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Sample records for sea anemones cnidaria

  1. Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) toxins: an overview.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Bárbara; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-08-01

    The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors) and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines), but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects) and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na⁺ and K⁺ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins.

  2. Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) Toxins: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Frazão, Bárbara; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-01-01

    The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors) and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines), but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects) and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins. PMID:23015776

  3. Environmental sensing and response genes in Cnidaria: the chemical defensome in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    The starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis has been recently established as a new model system for the study of the evolution of developmental processes, as cnidaria occupy a key evolutionary position at the base of the bilateria. Cnidaria play important roles in estuarine and reef communities, but are exposed to many environmental stressors. Here I describe the genetic components of a ‘chemical defensome’ in the genome of N. vectensis, and review cnidarian molecular toxicology. Gene families that defend against chemical stressors and the transcription factors that regulate these genes have been termed a ‘chemical defensome,’ and include the cytochromes P450 and other oxidases, various conjugating enyzymes, the ATP-dependent efflux transporters, oxidative detoxification proteins, as well as various transcription factors. These genes account for about 1% (266/27200) of the predicted genes in the sea anemone genome, similar to the proportion observed in tunicates and humans, but lower than that observed in sea urchins. While there are comparable numbers of stress-response genes, the stress sensor genes appear to be reduced in N. vectensis relative to many model protostomes and deuterostomes. Cnidarian toxicology is understudied, especially given the important ecological roles of many cnidarian species. New genomic resources should stimulate the study of chemical stress sensing and response mechanisms in cnidaria, and allow us to further illuminate the evolution of chemical defense gene networks. PMID:18956243

  4. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna.

  5. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna. PMID:24146599

  6. Evolution of sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Hormathiidae) symbiotic with hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Luciana C; Daly, Marymegan

    2010-09-01

    Sea anemones in genera Adamsia, Calliactis and Paracalliactis (family Hormathiidae) engage in a mutualistic symbiosis with hermit crabs in which the anemone gains substrate and food in exchange for defending the crab. Some of the sea anemones also expand the living space of the crab by producing a carcinoecium, a chitinous structure that overlies the initial gastropod shell in which the hermit crab lives. The symbiosis is initiated either by the crab, or by the anemone. Although behavioral and physiological aspects of this symbiosis have been studied, interpretations cannot be generalized without an evolutionary framework. After reconstructing relationships among members of Hormathiidae using DNA sequences, we find that the association has evolved at least twice: Adamsia nests within Calliactis in a single clade, and Paracalliactis belongs to a different clade within the family. The carcinoecium and complex behavioral and anatomical features associated with the symbiosis are interpreted as having evolved at least twice within Hormathiidae and seem to be phylogenetically labile. PMID:20457262

  7. Distribution of sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) in Korea analyzed by environmental clustering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cha, H.-R.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Fautin, D.G.; Sandhei, P.

    2004-01-01

    Using environmental data and the geospatial clustering tools LOICZView and DISCO, we empirically tested the postulated existence and boundaries of four biogeographic regions in the southern part of the Korean peninsula. Environmental variables used included wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, tidal amplitude, and the chlorophyll spectral signal. Our analysis confirmed the existence of four biogeographic regions, but the details of the borders between them differ from those previously postulated. Specimen-level distribution records of intertidal sea anemones were mapped; their distribution relative to the environmental data supported the importance of the environmental parameters we selected in defining suitable habitats. From the geographic coincidence between anemone distribution and the clusters based on environmental variables, we infer that geospatial clustering has the power to delimit ranges for marine organisms within relatively small geographical areas.

  8. Multiplexed pyrosequencing of nine sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Actiniaria) mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Foox, Jonathan; Brugler, Mercer; Siddall, Mark Edward; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-07-01

    Six complete and three partial actiniarian mitochondrial genomes were amplified in two semi-circles using long-range PCR and pyrosequenced in a single run on a 454 GS Junior, doubling the number of complete mitogenomes available within the order. Typical metazoan mtDNA features included circularity, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and length ranging from 17,498 to 19,727 bp. Several typical anthozoan mitochondrial genome features were also observed including the presence of only two transfer RNA genes, elevated A + T richness ranging from 54.9 to 62.4%, large intergenic regions, and group 1 introns interrupting NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, the latter of which possesses a homing endonuclease gene. Within the sea anemone Alicia sansibarensis, we report the first mitochondrial gene order rearrangement within the Actiniaria, as well as putative novel non-canonical protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analyses of all 13 protein-coding and 2 ribosomal genes largely corroborated current hypotheses of sea anemone interrelatedness, with a few lower-level differences.

  9. Edwardsia sojabio sp. n. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae), a new abyssal sea anemone from the Sea ofJapan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanamyan, Nadya; Sanamyan, Karen

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes new deep-water edwardsiid sea anemone Edwardsia sojabio sp. n. which is very common on soft muddy bottoms at lower bathyal and upper abyssal depths in the Sea of Japan. It was recorded in high quantity in depths between 2545 and 3550 m and is the second abyssal species of the genus Edwardsia.

  10. The 'Antenna Balloon Anemone' Found in the Seto Inland Sea: New Genus and Species of Sea Anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi (Cnidaria, Actinaria, Haloclavidae).

    PubMed

    Izumi, Takato; Yanagi, Kensuke; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we report the identification of a sea anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi, collected in the Seto Inland Sea, which represents a new genus and new species. This new species has unusual tentacle and mesenterial arrangements that have not been observed in other species of Haloclavidae. There are 12 regular marginal tentacles and two 'antenna tentacles,' with the latter always rising upward and located on the oral disk near the mouth; the species is also characterized by its peculiar mesenterial pairs, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme. Furthermore, this species shows an interesting behavior: it can inflate its body like a balloon, lift above the seafloor, and drift with the sea current. The presence of a single, strong siphonoglyph, physa-like aboral end, and the lack of sphincter muscle classify this sea anemone within Haloclavidae. It resembles Peachia species, but cannot be classified in this genus as the new species has two pairs of mesenteries, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme, and irregular antenna tentacles. Therefore, we propose a new genus Antennapeachia to accommodate this species. PMID:27498806

  11. Patterns of Symbiodinium spp. associations within the family Aiptasiidae, a monophyletic lineage of symbiotic of sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Thornhill, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    Although the symbiotic relationships between dinoflagellates and cnidarians are well recognized, few studies have examined these associations from an evolutionary perspective. This is especially true for symbiotic sea anemones, in which many reports consist of an approximate species identification of the host, followed by the identification of the dinoflagellate symbiont using molecular genetic markers. To further explore the evolutionary history of sea anemone-dinoflagellate associations, we documented the diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in a monophyletic clade of sea anemones, the family Aiptasiidae. We combined information from several molecular genetic markers, including nuclear ITS2 and plastid cp23S-rDNA, to evaluate the patterns of evolution and diversification of Symbiodinium in the light of an existing phylogenetic framework for the sea anemone host. At the host family level, we found no evidence for coevolution or reciprocal phylogenies between host and endosymbiont. However, within some individual host species, Symbiodinium spp. exhibited patterns of host specialization and cladogenesis. This pattern suggests that coevolution between host and symbiont occurred within species and genera lineages, but that this process was regularly disrupted and symbiotic partners were recombined during the longer-term evolutionary history of the Aiptasiidae. Furthermore, we observed independent cases of phylogeographical partitioning of Symbiodinium within a single host species, suggesting that ecological speciation along an environmental gradient contributed to the diversity of associations found in nature.

  12. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Actiniidae) from eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Andrea L; Fautin, Daphne G; Wallace, Carden C

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone, Stylobates birtlesisp. n., from sites 590-964 m deep in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. An anemone of this genus settles on a gastropod shell inhabited by a hermit crab, then covers and extends the shell to produce a chitinous structure termed a carcinoecium. Stylobates birtlesisp. n. is symbiotic with the hermit crab Sympagurus trispinosus (Balss, 1911). The nature of marginal sphincter muscle and nematocyst size and distribution distinguish Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. from other species in the genus. The four known species of Stylobates are allopatric, each inhabiting a separate ocean basin of the Indo-West Pacific. We also extend the known range of Stylobates loisetteae in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Western Australia. PMID:21594082

  13. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Actiniidae) from eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Andrea L.; Fautin, Daphne G.; Wallace, Carden C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone, Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., from sites 590–964 m deep in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. An anemone of this genus settles on a gastropod shell inhabited by a hermit crab, then covers and extends the shell to produce a chitinous structure termed a carcinoecium. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. is symbiotic with the hermit crab Sympagurus trispinosus (Balss, 1911). The nature of marginal sphincter muscle and nematocyst size and distribution distinguish Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. from other species in the genus. The four known species of Stylobates are allopatric, each inhabiting a separate ocean basin of the Indo-West Pacific. We also extend the known range of Stylobates loisetteae in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Western Australia. PMID:21594082

  14. The mitochondrial genome of the sea anemone Metridium senile (Cnidaria): introns, a paucity of tRNA genes, and a near-standard genetic code.

    PubMed Central

    Beagley, C T; Okimoto, R; Wolstenholme, D R

    1998-01-01

    The circular, 17,443 nucleotide-pair mitochondrial (mt) DNA molecule of the sea anemone, Metridium senile (class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria) is presented. This molecule contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins and two ribosomal (r) RNAs but, relative to other metazoan mtDNAs, has two unique features: only two transfer RNAs (tRNA(f-Met) and tRNA(Trp)) are encoded, and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) genes each include a group I intron. The COI intron encodes a putative homing endonuclease, and the ND5 intron contains the molecule's ND1 and ND3 genes. Most of the unusual characteristics of other metazoan mtDNAs are not found in M. senile mtDNA: unorthodox translation initiation codons and partial translation termination codons are absent, the use of TGA to specify tryptophan is the only genetic code modification, and both encoded tRNAs have primary and secondary structures closely resembling those of standard tRNAs. Also, with regard to size and secondary structure potential, the mt-s-rRNA and mt-1-rRNA have the least deviation from Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNAs of all known metazoan mt-rRNAs. These observations indicate that most of the genetic variations previously reported in metazoan mtDNAs developed after Cnidaria diverged from the common ancestral line of all other Metazoa. PMID:9539427

  15. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) reveals a novel group of hexacorals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Barbeitos, Marcos S; Brugler, Mercer R; Crowley, Louise M; Grajales, Alejandro; Gusmão, Luciana; Häussermann, Verena; Reft, Abigail; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders

  16. Sea Anemone: Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

  17. Metapeachia schlenzae sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Haloclavidae) a new burrowing sea anemone from Brazil, with a discussion of the genus Metapeachia.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Luciana C

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of burrowing sea anemones from Brazil is poorly known with only three species recorded. Metapeachia schlenzae sp. nov. is described from specimens collected in the intertidal zone of São Sebastião and Cabo Frio in the southeastern coast of Brazil. Metapeachia schlenzae sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the second haloclavid recorded from Brazil. A comparison between Metapeachia schlenzae sp. nov. and Metapeachia tropica, the type species of the genus, is included. The two valid species of Metapeachia differ in the morphology of the conchula, internal anatomy, cnidae and geographical distribution. PMID:27395931

  18. A new genus and species of isanthid sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia, Anthoparactis fossii n. gen. et sp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussermann, Verena; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2014-09-01

    We describe a new genus and species of sea anemone from Chilean Patagonia. Anthoparactis fossii n. gen. et sp. adds another acontiate genus and species to the family Isanthidae Carlgren, 1938. Anthoparactis n. gen. differs from the other isanthid genera in having the same number of mesenteries distally and proximally, acontia with basitrichs only, and a column with verrucae distally. Anthoparactis fossii n. sp. differs from the most similar species, Isoparactis fionae Lauretta et al., 2013, in the number of cycles of mesenteries and tentacles, structures of the column, colour pattern of the oral disc, cnidae, and geographical distribution. Isanthidae now includes seven genera and 11 species.

  19. The genetic structure of the rare lagoonal sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson (Cnidaria; Anthozoa) in the United Kingdom based on RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, C V M; Rogers, A D; Sheader, M

    2002-11-01

    The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis occurs in lagoons in the United States and along the southern and eastern coasts of the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom it is considered rare and is threatened, principally through the destruction of lagoonal habitat. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data from populations across most of the rane of N. vectensis in the United Kingdom revealed that 61% of individuals had an identical genotype, the frequency of which varied from 0.01 to 1.00. These data provide strong evidence for predominantly clonal reproduction and for the existence of a 'general-purpose genotype' in the UK populations. Alternatively, the low levels of genetic variation observed in some N. vectensis populations may have resulted if they were founded from very few successful individuals from the United States. Analysis of molecular variance (amova) showed significant genetic differentiation between lagoons with no large-scale pattern of geographical variation. This result is consistent with occasional passive or anthropogenic dispersal of low numbers of individuals between lagoons followed by asexual proliferation of immigrants. Transplantation of individuals of the predominant (general-purpose) genotype, for conservation purposes, will probably stand a good chance of survival given its prevalence throughout the United Kingdom.

