (E, S0, Sab, Scd) of ˜ 700,000 galaxies from the SDSS DR7 spectroscopic sample based on support vector machines. The main new property of the classification is that we associate a probability to each galaxy of being in the four morphological classes instead of assigning a single class. The classification is therefore better adapted to nature where we expect a continuous transition between different morphological types. The algorithm is trained with a visual classification and then compared to several independent visual classifications including the Galaxy Zoo first-release catalog. We find a very good correlation between the automated classification and classical visual ones. The compiled catalog is intended for use in different applications and is therefore publicly available through a dedicated webpage (http://gepicom04.obspm.fr/sdss_morphology/Morphology_2010.html)

  4. CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES FROM SDSS. VII. THE SEVENTH YEAR (2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, Paula; Anderson, Scott F.; Hayden, Michael; Kronberg, Martin; McGurk, Rosalie; Riecken, Thomas; Schmidt, Gary D.; West, Andrew A.; Gaensicke, Boris T.; Gomez-Moran, Ada N.; Schwope, Axel D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schreiber, Matthias R.

    2009-04-15

    Coordinates, magnitudes, and spectra are presented for 39 cataclysmic variables (CVs) found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra that were primarily obtained in 2006. Of these, 13 were CVs identified prior to the SDSS spectra (AK Cnc, GY Cnc, GO Com, ST LMi, NY Ser, MR Ser, QW Ser, EU UMa, IY UMa, HS1340+1524, RXJ1610.1+0352, Boo 1, Leo 5). Follow-up spectroscopic observations of seven systems (including one from year 2005 and another from year 2004) were obtained, resulting in estimates of the orbital periods for three objects. The new CVs include two candidates for high inclination, eclipsing systems, four new polars, and three systems whose spectra clearly reveal atmospheric absorption lines from the underlying white dwarf.

  5. SDSS Plate Packets - From Artifact to Teaching Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Kate K.; Masters, Karen; Lundgren, Britt; Fraser, Oliver; MacDonald, Nick

    2015-08-01

    For almost two decades the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been producing aluminum plates that precisely align fiber optic cables to spectroscopic targets on the sky in order to capture thousands of spectra each night. Until recently the majority of these feats of engineering have ended as aluminum scrap. A few however, have found their way into classrooms in the US. The feedback has been overwhelmingly positive. We are building off the success of these experiences in a collaboration-wide effort to use this resource and send plates to educational institutions along with a variety of teaching materials that will be a useful science and engineering teaching tools and raise awareness for the varied surveys that are part of the SDSS. Each plate will arrive with a black and white print of the targeted section of sky to motivate students and resources to aid their exploration beginning in the September 2015.

  6. ARC-1964-A-31910

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-01-24

    Dr. Dean R. Chapman a Ames Research Center scientists studing tektits, holding a simulated tektite created in the Ames arc jet facility (left) and authentic Australian tektite over a map of Australia.

  7. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  8. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  9. Request to monitor SDSS091908 for HST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2007-11-01

    Dr. Paula Szkody (University of Washington) has requested our help in monitoring the cataclysmic variable SDSS091908 (SDSS J091945.11+085710.0) for Hubble Space Telescope observations scheduled for the afternoon of November 14 UT. SDSS091908 has not previously been seen in outburst, and is being observed as part of a larger study of pulsating white dwarf primaries in cataclysmic variables. In particular, Szkody and collaborators are investigating the effects that higher temperatures and larger rotation velocities caused by accretion have on the pulsation behavior. This object is very faint at quiescence, with V=18.3. AAVSO observations are requested to ensure that the object is indeed faint when observed with HST, as it could damage the instrument if it were to go into outburst. AAVSO observations will be used to make a "go"/"no go" decision at 9:46 UT on November 14, and will also be used in the analysis of the resulting data. Observers should monitor this object nightly beginning now through November 17, and intensively on November 14 UT. In the event of an outburst, please contact the AAVSO immediately. As this object is currently a morning object and confirming observations must be received before 9:30 UT, observers in Europe, Asia, and Oceania are strongly encouraged to participate in this campaign. CCD observers are asked to use filters if possible, preferably V, but B, Rc, and Ic may also be used. Please use sufficient exposure (with S/N = 10) to reach at least the 14.536V comparison star, even if you cannot reach 18.3V in reasonable time. Please submit observations to the AAVSO International Database using the name SDSS091908.

  10. Request to monitor SDSS133948 for HST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Paula Szkody (University of Washington) and collaborators have requested our help in monitoring the cataclysmic variable SDSS133948 (SDSS J133941.11+484727.5) for Hubble Space Telescope observations scheduled for the afternoon of January 24, 21:30 UT, through approximately January 25, 15:15 UT. SDSS133849 has not previously been seen in outburst, and is being observed as part of a larger study of pulsating white dwarf primaries in cataclysmic variables. In particular, Szkody and collaborators are investigating the effects that higher temperatures and larger rotation velocities caused by accretion have on the pulsation behavior. This object is very faint at quiescence, with V=17.7. AAVSO observations are requested to ensure that the object is indeed faint when observed with HST, as it could damage the instrument if it were to go into outburst. AAVSO observations will be used to make a "go"/"no go" decision at 21:41 UT on January 24, and will also be used in the analysis of the resulting data. Observers should monitor this object nightly beginning now through January 31, and intensively on January 24-25 UT. In the event of an outburst, please contact the AAVSO immediately. CCD observers are asked to use filters if possible, preferably V, but B, Rc, and Ic may also be used. Please use sufficient exposure (with S/N = 10) to reach at least the 15.045V comparison star, even if you cannot reach 17.7V in reasonable time. Please submit observations to the AAVSO International Database using the name SDSS133848.

  11. Measuring quasar variability with Pan-STARRS1 and SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Morganson, E.; Rix, H.-W.; Schlafly, E. F.; Walter, F.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Green, P. J.; Marshall, P. J.; Price, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    We measure quasar variability using the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 Survey (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and establish a method of selecting quasars via their variability in 10{sup 4} deg{sup 2} surveys. We use 10{sup 5} spectroscopically confirmed quasars that have been well measured in both PS1 and SDSS and take advantage of the decadal timescales that separate SDSS measurements and PS1 measurements. A power law model fits the data well over the entire time range tested, 0.01-10 yr. Variability in the current PS1-SDSS data set can efficiently distinguish between quasars and nonvarying objects. It improves the purity of a griz quasar color cut from 4.1% to 48% while maintaining 67% completeness. Variability will be very effective at finding quasars in data sets with no u band and in redshift ranges where exclusively photometric selection is not efficient. We show that quasars' rest-frame ensemble variability, measured as a root mean squared in Δ magnitudes, is consistent with V(z, L, t) = A {sub 0}(1 + z){sup 0.37}(L/L {sub 0}){sup –0.16}(t/1 yr){sup 0.246}, where L {sub 0} = 10{sup 46} erg s{sup –1} and A {sub 0} = 0.190, 0.162, 0.147, or 0.141 in the g {sub P1}, r {sub P1}, i {sub P1}, or z {sub P1}filter, respectively. We also fit across all four filters and obtain median variability as a function of z, L, and λ as V(z, L, λ, t) = 0.079(1 + z){sup 0.15}(L/L {sub 0}){sup –0.2}(λ/1000 nm){sup –0.44}(t/1 yr){sup 0.246}.

  12. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  13. Photometric redshifts for the SDSS Data Release 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Róbert; Dobos, László; Budavári, Tamás; Szalay, Alexander S.; Csabai, István

    2016-08-01

    We present the methodology and data behind the photometric redshift data base of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12. We adopt a hybrid technique, empirically estimating the redshift via local regression on a spectroscopic training set, then fitting a spectrum template to obtain K-corrections and absolute magnitudes. The SDSS spectroscopic catalogue was augmented with data from other, publicly available spectroscopic surveys to mitigate target selection effects. The training set is comprised of 1976 978 galaxies, and extends up to redshift z ≈ 0.8, with a useful coverage of up to z ≈ 0.6. We provide photometric redshifts and realistic error estimates for the 208 474 076 galaxies of the SDSS primary photometric catalogue. We achieve an average bias of overline{Δ z_{norm}} = {5.84 × 10^{-5}}, a standard deviation of σ(Δznorm) = 0.0205, and a 3σ outlier rate of Po = 4.11 per cent when cross-validating on our training set. The published redshift error estimates and photometric error classes enable the selection of galaxies with high-quality photometric redshifts. We also provide a supplementary error map that allows additional, sophisticated filtering of the data.

  14. Photometric Asymmetry Between Clockwise and Counterclockwise Spiral Galaxies in SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior

    2017-02-01

    While galaxies with clockwise and counterclockwise handedness are visually different, they are expected to be symmetric in all of their other characteristics. Previous experiments using both manual analysis and machine vision have shown that the handedness of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies can be predicted with accuracy significantly higher than mere chance using its photometric data alone. However, some of these previous experiments were based on manually classified galaxies, and the results may therefore be subjected to bias originated from the human perception. This paper describes an experiment based on a set of 162,514 galaxies classified automatically to clockwise and counterclockwise spiral galaxies, showing that the source of the asymmetry in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is not the human perception bias. The results are compared to two smaller datasets, and confirm the observation that the handedness of SDSS galaxies can be predicted by their photometry. The experiment also shows statistically significant differences in the measured magnitude of SDSS galaxies, according which galaxies with clockwise patterns are brighter than galaxies with counterclockwise patterns. The magnitude of that difference changes across RA ranges, and exhibits a strong correlation with the cosine of the right ascension.

  15. LasDamas Mock Galaxy Catalogs for SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Cameron; Berlind, A.; Scoccimarro, R.; Wechsler, R.; Busha, M.; Gardner, J.; van den Bosch, F.

    2009-01-01

    The statistical strength of galaxy redshift surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), have ushered us into the era of precision measurements of galaxy clustering. We are now fitting physical models to measured clustering statistics. Galaxy clustering is thus in a position to directly constrain cosmological and galaxy formation theories. This paradigm shift from qualitative to quantitative demands that we understand the statistical and systematic errors in our measurements. Moreover, we must quantify the theoretical uncertainties in our models, which are no longer clearly sub-dominant to observational errors. We address this emerging need with the LasDamas project (LArge Suite of DArk MAtter Simulations) by producing an unprecedented number of independent and realistic mock galaxy catalogs. To date, we have run over 100 independent N-body realizations using a fixed cosmology and initialized using 2nd order Lagrangian perturbation theory. We populate overdensities of dark matter using the halo occupation distribution framework, designed to match both small and large scale clustering of the observed SDSS data. A series of mock galaxy catalogs matching the geometry of the final SDSS release (DR7) are created over a wide luminosity range to correspond to Main and LRG volume-limited samples. We include important observational effects, such as redshift distortions and fiber collisions. These galaxy mocks are publicly available.

  16. SDSS DR4: Progress on the Hot Wire Dwarf Luminosity Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    SDSS DR4: Progress on the hot white dwarf luminosity function This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full...TITLE AND SUBTITLE SDSS DR4: progress on the hot white dwarf luminosity function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Sloan Digital Sky Survey ( SDSS ) data release 4 (DR4) WD catalog data allowed us to obtain a luminosity function (LF)for the hottest WDs. The LF was

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 188 CIV BAL QSOs from SDSS DR7 (He+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.-C.; Bian, W.-H.; Ge, X.; Jiang, X.-L.

    2016-07-01

    In the SDSS DR7, it is found that there are 1080 spectra of 480 CIV BAL QSOs with at least two-epoch observations. In order to identify the variable regions in CIV BAL troughs, we select BAL QSOs with SDSS spectral signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) at r band larger than 10, and redshift more than 1.7. It consists of 188 CIV BAL QSOs with 428 SDSS spectra. (2 data files).

  18. Atmospheres of the Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    The giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, are fluid objects. They have no solid surfaces because the light elements constituting them do not condense at solar-system temperatures. Instead, their deep atmospheres grade downward until the distinction between gas and liquid becomes meaningless. The preceding chapter delved into the hot, dark interiors of the Jovian planets. This one focuses on their atmospheres, especially the observable layers from the base of the clouds to the edge of space. These veneers arc only a few hundred kilometers thick, less than one percent of each planet's radius, but they exhibit an incredible variety of dynamic phenomena. The mixtures of elements in these outer layers resemble a cooled-down piece of the Sun. Clouds precipitate out of this gaseous soup in a variety of colors. The cloud patterns are organized by winds, which are powered by heat derived from sunlight (as on Earth) and by internal heat left over from planetary formation. Thus the atmospheres of the Jovian planets are distinctly different both compositionally and dynamically from those of the terrestrial planets. Such differences make them fascinating objects for study, providing clues about the origin and evolution of the planets and the formation of the solar system.

  19. Tracks of a Giant

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-25

    The giant, 70-meter-wide antenna at NASA Deep Space Network complex in Goldstone, Calif., tracks a spacecraft on Nov. 17, 2009. This antenna, officially known as Deep Space Station 14, is also nicknamed the Mars antenna.

  20. The Next Giant Step

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Artist Robert McCall painted "The Next Giant Step" in 1979 to commemorate the heroism and courage of spaceflight pioneers. Located in the lobby of Johnson's building 2, the mural depicts America's ...

  1. Silvics of Giant Sequoia

    Treesearch

    C. Phillip Weatherspoon

    1986-01-01

    Ecological relationships-including habitat and life history---of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) in natural stands are summarized. Such silvical information provides an important foundation for sound management of the species.

  2. The Giant Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  3. Giant Earlobe Epidermoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Scilletta, Alessandra; Cabrera-Sánchez, Emilio; Rioja, Luis F; Perrotta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation. PMID:22557855

  4. The Giant Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  5. Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controlfamilydoctor.org editorial staff Home Diseases and Conditions Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica Condition Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica Share Print Giant ...

  6. Capella: Separating the Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. R.; Dupree, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    Images from the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are used to spatially separate the two giants of Capella (α Aurigae; HD 34029) for the first time at ultraviolet wavelengths. The images were obtained with broadband filters that isolate the wavelength regions 2500-3000 Å and 1300-1500 Å. The cool G8 giant is found to be weaker than the hot G1 giant by factors of around 4 and 17, respectively, in these bands. The latter factor is largely due to the much stronger G1 continuum at short wavelengths. No evidence is found for material lying between the two stars in the images. In addition, the objective prisms of the FOC were used to obtain low-resolution spectra from 1200 to 3000 Å, allowing individual emission lines from each star to be spatially separated. Cool-to-hot star ratios for the emission lines H I Lyα, O I λ1305, Si II λ1816, C II λ1335, He II λ1640, and Si IV λ1393 are presented, showing that the cool giant is weaker than the hot giant by factors of 5-10 in these lines. The O I emission is only a factor of 2.5 weaker in the cool giant, most probably resulting from fluorescence in the extended atmosphere of the cool giant. The line ratios are compared with values derived from International Ultraviolet Explorer and HST/Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph spectra, which could separate the stars spectrally but not spatially. Reasonable agreement is found although the FOC ratios generally imply lower contributions from the cool giant. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  7. Request to monitor SDSS074545 for HST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2011-02-01

    Dr. Paula Szkody (University of Washington) has requested AAVSO help in monitoring the cataclysmic variable SDSS074545 (SDSS J074531.91+453829.5) for HST observations scheduled during the week of 2011 March 7-14. Dr. Szkody also observed this object with HST in October-November 2007 (see AAVSO Alert Notice 359). AAVSO observations are needed to ensure that the object is not in outburst when observed with HST, as it could damage the instrument if it were to go into outburst. AAVSO observations will be used to make a go/no go decision when the observing window opens, and will also be used in the analysis of the resulting data. Dr. Szkody requests nightly monitoring of this object from now until the observing window opens, intensive monitoring during the 24-48 hour period during which observations will be made, and nightly observations for the week following the HST observations. An AAVSO Special Notice will be issued when HST ground controllers inform us the observing window is officially open. SDSS074545 is part of a larger study of pulsating white dwarf primaries in cataclysmic variables. In particular, Szkody and collaborators are investigating the effects that higher temperatures and larger rotation velocities caused by accretion have on the pulsation behavior. In these HST observations, they want to measure the temperature of the white dwarf at minimum. SDSS074545 is V=19.1 at quiescence. Visual observers should report any "fainter than" estimates using the faintest comparison star magnitude you can reach if unable to detect SDSS074545 itself. V filter is preferred for CCD observations, but B, Rc, and Ic may also be used. Detection of the variable itself is not required unless you can reach V=19 in reasonable time, but please use sufficient exposure to detect at least the V=15.8 comparison star with a S/N of 10 and report the observation as a "fainter-than" measure. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http

  8. The statistical difference between bending arcs and regular polar arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullen, A.; Fear, R. C.; Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Karlsson, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the Polar UVI data set by Kullen et al. (2002) of 74 polar arcs is reinvestigated, focusing on bending arcs. Bending arcs are typically faint and form (depending on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By direction) on the dawnside or duskside oval with the tip of the arc splitting off the dayside oval. The tip subsequently moves into the polar cap in the antisunward direction, while the arc's nightside end remains attached to the oval, eventually becoming hook-shaped. Our investigation shows that bending arcs appear on the opposite oval side from and farther sunward than most regular polar arcs. They form during By-dominated IMF conditions: typically, the IMF clock angle increases from 60 to 90° about 20 min before the arc forms. Antisunward plasma flows from the oval into the polar cap just poleward of bending arcs are seen in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network data, indicating dayside reconnection. For regular polar arcs, recently reported characteristics are confirmed in contrast to bending arcs. This includes plasma flows along the nightside oval that originate close to the initial arc location and a significant delay in the correlation between IMF By and initial arc location. In our data set, the highest correlations are found with IMF By appearing at least 1-2 h before arc formation. In summary, bending arcs are distinctly different from regular arcs and cannot be explained by existing polar arc models. Instead, these results are consistent with the formation mechanism described in Carter et al. (2015), suggesting that bending arcs are caused by dayside reconnection.

  9. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in SDSS/SEGUE. I. Carbon Abundance Estimation and Frequency of CEMP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Masseron, Thomas; Plez, Bertrand; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Yanny, Brian; Lucatello, Sara; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its Galactic sub-survey, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N >= 15 Å-1 to a precision better than 0.35 dex for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T eff = [4400, 6700] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], [Fe/H] = [-4.0, +0.5], and [C/Fe] = [-0.25, +3.5]. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] >= +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. Although the number of stars known with [Fe/H] < -4.0 remains small, the frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars below this value is around 75%. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] <= -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] <= -3.5 a roughly constant value. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5, presumably due to the difficulty of identifying CEMP stars among warmer turnoff stars with weak CH G-bands. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] <= -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to

  10. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  11. Control of arc length during gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Madigan, R.B.; Quinn, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    An arc-length control system has been developed for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) under spray transfer welding conditions. The ability to monitor and control arc length during arc welding allows consistent weld characteristics to be maintained and therefore improves weld quality. Arc length control has only been implemented for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), where an automatic voltage control (AVC) unit adjusts torch-to-work distance. The system developed here compliments the voltage- and current-sensing techniques commonly used for control of GMAW. The system consists of an arc light intensity sensor (photodiode), a Hall-effect current sensor, a personal computer and software implementing a data interpretation and control algorithms. Arc length was measured using both arc light and arc current signals. Welding current was adjusted to maintain constant arc length. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was used. Gains were automatically selected based on the desired welding conditions. In performance evaluation welds, arc length varied from 2.5 to 6.5 mm while welding up a sloped workpiece (ramp in CTWD) without the control. Arc length was maintained within 1 mm of the desired (5 mm ) with the control.

  12. Multi-wavelength observations of the peculiar red giant HR 3126

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesce, Joseph E.; Stencel, Robert E.; Walter, Frederick M.; Doggett, Jesse; Dachs, Joachim; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Mundt, Reinhard

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the red giant HR 3126 are combined with multi-wavelength data in order to provide a firmer basis for explaining the arc-minute sized nebula surrounding the object. Possibilities as to the location of HR 3126 on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, and to the formation mechanisms of the reflection nebula IC 2220 associated with it, are summarized.

  13. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS FROM SDSS/SEGUE. I. ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Honda, Satoshi; Ito, Hiroko; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Frebel, Anna; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.; Carollo, Daniela; Sivarani, Thirupathi E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp E-mail: lee@pa.msu.edu E-mail: hidai@apus.rh.u-tokai.ac.jp E-mail: fujimoto@astro1.sci.hokudai.ac.jp E-mail: sivarani@iiap.res.in

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compositions are determined based on high-resolution spectroscopy for 137 candidate extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its first stellar extension, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). High-resolution spectra with moderate signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios were obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph of the Subaru Telescope. Most of the sample (approximately 80%) are main-sequence turnoff stars, including dwarfs and subgiants. Four cool main-sequence stars, the most metal-deficient such stars known, are included in the remaining sample. Good agreement is found between effective temperatures estimated by the SEGUE stellar parameter pipeline, based on the SDSS/SEGUE medium-resolution spectra, and those estimated from the broadband (V - K){sub 0} and (g - r){sub 0} colors. Our abundance measurements reveal that 70 stars in our sample have [Fe/H] < -3, adding a significant number of EMP stars to the currently known sample. Our analyses determine the abundances of eight elements (C, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Sr, and Ba) in addition to Fe. The fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars ([C/Fe] > +0.7) among the 25 giants in our sample is as high as 36%, while only a lower limit on the fraction (9%) is estimated for turnoff stars. This paper is the first of a series of papers based on these observational results. The following papers in this series will discuss the higher-resolution and higher-S/N observations of a subset of this sample, the metallicity distribution function, binarity, and correlations between the chemical composition and kinematics of extremely metal-poor stars.

  14. Arc characteristics of submerged arc welding with stainless steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Liu, Cui-rong; Chen, Feng-hua

    2014-08-01

    The arc characteristics of submerged arc welding (SAW) with stainless steel wire were studied by using Analysator Hannover (AH). The tests were carried out under the same preset arc voltage combined with different welding currents. By comparing the probability density distribution (PDD) curves of arc voltage and welding current, the changes were analyzed, the metal transfer mode in SAW was deduced, and the characteristics of a stable arc were summarized. The analysis results show that, with an increase of welding parameters, the short-circuiting peak in the PDD curves of arc voltage decreases gradually until it disappears, and the dominant metal transfer mode changes from flux-wall guided transfer to projected transfer and then to streaming transfer. Moreover, when the PDD curves of arc voltage are both unimodal and generally symmetrical, the greater the peak probability and the smaller the peak span, the more stable the arc becomes.

  15. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion.

  16. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion. PMID:24474093

  17. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the

  18. Bright Arcing Loops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-27

    Several arcing loops rotated into view and swirled above an active region, which gave us a nice profile view of the action (June 26-27, 2016). The arcing plasma is tracing magnetic field lines extending out from the active region. Some darker matter also jiggled back and forth near the active region as well, pulled about by magnetic forces. At one point a lick of plasma pushed its way out from the region but quickly fell back into the sun. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Movies are also available at the Photojournal. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20882

  19. The Milky Way Tomography with SDSS. 2. Stellar Metallicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Sesar, Branimir; Juric, Mario; Bond, Nicholas; Dalcanton, Julianne; Rockosi, Constance M.; Yanny, Brian; Newberg, Heidi J.; Beers, Timothy C.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Wilhelm, Ron; /Texas Tech. /Michigan State U.

    2008-04-01

    In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is producing a massive spectroscopic database which already contains over 280,000 stellar spectra. Using effective temperature and metallicity derived from SDSS spectra for {approx}60,000 F and G type main sequence stars (0.2 < g-r < 0.6), we develop polynomial models, reminiscent of traditional methods based on the UBV photometry, for estimating these parameters from the SDSS u-g and g-r colors. These estimators reproduce SDSS spectroscopic parameters with a root-mean-square scatter of 100 K for effective temperature, and 0.2 dex for metallicity (limited by photometric errors), which are similar to random and systematic uncertainties in spectroscopic determinations. We apply this method to a photometric catalog of coadded SDSS observations and study the photometric metallicity distribution of {approx}200,000 F and G type stars observed in 300 deg{sup 2} of high Galactic latitude sky. These deeper (g < 20.5) and photometrically precise ({approx}0.01 mag) coadded data enable an accurate measurement of the unbiased metallicity distribution for a complete volume-limited sample of stars at distances between 500 pc and 8 kpc. The metallicity distribution can be exquisitely modeled using two components with a spatially varying number ratio, that correspond to disk and halo. The best-fit number ratio of the two components is consistent with that implied by the decomposition of stellar counts profiles into exponential disk and power-law halo components by Juric et al. (2008). The two components also possess the kinematics expected for disk and halo stars. The metallicity of the halo component can be modeled as a spatially invariant Gaussian distribution with a mean of [Fe/H] = -1.46 and a standard deviation of {approx}0.3 dex. The disk metallicity distribution is non-Gaussian, with a remarkably small scatter (rms {approx}0.16 dex) and the median smoothly decreasing with distance

  20. Asteroseismological analysis of the GW Virginis stars SDSS J0349-0059 and VV 47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcaferro, Leila M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2017-09-01

    We present an asteroseismological analysis of the GW Vir stars SDSS J0349-0059 and VV47. We found good agreement between our mass determinations and previous results. For SDSS J0349-0059, we found a seismological model that provides us with additional information on the star.

  1. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), Data Release 8

    DOE Data Explorer

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and SDSS-II, the SDSS-III Collaboration is working to map the Milky Way, search for extrasolar planets, and solve the mystery of dark energy. SDSS-III's first release, Data Release 8 (DR8), became available in the first half of 2012. DR8 contains all the images ever taken by the SDSS telescope. Together, these images make up the largest color image of the sky ever made. A version of the DR8 image is shown to the right. DR8 also includes measurements for nearly 500 million stars, galaxies, and quasars, and spectra for nearly two million. All of DR8's images, spectra, and measurements are available to anyone online. You can browse through sky images, look up data for individual objects, or search for objects anywhere using any criteria. SDSS-III will collect data from 2008 to 2014, using the 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory. SDSS-III consists of four surveys, each focused on a different scientific theme. These four surveys are: 1) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS); 2) SEGUE-2 (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration); 3) The APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE); and 4) The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). [Copied with edits from http://www.sdss3.org/index.php

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DIBs measurements from SDSS-III APOGEE spectra (Elyajouri+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-10-01

    This work is based on the products from the SDSS data release 12 (DR12, Alam et al. 2015ApJS..219...12A). This release includes all the data taken between 2011 April and 2014 July. The SDSS-III APOGEE spectra can be downloaded from the Science Archive Server (SAS). (1 data file).

  3. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel; Myers, Adam D.; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-05-10

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M{sub 1450} < -26) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data covering {approx}6000 deg{sup 2}, then extend to lower luminosities (M{sub 1450} < -24) with newly discovered, faint z {approx} 5 quasars selected from 235 deg{sup 2} of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 < z < 5.1 quasars that is highly complete, with 73 spectroscopic identifications out of 92 candidates. Our color selection method is also highly efficient: of the 73 spectra obtained, 71 are high-redshift quasars. These observations reach below the break in the luminosity function (M{sub 1450}{sup *}{approx}-27). The bright-end slope is steep ({beta} {approx}< -4), with a constraint of {beta} < -3.1 at 95% confidence. The break luminosity appears to evolve strongly at high redshift, providing an explanation for the flattening of the bright-end slope reported previously. We find a factor of {approx}2 greater decrease in the number density of luminous quasars (M{sub 1450} < -26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate {approx}30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  4. PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA COSMOLOGY WITH BEAMS AND SDSS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Hlozek, Renee; Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mat; Newling, James; Varughese, Melvin; Kessler, Rick; Frieman, Joshua; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Marriner, John; Campbell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Dilday, Ben; Falck, Bridget; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-06-20

    Supernova (SN) cosmology without spectroscopic confirmation is an exciting new frontier, which we address here with the Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS) algorithm and the full three years of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN). BEAMS is a Bayesian framework for using data from multiple species in statistical inference when one has the probability that each data point belongs to a given species, corresponding in this context to different types of SNe with their probabilities derived from their multi-band light curves. We run the BEAMS algorithm on both Gaussian and more realistic SNANA simulations with of order 10{sup 4} SNe, testing the algorithm against various pitfalls one might expect in the new and somewhat uncharted territory of photometric SN cosmology. We compare the performance of BEAMS to that of both mock spectroscopic surveys and photometric samples that have been cut using typical selection criteria. The latter typically either are biased due to contamination or have significantly larger contours in the cosmological parameters due to small data sets. We then apply BEAMS to the 792 SDSS-II photometric SNe with host spectroscopic redshifts. In this case, BEAMS reduces the area of the {Omega}{sub m}, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} contours by a factor of three relative to the case where only spectroscopically confirmed data are used (297 SNe). In the case of flatness, the constraints obtained on the matter density applying BEAMS to the photometric SDSS-II data are {Omega}{sup BEAMS}{sub m} = 0.194 {+-} 0.07. This illustrates the potential power of BEAMS for future large photometric SN surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  5. Morphology and Absolute Magnitudes of the SDSS DR7 QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, B.; Andrei, A. H.; Antón, S.

    2014-10-01

    The ESA mission Gaia will furnish a complete census of the Milky Way, delivering astrometrics, dynamics, and astrophysics information for 1 billion stars. Operating in all-sky repeated survey mode, Gaia will also provide measurements of extra-galactic objects. Among the later there will be at least 500,000 QSOs that will be used to build the reference frame upon which the several independent observations will be combined and interpreted. Not all the QSOs are equally suited to fulfill this role of fundamental, fiducial grid-points. Brightness, morphology, and variability define the astrometric error budget for each object. We made use of 3 morphological parameters based on the PSF sharpness, circularity and gaussianity, which enable us to distinguish the "real point-like" QSOs. These parameters are being explored on the spectroscopically certified QSOs of the SDSS DR7, to compare the performance against other morphology classification schemes, as well as to derive properties of the host galaxy. We present a new method, based on the Gaia quasar database, to derive absolute magnitudes, on the SDSS filters domain. The method can be extrapolated all over the optical window, including the Gaia filters. We discuss colors derived from SDSS apparent magnitudes and colors based on absolute magnitudes that we obtained tanking into account corrections for dust extinction, either intergalactic or from the QSO host, and for the Lyman α forest. In the future we want to further discuss properties of the host galaxies, comparing for e.g. the obtained morphological classification with the color, the apparent and absolute magnitudes, and the redshift distributions.

  6. Photometric Supernova Cosmology with BEAMS and SDSS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlozek, Renée; Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mat; Newling, James; Varughese, Melvin; Kessler, Rick; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Campbell, Heather; Dilday, Ben; Falck, Bridget; Frieman, Joshua; Kuhlmann, Steve; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-06-01

    Supernova (SN) cosmology without spectroscopic confirmation is an exciting new frontier, which we address here with the Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS) algorithm and the full three years of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN). BEAMS is a Bayesian framework for using data from multiple species in statistical inference when one has the probability that each data point belongs to a given species, corresponding in this context to different types of SNe with their probabilities derived from their multi-band light curves. We run the BEAMS algorithm on both Gaussian and more realistic SNANA simulations with of order 104 SNe, testing the algorithm against various pitfalls one might expect in the new and somewhat uncharted territory of photometric SN cosmology. We compare the performance of BEAMS to that of both mock spectroscopic surveys and photometric samples that have been cut using typical selection criteria. The latter typically either are biased due to contamination or have significantly larger contours in the cosmological parameters due to small data sets. We then apply BEAMS to the 792 SDSS-II photometric SNe with host spectroscopic redshifts. In this case, BEAMS reduces the area of the Ω m , ΩΛ contours by a factor of three relative to the case where only spectroscopically confirmed data are used (297 SNe). In the case of flatness, the constraints obtained on the matter density applying BEAMS to the photometric SDSS-II data are ΩBEAMS m = 0.194 ± 0.07. This illustrates the potential power of BEAMS for future large photometric SN surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  7. A systematic search for changing-look quasars in SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Lawrence, Andy; Goad, Mike; Horne, Keith; Burgett, William; Chambers, Ken C.; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Wainscoat, Richard; Waters, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    We present a systematic search for changing-look quasars based on repeat photometry from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Pan-STARRS1, along with repeat spectra from SDSS and SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. Objects with large, |Δg| > 1 mag photometric variations in their light curves are selected as candidates to look for changes in broad emission line (BEL) features. Out of a sample of 1011 objects that satisfy our selection criteria and have more than one epoch of spectroscopy, we find 10 examples of quasars that have variable and/or `changing-look' BEL features. Four of our objects have emerging BELs, five have disappearing BELs, and one object shows tentative evidence for having both emerging and disappearing BELs. With redshifts in the range 0.20 < z < 0.63, this sample includes the highest redshift changing-look quasars discovered to date. We highlight the quasar J102152.34+464515.6 at z = 0.204. Here, not only have the Balmer emission lines strongly diminished in prominence, including Hβ all but disappearing, but the blue continuum fν∝ν1/3 typical of an active galactic nuclei is also significantly diminished in the second epoch of spectroscopy. Using our selection criteria, we estimate that >15 per cent of strongly variable luminous quasars display changing-look BEL features on rest-frame time-scales of 8 to 10 yr. Plausible time-scales for variable dust extinction are factors of 2-10 too long to explain the dimming and brightening in these sources, and simple dust reddening models cannot reproduce the BEL changes. On the other hand, an advancement such as disc reprocessing is needed if the observed variations are due to accretion rate changes.

  8. THE (DOUBLE) WHITE DWARF BINARY SDSS 1257+5428

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.

    2010-08-20

    SDSS 1257+5428 is a white dwarf in a close orbit with a companion that has been suggested to be a neutron star. If so, it hosts the closest known neutron star, and its existence implies a great abundance of similar systems and a rate of white dwarf neutron-star mergers similar to that of the type Ia supernova rate. Here, we present high signal-to-noise spectra of SDSS 1257+5428, which confirm an independent finding that the system is in fact composed of two white dwarfs, one relatively cool and with low mass and the other hotter and more massive. With this, the demographics and merger rate are no longer puzzling (various factors combine to lower the latter by more than 2 orders of magnitude). We show that the spectra are fit well with a combination of two hydrogen model atmospheres, as long as the lines of the higher-gravity component are broadened significantly relative to what is expected from just pressure broadening. Interpreting this additional broadening as due to rotation, the inferred spin period is short, about 1 minute. Similarly rapid rotation is only seen in accreting white dwarfs that are magnetic; empirically, it appears that in non-magnetized white dwarfs, accreted angular momentum is lost by nova explosions before it can be transferred to the white dwarf. This suggests that the massive white dwarf in SDSS 1257+5428 is magnetic as well, with B {approx_equal} 10{sup 5} G. Alternatively, the broadening seen in the spectral lines could be due to a stronger magnetic field, of {approx}10{sup 6} G. The two models can be distinguished by further observations.

  9. Exploring the total Galactic extinction with SDSS BHB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hai-Jun; Liu, Chao; Hu, Jing-Yao; Xu, Yang; Chen, Xue-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We used 12 530 photometrically-selected blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to estimate the total extinction of the Milky Way at the high Galactic latitudes, RV and AV in each line of sight. Methods: A Bayesian method was developed to estimate the reddening values in the given lines of sight. Based on the most likely values of reddening in multiple colors, we were able to derive the values of RV and AV. Results: We selected 94 zero-reddened BHB stars from seven globular clusters as the template. The reddening in the four SDSS colors for the northern Galactic cap were estimated by comparing the field BHB stars with the template stars. The accuracy of this estimation is around 0.01 mag for most lines of sight. We also obtained ⟨ RV ⟩ to be around 2.40 ± 1.05 and AV map within an uncertainty of 0.1 mag. The results, including reddening values in the four SDSS colors, AV, and RV in each line of sight, are released on line. In this work, we employ an up-to-date parallel technique on GPU card to overcome time-consuming computations. We plan to release online the C++ CUDA code used for this analysis. Conclusions: The extinction map derived from BHB stars is highly consistent with that from Schlegel et al. (1998, ApJ, 500, 525). The derived RV is around 2.40 ± 1.05. The contamination probably makes the RV be larger. Tables 1-4 (excerpt) are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A142

  10. THE SLOAN BRIGHT ARCS SURVEY: SIX STRONGLY LENSED GALAXIES AT z = 0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with follow-up spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 464 to 882 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17 - 0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4 - 1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys. As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx}< 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  11. The Sloan Bright Arcs Survey : Six Strongly Lensed Galaxies at z=0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H.Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with followup spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 466?878 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17-0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4-1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys such as the CFHTLS (Cabanac et al. 2007). As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx_equal} 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  12. Giant star seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekker, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2017-06-01

    The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.

  13. Spatial environment of polar-ring galaxies from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, S. S.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    Based on SDSS data, we have considered the spatial environment of galaxies with extended polar rings. We used two approaches: estimating the projected distance to the nearest companion and counting the number of companions as a function of the distance to the galaxy. Both approaches have shown that the spatial environment of polar-ring galaxies on scales of hundreds of kiloparsecs is, on average, less dense than that of galaxies without polar structures. Apparently, one of the main causes of this effect is that the polar structures in a denser environment are destroyed more often during encounters and mergers with other galaxies.

  14. a Search for Primordial Vortex Remnants in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Abel; Ong, Zongjin; Chan, Aik Hui

    2014-04-01

    The scalar field cosmology model proposed by Huang et al.1, 2 predicts that the early pre-inflationary universe was a superfluid. This superfluid is likely to have contained quantized vortices, and it is postulated that remnants of these vortices persist in the present-day moderate-redshift galaxy distribution. We attempt to search for remnants of these primordial vortices in the SDSS BOSS galaxy catalogue. We manage to observe hints of a few vortex tubes, which might lend weight to the credibility of the theory.

  15. A comparison of multifractal behavior in galaxy samples from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Farieta, J. E.; Casas-Miranda, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the spatial distribution of galaxies with samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) including observational holes in the masks. From a multifractal formalism and using the sliding window technique for each sample, we have determined the fractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum. Aditionally, the scale of homogeneity was determined for each struture parameter. Our results show that the galaxy clustering exhibits a behavior that depends on the radial distance, revealing that the hierarchical distribution is not a fractal at large-scales, with a transition to homogeneity on large scales below 130 Mpc/h.

  16. ARc Welding (Industrial Processing Series).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARC WELDING , *BIBLIOGRAPHIES), (*ARC WELDS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES), ALUMINUM ALLOYS, TITANIUM ALLOYS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS, METAL PLATES, SPOT WELDING , STEEL...INERT GAS WELDING , MARAGING STEELS, MICROSTRUCTURE, HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, HEAT RESISTANT METALS, WELDABILITY, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, RESISTANCE WELDING

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parameters of Spiral galaxies from SDSS 7 (Hall+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.; Courteau, S.; Dutton, A. A.; McDonald, M.; Zhu, Y.

    2013-08-01

    We have compiled a sample of 3041 spiral galaxies with multiband gri imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7; Abazajian et al., 2009ApJS..182..543A) and available galaxy rotational velocities, V, derived from HI linewidths. We compare the data products provided through the SDSS imaging pipeline with our own photometry of the SDSS images, and use the velocities, V, as an independent metric to determine ideal galaxy sizes (R) and luminosities (L). Our radial and luminosity parameters improve upon the SDSS DR7 Petrosian radii and luminosities through the use of isophotal fits to the galaxy images. This improvement is gauged via VL (Vmag-Luminosity) and RV relations whose respective scatters are reduced by ~8 and ~30% with our parameters compared to similar relations built with SDSS parameters. (1 data file).

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Compact groups of galaxies in SDSS DR7 (Mendel+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel, J. T.; Ellison, S. L.; Simard, L.; Patton, D. R.; McConnachie, A. W.

    2012-07-01

    In Paper III (Cat. J/MNRAS/395/255) we describe the photometric selection of CGs from the SDSS Data Release 6 (Adelman-McCarthy et al., 2008, Cat. II/282/), which included imaging of the entire SDSS-II Legacy Survey area. Since that paper, SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7; Abazajian et al., 2009ApJS..182..543A) has provided an additional ~1200deg2 of spectroscopic data, completing spectroscopic observations of the SDSS-II Legacy Survey footprint. In what follows we use galaxy catalogues drawn from SDSS DR7 and, where available, supplement the CG samples in Paper III with updated spectroscopic information. (2 data files).

  19. An Innocent Giant

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Lakhan Singh; Dhingra, Mandeep; Raghubanshi, Gunjan; Thami, Gurvinder Pal

    2014-01-01

    A cutaneous horn (cornu cutaneum) is a protrusion from the skin composed of a cornified material. It may be associated with a benign, premalignant, or malignant lesion at the base, masking numerous dermatoses. In a 24-year-old female, a giant cutaneous horn arising from a seborrheic keratosis located on the leg is presented. This case has been reported to emphasize that a giant cutaneous horn may also occur in young patients, even in photoprotected areas, and are not always associated with malignancy. PMID:25484426

  20. Variable polarity arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  1. Gas tungsten arc welder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  2. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  3. Arc Length Gone Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…

  4. DISCOVERY OF A VERY BRIGHT, STRONGLY LENSED z = 2 GALAXY IN THE SDSS DR5

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Huan; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Annis, James; Frieman, Joshua A.; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa

    2009-07-10

    We report on the discovery of a very bright z = 2.00 star-forming galaxy that is strongly lensed by a foreground z = 0.422 luminous red galaxy (LRG), SDSS J120602.09+514229.5. This system, nicknamed the 'Clone', was found in a systematic search for bright arcs lensed by LRGs and brightest cluster galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample. Follow-up observations on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope on Mauna Kea and the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system. A simple lens model for the system, assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass distribution, yields an Einstein radius of {theta}{sub Ein} = 3.82 {+-} 0.''03 or 14.8 {+-} 0.1 h{sup -1} kpc at the lens redshift. The total projected mass enclosed within the Einstein radius is 2.10 {+-} 0.03 x 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M{sub sun}, and the magnification factor for the source galaxy is 27 {+-} 1. Combining the lens model with our gVriz photometry, we find a (unlensed) star formation rate (SFR) for the source galaxy of 32 h{sup -1} M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}, adopting a fiducial constant SFR model with an age of 100 Myr and E(B - V) = 0.25. With an apparent magnitude of r = 19.8, this system is among the very brightest lensed z {>=} 2 galaxies, and provides an excellent opportunity to pursue detailed studies of the physical properties of an individual high-redshift star-forming galaxy.

  5. THE TENTH DATA RELEASE OF THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC DATA FROM THE SDSS-III APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Christopher P.; Anderton, Timothy; Alexandroff, Rachael; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anderson, Scott F.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Andrews, Brett H.; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bird, Jonathan C.; Beers, Timothy C.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Chad F.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blake, Cullen H.; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the Tenth Public Data Release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes the first spectroscopic data from the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), along with spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) taken through 2012 July. The APOGEE instrument is a near-infrared R ∼ 22,500 300 fiber spectrograph covering 1.514-1.696 μm. The APOGEE survey is studying the chemical abundances and radial velocities of roughly 100,000 red giant star candidates in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. DR10 includes 178,397 spectra of 57,454 stars, each typically observed three or more times, from APOGEE. Derived quantities from these spectra (radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities) are also included. DR10 also roughly doubles the number of BOSS spectra over those included in the Ninth Data Release. DR10 includes a total of 1,507,954 BOSS spectra comprising 927,844 galaxy spectra, 182,009 quasar spectra, and 159,327 stellar spectra selected over 6373.2 deg{sup 2}.

  6. The Tenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Christopher P.; Alexandroff, Rachael; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anders, Friedrich; Anderson, Scott F.; Anderton, Timothy; Andrews, Brett H.; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Bautista, Julian E.; Beers, Timothy C.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Chad F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Beutler, Florian; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Borde, Arnaud; Bovy, Jo; Shelden Bradley, Alaina; Brandt, W. N.; Brauer, Dorothée; Brinkmann, J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Busca, Nicolás G.; Carithers, William; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Carnero, Aurelio R.; Carr, Michael A.; Chiappini, Cristina; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Crepp, Justin R.; Cristiani, Stefano; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Cunha, Katia; da Costa, Luiz N.; Dawson, Kyle S.; De Lee, Nathan; Dean, Janice D. R.; Delubac, Timothée; Deshpande, Rohit; Dhital, Saurav; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Epstein, Courtney R.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fabbian, D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Favole, Ginevra; Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Feuillet, Diane; Filiz Ak, Nurten; Finley, Hayley; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Galbraith-Frew, J. G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Ge, Jian; Génova-Santos, R.; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Halverson, Samuel; Harding, Paul; Harris, David W.; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hayden, Michael; Hearty, Frederick R.; Herrero Davó, Artemio; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Ivans, Inese I.; Jackson, Kelly M.; Jiang, Peng; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kirkby, David; Klaene, Mark A.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koesterke, Lars; Lan, Ting-Wen; Lang, Dustin; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lee, Khee-Gan; Lee, Young Sun; Long, Daniel C.; Loomis, Craig P.; Lucatello, Sara; Lupton, Robert H.; Ma, Bo; Mack, Claude E., III; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, A.; Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; Martell, Sarah L.; Masters, Karen L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ménard, Brice; Mészáros, Sz.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Miyatake, Hironao; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Montesano, Francesco; More, Surhud; Morrison, Heather L.; Muna, Demitri; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Myers, Adam D.; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Nuza, Sebastián E.; O'Connell, Julia E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; O'Connell, Ross; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Owen, Russell; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Parihar, Prachi; Pâris, Isabelle; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Dotto Perottoni, Hélio; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Rahman, Mubdi; Rebolo, Rafael; Reid, Beth A.; Richards, Jonathan C.; Riffel, Rogério; Robin, Annie C.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Roy, Arpita; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Sabiu, Cristiano G.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basílio; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schlegel, David J.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Sellgren, Kris; Seo, Hee-Jong; Shen, Yue; Shetrone, Matthew; Shu, Yiping; Simmons, Audrey E.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smith, Verne V.; Snedden, Stephanie A.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Sobreira, Flavia; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Strauss, Michael A.; Streblyanska, Alina; Suzuki, Nao; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Troup, Nicholas W.; Vandenberg, Jan; Vargas Magaña, Mariana; Viel, Matteo; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weinberg, David H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; White, Martin; White, Simon D. M.; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Zamora, O.; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zhu, Guangtun

    2014-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the Tenth Public Data Release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes the first spectroscopic data from the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), along with spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) taken through 2012 July. The APOGEE instrument is a near-infrared R ~ 22,500 300 fiber spectrograph covering 1.514-1.696 μm. The APOGEE survey is studying the chemical abundances and radial velocities of roughly 100,000 red giant star candidates in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. DR10 includes 178,397 spectra of 57,454 stars, each typically observed three or more times, from APOGEE. Derived quantities from these spectra (radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities) are also included. DR10 also roughly doubles the number of BOSS spectra over those included in the Ninth Data Release. DR10 includes a total of 1,507,954 BOSS spectra comprising 927,844 galaxy spectra, 182,009 quasar spectra, and 159,327 stellar spectra selected over 6373.2 deg2.

  7. Identifying Remote Halo Giants in High-Latitude Fields with Kepler 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    This talk describes halo-field K2 proposals submitted for C6, and planned for C8, C10, and C12, to identify red giants at distances from the Galactic plane between 10 and 100 kpc. This complements KASC WG8 Galactic Archaeology proposals by identifying and characterizing very remote halo red giants, and also in contributing to MAST a grid of high-resolution spectral calculations for giants useful for determining temperatures, gravities, and abundances from optical spectroscopy. Unlike previous surveys, our targets are unbiased in metallicity, consisting of all EPIC stars with SDSS ugriz photometry, g-r from 0.6 to 1.1, proximity > 12" (if present) to minimize contamination, and proper motion < 11 mas to remove most foreground stars. Kepler magnitudes Kp are between 16 and 18.5, where we establish that K2 can detect p-mode oscillations of red giants and measure the frequency of maximum power νmax. We also show that for these minimally-reddened stars, the g-r color alone yields the effective temperature Teff to 100K for giants with metallicity [Fe/H] below -1. We then illustrate how [Fe/H] will be estimated from νmax from the dependence of red-giant luminosity on metallicity at a given g-r.Only about 3% of these targets will be halo giants. The remainder will be intervening dwarfs, which at these magnitudes will be more than 1 kpc from the Galactic plane and thus members of the old halo population. This sample is valuable in its own right, for problems as diverse as the nature of the thick disk - halo transition and the occurrence of flaring on cool dwarfs so old that any original global magnetic dynamo has died away.

  8. Census of Blue Stars in SDSS DR8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2014-12-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g - r)0 < -0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  9. Dark matter voids in the SDSS galaxy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Florent; Jasche, Jens; Sutter, P. M.; Hamaus, Nico; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    What do we know about voids in the dark matter distribution given the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and assuming the ΛCDM model? Recent application of the Bayesian inference algorithm BORG to the SDSS Data Release 7 main galaxy sample has generated detailed Eulerian and Lagrangian representations of the large-scale structure as well as the possibility to accurately quantify corresponding uncertainties. Building upon these results, we present constrained catalogs of voids in the Sloan volume, aiming at a physical representation of dark matter underdensities and at the alleviation of the problems due to sparsity and biasing on galaxy void catalogs. To do so, we generate data-constrained reconstructions of the presently observed large-scale structure using a fully non-linear gravitational model. We then find and analyze void candidates using the VIDE toolkit. Our methodology therefore predicts the properties of voids based on fusing prior information from simulations and data constraints. For usual void statistics (number function, ellipticity distribution and radial density profile), all the results obtained are in agreement with dark matter simulations. Our dark matter void candidates probe a deeper void hierarchy than voids directly based on the observed galaxies alone. The use of our catalogs therefore opens the way to high-precision void cosmology at the level of the dark matter field. We will make the void catalogs used in this work available at http://www.cosmicvoids.net.

  10. The Alignment effect of brightest cluster galaxies in the SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R. S. J.; Annis, J.; Strauss, M. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Bahcall, N. A.; Gunn, J. E.; Kepner, J. V.; Postman, M.

    2001-10-01

    One of the most vital observational clues for unraveling the origin of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) is the observed alignment of the BCGs with their host cluster and its surroundings. We have examined the BCG-cluster alignment effect, using clusters of galaxies detected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that the BCGs are preferentially aligned with the principal axis of their hosts, to a much higher redshift (z >~ 0.3) than probed by previous studies (z <~ 0.1). The alignment effect strongly depends on the magnitude difference of the BCG and the second and third brightest cluster members: we find a strong alignment effect for the dominant BCGs, while less dominant BCGs do not show any departure from random alignment with respect to the cluster. We therefore claim that the alignment process originates from the same process that makes the BCG grow dominant, be it direct mergers in the early stage of cluster formation, or a later process that resembles the galactic cannibalism scenario. We do not find strong evidence for (or against) redshift evolution between 0SDSS cluster catalogs, which will provide us with better statistics for systematic investigations of the alignment with redshift, richness and morphology of both the cluster and the BCG.

  11. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    SciTech Connect

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  12. Does SEGUE/SDSS indicate a dual galactic halo?

    SciTech Connect

    Schönrich, Ralph; Asplund, Martin; Casagrande, Luca

    2014-05-01

    We re-examine recent claims of observational evidence for a dual Galactic halo in SEGUE/SDSS data, and trace them back to improper error treatment and neglect of selection effects. In particular, the detection of a vertical abundance gradient in the halo can be explained as a metallicity bias in distance. A similar bias and the impact of disk contamination affect the sample of blue horizontal branch stars. These examples highlight why non-volume complete samples require forward modeling from theoretical models or extensive bias-corrections. We also show how observational uncertainties produce the specific non-Gaussianity in the observed azimuthal velocity distribution of halo stars, which can be erroneously identified as two Gaussian components. A single kinematic component yields an excellent fit to the observed data, when we model the measurement process including distance uncertainties. Furthermore, we show that sample differences in proper motion space are the direct consequence of kinematic cuts and are enhanced when distance estimates are less accurate. Thus, their presence is neither proof of a separate population nor a measure of reliability for the applied distances. We conclude that currently there is no evidence from SEGUE/SDSS that would favor a dual Galactic halo over a single halo that is full of substructure.

  13. The SDSS View of Galaxy Mergers and Their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Daniel H.; Guo, Y.; Mo, H. J.; van den Bosch, F.; Yang, X.

    2009-01-01

    Major mergers between galaxies of comparable mass are dramatic examples of hierarchical galaxy formation. These interactions play a key role in leading theories invoking blue-to-red galaxy transformation to explain galaxy bimodality and the strong growth of the red spheroid population. Despite recent progress in our understanding of local mergers from powerful surveys like the SDSS, we lack a complete picture of this important evolutionary process. Especially unclear is the role that environment plays in merging. As part of a larger comprehensive study to improve our understanding of galaxy-galaxy interactions, we have identified unprecedented samples of gas-rich (disk-disk), dry (spheroid-spheroid) and `hybrid' (disk-spheroid) major mergers among galaxies of stellar mass >3e10 M(sun) in the local volume (0.02SDSS DR4 Group Catalog, we investigate the relative importance of different mergers types as a function of (1) galaxy stellar mass, (2) global environment defined by the dark matter halo mass of the host group, and (3) local environment defined by central versus non-central (satellite) position within the host halo.

  14. Lensing measurements of the mass distribution in SDSS voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2015-12-01

    We measure weak lensing mass profiles of voids from a volume-limited sample of SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We find voids using an algorithm designed to maximize the lensing signal by dividing the survey volume into 2D slices, and then finding holes in this 2D distribution of LRGs. We perform a stacked shear measurement on about 20 000 voids with radii between 15 and 55 Mpc h-1, and redshifts between 0.16 and 0.37. We measure the characteristic radial shear signal of voids with a signal to noise of 7. The mass profile corresponds to a fractional underdensity of about -0.4 inside the void radius and a slow approach to the mean density indicating a partially compensated void structure. We compare our measured shape and amplitude with the predictions of Krause et al. Voids in the galaxy distribution have been extensively modelled using simulations and measured in the SDSS. We discuss how the addition of void mass profiles can enable studies of galaxy formation and cosmology.

  15. A Cosmic Void Catalog of SDSS DR12 BOSS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Qingqing; Berlind, Andreas A.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Scoccimarro, Román; Tinker, Jeremy L.; McBride, Cameron K.; Schneider, Donald P.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    We present a cosmic void catalog using the large-scale structure galaxy catalog from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This galaxy catalog is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 and is the final catalog of SDSS-III. We take into account the survey boundaries, masks, and angular and radial selection functions, and apply the ZOBOV void finding algorithm to the Galaxy catalog. We identify a total of 10,643 voids. After making quality cuts to ensure that the voids represent real underdense regions, we obtain 1,228 voids with effective radii spanning the range 20–100 {h}-1 {Mpc} and with central densities that are, on average, 30% of the mean sample density. We release versions of the catalogs both with and without quality cuts. We discuss the basic statistics of voids, such as their size and redshift distributions, and measure the radial density profile of the voids via a stacking technique. In addition, we construct mock void catalogs from 1000 mock galaxy catalogs, and find that the properties of BOSS voids are in good agreement with those in the mock catalogs. We compare the stellar mass distribution of galaxies living inside and outside of the voids, and find no large difference. These BOSS and mock void catalogs are useful for a number of cosmological and galaxy environment studies.

  16. Mini-Survey of SDSS OIII AGN with Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelina, Lorella; George, Ian

    2007-01-01

    There is a common wisdom that every massive galaxy has a massive block hole. However, most of these objects either are not radiating or until recently have been very difficult to detect. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, based on the [OIII] line indicate that perhaps up to 20% of all galaxies may be classified as AGN a surprising result that must be checked with independent data. X-ray surveys have revealed that hard X-ray selected AGN show a strong luminosity dependent evolution and their luminosity function (LF) shows a dramatic break towards low Lx (at all z). This is seen for all types of AGN, but is stronger for the broad-line objects. In sharp contrast, the local LF of (optically-selected samples) shows no such break and no differences between narrow and broad-line objects. Assuming both hard X-ray and [OIII] emission are fair indicators of AGN activity, it is important to understand this discrepancy. We present here the results of a mini-survey done with Swift on a selected sample of SDSS selected AGN. The objects have been sampled at different L([OIII]) to check the relation with the Lx observed with Swift.

  17. Mini-Survey on SDSS OIII AGN with Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella

    2008-01-01

    The number of AGN and their luminosity distribution are crucial parameters for our understanding of the AGN phenomenon. There is a common wisdom that every massive galaxy has a massive black hole. However, most of these objects either are not radiating or until recently have been very difficult to detect. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, based on the [OIII] line indicate that perhaps up to 20% of all galaxies may be classified as AGN a surprising result that must be checked with independent data. X-ray surveys have revealed that hard X-ray selected AGN show a strong luminosity dependent evolution and their luminosity function (LF) shows a dramatic break towards low $L_X$ (at all $z$). This is seen for all types of AGN, but is stronger for the broad-line objects. In sharp contrast, the local LF of {it optically-selected samples} shows no such break and no differences between narrow and broad-line objects. Assuming both hard X-ray and [O{\\sc iii}] emission are fair indicators of AGN activity, it is important to understand this discrepancy. We present here the results of a min-survey done with Swift on a selected sample of SDSS selected AGN. The objects have been sampled at different L([O{\\sc iii}]) to check the relation with the $L_X$ observed with Swift.

  18. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    SciTech Connect

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2014-12-02

    In this work, we present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ($(g-r)_0<-0.25$) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise (S/N), and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf - M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179 QSOs, and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc. for each classification. In conclusion, future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to classify blue stars, including rare types, automatically.

  19. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    DOE PAGES

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; ...

    2014-12-02

    In this work, we present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects (more » $$(g-r)_0<-0.25$$) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise (S/N), and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf - M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179 QSOs, and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc. for each classification. In conclusion, future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to classify blue stars, including rare types, automatically.« less

  20. Cosmological Constraints From SDSS MaxBCG Cluster Abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Rozo, Eduardo; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August E.; Johnston, David; Sheldon, Erin S.; Annis, James; Frieman, Joshua A.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Fermilab

    2007-03-26

    We perform a maximum likelihood analysis of the cluster abundance measured in the SDSS using the maxBCG cluster finding algorithm. Our analysis is aimed at constraining the power spectrum normalization {sigma}{sub 8}, and assumes flat cosmologies with a scale invariant spectrum, massless neutrinos, and CMB and supernova priors {Omega}{sub m}h{sup 2} = 0.128 {+-} 0.01 and h = 0.72 {+-} 0.05 respectively. Following the method described in the companion paper Rozo et al. (2007), we derive {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.92 {+-} 0.10 (1{sigma}) after marginalizing over all major systematic uncertainties. We place strong lower limits on the normalization, {sigma}{sub 8} > 0.76 (95% CL) (> 0.68 at 99% CL). We also find that our analysis favors relatively low values for the slope of the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD), {alpha} = 0.83 {+-} 0.06. The uncertainties of these determinations will substantially improve upon completion of an ongoing campaign to estimate dynamical, weak lensing, and X-ray cluster masses in the SDSS maxBCG cluster sample.

  1. Mini-Survey on SDSS OIII AGN with Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella

    2008-01-01

    The number of AGN and their luminosity distribution are crucial parameters for our understanding of the AGN phenomenon. There is a common wisdom that every massive galaxy has a massive black hole. However, most of these objects either are not radiating or until recently have been very difficult to detect. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, based on the [OIII] line indicate that perhaps up to 20% of all galaxies may be classified as AGN a surprising result that must be checked with independent data. X-ray surveys have revealed that hard X-ray selected AGN show a strong luminosity dependent evolution and their luminosity function (LF) shows a dramatic break towards low $L_X$ (at all $z$). This is seen for all types of AGN, but is stronger for the broad-line objects. In sharp contrast, the local LF of {it optically-selected samples} shows no such break and no differences between narrow and broad-line objects. Assuming both hard X-ray and [O{\\sc iii}] emission are fair indicators of AGN activity, it is important to understand this discrepancy. We present here the results of a min-survey done with Swift on a selected sample of SDSS selected AGN. The objects have been sampled at different L([O{\\sc iii}]) to check the relation with the $L_X$ observed with Swift.

  2. Mini-Survey of SDSS OIII AGN with Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelina, Lorella; George, Ian

    2007-01-01

    There is a common wisdom that every massive galaxy has a massive block hole. However, most of these objects either are not radiating or until recently have been very difficult to detect. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, based on the [OIII] line indicate that perhaps up to 20% of all galaxies may be classified as AGN a surprising result that must be checked with independent data. X-ray surveys have revealed that hard X-ray selected AGN show a strong luminosity dependent evolution and their luminosity function (LF) shows a dramatic break towards low Lx (at all z). This is seen for all types of AGN, but is stronger for the broad-line objects. In sharp contrast, the local LF of (optically-selected samples) shows no such break and no differences between narrow and broad-line objects. Assuming both hard X-ray and [OIII] emission are fair indicators of AGN activity, it is important to understand this discrepancy. We present here the results of a mini-survey done with Swift on a selected sample of SDSS selected AGN. The objects have been sampled at different L([OIII]) to check the relation with the Lx observed with Swift.

  3. Variability selected high-redshift quasars on SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Yeche, Ch.; Myers, A. D.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, N. P.; Sheldon, E.; Aubourg, E.; Delubac, T.; Le Goff, J.-M.; Pâris, I.; Rich, J.; Dawson, K. S.; Schneider, D. P.; Weaver, B. A.

    2011-06-01

    The SDSS-III BOSS Quasar survey will attempt to observe z > 2.15 quasars at a density of at least 15 per square degree to yield the first measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations in the Ly-α forest. To help reaching this goal, we have developed a method to identify quasars based on their variability in the ugriz optical bands. The method has been applied to the selection of quasar targets in the SDSS region known as Stripe 82 (the southern equatorial stripe), where numerous photometric observations are available over a 10-year baseline. This area was observed by BOSS during September and October 2010. Only 8% of the objects selected via variability are not quasars, while 90% of the previously identified high-redshift quasar population is recovered. The method allows for a significant increase in the z > 2.15 quasar density over previous strategies based on optical (ugriz) colors, achieving a density of 24.0 deg-2 on average down to g ~ 22 over the 220 deg2 area of Stripe 82. We applied this method to simulated data from the Palomar Transient Factory and from Pan-STARRS, and showed that even with data that have sparser time sampling than what is available in Stripe 82, including variability in future quasar selection strategies would lead to increased target selection efficiency in the z > 2.15 redshift range. We also found that broad absorption line quasars are preferentially present in a variability than in a color selection.

  4. Dusty WDs in the WISE all sky survey ∩ SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Sara D.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Brown, Warren R.

    2014-05-10

    A recent cross-correlation between the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 White Dwarf Catalog with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm performed by Debes et al. resulted in the discovery of 52 candidate dusty white dwarfs (WDs). However, the 6'' WISE beam allows for the possibility that many of the excesses exhibited by these WDs may be due to contamination from a nearby source. We present MMT+SAO Wide-Field InfraRed Camera J- and H-band imaging observations (0.''5-1.''5 point spread function) of 16 of these candidate dusty WDs and confirm that four have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) consistent with a dusty disk and are not accompanied by a nearby source contaminant. The remaining 12 WDs have contaminated WISE photometry and SEDs inconsistent with a dusty disk when the contaminating sources are not included in the photometry measurements. We find the frequency of disks around single WDs in the WISE ∩ SDSS sample to be 2.6%-4.1%. One of the four new dusty WDs has a mass of 1.04 M {sub ☉} (progenitor mass 5.4 M {sub ☉}) and its discovery offers the first confirmation that massive WDs (and their massive progenitor stars) host planetary systems.

  5. Shadows on a Giant

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-02

    Saturn rings cast wide shadows on the planet, and the shadow of a moon also graces the gas giant in this scene from NASA Cassini spacecraft. The moon Enceladus is not shown in this view, but it does cast a small, elongated shadow.

  6. Giant scrotal elephantiasis.

    PubMed

    Kuepper, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    How much can a man carry? Penoscrotal elephantiasis is a debilitating syndrome. This is a case report of a patient with giant genital elephantiasis secondary to long-standing lymphogranuloma venereum infection in Ethiopia. Complete surgical resection of the pathologic tissue and penile reconstruction was undertaken with good cosmetic and functional results.

  7. [Giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma].

    PubMed

    Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; El Messaoudi, Yasser Arafat; Fekak, Hamid; Rabii, Redouane; Marnissi, Farida; Karkouri, Mehdi; Salam, Siham; Iraki, Moulay Ahmed; Joual, Abdenbi; Meziane, Fathi

    2006-02-01

    The authors report a case of giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma. The diagnosis was suspected after scanography and magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by the histological analysis of the extracted piece after surgical treatment. Postoperative evolution was favourable after one year without recurrence or distant metastasis. The authors discuss the pathologic and therapeutic aspects and the prognosis of retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

  8. Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Can Hui; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Chen, Yong Mei; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    A new type of electroluminescent device achieves giant stretchability by integrating electronic and ionic components. The device uses phosphor powders as electroluminescent materials, and hydrogels as stretchable and transparent ionic conductors. Subject to cyclic voltage, the phosphor powders luminesce, but the ionic conductors do not electrolyze. The device produces constant luminance when stretched up to an area strain of 1500%.

  9. Hall-effect arc protector

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, Richard A.; Kotter, Dale K.

    1997-01-01

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored.

  10. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.A.; Kotter, D.K.

    1997-05-13

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored. 2 figs.

  11. SDSS-III MARVELS Planet Candidate RV Follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; Li, Rui; SIthajan, Sirinrat

    2014-02-01

    Planetary systems, discovered by the radial velocity (RV) surveys, reveal strong correlations between the planet frequency and stellar properties, such as metallicity and mass, and a greater diversity in planets than found in the solar system. However, due to the sample sizes of extant surveys (~100 to a few hundreds of stars) and their heterogeneity, many key questions remained to be addressed: Do metal poor stars obey the same trends for planet occurrence as metal rich stars? What is the distribution of giant planets around intermediate- mass stars and binaries? Is the ``planet desert'' within 0.6 AU in the planet orbital distribution of intermediate-mass stars real? The MARVELS survey has produced the largest homogeneous RV measurements of 3300 V=7.6-12 FGK stars. The latest data pipeline effort at UF has been able to remove long term systematic errors suffered in the earlier data pipeline. 18 high confident giant planet candidates have been identified among newly processed data. We propose to follow up these giant planet candidates with the KPNO EXPERT instrument to confirm the detection and also characterize their orbits. The confirmed planets will be used to measure occurrence rates, distributions and multiplicity of giants planets around F,G,K stars with a broad range of mass (~0.6-2.5 M_⊙) and metallicity ([Fe/H]~-1.5-0.5). The well defined MARVELS survey cadence allows robust determinations of completeness limits for rigorously testing giant planet formation theories and constraining models.

  12. Semicircular Rashba arc spin polarizer

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Siu, Zhuo; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Ghee Tan, Seng

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we study the generation of spin polarized currents using curved arcs of finite widths, in which the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) is present. Compared to the 1-dimensional RSOI arcs with zero widths studied previously, the finite width presents charge carriers with another degree of freedom along the transverse width of the arc, in addition to the longitudinal degree of freedom along the circumference of the arc. The asymmetry in the transverse direction due to the difference in the inner and outer radii of the arc breaks the antisymmetry of the longitudinal spin z current in a straight RSOI segment. This property can be exploited to generate spin z polarized current output from the RSOI arc by a spin unpolarized current input. The sign of the spin current can be manipulated by varying the arc dimensions.

  13. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  14. Arc jet diagnostics tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    Two objectives were addressed during a 10 week 1988 NASA/ASEE summer faculty fellowship at the Johnson Space Center Atmospheric Reentry Materials Structures Evaluation Facility (ARMSEF). These objectives were the evaluation of mass spectrometry for the measurement of atomic and molecular species in an arc jet environment, and the determination of atomic recombination coefficients for reaction cured glass (RCG) coated high temperature surface insulation (HRSI) materials subjected to simulated reentry conditions. Evaluation of mass spectrometry for the measurement of atomic and molecular species provided some of the first measurements of point compositions in arc jet tunnel environments. A major objective of this project centered around the sampling residence time. A three staged vacuum sampling system pulled the molecules and atoms from the arc jet to a quadrupole ionization mass spectrometer in 400 milliseconds. Conditions investigated included a composition survey across the nozzle exit at 3 cm z-distance from the nozzle exit for 3 different currents. Also, a point composition survey was taken around a shock created by the presence of a blunt body.

  15. Aperture modulated arc therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooks, S. M.; Wu, Xiaodong; Takita, C.; Watzich, M.; Xing, Lei

    2003-05-01

    We show that it is possible to translate an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan and deliver it as a single arc. This technique is referred to in this paper as aperture modulation arc therapy (AMAT). During this arc, the MLC leaves do not conform to the projection of the target PTV and the machine output of the accelerator has a constant value. Dose was calculated using the CORVUS 4.0 IMRT system, which uses a pencil beam dose algorithm, and treatments were delivered using a Varian 2100C/D Clinac. Results are presented for a head and neck and a prostate case, showing the equivalence of the IMRT and the translated AMAT delivery. For a prostate AMAT delivery, coronal plane film dose for the IMRT and AMAT deliveries agreed within 7.19 +/- 6.62%. For a meningioma the coronal plane dose distributions were similar to a value of 4.6 +/- 6.62%. Dose to the isocentre was measured as being within 2% of the planned value in both cases.

  16. A novel post-arc current measuring equipment based on vacuum arc commutation and arc blow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Minfu; Ge, Guowei; Duan, Xiongying; Huang, Zhihui

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a novel post-arc current measuring equipment (NPACME), which is based on the vacuum arc commutation and magnetic arc blow. The NPACME is composed of the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB), shunt resistor, protective gap, high-precision current sensor and externally applied transverse magnetic field (ETMF). The prototype of the NPACME is designed and controlled by optical fiber communications. The vacuum arc commutation between the vacuum arc and the shunt resistor with ETMF is investigated. The test platform is established in the synthetic short-circuit test and the vacuum arc is observed by the high speed CMOS camera. The mathematic description of the vacuum arc commutation is obtained. Based on the current commutation characteristic, the parameters of the NPACME are optimized and the post-arc current is measured. The measuring result of the post-arc current is accurate with small interference and the post-arc charge is obtained. The experimental results verify that the NPACME is correct and accurate, which can be used to measure the post-arc characteristic in breaking test.