  20. Phylogenetic Relationships among Deep-Sea and Chemosynthetic Sea Anemones: Actinoscyphiidae and Actinostolidae (Actiniaria: Mesomyaria)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Daly, Marymegan

    2010-01-01

    Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) are present in all marine ecosystems, including chemosynthetic environments. The high level of endemicity of sea anemones in chemosynthetic environments and the taxonomic confusion in many of the groups to which these animals belong makes their systematic relationships obscure. We use five molecular markers to explore the phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily Mesomyaria, which includes most of the species that live in chemosynthetic, deep-sea, and polar sea habitats and to test the monophyly of the recently defined clades Actinostolina and Chemosynthina. We found that sea anemones of chemosynthetic environments derive from at least two different lineages: one lineage including acontiate deep-sea taxa and the other primarily encompassing shallow-water taxa. PMID:20532040

  1. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

    PubMed Central

    Sabourault, Cécile; Ganot, Philippe; Deleury, Emeline; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm) can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed). We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs). Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial). We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest available genome, the sea

  2. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  3. Microbiome Composition and Diversity of the Ice-Dwelling Sea Anemone, Edwardsiella andrillae.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alison E; Rack, Frank R; Zook, Robert; Williams, Michael J M; Higham, Mary L; Broe, Michael; Kaufmann, Ronald S; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-10-01

    Edwardsiella andrillae is a sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) only known to live embedded in the ice at the seawater interface on the underside of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Although the anatomy and morphological characteristics of E. andrillae have been described, the adaptations of this species to the under-ice ecosystem have yet to be examined. One feature that may be important to the physiology and ecology of E. andrillae is its microbiome, which may play a role in health and survival, as has been deduced in other metazoans, including anthozoans. Here we describe the microbiome of five specimens of E. andrillae, compare the diversity we recovered to that known for temperate anemones and another Antarctic cnidarian, and consider the phylogenetic and functional implications of microbial diversity for these animals. The E. andrillae microbiome was relatively low in diversity, with seven phyla detected, yet included substantial phylogenetic novelty. Among the five anemones investigated, the distribution of microbial taxa varied; this trait appears to be shared by many anthozoans. Most importantly, specimens either appeared to be dominated by Proteobacteria-affiliated members or by deeply branching Tenericute sequences. There were few closely related sequence types that were common to temperate and Antarctic sea anemone microbiomes, the exception being an Acinetobacter-related representative. Similar observations were made between microbes associated with E. andrillae and an Antarctic soft coral; however, there were several closely-related, low abundance Gammaproteobacteria in both Antarctic microbiomes, particularly from the soft coral, that are also commonly detected in Southern Ocean seawater. Although this preliminary study leaves open many questions concerning microbiome diversity and its role in host ecology, we identify major lineages of microbes (e.g., diverse deep-branching Alphaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, and divergent

  4. Microbiome Composition and Diversity of the Ice-Dwelling Sea Anemone, Edwardsiella andrillae.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alison E; Rack, Frank R; Zook, Robert; Williams, Michael J M; Higham, Mary L; Broe, Michael; Kaufmann, Ronald S; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-10-01

    Edwardsiella andrillae is a sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) only known to live embedded in the ice at the seawater interface on the underside of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Although the anatomy and morphological characteristics of E. andrillae have been described, the adaptations of this species to the under-ice ecosystem have yet to be examined. One feature that may be important to the physiology and ecology of E. andrillae is its microbiome, which may play a role in health and survival, as has been deduced in other metazoans, including anthozoans. Here we describe the microbiome of five specimens of E. andrillae, compare the diversity we recovered to that known for temperate anemones and another Antarctic cnidarian, and consider the phylogenetic and functional implications of microbial diversity for these animals. The E. andrillae microbiome was relatively low in diversity, with seven phyla detected, yet included substantial phylogenetic novelty. Among the five anemones investigated, the distribution of microbial taxa varied; this trait appears to be shared by many anthozoans. Most importantly, specimens either appeared to be dominated by Proteobacteria-affiliated members or by deeply branching Tenericute sequences. There were few closely related sequence types that were common to temperate and Antarctic sea anemone microbiomes, the exception being an Acinetobacter-related representative. Similar observations were made between microbes associated with E. andrillae and an Antarctic soft coral; however, there were several closely-related, low abundance Gammaproteobacteria in both Antarctic microbiomes, particularly from the soft coral, that are also commonly detected in Southern Ocean seawater. Although this preliminary study leaves open many questions concerning microbiome diversity and its role in host ecology, we identify major lineages of microbes (e.g., diverse deep-branching Alphaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, and divergent

  5. NF-κB is required for cnidocyte development in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Wolenski, Francis S; Bradham, Cynthia A; Finnerty, John R; Gilmore, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Nv) is a leading model organism for the phylum Cnidaria, which includes anemones, corals, jellyfishes and hydras. A defining trait across this phylum is the cnidocyte, an ectodermal cell type with a variety of functions including defense, prey capture and environmental sensing. Herein, we show that the Nv-NF-κB transcription factor and its inhibitor Nv-IκB are expressed in a subset of cnidocytes in the body column of juvenile and adult anemones. The size and distribution of the Nv-NF-κB-positive cnidocytes suggest that they are in a subtype known as basitrichous haplonema cnidocytes. Nv-NF-κB is primarily cytoplasmic in cnidocytes in juvenile and adult animals, but is nuclear when first detected in the 30-h post-fertilization embryo. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of Nv-NF-κB expression results in greatly reduced cnidocyte formation in the 5 day-old animal. Taken together, these results indicate that NF-κB plays a key role in the development of the phylum-specific cnidocyte cell type in Nematostella, likely by nuclear Nv-NF-κB-dependent activation of genes required for cnidocyte development.

  6. NF-κB is required for cnidocyte development in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Wolenski, Francis S; Bradham, Cynthia A; Finnerty, John R; Gilmore, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Nv) is a leading model organism for the phylum Cnidaria, which includes anemones, corals, jellyfishes and hydras. A defining trait across this phylum is the cnidocyte, an ectodermal cell type with a variety of functions including defense, prey capture and environmental sensing. Herein, we show that the Nv-NF-κB transcription factor and its inhibitor Nv-IκB are expressed in a subset of cnidocytes in the body column of juvenile and adult anemones. The size and distribution of the Nv-NF-κB-positive cnidocytes suggest that they are in a subtype known as basitrichous haplonema cnidocytes. Nv-NF-κB is primarily cytoplasmic in cnidocytes in juvenile and adult animals, but is nuclear when first detected in the 30-h post-fertilization embryo. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of Nv-NF-κB expression results in greatly reduced cnidocyte formation in the 5 day-old animal. Taken together, these results indicate that NF-κB plays a key role in the development of the phylum-specific cnidocyte cell type in Nematostella, likely by nuclear Nv-NF-κB-dependent activation of genes required for cnidocyte development. PMID:23063796

  7. Characterizing the spatiotemporal expression of RNAs and proteins in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Wolenski, Francis S; Layden, Michael J; Martindale, Mark Q; Gilmore, Thomas D; Finnerty, John R

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to reconstruct the early evolution of animal genes and proteins, there is an increasing focus on basal animal lineages such as sponges, cnidarians, ctenophores and placozoans. Among the basal animals, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria) has emerged as a leading laboratory model organism partly because it is well suited to experimental techniques for monitoring and manipulating gene expression. Here we describe protocols adapted for use in Nematostella to characterize the expression of RNAs by in situ hybridization using either chromogenic or fluorescence immunohistochemistry (~1 week), as well as to characterize protein expression by whole-mount immunofluorescence (~3 d). We also provide a protocol for labeling cnidocytes (~3 h), the phylum-specific sensory-effector cell type that performs a variety of functions in cnidarians, including the delivery of their venomous sting. PMID:23579779

  8. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Greenaway, Julie

    2011-01-01

    'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  9. BMPs and Chordin regulate patterning of the directive axis in a sea anemone

    PubMed Central

    Saina, Michael; Genikhovich, Grigory; Renfer, Eduard; Technau, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The TGF-β molecules Dpp/BMP2/4/7 and their antagonist Sog/Chd play a conserved role in establishing the dorso-ventral (DV) axis in bilaterians. Homologues of BMPs and the antagonist, Chordin, have been isolated from Cnidaria and show a striking asymmetric expression pattern with respect to the primary oral-aboral (OA) axis. We used Morpholino knockdowns of Nematostella dpp (bmp2/4), bmp5-8, chordin, and tolloid to investigate their function during early development of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Molecular analysis of the BMP Morpholino phenotypes revealed an upregulated and radialized expression of bmps and chordin in ectoderm and endoderm indicating a negative feedback loop. Our data further suggest that BMP signaling is required for symmetry breaking of bmp and chordin expression during gastrulation. While bmps and chordin marker genes of the ectodermal OA axis extended aborally, other ectodermal markers of the OA axis were not significantly affected. By contrast, expression of other endodermal marker genes marking both the OA and the directive axis were abolished. Our data suggest that the logic of BMP2/4 signaling and the BMP antagonist, Chordin, differs significantly between Cnidaria and Bilateria, yet the double negative feedback loop detected in Nematostella bears systemic similarities with part of the regulatory network of the DV axis patterning system in amphibians. PMID:19833871

  10. Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum

    PubMed Central

    Orts, Diego J. B.; Peigneur, Steve; Madio, Bruno; Cassoli, Juliana S.; Montandon, Gabriela G.; Pimenta, Adriano M. C.; Bicudo, José E. P. W.; Freitas, José C.; Zaharenko, André J.; Tytgat, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) venom is an important source of bioactive compounds used as tools to study the pharmacology and structure-function of voltage-gated K+ channels (KV). These neurotoxins can be divided into four different types, according to their structure and mode of action. In this work, for the first time, two toxins were purified from the venom of Bunodosoma caissarum population from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveals that BcsTx1 and BcsTx2 are the newest members of the sea anemone type 1 potassium channel toxins. Their functional characterization was performed by means of a wide electrophysiological screening on 12 different subtypes of KV channels (KV1.1–KV1.6; KV2.1; KV3.1; KV4.2; KV4.3; hERG and Shaker IR). BcsTx1 shows a high affinity for rKv1.2 over rKv1.6, hKv1.3, Shaker IR and rKv1.1, while Bcstx2 potently blocked rKv1.6 over hKv1.3, rKv1.1, Shaker IR and rKv1.2. Furthermore, we also report for the first time a venom composition and biological activity comparison between two geographically distant populations of sea anemones. PMID:23466933

  11. Free amino acid pool of a sea anemone: exposure and recovery after an oil spill. [Sea Anemones

    SciTech Connect

    Kasschau, M.R.; Howard, C.L.

    1984-07-01

    A number of laboratory studies on marine invertebrates have shown changes in free amino acid (FAA) pools in response to various pollutants. During a nineteen-month field study to determine the effects of natural environmental parameters on the FAA pools to the Gulf Coast sea anemone, Bunodosoma cavernata, an oil tanker collision occurred about 8 miles off Galveston Island. The initial spill from the tanker Burma Agate occurred on November 1, 1979 with large leakages continuing for several weeks. There was no visible sign of oil on the first collection date 13 days after the spill, but 11 days later the anemones were covered with an oil sheen. As a result of this natural exposure to the oil, the authors decided to monitor the sea anemones for changes in the FAA pool during the oil exposure and recovery period.

  12. Symbiosis of sea anemones and hermit crabs: different resource utilization patterns in the Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Chintiroglou, Chariton

    2012-09-01

    The small-scale distribution and resource utilization patterns of hermit crabs living in symbiosis with sea anemones were investigated in the Aegean Sea. Four hermit crab species, occupying shells of nine gastropod species, were found in symbiosis with the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. Shell resource utilization patterns varied among hermit crabs, with Dardanus species utilizing a wide variety of shells. The size structure of hermit crab populations also affected shell resource utilization, with small-sized individuals inhabiting a larger variety of shells. Sea anemone utilization patterns varied both among hermit crab species and among residence shells, with larger crabs and shells hosting an increased abundance and biomass of C. parasitica. The examined biometric relationships suggested that small-sized crabs carry, proportionally to their weight, heavier shells and increased anemone biomass than larger ones. Exceptions to the above patterns are related either to local resource availability or to other environmental factors.

  13. Nutrient Enrichment Coupled with Sedimentation Favors Sea Anemones over Corals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs. PMID:25897844

  14. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs. PMID:25897844

  15. The fine structure of mitochondria and the mitochondrial cloud during oogenesis on the sea anemone Actinia.

    PubMed

    Larkman, A U

    1984-01-01

    The appearance and arrangement of the mitochondria during all stages of oocyte growth in the sea anemone Actinia fragacea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) have been examined by electron microscopy. In small oocytes, the mitochondria are generally squat, with a dense matrix and numerous cristae, although a proportion may show an unusual arrangement of prismatic cristae. During early oogenesis, the mitochondria tend to be arranged in aggregates rather than randomly scattered, and may be associated with nuage material. With the onset of vitellogenesis, a large mitochondrial aggregate forms next to the nucleus. During early vitellogenesis this aggregate enlarges and comes to resemble the mitochondrial clouds found in some amphibian oocytes. Within the cloud, many mitochondria appear to be highly elongate and irregular in shape. The cloud begins to fragment and disperse midway through vitellogenesis at about the time when cortical granules appear. In fully grown oocytes, some mitochondria may have a much less dense matrix and fewer cristae than the remainder, which may be related to their state of activity.