  17. Properties of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Nilsson, K.; Heidt, J.; Esser, J.; Schultz, T.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Deep optical surveys open the avenue for finding large numbers of BL Lac objects that are hard to identify because they lack the unique properties classifying them as such. While radio or X-ray surveys typically reveal dozens of sources, recent compilations based on optical criteria alone have increased the number of BL Lac candidates considerably. However, these compilations are subject to biases and may contain a substantial number of contaminating sources. Aims: In this paper we extend our analysis of 182 optically selected BL Lac object candidates from the SDSS with respect to an earlier study. The main goal is to determine the number of bona fide BL Lac objects in this sample. Methods: We examine their variability characteristics, determine their broad-band radio-UV spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and search for the presence of a host galaxy. In addition we present new optical spectra for 27 targets with improved signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the SDSS spectra. Results: At least 59% of our targets have shown variability between SDSS DR2 and our observations by more than 0.1-0.27 mag depending on the telescope used. A host galaxy was detected in 36% of our targets. The host galaxy type and luminosities are consistent with earlier studies of BL Lac host galaxies. Simple fits to broad-band SEDs for 104 targets of our sample derived synchrotron peak frequencies between 13.5 ≤ log 10(νpeak) ≤ 16 with a peak at log 10 ~ 14.5. Our new optical spectra do not reveal any new redshift for any of our objects. Thus the sample contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects and seems to contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacs. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory under proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the

  18. A Comparison of SDSS Standard Star Catalog for Stripe 82 With Stetson’s Photometric Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Bond,4 B. Lee,6 S. Jester ,9 H. Harris,10 P. Harding,11 J. Brinkmann,12 D. York,13 for the SDSS Collaboration Abstract. We compare Stetson’s...modeling the PSF), unrecognized changes in atmospheric trans - parency, errors in photometric zeropoint calibration, effects of crowded fields at low...from SDSS gri measurements using photometric trans - formations of the following form mStetson − µSDSS = Ac3 +B c2 + C c+D, (4) 8For more details about

  19. Controlling Arc Length in Plasma Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit maintains arc length on irregularly shaped workpieces. Length of plasma arc continuously adjusted by control circuit to maintain commanded value. After pilot arc is established, contactor closed and transfers arc to workpiece. Control circuit then half-wave rectifies ac arc voltage to produce dc control signal proportional to arc length. Circuit added to plasma arc welding machines with few wiring changes. Welds made with circuit cleaner and require less rework than welds made without it. Beads smooth and free of inclusions.

  20. At the survey limits: discovery of the Aquarius 2 dwarf galaxy in the VST ATLAS and the SDSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrealba, G.; Koposov, S. E.; Belokurov, V.; Irwin, M.; Collins, M.; Spencer, M.; Ibata, R.; Mateo, M.; Bonaca, A.; Jethwa, P.

    2016-11-01

    We announce the discovery of the Aquarius 2 dwarf galaxy, a new distant satellite of the Milky Way, detected on the fringes of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) ATLAS and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveys. The object was originally identified as an overdensity of red giant branch stars, but chosen for subsequent follow-up based on the presence of a strong blue horizontal branch, which was also used to measure its distance of ˜110 kpc. Using deeper imaging from the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph camera on the 6.5m Baade and spectroscopy with DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph on Keck, we measured the satellite's half-light radius 5.1 ± 0.8 arcmin, or ˜160 pc at this distance, and its stellar velocity dispersion of 5.4^{+3.4}_{-0.9} km s-1. With μ = 30.2 mag arcsec-2 and MV = -4.36, the new satellite lies close to two important detection limits: one in surface brightness; and one in luminosity at a given distance, thereby making Aquarius 2 one of the hardest dwarfs to find.

  1. The Investigation of SBS Galaxies from SDSS DR 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Paronyan, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) is a well-known combined survey, which uses the presence of UV-excess radiation in the continuum, or the presence of emission lines in the spectra for the identification of active and star-forming galaxies. This work reports on a comparative study of galaxies identified with UV-excess (UVX), and galaxies identified via emission-line techniques (ELG) in the fields of the SBS. The spectroscopic parameters used for the comparison are the [OII]λ3727Å/Hβ and [OIII]λ5007Å/Hβ emission-line ratios, the equivalent widths of [OII]λ3727Å, [OIII]λ5007Å, and Hβ emission lines. Spectroscopic parameters were determined from the spectra obtained from SDSS DR7. Based on emission line ratios, we have built also diagnostic diagrams to distinguish AGN (Seyferts and LINERs) and SB galaxies.

  2. Three Red Variable Stars in SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, Kyle; Lutz, Julie H.

    2016-06-01

    We examined light curves of stars with g-r values greater than 0.6 in the LSST project's re-reduction of the SDSS Stripe 82 photometric data. A few stars have interesting light curves in which we chose for spectroscopic follow-up with DIS on the Apache Point 3.5-m telescope. In this poster we will report our findings on three of the most interesting red variable stars. One of the stars (GI Cet) has a period of 219.86 days, as determined from the Stripe 82 light curve. Spectra of GI Ceti taken at 3 epochs will be discussed. A second variable, TY Aqr, does not have a period. We will present the light curve and spectra taken in 2013 and 2014. The third variable is very red and a-periodic. The spectrum obtained in 2013 is that of a carbon star.

  3. Universal void density profiles from simulation and SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadathur, S.; Hotchkiss, S.; Diego, J. M.; Iliev, I. T.; Gottlöber, S.; Watson, W. A.; Yepes, G.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the universality and self-similarity of void density profiles, for voids in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. Voids are identified using a modified version of the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm, with additional selection cuts. We find that voids in simulation are self-similar, meaning that their average rescaled profile does not depend on the void size, or - within the range of the simulated catalogue - on the redshift. Comparison of the profiles obtained from simulated and real voids shows an excellent match. The profiles of real voids also show a universal behaviour over a wide range of galaxy luminosities, number densities and redshifts. This points to a fundamental property of the voids found by the watershed algorithm, which can be exploited in future studies of voids.

  4. Education with SDSS Data: Activities and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    We have been developing and maintaining the SkyServer web site (http://skyserver.sdss.org), which offers the complete dataset of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to educators, for the past five years. We have developed tools for displaying and searching the data, both as images and measured parameters. We have also developed a set of exercises that use these data to teach science at levels from elementary school through introductory college. In this talk, we will demonstrate the resources we have made available, and we will discuss the lessons we have learned from developing and maintaining these resources. We hope that these lessons will be useful for other education and public outreach programs, and for teachers who want to use data from large astronomy surveys with their students.

  5. How Isolated are Low Surface Brightness Galaxies? News from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Camus, R.; Galaz, G.; Lambas, D. G.; Padilla, N.

    2010-10-01

    Using SDSS-DR4 we studied the spatial distribution and the influence over star formation activity due to interactions in low and high surface brightness galaxies in the redshift range 0.01< z <0.1. With cylinder counts and projected distance to the fifth-nearest neighbor as environment tracers, we found that LSBs tend to have a lack of companions compared to HSBs in small scales (< 2 Mpc). Regarding the interactions, we found that the fraction of LSBs with strong star formation activity increases when the neighbor is closer than rp / r90 ˜ 4. The intensity of the reaction, measured by the average value of b, seems to be stronger for HSBs compared to LSBs. Our results suggest that, rather than be a condition for their survival and evolution, isolation of LSBs is connected with their formation scenario.

  6. ArcE: A GIS tool for modelling actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    España, Salvador; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Vallejos, Ángela; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    This paper introduces ArcE, a GIS tool for modelling actual evapotranspiration ( EA) from an undefined number of meteorological stations. From daily data of precipitation and temperature, ArcE uses ArcObjects as the programming language to incorporate equations and hydrological boundary conditions, in order to calculate EA at monthly and yearly time steps. Because weather data are often missing, ArcE is programmed to use non-global models such as Hargreaves for potential evapotranspiration ( EP) and Budyko for EA. In arid regions, where results from global and non-global models are expected to deviate, ArcE allows for the segregation of low-divergent areas suitable for interpolating EA from those that should be excluded for mapping the variable. In the semiarid Almanzora River basin, a heterogeneous region with contrasting climate in SE Spain, divergence in lowlands with a higher aridity index was about 15% with respect to an accurate estimate of EA from the Penman-Monteith equation. Evaluating EA is a first step for mapping the non-evaporative fraction of precipitation as the difference in P and EA.

  7. Ice Giant Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Arridge, C. S.; Masters, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Simon, A. A.; Hofstadter, M. D.; Turrini, D.; Politi, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Ice Giants in our solar system, Uranus and Neptune, are fundamentally different from their Gas Giant siblings Jupiter and Saturn, from the different proportions of rock and ice to the configuration of their planetary magnetic fields. Kepler space telescope discoveries of exo-planets indicate that planets of this type are among the most ubiquitous universally and therefore a future mission to explore the nature of the Ice Giants in our own solar system will provide insights into the nature of extra-solar system objects in general. Uranus has the smallest self- luminosity of all the planets, potentially related to catastrophic events early in the planet's history, which also may explain Uranus' large obliquity. Uranus' atmosphere is subject to extreme seasonal forcing making it unique in the Solar System. Neptune is also unique in a number of ways, notably its large moon Triton which is likely a captured Kuiper Belt Object and one of only two moons in the solar system with a robustly collisional atmosphere. Similar to Uranus, the angle between the solar wind and the magnetic dipole axis is subject to large-amplitude variations on both diurnal and seasonal timescales, but peculiarly it has one of the quietest magnetospheres of the solar system, at least according to Voyager 2, the only spacecraft to encounter Neptune to date. A comprehensive mission, as advocated in the Decadal Survey, would provide enormous science return but is also challenging and expensive. In this presentation we will discuss mission scenarios and suggest how collaboration between disciplines and internationally can help us to pursue a mission that includes Ice Giant exploration.

  8. Giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Romero, J

    2003-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA), temporal arteritis or Horton's arteritis, is a systemic vasculitis which involves large and medium sized vessels, especially the extracranial branches of the carotid arteries, in persons usually older than 50 years. Permanent visual loss, ischaemic strokes, and thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms are feared complications of GCA. The treatment consists of high dose steroids. Mortality, with a correct treatment, in patients with GCA seems to be similar that of controls. PMID:13679546

  9. Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Gary S

    2016-11-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of giant cell arteritis, focusing on diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  10. On the level of cluster assembly bias in SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Simet, Melanie; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, several studies have discovered a strong discrepancy between the large-scale clustering biases of two subsamples of galaxy clusters at the same halo mass, split by their average projected membership distances 〈Rmem〉. The level of this discrepancy significantly exceeds the maximum halo assembly bias predicted by Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM). We explore whether some of the large-scale bias differences could be caused by projection effects in 〈Rmem〉 due to other systems along the line of sight. We thoroughly investigate the assembly bias of the redMaPPer clusters in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), by defining a new variant of the average membership distance estimator \\tilde{R}_{mem} that is robust against projection effects in the cluster membership identification. Using the angular mark correlation functions, we show that the large-scale bias differences when splitting by 〈Rmem〉 can be mostly attributed to projection effects. After splitting by \\tilde{R}_{mem}, the anomalously large signal is reduced, giving a ratio of 1.02 ± 0.14 between the two clustering biases as measured from weak lensing. Using a realistic mock cluster catalogue, we predict that the bias ratio between two \\tilde{R}_{mem}-split subsamples should be ≃1.10, which is >60 per cent weaker than the maximum halo assembly bias (1.24) when split by halo concentration. Therefore, our results demonstrate that the level of halo assembly bias exhibited by clusters in SDSS is consistent with the ΛCDM prediction. With a 10-fold increase in cluster numbers, deeper ongoing surveys will enable a more robust detection of halo assembly bias. Our findings also have important implications for quantifying the impact of projection effects on cosmological constraints using photometrically selected clusters.

  11. Galaxy Zoo: finding offset discs and bars in SDSS galaxies★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Sandor J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Bamford, Steven P.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Fortson, Lucy; Hart, Ross E.; Häußler, Boris; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Smethurst, Rebecca J.

    2017-08-01

    We use multiwavelength Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and Galaxy Zoo morphologies to identify a sample of ∼270 late-type galaxies with an off-centre bar. We measure offsets in the range 0.2-2.5 kpc between the photometric centres of the stellar disc and stellar bar. The measured offsets correlate with global asymmetries of the galaxies, with those with largest offsets showing higher lopsidedness. These findings are in good agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf-dwarf tidal interactions producing off-centre bars. We find that the majority of galaxies with off-centre bars are of Magellanic type, with a median mass of 109.6 M⊙, and 91 per cent of them having M⋆ < 3 × 1010 M⊙, the characteristic mass at which galaxies start having higher central concentrations attributed to the presence of bulges. We conduct a search for companions to test the hypothesis of tidal interactions, but find that a similar fraction of galaxies with offset bars have companions within 100 kpc as galaxies with centred bars. Although this may be due to the incompleteness of the SDSS spectroscopic survey at the faint end, alternative scenarios that give rise to offset bars such as interactions with dark companions or the effect of lopsided halo potentials should be considered. Future observations are needed to confirm possible low-mass companion candidates and to determine the shape of the dark matter halo, in order to find the explanation for the off-centre bars in these galaxies.

  12. Photometric Separation of Stellar Properties Using SDSS Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Dawn D.; Newberg, Jo; Rosner, Robert; Richards, Gordon T.; Stoughton, Chris

    1998-12-01

    Using synthetic photometry of Kurucz model spectra, we explore the colors of stars as a function of temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) filters, u'g'r'i'z'. The synthetic colors show qualitative agreement with the few published observations in these filters. We find that the locus of synthetic stars is basically two-dimensional for 4500 < T < 8000 K, which precludes simultaneous color separation of the three basic stellar characteristics we consider. Colors including u' contain the most information about normal stellar properties; measurements in this filter are also important for selecting white dwarfs. We identify two different subsets of the locus in which the loci separate by either metallicity or surface gravity. For 0.5 < g' - r' < 0.8 (corresponding roughly to G stars), the locus separates by metallicity; for photometric error of a few percent, we estimate metallicity to within ~0.5 dex in this range. In the range -0.15 < g' - r' < 0.00 (corresponding roughly to A stars), the locus shows separation by surface gravity. In both cases, we show that it is advantageous to use more than two colors when determining stellar properties by color. Strategic observations in SDSS filters are required to resolve the source of a ~5% discrepancy between synthetic colors of Gunn-Stryker stars, Kurucz models, and external determinations of the metallicities and surface gravities. The synthetic star colors can be used to investigate the properties of any normal star and to construct analytic expressions for the photometric prediction of stellar properties in special cases.

  13. Photometric Separation of Stellar Properties Using SDSS Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.D.; Newberg, H.J.; Rosner, R.; Richards, G.T.; Stoughton, C.

    1998-12-01

    Using synthetic photometry of Kurucz model spectra, we explore the colors of stars as a function of temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) filters, {ital u}{prime}{ital g}{prime}{ital r}{prime}{ital i}{prime}{ital z}{prime}. The synthetic colors show qualitative agreement with the few published observations in these filters. We find that the locus of synthetic stars is basically two-dimensional for 4500 {lt} {ital T} {lt} 8000 K, which precludes simultaneous color separation of the three basic stellar characteristics we consider. Colors including {ital u}{prime} contain the most information about normal stellar properties; measurements in this filter are also important for selecting white dwarfs. We identify two different subsets of the locus in which the loci separate by either metallicity or surface gravity. For 0.5 {lt} {ital g}{prime} {minus} {ital r}{prime} {lt} 0.8 (corresponding roughly to G stars), the locus separates by metallicity; for photometric error of a few percent, we estimate metallicity to within {approximately}0.5 dex in this range. In the range {minus}0.15 {lt} {ital g}{prime} {minus} {ital r}{prime} {lt} 0.00 (corresponding roughly to A stars), the locus shows separation by surface gravity. In both cases, we show that it is advantageous to use more than two colors when determining stellar properties by color. Strategic observations in SDSS filters are required to resolve the source of a {approximately}5{percent} discrepancy between synthetic colors of Gunn-Stryker stars, Kurucz models, and external determinations of the metallicities and surface gravities. The synthetic star colors can be used to investigate the properties of any normal star and to construct analytic expressions for the photometric prediction of stellar properties in special cases. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  14. M Dwarfs From The SDSS, 2MASS and WISE Surveys: Identification, Characterisation and Unresolved Ultracool Companionship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Neil James

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this thesis is to use a cross-match between WISE, 2MASS and SDSS to identify a large sample of M dwarfs. Through the careful characterisation and quality control of these M dwarfs I aim to identify rare systems (i.e. unresolved UCD companions, young M dwarfs, late M dwarfs and M dwarfs with common proper motion companions). Locating ultracool companions to M dwarfs is important for constraining low-mass formation models, the measurement of substellar dynamical masses and radii, and for testing ultracool evolutionary models. This is done by using an optimised method for identifying M dwarfs which may have unresolved ultracool companions. To do this I construct a catalogue of 440 694 M dwarf candidates, from WISE, 2MASS and SDSS, based on optical- and near-infrared colours and reduced proper motion. With strict reddening, photometric and quality constraints I isolate a sub-sample of 36 898 M dwarfs and search for possible mid-infrared M dwarf + ultracool dwarf candidates by comparing M dwarfs which have similar optical/near-infrared colours (chosen for their sensitivity to effective temperature and metallicity). I present 1 082 M dwarf + ultracool dwarf candidates for follow-up. Using simulated ultracool dwarf companions to M dwarfs, I estimate that the occurrence of unresolved ultracool companions amongst my M dwarf + ultracool dwarf candidates should be at least four times the average for my full M dwarf catalogue. I discuss yields of candidates based on my simulations. The possible contamination and bias from misidentified M dwarfs is then discussed, from chance alignments with other M dwarfs and UCDs, from chance alignments with giant stars, from chance alignments with galaxies, and from blended systems (via visual inspection). I then use optical spectra from LAMOST to spectral type a subset of my M dwarf + ultracool dwarf candidates. These candidates need confirming as true M dwarf + ultracool dwarf systems thus I present a new method I developed to

  15. Models for Jupiter's decametric arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Arc-shaped structures that dominate Jupiter's decametric emission are discussed in terms of a magnetic fine structure. The sequence of arcs manifest the occurence of widespread fine structures similar to the white ovals on Jupiter's visible surface. An arc concave toward increasing time occurs at the east limb passage, and an arc convex occurs at the west limb passage, which is consistent with the early source producing vertex early arcs, and the late source producing vertex late arcs. Due to the geometry of the Io plasma torus (IPT) which is arranged so that Io skims the northern surface of the IPT, for any connection between Io and Jupiter's surface that involves Alfven waves, the propagation time, the refraction and the directional defocusing of these waves must be strongly influenced by the amount of Alfven wave path length between the instantaneous position of Io and the surface of the IPT.

  16. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon A.; Girardi, Leo; APOGEE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local (d <400 pc) red giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1m telescope with the SDSS-III APOGEE spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the age distribution from the high-resolution spectroscopic stellar parameters and accurate distance measurements from Hipparcos. The high-resolution (R ~ 23,000), near infrared (H-band, 1.5-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of the stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 40 %. For red giants, the relatively rapid evolution of stars up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained based on the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the prior on the SFH, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of a model SFH from the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model shows a clear relation between age and [α/M] at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we construct a full age probability distribution function and determine ages for individual stars. The age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ~ 0.5 dex spread in metallicity. For stars with ages > 1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars. This method of estimating ages of red giants is developed with the intent of estimating ages for the much larger sample of APOGEE survey giants that will have parallax measurements from Gaia.

  17. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Bello, A.; Maitama, H. Y.; Mbibu, N. H.; Kalayi, G. D.; Ahmed, A.

    2010-01-01

    Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, and they are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with giant vesico-prostatic (collar-stud) urethral stone presenting with sepsis and bladder outlet obstruction. The clinical presentation, management, and outcome of the giant prostatic urethral calculus are reviewed. PMID:22091328

  18. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dilday, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS-RM project: peak velocities of QSOs (Shen+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Brandt, W. N.; Richards, G. T.; Denney, K. D.; Greene, J. E.; Grier, C. J.; Ho, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.; Petitjean, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Tao, C.; Trump, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    The SDSS-RM quasar sample includes 849 broad-line quasars at 0.1SDSS-RM project within the SDSS-III (Eisenstein+ 2011AJ....142...72E) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS, Dawson+ 2013AJ....145...10D), using the BOSS spectrograph on the 2.5m SDSS telescope. The wavelength coverage of BOSS spectroscopy is ~3650-10400Å, with a spectral resolution of R~2000. (1 data file).

  20. Arcing on dc power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moores, Greg; Heller, R. P.; Sutanto, Surja; Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected and undesirable arcing on dc power systems can produce hazardous situations aboard space flights. The potential for fire and shock might exist in a situation where there is a broken conductor, a loose power connection, or a break in the insulation of the power cable. Such arcing has been found to be reproducible in a laboratory environment. Arcing tests show that the phenomena can last for several seconds and yet be undetectable by present protection schemes used in classical power relaying and remote power controller applications. This paper characterizes the arcing phenomena and suggests future research that is needed.

  1. Arcing on dc power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moores, Greg; Heller, R. P.; Sutanto, Surja; Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected and undesirable arcing on dc power systems can produce hazardous situations aboard space flights. The potential for fire and shock might exist in a situation where there is a broken conductor, a loose power connection, or a break in the insulation of the power cable. Such arcing has been found to be reproducible in a laboratory environment. Arcing tests show that the phenomena can last for several seconds and yet be undetectable by present protection schemes used in classical power relaying and remote power controller applications. This paper characterizes the arcing phenomena and suggests future research that is needed.

  2. Giant bulla mimicking tension pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Mertol; Saydam, Ozkan; Altin, Remzi; Kart, Levent

    2009-01-01

    In the chest X-ray, we observe tension pneumothorax (TPX) as wide radiolucent view in a hemithorax and pushing the mediastinal structures contralateral. Giant bulla may mimic TPX with wide radiolucent view and mediastinal shift. The present report includes giant pulmonary bulla in 35-year-old woman. The giant bulla was diagnosed as a TPX in emergency, and chest tube was performed. The differentiation between TPX and a giant bulla may be very difficult. The therapies of these two similar entities are completely different. So that, we must be careful about anamnesis, physical examination and radiology for true diagnosis.

  3. Joan of Arc.

    PubMed

    Foote-Smith, E; Bayne, L

    1991-01-01

    For centuries, romantics have praised and historians and scientists debated the mystery of Joan of Arc's exceptional achievements. How could an uneducated farmer's daughter, raised in harsh isolation in a remote village in medieval France, have found the strength and resolution to alter the course of history? Hypotheses have ranged from miraculous intervention to creative psychopathy. We suggest, based on her own words and the contemporary descriptions of observers, that the source of her visions and convictions was in part ecstatic epileptic auras and that she joins the host of creative religious thinkers suspected or known to have epilepsy, from St. Paul and Mohammed to Dostoevsky, who have changed western civilization.

  4. APPARATUS FOR ARC WELDING

    DOEpatents

    Lingafelter, J.W.

    1960-04-01

    An apparatus is described in which a welding arc created between an annular electrode and a workpiece moves under the influence of an electromagnetic field about the electrode in a closed or annular path. This mode of welding is specially suited to the enclosing of nuclear-fuel slugs in a protective casing. For example, a uranium slug is placed in an aluminum can, and an aluminum closure is welded to the open end of the can along a closed or annular path conforming to the periphery of the end closure.

  5. A Monte Carlo Method for Making the SDSS u-Band Magnitude More Accurate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiayin; Du, Cuihua; Zuo, Wenbo; Jing, Yingjie; Wu, Zhenyu; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Xu

    2016-10-01

    We develop a new Monte Carlo-based method to convert the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) u-band magnitude to the south Galactic Cap of the u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS) u-band magnitude. Due to the increased accuracy of SCUSS u-band measurements, the converted u-band magnitude becomes more accurate compared with the original SDSS u-band magnitude, in particular at the faint end. The average u-magnitude error (for both SDSS and SCUSS) of numerous main-sequence stars with 0.2\\lt g-r\\lt 0.8 increases as the g-band magnitude becomes fainter. When g = 19.5, the average magnitude error of the SDSS u is 0.11. When g = 20.5, the average SDSS u error rises to 0.22. However, at this magnitude, the average magnitude error of the SCUSS u is just half as much as that of the SDSS u. The SDSS u-band magnitudes of main-sequence stars with 0.2\\lt g-r\\lt 0.8 and 18.5\\lt g\\lt 20.5 are converted, therefore the maximum average error of the converted u-band magnitudes is 0.11. The potential application of this conversion is to derive a more accurate photometric metallicity calibration from SDSS observations, especially for the more distant stars. Thus, we can explore stellar metallicity distributions either in the Galactic halo or some stream stars.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS damped Ly{alpha} survey: DR1 (Prochaska+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, J. X.; Herbert-Fort, S.

    2005-11-01

    We present the results from an automated search for damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems in the quasar spectra of Data Release 1 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR1). At z~2.5, this homogeneous data set has greater statistical significance than the previous two decades of research. We derive a statistical sample of 71 DLA systems (>50 previously unpublished) at z>2.1 and measure HI column densities directly from the SDSS spectra. (1 data file).

  7. Difference Imaging of Lensed Quasar Candidates inthe SDSS Supernova Survey Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lacki, Brian C.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune

    2008-02-04

    Difference imaging provides a new way to discover gravitationally lensed quasars because few non-lensed sources will show spatially extended, time variable flux. We test the method on lens candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Supernova Survey region from the SDSS Quasar Lens Search (SQLS) and their surrounding fields. Starting from 20768 sources, including 49 SDSS quasars and 36 candidate lenses/lensed images, we find that 21 sources including 15 SDSS QSOs and 7 candidate lenses/lensed images are non-periodic variable sources. We can measure the spatial structure of the variable flux for 18 of these sources and identify only one as a non-point source. This source does not display the compelling spatial structure of the variable flux of known lensed quasars, so we reject it as a lens candidate. None of the lens candidates from the SQLS survive our cuts. Given our effective survey area of order 0.71 square degrees, this indicates a false positive rate of order one per square degree for the method. The fraction of quasars not found to be variable and the false positive rate should both fall if we analyze the full, later data releases for the SDSS fields. While application of the method to the SDSS is limited by the resolution, depth, and sampling of the survey, several future surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, and SNAP will avoid these limitations.

  8. SDSS J0246-0825: A New Gravitationally Lensed Quasar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, N; Burles, S; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H; Schechter, P L; Eisenstein, D J; Oguri, M; Castander, F J; Hall, P B; Johnston, D E; Pindor, B; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; White, R L; Brinkmann, J; Szalay, A; York, D G

    2005-11-10

    We report the discovery of a new two-image gravitationally lensed quasar, SDSS J024634.11-082536.2 (SDSS J0246-0825). This object was selected as a lensed quasar candidate from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by the same algorithm that was used to discover other SDSS lensed quasars (e.g., SDSS J0924+0219). Multicolor imaging with the Magellan Consortium's Walter Baade 6.5-m telescope and the spectroscopic observations using the W. M. Keck Observatory's Keck II telescope confirm that SDSS J0246-0825 consists of two lensed images ({Delta}{theta} = 1''.04) of a source quasar at z = 1.68. Imaging observations with the Keck telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope reveal an extended object between the two quasar components, which is likely to be a lensing galaxy of this system. From the absorption lines in the spectra of quasar components and the apparent magnitude of the galaxy, combined with the expected absolute magnitude from the Faber-Jackson relation, we estimate the redshift of the lensing galaxy to be z = 0.724. A highly distorted ring is visible in the Hubble Space Telescope images, which is likely to be the lensed host galaxy of the source quasar. Simple mass modeling predicts the possibility that there is a small (faint) lensing object near the primary lensing galaxy.

  9. SDSS-III/APOGEE: Science and Survey Calibrations and using Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frinchaboy, Peter M.; O'Connell, J.; Meszaros, Sz.; Cunha, K. M.; Smith, V. V.; Garcia Perez, A.; Shetrone, M. D.; Allende Prieto, C.; Johnson, J.; Zasowski, G.; Majewski, S. R.; Schiavon, R. P.; Holtzman, J. A.; Nidever, D.; Bizyaev, D.; Hearty, F. R.; Jackson, K.; Thompson, B. A.; Wilson, J. C.; Beers, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from the first year of the SDSS-III/Apache Point Obseratory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey of open cluster targets. APOGEE is studying several key open clusters for calibration and science (e.g., M67, NGC 6791), and here we present early science results and comparison to previous work on a number of clusters focusing on radial velocities, stellar parameters, and abundances. Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III web site is http://www.sdss3.org/. SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, University of Tokyo, University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, University of Virginia, University of Washington, and Yale University.

  10. Electric arc welding gun

    DOEpatents

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  11. Chemical cartography of the milky way disk with the SDSS-III/Apogee survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Michael R.

    In this thesis I discuss the chemical structure of the Milky Way disk. Much of our knowledge of the Milky Way is restricted to the solar neighborhood due to the significant dust extinction directly in the plane of the Galaxy. SDSS-III/APOGEE is a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of more than 100,000 giant stars operating in the infrared, where extinction is ~ 1/6 compared to visual wavelengths. Individual stars are useful tracers for studying the chemical and kinematic history of the Galaxy, as they contain the chemical imprint of the gas from which they formed. I develop a Bayesian method to determine distances to every star in the APOGEE survey by comparing the observed stellar parameters from APOGEE to theoretical stellar isochrones. Using observations taken during the first year of APOGEE operations, I made mean metallicity maps and characterized radial and vertical chemical abundance gradients across the entire disk of the Galaxy at a range of heights about the plane, from 0 < R < 15 kpc and 0 < ∣z∣ < 3 kpc. Different stellar populations can be separated using [ a/Fe] abundance, and I analyze the stellar distribution in the [ a/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane across the disk from 3 < R < 15 kpc and at a range of heights above the plane (∣z∣ < 2 kpc) using the full three years of APOGEE observations. The metallicity distribution function (MDF) is a primary constraint for chemical evolution models, and I measure the MDF across the disk of the Milky Way. I find that the peak metallicity and shape of the MDF is a strong function of location within the Galaxy. Close to the plane, the inner disk is peaked at super-solar metallicities with a long tail towards lower metallicities (negative skewness), while the outer disk is peaked at sub-solar metallicities and a tail towards higher metallicities (positive skewness). The change in skewness with radius is difficult to explain using traditional chemical evolution models, and I made a simple model of the dynamics of the

  12. ArcS, the cognate sensor kinase in an atypical Arc system of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Lassak, Jürgen; Henche, Anna-Lena; Binnenkade, Lucas; Thormann, Kai M

    2010-05-01

    The availability of oxygen is a major environmental factor for many microbes, in particular for bacteria such as Shewanella species, which thrive in redox-stratified environments. One of the best-studied systems involved in mediating the response to changes in environmental oxygen levels is the Arc two-component system of Escherichia coli, consisting of the sensor kinase ArcB and the cognate response regulator ArcA. An ArcA ortholog was previously identified in Shewanella, and as in Escherichia coli, Shewanella ArcA is involved in regulating the response to shifts in oxygen levels. Here, we identified the hybrid sensor kinase SO_0577, now designated ArcS, as the previously elusive cognate sensor kinase of the Arc system in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Phenotypic mutant characterization, transcriptomic analysis, protein-protein interaction, and phosphotransfer studies revealed that the Shewanella Arc system consists of the sensor kinase ArcS, the single phosphotransfer domain protein HptA, and the response regulator ArcA. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that HptA might be a relict of ArcB. Conversely, ArcS is substantially different with respect to overall sequence homologies and domain organizations. Thus, we speculate that ArcS might have adopted the role of ArcB after a loss of the original sensor kinase, perhaps as a consequence of regulatory adaptation to a redox-stratified environment.

  13. Imaging Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.

    2016-10-01

    High-contrast adaptive optics (AO) imaging is a powerful technique to probe the architectures of planetary systems from the outside-in and survey the atmospheres of self-luminous giant planets. Direct imaging has rapidly matured over the past decade and especially the last few years with the advent of high-order AO systems, dedicated planet-finding instruments with specialized coronagraphs, and innovative observing and post-processing strategies to suppress speckle noise. This review summarizes recent progress in high-contrast imaging with particular emphasis on observational results, discoveries near and below the deuterium-burning limit, and a practical overview of large-scale surveys and dedicated instruments. I conclude with a statistical meta-analysis of deep imaging surveys in the literature. Based on observations of 384 unique and single young (≈5-300 Myr) stars spanning stellar masses between 0.1 and 3.0 M ⊙, the overall occurrence rate of 5-13 M Jup companions at orbital distances of 30-300 au is {0.6}-0.5+0.7 % assuming hot-start evolutionary models. The most massive giant planets regularly accessible to direct imaging are about as rare as hot Jupiters are around Sun-like stars. Dividing this sample into individual stellar mass bins does not reveal any statistically significant trend in planet frequency with host mass: giant planets are found around {2.8}-2.3+3.7 % of BA stars, <4.1% of FGK stars, and <3.9% of M dwarfs. Looking forward, extreme AO systems and the next generation of ground- and space-based telescopes with smaller inner working angles and deeper detection limits will increase the pace of discovery to ultimately map the demographics, composition, evolution, and origin of planets spanning a broad range of masses and ages.

  14. Giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Sumi; Garg, Nadish; Xie, Gong-Yuan; Dellsperger, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) pseudoaneurysm (PS) is an uncommon, often fatal complication associated with myocardial infarction, cardiothoracic surgery, trauma, and, rarely, infective endocarditis. A 28-year-old man with prior history of bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement presented with congestive heart failure and bacteremia with Abiotrophia granulitica. Transesophageal echocardiogram showed bioprosthesis dysfunction, large vegetations, mitral regurgitation, and probable PS. Cardiac and chest CT confirmed a PS communicating with the left ventricle Patient had pulseless electrical activity and died. Autopsy showed a giant PS with layered thrombus and pseudo-endothelialized cavity. Our case highlights the importance of multimodality imaging as an important tool in management of PS.

  15. Giant mesenteric cyst

    PubMed Central

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Salman, Shaista; Almaramhy, Hamdi H.

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18-year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy. PMID:24765349

  16. Giant mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Salman, Shaista; Almaramhy, Hamdi H

    2011-09-28

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18-year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy.

  17. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

    2014-01-01

    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  18. Energy balance in MIG arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnick, M.; Hertel, M.; Fuessel, U.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies of metal inert gas (MIG) processes by spectroscopy and fluid simulations have shown that metal evaporation causes a specific spatial structure of the arc, and among others a minimum of plasma temperature at the arc centre. Changes in the arc structure and in the heat transfer to the material are closely connected with the arc energy balance; its detailed analysis has not been carried out so far under the specific impact of metal vapour. In this paper, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of an MIG arc in argon including iron evaporation at the wire tip are considered. The main terms in the energy balance are discussed focusing on a comparison of the arc regions with and without metal vapour. In addition, a simple approach of the energy balance at a cross section of the MIG arc is proposed where all details of the heat transport are neglected. The MHD model and the simplified approach are in good agreement and clearly demonstrate that the specific structure in an MIG arc is mainly caused by the different temperature dependence of the plasma radiation and the electrical conductivity in argon or in argon mixtures with iron vapour.

  19. TAMA. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, H

    1994-06-03

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  20. Alternating-Polarity Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Brief reversing polarity of welding current greatly improves quality of welds. NASA technical memorandum recounts progress in art of variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welding, with emphasis on welding of aluminum-alloy tanks. VPPA welders offer important advantages over conventional single-polarity gas/tungsten arc welders.

  1. The SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity survey of M dwarfs. I. Description of the survey and science goals

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, R.; Bender, C. F.; Mahadevan, S.; Terrien, R. C.; Schneider, D. P.; Fleming, S. W.; Blake, C. H.; Carlberg, J. K.; Zasowski, G.; Hearty, F.; Crepp, J.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C.; Nidever, D. L.; Prieto, C. Allende; Hernández, J.; Bizyaev, D.; Ebelke, G.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Ge, J.; and others

    2013-12-01

    We are carrying out a large ancillary program with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS-III, using the fiber-fed multi-object near-infrared APOGEE spectrograph, to obtain high-resolution H-band spectra of more than 1200 M dwarfs. These observations will be used to measure spectroscopic rotational velocities, radial velocities, physical stellar parameters, and variability of the target stars. Here, we describe the target selection for this survey, as well as results from the first year of scientific observations based on spectra that will be publicly available in the SDSS-III DR10 data release. As part of this paper we present radial velocities and rotational velocities of over 200 M dwarfs, with a vsin i precision of ∼2 km s{sup –1} and a measurement floor at vsin i = 4 km s{sup –1}. This survey significantly increases the number of M dwarfs studied for rotational velocities and radial velocity variability (at ∼100-200 m s{sup –1}), and will inform and advance the target selection for planned radial velocity and photometric searches for low-mass exoplanets around M dwarfs, such as the Habitable Zone Planet Finder, CARMENES, and TESS. Multiple epochs of radial velocity observations enable us to identify short period binaries, and adaptive optics imaging of a subset of stars enables the detection of possible stellar companions at larger separations. The high-resolution APOGEE spectra, covering the entire H band, provide the opportunity to measure physical stellar parameters such as effective temperatures and metallicities for many of these stars. At the culmination of this survey, we will have obtained multi-epoch spectra and radial velocities for over 1400 stars spanning the spectral range M0-L0, providing the largest set of near-infrared M dwarf spectra at high resolution, and more than doubling the number of known spectroscopic vsin i values for M dwarfs. Furthermore, by modeling telluric lines to correct for small instrumental radial velocity shifts, we

  2. Laser Assisted Plasma Arc Welding

    SciTech Connect

    FUERSCHBACH,PHILLIP W.

    1999-10-05

    Experiments have been performed using a coaxial end-effecter to combine a focused laser beam and a plasma arc. The device employs a hollow tungsten electrode, a focusing lens, and conventional plasma arc torch nozzles to co-locate the focused beam and arc on the workpiece. Plasma arc nozzles were selected to protect the electrode from laser generated metal vapor. The project goal is to develop an improved fusion welding process that exhibits both absorption robustness and deep penetration for small scale (< 1.5 mm thickness) applications. On aluminum alloys 6061 and 6111, the hybrid process has been shown to eliminate hot cracking in the fusion zone. Fusion zone dimensions for both stainless steel and aluminum were found to be wider than characteristic laser welds, and deeper than characteristic plasma arc welds.

  3. Of Eggs and Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Thomas, P. C.; Helfenstein, P.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Hedman, M. M.; Agarwal, M.

    2012-10-01

    New scenarios for the origins of Saturn’s rings/interior moons have directed scientific attention to the region just exterior to Saturn’s main rings. Four satellites (Aegaeon = Ae; Anthe = An; Methone = Me; Pallene = Pa) discovered by the Cassini mission on either side of Mimas’s orbit perhaps comprise a distinct class of ring-moon. They are tiny (R = 0.3-2.5 km); three (AeAnMe) are trapped in co-rotation resonances with Mimas and reside within ring-arcs; and at least two (MePa) have remarkably regular shapes. Images with pixel scales as fine as 27 m taken in May 2012 reveal Methone to be ovoid within 10 m (from sub-pixel limb detection) and devoid of any craters (>130 m) across its 9 km2 of surface; Pallene and even tiny Aegaeon have similar appearances in lesser-quality images. Numerical simulations demonstrate that particles comprising the surrounding ring-arcs populate the same resonances as their embedded moons; escape speeds from the moons are < 0.5 m/s, smaller than the 2 m/s that dynamically characterize the resonant well. We investigate the gentle transfer of particles back and forth between the ring-arcs and any embedded bodies. In this environment, the moons’ shapes are smooth equipotentials; electrostatic effects may also determine how grains settle to surfaces. Considering these shapes to represent equipotential surfaces for rotating, tidally distorted, homogeneous bodies, we infer mean satellite densities of 250+/-60 (Pa), 310+/-30 (Me), and 540+/-120 (Ae) kg m-3. About half of Methone’s leading hemisphere is covered by a sharply bounded, lemon-shaped, relatively dark region, having a form reminiscent of Mimas’s thermal anomaly (Howett et al. 2011). Its (601 nm) albedo is 13% lower than the bounding brighter material. An irregularly shaped, even-darker (by 4%) blotch straddles the apex of the moon’s motion. Impacts with circum-planetary meteoroids and plasma are likely responsible for these features.

  4. Red Arcs on Tethys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-29

    Unusual arc-shaped, reddish streaks cut across the surface of Saturn's ice-rich moon Tethys in this enhanced-color mosaic. The red streaks are narrow, curved lines on the moon's surface, only a few miles (or kilometers) wide but several hundred miles (or kilometers) long. The red streaks are among the most unusual color features on Saturn's moons to be revealed by Cassini's cameras. A few of the red arcs can be faintly seen in Cassini imaging observations made earlier in the mission, but the color images for this observation, which were obtained in April 2015, were the first to show large northern areas of Tethys under the illumination and viewing conditions necessary to see the features clearly. As the Saturn system moved into its northern hemisphere summer over the past few years, northern latitudes have become increasingly well illuminated. As a result, the red arc features have become clearly visible for the first time. The origin of the features and their reddish color is currently a mystery to Cassini scientists. Possibilities being studied include ideas that the reddish material is exposed ice with chemical impurities, or the result of outgassing from inside Tethys. The streaks could also be associated with features like fractures that are below the resolution of the available images. Except for a few small craters on Dione, reddish tinted features are rare on other moons of Saturn. However, many reddish features are observed on the geologically young surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Images taken using clear, green, infrared and ultraviolet spectral filters were combined to create the view, which highlights subtle color differences across Tethys' surface at wavelengths not visible to human eyes. The moon's surface is fairly uniform in natural color. The yellowish tones on the left side of the view are a result of alteration of the moon's surface by high-energy particles from Saturn's magnetosphere. This particle radiation slams into the moon's trailing

  5. Polarimetry of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, J.; Nilsson, K.

    2011-05-01

    We present and discuss polarimetric observations of 182 targets drawn from an optically selected sample of 240 probable BL Lac candidates out of the SDSS compiled by Collinge et al. (2005, AJ, 129, 2542). In contrast to most other BL Lac candidate samples extracted from the SDSS, its radio- and/or X-ray properties have not been taken into account for its derivation. Thus, because its selection is based on optical properties alone, it may be less prone to selection effects inherent in other samples derived at different frequencies, so it offers a unique opportunity to extract the first unbiased BL Lac luminosity function that is suitably large in size. We found 124 out of 182 targets (68%) to be polarized, 95 of the polarized targets (77%) to be highly polarized (>4%). The low-frequency peaked BL Lac candidates in the sample are on average only slightly more polarized than the high-frequency peaked ones. Compared to earlier studies, we found a high duty cycle in high polarization (˜ 66+2-14% to be >4% polarized) in high-frequency peaked BL Lac candidates. This may come from our polarization analysis, which minimizes the contamination by host galaxy light. No evidence of radio-quiet BL Lac objects in the sample was found. Our observations show that the probable sample of BL Lac candidates of Collinge et al. (2005) indeed contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects. High S/N spectroscopy and deep X-ray observations are required to construct the first luminosity function of optically selected BL Lac objects and to test more stringently for any radio-quiet BL Lac objects in the sample. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory in the course of the observing proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC).Based on observations

  6. Infrared properties of the SDSS-maxBCG galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncarelli, M.; Pointecouteau, E.; Giard, M.; Montier, L.; Pello, R.

    2010-03-01

    Context. The physics of galaxy clusters has proven to be influenced by several processes connected with their galactic component which pollutes the intracluster medium (ICM) with metals, stars and dust. However, it is not clear whether the presence of diffuse dust can play a role in clusters physics since a characterisation of the infrared (IR) properties of galaxy clusters is very challenging and yet to be completely achieved. Aims: In our study we focus on the recent work of Giard et al. (2008, A&A, 490, 547) who performed a stacking analysis of the IRAS data in the direction of several thousands of galaxy clusters, providing a statistical characterisation of their IR luminosity and redshift evolution. We model the IR properties of the galactic population of the SDSS-maxBCG clusters (0.1SDSS-maxBCG clusters, we estimate their emission in the 60 and 100 μm IRAS bands making use of modeled spectral energy distributions of different spectral types (E/S0, Sa, Sb, Sc and starburst). We also consider the evolution of the galactic population/luminosity with redshift. Results: The total galactic emission, which is dominated by the contribution of star-forming late-type galaxies, is consistent with the observed signal. In fact, our galactic emission model slightly overestimates the observed fluxes, with the excess being concentrated in low-redshift clusters (z ⪉ 0.17). Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if present, the IR emission from intracluster dust must be very small compared to the one associated to the galaxy members. This translates into an upper limit on the dust-to-gas mass ratio in the ICM of Zd ⪉ 5 × 10-5. The excess in luminosity obtained at low redshift constitutes an indication that the cluster environment is driving a process

  7. Giant extragenital Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Bakardzhiev, Ilko; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Tchernev, Georgi

    2015-12-01

    Giant extragenital forms of Morbus Bowen are extremely rare. The already described cases in the word literature are most commonly with periungual localization, as well as located on the foot and neck area. The clinical manifestation is presented most commonly by non-specific erythematous to erythematous-squamous plaques or papules, which is confusing to the clinician. From the pathogenic point of view, it is important to be confirmed or rejected the presence of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in each case of affected patient, as this information is mandatory in respect to the adequate selection of the subsequent regimen. If HPVs are detected, systemic antiviral therapy could be initiated to reduce the size of the lesions before subsequent surgical eradication. A postoperative prevention through vaccination could be also considered additionally. In cases of HPV-negative giant extragenital forms of Morbus Bowen (as in the described patient), the focus should be on local immunomodulation by substances such as imiquimod, which reduce the size of the lesions, thereby creating optimal opportunities for their future surgical eradication. Other possible options described in the literature include topical application of 5-fluorouracil, photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, and laser therapy (carbon dioxide laser). The choice of the most appropriate regimen should have been an individual decision of the clinician, considering also the location and the extent of the lesion.

  8. Gas Giants Form Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a hypothetical 10-million-year-old star system. The bright blur at the center is a star much like our sun. The other orb in the image is a gas-giant planet like Jupiter. Wisps of white throughout the image represent traces of gas.

    Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have found evidence showing that gas-giant planets either form within the first 10 million years of a sun-like star's life, or not at all. The lifespan for sun-like stars is about 10 billion years.

    The scientists came to this conclusion after searching for traces of gas around 15 different sun-like stars, most with ages ranging from 3 million to 30 million years. With the help of Spitzer's Infrared Spectrometer instrument, they were able to search for relatively warm gas in the inner regions of these star systems, an area comparable to the zone between Earth and Jupiter in our own solar system. They also used ground-based radio telescopes to search for cooler gas in the outer regions of these systems, an area comparable to the zone around Saturn and beyond.

  9. Giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Donshik, P C

    1994-01-01

    Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a syndrome found frequently as a complication of contact lenses. Many variables can affect the onset and severity of the presenting signs and symptoms. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses appear to result in less severe signs and symptoms, with a longer time before the development of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Nonionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses tend to produce less severe signs and symptoms than ionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses. Enzymatic treatment appears to lessen the severity of signs and symptoms. The association of an allergy appears to play a role in the onset of the severity of the signs and symptoms but does not appear to affect the final ability of the individual to wear contact lenses. Using multiple treatment options, such as changing the polymer to a glyceryl methyl methacrylate or a rigid lens, or utilizing a soft lens on a frequent-replacement basis, can result in a success rate of over 90%. In individuals who still have a return of symptoms, the use of topical mast cell stabilizers or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an adjunctive therapy offers the added possibility of keeping these patients in contact lenses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D PMID:7886881

  10. Gas Giants Form Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a hypothetical 10-million-year-old star system. The bright blur at the center is a star much like our sun. The other orb in the image is a gas-giant planet like Jupiter. Wisps of white throughout the image represent traces of gas.

    Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have found evidence showing that gas-giant planets either form within the first 10 million years of a sun-like star's life, or not at all. The lifespan for sun-like stars is about 10 billion years.

    The scientists came to this conclusion after searching for traces of gas around 15 different sun-like stars, most with ages ranging from 3 million to 30 million years. With the help of Spitzer's Infrared Spectrometer instrument, they were able to search for relatively warm gas in the inner regions of these star systems, an area comparable to the zone between Earth and Jupiter in our own solar system. They also used ground-based radio telescopes to search for cooler gas in the outer regions of these systems, an area comparable to the zone around Saturn and beyond.

  11. Giant Intradiverticular Bladder Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Mohamad Syafeeq Faeez Md; Aziz, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Ghani, Khairul Asri Mohd; Siang, Christopher Lee Kheng; Yunus, Rosna; Yusof, Mubarak Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Giant intradiverticular bladder tumor with metastasis Symptoms: Hematuria Medication:— Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Intradiverticular bladder tumors are rare. This renders diagnosis of an intradiverticular bladder tumor difficult. Imaging plays a vital role in achieving the diagnosis, and subsequently staging of the disease. Case Report: A 74-year-old male presented to our center with a few months history of constitutional symptoms. Upon further history, he reported hematuria two months prior to presentation, which stopped temporarily, only to recur a few days prior to coming to the hospital. The patient admitted to having lower urinary tract symptoms. However, there was no dysuria, no sandy urine, and no fever. Palpation of his abdomen revealed a vague mass at the suprapubic region, which was non tender. In view of his history and the clinical examination findings, an ultrasound of the abdomen and computed tomography (CT) was arranged. These investigations revealed a giant tumor that seemed to be arising from a bladder diverticulum, with a mass effect and hydronephrosis. He later underwent operative intervention. Conclusions: Intradiverticular bladder tumors may present a challenge to the treating physician in an atypical presentation; thus requiring a high index of suspicion and knowledge of tumor pathophysiology. As illustrated in our case, CT with its wide availability and multiplanar imaging capabilities offers a useful means for diagnosis, disease staging, operative planning, and follow-up. PMID:28246375

  12. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II), Data Release 6, including Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Yanny, Brian; Rockosi, Constance; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Knapp, Gillian R.

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (see www.sdss.org for general information) will map one-quarter of the entire sky and perform a redshift survey of galaxies, quasars and stars. The DR6 is the sixth major data release and provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download. It is the first data release of SDSS-II, an extension of the original SDSS consisting of three subprojects: Legacy, SEGUE and a Supernova survey. Be sure to check out the separate page for SEGUE also at http://classic.sdss.org/dr6/start/aboutsegue.html.

  13. Arc/gas electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (Inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A gas/arc electrode is disclosed for use under vacuum conditions where a first housing encloses a second housing, with an end of the second housing extending through an opening in the first housing and having an outlet orifice. Provisions are made for circulating a coolant through the first housing to surround and cool the second housing. An electrical current and a gas, such as argon, as passed through the second housing, with the current flowing through a narrow stream of the ionized gas flowing through the outlet orifice to a workpiece to be treated. The second housing forms a chamber which has a cross sectional area, in a plane perpendicular to the direction of gas flow, of at least ten times the cross sectional area of the outlet orifice such that a gas pressure can be maintained in the chamber to reduce erosion of the chamber walls.

  14. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  15. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  16. Reinflating Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Two new, large gas-giant exoplanets have been discovered orbiting close to their host stars. A recent study examining these planets and others like them may help us to better understand what happens to close-in hot Jupiters as their host stars reach the end of their main-sequence lives.OversizedGiantsUnbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-65b. [Adapted from Hartman et al. 2016]The discovery of HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, two new transiting hot Jupiters, is intriguing. These planets have periods of just under 3 days and masses of roughly 0.5 and 0.8 times that of Jupiter, but their sizes are whats really interesting: they have inflated radii of 1.89 and 1.59 times that of Jupiter.These two planets, discovered using the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network (HATNet) in Arizona and Hawaii, mark the latest in an ever-growing sample of gas-giant exoplanets with radii larger than expected based on theoretical planetary structure models.What causes this discrepancy? Did the planets just fail to contract to the expected size when they were initially formed, or were they reinflated later in their lifetimes? If the latter, how? These are questions that scientists are only now starting to be able to address using statistics of the sample of close-in, transiting planets.Unbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-66b. [Hartman et al. 2016]Exploring Other PlanetsLed by Joel Hartman (Princeton University), the team that discovered HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b has examined these planets observed parameters and those of dozens of other known close-in, transiting exoplanets discovered with a variety of transiting exoplanet missions: HAT, WASP, Kepler, TrES, and KELT. Hartman and collaborators used this sample to draw conclusions about what causes some of these planets to have such large radii.The team found that there is a statistically significant correlation between the radii of close-in giant planets and the fractional ages of their host stars (i.e., the stars age divided by its full

  17. Graphite Ablation and Thermal Response Simulation Under Arc-Jet Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, F. S.; Reda, D. C.; Stewart, D. A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Response and Ablation program, TITAN, was developed and integrated with a Navier-Stokes solver, GIANTS, for multidimensional ablation and shape change simulation of thermal protection systems in hypersonic flow environments. The governing equations in both codes are demoralized using the same finite-volume approximation with a general body-fitted coordinate system. Time-dependent solutions are achieved by an implicit time marching technique using Gauess-Siedel line relaxation with alternating sweeps. As the first part of a code validation study, this paper compares TITAN-GIANTS predictions with thermal response and recession data obtained from arc-jet tests recently conducted in the Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) at NASA Ames Research Center. The test models are graphite sphere-cones. Graphite was selected as a test material to minimize the uncertainties from material properties. Recession and thermal response data were obtained from two separate arc-jet test series. The first series was at a heat flux where graphite ablation is mainly due to sublimation, and the second series was at a relatively low heat flux where recession is the result of diffusion-controlled oxidation. Ablation and thermal response solutions for both sets of conditions, as calculated by TITAN-GIANTS, are presented and discussed in detail. Predicted shape change and temperature histories generally agree well with the data obtained from the arc-jet tests.

  18. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke; Oufiero, Christopher E; Martin, Christopher H; McGee, Matthew D; Gamarra, Ashlee R; Lee, Johanna J; Wainwright, Peter C

    2013-02-18

    The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone.

  19. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. Results We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. Conclusions The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone. PMID:23418818

  20. Mining the SDSS SkyServer SQL queries log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Vitor M.; Santos, Rafael; Raddick, Jordan; Thakar, Ani

    2016-05-01

    SkyServer, the Internet portal for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) astronomic catalog, provides a set of tools that allows data access for astronomers and scientific education. One of SkyServer data access interfaces allows users to enter ad-hoc SQL statements to query the catalog. SkyServer also presents some template queries that can be used as basis for more complex queries. This interface has logged over 330 million queries submitted since 2001. It is expected that analysis of this data can be used to investigate usage patterns, identify potential new classes of queries, find similar queries, etc. and to shed some light on how users interact with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and how scientists have adopted the new paradigm of e-Science, which could in turn lead to enhancements on the user interfaces and experience in general. In this paper we review some approaches to SQL query mining, apply the traditional techniques used in the literature and present lessons learned, namely, that the general text mining approach for feature extraction and clustering does not seem to be adequate for this type of data, and, most importantly, we find that this type of analysis can result in very different queries being clustered together.

  1. Practical Spectro-Perfectionism in SDSS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Stephen J.; Bolton, A.; Brownstein, J.; Kisner, T.; Pandey, P.; Schlegel, D.

    2012-01-01

    As extragalactic spectroscopic surveys push to higher redshifts, the targeted objects are fainter and fainter, yet the night-sky foreground remains as bright as ever. This requires spectral extraction algorithms to push to new limits of signal-to-noise. The "spectro-perfectionism" algorithm of Bolton & Schlegel 2010 provides a framework to achieve poisson-limited sky subtraction through the forward modeling of photons onto the spectrograph CCDs using a two dimensional point spread function. This method produces uncorrelated errors in the extracted spectra while fully preserving the input spectrum likelihood function given the raw CCD pixel data. A brute-force implementation of this algorithm would be computationally prohibitive. We present a practical implementation of this algorithm for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III). This implementation handles the full complexity of real data while being computationally tractable on current-generation hardware. The gains from this implementation will increase the science reach of BOSS and will be critical for future redshift surveys such as the proposed BigBOSS project.

  2. Friction model of the 2.5mts SDSS telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Rivetta, Claudio H.; Hansen, Sten

    1998-02-01

    The 2.5mts telescope designed for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a mechanical structure that presents five degree-of-freedom. Azimuth, altitude and the instrument rotator axis are fitted with servo controls. The low frequency dynamic are dominated by the bearing friction. Several mathematical models have been presented in the literature to include its effect into the dynamic model of mechanical structures. The model employed in this paper includes consideration of the Striebeck effect, dynamic behavior at very low velocities and the pre-sliding at near zero-velocity. Results of the parameter estimation of the friction model of the three principal axes are presented as well as the behavior of the structure when different torque stimuli are applied. The mathematical model used to include the friction phenomena into the telescope dynamic model is simple. It does a good job of describing the friction over a wide range of velocities but particularly at or below siderial rate. It is a straight forward process to determine the parameters and, in simulations, does not require large amounts of computer time. 10 refs. , 8 figs.

  3. Cosmological Constraints from the SDSS maxBCG Cluster Catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Rozo, Eduardo; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Annis, James T.; Becker, Matthew R.; Evrard, August E.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Hansen, Sarah M.; Hao, Jia; Johnston, David E.; Koester, Benjamin P.; McKay, Timothy A.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Weinberg, David H.; /CCAPP /Ohio State U.

    2009-08-03

    We use the abundance and weak lensing mass measurements of the SDSS maxBCG cluster catalog to simultaneously constrain cosmology and the richness-mass relation of the clusters. Assuming a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we find {sigma}{sub 8}({Omega}{sub m}/0.25){sup 0.41} = 0.832 {+-} 0.033 after marginalization over all systematics. In common with previous studies, our error budget is dominated by systematic uncertainties, the primary two being the absolute mass scale of the weak lensing masses of the maxBCG clusters, and uncertainty in the scatter of the richness-mass relation. Our constraints are fully consistent with the WMAP five-year data, and in a joint analysis we find {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.807 {+-} 0.020 and {Omega}{sub m} = 0.265 {+-} 0.016, an improvement of nearly a factor of two relative to WMAP5 alone. Our results are also in excellent agreement with and comparable in precision to the latest cosmological constraints from X-ray cluster abundances. The remarkable consistency among these results demonstrates that cluster abundance constraints are not only tight but also robust, and highlight the power of optically-selected cluster samples to produce precision constraints on cosmological parameters.

  4. The Frequency of Anomalously Red Galaxies in SDSS Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearman, O.; Pimbblet, K. A.

    2014-09-01

    We present a systematic photometric search for spectroscopically confirmed anomalously red galaxies members of 748 low redshift clusters between 0.03 z 0.17 from the SDSS-C4 cluster catalogue (Miller et al. 2005). For each cluster we spectroscopically determine cluster membership, construct a colour-magnitude diagram and fit the red sequence using a robust bi-weight fit. We define an "anomalously red galaxy" as having a (g - r) colour of greater than 3σ redward of the fitted cluster colour-magnitude relation. We find that of 7485 galaxies at r ≤ 17.77 in (g - r), 7 galaxies are anomalously red - 0.0935 per cent of all galaxies in our sample. We show that two of the red outliers are caused by red contamination from nearby sources and are therefore not intrinsically anomalous red. However, 5 have no underlying cause to be so red and we speculate that they may have a high internal dust content. These intrinsically red galaxies are rare - comprising no more than 0.0668 per cent of all cluster galaxies. Most are morphologically early type galaxies, with a few probable late type galaxies that are viewed edge-on and one low surface brightness late type. One of our anomalously red galaxies appears to be a dust-shrouded starburst and we speculate that this may be a unique galaxy amoungst this galaxy set.

  5. Anomaly detection for machine learning redshifts applied to SDSS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Ben; Rau, Markus Michael; Paech, Kerstin; Bonnett, Christopher; Seitz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2015-10-01

    We present an analysis of anomaly detection for machine learning redshift estimation. Anomaly detection allows the removal of poor training examples, which can adversely influence redshift estimates. Anomalous training examples may be photometric galaxies with incorrect spectroscopic redshifts, or galaxies with one or more poorly measured photometric quantity. We select 2.5 million `clean' SDSS DR12 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts, and 6730 `anomalous' galaxies with spectroscopic redshift measurements which are flagged as unreliable. We contaminate the clean base galaxy sample with galaxies with unreliable redshifts and attempt to recover the contaminating galaxies using the Elliptical Envelope technique. We then train four machine learning architectures for redshift analysis on both the contaminated sample and on the preprocessed `anomaly-removed' sample and measure redshift statistics on a clean validation sample generated without any preprocessing. We find an improvement on all measured statistics of up to 80 per cent when training on the anomaly removed sample as compared with training on the contaminated sample for each of the machine learning routines explored. We further describe a method to estimate the contamination fraction of a base data sample.

  6. SSGSS: THE SPITZER-SDSS-GALEX SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Treyer, Marie A.; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy M.; Martins, Lucimara P.; Seibert, Mark; Van der Hulst, J. M.

    2011-11-10

    The Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) provides a new sample of 101 star-forming galaxies at z < 0.2 with unprecedented multi-wavelength coverage. New mid- to far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope is added to a rich suite of previous imaging and spectroscopy, including ROSAT, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Spitzer/SWIRE. Sample selection ensures an even coverage of the full range of normal galaxy properties, spanning two orders of magnitude in stellar mass, color, and dust attenuation. In this paper we present the SSGSS data set, describe the science drivers, and detail the sample selection, observations, data reduction, and quality assessment. Also in this paper, we compare the shape of the thermal continuum and the degree of silicate absorption of these typical, star-forming galaxies to those of starburst galaxies. We investigate the link between star formation rate, infrared luminosity, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon luminosity, with a view to calibrating the latter for spectral energy distribution models in photometric samples and at high redshift. Last, we take advantage of the 5-40 {mu}m spectroscopic and far-infrared photometric coverage of this sample to perform detailed fitting of the Draine et al. dust models, and investigate the link between dust mass and star formation history and active galactic nucleus properties.

  7. Building a Database from the SDSS Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, L.; Csabai, I.; Budavári, T.; Szalay, A. S.

    2009-09-01

    We present our solution for organizing high volumes of astronomical imaging data in a relational database focusing on fast data retrieval and Virtual Observatory-style meta-data representation. Previous work by the authors showed that using relational databases for astronomical data can be very useful not only for reduced catalogs like SkyServer \\citep{szalay01} but also for high dimensional binary data like spectra \\citep[Spectrum Services,][]{dobos04} where meta-data naturally fits into the relational model while storing the binary blobs in the database yields a significant performance gain over ordinary flat files when batch data processing is an objective. We used a special high-bandwidth data transport protocol for downloading the whole SDSS dataset over the Internet, or about 8 TB of corrected imaging data. All necessary meta-data is stored along with the images. For sky coverage representation we used the Spherical Geometry Library of \\citet{budavari07} which supports fast lookup of images based on a reference celestial region. We are also working on a convenient user interface for the database as well as a web service that will support programmatic client access to the imaging data with standard Virtual Observatory protocols.

  8. Giant magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duenas, Terrisa Ann

    The limitation of magnetostrictive composites has been in their low magnetostrictive response when compared to their monolithic counterparts. In this dissertation research is presented describing the methods and analysis used to create a giant magnetostrictive composite (GMC) producing giant strains at low fields, exhibiting magnetization ``jumping'' and the ΔE effect. This composite combines the giant magnetostrictive material, Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) in particle form, with a nonmetallic binder and is capable of producing strains (at room temperature) exceeding 1000 ppm at a nominal field of 1.5 kOe mechanically unloaded and 1200 ppm at 8 MPa preload (2.5 kOe). Several studies leading to the high response of this composite are presented. A connectivity study shows that a [1-3] connected composite produces 50% more strain than a [0-3] composite. A resin study indicates that the lower the viscosity of the resin, the greater the magnetostrictive response; this is attributed to the removal of voids during degassing. A void study correlates the increase in voids to the decrease in strain response. A model is used to correlate analysis with experimental results within 10% accuracy and shows that an optimal volume fraction exists based on the properties of the binder. Using a Polyscience Spurr low- viscosity (60 cps) binder this volume fraction is nominally 20%; this optimum is attributed to the balance of epoxy contracting on the particle (built-in preload) and the actuation delivered by the magnetostrictive material. In addition to the connectivity, resin, void, and volume-fraction study, particle size and gradation studies are presented. Widely dispersed (<106, <212, <300 μm), narrowly dispersed (<45, (90-106), (275-300) μm), and an optimized bimodal (18.7% of (45-90) μm with 81.3% of (250-300) μm) particle distributions are studied. Results show that the larger the particle size, the higher the magnetostrictive response; this is attributed to the reduction of

  9. Convergent evolution of the arginine deiminase pathway: the ArcD and ArcE arginine/ornithine exchangers.

    PubMed

    Noens, Elke E E; Lolkema, Juke S

    2017-02-01

    The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and yields 1 mol of ATP per mol of L-arginine consumed. The L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger in the pathway takes up L-arginine and excretes L-ornithine from the cytoplasm. Analysis of the genomes of 1281 bacterial species revealed the presence of 124 arc gene clusters encoding the pathway. About half of the clusters contained the gene encoding the well-studied L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger ArcD, while the other half contained a gene, termed here arcE, encoding a membrane protein that is not a homolog of ArcD. The arcE gene product of Streptococcus pneumoniae was shown to take up L-arginine and L-ornithine with affinities of 0.6 and 1 μmol/L, respectively, and to catalyze metabolic energy-independent, electroneutral exchange. ArcE of S. pneumoniae could replace ArcD in the ADI pathway of Lactococcus lactis and provided the cells with a growth advantage. In contrast to ArcD, ArcE catalyzed translocation of the pathway intermediate L-citrulline with high efficiency. A short version of the ADI pathway is proposed for L-citrulline catabolism and the presence of the evolutionary unrelated arcD and arcE genes in different organisms is discussed in the context of the evolution of the ADI pathway.

  10. On to the Ice Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Kim; Hofstdater, Mark; Simon, Amy; Elliott, John

    2017-04-01

    Voyager 2 mission flew by Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989 resulting in stunning remote observations not previously accessible from the ground. There have been no follow-up space flight missions to examine ice giants and, as a result there are significant gaps in our understanding of planetary formation and evolution. This gap not only affects our understanding of our own solar system but also our understanding of exoplanets; the majority of planets discovered around other stars are thought to be ice giants. Ice Giants are likely to be far more abundant in our galaxy than previously thought. The U.S. 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey committee recognized the importance of Uranus and Neptune, and prioritized the exploration of the Ice Giants. Following from this, NASA and ESA have recently completed a study of candidate missions to Uranus and Neptune, the so-called ice giant planets. The intent was to examine what could be accomplished within the budget realities of the predictable future. This "Pre-Decadal Study," focused on opportunities for missions launching in the 2020's and early 2030's. This paper presents results from the Ice Giants study (science, architectures and technologies) and concludes that compelling and affordable missions to the Ice Giants are within our reach.

  11. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kajita, Shin; Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu; Tsventoukh, Mikhail M.; Barengolts, Sergey A.

    2014-12-21

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  12. Giant magnetofossils and hyperthermal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liao; Roberts, Andrew P.; Williams, Wyn; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Larrasoaña, Juan C.; Jovane, Luigi; Muxworthy, Adrian R.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize magnetic minerals with precisely controlled size, morphology, and stoichiometry. These cosmopolitan bacteria are widely observed in aquatic environments. If preserved after burial, the inorganic remains of magnetotactic bacteria act as magnetofossils that record ancient geomagnetic field variations. They also have potential to provide paleoenvironmental information. In contrast to conventional magnetofossils, giant magnetofossils (most likely produced by eukaryotic organisms) have only been reported once before from Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 55.8 Ma) sediments on the New Jersey coastal plain. Here, using transmission electron microscopic observations, we present evidence for abundant giant magnetofossils, including previously reported elongated prisms and spindles, and new giant bullet-shaped magnetite crystals, in the Southern Ocean near Antarctica, not only during the PETM, but also shortly before and after the PETM. Moreover, we have discovered giant bullet-shaped magnetite crystals from the equatorial Indian Ocean during the Mid-Eocene Climatic Optimum (˜40 Ma). Our results indicate a more widespread geographic, environmental, and temporal distribution of giant magnetofossils in the geological record with a link to "hyperthermal" events. Enhanced global weathering during hyperthermals, and expanded suboxic diagenetic environments, probably provided more bioavailable iron that enabled biomineralization of giant magnetofossils. Our micromagnetic modelling indicates the presence of magnetic multi-domain (i.e., not ideal for navigation) and single domain (i.e., ideal for navigation) structures in the giant magnetite particles depending on their size, morphology and spatial arrangement. Different giant magnetite crystal morphologies appear to have had different biological functions, including magnetotaxis and other non-navigational purposes. Our observations suggest that hyperthermals provided ideal conditions for

  13. [Giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp].

    PubMed

    Palacios, Fernando; Contardo, Carlos; Guevara, Jorge; Vera, Augusto; Aguilar, Luis; Huamán, Manuel; Palomino, Américo; Yabar, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Fibrovascular polyps are extremely rare benign neoplasias of the esophagus, which usually originate in the lower cricoid area. They do not produce any discomfort in the patient for a long time, however it may make itself evident by the patient's regurgitation of the polyp, producing asphyxia or, more frequently, dysphagia. The case of a 58 year old male patient is presented herein, with a 9 month record of dysphagia, weight loss and intermittent melena. The barium x-ray showed a distended esophagus, with a tumor running from the upper esophageal sphincter to the cardia. The endoscopy confirmed the presence of a pediculated tumor, implanted in the cervical esophagus. Surgeons suspected the potential malignancy of the tumor and performed a transhiatal esophagectomy. The final pathologic diagnosis was giant fibrovascular esophageal polyp.