  16. Characterization of a novel EF-hand homologue, CnidEF, in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Laura L; Phillips, Wendy S; Weis, Virginia M

    2007-04-01

    The superfamily of EF-hand proteins is comprised of a large and diverse group of proteins that contain one or more characteristic EF-hand calcium-binding domains. This study describes and characterizes a novel EF-hand cDNA, CnidEF, from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa). CnidEF was found to contain two EF-hand motifs near the C-terminus of the deduced amino acid sequence and two regions near the N-terminus that could represent degenerate EF-hand motifs. CnidEF homologues were also identified from two other sea anemone species. A combination of bioinformatic and molecular phylogenetic analyses was used to compare CnidEF to EF-hand proteins in other organisms. The closest homologues identified from these analyses were a luciferin binding protein (LBP) involved in the bioluminescence of the anthozoan Renilla reniformis, and a sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SARC) involved in fluorescence of the annelid worm Nereis diversicolor. Predicted structure and folding analysis revealed a close association with bioluminescent aequorin (AEQ) proteins from the hydrozoan cnidarian Aequorea aequorea. Neighbor-joining analyses grouped CnidEF within the SARC lineage along with AEQ and other cnidarian bioluminescent proteins rather than in the lineage containing calmodulin (CAM) and troponin-C (TNC). PMID:17280859

  17. Cytolytic peptide and protein toxins from sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria).

    PubMed

    Anderluh, Gregor; Macek, Peter

    2002-02-01

    More than 32 species of sea anemones have been reported to produce lethal cytolytic peptides and proteins. Based on their primary structure and functional properties, cytolysins have been classified into four polypeptide groups. Group I consists of 5-8 kDa peptides, represented by those from the sea anemones Tealia felina and Radianthus macrodactylus. These peptides form pores in phosphatidylcholine containing membranes. The most numerous is group II comprising 20 kDa basic proteins, actinoporins, isolated from several genera of the fam. Actiniidae and Stichodactylidae. Equinatoxins, sticholysins, and magnificalysins from Actinia equina, Stichodactyla helianthus, and Heteractis magnifica, respectively, have been studied mostly. They associate typically with sphingomyelin containing membranes and create cation-selective pores. The crystal structure of equinatoxin II has been determined at 1.9A resolution. Lethal 30-40 kDa cytolytic phospholipases A(2) from Aiptasia pallida (fam. Aiptasiidae) and a similar cytolysin, which is devoid of enzymatic activity, from Urticina piscivora, form group III. A thiol-activated cytolysin, metridiolysin, with a mass of 80 kDa from Metridium senile (fam. Metridiidae) is a single representative of the fourth family. Its activity is inhibited by cholesterol or phosphatides. Biological, structure-function, and pharmacological characteristics of these cytolysins are reviewed.

  18. Repair of hair bundles in sea anemones by secreted proteins.

    PubMed

    Watson, G M; Mire, P; Hudson, R R

    1998-01-01

    Sea anemones are sessile invertebrates that detect movements of prey using numerous hair bundles located on tentacles surrounding their mouth. Previously we found that hair bundles of anemones are structurally and functionally similar to those of vertebrates. After 10-15 min exposure to calcium depleted buffers, hair bundles in chickens suffer moderate damage from which they recover in 12 h without requiring new protein synthesis [Zhao, Yamoah and Gillespie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1996) 15469-15474]. We find that after 1 h exposure to calcium free seawater, hair bundles of anemones suffer extensive damage from which they recover in 4 h, apparently because of newly synthesized, secretory proteins called 'repair proteins'. Recovery is delayed in a dose dependent fashion by cycloheximide. In the presence of exogenously added repair proteins, recovery occurs within 8 min and is cycloheximide insensitive. Recovery is ascertained by a bioassay performed on intact specimens, by electrophysiology, and by timelapse video microscopy. Fraction beta, a chromatographic fraction with bioactivity comparable to the complete mixture of repair proteins, consists of complexes having an estimated mass of 2000 kDa. Avidin based cytochemistry suggests that biotinylated fraction beta binds to damaged hair bundles. SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis demonstrates that fraction beta contains 8-10 polypeptides of 90 kDa or smaller. At least four of these polypeptides apparently are consumed during the repair process. Negatively stained samples of fraction beta are shown by transmission electron microscopy to include filamentous structures similar in length (150 nm) and width (6 nm) to linkages between stereocilia. The filamentous structures can be associated with globular structures (20 nm in diameter). A model is presented wherein repair proteins comprise replacement linkages and enzymes that attach linkages to appropriate membrane proteins. PMID:9472741

  19. Evidence for several types of biologically active substances in north Pacific sea anemones.

    PubMed

    Mahnir, V M; Shumilov, U N; Kovalevskaya, A M; Romanenko, L A; Grebelny, S D

    1993-11-01

    1. Twenty-two sea anemone samples from seven species were collected in Aleutian and Comandorskiye Islands from sub-littoral region (> 50m depth). 2. Water-ethanol extracts of sea anemones were tested using various test-systems after ethanol evaporation. 3. All sea anemones extracts inhibited DNA and most of them inhibited RNA synthesis in Ehrlich carcinoma tumor cells. 4. Extracts of most sea anemones species showed high hemolytic activity. 5. The extracts proved to be nontoxic or display low toxicity being i.p. injected into mice. 6. Some extracts precipitated virus of aleutian disease of mink. 7. None of the extracts showed activity toward Gram +ve, Gram -ve bacteria or yeast. PMID:7905806

  20. Continuous drug release by sea anemone Nematostella vectensis stinging microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-01-27

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery.

  1. Continuous drug release by sea anemone Nematostella vectensis stinging microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-02-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  2. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  3. Nutritional role of two algal symbionts in the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima brandt.

    PubMed

    Bergschneider, Heather; Muller-Parker, Gisèle

    2008-08-01

    The intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima in the Pacific Northwest may host a single type of algal symbiont or two different algal symbionts simultaneously: zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium muscatinei) and zoochlorellae (green algae; Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). A seasonal comparison of zooxanthellate and zoochlorellate anemones showed stable symbiont population densities in summer and winter, with densities of zoochlorellae about 4 times those of zooxanthellae. Photosynthesis-irradiance curves of freshly isolated symbionts show that the productivity (P(max) cell) of freshly isolated zooxanthellae was about 2.5 times that of zoochlorellae during July; comparable rates were obtained in other months. Models of algal carbon flux show that zoochlorellae may supply the host with more photosynthetic carbon per unit anemone biomass than zooxanthellae supply. Zooxanthellate anemone tissue was 2 per thousand ((13)C) and 5 per thousand ((15)N) enriched and zoochlorellate anemone tissue was 6 per thousand ((13)C) and 8 per thousand ((15)N) enriched over their respective symbionts, suggesting that zoochlorellate anemones receive less nutrition from their symbionts than do zooxanthellate individuals. The disparity between predicted contributions from the algal carbon budgets and the stable isotopic composition suggests that short-term measures of algal contributions may not reflect actual nutritional inputs to the host. Isotopic data support the hypothesis of substantial reliance on external food sources. This additional nutrition may allow both algae to persist in this temperate intertidal anemone in spite of differences in seasonal photosynthetic carbon contributions. PMID:18723639

  4. Influence of copper pre-exposure on biochemical responses of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum to changes in oxygen availability.

    PubMed

    Abujamara, Laís Donini; Prazeres, Martina de Freitas; Borges, Vinícius Dias; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-05-01

    The influence of copper on the ability of the intertidal sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum to cope with reactive oxygen species generation associated with changes in oxygen availability was evaluated. Sea anemones were kept under control condition or pre-exposed (96 h) to dissolved copper (6.1 μg ± 2.7 μg/L) and then subjected to a 6-h period of hypoxia (0.5mg O₂/L) followed by a 6-h period of re-oxygenation (7.5mg O₂/L). Antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, and ATP concentration were evaluated. Control sea anemones showed variations in SOD and LPO while copper pre-exposed sea anemones displayed changes in ACAP, GSH, LPO and ATP. However, no clear pattern of change over time was observed. ACAP was lower in copper pre-exposed sea anemones than in the control ones during hypoxia and recovery. SOD activity was increased during hypoxia and reduced shortly after recovery in control sea anemones. GSH concentration was higher in copper pre-exposed sea anemones than in the control ones in all experimental conditions. The LPO level increased shortly after recovery in both groups of sea anemones, being higher in control sea anemones than in copper pre-exposed ones. ATP concentration showed transient changes in copper pre-exposed sea anemones, being lower in these sea anemones than in control ones during recovery. These findings suggest that B. cangicum possess mechanisms to prevent oxidative stress generated by changes in oxygen availability associated with the tidal cycle, which can be disturbed by pre-exposure to copper.

  5. A new Fenestrulina (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) commensal with tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia) in the tropical southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro M; Stampar, Sergio N

    2014-03-21

    A new species of cheilostome bryozoan, Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp., was collected in December 2008 by scuba at 5-10 meters depth at Guaibura Beach, Guarapari, Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The specimen was found associated with tubes of the cerianthid Pachycerianthus sp., representing the first commensal association between a bryozoan and a tube-dwelling anemone. Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp. is the third species of the genus found in Brazilian waters; it is distinguished from other Atlantic species of Fenestrulina by its small angular orificial condyles, a single oral spine and basal anchoring rhizoids arising from abfrontal pore chambers. Morphological adaptations to encrust the tubes of cerianthids include anchoring rootlets and weakly contiguous zooids. These morphological features allow the colony the flexibility to grow around the tube and feed relatively undisturbed by silt and detritus, being raised well above the soft-sediment substratum in which the tube-anemone grows.

  6. A new Fenestrulina (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) commensal with tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia) in the tropical southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro M; Stampar, Sergio N

    2014-01-01

    A new species of cheilostome bryozoan, Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp., was collected in December 2008 by scuba at 5-10 meters depth at Guaibura Beach, Guarapari, Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The specimen was found associated with tubes of the cerianthid Pachycerianthus sp., representing the first commensal association between a bryozoan and a tube-dwelling anemone. Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp. is the third species of the genus found in Brazilian waters; it is distinguished from other Atlantic species of Fenestrulina by its small angular orificial condyles, a single oral spine and basal anchoring rhizoids arising from abfrontal pore chambers. Morphological adaptations to encrust the tubes of cerianthids include anchoring rootlets and weakly contiguous zooids. These morphological features allow the colony the flexibility to grow around the tube and feed relatively undisturbed by silt and detritus, being raised well above the soft-sediment substratum in which the tube-anemone grows. PMID:24871841

  7. Repair of traumatized mammalian hair cells via sea anemone repair proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Smith, Karen Müller; Watson, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian hair cells possess only a limited ability to repair damage after trauma. In contrast, sea anemones show a marked capability to repair damaged hair bundles by means of secreted repair proteins (RPs). Previously, it was found that recovery of traumatized hair cells in blind cavefish was enhanced by anemone-derived RPs; therefore, the ability of anemone RPs to assist recovery of damaged hair cells in mammals was tested here. After a 1 h incubation in RP-enriched culture media, uptake of FM1-43 by experimentally traumatized murine cochlear hair cells was restored to levels comparable to those exhibited by healthy controls. In addition, RP-treated explants had significantly more normally structured hair bundles than time-matched traumatized control explants. Collectively, these results indicate that anemone-derived RPs assist in restoring normal function and structure of experimentally traumatized hair cells of the mouse cochlea. PMID:27489215

  8. Repair of traumatized mammalian hair cells via sea anemone repair proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Smith, Karen Müller; Watson, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian hair cells possess only a limited ability to repair damage after trauma. In contrast, sea anemones show a marked capability to repair damaged hair bundles by means of secreted repair proteins (RPs). Previously, it was found that recovery of traumatized hair cells in blind cavefish was enhanced by anemone-derived RPs; therefore, the ability of anemone RPs to assist recovery of damaged hair cells in mammals was tested here. After a 1 h incubation in RP-enriched culture media, uptake of FM1-43 by experimentally traumatized murine cochlear hair cells was restored to levels comparable to those exhibited by healthy controls. In addition, RP-treated explants had significantly more normally structured hair bundles than time-matched traumatized control explants. Collectively, these results indicate that anemone-derived RPs assist in restoring normal function and structure of experimentally traumatized hair cells of the mouse cochlea.

  9. Defending against pathogens - immunological priming and its molecular basis in a sea anemone, cnidarian.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, in general, are long-lived organisms and hence may repeatedly encounter common pathogens during their lifespans. It remains unknown whether these early diverging animals possess some type of immunological reaction that strengthens the defense response upon repeated infections, such as that described in more evolutionary derived organisms. Here we show results that sea anemones that had previously encountered a pathogen under sub-lethal conditions had a higher survivorship during a subsequently lethal challenge than naïve anemones that encountered the pathogen for the first time. Anemones subjected to the lethal challenge two and four weeks after the sub-lethal exposure presented seven- and five-fold increases in survival, respectively, compared to the naïve anemones. However, anemones challenged six weeks after the sub-lethal exposure showed no increase in survivorship. We argue that this short-lasting priming of the defense response could be ecologically relevant if pathogen encounters are restricted to short seasons characterized by high stress. Furthermore, we discovered significant changes in proteomic profiles between naïve sea anemones and those primed after pathogen exposure suggesting a clear molecular signature associated with immunological priming in cnidarians. Our findings reveal that immunological priming may have evolved much earlier in the tree of life than previously thought. PMID:26628080

  10. Defending against pathogens – immunological priming and its molecular basis in a sea anemone, cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tanya; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, in general, are long-lived organisms and hence may repeatedly encounter common pathogens during their lifespans. It remains unknown whether these early diverging animals possess some type of immunological reaction that strengthens the defense response upon repeated infections, such as that described in more evolutionary derived organisms. Here we show results that sea anemones that had previously encountered a pathogen under sub-lethal conditions had a higher survivorship during a subsequently lethal challenge than naïve anemones that encountered the pathogen for the first time. Anemones subjected to the lethal challenge two and four weeks after the sub-lethal exposure presented seven- and five-fold increases in survival, respectively, compared to the naïve anemones. However, anemones challenged six weeks after the sub-lethal exposure showed no increase in survivorship. We argue that this short-lasting priming of the defense response could be ecologically relevant if pathogen encounters are restricted to short seasons characterized by high stress. Furthermore, we discovered significant changes in proteomic profiles between naïve sea anemones and those primed after pathogen exposure suggesting a clear molecular signature associated with immunological priming in cnidarians. Our findings reveal that immunological priming may have evolved much earlier in the tree of life than previously thought. PMID:26628080

  11. Evolution of thioester-containing proteins revealed by cloning and characterization of their genes from a cnidarian sea anemone, Haliplanella lineate.