  14. A giant Ordovician anomalocaridid.

    PubMed

    Van Roy, Peter; Briggs, Derek E G

    2011-05-26

    Anomalocaridids, giant lightly sclerotized invertebrate predators, occur in a number of exceptionally preserved early and middle Cambrian (542-501 million years ago) biotas and have come to symbolize the unfamiliar morphologies displayed by stem organisms in faunas of the Burgess Shale type. They are characterized by a pair of anterior, segmented appendages, a circlet of plates around the mouth, and an elongate segmented trunk lacking true tergites with a pair of flexible lateral lobes per segment. Disarticulated body parts, such as the anterior appendages and oral circlet, had been assigned to a range of taxonomic groups--but the discovery of complete specimens from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale showed that these disparate elements all belong to a single kind of animal. Phylogenetic analyses support a position of anomalocaridids in the arthropod stem, as a sister group to the euarthropods. The anomalocaridids were the largest animals in Cambrian communities. The youngest unequivocal examples occur in the middle Cambrian Marjum Formation of Utah but an arthropod retaining some anomalocaridid characteristics is present in the Devonian of Germany. Here we report the post-Cambrian occurrence of anomalocaridids, from the Early Ordovician (488-472 million years ago) Fezouata Biota in southeastern Morocco, including specimens larger than any in Cambrian biotas. These giant animals were an important element of some marine communities for about 30 million years longer than previously realized. The Moroccan specimens confirm the presence of a dorsal array of flexible blades attached to a transverse rachis on the trunk segments; these blades probably functioned as gills.

  15. Giant Hedge-Hogs: Spikes on Giant Gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Sadri, D

    2004-01-28

    We consider giant gravitons on the maximally supersymmetric plane-wave background of type IIB string theory. Fixing the light-cone gauge, we work out the low energy effective light-cone Hamiltonian of the three-sphere giant graviton. At first order, this is a U(1) gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}. We place sources in this effective gauge theory. Although non-vanishing net electric charge configurations are disallowed by Gauss' law, electric dipoles can be formed. From the string theory point of view these dipoles can be understood as open strings piercing the three-sphere, generalizing the usual BIons to the giant gravitons, BIGGons. Our results can be used to give a two dimensional (worldsheet) description of giant gravitons, similar to Polchinski's description for the usual D-branes, in agreement with the discussions of hep-th/0204196.

  16. Giant resonances: Progress, new directions, new challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, J.R.; Beene, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of some recent developments in the field of giant multipole resonances is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on directions that the authors feel will be followed in this field during the next several years. In particular, the use of high-energy heavy ions to excite the giant resonances is shown to provide exciting new capabilities for giant resonance studies. Among subjects covered are: Coulomb excitation of giant resonances, photon decay of giant resonances, the recent controversy over the identity of the giant monopole resonance, the most recent value for incompressibility of nuclear matter from analysis of giant monopole data, the isospin character of the 63 A/sup /minus/1/3/ GQR, agreement between (e,e/prime/) and (hadron, hadron/prime/) excitation of the giant quadrupole resonance, prospects for multiphonon giant resonance observation, and isolation of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance. 55 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. NO CONFIRMED NEW ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS IN THE SDSS DATA RELEASE 4

    SciTech Connect

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Newsom, Emily R.; Posselt, Bettina; Anderson, Scott F.; Rosenfield, Philip; Homer, Lee; Haberl, Frank; Voges, Wolfgang; Margon, Bruce

    2011-06-15

    We report on follow-up observations of candidate X-ray-bright, radio-quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) identified from correlations of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4 in Agueeros et al. We obtained Chandra X-ray Observatory exposures for 13 candidates in order to pinpoint the source of X-ray emission in optically blank RASS error circles. These observations eliminated 12 targets as good INS candidates. We discuss subsequent observations of the remaining candidate with XMM-Newton, the Gemini North Observatory, and the Apache Point Observatory. We identify this object as a likely extragalactic source with an unusually high log (f{sub X}/f{sub opt}) {approx} 2.4. We also use an updated version of the population synthesis models of Popov et al. to estimate the number of RASS-detected INSs in the SDSS Data Release 7 footprint. We find that these models predict {approx}3-4 INSs in the 11,000 deg{sup 2} imaged by SDSS, which is consistent with the number of known INSs that fall within the survey footprint. In addition, our analysis of the four new INS candidates identified in the SDSS footprint implies that they are unlikely to be confirmed as INSs; together, these results suggest that new INSs are not likely to be found from further correlations of the RASS and SDSS.

  18. Validity evidence, sensibility and specificity of the severity dimension of the SDSS alcohol dependence scale.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Moreno, Antonio; Lozano, Óscar M; Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Rojas, Antonio J; Sayans-Jiménez, Pablo; González-Saiz, Francisco; Ramírez López, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic success in the treatment of alcohol use disorders highly depends on an appropriate diagnosis. The Substance Dependence Severity Scale –SDSS- is a scale that assesses substance dependence in dimensional terms and that follows the diagnostic criteria established by the international classification systems. The aim of this study is to provide validity evidence for the severity dimension of the alcohol dependence scale of the SDSS comparing it with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview –MINI-, and others variables related to substance use included in the EuropASI. A total of 109 patients admitted for treatment in the Drug Abuse Center Services of Huelva who had used alcohol in the month previous to the interview participated. The SDSS, MINI and EuropASI were administered. The diagnostic capacity of the SDSS was assessed by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, taking the MINI dependence diagnosis as standard. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.917 (CI=0.867-0.968). The trade-off between parameters was detected for a score of 9, with suitable values of sensitivity and specificity (83.58% and 83.72%). The results support the use of the SDSS for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence and for assessment the severity of dependence. Administration of this scale makes it possible to obtain information, with a single score, on how severe the disorder is and whether the dependence criteria have been met.

  19. The SDSS-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Luminous Red Galaxy Target Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Myers, Adam D.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Percival, Will J.; Bautista, Julian E.; Comparat, Johan; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Schlegel, David J.; Tojeiro, Rita; Ho, Shirley; Lang, Dustin; Rao, Sandhya M.; McBride, Cameron K.; Ben Zhu, Guangtun; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bailey, Stephen; Bolton, Adam S.; Delubac, Timothée; Mariappan, Vivek; Blanton, Michael R.; Reid, Beth; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Prada, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    We describe the algorithm used to select the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) using photometric data from both the SDSS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. LRG targets are required to meet a set of color selection criteria and have z-band and i-band MODEL magnitudes z < 19.95 and 19.9 < i < 21.8, respectively. Our algorithm selects roughly 50 LRG targets per square degree, the great majority of which lie in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.0 (median redshift 0.71). We demonstrate that our methods are highly effective at eliminating stellar contamination and lower-redshift galaxies. We perform a number of tests using spectroscopic data from SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs to determine the redshift reliability of our target selection and its ability to meet the science requirements of eBOSS. The SDSS spectra are of high enough signal-to-noise ratio that at least ˜89% of the target sample yields secure redshift measurements. We also present tests of the uniformity and homogeneity of the sample, demonstrating that it should be clean enough for studies of the large-scale structure of the universe at higher redshifts than SDSS-III/BOSS LRGs reached.

  20. The SDSS-IV extended baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey: Luminous red galaxy target selection

    DOE PAGES

    Prakash, Abhishek; Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; ...

    2016-06-08

    Here, we describe the algorithm used to select the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) using photometric data from both the SDSS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. LRG targets are required to meet a set of color selection criteria and have z-band and i-band MODEL magnitudes z < 19.95 and 19.9 < i < 21.8, respectively. Our algorithm selects roughly 50 LRG targets per square degree, the great majority of which lie in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.0 (median redshift 0.71).more » We also demonstrate that our methods are highly effective at eliminating stellar contamination and lower-redshift galaxies. We perform a number of tests using spectroscopic data from SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs to determine the redshift reliability of our target selection and its ability to meet the science requirements of eBOSS. The SDSS spectra are of high enough signal-to-noise ratio that at least ~89% of the target sample yields secure redshift measurements. Finally, we present tests of the uniformity and homogeneity of the sample, demonstrating that it should be clean enough for studies of the large-scale structure of the universe at higher redshifts than SDSS-III/BOSS LRGs reached.« less

  1. The SDSS-IV extended baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey: Luminous red galaxy target selection

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Abhishek; Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Myers, Adam D.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bautista, Julian E.; Comparat, Johan; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Schlegel, David J.; Tojeiro, Rita; Ho, Shirley; Lang, Dustin; Rao, Sandhya M.; McBride, Cameron K.; Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bailey, Stephen; Bolton, Adam S.; Delubac, Timothée; Mariappan, Vivek; Blanton, Michael R.; Reid, Beth; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Prada, Francisco

    2016-06-08

    Here, we describe the algorithm used to select the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) using photometric data from both the SDSS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. LRG targets are required to meet a set of color selection criteria and have z-band and i-band MODEL magnitudes z < 19.95 and 19.9 < i < 21.8, respectively. Our algorithm selects roughly 50 LRG targets per square degree, the great majority of which lie in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.0 (median redshift 0.71). We also demonstrate that our methods are highly effective at eliminating stellar contamination and lower-redshift galaxies. We perform a number of tests using spectroscopic data from SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs to determine the redshift reliability of our target selection and its ability to meet the science requirements of eBOSS. The SDSS spectra are of high enough signal-to-noise ratio that at least ~89% of the target sample yields secure redshift measurements. Finally, we present tests of the uniformity and homogeneity of the sample, demonstrating that it should be clean enough for studies of the large-scale structure of the universe at higher redshifts than SDSS-III/BOSS LRGs reached.

  2. The Eighth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Data from SDSS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, Hiroaki; Prieto, Carlos Allende; An, Deokkeun; Anderson, Scott F.; Aubourg, Eric; Balbinot, Eduardo; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U., CCPP /Penn State U.

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in August 2008, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Ly{alpha} forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around {approx}8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes 5-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg{sup 2} in the Southern Galactic Cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg{sup 2}, or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Evolution (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameters pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high metallicity stars.

  3. The substellar companion in the eclipsing white dwarf binary SDSS J141126.20+200911.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlefair, S. P.; Casewell, S. L.; Parsons, S. G.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Bloemen, S.; Catalan, S.; Irawati, P.; Hardy, L. K.; Mcallister, M.; Bours, M. C. P.; Richichi, Andrea; Burleigh, M. R.; Burningham, B.; Breedt, E.; Kerry, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present high time resolution SDSS-g' and SDSS-z' light curves of the primary eclipse in SDSS J141126.20+200911.1, together with time-resolved X-Shooter spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) JHKs photometry. Our observations confirm the substellar nature of the companion, making SDSS J141126.20+200911.1 the first eclipsing white dwarf/brown dwarf binary known. We measure a (white dwarf model dependent) mass and radius for the brown dwarf companion of M2 = 0.050 ± 0.002 M⊙ and R2 = 0.072 ± 0.004 M⊙, respectively. The lack of a robust detection of the companion light in the z'-band eclipse constrains the spectral type of the companion to be later than L5. Comparing the NIR photometry to the expected white dwarf flux reveals a clear Ks-band excess, suggesting a spectral type in the range L7-T1. The radius measurement is consistent with the predictions of evolutionary models, and suggests a system age in excess of 3 Gyr. The low companion mass is inconsistent with the inferred spectral type of L7-T1, instead predicting a spectral type nearer T5. This indicates that irradiation of the companion in SDSS J141126.20+200911.1 could be causing a significant temperature increase, at least on one hemisphere.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS quasars balmer emission lines (Liu+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Shen, Y.; Bian, F.; Loeb, A.; Tremaine, S.

    2017-03-01

    We start with the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog (Schneider et al. 2010AJ....139.2360S, Cat. VII/260), adopting the spectral measurements of Shen et al. (2011, J/ApJS/194/45). Among the SDSS DR7 quasars, 20,774 are at z < 0.83, where SDSS spectra cover Hβ and [O III] λλ4959, 5007 (hereafter [O III] for short). From this parent sample of 20,774 objects we select a subset of 399 with offset broad Balmer emission lines, based on the spectral region around Hβ and [O III]. Our selection was a combination of automated spectral fitting (Shen et al. 2008, J/ApJ/680/169; 2011, J/ApJS/194/45) and visual examination. Here and throughout, we refer to the 399 objects as the "offset" sample. Using the spectral models, we measure the offset of the broad emission lines relative to the systemic velocity. The systemic redshift is estimated from the core component of [O III], which may be different (by a median offset of 32 km/s with a standard deviation of 125 km/s) from the nominal redshift listed by the DR7 catalog based on the SDSS spectroscopic pipeline (Stoughton et al. 2002AJ....123..485S). Our adopted systemic redshift agrees with the improved redshift for SDSS quasars from Hewett & Wild (2010, J/MNRAS/405/2302) within uncertainties. (1 data file).

  5. A Successful Automated Search for Crouching Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanela, J. E.; Dickey, J. M.

    2000-12-01

    Much effort has been expended during the last two decades on the search for Low Surface Brightness galaxies (LSBs), the galaxies Disney called ``Crouching Giants,'' which may be a dominant mass repository in the universe. The difficulty in gathering information on a significant population of LSBs lies in the time-consuming nature of identifying LSB candidates. To date, all survey-based searches for LSBs have involved manual inspections of plate-based material or optical CCD observations. We have conducted the first successful automated search for HI-rich galaxies (including LSBs) using the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner (APS) Catalog of the POSS I. We identified HI-rich candidates by selecting galaxies located on the ``blue edge'' of an O-E vs. E color-magnitude diagram from the APS Catalog. Subsequent 21-cm observations on the upgraded Arecibo 305m dish showed that over 50% of our observed candidates were HI-rich with M{H{ I}}/LB ranging from 0.1 to 4.8 (in solar units). These M{H{ I}}/LB values are comparable to those of LSB candidates selected by manual means. Comparison of our candidate galaxies with known LSB galaxies shows that they have similar bivariate brightness distributions as well as other optical properties. Furthermore, examination of existing LSB catalogs shows that over 65% of LSBs are located on the ``blue edge,'' whereas only 10% of the general APS galaxy population has O-E values this low. Known LSB galaxies on the O-E ``blue edge'' include several LSBs with red B-V colors from O'Neil, Bothun, and Schombert (2000), indicating our bandpasses are critical in the segregation of these LSB candidates from the general population. We have determined the physical basis for the success of these simple search criteria, which is tied to the low current star formation rate of LSBs. The details of the search algorithm and guidelines of how to apply it to other existing surveys, such as the SDSS, will be provided.

  6. A Computer Vision Approach to Identify Einstein Rings and Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chien-Hsiu

    2017-03-01

    Einstein rings are rare gems of strong lensing phenomena; the ring images can be used to probe the underlying lens gravitational potential at every position angles, tightly constraining the lens mass profile. In addition, the magnified images also enable us to probe high-z galaxies with enhanced resolution and signal-to-noise ratios. However, only a handful of Einstein rings have been reported, either from serendipitous discoveries or or visual inspections of hundred thousands of massive galaxies or galaxy clusters. In the era of large sky surveys, an automated approach to identify ring pattern in the big data to come is in high demand. Here, we present an Einstein ring recognition approach based on computer vision techniques. The workhorse is the circle Hough transform that recognise circular patterns or arcs in the images. We propose a two-tier approach by first pre-selecting massive galaxies associated with multiple blue objects as possible lens, than use Hough transform to identify circular pattern. As a proof-of-concept, we apply our approach to SDSS, with a high completeness, albeit with low purity. We also apply our approach to other lenses in DES, HSC-SSP, and UltraVISTA survey, illustrating the versatility of our approach.

  7. PC-based arc ignition and arc length control system for gas tungsten arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. ); Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Springfield, J.F. . School of Engineering)

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, a PC-based digital control system for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is presented. This system controls the arc ignition process, the arc length, and the process of welding termination. A DT2818 made by Data Translation is used for interface and A/D and D/A conversions. The digital I/O ports of the DT2818 are used for control of wirefeed, shield gas, cooling water, welding power supply, etc. The DT2818 is housed in a PC. The welding signals and status are displayed on the screen for in-process monitoring. A user can control the welding process by the keyboard.

  8. Arc of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Adam Vai

    2011-07-01

    Born in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the author had a 20 year career in diplomacy, political affairs, and development policy analysis at the Pacific Islands Forum, the United Nations in New York; the Prime Minister's Department in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and in the Foreign Ministry of PNG. He has also been involved in theatre for over a decade in PNG, and participated in a three-month program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut, USA. He is currently the Business Development Manager at the Torres Strait Regional Authority (Commonwealth) on Thursday Island. Since 1975 the Australian government's overseas development policy has supported various sectoral programs in its neighbouring countries, in particular Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The "creative" field has not been prominent in this strategy. While natural resources and the sports sectors have gained much greater attention, in terms of being viable international commercial enterprises, the arts, have remained stagnant. In this paper the need for joint programs genuinely supporting "wellbeing" and promoting social enterprise throughout the "arc of opportunity" is described to harness Melanesian creativity to compete successfully in world-markets, starting with penetration of the largest economy at its door-step: Australia.

  9. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  10. Arc heater capabilities at AEDC

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.D.; Bruce, W.E. III

    1995-12-31

    The USAF/Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), located near Tullahoma, Tennessee, has a wide range of arc heater capabilities. Test facilities include a 25-MW segmented arc heater (H1) and a 40-MW Huels-type arc heater (HR). These facilities operate at pressures up to 12 MPa (120 atm) and exhaust to atmosphere, providing low Mach number flows (M < 3.5). The HR arc heater is also used as the driver for the arc-heated wind tunnel (H2) which has a test cabin 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and is provided with a subatmospheric exhaust to accommodate higher Mach number flows (M = 4 to 8) and flow fields up to a diameter of 0.6 meters (24 in.). A new larger scale 60-MW segmented arc heater (H3), which is in the final year of a six year development effort at AEDC, will significantly increase the size and performance of the existing facilities. The H3 heater has been demonstrated at chamber pressures up to 10.3 MPa (103 atm) and a power of 58 MW. AEDC has a wide range of plant utilities available for arc facility operations and development, including a 60-MW direct-current power supply, a 27 MPA (4,000 psi) high-pressure air supply capable of flow rates up to 9 kg/sec (20 lbm/sec), and cooling water systems which provide up to 190 kg/sec (3,000 gpm) at a minimum pressure of 7 MPa (1,000 psi). A state-of-the-art analytical capability has also been developed over the past 10 years at AEDC to better understand arc heater performance and behavior. Developers of large-scale commercial plasma systems have an opportunity to utilize the facilities and experience available at AEDC.

  11. The Halo Boundary of Galaxy Clusters in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Eric; Chang, Chihway; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal; Kravtsov, Andrey; More, Surhud; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2017-05-01

    Analytical models and simulations predict a rapid decline in the halo density profile associated with the transition from the “infalling” regime outside the halo to the “collapsed” regime within the halo. Using data from SDSS, we explore evidence for such a feature in the density profiles of galaxy clusters using several different approaches. We first estimate the steepening of the outer galaxy density profile around clusters, finding evidence for truncation of the halo profile. Next, we measure the galaxy density profile around clusters using two sets of galaxies selected on color. We find evidence of an abrupt change in galaxy colors that coincides with the location of the steepening of the density profile. Since galaxies that have completed orbits within the cluster are more likely to be quenched of star formation and thus appear redder, this abrupt change in galaxy color can be associated with the transition from single-stream to multi-stream regimes. We also use a standard model comparison approach to measure evidence for a “splashback”-like feature, but find that this approach is very sensitive to modeling assumptions. Finally, we perform measurements using an independent cluster catalog to test for potential systematic errors associated with cluster selection. We identify several avenues for future work: improved understanding of the small-scale galaxy profile, lensing measurements, identification of proxies for the halo accretion rate, and other tests. With upcoming data from the DES, KiDS, and HSC surveys, we can expect significant improvements in the study of halo boundaries.

  12. SDSS 1507+52: A Halo Cataclysmic Variable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Joseph; Thorstensen, John R.; Knigge, Christian

    2008-05-01

    We report a photometric and spectroscopic study of the peculiar cataclysmic variable SDSS 1507+52. The star shows very deep eclipses on the 67-minute orbital period, and those eclipses are easily separable into white-dwarf and hot-spot components. This leads to tight constraints on binary parameters, with M1 = 0.83(8) M⊙, M2 = 0.057(8) M⊙, R1 = 0.0097(9) R⊙, R2 = 0.097(4) R⊙, q = 0.069(2), and i = 83.18(13)°. Such numbers suggest possible membership among the WZ Sge stars, a common type of dwarf nova. The spectroscopic behavior (strong and broad H emission, double-peaked and showing a classic rotational disturbance during eclipse) is also typical. But the star’s orbital period is shockingly below the “period minimum” of ∼77 minutes that is characteristic of hydrogen-rich CVs; producing such a strange binary will require some tinkering with the theory of cataclysmic-variable evolution. The proper motion is also remarkably high for a star of its distance, which we estimate from photometry and trigonometric parallax as 230 ± 40 pc. This suggests a transverse velocity of 164 ± 30 km s-1 —uncomfortably high if the star belongs to a Galactic-disk population. These difficulties with understanding its evolution and space velocity can be solved if the star belongs to a Galactic-halo population. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory, operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia University, Ohio State University, Ohio University, and the University of Michigan.

  13. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Survey Design and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Renbin; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing SDSS-IV/MaNGA Survey will obtain integral field spectroscopy at a resolution of R~2000 with a wavelength coverage from 3,600A to 10,300A for 10,000 nearby galaxies. Within each 3 degree diameter pointing of the 2.5m Sloan Telescope, we deploy 17 hexagonal fiber bundles with sizes ranging from 12 to 32 arcsec in diameter. The bundles are build with 2 arcsec fibers and have a 56% fill factor. During observations, we obtained sets of exposures at 3 different dither positions to achieve near-critical sampling of the effective point spread function, which has a FWHM about 2.5 arcsec, corresponding to 1-2 kpc for the majority of the galaxies targeted. The flux calibration is done using 12 additional mini-fiber-bundles targeting standard stars simultaneously with science targets, achieving a calibration accuracy better than 5% over 90% of the wavelength range. The target galaxies are selected to ensure uniform spatial coverage in units of effective radii for the majority of the galaxies while maximizing spatial resolution. About 2/3 of the sample is covered out to 1.5Re (primary sample) and 1/3 of the sample covered to 2.5Re (secondary sample). The sample is designed to have approximately equal representation from high and low mass galaxies while maintaining volume-limited selection at fixed absolute magnitudes. We obtain an average S/N of 4 per Angstrom in r-band continuum at a surface brightness of 23 AB arcsec-2. With spectral stacking in an elliptical annulus covering 1-1.5Re, our primary sample galaxies have a median S/N of ~60 per Angstrom in r-band.

  14. Metallicity calibration and photometric parallax estimation: II. SDSS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçel Güçtekin, S.; Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Plevne, O.; Ak, S.; Ak, T.; Bostancı, Z. F.

    2017-01-01

    We used the updated [Fe/H] abundances of 168 F-G type dwarfs and calibrated them to a third order polynomial in terms of reduced ultraviolet excess, δ_{0.41} defined with ugr data in the SDSS. We estimated the Mg absolute magnitudes for the same stars via the re-reduced Hipparcos parallaxes and calibrated the absolute magnitude offsets, Δ Mg, relative to the intrinsic sequence of Hyades to a third order polynomial in terms of δ_{0.41}. The ranges of the calibrations are -2<[Fe/H]≤ 0.3 dex and 4< Mg≤ 6 mag. The mean of the residuals and the corresponding standard deviation for the metallicity calibration are 0 and 0.137 mag; while, for the absolute magnitude calibration they are 0 and 0.179 mag, respectively. We applied our procedures to 23,414 dwarf stars in the Galactic field with the Galactic coordinates 85° ≤ b≤ 90°, 0° ≤ l≤ 360° and size 78 deg2. We estimated absolute magnitude Mg dependent vertical metallicity gradients as a function of vertical distance Z. The gradients are deep in the range of 0< Z≤ 5 kpc, while they are very small positive numbers beyond Z=5 kpc. All dwarfs with 5< Mg≤ 6 mag are thin-disc stars and their distribution shows a mode at (g-r)0≈ 0.38 mag, while the absolute magnitudes 4< Mg ≤ 5 are dominated by thick disc and halo stars, i.e. the apparently bright ones (g0≤ 18 mag) are thick-disc stars with a mode at (g-r)0˜ 0.38 mag, while the halo population is significant in the faint stars (g0>18 mag).

  15. Single-field inflation constraints from CMB and SDSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finelli, Fabio; Hamann, Jan; Leach, Samuel M.; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2010-04-01

    We present constraints on canonical single-field inflation derived from WMAP five year, ACBAR, QUAD, BICEP data combined with the halo power spectrum from SDSS LRG7. Models with a non-scale-invariant spectrum and a red tilt nS < 1 are now preferred over the Harrison-Zel'dovich model (nS = 1, tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0) at high significance. Assuming no running of the spectral indices, we derive constraints on the parameters (nS, r) and compare our results with the predictions of simple inflationary models. The marginalised credible intervals read nS = 0.962+0.028-0.026 and r < 0.17 (95% confidence level). With respect to previous analyses, the portion of the 68% c.l. contours compatible with potentials which are concave in the observable region becomes even smaller, but the quadratic potential model remains inside the 95% c.l. contours. We demonstrate that these results are robust to changes in the datasets considered and in the theoretical assumptions made. We then consider a non-vanishing running of the spectral indices by employing different methods, non-parametric but approximate, or parametric but exact. With our combination of CMB and LSS data, running models are preferred over power-law models only by a Δχ2 simeq 5.8, allowing inflationary stages producing a sizable negative running -0.063+0.061-0.049 and larger tensor-scalar ratio r < 0.33 at the 95% c.l. This requires large values of the third derivative of the inflaton potential within the observable range. We derive bounds on this derivative under the assumption that the inflaton potential can be approximated as a third order polynomial within the observable range.

  16. Extremely metal-poor stars in SDSS fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; François, P.; Sbordone, L.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Spite, M.; Molaro, P.; Spite, F.; Cayrel, R.; Hammer, F.; Hill, V.; Nonino, M.; Randich, S.; Stelzer, B.; Zaggia, S.

    2011-03-01

    Some insight on the first generation of stars can be obtained from the chemical composition of their direct descendants, extremely metal-poor stars (EMP), with metallicity less than or equal to 1/1000 of the solar metallicity. Such stars are exceedingly rare, the most successful surveys, for this purpose, have so far provided only about 100 stars with 1/1 000 the solar metallicity and 4 stars with about 1/10 000 of the solar metallicity. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has the potential to provide a large number of candidates of extremely low metallicity. X-shooter has the unique capability of performing the necessary follow-up spectroscopy providing accurate metallicities and abundance ratios for several elements (Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, Sr, ...) for EMP candidates. We here report on the results for the first two stars observed in the course of our Franco-Italian X-shooter GTO. The two stars were targeted to be of metallicity around -3.0, the analysis of the X-shooter spectra showed them to be of metallicity around -2.0, but with a low α to iron ratio, which explains the underestimate of the metallicity from the SDSS spectra. The efficiency of X-shooter allows an in situ study of the outer halo, for the two stars studied here we estimate distances of 3.9 and 9.1 kpc, these are likely the most distant dwarf stars studied in detail to date. Based on spectra obtained with X-shooter at the 8.2-m Kueyen ESO telescope, GTO programmes 085.D-0194 and 086.D.0094.

  17. The halo boundary of galaxy clusters in the SDSS

    DOE PAGES

    Baxter, Eric; Chang, Chihway; Jain, Bhuvnesh; ...

    2017-05-18

    Analytical models and simulations predict a rapid decline in the halo density profile associated with the transition from the "infalling" regime outside the halo to the "collapsed" regime within the halo. Using data from SDSS, we explore evidence for such a feature in the density profiles of galaxy clusters using several different approaches. We first estimate the steepening of the outer galaxy density profile around clusters, finding evidence for truncation of the halo profile. Next, we measure the galaxy density profile around clusters using two sets of galaxies selected on color. We find evidence of an abrupt change in galaxymore » colors that coincides with the location of the steepening of the density profile. Since galaxies that have completed orbits within the cluster are more likely to be quenched of star formation and thus appear redder, this abrupt change in galaxy color can be associated with the transition from single-stream to multi-stream regimes. We also use a standard model comparison approach to measure evidence for a "splashback"-like feature, but find that this approach is very sensitive to modeling assumptions. Finally, we perform measurements using an independent cluster catalog to test for potential systematic errors associated with cluster selection. We identify several avenues for future work: improved understanding of the small-scale galaxy profile, lensing measurements, identification of proxies for the halo accretion rate, and other tests. As a result, with upcoming data from the DES, KiDS, and HSC surveys, we can expect significant improvements in the study of halo boundaries.« less

  18. Theories of Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets, is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observations of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. While these models predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, the frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Most models for extrasolar giant planets suggest that they formed as did Jupiter and Saturn (in nearly circular orbits, far enough from the star that ice could), and subsequently migrated to their current positions, although some models suggest in situ formation.

  19. Lichens On Galapagos Giant Tortoises.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, J R; Weber, W A

    1964-06-19

    The association of Physcia picta with the giant Galdpagos tortoise is believed to be the first reported occurrence of lichens on land animals. The habitat is restricted to specific sites on the carapace of male tortoises.

  20. Landscape of the lost giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    The Pleistocene megafauna extinction erased a group of remarkable animals. Whether humans had a prominent role in the extinction remains controversial, but it is emerging that the disappearance of the giants has markedly affected the environment.

  1. What Is Giant Cell Arteritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 01, 2017 Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammation (swelling) of the arteries, which are the blood ... help nourish your eyes, reduced blood flow can cause sudden, painless vision loss. This condition is called ...

  2. Pharma giants swap research programs.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical giants Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) agreed in late April to swap some assets, with Novartis handing off its vaccine business to GSK and getting most of the British company's cancer portfolio in return.

  3. Giant sacrolumbar meningioma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Feldenzer, J A; McGillicuddy, J E; Hopkins, J W

    1990-06-01

    A case of giant sacral meningioma with presacral and lumbar extension is presented. The difficulties in diagnosis and management are emphasized including the staged multidisciplinary surgical approaches and preoperative tumor embolization.

  4. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  5. Theories of Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets, is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observations of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. While these models predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, the frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Most models for extrasolar giant planets suggest that they formed as did Jupiter and Saturn (in nearly circular orbits, far enough from the star that ice could), and subsequently migrated to their current positions, although some models suggest in situ formation.

  6. Optimization of Experimental Conditions of the Pulsed Current GTAW Parameters for Mechanical Properties of SDSS UNS S32760 Welds Based on the Taguchi Design Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefieh, M.; Shamanian, M.; Saatchi, A.

    2012-09-01

    Taguchi design method with L9 orthogonal array was implemented to optimize the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters for the hardness and the toughness of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS, UNS S32760) welds. In this regard, the hardness and the toughness were considered as performance characteristics. Pulse current, background current, % on time, and pulse frequency were chosen as main parameters. Each parameter was varied at three different levels. As a result of pooled analysis of variance, the pulse current is found to be the most significant factor for both the hardness and the toughness of SDSS welds by percentage contribution of 71.81 for hardness and 78.18 for toughness. The % on time (21.99%) and the background current (17.81%) had also the next most significant effect on the hardness and the toughness, respectively. The optimum conditions within the selected parameter values for hardness were found as the first level of pulse current (100 A), third level of background current (70 A), first level of % on time (40%), and first level of pulse frequency (1 Hz), while they were found as the second level of pulse current (120 A), second level of background current (60 A), second level of % on time (60%), and third level of pulse frequency (5 Hz) for toughness. The Taguchi method was found to be a promising tool to obtain the optimum conditions for such studies. Finally, in order to verify experimental results, confirmation tests were carried out at optimum working conditions. Under these conditions, there were good agreements between the predicted and the experimental results for the both hardness and toughness.

  7. Homogeneous UGRIZ Photometry for ACS Virgo Cluster Survey Galaxies: A Non-parametric Analysis from SDSS Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Wei; Côté, Patrick; West, Andrew A.; Peng, Eric W.; Ferrarese, Laura

    2010-11-01

    We present photometric and structural parameters for 100 ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) galaxies based on homogeneous, multi-wavelength (ugriz), wide-field SDSS (DR5) imaging. These early-type galaxies, which trace out the red sequence in the Virgo Cluster, span a factor of nearly ~103 in g-band luminosity. We describe an automated pipeline that generates background-subtracted mosaic images, masks field sources and measures mean shapes, total magnitudes, effective radii, and effective surface brightnesses using a model-independent approach. A parametric analysis of the surface brightness profiles is also carried out to obtain Sérsic-based structural parameters and mean galaxy colors. We compare the galaxy parameters to those in the literature, including those from the ACSVCS, finding good agreement in most cases, although the sizes of the brightest, and most extended, galaxies are found to be most uncertain and model dependent. Our photometry provides an external measurement of the random errors on total magnitudes from the widely used Virgo Cluster Catalog, which we estimate to be σ(BT )≈ 0.13 mag for the brightest galaxies, rising to ≈ 0.3 mag for galaxies at the faint end of our sample (BT ≈ 16). The distribution of axial ratios of low-mass ("dwarf") galaxies bears a strong resemblance to the one observed for the higher-mass ("giant") galaxies. The global structural parameters for the full galaxy sample—profile shape, effective radius, and mean surface brightness—are found to vary smoothly and systematically as a function of luminosity, with unmistakable evidence for changes in structural homology along the red sequence. As noted in previous studies, the ugriz galaxy colors show a nonlinear but smooth variation over a ~7 mag range in absolute magnitude, with an enhanced scatter for the faintest systems that is likely the signature of their more diverse star formation histories.

  8. HOMOGENEOUS UGRIZ PHOTOMETRY FOR ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY GALAXIES: A NON-PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS FROM SDSS IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chin-Wei; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; West, Andrew A.; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-11-15

    We present photometric and structural parameters for 100 ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) galaxies based on homogeneous, multi-wavelength (ugriz), wide-field SDSS (DR5) imaging. These early-type galaxies, which trace out the red sequence in the Virgo Cluster, span a factor of nearly {approx}10{sup 3} in g-band luminosity. We describe an automated pipeline that generates background-subtracted mosaic images, masks field sources and measures mean shapes, total magnitudes, effective radii, and effective surface brightnesses using a model-independent approach. A parametric analysis of the surface brightness profiles is also carried out to obtain Sersic-based structural parameters and mean galaxy colors. We compare the galaxy parameters to those in the literature, including those from the ACSVCS, finding good agreement in most cases, although the sizes of the brightest, and most extended, galaxies are found to be most uncertain and model dependent. Our photometry provides an external measurement of the random errors on total magnitudes from the widely used Virgo Cluster Catalog, which we estimate to be {sigma}(B{sub T}){approx} 0.13 mag for the brightest galaxies, rising to {approx} 0.3 mag for galaxies at the faint end of our sample (B{sub T} {approx} 16). The distribution of axial ratios of low-mass ('dwarf') galaxies bears a strong resemblance to the one observed for the higher-mass ('giant') galaxies. The global structural parameters for the full galaxy sample-profile shape, effective radius, and mean surface brightness-are found to vary smoothly and systematically as a function of luminosity, with unmistakable evidence for changes in structural homology along the red sequence. As noted in previous studies, the ugriz galaxy colors show a nonlinear but smooth variation over a {approx}7 mag range in absolute magnitude, with an enhanced scatter for the faintest systems that is likely the signature of their more diverse star formation histories.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Masses and ages of red giants (Martig+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, M.; Fouesneau, M.; Rix, H.-W.; Ness, M.; Meszaros, S.; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Pinsonneault, M.; Serenelli, A.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Zamora, O.