    PubMed

    Fujito, Naoko T; Sugimoto, Sanae; Nonaka, Masaru

    2010-07-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary origin of genes encoding thioester-containing proteins (TEPs), TEP genes were isolated from a cnidarian, a sea anemone, Haliplanella lineate. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the four identified cnidarian TEP genes and various TEP genes of many metazoa, indicated that they could be classified into two subfamilies: the alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) subfamily encodining A2M, CD109 and insect TEPs, and the C3 subfamily encoding complement C3, C4 and C5. Two of the four cnidarian TEP genes belonged to the A2M subfamily, showing a close similarity to human A2M and CD109, respectively and thus were termed HaliA2M and HaliCD109. The other two genes belonged to the C3 subfamily, and were termed HaliC3-1 and HaliC3-2. Cnidarian TEPs retained the basic domain structure and functionally important residues for each molecule, and their mRNA were detected at different parts of the sea anemone body. These results suggest that gene duplication and subsequent functional differentiation among C3, A2M and CD109 were very ancient events predating the divergence of the cnidaria and bilateria. PMID:20188753

  12. Evolution of an ancient venom: recognition of a novel family of cnidarian toxins and the common evolutionary origin of sodium and potassium neurotoxins in sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Sunagar, Kartik; Federman Gross, Aya; Scheib, Holger; Alewood, Paul F; Moran, Yehu; Fry, Bryan G

    2015-06-01

    Despite Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids) being the oldest venomous animal lineage, structure-function relationships, phyletic distributions, and the molecular evolutionary regimes of toxins encoded by these intriguing animals are poorly understood. Hence, we have comprehensively elucidated the phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary histories of pharmacologically characterized cnidarian toxin families, including peptide neurotoxins (voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channel-targeting toxins: NaTxs and KTxs, respectively), pore-forming toxins (actinoporins, aerolysin-related toxins, and jellyfish toxins), and the newly discovered small cysteine-rich peptides (SCRiPs). We show that despite long evolutionary histories, most cnidarian toxins remain conserved under the strong influence of negative selection-a finding that is in striking contrast to the rapid evolution of toxin families in evolutionarily younger lineages, such as cone snails and advanced snakes. In contrast to the previous suggestions that implicated SCRiPs in the biomineralization process in corals, we demonstrate that they are potent neurotoxins that are likely involved in the envenoming function, and thus represent the first family of neurotoxins from corals. We also demonstrate the common evolutionary origin of type III KTxs and NaTxs in sea anemones. We show that type III KTxs have evolved from NaTxs under the regime of positive selection, and likely represent a unique evolutionary innovation of the Actinioidea lineage. We report a correlation between the accumulation of episodically adaptive sites and the emergence of novel pharmacological activities in this rapidly evolving neurotoxic clade.

  13. Chemical biology of the mutualistic relationships of sea anemones with fish and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich

    2009-12-15

    Fish species of the genera Amphiprion and Premnas (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) as well as various crustaceans seek protection from predators among the tentacles of sea anemones, where they live essentially unharmed from stinging by the host's nematocysts. The mucous coats of anemonefish and crustaceans have been suggested as mechanisms that prevent the discharge of the nematocysts upon contact. Whereas some fish species seem to produce their own protecting mucous coating, others may acquire mucus from the sea anemone during an acclimation period, as crustaceans do. Whether the natural or acquired mucus layers contain components that inhibit nematocyst discharge or simply lack compounds stimulating the stinging cell's exocytosis is still unknown. PMID:19268681

  14. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2014-01-01

    Cadherin 23 (CDH23), a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1) the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2) the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles. PMID:24465885

  15. Cadherin-23 May Be Dynamic in Hair Bundles of the Model Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    Cadherin 23 (CDH23), a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1–10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1) the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2) the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles. PMID:24465885

  16. The Involvement of Arl-5b in the Repair of Hair Cells in Sea Anemones

    PubMed Central

    Graugnard, Erin M.; Mire, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The subcellular processes involved in repair of hair cells are not well understood. Sea anemones repair hair bundle mechanoreceptors on their tentacles after severe trauma caused by 1-h exposure to calcium-depleted seawater. Repair is dependent on the synthesis and secretion of large protein complexes named “repair proteins.” A cDNA library on traumatized anemone tissue was probed using polyclonal antibodies raised to a specific chromatographic fraction of the repair protein mixture. An ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein, Arl-5b, was identified. The amino acid sequence of the Arl-5b protein in sea anemones is similar to that among several model vertebrates and humans. A polyclonal antibody raised to a peptide of the anemone Arl-5b labels some but not all hair bundles in healthy control animals. The abundance of labeled hair bundles significantly increases above healthy controls after trauma and continuing through the first hour of recovery. Dilute anti-Arl-5b blocks the spontaneous repair of hair bundle mechanoreceptors, suggesting that Arl-5b acts on the extracellular face of the plasma membrane. Immunoelectron microscopy indicates that Arl-5b is located along the length of stereocilia including sites in the vicinity of tip links. We propose that Arl-5b is involved in installing replacement linkages into damaged hair bundle mechanoreceptors. PMID:17332968

  17. LOW THERMAL LIMIT OF GROWTH RATE OF SYMBIODINIUM CALIFORNIUM (DINOPHYTA) IN CULTURE MAY RESTRICT THE SYMBIONT TO SOUTHERN POPULATIONS OF ITS HOST ANEMONES (ANTHOPLEURA SPP.; ANTHOZOA, CNIDARIA)(1).

    PubMed

    McBride, Brooke Baldauf; Muller-Parker, Gisèle; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2009-08-01

    Symbiodinium californium (#383, Banaszak et al. 1993) is one of two known dinoflagellate symbionts of the intertidal sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima, A. xanthogrammica, and A. sola and occurs only in hosts at southern latitudes of the North Pacific. To investigate if temperature restricts the latitudinal distribution of S. californium, growth and photosynthesis at a range of temperatures (5°C-30°C) were determined for cultured symbionts. Mean specific growth rates were the highest between 15°C and 28°C (μ 0.21-0.26 · d(-1) ) and extremely low at 5, 10, and 30°C (0.02-0.03 · d(-1) ). Average doubling times ranged from 2.7 d (20°C) to 33 d (5, 10, and 30°C). Cells cultured at 10°C had the greatest cell volume (821 μm(3) ) and the highest percentage of motile cells (64.5%). Growth and photosynthesis were uncoupled; light-saturated maximum photosynthesis (Pmax ) increased from 2.9 pg C · cell(-1 ) · h(-1) at 20°C to 13.2 pg C · cell(-1 ) · h(-1) at 30°C, a 4.5-fold increase. Less than 11% of daily photosynthetically fixed carbon was utilized for growth at 5, 10, and 30°C, indicating the potential for high carbon translocation at these temperatures. Low temperature effects on growth rate, and not on photosynthesis and cell morphology, may restrict the distribution of S. californium to southern populations of its host anemones.

  18. Seasonal gametogenesis of host sea anemone ( Entacmaea quadricolor) inhabiting Hong Kong waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Jianwen

    2015-02-01

    Studying gonadal development of annual cycle can reveal the process of gametogenesis and reproductive period, and evaluate fertility and source utilization of a species. Host sea anemones are conspicuous members of tropical and subtropical reef ecosystems, but little is known about its biology including reproductive seasonality. Here we reported a one-year study on the gametogenesis and reproduction of host sea anemone ( Entacmaea quadricolor) inhabiting Hong Kong waters. E. quadricolor tissues were sampled in 12 occasions from 5 m and 15 m depths of water, respectively. Histological sectioning of the tissues showed that E. quadricolor was dioecious, and populational ratio of female to male was 1:1.6. The gonadal development was asynchronous within an annual cycle, which included proliferating, growing, maturing, spawning, and resting stages. The spawning occurred between August and October when surface seawater temperature reached the annual maximum (28°C), suggesting that temperature is an important factor modulating the gonadal development and mature of E. quadricolor.

  19. Asexual propagation of sea anemones that host anemonefishes: implications for the marine ornamental aquarium trade and restocking programs.

    PubMed

    Scott, Anna; Hardefeldt, Jannah M; Hall, Karina C

    2014-01-01

    Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones form an iconic symbiotic association in reef environments, and are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade. This study examines asexual propagation as a method for culturing a geographically widespread and commonly traded species of host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Two experiments were done: the first to establish whether size or colour morph influenced survival after cutting into halves or quarters; and the second to see whether feeding was needed to maximise survival and growth after cutting. Survival rates were high in both experiments, with 89.3 and 93.8% of the anemones cut in half, and 62.5 and 80.4% cut in quarters surviving in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Anemones that were cut in half were larger in size, and healed and grew quicker than those cut in quarters. However, even though survival was lower when the individuals were cut in quarters, this treatment produced the greatest number of anemones. Feeding increased oral disc diameter growth and reduced wet weight loss, but did not significantly influence pedal disc diameter. Given that the anemones took up to 56 d to form an off-centre mouth, it is highly likely that feeding may have produced greater effect if the experiment was run for longer. This low technology method of propagation could be used to produce individuals throughout the year and the anemones could then be used to supply the aquarium trade or restock depleted habitats, thus supporting biodiversity conservation in coral reef areas.

  20. [Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Polypeptide of the Sea Anemone, Heteractis crispa].

    PubMed

    Sintsova, O V; Monastyrnaya, M M; Pislyagin, E A; Menchinskaya, E S; Leychenko, E V; Aminin, D L; Kozlovskaya, E P

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of the recombinant polypeptide HCGS 1.20, a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor of the sea anemone Heteractis crispa, was investigated. It was shown that the polypeptide inhibits the increase of the concentration of calcium ions in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages elicited by histamine, and reduces the content of NO in lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages. A presumable mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of the polypeptide was being discussed. PMID:27125018

  1. A novel sea anemone peptide that inhibits acid-sensing ion channels.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Armando Alexei; Salceda, Emilio; Garateix, Anoland Georgina; Zaharenko, André Junqueira; Peigneur, Steve; López, Omar; Pons, Tirso; Richardson, Michael; Díaz, Maylín; Hernández, Yasnay; Ständker, Ludger; Tytgat, Jan; Soto, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    Sea anemones produce ion channels peptide toxins of pharmacological and biomedical interest. However, peptides acting on ligand-gated ion channels, including acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) toxins, remain poorly explored. PhcrTx1 is the first compound characterized from the sea anemone Phymanthus crucifer, and it constitutes a novel ASIC inhibitor. This peptide was purified by gel filtration, ion-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography followed by biological evaluation on ion channels of isolated rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons using patch clamp techniques. PhcrTx1 partially inhibited ASIC currents (IC50∼100 nM), and also voltage-gated K(+) currents but the effects on the peak and on the steady state currents were lower than 20% in DRG neurons, at concentrations in the micromolar range. No significant effect was observed on Na(+) voltage-gated currents in DRG neurons. The N-terminal sequencing yielded 32 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 3477 Da by mass spectrometry. No sequence identity to other sea anemone peptides was found. Interestingly, the bioinformatic analysis of Cys-pattern and secondary structure arrangement suggested that this peptide presents an Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) scaffold, which has been found in other venomous organisms such as spider, scorpions and cone snails. Our results show that PhcrTx1 represents the first member of a new structural group of sea anemones toxins acting on ASIC and, with much lower potency, on Kv channels. Moreover, this is the first report of an ICK peptide in cnidarians, suggesting that the occurrence of this motif in venomous animals is more ancient than expected.

  2. Another bipolar deep-sea anemone: new species of Iosactis (Actiniaria, Endomyaria) from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2012-06-01

    A new species of deep-sea burrowing sea anemone is described and illustrated from Antarctica. Iosactis antarctica sp. nov. is characterised by easily deciduous tentacles with sphincters in the base, smooth column, endodermal marginal sphincter, same mesenteries proximally and distally, 24 perfect mesenteries regularly arranged, diffuse retractor musculature and basilar muscles well developed. Iosactis antarctica sp. nov. is the second species of the deep-sea abyssal genus Iosactis; it differs from I. vagabunda in internal anatomy, cnidae and geographic distribution. The description of I. antarctica sp. nov. provides the opportunity to revaluate the morphology of the proximal end of this genus.

  3. Proteomic identification of hair cell repair proteins in the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2015-09-01

    Sea anemones have an extraordinary capability to repair damaged hair bundles, even after severe trauma. A group of secreted proteins, named repair proteins (RPs), found in mucus covering sea anemones significantly assists the repair of damaged hair bundle mechanoreceptors both in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae and the blind cavefish Astyanax hubbsi. The polypeptide constituents of RPs must be identified in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which repair of hair bundles is accomplished. In this study, several polypeptides of RPs were isolated from mucus using blue native PAGE and then sequenced using LC-MS/MS. Thirty-seven known polypeptides were identified, including Hsp70s, as well as many polypeptide subunits of the 20S proteasome. Other identified polypeptides included those involved in cellular stress responses, protein folding, and protein degradation. Specific inhibitors of Hsp70s and the 20S proteasome were employed in experiments to test their involvement in hair bundle repair. The results of those experiments suggested that repair requires biologically active Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes. A model is proposed that considers the function of extracellular Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes in the repair of damaged hair cells. PMID:26183436

  4. Proteomic identification of hair cell repair proteins in the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2015-09-01

    Sea anemones have an extraordinary capability to repair damaged hair bundles, even after severe trauma. A group of secreted proteins, named repair proteins (RPs), found in mucus covering sea anemones significantly assists the repair of damaged hair bundle mechanoreceptors both in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae and the blind cavefish Astyanax hubbsi. The polypeptide constituents of RPs must be identified in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which repair of hair bundles is accomplished. In this study, several polypeptides of RPs were isolated from mucus using blue native PAGE and then sequenced using LC-MS/MS. Thirty-seven known polypeptides were identified, including Hsp70s, as well as many polypeptide subunits of the 20S proteasome. Other identified polypeptides included those involved in cellular stress responses, protein folding, and protein degradation. Specific inhibitors of Hsp70s and the 20S proteasome were employed in experiments to test their involvement in hair bundle repair. The results of those experiments suggested that repair requires biologically active Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes. A model is proposed that considers the function of extracellular Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes in the repair of damaged hair cells.

  5. The influence of irradiance on the severity of thermal bleaching in sea anemones that host anemonefish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R.; Scott, A.

    2012-03-01

    Entacmaea quadricolor is a geographically widespread species of sea anemone that forms a three-way symbiosis with anemonefish and Symbiodinium. This species dominates the reef substrata at North Solitary Island, Australia, which is located in a region identified as a climate change hot spot. Their geographic location places these anemones under significant threat from rising ocean temperatures, although their upper thermal limit and risk of bleaching are unknown. To address this knowledge gap, anemones were exposed to one of four temperatures (23, 25, 27, or 29°C) and one of two irradiance treatments (high or low light) over 6 days. At moderate temperatures (27°C, 1°C above summer average), anemone bleaching was characterised by symbiont expulsion, while extreme temperatures (29°C) resulted in an additional loss of photosynthetic pigments from within symbionts, and in some cases, host mortality. Irradiance influenced the susceptibility to thermal stress with high light promoting the bleaching response, along with significant reductions in the effective quantum yield of anemone symbionts. The long-term loss of photosystem II photochemical efficiency within in hospite symbionts was observed during exposure to temperatures exceeding the summer average, indicating photosynthetic damage. The resident Symbiodinium, identified as clade C using 28S rRNA gene sequences, therefore represents the partner within the symbiosis that is likely to be most vulnerable to rising seawater temperatures. Results suggest that E. quadricolor is living within approximately 1°C of the upper thermal maximum at the Solitary Islands, and given the predictions for rising seawater temperature on Australia's east coast, the thermal threshold at which bleaching will occur is expected to be reached and exceeded more frequently in the future.

  6. Relationships between host and symbiont cell cycles in sea anemones and their symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Dimond, James L; Pineda, Rea R; Ramos-Ascherl, Zullaylee; Bingham, Brian L

    2013-10-01

    The processes by which cnidarians and their algal endosymbionts achieve balanced growth and biomass could include coordination of host and symbiont cell cycles. We evaluated this theory with natural populations of sea anemones hosting symbiotic dinoflagellates, focusing on the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima symbiotic with Symbiodinium muscatinei in Washington State, USA, and the tropical anemone Stichodactyla helianthus associating with unknown Symbiodinium spp. in Belize. By extruding symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells from the relatively large tentacles of these species and using nuclear staining and flow cytometry, we selectively analyzed cell cycle distributions of the symbionts and the host gastrodermal cells that house them. We found no indications of diel synchrony in host and symbiont G2/M phases, and we observed evidence of diel periodicity only in Symbiodinium spp. associated with S. helianthus but not in the anemone itself. Seasonally, S. muscatinei showed considerable G2/M phase variability among samples collected quarterly over an annual period, while the G2/M phase of its host varied much less. Within samples taken at different times of the year, correlations between host and symbiont G2/M phases ranged from very weakly to very strongly positive, with significant correlations in only half of the samples (two of four A. elegantissima samples and one of two S. helianthus samples). Overall, the G2/M phase relationships across species and sampling periods were positive. Thus, while we found no evidence of close cell cycle coupling, our results suggest a loose, positive relationship between cell cycle processes of the symbiotic partners. PMID:24243963

  7. Cadherin 23-like polypeptide in hair bundle mechanoreceptors of sea anemones.

    PubMed

    Watson, Glen M; Pham, Lankhanh; Graugnard, Erin M; Mire, Patricia

    2008-09-01

    We investigated hair bundle mechanoreceptors in sea anemones for a homolog of cadherin 23. A candidate sequence was identified from the database for Nematostella vectensis that has a shared lineage with vertebrate cadherin 23s. This cadherin 23-like protein comprises 6,074 residues. It is an integral protein that features three transmembrane alpha-helices and a large extracellular loop with 44 contiguous, cadherin (CAD) domains. In the second half of the polypeptide, the CAD domains occur in a quadruple repeat pattern. Members of the same repeat group (i.e., CAD 18, 22, 26, and so on) share nearly identical amino acid sequences. An affinity-purified antibody was generated to a peptide from the C-terminus of the cadherin 23-like polypeptide. The peptide is expected to lie on the exoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. In LM, the immunolabel produced punctate fluorescence in hair bundles. In TEM, immunogold particles were observed medially and distally on stereocilia of hair bundles. Dilute solutions of the antibody disrupted vibration sensitivity in anemones. We conclude that the cadherin 23-like polypeptide likely contributes to the mechanotransduction apparatus of hair bundle mechanoreceptors of anemones. PMID:18654787

  8. Evidence for participation of GCS1 in fertilization of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: Implication of a common mechanism of sperm–egg fusion in plants and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ebchuqin, Eerdundagula; Yokota, Naoto; Yamada, Lixy; Yasuoka, Yuuri; Akasaka, Mari; Arakawa, Mio; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Mori, Toshiyuki; Sawada, Hitoshi

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • GCS1 is a sperm transmembrane protein that is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. • The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals. • NvGCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and GCS1 protein exists in sperm of a sea anemone. • Anti-GCS1 antibodies inhibited the fertilization, showing the participation in fertilization. - Abstract: It has been reported that GCS1 (Generative Cell Specific 1) is a transmembrane protein that is exclusively expressed in sperm cells and is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals, implying the occurrence of a common or ancestral mechanism of GCS1-mediated gamete fusion. In order to elucidate the common mechanism, we investigated the role of GCS1 in animal fertilization using a sea anemone (Cnidaria), Nematostella vectensis. Although the existence of the GCS1 gene in N. vectensis has been reported, the expression of GCS1 in sperm and the role of GCS1 in fertilization are not known. In this study, we showed that the GCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and that GCS1 protein exists in sperm by in situ hybridization and proteomic analysis, respectively. Then we made four peptide antibodies against the N-terminal extracellular region of NvGCS1. These antibodies specifically reacted to NvGCS1 among sperm proteins on the basis of Western analysis and potently inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that sperm GCS1 plays a pivotal role in fertilization, most probably in sperm–egg fusion, in a starlet sea anemone, suggesting a common gamete-fusion mechanism shared by eukaryotic organisms.

  9. Influence of possible in situ ionic environment on kinetics of purified citrate synthase from an osmoconformer sea anemone, Bunedosoma cavernata.

    PubMed

    Sarkissian, I V; Boatwright, D T

    1975-01-01

    Kinetics of utilization of acetyl coenzyme A by citrate synthase of a sea anemone, an osmoconformer, were compared with those of citrate synthases of various osmoregulators. The Kms of the latter enzymes were substantially increased by higher concentrations of salt and the enzyme exhibited hyperbolic substrate saturation curves. Citrate synthase from sea anemone, on the other hand, exhibited allosteric kinetics and minimal effects of salt on its Km. We suggest that the adaptive advantage of this enzymic property to a sedentary osmoconforming organism such as sea anemone is obvious since the osmoregulating creatures are apparently unable to maintain an appropriate low ionic environment in situ and thus probably the Km of their citrate synthases at a low level.

  10. The global diversity of sea pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea).

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary C

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in deep-sea exploration technology coupled with an increase in worldwide biotic surveys, biological research, and underwater photography in shallow water marine regions such as coral reefs, has allowed for a relatively rapid expansion of our knowledge in the global diversity of many groups of marine organisms. This paper is part of the PLoS ONE review collection of WoRMS (the Worldwide Register of Marine Species), on the global diversity of marine species, and treats the pennatulacean octocorals, a group of cnidarians commonly referred to as sea pens or sea feathers. This also includes sea pansies, some sea whips, and various vermiform taxa. Pennatulaceans are a morphologically diverse group with an estimated 200 or more valid species, displaying worldwide geographic and bathymetric distributions from polar seas to the equatorial tropics and from intertidal flats to over 6100 m in depth. The paper treats new discoveries and taxa new to science, and provides greater resolution in geographic and bathymetric distributions data than was previously known, as well as descriptions of life appearances in life and in situ observations at diverse depth.

  11. The Global Diversity of Sea Pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in deep-sea exploration technology coupled with an increase in worldwide biotic surveys, biological research, and underwater photography in shallow water marine regions such as coral reefs, has allowed for a relatively rapid expansion of our knowledge in the global diversity of many groups of marine organisms. This paper is part of the PLoS ONE review collection of WoRMS (the Worldwide Register of Marine Species), on the global diversity of marine species, and treats the pennatulacean octocorals, a group of cnidarians commonly referred to as sea pens or sea feathers. This also includes sea pansies, some sea whips, and various vermiform taxa. Pennatulaceans are a morphologically diverse group with an estimated 200 or more valid species, displaying worldwide geographic and bathymetric distributions from polar seas to the equatorial tropics and from intertidal flats to over 6100 m in depth. The paper treats new discoveries and taxa new to science, and provides greater resolution in geographic and bathymetric distributions data than was previously known, as well as descriptions of life appearances in life and in situ observations at diverse depth. PMID:21829500

  12. Short Toxin-like Proteins Abound in Cnidaria Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Tirosh, Yitshak; Linial, Itai; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over 400 of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:23202321

  13. Short toxin-like proteins abound in Cnidaria genomes.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Yitshak; Linial, Itai; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2012-11-16

    Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over 400 of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem.

  14. Responses of the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, to ocean acidification conditions and copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is a growing concern due to its deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. Additionally, the combined effects of OA and other local stressors like metal pollution are largely unknown. In this study, we examined physiological effects in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to the global stressor carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as the local stressor copper (Cu) over 7 days. Cu accumulated in the tissues of E. pallida in a concentration-dependent manner. At some time points, sea anemones exposed to 1000 ppm CO2 had higher tissue Cu concentrations than those exposed to 400 ppm CO2 at the same Cu exposure concentrations. In general, the activities of all anti-oxidant enzymes measured (catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx, glutathione reductase, GR) increased with exposure to increasing Cu concentrations. Significant differences in GR, CAT and to some degree GPx activity, were observed due to increasing CO2 exposure in control treatments. Sea anemones exposed to Cu in combination with higher CO2 generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentration of Cu and lower CO2. Activity of the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA), involved in acid-base balance, was significantly decreased with increasing Cu exposure. At the two lowest Cu concentrations, the extent of CA inhibition was lessened with increasing CO2 concentration. These results provide insight into toxic mechanisms of both Cu and CO2 exposure to the sensitive cnidarian E. pallida and have implications for environmental exposure of multiple contaminants. PMID:26363274

  15. Responses of the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, to ocean acidification conditions and copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is a growing concern due to its deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. Additionally, the combined effects of OA and other local stressors like metal pollution are largely unknown. In this study, we examined physiological effects in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to the global stressor carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as the local stressor copper (Cu) over 7 days. Cu accumulated in the tissues of E. pallida in a concentration-dependent manner. At some time points, sea anemones exposed to 1000 ppm CO2 had higher tissue Cu concentrations than those exposed to 400 ppm CO2 at the same Cu exposure concentrations. In general, the activities of all anti-oxidant enzymes measured (catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx, glutathione reductase, GR) increased with exposure to increasing Cu concentrations. Significant differences in GR, CAT and to some degree GPx activity, were observed due to increasing CO2 exposure in control treatments. Sea anemones exposed to Cu in combination with higher CO2 generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentration of Cu and lower CO2. Activity of the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA), involved in acid-base balance, was significantly decreased with increasing Cu exposure. At the two lowest Cu concentrations, the extent of CA inhibition was lessened with increasing CO2 concentration. These results provide insight into toxic mechanisms of both Cu and CO2 exposure to the sensitive cnidarian E. pallida and have implications for environmental exposure of multiple contaminants.