    2016-10-01

    The APOKASC project is the spectroscopic follow-up by APOGEE (Majewski et al. 2015, in prep., as part of the third phase of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS-III; Eisenstein et al., 2011AJ....142...72E) of stars with asteroseismology data from the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). The first version of the APOKASC catalogue (Pinsonneault et al., 2014, Cat. J/ApJS/215/19) contains seismic and spectroscopic measurements for 1989 giants, with the spectroscopic information corresponding to APOGEE's Data Release 10 (DR10; Ahn et al., 2014ApJS..211...17A). In this work, we keep the same original sample of 1989 stars and their seismic parameters, but update their Teff and abundances to DR12 values (Alam et al., 2015ApJS..219...12A; Holtzman et al., 2015AJ....150..148H). (2 data files).

  10. SDSS J094604.90+183541.8: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED QUASAR AT z = 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Farnsworth, Kara; Hall, Patrick B.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-08-15

    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed quasar identified serendipitously in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The object, SDSS J094604.90+183541.8, was initially targeted for spectroscopy as a luminous red galaxy, but the SDSS spectrum has the features of both a z = 0.388 galaxy and a z = 4.8 quasar. We have obtained additional imaging that resolves the system into two quasar images separated by 3.''06 and a bright galaxy that is strongly blended with one of the quasar images. We confirm spectroscopically that the two quasar images represent a single-lensed source at z = 4.8 with a total magnification of 3.2, and we derive a model for the lensing galaxy. This is the highest redshift lensed quasar currently known. We examine the issues surrounding the selection of such an unusual object from existing data and briefly discuss implications for lensed quasar surveys.

  11. SDSS-RM: A Multi-Object AGN Reverberation Mapping Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; SDSS-RM Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project is a dedicated multi-object RM program that simultaneously monitors ˜ 850 quasars at 0.1< z <4.5 with imaging and spectroscopy in order to measure RM lags for a homogeneous AGN sample. The combination of multi-year, high-cadence photometric light curves since 2010 (hundreds of epochs) and dedicated SDSS spectroscopy (32 epochs completed in 2014 with more epochs in 2015 and beyond) will enable important studies on the structure of the broad-line region (BLR), RM lags and BH mass measurements, as well as ancillary science such as quasar variability, host galaxy properties, and quasar absorption lines. I will summarize the current status of the program and present some early science results based on the year-1 SDSS-RM data.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Quasar from SDSS and UKIDSS (Wu+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.-B.; Jia, Z.

    2011-02-01

    We cross-identify all quasars in SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) with the UKIDSS DR3, by finding the closest counterparts within 3-arcsec between the positions in two surveys and requesting all detections in both SDSS ugriz and UKIDSS YJHK bands for each quasar. To do the cross-identifications, we use the CrossID form available at the UKIDSS WFCAM Science Archive web site (http://surveys.roe.ac.uk:8080/wsa/crossID_form.jsp/) and use only the data in UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) in order to avoid the misidentifications in the crowded fields with lower Galactic latitudes. This results in a sample of 8498 quasars with both SDSS and UKIDSS data. (1 data file).

  13. Giant cell arteritis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pravin; Karia, Niral; Jain, Shaifali; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis is the most common vasculitis in Caucasians. Acute visual loss in one or both eyes is by far the most feared and irreversible complication of giant cell arteritis. This article reviews recent guidelines on early recognition of systemic, cranial, and ophthalmic manifestations, and current management and diagnostic strategies and advances in imaging. We share our experience of the fast track pathway and imaging in associated disorders, such as large-vessel vasculitis. PMID:28539785

  14. Giants in the Local Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luck, R. Earle; Heiter, Ulrike

    2007-06-01

    We present parameter and abundance data for a sample of 298 nearby giants. The spectroscopic data for this work have a resolution of R~60,000, S/N>150, and spectral coverage from 475 to 685 nm. Overall trends in the Z>10 abundances are dominated by Galactic chemical evolution, while the light-element abundances are influenced by stellar evolution, as well as Galactic evolution. We find several super-Li stars in our sample and confirm that Li abundances in the first giant branch are related to mixing depths. Once astration of lithium on the main sequence along with the overall range of main-sequence lithium abundances are taken into account, the lithium abundances of the giants are not dramatically at odds with the predictions of standard stellar evolution. We find the giants to be carbon-diluted in accord with standard stellar evolution and that the carbon and oxygen abundances determined for the local giants are consistent with those found in local field dwarfs. We find that there is evidence for systematic carbon variations in the red giant clump in the sense that the blue side of the clump is carbon-poor (more diluted) than the red side.

  15. Kuiper Prize: Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2007-10-01

    The study of giant planet atmospheres is near and dear to me, for several reasons. First, the giant planets are photogenic; the colored clouds are great tracers, and one can make fantastic movies of the atmosphere in motion. Second, the giant planets challenge us with storms that last for hundreds of years and winds that blow faster the farther you go from the sun. Third, they remind us of Earth with their hurricanes, auroras, and lightning, but they also are the link to the 200 giant planets that have been discovered around other stars. This talk will cover the past, present, and future (one hopes) of giant planet research. I will review the surprises of the Voyager and Galileo eras, and will discuss what we are learning now from the Cassini orbiter. I will review the prospects for answering the outstanding questions like: Where's the water? What is providing the colors of the clouds? How deep do the features extend? Where do the winds get their energy? What is the role of the magnetic field? Finally, I will briefly discuss how extrasolar giant planets compare with objects in our own solar system.

  16. Heat transfer in GTA welding arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huft, Nathan J.

    Heat transfer characteristics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) arcs with arc currents of 50 to 125 A and arc lengths of 3 to 11 mm were measured experimentally through wet calorimetry. The data collected were used to calculate how much heat reported to the cathode and anode and how much was lost from the arc column. A Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) macro was written to further analyze the data and account for Joule heating within the electrodes and radiation and convection losses from the arc, providing a detailed account of how heat was generated and dissipated within the system. These values were then used to calculate arc efficiencies, arc column voltages, and anode and cathode fall voltages. Trends were noted for variances in the arc column voltage, power dissipated from the arc column, and the total power dissipated by the system with changing arc length. Trends for variances in the anode and cathode fall voltages, total power dissipated, Joule heating within the torches and electrodes with changing arc current were also noted. In addition, the power distribution between the anode and cathode for each combination of arc length and arc current was examined. Keywords: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, GTAW, anode fall, cathode fall, heat transfer, wet calorimetry

  17. Comparing PyMorph and SDSS photometry. I. Background sky and model fitting effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J.-L.; Bernardi, M.; Meert, A.

    2017-01-01

    A number of recent estimates of the total luminosities of galaxies in the SDSS are significantly larger than those reported by the SDSS pipeline. This is because of a combination of three effects: one is simply a matter of defining the scale out to which one integrates the fit when defining the total luminosity, and amounts on average to ≤0.1 mags even for the most luminous galaxies. The other two are less trivial and tend to be larger; they are due to differences in how the background sky is estimated and what model is fit to the surface brightness profile. We show that PyMorph sky estimates are fainter than those of the SDSS DR7 or DR9 pipelines, but are in excellent agreement with the estimates of Blanton et al. (2011). Using the SDSS sky biases luminosities by more than a few tenths of a magnitude for objects with half-light radii ≥7 arcseconds. In the SDSS main galaxy sample these are typically luminous galaxies, so they are not necessarily nearby. This bias becomes worse when allowing the model more freedom to fit the surface brightness profile. When PyMorph sky values are used, then two component Sersic-Exponential fits to E+S0s return more light than single component deVaucouleurs fits (up to ˜0.2 mag), but less light than single Sersic fits (0.1 mag). Finally, we show that PyMorph fits of Meert et al. (2015) to DR7 data remain valid for DR9 images. Our findings show that, especially at large luminosities, these PyMorph estimates should be preferred to the SDSS pipeline values.

  18. Comprehensive assessment of toxic metals in urban and suburban street deposited sediments (SDSs) in the biggest metropolitan area of China.

    PubMed

    Shi, G; Chen, Z; Bi, C; Li, Y; Teng, J; Wang, L; Xu, S

    2010-03-01

    A set of toxic metals, i.e. As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, in urban and suburban SDSs were investigated comparatively in the biggest metropolitan area of China, Shanghai. Results showed that all of the metals except As were accumulated greatly, much higher than background values. Geo-accumulation index indicated that metal contamination in urban SDSs was generally heavier than that in suburban SDSs. Potential ecological risk index demonstrated that overall risks caused by metals were considerable. Cd contributed 52% to the overall risk. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that in urban SDSs, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Cr were related to traffic and industry; coal combustion led to elevated levels of Hg; soil parent materials controlled As contents. In suburban SDSs, Pb, Cu, As and Cd largely originated from traffic pollution; Zn, Ni and Cr were associated with industrial contaminants; Hg was mainly from domestic solid waste.

  19. The Giant Magnetocaloric Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    1998-03-01

    Since the discovery of the magnetocaloric effect in pure iron by E.Warburg in 1881, it has been measured experimentally on many magnetic metals and compounds. The majority of the materials studied order magnetically undergoing a second order phase transformation. The magnetocaloric effect, typically peaking near the Curie or the Néel temperature, generally ranges from 0.5 to 2 K (in terms of adiabatic temperature change) or at 1 to 4 J/kg K (in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change) per 1 T magnetic field change. The giant magnetocaloric effect recently discovered in Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where x <= 0.5, is associated with a first order magnetic phase transition and it reaches values of 3 to 4 K and 6 to 10 J/kg K per 1 T field change, respectively. The refrigerant capacity, which is the measure of how much heat can be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir in one ideal thermodynamic cycle, is larger than that of the best second order phase transition materials by 25 to 100%. When the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys are compared with other known materials, which show first order magnetic phase transition, such as Dy, Ho, Er, HoCo_2, NdMn_2Si_2, Fe_0.49Rh_0.51, and (Hf_0.83Ta_0.17)Fe_2+x, only Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 has comparable magnetocaloric properties. However, the first order magnetic phase transition in Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 is irreversible, and the magnetocaloric effect disappears after one magnetizing/demagnetizing cycle. A study of the crystal structure, thermodynamics, and magnetism of the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where 0 <= x <= 1 allowed us to obtain a qualitative understanding of the basic relations between the composition, the crystal structure, and the change in thermodynamics and magnetocaloric properties, which occur in the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 system, and which brings about the giant magnetocaloric effect when x <= 0.5.

  20. A Study of the SDSS White Dwarf Component in the LSPM Proper Motion Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darveau-Bernier, A.; Bergeron, P.; Lépine, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present a model atmosphere analysis of the white dwarfs identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with proper motions measured in the LSPM proper motion survey of Lépine et al. We rely on reduced proper motion diagrams to build a sample of white dwarfs in the SDSS footprint, and cross correlate this sample with the SDSS spectroscopic database to understand the systematics related to completeness, contamination, WD+M dwarf binaries, reddening, etc. We then determine a white dwarf luminosity function for this sample using various methods.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Predicted LIR for SDSS galaxies (Ellison+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, S. L.; Teimoorinia, H.; Rosario, D. J.; Trevor Mendel, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we will make use of data from three separate spacecraft that collected data in the FIR: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS; Neugebauer et al., 1984ApJ...278L...1N), AKARI (Murakami et al., 2007PASJ...59S.369M) and Herschel (Pilbratt et al., 2010A&A...518L...1P). Based on a sample of 1136 galaxies identified in a cross-match between the SDSS and Herschel Stripe 82 Survey, we have trained an ANN to predict IR luminosities based on 23 input parameters measured from SDSS imaging and spectroscopy. (1 data file).

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hidden population of AM CVns in the SDSS (Carter+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P. J.; Marsh, T. R.; Steeghs, D.; Groot, P. J.; Nelemans, G.; Levitan, D.; Rau, A.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Kupfer, T.; Roelofs, G. H. A.

    2012-11-01

    Catalogue of the 1947 AM CVn binary candidates selected from SDSS Data Release 7 (York+, 2000AJ....120.1579Y; Abazajian+, 2009ApJS..182..543A) based on their photometric colours (Roelofs+, 2009MNRAS.394..367R), together with FUV and NUV magnitudes obtained from a cross-match with GALEX (Martin+, 2005ApJ...619L...1M). Identification spectra of the observed candidates cover wavelength range ~4000-7000Å, and were obtained at various facilities. Spectra are supplied with relative flux calibration or normalised flux. Classifications are based on our spectroscopy, or spectra from subsequent SDSS data releases. (3 data files).

  3. Characterization of Detached Main Sequence Binaries Observed by Kepler, SDSS(APOGEE) and Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, Christina Oleander; Mason, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to finding planets, the Kepler Observatory obtained high precision light curves of eclipsing binaries that have subsequently been observed by SDSS and Gaia. Main sequence eclipsing binaries are important laboratories for stellar astrophysics. The determination of precise temperatures, radii, masses, and orbital parameters constrain evolution theory. We examined 28 main sequence binaries observed using Kepler, SDSS(APOGEE) and Gaia. Combining observed astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic data places strong constraints on stellar and binary characteristics. We compare derived parameters with model calculations of these binaries and present preliminary results.

  4. Dosimetric and delivery characterizations of full-arc and half-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy for maxillary cancer.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hideharu; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Tanooka, Masao; Doi, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Takada, Yasuhiro; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2012-09-01

    We compared the efficiency and accuracy of full-arc and half-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery for maxillary cancer. Plans for gantry rotation angles of 360° and 180° (full-arc and half-arc VMAT) were created for six maxillary cancer cases with the Monaco treatment planning system, and delivered using an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Full-arc and half-arc VMAT were compared with regard to homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), mean dose to normal brain, total monitor units (MU), delivery times, root mean square (r.m.s.) gantry accelerations (°/s(2)), and r.m.s. gantry angle errors (°). The half-arc VMAT plans achieved comparable HI and CI to the full-arc plans. Mean doses to the normal brain and brainstem with the half-arc VMAT plans were on average 16% and 17% lower than those with the full-arc VMAT plans. For other organs at risk (OARs), no significant DVH differences were observed between plans. Half-arc VMAT resulted in 11% less total MU and 20% shorter delivery time than the full-arc VMAT, while r.m.s. gantry acceleration and r.m.s. gantry angle error during half-arc VMAT delivery were 30% and 23% less than those during full-arc VMAT delivery, respectively. Furthermore, the half-arc VMAT plans were comparable with the full-arc plans regarding dose homogeneity and conformity in maxillary cancer, and provided a statistical decrease in mean dose to OAR, total MU, delivery time and gantry angle error. Half-arc VMAT plans may be a suitable treatment option in radiotherapy for maxillary cancer.

  5. Giant necrotic pituitary apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Quigley, Edward P; Chin, Steven S; Couldwell, William T

    2013-10-01

    Apoplexy of the pituitary gland is a rare complication of pituitary adenomas, involving hemorrhage with or without necrosis within the tumor. This condition may be either asymptomatic or may present with severe headache, visual impairment, ophthalmoplegia, and pituitary failure. Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice, and early intervention is usually required to ensure reversal of visual impairment. Reports of pituitary apoplectic lesions exceeding 60.0mm in diameter are very rare. A 39-year-old man with long-standing history of nasal congestion, decreased libido and infertility presented with a sudden onset of severe headache and diplopia. MRI of the head demonstrated a massive skull base lesion of 70.0 × 60.0 × 25.0mm, compatible with a giant pituitary macroadenoma. The lesion failed to enhance after administration of a contrast agent, suggesting complete necrotic apoplexy. Urgent surgical decompression was performed, and the lesion was resected via a transnasal transsphenoidal approach. Pathological analysis revealed evidence of necrotic pituitary apoplexy. At the 2 month follow-up, the patient had near-complete to complete resolution of his visual impairment. To the authors' knowledge, this report is unique as the patient demonstrated complete necrotic apoplexy and it underlines the diagnostic dilemma in such a case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1–2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50–60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion’s pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  7. Giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Ninan, Jem; Lester, Susan; Hill, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common vasculitis of the elderly. The diagnosis can be challenging at times because of the limitation of the American Rheumatology Association (ARA) classification criteria and the significant proportion of biopsy-negative patients with GCA. We discuss the role of advanced imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, in establishing diagnosis and improved histopathology techniques to improve the sensitivity of temporal artery biopsy. There have been significant advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of GCA, particularly the role of cytokine pathways such as the interleukins, IL-6-IL-17 axis, and the IL-12-interferon-γ axis and their implication for new therapies. We highlight that glucocorticoids remain the primary treatment for GCA, but recognize the risk of steroid-induced side effects. A number of pharmacotherapies to enable glucocorticoid dose reduction and prevent relapse have been studied. Early diagnosis and fast-track pathways have improved outcomes by encouraging adherence to evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Warrant, Eric J; Johnsen, Sönke; Hanlon, Roger; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-04-24

    Giant and colossal deep-sea squid (Architeuthis and Mesonychoteuthis) have the largest eyes in the animal kingdom [1, 2], but there is no explanation for why they would need eyes that are nearly three times the diameter of those of any other extant animal. Here we develop a theory for visual detection in pelagic habitats, which predicts that such giant eyes are unlikely to evolve for detecting mates or prey at long distance but are instead uniquely suited for detecting very large predators, such as sperm whales. We also provide photographic documentation of an eyeball of about 27 cm with a 9 cm pupil in a giant squid, and we predict that, below 600 m depth, it would allow detection of sperm whales at distances exceeding 120 m. With this long range of vision, giant squid get an early warning of approaching sperm whales. Because the sonar range of sperm whales exceeds 120 m [3-5], we hypothesize that a well-prepared and powerful evasive response to hunting sperm whales may have driven the evolution of huge dimensions in both eyes and bodies of giant and colossal squid. Our theory also provides insights into the vision of Mesozoic ichthyosaurs with unusually large eyes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clump Giants in the Hyades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Brickhouse, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The project is entitled 'Clump Giants in the Hyades.' This observation of one of the late-type Hyades giants (Gamma Tau) has implications for understanding the formation of late-type stellar coronae as a function of the evolutionary state of the star. The Hyades giants are interesting because they are all clump giants in the Helium burning phase, similar to the cool primary of Capella. The Hyades giants show significantly more magnetic activity than expected from their state of evolution (and slowed-down rotation). Thus these systems provide an important clue to dynamo action. The data were obtained by the satellite on 13 March 2001 for a total RGS exposure of 58220 seconds. These data were delivered to the PI on 7 August 2001. The data could not be reprocessed until SAS Version 5.3.3 which became available 7 June 2002. Although the guidelines for assessing background rates suggested that half the data were contaminated, it does not appear that the spectral region of the RGS was adversely affected by unusually high background. The spectra show strong lines of Fe XVII and XVIII, O VII and VIII, Ne IX and X, along with numerous weaker lines. The emission measure distribution is highly reminiscent of Capella; if anything, the emission measure distribution is steeper at 6 million K than for Capella. Gamma Tau is the second brightest of the Hyades clump giants. Pallavicini et al. have shown that the luminosity of the brightest Hyades giant (Theta Tau) is remarkably similar to its luminosity as measured by Einstein. Short-term variability is also modest. We are addressing the variability issue now for Gamma Tau. Initial results were reported at the 2003 Seattle AAS meeting. A paper is in preparation for submission to the Astrophysical Journal.

  10. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions

  11. Clump Giants in the Hyades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Brickhouse, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The project is entitled 'Clump Giants in the Hyades.' This observation of one of the late-type Hyades giants (Gamma Tau) has implications for understanding the formation of late-type stellar coronae as a function of the evolutionary state of the star. The Hyades giants are interesting because they are all clump giants in the Helium burning phase, similar to the cool primary of Capella. The Hyades giants show significantly more magnetic activity than expected from their state of evolution (and slowed-down rotation). Thus these systems provide an important clue to dynamo action. The data were obtained by the satellite on 13 March 2001 for a total RGS exposure of 58220 seconds. These data were delivered to the PI on 7 August 2001. The data could not be reprocessed until SAS Version 5.3.3 which became available 7 June 2002. Although the guidelines for assessing background rates suggested that half the data were contaminated, it does not appear that the spectral region of the RGS was adversely affected by unusually high background. The spectra show strong lines of Fe XVII and XVIII, O VII and VIII, Ne IX and X, along with numerous weaker lines. The emission measure distribution is highly reminiscent of Capella; if anything, the emission measure distribution is steeper at 6 million K than for Capella. Gamma Tau is the second brightest of the Hyades clump giants. Pallavicini et al. have shown that the luminosity of the brightest Hyades giant (Theta Tau) is remarkably similar to its luminosity as measured by Einstein. Short-term variability is also modest. We are addressing the variability issue now for Gamma Tau. Initial results were reported at the 2003 Seattle AAS meeting. A paper is in preparation for submission to the Astrophysical Journal.

  12. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions

  13. Spectral Investigation and Physical Properties of Markarian Galaxies from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Paronyan, G. M.

    2016-06-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s and continuing through 1978, the first large-area objective-prism survey for galaxies with blue and ultraviolet excess in their continuum radiation was conducted by Markarian, Lipovetskii and Stepanian (published in Lists I-XV). Observations were carried out using primarily a 1.5° objective prism with the 40″/52″ (1.0/1.3 m) Schmidt telescope at Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory. Their setup produced an inverse dispersion of 2500 Å/mm at Hβ (Markarian 1967). The publication of the List XV (Markarian et al. 1981) completed the Markarian Survey (also known as FBS, First Byurakan Survey). We present some average characteristics for 1493 Markarian galaxies derived from SDSS images and spectra and compare them to those of the two groups of the Second Byurakan Survey galaxies, defined using two indicators of activity as observed on objective-prism spectra: the presence of UV excess (860 UVX) in the continuum and the presence of emission lines (813 ELs). The parameters used for the comparison were morphology, redshift, apparent magnitude, absolute magnitude, the ratio of the small and the large semi-axes R (J), and close environment. For UVG the average apparent magnitude is 16.95m, for Mrk it is 15.2m, and for ELG it is 16.7m; the average absolute magnitude is 20.1m for Mrk, 20.73m for UVG, and 20.67m for ELG; the redshift is 0.024 for Mrk, 0.046 for UVG and 0.035 for ELG; the ratio of the small and the large semi-axes R (J) is 0.74 for Mrk and UVG, and 0.67 for ELG. On average, there are more spiral and compact galaxies among Mrk, UVG, and ELG objects. Some 31% of Mrk galaxies, 38% of UVG and 25% of ELG have neighboring galaxies in a circle with a radius of 50 kpc. In the course of the Markarian survey, more than 200 Seyfert galaxies, and hundreds of starburst, blue compact, and HII galaxies were discovered.

  14. Clines Arc through Multivariate Morphospace.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Brian K; Berner, Daniel; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2017-04-01

    Evolutionary biologists typically represent clines as spatial gradients in a univariate character (or a principal-component axis) whose mean changes as a function of location along a transect spanning an environmental gradient or ecotone. This univariate approach may obscure the multivariate nature of phenotypic evolution across a landscape. Clines might instead be plotted as a series of vectors in multidimensional morphospace, connecting sequential geographic sites. We present a model showing that clines may trace nonlinear paths that arc through morphospace rather than elongating along a single major trajectory. Arcing clines arise because different characters diverge at different rates or locations along a geographic transect. We empirically confirm that some clines arc through morphospace, using morphological data from threespine stickleback sampled along eight independent transects from lakes down their respective outlet streams. In all eight clines, successive vectors of lake-stream divergence fluctuate in direction and magnitude in trait space, rather than pointing along a single phenotypic axis. Most clines exhibit surprisingly irregular directions of divergence as one moves downstream, although a few clines exhibit more directional arcs through morphospace. Our results highlight the multivariate complexity of clines that cannot be captured with the traditional graphical framework. We discuss hypotheses regarding the causes, and implications, of such arcing multivariate clines.

  15. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  16. Investigation of arc cloud lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdom, J. F. W.; Sinclair, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    The natural mechanisms that lead to the development of deep convective storms through the integration of radio scan satellite data with research aircraft observations is discussed. The aircraft measurements are designed to provide detailed air motion and thermodynamic data near and in the arc cloud line region at the same time GOES rapid scan data is taken. Inspection of the data indicates: (1) Arc cloud lines are important in both the production of convergence and vorticity, and in the interaction with intense thunderstorms which may act to trigger tornado activity. (2) The lateral extent of the vertical motion field compared to the cloud scale indicates that the main driving force for the initial cloud development along the arc-line is controlled by the thunderstorm outflow(s) interacting with the convectively unstable air of the environment. (3) Arc cloud lines and their associated DSL region can pose extreme hazards to aircraft operations. (4) An arc cloud line's major threat to space shuttle operations lie in its ability to generate new thunderstorm activity along the shuttle glide path.

  17. Open questions about giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of giant viruses exhibiting double-stranded DNA genomes larger than a million base pairs, encoding more than a thousand proteins and packed in near micron-sized icosahedral particles, opened a new and unexpected chapter in virology. As of today, these giant viruses and their closest relatives of lesser dimensions infect unicellular eukaryotes found in aquatic environments, but belonging to a wide diversity of early branching phyla. This broad phylogenetic distribution of hosts is consistent with the hypothesis that giant viruses originated prior to the radiation of the eukaryotic domain and/or might have been involved in the partition of nuclear versus cytoplasmic functions in ancestral cells. The distinctive features of the known giant viruses, in particular the recurrent presence of components of the translation apparatus in their proteome, raise a number of fundamental questions about their origin, their mode of evolution, and the relationship they may entertain with other dsDNA viruses, the genome size of which exhibits the widest distribution among all biological entities, from less than 5 kb to more than 1.25 Mb (a ratio of 1:250). At a more conceptual level, the convergence between the discovery of increasingly reduced parasitic cellular organisms and that of giant viruses exhibiting a widening array of cellular-like functions may ultimately abolish the historical discontinuity between the viral and the cellular world. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  18. Gravitational scattering by giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, T.; Rantala, J.; Kaasalainen, M.

    2006-09-01

    We seek to characterize giant-planet systems by their gravitational scattering properties. We do this to a given system by integrating it numerically along with a large number of hypothetical small bodies that are initially in eccentric habitable zone (HZ)-crossing orbits. Our analysis produces a single number, the escape rate, which represents the rate at which the small-body flux is perturbed away by the giant planets into orbits that no longer pose a threat to terrestrial planets inside the HZ. Obtaining the escape rate this way is similar to computing the largest Liapunov exponent as the exponential rate of divergence of two nearby orbits. For a terrestrial planet inside the HZ, the escape rate value quantifies the "protective" effect that the studied giant-planet system offers. Therefore, escape rates could provide information on whether certain giant-planet configurations produce a more desirable environment for life than the others. We present some computed escape rates on selected planetary systems, focusing on effects of varying the masses and semi-major axes of the giant planets. In the case of our Solar System we find rather surprisingly that Jupiter, in its current orbit, may provide a minimal amount of protection to the Earth.

  19. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  20. Rotation of Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  1. Welding arc length control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a welding arc length control system. The system includes, in its broadest aspects, a power source for providing welding current, a power amplification system, a motorized welding torch assembly connected to the power amplification system, a computer, and current pick up means. The computer is connected to the power amplification system for storing and processing arc weld current parameters and non-linear voltage-ampere characteristics. The current pick up means is connected to the power source and to the welding torch assembly for providing weld current data to the computer. Thus, the desired arc length is maintained as the welding current is varied during operation, maintaining consistent weld penetration.

  2. ASAS-SN Discovery of A Probable Supernova in SDSS J093916.69+062551.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Brimacombe, J.; Kiyota, S.; Dong, Subo; Stanek, K. Z.; Davis, A. B.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Simonian, G.; Basu, U.; Goss, N.; Beacom, J. F.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Wozniak, P. R.; Szczygiel, D.; Pojmanski, G.; Conseil, E.; Fernandez, J. M.; Koff, R. A.; Nicholls, B.

    2015-01-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy SDSS J093916.69+062551.1.

  3. Exploring the SDSS Data Set with Linked Scatter Plots. I. EMP, CEMP, and CV Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Henze, Christopher; Nelson, Bron C.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a search for extremely metal-poor (EMP), carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP), and cataclysmic variable (CV) stars using a new exploration tool based on linked scatter plots (LSPs). Our approach is especially designed to work with very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, LAMOST, RAVE, and Gaia data sets, and it can be applied to stellar, galaxy, and quasar spectra. As a demonstration, we conduct our search using the SDSS DR10 data set. We first created a 3326-dimensional phase space containing nearly 2 billion measures of the strengths of over 1600 spectral features in 569,738 SDSS stars. These measures capture essentially all the stellar atomic and molecular species visible at the resolution of SDSS spectra. We show how LSPs can be used to quickly isolate and examine interesting portions of this phase space. To illustrate, we use LSPs coupled with cuts in selected portions of phase space to extract EMP stars, CEMP stars, and CV stars. We present identifications for 59 previously unrecognized candidate EMP stars and 11 previously unrecognized candidate CEMP stars. We also call attention to 2 candidate He ii emission CV stars found by the LSP approach that have not yet been discussed in the literature.

  4. Exploring the SDSS Dataset with Linked Scatter Plots: I. EMP, CEMP, and CV Stars.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Duane F; Henze, Christopher; Nelson, Bron C

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a search for EMP, CEMP, and cataclysmic variable stars using a new exploration tool based on linked scatter plots (LSPs). Our approach is especially designed to work with very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, LAMOST, RAVE, and Gaia data sets and can be applied to stellar, galaxy, and quasar spectra. As a demonstration, we conduct a search for EMP, CEMP, and cataclysmic variable stars in the SDSS DR10 data set. We first created a 3326-dimensional phase space containing nearly 2 billion measures of the strengths of over 1600 spectral features in 569,738 SDSS stars. These measures capture essentially all the stellar atomic and molecular species visible at the resolution of SDSS spectra. We show how LSPs can be used to quickly isolate and examine interesting portions of this phase space. To illustrate, we use LSPs coupled with cuts in selected portions of phase space to extract EMP stars, C-rich EMP stars, and CV stars. We present identifications for 59 previously unrecognized candidate EMP stars and 11 previously unrecognized candidate CEMP stars. We also call attention to 2 candidate He II emission CV stars found by the LSP approach that have not yet been discussed in the literature.

  5. Application Of Metric Space Technique (mst) In 2-d And 3-d To Sdss Dr5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongfeng; Batuski, D. J.; Khalil, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Metric Space Technique (MST) is a 2-D analysis method using multiple measures for quantitative analysis of any type of structure in an `image'. All potential values of the measures for such distributions are thus coordinates in a multi-parameter space, and the analysis is based on considering a sample's measures (called `output functions'), and their distance from the origin, which corresponds to the measures of the observed SDSS sample, in this multi-parameter space. Applications of this method to thin (approximately 2-D) slices of SDSS DR5 have yielded a detailed comparison of numerical models (Berlind et al. 2006, Croton et al. 2005) against the SDSS galaxy 2-D distribution structure in multi-parameter space. We present those results, including discussion of the effects of transforming from physical space to redshift space on the statistics at different scales. We also extended this 2-D method into 3-D, and we present comparisons of the SDSS galaxy 3-D distribution versus the same numerical simulations.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Compact early-type galaxies in SDSS (Saulder+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulder, C.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; Mieske, S.

    2015-11-01

    As the baseline sample of our search for b19 analogues, we made broad use of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys (SDSS) and especially of its tenth (Ahn et al., 2014ApJS..211...17A) and seventh (Abazajian et al., 2009ApJS..182..543A) data releases (DR10 and DR7). Furthermore, we used GalaxyZoo (Lintott et al., 2008MNRAS.389.1179L, 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/410/166) for our galaxy classifications, the refits of SDSS DR7 using Sersic profiles done by Simard et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/196/11), and the stellar masses from Mendel et al. (2014, Cat. J/ApJS/210/3), which is itself based on the previous work of Simard et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/196/11). For comparison, we also used the list of 63 compact massive galaxies from Taylor et al. (2010, Cat. J/ApJ/720/723), which is based on SDSS DR7 as well as a list of 29 compact massive galaxies from Trujillo et al. (2009ApJ...692L.118T), which is based on the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog (Blanton et al., 2005AJ....129.2562B) and covers a sub-sample of SDSS. (9 data files).

  7. PTSS: Discovery of a Probable Supernova in SDSS J150350.43+482250.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zesheng; Li, Bin; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Baibin; Wang, Lifang

    2016-03-01

    During the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS), using the 1.04-m schmidt telescope at Xuyi, China, we discovered a supernova candidate in the galaxy SDSS J150350.43+482250.7 (with a redshift of 0.026).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS magnetic white dwarf stars (Kepler+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, I.; Jordan, S.; Kleinman, S. J.; Koester, D.; Kulebi, B.; Pecanha, V.; Castanheira, B. G.; Nitta, A.; Costa, J. E. S.; Winget, D. E.; Kanaan, A.; Fraga, L.

    2017-07-01

    We classified more than 48000 spectra, selected as possible white dwarf stars from the SDSS DR7 by their colours, through visual inspection and detected Zeeman splittings in 521 DA stars. Table 1 shows the estimated values for the magnetic fields for the 521 spectra we measured. (1 data file).

  9. ASASSN-17du: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in SDSS J163319.94+234356.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Masi, G.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.

    2017-03-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy SDSS J163319.94+234356.4.

  10. SDSS J102111.02+491330.4: A Newly discovered gravitationally lensed quasar

    SciTech Connect

    Pindor, Bart; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gregg, Michael D.; Becker, Robert H.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Hall, Patrick B.; Johnston, David E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Turner, Edwin L.; Brasi, Guido; Hinz, Philip M.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Miller, Doug; Barentine, J.C.; Brewington, Howard J.; Brinkmann, J.; Harvanek, Michael; Kleinman, S.J.; Krzesinski, Jurek; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Davis /LLNL, Livermore /Tokyo U., Inst. Astron. /Tokyo U. /Princeton U. Observ. /York U., Canada /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Apache Point Observ. /Mt. Suhora Observ., Cracow /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2005-09-01

    We report follow-up observations of two gravitational lens candidates identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) dataset. We have confirmed that SDSS J102111.02+491330.4 is a previously unknown gravitationally lensed quasar. This lens system exhibits two images of a z = 1.72 quasar, with an image separation of 1.14'' {+-} 0.04''. Optical and near-IR imaging of the system reveals the presence of the lensing galaxy between the two quasar images. Observations of SDSS J112012.12+671116.0 indicate that it is more likely a binary quasar than a gravitational lens. This system has two quasars at a redshift of z = 1.49, with an angular separation of 1.49'' {+-} 0.02''. However, the two quasars have markedly different SEDs and no lens galaxy is apparent in optical and near-IR images of this system. We also present a list of 31 SDSS lens candidates which follow-up observations have confirmed are not gravitational lenses.

  11. Concurrent and predictive validity of the Substance Dependence Severity Scale (SDSS).

    PubMed

    Miele, G M; Carpenter, K M; Smith Cockerham, M; Dietz Trautman, K; Blaine, J; Hasin, D S

    2000-04-01

    This study investigated the concurrent and predictive validity of the Substance Dependence Severity Scale (SDSS), a clinician-administered interview designed to assess the severity and frequency of DSM-IV dependence symptoms for a range of substances. A total of 172 (107 males and 66 females) treated substance users participated in the study. Of those, 89% (n=153) received at least one follow-up interview within 1-6 months of an initial assessment. For alcohol, cocaine and heroin, convergent and discriminant validity was supported by significant relationships between SDSS scores at baseline and other baseline measures of substance use consequences, such as the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), as well as significant relationships between SDSS change scores from baseline to follow-up and change scores of other measures of consequences. SDSS scores were significantly associated with time to first post treatment use of alcohol, cocaine and heroin, although the nature of the associations was complex. Scale applications and areas for further study are discussed.

  12. Discovery of a New Quasar: SDSS J022155.26-064916.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jacob; Smith, J. Allyn; Tucker, Douglas Lee; Lin, Huan; Gulledge, Deborah Jean; Fix, Mees B.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new quasar: SDSS J022155.26-064916.6. The object was selected as a white dwarf candidate for a sample of spectrophotometric standards for the Dark Energy Survey. It was imaged by SDSS and classified as a star with a cosmic ray hit, but the quasar was not selected as a spectroscopic target for SDSS-III. WISE data place the object in the QSO/Seyfert range; however, no spectroscopic confirmation of the object as a quasar previously existed. In the investigation of this object as a potential white dwarf, the object was identified by its spectrum to be a quasar. The spectrum is presented with MgII, OII, Hb, and OIII identified, and the average redshift is determined to be z ≈ 0.799 ± 0.0086. The luminosity distance is DL = 5074.7 Mpc. The Spectral Energy Distribution and a comparison with objects from the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog are also presented.

  13. ASASSN-16gn: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in SDSS J120657.56+271806.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koff, R. A.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.; Brimacombe, J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Basu, U.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Chen, Ping; Bock, G.; Fernandez, J. M.; Masi, G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Wiethoff, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy SDSS J120657.56+271806.0.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Robust detection of CID double stars in SDSS (Pourbaix+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbaix, D.; Knapp, G. R.; Gunn, J. E.; Lupton, R. H.; Ivezic, Z.; Siopis, C.; Rigaux, M.; Rubens, A.

    2016-05-01

    Whereas the possibility of detecting CID double stars with SDSS has been known for more than a decade, the absence of repeated observation (in particular of CID candidates) has prevented the validation of the technique, despite its easy setup. We have shown here that some CID are confirmed by at least a second observation. (2 data files).

  15. Spectroscopic classification of CSS150213:100134+453359 in SDSS J100134.51+453339.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Benetti, Stefano; Dennefeld, Michel; De Cicco, Demetra; Sowicka, Paulina; Ordovas-Pascual, Ignacio; Lam, Marco Cheuk-Yin

    2015-02-01

    We report the spectroscopic observation of CSS150213:100134+453359 in SDSS J100134.51+453339.9. The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm), equipped with the CCD Andor IKON L936.

  16. Galaxies on Top of Quasars: Probing Dwarf Galaxies in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Lorrie; York, D. G.; Noterdaeme, P.; Srianand, R.; Bowen, D. V.; Khare, P.; Bishof, M.; Whichard, Z.; Kulkarni, V. P.

    2013-07-01

    Absorption lines from galaxies at intervening redshifts in quasar spectra are sensitive probes of metals and gas that are otherwise invisible due to distance or low surface brightness. However, in order to determine the environments these absorption lines arise in, we must detect these galaxies in emission as well. Galaxies on top of quasars (GOTOQs) are low-z galaxies found intervening with background quasars in the SDSS. These galaxies have been flagged for their narrow galactic emission lines present in quasar spectra in the SDSS. Typically, the low-z nature of these galaxies allows them to be easily detected in SDSS imaging. However, a number of GOTOQs (about 10%), despite being detected in spectral emission, are NOT seen in SDSS imaging. This implies that these may be dark galaxies, dwarf galaxies, or similarly low surface brightness galaxies. Additionally, about 25% of those detected in imaging are dwarf galaxies according to their L* values. Dwarf galaxies have long been underrepresented in observations compared to theory and are known to have large extents in dark matter. Given their prevalence here in our sample we must ask what role they play in quasar absorption line systems (QSOALS). Recent detections of 21-cm galaxies with few stars imply that aborted star formation in dark matter sub halos may produce QSOALS. Thus, this sub sample of galaxies offers a unique technique for probing dark and dwarf galaxies. The sample and its properties will be discussed, including star formation rates and dust estimates, as well as prospects for the future.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS-RM project: velocity dispersions of QSOs (Shen+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Greene, J. E.; Ho, L. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Denney, K. D.; Horne, K.; Jiang, L.; Kochanek, C. S.; McGreer, I. D.; Merloni, A.; Peterson, B. M.; Petitjean, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Schulze, A.; Strauss, M. A.; Tao, C.; Trump, J. R.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.

    2015-09-01

    The spectra were taken as part of the SDSS-III BOSS survey (Eisenstein et al. 2011AJ....142...72E; Dawson et al. 2013AJ....145...10D) from 2014 January to July. The wavelength coverage of BOSS spectroscopy is 3650-10400Å, with a spectral resolution of R~2000. (2 data files).

  18. Erratum: Spectroscopic identification of type 2 quasars at z < 1 in SDSS-III/BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sihan; Strauss, Michael A.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2017-06-01

    The paper 'Spectroscopic Identification of Type 2 Quasars at z < 1 in SDSS-III/BOSS' was published in MNRAS, 462, 1603-1615 (2016). The data files in the supporting section are not successfully linked. The actual data files can be found at http://zakamska.johnshopkins.edu/data.htm.

  19. ASASSN-17cr: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in SDSS J162349.91+150448.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, S.; Post, R. S.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Brimacombe, J.; Cacella, P.; Fernandez, J. M.; Marples, P.

    2017-02-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy SDSS J162349.91+150448.3.

  20. Does a Differentiated, Carbonate-rich, Rocky Object Pollute the White Dwarf SDSS J104341.53+085558.2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Carl; Dufour, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the dust- and gas-enshrouded, polluted, single white dwarf star SDSS J104341.53+085558.2 (hereafter SDSS J1043+0855). Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet spectra combined with deep Keck HIRES optical spectroscopy reveal the elements C, O, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Fe, and Ni and enable useful limits for Sc, Ti, V, Cr, and Mn in the photosphere of SDSS J1043+0855. From this suite of elements we determine that the parent body being accreted by SDSS J1043+0855 is similar to the silicate Moon or the outer layers of Earth in that it is rocky and iron-poor. Combining this with comparison to other heavily polluted white dwarf stars, we are able to identify the material being accreted by SDSS J1043+0855 as likely to have come from the outermost layers of a differentiated object. Furthermore, we present evidence that some polluted white dwarfs (including SDSS J1043+0855) allow us to examine the structure of differentiated extrasolar rocky bodies. Enhanced levels of carbon in the body polluting SDSS J1043+0855 relative to the Earth–Moon system can be explained with a model where a significant amount of the accreted rocky minerals took the form of carbonates; specifically, through this model the accreted material could be up to 9% calcium-carbonate by mass.

  1. A Hot White Dwarf SDSS J134430.11+032423.1 with a Planetary Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lifang; Zhang, Fenghui; Kong, Xiaoyang; Han, Quanwang; Li, Jiansha

    2017-02-01

    We discovered a debris disk around hot white dwarf (WD) SDSS J134430.11+032423.1 (SDSS J1344+0324). The effective temperature [{T}{eff} = 26,071(±163) K], surface gravity [{log}g=7.88(2)], and mass [M=0.58(1) {M}ȯ ] of this WD have been redetermined based on the analysis of its SDSS spectrum. We found that SDSS J1344+0324 is currently the hottest WD with a debris disk. Two spectra observed by SDSS at different times show that this object is similar to SDSS J1228+1040 with variable near-IR Ca ii triplet emissions from a gaseous disk. The parameters of the debris disk are derived from the IR excess analysis of SDSS J1344+0324. We found that the disk is the coolest of all debris disks around WDs, and that the inner and outer radii are very close to the tide radius of the WD. Thus, the debris disk is very narrow (about 0.22 {R}ȯ ). This implies that it might be a newly formed disk resulting from the tidal disruption of a rocky planetary body that has just entered the tide volume of the WD. This might provide strong observational evidence for the formation of debris disks around WDs.

  2. Spectroscopy of supernova host galaxies from the SDSS-II SN survey with the SDSS and BOSS spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmstead, Matthew Dwaune

    Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) have been used as standard candles to measure cosmological distances. The initial discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe was performed using ~50 SNe Ia. Large SNe surveys have increased the number of spectroscopically-confirmed SNe Ia to over a thousand with redshift coverage beyond z = 1. We are now in the age of abundant photometry without the ability for full follow-up spectroscopy of all SN candidates. SN cosmology using these large samples will increasingly rely on robust photometric classification of SN candidates. Photometric classification will increase the sample by including faint SNe as these are preferentially not observed with follow-up spectroscopy. The primary concern with using photometrically classified SNe Ia in cosmology is when a core-collapse SNe is incorrectly classified as an SN Ia. This can be mitigated by obtaining the host galaxy redshift of each SN candidate and using this information as a prior in the photometric classification, removing one degree of freedom. To test the impact of redshift on photometric classification, I have performed an assessment on photometric classification of candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) SN Survey. I have tested the classification with and without redshift priors by looking at the change of photometric classification, the effect of data quality on photometric classification, and the effect of SN light curve properties on photometric classification. Following our suggested classification scheme, there are a total of 1038 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1002 SNe~Ia with the spectroscopic redshift. For 912 (91.0%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Finally, I investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. When using the SALT2

  3. Another Explanation for Neptune's Ring Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namouni, F.; Porco, C.

    2001-11-01

    Recent HST and Earth-based observations (Dumas et al 1999, Nature 400, 733; Sicardy et al 1999, Nature 400, 731) indicate that Neptune's ring arcs are not located at the corotation resonance with Galatea thought to be responsible for the azimuthal confinement of the arc system (Porco, 1991 Science 253, 995). Although small (5x 10-3od-1), the new observed mean motion offset puts the arcs near the resonance separatrix where the particles' semimajor axes would experience chaotic motion leading to the azimuthal spreading of the arcs within months, thereby calling into question their very existence. We have found a new resonant structure, dependent on the arcs having a small fraction of the mass of Galatea, in which Galatea's 43:42 eccentric corotation resonance, located (in the massless case) ~ 3 km inside the arcs' orbit, is made coincident with the arcs' semimajor axis. The arcs are primarily confined by this resonance, which is stronger ( e Galatea) than the inclined corotation resonance ( I2 Galatea) invoked in the Porco model. Moreover, the coupling of all the resonances in the arcs' neighborhood (eccentric corotation, inclined corotation and Lindblad resonances) modifies the interaction potential, creating smaller structures at the arcs' location. Consequently, this new confinement mechanism can simultaneously explain the arcs' confinement, the general spacing of the arcs, the Fraternité arc length of ~ 10o, and smaller-scale features seen in the arc system. Finally, the possibility of non-massless arcs supports an earlier suggestion by Porco et al (1991, in Neptune and Triton, the University of Arizona Series) that the rapid expected radial migration of the arc system, due to Galatea's secular torques, can be slowed down if the arcs have substantial mass.

  4. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  5. Thermal efficiency of arc welding processes

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1995-12-01

    A study was conducted on the arc and melting efficiency of the plasma arc, gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, and submerged arc welding processes. The results of this work are extended to develop a quantitative method for estimating weld metal dilution in a companion paper. Arc efficiency was determined as a function of current for each process using A36 steel base metal. Melting efficiency was evaluated with variations in arc power and travel speed during deposition of austenitic stainless steel filler metal onto A36 steel substrates. The arc efficiency did not vary significantly within a given process over the range of currents investigated. A semi-empirical relation was developed for the melting efficiency as a function of net arc power and travel speed, which described the experimental data well. An interaction was observed between the arc and melting efficiency. A low arc efficiency factor limits the power delivered to the substrate which, in turn, limits the maximum travel speed for a given set of conditions. High melting efficiency is favored by high arc powers and travel speeds. As a result, a low arc efficiency can limit the maximum obtainable melting efficiency.

  6. Submerged Arc Welding of Titanium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-30

    AD-AOB5 400 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF MATERIA -ETC F/G 11/6 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING OF TITANIUM.(U) UCSEP 18 G HUNTER, 6 B KENNEY, M...3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMW-- TITLE (and Subtitle) n or QnQMED Submerged Arc Welding of Tianu Technal epor o. 9? ji’ G./ Huntert’G. KenneybM Ring...nuinbor) Welding , Titanium, Fluxes, Oxygen, Nitrogen ASS40qAfC ,,(AA.K 20. A9 AT(Continue an revereet side It necessay and Identify by block numabor) 0

  7. Auroral arcs and ion outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiolo, Romain

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides an overwiew of the chapter "Auroral Arcs and Ion Outflow" from the AGU book "Auroral Dynamics and Space Weather" (eds Y. Zhang and L. J. Paxton). This topic covers a wide range of domains, from auroral acceleration processes, auroral arc morphology and dynamics to global magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and atmospheric erosion. This presentation mainly focuses on the observational properties of auroral ion outflow. Recent observations about their large-scale spatial distribution and link with auroral forms will be presented. Auroral ion outflow statistical dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity and its modulation by auroral dynamics at the timescale of substorms will also be discussed.

  8. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Brightest Type 2 AGN in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckman, Timothy; Armus, Lee; Martins, Lucimara; Tremonti, Christy

    2006-05-01

    We propose to use the IRS on Spitzer to observe a complete and well-defined sample of the 20 brightest Type 2 (obscured) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). They are selected from a sample of over 100,000 SDSS AGN on the basis of the flux in the [OIII]5007 emission-line. The full SDSS sample has been used to study the properties of local AGN and their host galaxies with unmatched statistical precision. The results imply that there is on-going co-evolution of black holes and galaxy bulges in the present universe (albeit at lower mass scales than in the past). Given the sensitivity of optical observations to even modest amounts of dust extinction, it is imperative to determine whether mid-IR and optical observations of these objects are consistent. The general goal of the proposal is to produce a set of high-quality mid-IR spectra for a complete sample of the brightest SDSS Type 2 AGN. The specific goals are: 1) To compare measurements of the AGN luminosity derived from the high-ionization mid-IR emission-lines to those derived from similar optical emission-lines. 2) To compare estimates of the relative energetic significance of black hole accretion and star formation in AGN host galaxies derived from optical data to those derived from mid-IR spectroscopy. These two goals address the following two questions: 1) How well can the luminosity of Type 2 SDSS AGN be estimated from optical spectra alone? 2) Can the coupled growth of black holes and galaxy bulges in the low-z universe be adequately quantified from optical data alone? Using the IRS to observe a complete sub-set of the 100,000 Type 2 SDSS AGN is essential to understand the degree to which the SDSS data provide a fair picture of the low-redshift AGN phenomenon. These data will beautifully complement existing IRS surveys of IR-selected AGN.

  9. Strong chromatic microlensing in HE0047–1756 and SDSS1155+6346

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, K.; Motta, V.; Mediavilla, E.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Muñoz, J. A. E-mail: veronica.motta@uv.cl E-mail: falco@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jmunoz@uv.es

    2014-12-10

    We use spectra of the double-lensed quasars HE0047–1756 and SDSS1155+6346 to study their unresolved structure through the impact of microlensing. There is no significant evidence of microlensing in the emission line profiles except for the Lyα line of SDSS1155+6346, which shows strong differences in the shapes for images A and B. However, the continuum of the B image spectrum in SDSS1155+6346 is strongly contaminated by the lens galaxy, and these differences should be considered with caution. Using the flux ratios of the emission lines for image pairs as a baseline to remove macro-magnification and extinction, we have detected strong chromatic microlensing in the continuum measured by CASTLES (www.cfa.harvard.edu/castles/) in both lens systems, with amplitudes 0.09(λ16000) ≲ |Δm| ≲ 0.8(λ5439) for HE0047–1756, and 0.2(λ16000) ≲ |Δm| ≲ 0.8(λ5439) for SDSS1155+6346. Using magnification maps to simulate microlensing and modeling the accretion disk as a Gaussian source (I ∝ exp(–R {sup 2}/2r {sub s}{sup 2})) of size r {sub s} ∝ λ {sup p}, we find r {sub s} = 2.5{sub −1.4}{sup +3.0} √(M/0.3M{sub ⊙}) lt-day and p = 2.3 ± 0.8 at the rest frame for λ = 2045 for HE0047–1756 (log prior) and r {sub s} = 5.5{sub −3.3}{sup +8.2} √(M/0.3M{sub ⊙}) lt-day and p = 1.5 ± 0.6 at the rest frame of λ = 1398 for SDSS1155+6346 (log prior). Contrary to other studied lens systems, the chromaticity detected in HE0047–1756 and SDSS1155+6346 is large enough to fulfill the thin disk prediction. The inferred sizes, however, are very large compared to the predictions of this model, especially in the case of SDSS1155+6346.

  10. Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trial Journal Articles Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis May 2016 Questions and Answers about Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis This publication contains general information about polymyalgia ...

  11. Giant cell tumour of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, S W; Recla, M; Campolongo, F; Bortot, G; Bauer, M; Peterlongo, P

    1996-01-01

    The authors report a case of giant cell tumour of the mandibular condyle, which is a rare finding. This tumour, studied using the main three radiological modalities (plain radiography, CT and MRI) showed characteristic radiological features of "giant cell tumour".

  12. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Plasma Arc Cutting. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    This welding curriculum guide treats two topics in detail: the care of tungsten electrodes and the entire concept of contamination control and the hafnium electrode and its importance in dual-air cutting systems that use compressed shop air for plasma arc cutting activities. The guide contains three units of instruction that cover the following…

  13. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Plasma Arc Cutting. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    This welding curriculum guide treats two topics in detail: the care of tungsten electrodes and the entire concept of contamination control and the hafnium electrode and its importance in dual-air cutting systems that use compressed shop air for plasma arc cutting activities. The guide contains three units of instruction that cover the following…

  14. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution.

    PubMed

    Givnish, Thomas J

    2010-01-14

    Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  15. Structure of giant muscle proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Logan C.; Wright, Nathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Giant muscle proteins (e.g., titin, nebulin, and obscurin) play a seminal role in muscle elasticity, stretch response, and sarcomeric organization. Each giant protein consists of multiple tandem structural domains, usually arranged in a modular fashion spanning 500 kDa to 4 MDa. Although many of the domains are similar in structure, subtle differences create a unique function of each domain. Recent high and low resolution structural and dynamic studies now suggest more nuanced overall protein structures than previously realized. These findings show that atomic structure, interactions between tandem domains, and intrasarcomeric environment all influence the shape, motion, and therefore function of giant proteins. In this article we will review the current understanding of titin, obscurin, and nebulin structure, from the atomic level through the molecular level. PMID:24376425

  16. CMB lensing and giant rings

    SciTech Connect

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  17. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution. PMID:20074322

  18. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J.; Seager, S.; Barman, T.

    The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum - and hence its detectability and evolution - lies with its atmosphere. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are in hand, atmosphere models can be used to constrain atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important physical processes that influence the atmospheric structure and evolution of EGPs and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and atmospheric chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a single stellar system leads to the study of comparative planetary architectures.

  19. Total Marrow Irradiation With RapidArc Volumetric Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogan, Bulent; Yeginer, Mete; Kavak, Gulbin O.; Fan, John; Radosevich, James A.; Gwe-Ya, Kim

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To develop a volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-total marrow irradiation (TMI) technique for patients with hematologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: VMAT planning was performed for 6 patients using RapidArc technology. The planning target volume consisted of all the bones in the body from the head to the mid-femur, excluding the extremities, except for the humerus, plus a 3.0-mm margin. The organs at risk included the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, bowels, brain, eyes, and oral cavity. The VMAT-TMI technique consisted of three plans: the head and neck, the chest, and the pelvis, each with three 330{sup o} arcs. The plans were prescribed to ensure, at a minimum, 95% planning target volume dose coverage with the prescription dose (percentage of volume receiving dose of {>=}12 Gy was 95%). The treatments were delivered and verified using MapCheck and ion chamber measurements. Results: The VMAT-TMI technique reported in the present study provided comparable dose distributions with respect to the fixed gantry linear accelerator intensity-modulated TMI. RapidArc planning was less subjective and easier, and, most importantly, the delivery was more efficient. RapidArc reduced the treatment delivery time to approximately 18 min from 45 min with the fixed gantry linear accelerator intensity-modulated TMI. When the prescription dose coverage was reduced to 85% from 95% and the mandible and maxillary structures were not included in the planning target volume as reported in a tomotherapy study, a considerable organ at risk dose reduction of 4.2-51% was observed. The average median dose for the lungs and lenses was reduced to 5.6 Gy from 7.2 Gy and 2.4 Gy from 4.5 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The RapidArc VMAT technique improved the treatment planning, dose conformality, and, most importantly, treatment delivery efficiency. The results from our study suggest that the RapidArc VMAT technology can be expected to facilitate the clinical transition of TMI.

  20. SDSS J122958.84+000138.0: A compact, optically red galaxy★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Lisker, Thorsten; Huxor, Avon P.; Ree, Chang H.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new compact galaxy, SDSS J122958.84+138.0 (SDSS J1229+0001), which has unique morphological and stellar population properties that are rare in observations of the nearby Universe. SDSS J1229+0001 has an r-band absolute magnitude (Mr) and half-light radius (Rh) of -17.75 mag and 520 pc, respectively. Located in a fairly low-density environment, morphologically it is akin to a typical early-type galaxy as it has a smooth appearance and red colour. However, interestingly, it possesses centrally concentrated star-forming activity with a significant amount of dust. We present an analysis of its structural and stellar population properties using archival images and VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy. An analysis of the UKIDSS H-band image shows that the observed light distribution is better fitted with a two-component Sérsic function with inner and outer component effective radii of 190 and 330 pc, respectively. The overall half-light radius measured in the H band is much smaller compared to optical, i.e. 290 pc. We prepared a spectral energy distribution from optical to far-infrared and interpret it to derive the star-formation rate, dust mass and stellar mass. We find that SDSS J1229+0001 has dust mass Mdust = 5.1 × 105 M⊙ with a dust-to-stellar mass ratio log (Mdust/M*) = -3.5. While the observed stellar population properties are - to some extent - like those of a typical S0 galaxy, a unified view from stellar population and structural properties may suggest that SDSS J1229+0001 is a smoking gun example of a compact early-type galaxy in formation.

  1. THE SWIFT AGN AND CLUSTER SURVEY. II. CLUSTER CONFIRMATION WITH SDSS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Bregman, Joel N. E-mail: xdai@ou.edu E-mail: jbregman@umich.edu

    2016-01-15

    We study 203 (of 442) Swift AGN and Cluster Survey extended X-ray sources located in the SDSS DR8 footprint to search for galaxy over-densities in three-dimensional space using SDSS galaxy photometric redshifts and positions near the Swift cluster candidates. We find 104 Swift clusters with a >3σ galaxy over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmation as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, and X-ray luminosity. We also detect red sequences in ∼85% of the 104 confirmed clusters. The X-ray luminosity and optical richness for the SDSS confirmed Swift clusters are correlated and follow previously established relations. The distribution of the separations between the X-ray centroids and the most likely BCG is also consistent with expectation. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≲ 0.3 and is still 80% complete up to z ≃ 0.4, consistent with the SDSS survey depth. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further study of cluster evolution and cosmology. We also match our SDSS confirmed Swift clusters to existing cluster catalogs, and find 42, 23, and 1 matches in optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich catalogs, respectively, and so the majority of these clusters are new detections.

  2. Host galaxy spectra and consequences for supernova typing from the SDSS SN survey

    SciTech Connect

    Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Sako, Masao; Gupta, Ravi R.; Bassett, Bruce; Kunz, Martin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, J.; Brewington, Howard; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Campbell, Heather; D'Andrea, Chris B.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, Lluís; Garnavich, Peter; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W.; and others

    2014-04-01

    We present the spectroscopy from 5254 galaxies that hosted supernovae (SNe) or other transient events in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II). Obtained during SDSS-I, SDSS-II, and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, this sample represents the largest systematic, unbiased, magnitude limited spectroscopic survey of SN host galaxies. Using the host galaxy redshifts, we test the impact of photometric SN classification based on SDSS imaging data with and without using spectroscopic redshifts of the host galaxies. Following our suggested scheme, there are a total of 1166 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1126 SNe Ia when the host spectroscopic redshift is assumed. For 1024 (87.8%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, we find that the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Using photometry from SDSS imaging data and the host galaxy spectra, we also report host galaxy properties for use in future analysis of SN astrophysics. Finally, we investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. Without host galaxy redshifts, we find that SALT2 light curve fits are systematically biased toward lower photometric redshift estimates and redder colors in the limit of low signal-to-noise data. The general improvements in performance of the light curve fitter and the increased diversity of the host galaxy sample highlights the importance of host galaxy spectroscopy for current photometric SN surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  3. Host Galaxy Spectra and Consequences for SN Typing from the SDSS SN Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brown, Peter J.; Sako, Masao; Bassett, Bruce; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brewington, Howard; Campbell, Heather; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, Lluís; Garnavich, Peter; Gupta, Ravi R.; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kunz, Martin; Lampeitl, Hubert; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Pan, Kaike; Schneider, Donald P.; Simmons, Audrey E.; Smith, Mathew; Snedden, Stephanie A.

    2014-03-06

    We present the spectroscopy from 5254 galaxies that hosted supernovae (SNe) or other transient events in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II). Obtained during SDSS-I, SDSS-II, and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), this sample represents the largest systematic, unbiased, magnitude limited spectroscopic survey of supernova (SN) host galaxies. Using the host galaxy redshifts, we test the impact of photometric SN classification based on SDSS imaging data with and without using spectroscopic redshifts of the host galaxies. Following our suggested scheme, there are a total of 1166 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1126 SNe Ia when the host spectroscopic redshift is assumed. For 1024 (87.8%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, we find that the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Using photometry from SDSS imaging data and the host galaxy spectra, we also report host galaxy properties for use in future nalysis of SN astrophysics. Finally, we investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. When using the SALT2 light curve fitter, we find a 21% increase in the number of fits that converge when using the spectroscopic redshift. Without host galaxy redshifts, we find that SALT2 light curve fits are systematically biased towards lower photometric redshift estimates and redder colors in the limit of low signal-to-noise data. The general improvements in performance of the light curve fitter and the increased diversity of the host galaxy sample highlights the importance of host galaxy spectroscopy for current photometric SN surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  4. Comparing pymorph and SDSS photometry - I. Background sky and model fitting effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J.-L.; Bernardi, M.; Meert, A.

    2017-05-01

    A number of recent estimates of the total luminosities of galaxies in the SDSS are significantly larger than those reported by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) pipeline. This is because of a combination of three effects: one is simply a matter of defining the scale out to which one integrates the fit when defining the total luminosity, and amounts on average to ≤0.1 mag even for the most luminous galaxies. The other two are less trivial and tend to be larger; they are due to differences in how the background sky is estimated and what model is fit to the surface brightness profile. We show that pymorph sky estimates are fainter than those of the Sloan Digital Sky Servey Data Release 7 or Data Release 9 pipelines, but are in excellent agreement with the estimates of Blanton et al. Using the SDSS sky biases luminosities by more than a few tenths of a magnitude for objects with half-light radii ≥7 arcsec. In the SDSS main galaxy sample, these are typically luminous galaxies, so they are not necessarily nearby. This bias becomes worse when allowing the model more freedom to fit the surface brightness profile. When pymorph sky values are used, then two-component Sérsic-exponential fits to E+S0s return more light than single component deVaucouleurs fits (up to ˜0.2 mag), but less light than single Sérsic fits (0.1 mag). Finally, we show that pymorph fits of Meert et al. to DR7 data remain valid for DR9 images. Our findings show that, especially at large luminosities, these pymorph estimates should be preferred to the SDSS pipeline values.

  5. The Swift AGN and Cluster Survey. II. Cluster Confirmation with SDSS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-01-01

    We study 203 (of 442) Swift AGN and Cluster Survey extended X-ray sources located in the SDSS DR8 footprint to search for galaxy over-densities in three-dimensional space using SDSS galaxy photometric redshifts and positions near the Swift cluster candidates. We find 104 Swift clusters with a >3σ galaxy over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmation as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, and X-ray luminosity. We also detect red sequences in ˜85% of the 104 confirmed clusters. The X-ray luminosity and optical richness for the SDSS confirmed Swift clusters are correlated and follow previously established relations. The distribution of the separations between the X-ray centroids and the most likely BCG is also consistent with expectation. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≲ 0.3 and is still 80% complete up to z ≃ 0.4, consistent with the SDSS survey depth. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further study of cluster evolution and cosmology. We also match our SDSS confirmed Swift clusters to existing cluster catalogs, and find 42, 23, and 1 matches in optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zel’dovich catalogs, respectively, and so the majority of these clusters are new detections.

  6. SDSS J1254+0846: A BINARY QUASAR CAUGHT IN THE ACT OF MERGING

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Paul J.; Cox, Thomas J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Myers, Adam D.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Bennert, Vardha N.

    2010-02-20

    We present the first luminous, spatially resolved binary quasar that clearly inhabits an ongoing galaxy merger. SDSS J125455.09+084653.9 and SDSS J125454.87+084652.1 (SDSS J1254+0846 hereafter) are two luminous z = 0.44 radio-quiet quasars, with a radial velocity difference of just 215 km s{sup -1}, separated on the sky by 21 kpc in a disturbed host galaxy merger showing obvious tidal tails. The pair was targeted as part of a complete sample of binary quasar candidates with small transverse separations drawn from SDSS DR6 photometry. We present follow-up optical imaging which shows broad, symmetrical tidal arm features spanning some 75 kpc at the quasars' redshift. Previously, the triggering of two quasars during a merger had only been hypothesized but our observations provide strong evidence of such an event. SDSS J1254+0846, as a face-on, pre-coalescence merger hosting two luminous quasars separated by a few dozen kpc, provides a unique opportunity to probe quasar activity in an ongoing gas-rich merger. Numerical modeling suggests that the system consists of two massive disk galaxies prograde to their mutual orbit, caught during the first passage of an active merger. This demonstrates rapid black hole growth during the early stages of a merger between galaxies with pre-existing bulges. Neither of the two luminous nuclei show significant intrinsic absorption by gas or dust in our optical or X-ray observations, illustrating that not all merging quasars will be in an obscured, ultraluminous phase. We find that the Eddington ratio for the fainter component B is rather normal, while for the A component L/L{sub Edd} is quite (>3sigma) high compared to quasars of similar luminosity and redshift, possibly evidence for strong merger-triggered accretion. More such mergers should be identifiable at higher redshifts using binary quasars as tracers.

  7. First Infrared Imaging of the Neptune Ring Arcs: HST/Nicmos Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrile, R. J.; Dumas, C.; Smith, B. A.; Rieke, M.; Schneider, G.; Thompson, R.; Becklin, E.; Koerner, D.

    1998-09-01

    Neptune's ring arcs have not been imaged since the Voyager 2 flyby in 1989 (Smith et al. 1989, Science 246, 1422-1449). We used the HST and its near-infrared camera NICMOS to obtain the first detection at infrared wavelengths of the Neptune system of ring arcs. The faint inner satellites Proteus and Larissa were also detected. Scattered light coming from the giant planet was reduced considerably during the observations by positioning Neptune partially outside of the field of view of the camera. In addition to this, we used a filter whose bandpass is centered at 1.87mu m. This wavelength corresponds to a strong absorption by methane in Neptune's atmosphere. Two different values for the mean motion of the ring arcs (Nicholson et al. 1995, Icarus 113, 295-330) fit the ground-based and Voyager data sets. Initial results from this partially competed program indicate that the smaller value of 820.1118 deg/day for the arc motion is a better match to the data than the previously adopted value of 820.1194 deg/day. If this result is confirmed, it will call into question the close match between the semi-major axis of the arcs and the location of the 42:43 corotation resonance with Galatea (Porco 1991, Science 253, 995-1001). From the measurements made at visible wavelengths with Voyager (Thomas and Veverka 1991, JGR Supp. 96, 19253-19259) and at 1.87mu m with HST/Nicmos -- and assuming negligeable changes in the ring arcs color since 1989 -- we will be able to determine the visible/infrared color-index for the arcs and the two faint satellites detected and compare it to other primitive bodies of the outer solar system.

  8. Arc restrike in the rail accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Pradosh K.

    1989-01-01

    One of the causes of the degradation in rail accelerator performance is the formation of a secondary arc. Experimental evidence of arc restrike and the subsequent growth of this secondary arc is presented. A simple analytical treatment of arc restrike is developed in terms of breakdown of residual vapor atoms. It is found that after the passage of the primary arc, the bore volume contains a large number of residual neutral vapor atoms. If the density of these atoms is in excess of the critical density, then for a certain length of time the condition exists in the bore for the formation of a secondary arc. Evaporation of atoms from the bore surfaces cannot provide a sufficient number of atoms for an arc restrike. A likely source of the high residual atom density is the leakage of a portion of the ablated material that is added to the trailing edge of the primary arc.

  9. Arc-textured high emittance radiator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    High emittance radiator surfaces are produced by arc-texturing. This process produces such a surface on a metal by scanning it with a low voltage electric arc from a carbon electrode in an inert environment.

  10. Review of Giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Joseph G.; Chacko, J. Anthony; Salter, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting primarily the elderly. Giant cell arteritis can cause sudden and potentially bilateral sequential vision loss in the elderly. Therefore, it is considered a medical emergency in ophthalmology and a significant cause of morbidity in an increasingly aging population. Ophthalmologists need to be able to recognize the classic symptoms and signs of this disease, and then be able to work-up and treat these patients in an efficient manner. An in-depth review of GCA from the literature as well as personal clinical experience follows. PMID:25859139

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DR9-12 SDSS WDMS binaries (Rebassa-Mansergas+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Ren, J. J.; Parsons, S. G.; Gansicke, B. T.; Schreiber, M. R.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Liu, X.-W.; Koester, D.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we search for WDMS binaries within the spectroscopic data base of the SDSS III, i.e. the ninth (SDSS-III Collaboration et al. 2014ApJS..211...17A), tenth (Ahn et al. 2014ApJS..211...17A), eleventh and twelfth (Alam et al. 2015ApJS..219...12A) DRs of the SDSS. In particular, we mined the optical (R~2000) spectra obtained by the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 survey (SEGUE-2; Rockosi et al., in preparation) and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS; Dawson et al. 2013AJ....145...10D). (1 data file).