  16. Indole Alkaloids from the Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora and Homarine from Octopus cyanea.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Kamel H; Göhl, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2015-11-01

    The two new indole alkaloids 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-4H-imidazol-4-one (1), 2-amino-5-[(6-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]-3,5-dihydro-3-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one (2), and auramine (3) have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis aurora. Both indole alkaloids were synthesized for the confirmation of the structures. Homarine (4), along with uracil (5), hypoxanthine (6), and inosine (7) have been obtained from Octopus cyanea. PMID:26567952

  17. Indole Alkaloids from the Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora and Homarine from Octopus cyanea.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Kamel H; Göhl, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2015-11-01

    The two new indole alkaloids 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-4H-imidazol-4-one (1), 2-amino-5-[(6-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]-3,5-dihydro-3-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one (2), and auramine (3) have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis aurora. Both indole alkaloids were synthesized for the confirmation of the structures. Homarine (4), along with uracil (5), hypoxanthine (6), and inosine (7) have been obtained from Octopus cyanea.

  18. Severe Toxic Skin Reaction Caused by a Common Anemone and Identification of the Culprit Organism.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Özgür Deniz; Gözer, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    In a marine envenomation, identification of the culprit organism can be difficult. In this case report, we present our method to identify snakelocks anemone (Anemonia viridis or formerly Anemonia sulcata) as the culprit of a severe toxic skin reaction. A. viridis is one of the most common anemones of the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. It lives at a depth of up to 10 m. It is a member of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, hydroids, and corals. They have toxic organelles called cnidocysts that have the capacity to inject venom with microscopic harpoon-like structures. The cnidocysts of A. viridis may cause toxic and allergic reactions, and although its venom is one of the most studied cnidarian venoms, detailed case reports are rare. PMID:26146820

  19. A novel fluorescent protein from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica (Anthozoa: Actiniaria).

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kenta; Shimada, Eriko; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tsuruwaka, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescent protein was identified and cloned from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica. Bioluminescence and fluorescence expression were examined by direct observations of live specimens and RNA-Seq analysis. Both approaches revealed a novel green fluorescent protein in the tentacles of the anemone, but bioluminescence was not observed. Behavioural observations revealed that a blue light excited the fluorescence in the tentacles, and initiated a behavioural response whereby the fluorescent tentacles became fully exposed to the blue light. The excitation and emission peaks of C. japonica's fluorescent protein were at 500 and 510 nm, respectively, which were greener than those reported in homologs. Furthermore, this protein was highly tolerant of increased temperatures and repeated freeze-thaw treatments. The current study presents an example of fluorescence in a deep-sea cnidarian, demonstrating that fluorescent proteins could have important roles, regardless of the presence or absence of strong sunlight. It also demonstrates that this deep-sea fluorescent protein has unique characteristics, including high stability, perhaps as an adaptation to the extreme environment. PMID:27002644

  20. A novel fluorescent protein from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kenta; Shimada, Eriko; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tsuruwaka, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescent protein was identified and cloned from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica. Bioluminescence and fluorescence expression were examined by direct observations of live specimens and RNA-Seq analysis. Both approaches revealed a novel green fluorescent protein in the tentacles of the anemone, but bioluminescence was not observed. Behavioural observations revealed that a blue light excited the fluorescence in the tentacles, and initiated a behavioural response whereby the fluorescent tentacles became fully exposed to the blue light. The excitation and emission peaks of C. japonica’s fluorescent protein were at 500 and 510 nm, respectively, which were greener than those reported in homologs. Furthermore, this protein was highly tolerant of increased temperatures and repeated freeze–thaw treatments. The current study presents an example of fluorescence in a deep-sea cnidarian, demonstrating that fluorescent proteins could have important roles, regardless of the presence or absence of strong sunlight. It also demonstrates that this deep-sea fluorescent protein has unique characteristics, including high stability, perhaps as an adaptation to the extreme environment. PMID:27002644

  1. Asexual Propagation of Sea Anemones That Host Anemonefishes: Implications for the Marine Ornamental Aquarium Trade and Restocking Programs

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Anna; Hardefeldt, Jannah M.; Hall, Karina C.

    2014-01-01

    Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones form an iconic symbiotic association in reef environments, and are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade. This study examines asexual propagation as a method for culturing a geographically widespread and commonly traded species of host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Two experiments were done: the first to establish whether size or colour morph influenced survival after cutting into halves or quarters; and the second to see whether feeding was needed to maximise survival and growth after cutting. Survival rates were high in both experiments, with 89.3 and 93.8% of the anemones cut in half, and 62.5 and 80.4% cut in quarters surviving in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Anemones that were cut in half were larger in size, and healed and grew quicker than those cut in quarters. However, even though survival was lower when the individuals were cut in quarters, this treatment produced the greatest number of anemones. Feeding increased oral disc diameter growth and reduced wet weight loss, but did not significantly influence pedal disc diameter. Given that the anemones took up to 56 d to form an off-centre mouth, it is highly likely that feeding may have produced greater effect if the experiment was run for longer. This low technology method of propagation could be used to produce individuals throughout the year and the anemones could then be used to supply the aquarium trade or restock depleted habitats, thus supporting biodiversity conservation in coral reef areas. PMID:25314131

  2. Abundance and diversity of anemonefishes and their host sea anemones at two mesophotic sites on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, T.; Scott, A.; Steinberg, D.

    2012-12-01

    Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones are iconic inhabitants of coral reef ecosystems. While studies have documented their abundance in shallow-water reef habitats in parts of the Indo-Pacific, none have examined these species on mesophotic reefs. In this study, we used autonomous underwater vehicle imagery to examine the abundance and diversity of anemones and anemonefishes at Viper Reef and Hydrographers Passage in the central Great Barrier Reef at depths between 50 and 65 m. A total of 37 host sea anemones (31 Entacmaea quadricolor and 6 Heteractis crispa) and 24 anemonefishes (23 Amphiprion akindynos and 1 A. perideraion) were observed. Densities were highest at Viper Reef, with 8.48 E. quadricolor and A. akindynos per 100 m2 of reef substratum. These results support the hypothesis that mesophotic reefs have many species common to shallow-water coral reefs and that many taxa may occur at depths greater than currently recognised.

  3. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa.

    PubMed

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Zelepuga, Elena; Sintsova, Oksana; Tabakmakher, Valentin; Gnedenko, Oksana; Ivanov, Alexis; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2015-10-01

    Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:26404319

  4. Synergistic Action of Actinoporin Isoforms from the Same Sea Anemone Species Assembled into Functionally Active Heteropores.

    PubMed

    Rivera-de-Torre, Esperanza; García-Linares, Sara; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Lacadena, Javier; Gavilanes, José G; Martínez-Del-Pozo, Álvaro

    2016-07-01

    Among the toxic polypeptides secreted in the venom of sea anemones, actinoporins are the pore-forming toxins whose toxic activity relies on the formation of oligomeric pores within biological membranes. Intriguingly, actinoporins appear as multigene families that give rise to many protein isoforms in the same individual displaying high sequence identities but large functional differences. However, the evolutionary advantage of producing such similar isotoxins is not fully understood. Here, using sticholysins I and II (StnI and StnII) from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, it is shown that actinoporin isoforms can potentiate each other's activity. Through hemolysis and calcein releasing assays, it is revealed that mixtures of StnI and StnII are more lytic than equivalent preparations of the corresponding isolated isoforms. It is then proposed that this synergy is due to the assembly of heteropores because (i) StnI and StnII can be chemically cross-linked at the membrane and (ii) the affinity of sticholysin mixtures for the membrane is increased with respect to any of them acting in isolation, as revealed by isothermal titration calorimetry experiments. These results help us understand the multigene nature of actinoporins and may be extended to other families of toxins that require oligomerization to exert toxicity. PMID:27129251

  5. Accumulation of glutamate in sea anemones exposed to heavy metals and organic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Kasschau, M.R.; Skaggs, M.M.; Chen, E.C.M.

    1980-12-01

    Stress has been reported to accelerate protein catabolism in man and animals and as a result one can expect to observe changes in certain amino acids pools of these organisms. In the present study, the Gulf Coast sea anemone, Bunodosoma cavernata, was used as the test animal and free amino acid levels of whole animals were measured following stressed conditions. Sea anemones were chosen as the test animals since they are sessile and, due to the nature of their morphology, they have few mechanisms by which they can escape environmental stress. The animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride and the organic amines, aniline, diethanol amine (DEA), and ethylene diamine (EDA). Chloride salts of mercury and cadmium were chosen rather than other anions since chloride is the most abundant anion in seawater. These two particular metals were chosen as challenge compounds due to their high toxicity in aquatic systems. The three organic amines were chosen for their relatively high water solubility and low vapor pressure in an aqueous solution, thus insuring that the toxic compound is retained in the test solution. Since organic amines are used extensively in the Gulf Coast industrial complex, there is a high probability of these compounds contaminating the marine environment. Results indicate that the reaction of B. cavernata to stress from organic amines is similar to the response to heavy metals, only more extensive.

  6. Tissue-Specific Venom Composition and Differential Gene Expression in Sea Anemones.

    PubMed

    Macrander, Jason; Broe, Michael; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarians represent one of the few groups of venomous animals that lack a centralized venom transmission system. Instead, they are equipped with stinging capsules collectively known as nematocysts. Nematocysts vary in abundance and type across different tissues; however, the venom composition in most species remains unknown. Depending on the tissue type, the venom composition in sea anemones may be vital for predation, defense, or digestion. Using a tissue-specific RNA-seq approach, we characterize the venom assemblage in the tentacles, mesenterial filaments, and column for three species of sea anemone (Anemonia sulcata, Heteractis crispa, and Megalactis griffithsi). These taxa vary with regard to inferred venom potency, symbiont abundance, and nematocyst diversity. We show that there is significant variation in abundance of toxin-like genes across tissues and species. Although the cumulative toxin abundance for the column was consistently the lowest, contributions to the overall toxin assemblage varied considerably among tissues for different toxin types. Our gene ontology (GO) analyses also show sharp contrasts between conserved GO groups emerging from whole transcriptome analysis and tissue-specific expression among GO groups in our differential expression analysis. This study provides a framework for future characterization of tissue-specific venom and other functionally important genes in this lineage of simple bodied animals. PMID:27389690

  7. Catalase characterization and implication in bleaching of a symbiotic sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Sabourault, Cécile; Richier, Sophie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2007-01-15

    Symbiotic cnidarians are marine invertebrates harboring photosynthesizing microalgae (named zooxanthellae), which produce great amounts of oxygen and free radicals upon illumination. Studying antioxidative balance is then crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. In particular, it is suspected that oxidative stress triggers cnidarian bleaching, i.e., the expulsion of zooxanthellae from the animal host, responsible for symbiotic cnidarian mass mortality worldwide. This study therefore investigates catalase antioxidant enzymes and their role in bleaching of the temperate symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Using specific separation of animal tissues (ectoderm and endoderm) from the symbionts (zooxanthellae), spectrophotometric assays and native PAGE revealed both tissue-specific and activity pattern distribution of two catalase electrophoretypes, E1 and E2. E1, expressed in all three tissues, presents high sensitivity to the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) and elevated temperatures. The ectodermal E1 form is responsible for 67% of total catalase activity. The E2 form, expressed only within zooxanthellae and their host endodermal cells, displays low sensitivity to ATZ and relative thermostability. We further cloned an ectodermal catalase, which shares 68% identity with mammalian monofunctional catalases. Last, 6 days of exposure of whole sea anemones to ATZ (0.5 mM) led to effective catalase inhibition and initiated symbiont expulsion. This demonstrates the crucial role of this enzyme in cnidarian bleaching, a phenomenon responsible for worldwide climate-change-induced mass mortalities, with catastrophic consequences for marine biodiversity. PMID:17189829

  8. Molecular characterization of two CuZn-superoxide dismutases in a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Plantivaux, Amandine; Furla, Paola; Zoccola, Didier; Garello, Ginette; Forcioli, Didier; Richier, Sophie; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Tambutté, Eric; Tambutté, Sylvie; Allemand, Denis

    2004-10-15

    Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic cells--called zooxanthellae--are submitted to high oxygen levels generated by photosynthesis. To cope with this hyperoxic state, symbiotic cnidarians present a high diversity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) isoforms. To understand better the mechanism of resistance of cnidarian hosts to hyperoxia, we studied copper- and zinc-containing SOD (CuZnSOD) from Anemonia viridis, a temperate symbiotic sea anemone. We cloned two CuZnSOD genes that we call AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb. Their molecular analysis suggests that the AvCuZnSODa transcript encodes an extracellular form of CuZnSOD, whereas the AvCuZnSODb transcript encodes an intracellular form. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that both AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb transcripts are expressed in the endodermal and ectodermal cells of the sea anemone, but not in the zooxanthellae. The genomic flanking sequences of AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb revealed different putative binding sites for transcription factors, suggesting different modes of regulation for the two genes. This study represents a first step in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of host animal resistance to permanent hyperoxia status resulting from the photosynthetic symbiosis. Moreover, AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb are the first SODs cloned from a diploblastic animal, contributing to the evolutionary understanding of SODs. PMID:15451057