  12. Charting the Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    zero expansion asymptotically after an infinite time and has a flat geometry). All three observational tests by means of supernovae (green), the cosmic microwave background (blue) and galaxy clusters converge at a Universe around Ωm ~ 0.3 and ΩΛ ~ 0.7. The dark red region for the galaxy cluster determination corresponds to 95% certainty (2-sigma statistical deviation) when assuming good knowledge of all other cosmological parameters, and the light red region assumes a minimum knowledge. For the supernovae and WMAP results, the inner and outer regions corespond to 68% (1-sigma) and 95% certainty, respectively. References: Schuecker et al. 2003, A&A, 398, 867 (REFLEX); Tonry et al. 2003, ApJ, 594, 1 (supernovae); Riess et al. 2004, ApJ, 607, 665 (supernovae) Galaxy clusters are far from being evenly distributed in the Universe. Instead, they tend to conglomerate into even larger structures, "super-clusters". Thus, from stars which gather in galaxies, galaxies which congregate in clusters and clusters tying together in super-clusters, the Universe shows structuring on all scales, from the smallest to the largest ones. This is a relict of the very early (formation) epoch of the Universe, the so-called "inflationary" period. At that time, only a minuscule fraction of one second after the Big Bang, the tiny density fluctuations were amplified and over the eons, they gave birth to the much larger structures. Because of the link between the first fluctuations and the giant structures now observed, the unique REFLEX catalogue - the largest of its kind - allows astronomers to put considerable constraints on the content of the Universe, and in particular on the amount of dark matter that is believed to pervade it. Rather interestingly, these constraints are totally independent from all other methods so far used to assert the existence of dark matter, such as the study of very distant supernovae (see e.g. ESO PR 21/98) or the analysis of the Cosmic Microwave background (e

  13. Giant right atrial thrombi treated with thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; López-Caler, Carmen; Castillo-Rivera, Ana; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis; Cuadra, José Ángel Ramos; Toral, Juan Lara; Cabezas, Cristobal Lozano; Guerrero, Juan Carlos Fernández

    2008-01-01

    The present report describes giant atrial thrombi that were treated with thrombolysis in a community hospital. Two patients with giant atrial thrombi whose treatment involved complications are presented. Both patients developed cardiogenic shock and were treated unsuccessfully with thrombolysis. Because thrombolysis of giant thrombi may be ineffective, patients in this situation may require surgery. PMID:18401474

  14. Cabergoline treatment in invasive giant prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically.

  15. Giant right atrial thrombi treated with thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; López-Caler, Carmen; Castillo-Rivera, Ana; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis; Ramos Cuadra, José Angel; Lara Toral, Juan; Lozano Cabezas, Cristobal; Fernández Guerrero, Juan Carlos

    2008-04-01

    The present report describes giant atrial thrombi that were treated with thrombolysis in a community hospital. Two patients with giant atrial thrombi whose treatment involved complications are presented. Both patients developed cardiogenic shock and were treated unsuccessfully with thrombolysis. Because thrombolysis of giant thrombi may be ineffective, patients in this situation may require surgery.

  16. Microlensing of the Lensed Quasar SDSS 0924+0219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2006-08-01

    We analyze V-, I-, and H-band HST images and two seasons of R-band monitoring data for the gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS 0924+0219. We clearly see that image D is a point-source image of the quasar at the center of its host galaxy. We can easily track the host galaxy of the quasar close to image D because microlensing has provided a natural coronograph that suppresses the flux of the quasar image by roughly an order of magnitude. We observe low-amplitude, uncorrelated variability between the four quasar images due to microlensing, but no correlated variations that could be used to measure a time delay. Monte Carlo models of the microlensing variability provide estimates of the mean stellar mass in the lens galaxy (0.03 h2 Msolar<~<~2.0 h2 Msolar), the accretion disk size (the disk temperature is 5×104 K at 1.3×1014 h-1 cm<~rs<~4.7×1014 h-1 cm), and the black hole mass (6.6×106 Msolar<~MBH h3/2 η-1/20.1 (L/LEdd)1/2<~4.4×107 Msolar), all at 68% confidence. The black hole mass estimate based on microlensing is mildly inconsistent with an estimate of MBH=(2.8+/-0.9)×108 Msolar from the Mg II emission-line width. If we extrapolate the best-fitting light curve models into the future, we expect images A and B to fade and images C and D to brighten. In particular, we estimate that image D has a roughly 16% probability of brightening by a factor of 2 during the next year and a 40% probability of brightening by an order of magnitude over the next decade. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium; the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium; the WIYN Observatory, which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO); the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between

  17. Rotating Drive for Electrical-Arc Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fransen, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rotating drive improves quality of holes made by electrical-arc machining. Mechanism (Uni-tek, rotary head, or equivalent) attached to electrical-arc system. Drive rotates electrode as though it were mechanical drill, while an arc disintegrates metal in workpiece, thereby creating hole. Rotating electrode method often used in electric-discharge machining. NASA innovation is application of technique to electrical-arc machining.

  18. PLASMA ARC WELDING OF THIN MATERIALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AMS-4901, and AMS-4911 resulted in quality and mechanical properties equivalent to welds made by the gas tungsten arc welding ( GTAW ) process. The...lengths of 0.125 to 0.375 in. Particularly smooth and consistent edge welds are obtained to a degree not normally reached with the GTAW process. Fusion...the GTAW process with the advantages of simplified arc prepositioning and, starting with the pilot arc transfer system, insensitivity to arc length

  19. A comparative study on the arc and melting efficiencies of arc welding processes

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    A study was conducted on the arc and melting efficiency of the plasma arc, gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, and submerged arc welding processes. Arc efficiency was determined as a function of current for each process using A36 steel base metal. Melting efficiency was evaluated with variations in arc power and travel speed during deposition of austenitic stainless steel filler wire onto A36 steel substrates. The arc efficiency did not vary significantly within a given process over the range of currents investigated. The consumable electrode processes exhibited the highest arc efficiency (0.84), followed by the gas tungsten arc (0.67) and plasma arc (0.47) processes. A semi-empirical relation was developed for the melting efficiency as a function of net arc power and travel speed which described the experimental data reasonably well. An interaction was observed between the arc and melting efficiency. A low arc efficiency factor limits the power delivered to the substrate which, in turn, limits the maximum travel speed for a given set of conditions. High melting efficiency is favored by high arc powers and travel speeds. As a result, a low arc efficiency can limit the maximum obtainable melting efficiency.

  20. Warm storage for arc magmas.

    PubMed

    Barboni, Mélanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Schmitt, Axel K; Harrison, T Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2016-12-06

    Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the "cold storage" model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored warm. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes.

  1. Metal vapor arc ion plating

    DOEpatents

    Bertram, L.A.; Fisher, R.W.; Mattox, D.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1986-09-09

    A method and apparatus for ion plating are described. The apparatus uses more negative than a first electrode voltage in a vacuum arc remelt system to attract low energy ions from the anode electrode to the article to be plated. 2 figs.

  2. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  3. Warm storage for arc magmas

    PubMed Central

    Barboni, Mélanie; Schmitt, Axel K.; Harrison, T. Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the “cold storage” model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored warm. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes. PMID:27799558

  4. Warm storage for arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboni, Mélanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Schmitt, Axel K.; Harrison, T. Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2016-12-01

    Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the “cold storage” model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored warm. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes.

  5. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  6. Applied Magnetic Field Enhances Arc Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. A.; Loutfy, R. O.; Withers, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Applied magnetic field enhances performance of vaporization part of arc vapor deposition apparatus. When no magnetic field applied by external means, arc wonders semirandomly over cathode, with net motion toward electrical feedthrough. When magnetic field applied arc moves circumferentially around cathode, and downward motion suppressed.

  7. Arc Habitat Suitability Index computer software

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Juntti; Mark A. Rumble

    2006-01-01

    This user manual describes the Arc Habitat Suitability Index (ArcHSI), which is a geographical information system (GIS) model that estimates the ability of an area to meet the food and cover requirements of an animal species. The components and parameters of the model occur in tables and can be easily edited or otherwise modified. ArcHSI runs on personal computers with...

  8. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daech, Alfred F.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  9. Magnification Bias in Gravitational Arc Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Caminha, G. B.; Estrada, J.; Makler, M.

    2013-08-29

    The statistics of gravitational arcs in galaxy clusters is a powerful probe of cluster structure and may provide complementary cosmological constraints. Despite recent progresses, discrepancies still remain among modelling and observations of arc abundance, specially regarding the redshift distribution of strong lensing clusters. Besides, fast "semi-analytic" methods still have to incorporate the success obtained with simulations. In this paper we discuss the contribution of the magnification in gravitational arc statistics. Although lensing conserves surface brightness, the magnification increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the arcs, enhancing their detectability. We present an approach to include this and other observational effects in semi-analytic calculations for arc statistics. The cross section for arc formation ({\\sigma}) is computed through a semi-analytic method based on the ratio of the eigenvalues of the magnification tensor. Using this approach we obtained the scaling of {\\sigma} with respect to the magnification, and other parameters, allowing for a fast computation of the cross section. We apply this method to evaluate the expected number of arcs per cluster using an elliptical Navarro--Frenk--White matter distribution. Our results show that the magnification has a strong effect on the arc abundance, enhancing the fraction of arcs, moving the peak of the arc fraction to higher redshifts, and softening its decrease at high redshifts. We argue that the effect of magnification should be included in arc statistics modelling and that it could help to reconcile arcs statistics predictions with the observational data.

  10. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daech, Alfred F.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  11. Laboratory experiments on arc deflection and instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.; Karasik, M.

    2000-03-21

    This article describes experiments on arc deflection instability carried out during the past few years at the Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The approach has been that of plasma physicists interested in arcs, but they believe these results may be useful to engineers who are responsible for controlling arc behavior in large electric steel furnaces.

  12. Arc-starting aid for GTA welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiffen, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Three-in-one handtool combining arc-gap gage, electrode tip sander, and electrode projection gate, effectively improves initiation on gas tungsten arc (GTA), automatic skate-welding machines. Device effects ease in polishing electrode tips and setting exactly initial arc gap before each weld pass.

  13. Thermal analysis of an arc heater electrode with a rotating arc foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Shepard, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A smoothly rotating arc foot and an arc foot that jumps between multiple sticking points were analyzed using analytic formulations and numerical solution procedures. For each case the temperature distribution for a copper electrode was obtained for the plausible range of operating conditions. It is shown that the smoothly rotating arc foot is an extremely safe mode of operation, whereas the jumping arc foot produces excessively high electrode surface temperatures which are not greatly alleviated by increasing the average rotational frequency of the arc foot. It is suggested to eliminate arc-foot rotation and rely on the distribution of fixed electrodes with stationary arc attachment to avoid electrode failure at high current.

  14. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  15. The giant panda gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bamboo specialists that evolved from carnivores. Their gut microbiota probably aids in the digestion of cellulose and this is considered an example of gut microbiota adaptation to a bamboo diet. However, this issue remains unresolved and further functional and compositional studies are needed.

  16. Controlling nucleation in giant liposomes.

    PubMed

    Tester, Chantel C; Whittaker, Michael L; Joester, Derk

    2014-05-30

    We introduce giant liposomes to investigate phase transformations in picoliter volumes. Precipitation of calcium carbonate in the confinement of DPPC liposomes leads to dramatic stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). In contrast, amorphous strontium carbonate (ASC) is a transient species, and BaCO3 precipitation leads directly to the formation of crystalline witherite.

  17. Survival of a brown dwarf after engulfment by a red giant star.

    PubMed

    Maxted, P F L; Napiwotzki, R; Dobbie, P D; Burleigh, M R

    2006-08-03

    Many sub-stellar companions (usually planets but also some brown dwarfs) orbit solar-type stars. These stars can engulf their sub-stellar companions when they become red giants. This interaction may explain several outstanding problems in astrophysics but it is unclear under what conditions a low mass companion will evaporate, survive the interaction unchanged or gain mass. Observational tests of models for this interaction have been hampered by a lack of positively identified remnants-that is, white dwarf stars with close, sub-stellar companions. The companion to the pre-white dwarf AA Doradus may be a brown dwarf, but the uncertain history of this star and the extreme luminosity difference between the components make it difficult to interpret the observations or to put strong constraints on the models. The magnetic white dwarf SDSS J121209.31 + 013627.7 may have a close brown dwarf companion but little is known about this binary at present. Here we report the discovery of a brown dwarf in a short period orbit around a white dwarf. The properties of both stars in this binary can be directly observed and show that the brown dwarf was engulfed by a red giant but that this had little effect on it.

  18. Nursery of Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is a stellar nursery called DR21, which is giving birth to some of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Visible light images reveal no trace of this interstellar cauldron because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion).

    New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud.

    This image is a large-scale mosaic assembled from individual photographs obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) aboard Spitzer. The image covers an area about two times that of a full moon. The mosaic is a composite of images obtained at mid-infrared wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). The brightest infrared cloud near the top center corresponds to DR21, which presumably contains a cluster of newly forming stars at a distance of 10,000 light-years.

    Protruding out from DR21 toward the bottom left of the image is a gaseous outflow (green), containing both carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen. Data from the Spitzer spectrograph, which breaks light into its constituent individual wavelengths, indicate the presence of hot steam formed as the outflow heats the surrounding molecular gas. Outflows are physical signatures of processes that create supersonic beams, or jets, of gas. They are usually accompanied by discs of material around the new star, which likely contain the materials from which future planetary systems are formed. Additional newborn stars, depicted in green, can be seen surrounding the

  19. Nursery of Giants

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-13

    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is a stellar nursery called DR21, which is giving birth to some of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Visible light images reveal no trace of this interstellar cauldron because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion). New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud. This image is a large-scale mosaic assembled from individual photographs obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) aboard Spitzer. The image covers an area about two times that of a full moon. The mosaic is a composite of images obtained at mid-infrared wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). The brightest infrared cloud near the top center corresponds to DR21, which presumably contains a cluster of newly forming stars at a distance of 10,000 light-years. Protruding out from DR21 toward the bottom left of the image is a gaseous outflow (green), containing both carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen. Data from the Spitzer spectrograph, which breaks light into its constituent individual wavelengths, indicate the presence of hot steam formed as the outflow heats the surrounding molecular gas. Outflows are physical signatures of processes that create supersonic beams, or jets, of gas. They are usually accompanied by discs of material around the new star, which likely contain the materials from which future planetary systems are formed. Additional newborn stars, depicted in green, can be seen surrounding the DR21 region

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Supernovae and their hosts in the SDSS DR8 (Hakobyan+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Aramyan, L. S.; Petrosian, A. R.; Gomes, J. M.; Mamon, G. A.; Kunth, D.; Turatto, M.

    2012-06-01

    The measurements of apparent magnitudes, diameters (D25), ratios (b/a), and position angles (PA) of SN host galaxies were made using the images extracted from the SDSS g-band. For each host galaxy, we analyzed RGB images of the SDSS to accurately measure the position of its nucleus to provide the SDSS name. With these images, we also provide the host galaxy's morphological type, and note if it has a bar, a disturbed disk, and whether it is part of an interacting or merging system. In addition, the SDSS nuclear spectra were analyzed to diagnose the central power source of the galaxies. Special attention was paid to collect accurate data on the spectroscopic classes, coordinates, offsets of SNe, and heliocentric redshifts of the host galaxies. (1 data file).

  1. Smile arcs of Caucasian and Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Keun; Rashid, Robert G; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to measure and compare the smile arcs (tooth and lip arcs) of young Caucasian and Korean subjects. Two hundred subjects (100 male and 100 female) were selected from Caucasian and Korean students. Class photographs taken with a digital camera showing the subjects with a posed smile were used for this study. Curves were rendered as semitransparent overlays, which were manipulated over the images using Adobe Photoshop to determine the best fit for tooth and lip arcs. There were statistically significant differences due to ethnicity and gender. Mean lip arcs had greater curvature than mean tooth arcs.

  2. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (ARC EXTERNAL TO BLOCK)

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.H.

    1958-09-01

    This patent pentains to an ion producing mechanism employed in a calutron which has the decided advantage of an increased amount of ionization effectuated by the arc, and a substantially uniform arc in poiat of time, i arc location and along the arc length. The unique features of the disclosed ion source lie in the specific structural arrangement of the source block, gas ionizing passage, filament shield and filament whereby the arc is established both within the ionizing passage and immediately outside the exit of the ionizing passage at the block face.

  3. Discovery of a fourth arc in Abell 2626 at 610 MHz with the GMRT: spectral properties and possibilities for the origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Ruta; Gitti, Myriam

    2017-03-01

    We report the discovery of a fourth eastern arc (Arc E) towards the cool-core cluster Abell 2626 using 610 MHz Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations. Three arcs towards north, west and south were known from earlier works at 1400 MHz and proposed to have originated in precessing radio jets of the central active galactic nucleus. The 610-1400 MHz integrated spectral indices of the arcs are in the range 3.2-3.6 and the spectral index map shows uniform distribution along the lengths of the arcs. If associated with A2626, the arcs have linear extents in the range 79-152 kpc. The detection of Arc E favours the scenario in which a pair of bipolar precessing jets were active and halted to produce the arc system. Based on the morphological symmetry and spectral similarity, we indicate a possible role of gravitational lensing. Further, high-resolution low-frequency observations and measurements of the mass of the system are needed to disentangle the mystery of this source.

  4. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II), Data Release 7, including the Legacy Survey

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The seventh data release (DR7) from the SDSS represents a completion of the overall, original project, though SDSS-III began in 2008 and will build upon the knowledge gained already. The SDSS Legacy Survey provided a uniform, well-calibrated map of more than 7,500 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap, and three stripes in the South Galactic Cap totaling 740 square degrees. The central stripe in the South Galactic Gap, Stripe 82, was scanned multiple times to enable a deep co-addition of the data and to enable discovery of variable objects. Legacy data supported studies ranging from asteroids and nearby stars to the large-scale structure of the universe. All of the imaging data have been processed to yield calibrated astrometric and photometric parameters and classifications. These parameters are available in one or more tables in a database accessible via the Catalog Archive Server (CAS) at http://cas.sdss.org/astro. [taken and edited from the Legacy page at http://www.sdss.org/legacy/index.html] All three surveys summarized are: 1) Legacy: an imaging survey in five bands over a contiguous 7646 deg2 high-latitude elliptical region in the Northern Galactic Cap, plus an additional 750 deg2 in the Southern Galactic Cap, together with spectroscopy of complete samples of galaxies and quasars covering about 8200 square degrees. The total imaging area in the Legacy survey is 8423 square degrees; 2) SEGUE: (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration): additional imaging of 3240 deg2 of sky at lower Galactic latitudes, together with spectroscopy of 240,000 stars towards 200 sight lines covering 1400 square degrees (spread throughout the Legacy and SEGUE imaging footprints), to study the structure of the Milky Way; 3

  5. SDSS QUASARS IN THE WISE PRELIMINARY DATA RELEASE AND QUASAR CANDIDATE SELECTION WITH OPTICAL/INFRARED COLORS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xuebing; Hao Guoqiang; Jia Zhendong; Zhang Yanxia; Peng Nanbo

    2012-08-15

    We present a catalog of 37,842 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, which have counterparts within 6'' in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) Preliminary Data Release. The overall WISE detection rate of the SDSS quasars is 86.7%, and it decreases to less than 50.0% when the quasar magnitude is fainter than i = 20.5. We derive the median color-redshift relations based on this SDSS-WISE quasar sample and apply them to estimate the photometric redshifts of the SDSS-WISE quasars. We find that by adding the WISE W1- and W2-band data to the SDSS photometry we can increase the photometric redshift reliability, defined as the percentage of sources with photometric and spectroscopic redshift difference less than 0.2, from 70.3% to 77.2%. We also obtain the samples of WISE-detected normal and late-type stars with SDSS spectroscopy, and present a criterion in the z - W1 versus g - z color-color diagram, z - W1 > 0.66(g - z) + 2.01, to separate quasars from stars. With this criterion we can recover 98.6% of 3089 radio-detected SDSS-WISE quasars with redshifts less than four and overcome the difficulty in selecting quasars with redshifts between 2.2 and 3 from SDSS photometric data alone. We also suggest another criterion involving the WISE color only, W1 - W2 > 0.57, to efficiently separate quasars with redshifts less than 3.2 from stars. In addition, we compile a catalog of 5614 SDSS quasars detected by both WISE and UKIDSS surveys and present their color-redshift relations in the optical and infrared bands. By using the SDSS ugriz, UKIDSS, YJHK, and WISE W1- and W2-band photometric data, we can efficiently select quasar candidates and increase the photometric redshift reliability up to 87.0%. We discuss the implications of our results on the future quasar surveys. An updated SDSS-WISE quasar catalog consisting of 101,853 quasars with the recently released WISE all-sky data is also provided.

  6. The 2XMMi/SDSS Galaxy Cluster Survey. III. Clusters associated with spectroscopically targeted luminous red galaxies in SDSS-DR10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takey, A.; Schwope, A.; Lamer, G.

    2014-04-01

    We present a sample of 383 X-ray selected galaxy groups and clusters with spectroscopic redshift measurements (up to z ~ 0.79) from the 2XMMi/SDSS Galaxy Cluster Survey. The X-ray cluster candidates were selected as serendipitously detected sources from the 2XMMi-DR3 catalogue that were located in the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7). The cluster galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts were selected from the SDSS-DR10. We developed an algorithm for identifying the cluster candidates that are associated with spectroscopically targeted luminous red galaxies and for constraining the cluster spectroscopic redshift. A cross-correlation of the constructed cluster sample with published optically selected cluster catalogues yielded 264 systems with available redshifts. The present redshift measurements are consistent with the published values. The current cluster sample extends the optically confirmed cluster sample from our cluster survey by 67 objects. Moreover, it provides spectroscopic confirmation for 78 clusters among our published cluster sample, which previously had only photometric redshifts. Of the new cluster sample that comprises 67 systems, 55 objects are newly X-ray discovered clusters and 52 systems are sources newly discovered as galaxy clusters in optical and X-ray wavelengths. Based on the measured redshifts and the fluxes given in the 2XMMi-DR3 catalogue, we estimated the X-ray luminosities and masses of the cluster sample. The cluster catalog is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A54

  7. THE LICK/SDSS LIBRARY. II. [Ca/Fe] AND [Mg/Fe] IN F, G, AND K STARS FROM SDSS-DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Franchini, M.; Morossi, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Malagnini, M. L.; Chavez, M. E-mail: morossi@oats.inaf.it E-mail: malagnini@oats.inaf.it

    2011-04-01

    We analyzed the spectra of 17,600 F, G, and K stars extracted from the seventh Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release (SDSS-DR7) database in order to derive ([{alpha}/Fe]), [Ca/Fe], and [Mg/Fe] ratios. Particular attention has been devoted to estimating homogeneous and self-consistent atmospheric parameter values, T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H], by comparing synthetic and observational Lick/SDSS indices. We present results for the sub-sample of more than 4000 spectra whose overall quality allowed us to derive fairly accurate stellar atmospheric parameter values and, therefore, reliable abundance ratios. A Monte Carlo approach was adopted to evaluate both the errors in the observational Lick/SDSS indices and in the derived parameter estimates. The analysis of the trends of [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] versus [Fe/H] pointed out that (1) the [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] ratios increase with decreasing [Fe/H] with different slopes reaching maximum average levels of +0.25 and +0.40 dex at [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.75, respectively; (2) our sample contains, at a given [Fe/H], stars characterized by significantly different amounts of {alpha}-enhancement, thus belonging to different Galactic populations; and (3) the analyzed sample shows a predominance of thick disk stars for [Fe/H] > - 0.5 and the presence of stars belonging to the 'high-{alpha}' halo population for -2.0 < [Fe/H] <-0.5.

  8. A mechanism that triggers double arcing during plasma arc cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchinsky, Valerian

    2009-10-01

    Double arcing (DA) is a phenomenon when a transferred arc, flowing inside an electrically insulated nozzle, breaks into two separate arcs: one that connects the cathode and the nozzle and another that connects the nozzle and a work-piece. It is a commonly accepted opinion that the reason for DA is high voltage drop in the plasma inside the nozzle. However, the specific mechanism that triggers the DA development is not clear. In this paper, we propose such a mechanism. Dielectric films deposited inside the nozzle's orifice play the key role in this mechanism. These films are charged by ion current from plasma. A strong electric field is created inside the film and at the boundary of the film and clean metal of the nozzle. This gives rise to a thermo-field electron emission from the clean metal that borders the film. Emitted electrons are accelerated at the voltage drop between the nozzle and plasma. These electrons produce extra ions, which in turn move back to the film and additionally charge it. This sequence of events leads to explosive instability if the voltage drop inside the nozzle is high enough. Experiments to check the proposed mechanism are suggested.

  9. Photometric variability in a warm, strongly magnetic DQ white dwarf, SDSS J103655.39+652252.2

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Hermes, J. J.; Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, K. I.; Dufour, Patrick; Kepler, S. O.; Bolte, Michael; Liebert, James E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com

    2013-06-01

    We present the discovery of photometric variability in the DQ white dwarf SDSS J103655.39+652252.2 (SDSS J1036+6522). Time-series photometry reveals a coherent monoperiodic modulation at a period of 1115.64751(67) s with an amplitude 0.442% ± 0.024%; no other periodic modulations are observed with amplitudes ≳ 0.13%. The period, amplitude, and phase of this modulation are constant within errors over 16 months. The spectrum of SDSS J1036+6522 shows magnetic splitting of carbon lines, and we use Paschen-Back formalism to develop a grid of model atmospheres for mixed carbon and helium atmospheres. Our models, while reliant on several simplistic assumptions, nevertheless match the major spectral and photometric properties of the star with a self-consistent set of parameters: T {sub eff} ≈ 15, 500 K, log g ≈ 9, log (C/He) = –1.0, and a mean magnetic field strength of 3.0 ± 0.2 MG. The temperature and abundances strongly suggest that SDSS J1036+6522 is a transition object between the hot, carbon-dominated DQs and the cool, helium-dominated DQs. The variability of SDSS J1036+6522 has characteristics similar to those of the variable hot carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs (DQVs), however, its temperature is significantly cooler. The pulse profile of SDSS J1036+6522 is nearly sinusoidal, in contrast with the significantly asymmetric pulse shapes of the known magnetic DQVs. If the variability in SDSS J1036+6522 is due to the same mechanism as other DQVs, then the pulse shape is not a definitive diagnostic on the absence of a strong magnetic field in DQVs. It remains unclear whether the root cause of the variability in SDSS J1036+6522 and the other hot DQVs is the same.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 6GHz JVLA observations of low-z SDSS quasars (Kellermann+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, K. I.; Condon, J. J.; Kimball, A. E.; Perley, R. A.; Ivezic, Z.

    2017-02-01

    We have reprocessed the VLA observations of a sample of SDSS QSOs discussed in Kimball+ (2011ApJ...739L..29K), and generated a catalog of radio sources associated with each QSO. We detected radio emission at 6GHz from all but two of the 178 color-selected SDSS QSOs contained in our volume-limited sample of QSOs more luminous than M_i=-23 and with redshifts 0.2

  11. The optical, infrared and radio properties of extragalactic sources observed by SDSS, 2mass and first surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Ivezic et al.

    2002-10-08

    We positionally match sources observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. Practically all 2MASS sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; {approx} 11% of them are optically resolved galaxies and the rest are dominated by stars. About 1/3 of FIRST sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; {approx} 80% of these are galaxies and the rest are dominated by quasars. Based on these results, we project that by the completion of these surveys the matched samples will include about 10{sup 7} and 10{sup 6} galaxies observed by both SDSS and 2MASS, and about 250,000 galaxies and 50,000 quasars observed by both SDSS and FIRST. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical, infrared and radio properties for the extragalactic sources from the matched samples. In particular, we find that the fraction of quasars with stellar colors missed by the SDSS spectroscopic survey is probably not larger than {approx} 10%, and that the optical colors of radio-loud quasars are {approx} 0.05 mag. redder (with 4{sigma} significance) than the colors of radio-quiet quasars.

  12. Filters for cathodic arc plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Brown, Ian G.

    2002-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  13. Lithospheric controls on the formation of provinces hosting giant orogenic gold deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bierlein, F.P.; Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Dube, B.

    2006-01-01

    Ages of giant gold systems (>500 t gold) cluster within well-defined periods of lithospheric growth at continental margins, and it is the orogen-scale processes during these mainly Late Archaean, Palaeoproterozoic and Phanerozoic times that ultimately determine gold endowment of a province in an orogen. A critical factor for giant orogenic gold provinces appears to be thickness of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath a province at the time of gold mineralisation, as giant gold deposits are much more likely to develop in orogens with subducted oceanic or thin continental lithosphere. A proxy for the latter is a short pre-mineralisation crustal history such that thick SCLM was not developed before gold deposition. In constrast, orogens with protracted pre-mineralisation crustal histories are more likely to be characterised by a thick SCLM that is difficult to delaminate, and hence, such provinces will normally be poorly endowed. The nature of the lithosphere also influences the intrinsic gold concentrations of potential source rocks, with back-arc basalts, transitional basalts and basanites enriched in gold relative to other rock sequences. Thus, segments of orogens with thin lithosphere may enjoy the conjunction of giant-scale fluid flux through gold-enriched sequences. Although the nature of the lithosphere plays the crucial role in dictating which orogenic gold provinces will contain one or more giant deposits, the precise siting of those giants depends on the critical conjunction of a number of province-scale factors. Such features control plumbing systems, traps and seals in tectonically and lithospherically suitable terranes within orogens. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  14. Giant Herbig-Haro Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Devine, David

    1997-12-01

    We present the discovery of a number of Herbig-Haro flows which extend over parsec-scale distances. The largest of these is the well known HH 111 jet complex, which is shown, through CCD images and a proper motion study, to have an angular extent of almost one degree on the sky, corresponding to 7.7 pc, making it the largest known HH flow. In our imaging survey we also found that T Tauri is at the center of a huge bipolar HH flow, HH 355, with a total extent of 38 arcmin, corresponding to 1.55 pc, and aligned with the axis of the tiny HH 255 flow surrounding the infrared companion T Tau S. We additionally have found a number of other giant HH flow candidates, including HH 315 at PV Cep, HH 41/295 at Haro 5a/6a, HH 300 in Bl8w, HH 354 in Li 165, HH 376 in Li 152, and HH 114/115 and HH 243/244/245/179 in the X Orionis molecular ring. It thus appears that it is common for HH flows to attain parsec-scale dimensions. The ubiquity of parsec-scale HH flows profoundly alters our view of the impact of young stars on their environment. Giant flows have dynamical ages comparable to the duration of the accretion phase of the sources, and provide a fossil record of their mass loss and accretion history. Multiple internal working surfaces and their S-shaped point symmetry provide evidence for variability of ejection velocity and orientation of the source jets. Giant HH flows are either longer or comparable in length to associated CO outflows, providing evidence for unified models in which HH flows power CO flows. Many giant flows have burst out of their source cloud cores and are dissociating molecules and injecting momentum and kinetic energy into the interclump medium of the host clouds. They contribute to the UV radiation field, and may produce C I and C ii in cloud interiors. Giant flows may contribute to the chemical rejuvenation of clouds, the generation of turbulent motions, and the self-regulation of star formation. The terminal working surfaces of giant flows may be

  15. A GMBCG Galaxy Cluster Catalog of 55,424 Rich Clusters from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; Gerdes, David; Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin; /Brookhaven

    2011-08-22

    We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.

  16. A GMBCG galaxy cluster catalog of 55,880 rich clusters from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; /Fermilab /Michigan U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /UC, Santa Barbara /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Caltech /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.

  17. The mass distribution of the strong lensing cluster SDSS J1531+3414

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci L.; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Wuyts, Eva; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Florian, Michael K.; Dahle, Håkon

    2014-11-01

    We present the mass distribution at the core of SDSS J1531+3414, a strong-lensing cluster at z = 0.335. We find that the mass distribution is well described by two cluster-scale halos with a contribution from cluster-member galaxies. New Hubble Space Telescope observations of SDSS J1531+3414 reveal a signature of ongoing star formation associated with the two central galaxies at the core of the cluster, in the form of a chain of star forming regions at the center of the cluster. Using the lens model presented here, we place upper limits on the contribution of a possible lensed image to the flux at the central region, and rule out that this emission is coming from a background source.

  18. Science Highlights from the SDSS DR7 Spectroscopic M Dwarf Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, J. J.; Pineda, J.; Dhital, S.; Savcheva, A.; Jones, D.; Schluns, K.; Massey, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a series of science highlights that have resulted from the SDSS DR7 spectroscopic M dwarf catalog. These highlights include (but are not limited to) a detailed magnetic activity analysis of M dwarfs as a function of their location in the Galaxy (both Galactic height and Galactocentric radius), a kinematic analysis of the local Milky Way, a study of how the time variability of M dwarfs correlates with spectral properties, an age-activity relation (using Galactic stratigraphy), a spectral catalog of wide binary pairs, a catalog of low-mass subdwarfs, a statistical parallax analysis of the M dwarfs and subdwarfs, and a technique for determining the interstellar dust content using M dwarfs. All of the SDSS and value added data are accessible for public download and reprints will be made available on site. AAW acknowledges the support of NSF grant AST-1109273

  19. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN NEBULAR EMISSION AND THE CONTINUUM SPECTRAL SHAPE IN SDSS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gyory, Zsuzsanna; Szalay, Alexander S.; Csabai, Istvan; Budavari, Tamas; Charlot, Stephane

    2011-04-15

    We present a statistical study of the correlations and dimensionality of emission lines carried out on a sample of over 40,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies. Using principal component analysis, we found that the equivalent widths of the 11 strongest lines can be well represented using three parameters. We also explore correlations of the emission pattern with the eigenspace representation of the continuum spectrum. The observed relations are used to provide an empirical prescription for expectation values and variances of emission-line strengths as a function of spectral shape. We show that this estimation of emission lines has a sufficient accuracy to make it suitable for photometric applications. The method has already proved useful in SDSS photometric redshift estimation.

  20. History of Neptune's Ring Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.; Colwell, J. E.; Canup, R. M.

    1997-07-01

    The recent dynamical calculations for Neptune's Adams ring arcs by Foryta and Sicardy (1996) and Hanninen and Porco (1997) determine the basic evolutionary parameters for this system. The ring evolution is dominated by stochastic events, particularly chaotic motion that causes a migration between the corotation sites (FS96) and collisions near quadrature (HP97). A basic problem is that the high velocity collisions that produce the dusty arcs at the Galatea corotation resonances rapidly depopulate these sites (Colwell and Esposito 1990). With the new results in hand for the evolution of the ring particles over periods of less than a century, we can now calculate the long-term stochastic evolution of the Adams ring. Using a finite Markov chain as a model for this stochastic process, we follow the suggestion by FS96 that corotation sites provide preferential locations for accretion. A more general conclusion is that the longitudinal concentration of material in a few nearby sites (and that the majority of the Adams ring material is residing there) requires either an exceedingly recent event (EC92) or that the corotation sites be absorbing states of the Markov chain.In the latter case, the competing processes of chaotic diffusion and frustrated accretion can provide the arc and clump features as recurrent transient events near the Roche limit. Similar phenomena would be expected for Saturn's F and G rings.