  9. Tissue-Specific Venom Composition and Differential Gene Expression in Sea Anemones

    PubMed Central

    Macrander, Jason; Broe, Michael; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarians represent one of the few groups of venomous animals that lack a centralized venom transmission system. Instead, they are equipped with stinging capsules collectively known as nematocysts. Nematocysts vary in abundance and type across different tissues; however, the venom composition in most species remains unknown. Depending on the tissue type, the venom composition in sea anemones may be vital for predation, defense, or digestion. Using a tissue-specific RNA-seq approach, we characterize the venom assemblage in the tentacles, mesenterial filaments, and column for three species of sea anemone (Anemonia sulcata, Heteractis crispa, and Megalactis griffithsi). These taxa vary with regard to inferred venom potency, symbiont abundance, and nematocyst diversity. We show that there is significant variation in abundance of toxin-like genes across tissues and species. Although the cumulative toxin abundance for the column was consistently the lowest, contributions to the overall toxin assemblage varied considerably among tissues for different toxin types. Our gene ontology (GO) analyses also show sharp contrasts between conserved GO groups emerging from whole transcriptome analysis and tissue-specific expression among GO groups in our differential expression analysis. This study provides a framework for future characterization of tissue-specific venom and other functionally important genes in this lineage of simple bodied animals. PMID:27389690

  10. Chemical transmission in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: A genomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Anctil, Michel

    2009-12-01

    The sequencing of the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) genome provides opportunities to investigate the function and evolution of genes associated with chemical neurotransmission and hormonal signaling. This is of particular interest because sea anemones are anthozoans, the phylogenetically basal cnidarians least changed from the common ancestors of cnidarians and bilaterian animals, and because cnidarians are considered the most basal metazoans possessing a nervous system. This analysis of the genome has yielded 20 orthologues of enzymes and nicotinic receptors associated with cholinergic function, an even larger number of genes encoding enzymes, receptors and transporters for glutamatergic (28) and GABAergic (34) transmission, and two orthologues of purinergic receptors. Numerous genes encoding enzymes (14), receptors (60) and transporters (5) for aminergic transmission were identified, along with four adenosine-like receptors and one nitric oxide synthase. Diverse neuropeptide and hormone families are also represented, mostly with genes encoding prepropeptides and receptors related to varying closeness to RFamide (17) and tachykinin (14), but also galanin (8), gonadotropin-releasing hormones and vasopressin/oxytocin (5), melanocortins (11), insulin-like peptides (5), glycoprotein hormones (7), and uniquely cnidarian peptide families (44). Surprisingly, no muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were identified and a large number of melatonin-related, but not serotonin, orthologues were found. Phylogenetic tree construction and inspection of multiple sequence alignments reveal how evolutionarily and functionally distant chemical transmitter-related proteins are from those of higher metazoans. PMID:20403752

  11. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa

    PubMed Central

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Zelepuga, Elena; Sintsova, Oksana; Tabakmakher, Valentin; Gnedenko, Oksana; Ivanov, Alexis; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:26404319

  12. Increased cell proliferation and mucocyte density in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida recovering from bleaching.

    PubMed

    Fransolet, David; Roberty, Stéphane; Herman, Anne-Catherine; Tonk, Linda; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Plumier, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of coral after bleaching episodes is a critical period for the health of the reef ecosystem. While events such as symbiont (genus Symbiodinium) shifting/shuffling or tissue apoptosis have been demonstrated to occur following bleaching, little is known concerning tissue recovery or cell proliferation. Here, we studied the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida exposed to a transient elevation of water temperature combined with high illumination (33°C and 1900 µmol photons x m(-2) x s(-1) for 30 h). Following such treatment bleached anemones showed a significant reduction of their Symbiodinium density. Cell proliferation in the ectodermis and gastrodermis was determined by assessing the densities of cells labeled with a thymidine analogue (EdU). Cell proliferation significantly increased during the first day following stress in both tissue types. This increased cell proliferation returned to pre-stress values after one week. Although cell proliferation was higher in the ectodermis in absence of stress, it was relatively more pronounced in the gastrodermis of stressed anemones. In addition, the ratio of ectodermal mucocytes significantly increased three weeks after induced stress. These results suggest that thermal/photic stress coupled with the loss of the symbionts is able to enhance cell proliferation in both gastrodermis and ectodermis of cnidarians. While new cells formed in the gastrodermis are likely to host new Symbiodinium, the fate of new cells in the ectodermis was only partially revealed. Some new ectodermal cells may, in part, contribute to the increased number of mucocytes which could eventually help strengthen the heterotrophic state until restoration of the symbiosis. PMID:23724115

  13. Reef fishes can recognize bleached habitat during settlement: sea anemone bleaching alters anemonefish host selection.

    PubMed

    Scott, Anna; Dixson, Danielle L

    2016-05-25

    Understanding how bleaching impacts the settlement of symbiotic habitat specialists and whether there is flexibility in settlement choices with regard to habitat quality is essential given our changing climate. We used five anemonefishes (Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion latezonatus, Amphiprion ocellaris, Amphiprion percula and Premnas biaculeatus) and three host sea anemones (Entacmaea quadricolor, Heteractis crispa and Heteractis magnifica) in paired-choice flume experiments to determine whether habitat naive juveniles have the olfactory capabilities to distinguish between unbleached and bleached hosts, and how this may affect settlement decisions. All anemonefishes were able to distinguish between bleached and unbleached hosts, and responded only to chemical cues from species-specific host anemones irrespective of health status, indicating a lack of flexibility in host use. While bleached hosts were selected as habitat, this occurred only when unbleached options were unavailable, with the exception of A. latezonatus, which showed strong preferences for H. crispa regardless of health. This study highlights the potential deleterious indirect impacts of declining habitat quality during larval settlement in habitat specialists, which could be important in the field, given that bleaching events are becoming increasingly common. PMID:27226472

  14. Edwardsiella andrillae, a new species of sea anemone from Antarctic ice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Marymegan; Rack, Frank; Zook, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of the lower surface of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica by the Submersible Capable of under-Ice Navigation and Imaging (SCINI) remotely operated vehicle discovered a new species of sea anemone living in this previously undocumented ecosystem. This discovery was a significant outcome of the Coulman High Project's geophysical and environmental fieldwork in 2010-2011 as part of the ANDRILL (ANtarctic geologic DRILLing) program. Edwardsiella andrillae n. sp., lives with most of its column in the ice shelf, with only the tentacle crown extending into the seawater below. In addition to being the only Antarctic representative of the genus, Edwardsiella andrillae is distinguished from all other species of the genus in the number of tentacles and in the size and distribution of cnidae. The anatomy and histology of Edwardsiella andrillae present no features that explain how this animal withstands the challenges of life in such an unusual habitat.

  15. Edwardsiella andrillae, a New Species of Sea Anemone from Antarctic Ice

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Marymegan; Rack, Frank; Zook, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of the lower surface of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica by the Submersible Capable of under-Ice Navigation and Imaging (SCINI) remotely operated vehicle discovered a new species of sea anemone living in this previously undocumented ecosystem. This discovery was a significant outcome of the Coulman High Project’s geophysical and environmental fieldwork in 2010-2011 as part of the ANDRILL (ANtarctic geologic DRILLing) program. Edwardsiella andrillae n. sp., lives with most of its column in the ice shelf, with only the tentacle crown extending into the seawater below. In addition to being the only Antarctic representative of the genus, Edwardsiella andrillae is distinguished from all other species of the genus in the number of tentacles and in the size and distribution of cnidae. The anatomy and histology of Edwardsiella andrillae present no features that explain how this animal withstands the challenges of life in such an unusual habitat. PMID:24349517

  16. Edwardsiella andrillae, a new species of sea anemone from Antarctic ice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Marymegan; Rack, Frank; Zook, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of the lower surface of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica by the Submersible Capable of under-Ice Navigation and Imaging (SCINI) remotely operated vehicle discovered a new species of sea anemone living in this previously undocumented ecosystem. This discovery was a significant outcome of the Coulman High Project's geophysical and environmental fieldwork in 2010-2011 as part of the ANDRILL (ANtarctic geologic DRILLing) program. Edwardsiella andrillae n. sp., lives with most of its column in the ice shelf, with only the tentacle crown extending into the seawater below. In addition to being the only Antarctic representative of the genus, Edwardsiella andrillae is distinguished from all other species of the genus in the number of tentacles and in the size and distribution of cnidae. The anatomy and histology of Edwardsiella andrillae present no features that explain how this animal withstands the challenges of life in such an unusual habitat. PMID:24349517

  17. Population impacts of collecting sea anemones and anemonefish for the marine aquarium trade in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, Craig S.; Hodgson, Gregor; Ambrose, Richard F.

    2005-12-01

    Tropical marine ornamentals comprise an increasingly important fishery worldwide. Although the potential for overexploitation of marine ornamentals is great, few studies have addressed the population-level impacts of ornamental exploitation and few ornamental fisheries are managed. Analysis of catch records obtained from collectors over a four-month period in the vicinity of Cebu, Philippines, showed that anemonefish and anemones comprised close to 60% of the total catch. Underwater visual census surveys revealed that both anemone and anemonefish densities were significantly lower in exploited areas than in protected areas. The low density of anemones on exploited reefs accounted for over 80% of the reduced density of anemonefish at those sites. There were similar numbers of anemonefish per unit area of anemone in protected and exploited sites; however, biomass of anemonefish per unit area of anemone was lower in exploited areas. Reduction of anemone removals is recommended to support the sustainable harvest of anemonefish from this region.

  18. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  19. A sea anemone-like CuO/Co3O4 composite: an effective catalyst for electrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiumin; Guan, Guoqing; Du, Xiao; Cao, Ji; Hao, Xiaogang; Ma, Xuli; Jagadale, Ajay D; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-10-18

    A facile unipolar pulse electrodeposition combined with the thermal oxidation method was applied for fabrication of CuO/Co3O4 composites on carbon electrode for water electrolysis, and it was found that the sea anemone-like one with a 3D hierarchical structure formed at -0.8 V exhibited excellent performance for water electrolysis at a low overpotential with high stability. PMID:26311303

  20. Isolation and characterisation of five neurotoxic and cardiotoxic polypeptides from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, T; Schaller, C; Schulze, C; Sanchez-Rodriguez, J; Dannmeier, C; Ravens, U; Heubach, J F; Eckhardt, K; Schmidtmayer, J; Schmidt, H; Aneiros, A; Wachter, E; Béress, L

    2001-05-01

    Five toxins (APE 1 to APE 5) of the sea anemone species Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt) have been isolated from a toxic by-product fraction of its concentrated crude watery-methanolic extract, prepared previously for the isolation of a neuropeptide (the head-activator) by Schaller and Bodenmüller (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78 (1981) 7000) from 200kg sea anemones. Toxin purification was performed by desalting of the starting material by dialysis (MWCO 3500) against distilled water, anion exchange chromatography on QAE-Sephadex A25 at pH 8, twice gel filtration on Sephadex G50 m, repeated chromatography on QAE-Sephadex at pH 10 and chromatography on the cation exchanger Fractogel EMD SO(3)(-)-650 M.Final purification of the toxins was achieved by HPLC on MN SP 250/10 Nucleosil 500-5 C(18) PPN and MN SP 250/21 Nucleosil 300-7 C(18). Each toxin was composed of at least two isotoxins of which APE 1-1, APE 1-2, APE 2-1, APE 2-2 and APE 5-3 were isolated in preparative scale. With exception of APE 5-3 the sequences of the isotoxins have been elucidated. They resemble the 47 residue type-I long polypeptide toxins native to Anemonia sulcata (Pennant). All isotoxins paralyse the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) by tetanic contractions after i.m. application. The toxins modify current passing through the fast Na(+) channel in neuroblastoma cells, leading to delayed and incomplete inactivation. APE 1-1, APE 2-1 and APE 5-3 produce a positive inotropic effect in mammalian heart muscle, although they differ in potency. The order of potency is APE 2-1>APE 1-1>APE 5-3 (i.e. threshold concentrations are 1, 10 and 300nM, respectively). In addition, they enhance the spontaneous beating frequency in isolated right atria (guinea pig). The most potent cardiotoxic isotoxin is APE 2-1, its sequence is identical with that of AP-C, a toxin isolated and characterised previously by Norton et al. (Drugs and Foods from the Sea, 1978, University of Oklahoma Press, p. 37-50).LD50 APE 2-1:1 micro

  1. Reproductive biology of the sea anemone shrimp Periclimenes rathbunae (Caridea, Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae), from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Azofeifa-Solano, Juan Carlos; Elizondo-Coto, Marcelo; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Caridean shrimps are a highly diverse group and many species form symbiotic relationships with different marine invertebrates. Periclimenes rathbunae is a brightly colored shrimp that lives predominantly in association with sea anemones. Information about the reproductive ecology of the species is scarce. Therefore, we collected 70 ovigerous females inhabiting the sun sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus in coral reefs from the southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Females produced on average 289 ± 120 embryos. The volume of recently-produced embryos was on average 0.038 mm3, and embryo volume increased by 192% during the incubation period. The average embryo mortality during embryogenesis was 24%. The reproductive output was 0.24 ± 0.094, considerably higher than in many other pontoniine shrimps. Females carrying embryos close to hatching showed fully developed ovaries, suggesting consecutive spawning. We assume that the sheltered habitat, living on sea anemones, allows Periclimenes rathbunae to allocate more energy in embryo production than most other free-living caridean shrimps. This is the first record of Periclimenes rathbunae for Costa Rica. PMID:25561838

  2. Oxidative stress and apoptotic events during thermal stress in the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Richier, Sophie; Sabourault, Cécile; Courtiade, Juliette; Zucchini, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2006-09-01

    Symbiosis between cnidarian and photosynthetic protists is widely distributed over temperate and tropical seas. These symbioses can periodically breakdown, a phenomenon known as cnidarian bleaching. This event can be irreversible for some associations subjected to acute and/or prolonged environmental disturbances, and leads to the death of the animal host. During bleaching, oxidative stress has been described previously as acting at molecular level and apoptosis is suggested to be one of the mechanisms involved. We focused our study on the role of apoptosis in bleaching via oxidative stress in the association between the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and the dinoflagellates Symbiodinium species. Characterization of caspase-like enzymes were conducted at the biochemical and molecular level to confirm the presence of a caspase-dependent apoptotic phenomenon in the cnidarian host. We provide evidence of oxidative stress followed by induction of caspase-like activity in animal host cells after an elevated temperature stress, suggesting the concomitant action of these components in bleaching. PMID:16907933

  3. Oxidative stress and apoptotic events during thermal stress in the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Richier, Sophie; Sabourault, Cécile; Courtiade, Juliette; Zucchini, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2006-09-01

    Symbiosis between cnidarian and photosynthetic protists is widely distributed over temperate and tropical seas. These symbioses can periodically breakdown, a phenomenon known as cnidarian bleaching. This event can be irreversible for some associations subjected to acute and/or prolonged environmental disturbances, and leads to the death of the animal host. During bleaching, oxidative stress has been described previously as acting at molecular level and apoptosis is suggested to be one of the mechanisms involved. We focused our study on the role of apoptosis in bleaching via oxidative stress in the association between the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and the dinoflagellates Symbiodinium species. Characterization of caspase-like enzymes were conducted at the biochemical and molecular level to confirm the presence of a caspase-dependent apoptotic phenomenon in the cnidarian host. We provide evidence of oxidative stress followed by induction of caspase-like activity in animal host cells after an elevated temperature stress, suggesting the concomitant action of these components in bleaching.

  4. Heat stress induces different forms of cell death in sea anemones and their endosymbiotic algae depending on temperature and duration.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S R; Thomason, J C; Le Tissier, M D A; Bythell, J C

    2004-11-01

    Bleaching of reef building corals and other symbiotic cnidarians due to the loss of their dinoflagellate algal symbionts (=zooxanthellae), and/or their photosynthetic pigments, is a common sign of environmental stress. Mass bleaching events are becoming an increasingly important cause of mortality and reef degradation on a global scale, linked by many to global climate change. However, the cellular mechanisms of stress-induced bleaching remain largely unresolved. In this study, the frequency of apoptosis-like and necrosis-like cell death was determined in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia sp. using criteria that had previously been validated for this symbiosis as indicators of programmed cell death (PCD) and necrosis. Results indicate that PCD and necrosis occur simultaneously in both host tissues and zooxanthellae subject to environmentally relevant doses of heat stress. Frequency of PCD in the anemone endoderm increased within minutes of treatment. Peak rates of apoptosis-like cell death in the host were coincident with the timing of loss of zooxanthellae during bleaching. The proportion of apoptosis-like host cells subsequently declined while cell necrosis increased. In the zooxanthellae, both apoptosis-like and necrosis-like activity increased throughout the duration of the experiment (6 days), dependent on temperature dose. A stress-mediated PCD pathway is an important part of the thermal stress response in the sea anemone symbiosis and this study suggests that PCD may play different roles in different components of the symbiosis during bleaching. PMID:15286684

  5. Algal genotype and photoacclimatory responses of the symbiotic alga Symbiodinium in natural populations of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis

    PubMed Central

    Bythell, J. C.; Douglas, A. E.; Sharp, V. A.; Searle, J. B.; Brown, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    As an approach to investigate the impact of solar radiation on an alga–invertebrate symbiosis, the genetic variation and photosynthetic responses of the dinoflagellate algal symbiosis in an intertidal and a subtidal population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis were explored. Allozyme analysis of the anemones indicated that the two populations were genetically very similar, with a Nei's index value of genetic identity (I) of 0.998. The algae in all animals examined were identified as Symbiodinium of clade a by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The symbiosis in the two populations did not differ significantly in algal population density, chlorophyll a content per algal cell or any photosynthetic parameter obtained from studies of the relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. We conclude that there is not necessarily genetic variation or photosynthetic plasticity of the symbiotic algae in Anemonia viridis inhabiting environments characterized by the different solar irradiances of the subtidal and intertidal habitats.

  6. The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Sebastian; Simakov, Oleg; Esherick, Lisl Y; Liew, Yi Jin; Lehnert, Erik M; Michell, Craig T; Li, Yong; Hambleton, Elizabeth A; Guse, Annika; Oates, Matt E; Gough, Julian; Weis, Virginia M; Aranda, Manuel; Pringle, John R; Voolstra, Christian R

    2015-09-22

    The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis. These features include genomic rearrangements and taxonomically restricted genes that may be functionally related to the symbiosis, aspects of host dependence on alga-derived nutrients, a novel and expanded cnidarian-specific family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might be involved in the animal-algal interactions, and extensive lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer. Extensive integration of genes of prokaryotic origin, including genes for antimicrobial peptides, presumably reflects an intimate association of the animal-algal pair also with its prokaryotic microbiome. PMID:26324906

  7. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Amiel, Aldine R; Johnston, Hereroa T; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation. PMID:26633371

  8. Mechanically Durable and Biologically Favorable Protein Hydrogel Based on Elastic Silklike Protein Derived from Sea Anemone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun Jung; Kim, Chang Sup; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2015-12-14

    As biodegradable scaffolds, protein hydrogels have considerable potential, particularly for bioartificial organs and three-dimensional space-filling materials. However, their low strength and stiffness have been considered to be limitations for enduring physiological stimuli. Therefore, protein hydrogels have been commonly utilized as delivery vehicles rather than as supporting materials. In this work, sea anemone tentacle-derived recombinant silk-like protein (aneroin) was evaluated as a potential material for a mechanically durable protein hydrogel. Inspired by the natural hardening mechanism, photoinitiated dityrosine cross-linking was employed to fabricate an aneroin hydrogel. It was determined that the fabricated aneroin hydrogel was approximately 10-fold stiffer than mammalian cardiac or skeletal muscle. The aneroin hydrogel provided not only structural support but also an adequate environment for cells. It exhibited an adequate swelling ability and microstructure, which are beneficial for facilitating mass transport and cell proliferation. Based on its mechanical and biological properties, this aneroin hydrogel could be used in various biomedical applications, such as cell-containing patches, biomolecule carriers, and artificial extracellular matrices. PMID:26539814

  9. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M.; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48 hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with previously established databases of adult and larvae of the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora, revealing both shared homologues and unique rhythmic genes. Taken together, this study further establishes Nematostella as a non-symbiotic model organism to study circadian rhythms and increases our understanding about the fundamental elements of circadian regulation and their evolution within the Metazoa PMID:26081482

  10. Phylogenetic placement of "zoochlorellae" (Chlorophyta), algal symbiont of the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Louise A; Muller-Parker, Gisèle

    2004-10-01

    At northern latitudes the sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and its congener A. xanthogrammica contain unidentified green chlorophytes (zoochlorellae) in addition to dinophytes belonging to the genus Symbiodinium. This dual algal symbiosis, involving members of distinct algal phyla in one host, has been extensively studied from the perspective of the ecological and energetic consequences of hosting one symbiotic type over the other. However, the identity of the green algal symbiont has remained elusive. We determined the phylogenetic position of the marine zoochlorellae inhabiting A. elegantissima by comparing sequence data from two cellular compartments, the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene region and the plastid-encoded rbcL gene. The results support the inclusion of these zoochlorellae in a clade of green algae that form symbioses with animal (Anthopleura elegantissima), fungal (the lichen genus Nephroma), and seed plant (Ginkgo) partners. This clade is distinct from the Chlorella symbionts of Hydra. The phylogenetic diversity of algal hosts observed in this clade indicates a predisposition for this group of algae to participate in symbioses. An integrative approach to the study of these algae, both within the host and in culture, should yield important clues about how algae become symbionts in other organisms. PMID:15501850

  11. Sexual Plasticity and Self-Fertilization in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia diaphana

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Ami; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Armoza-Zvoloni, Rachel; Loya, Yossi

    2010-01-01

    Traits that influence reproductive success and contribute to reproductive isolation in animal and plant populations are a central focus of evolutionary biology. In the present study we used an experimental approach to demonstrate the occurrence of environmental effects on sexual and asexual reproduction, and provide evidence for sexual plasticity and inter-clonal fertilization in laboratory-cultured lines of the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana. We showed that in A. diaphana, both asexual reproduction by pedal laceration, and sexual reproduction have seasonal components. The rate of pedal laceration was ten-fold higher under summer photoperiod and water temperature conditions than under winter conditions. The onset of gametogenesis coincided with the rising water temperatures occurring in spring, and spawning occurred under parameters that emulated summer photoperiod and temperature conditions. In addition, we showed that under laboratory conditions, asexually produced clones derived from a single founder individual exhibit sexual plasticity, resulting in the development of both male and female individuals. Moreover, a single female founder produced not only males and females but also hermaphrodite individuals. We further demonstrated that A. diaphana can fertilize within and between clone lines, producing swimming planula larvae. These diverse reproductive strategies may explain the species success as invader of artificial marine substrates. We suggest that these diverse reproductive strategies, together with their unique evolutionary position, make Aiptasia diaphana an excellent model for studying the evolution of sex. PMID:20686700

  12. Hct-A Is a New Actinoporin Family from the Heteractis Crispa Sea Anemone

    PubMed Central

    Leichenko, E. V.; Monastirnaya, M. M.; Zelepuga, E. A.; Tkacheva, E. S.; Isaeva, M. P.; Likhatskaya, G. N.; Anastyuk, S. D.; Kozlovskaya, E. P.

    2014-01-01

    Several new actinoporin isoforms with molecular weights of 18995.5 to 19398.7 Da exhibiting a high hemolytic activity were isolated from the tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa using a combination of liquid chromatography techniques. The actinoporins were demonstrated to occur as mono-, di-, and trimers in aqueous solutions. The sequences of the genes encoding actinoporins were identified, and the amino acid sequences of the new polypeptides belonging to the Hct-A actinoporin family were obtained. The new acinoporins differ in their isoelectric points, the number and localization of charged amino acid residues at the functionally important N-terminal fragment of the molecule, as well as in the charge of a tetrapeptide (amino acid residues 74–77) involved in an electrostatic interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane. A recombinant actinoporin, rHct-A2, with a molecular weight of 19141 Da, pI of 9.64, and hemolytic activity of 4.0 × 104 HU/mg, was obtained. The conductivity of the ion channels formed by rHct-A2 in the BLM was demonstrated to be similar to that of the native actinoporin from H. crispa. The obtained data expand knowledge on the structural and functional relationships of actinoporins and contribute to our understanding of the functioning mechanism of these molecules, which is the basis for the development of compounds with a high biomedical potential. Currently, they are considered as models for obtaining antitumor, antibacterial, and cardiac-stimulating agents. PMID:25558399

  13. Screening and cDNA Cloning of Kv1 Potassium Channel Toxins in Sea Anemones

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Honma, Tomohiro; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    When 21 species of sea anemones were screened for Kv1 potassium channel toxins by competitive inhibition of the binding of 125I-α-dendrotoxin to rat synaptosomal membranes, 11 species (two species of Actiniidae, one species of Hormathiidae, five species of Stichodactylidae and three species of Thalassianthidae) were found to be positive. Furthermore, full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 potassium channel toxins from three species of Stichodactylidae and three species of Thalassianthidae were cloned by a combination of RT-PCR, 3′RACE and 5′RACE. The precursors of these six toxins are commonly composed of signal peptide, propart and mature peptide portions. As for the mature peptide (35 amino acid residues), the six toxins share more than 90% sequence identities with one another and with κ1.3-SHTX-She1a (Shk) from Stichodactyla helianthus but only 34–63% identities with the other type 1 potassium channel toxins. PMID:21339955

  14. The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Sebastian; Simakov, Oleg; Esherick, Lisl Y.; Liew, Yi Jin; Lehnert, Erik M.; Michell, Craig T.; Li, Yong; Hambleton, Elizabeth A.; Guse, Annika; Oates, Matt E.; Gough, Julian; Weis, Virginia M.; Aranda, Manuel; Pringle, John R.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis. These features include genomic rearrangements and taxonomically restricted genes that may be functionally related to the symbiosis, aspects of host dependence on alga-derived nutrients, a novel and expanded cnidarian-specific family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might be involved in the animal–algal interactions, and extensive lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer. Extensive integration of genes of prokaryotic origin, including genes for antimicrobial peptides, presumably reflects an intimate association of the animal–algal pair also with its prokaryotic microbiome. PMID:26324906

  15. [Low-molecular cytolysins and trypsin inhibitors from sea anemone Radianthus macrodactylus. Isolation and partial characterization].

    PubMed

    Zykova, T A; Monastyrnaia, M M; Apalikova, O V; Shvets, T V; Kozlovskaia, E P

    1998-07-01

    Two low-molecular cytolytic toxins (RmI and RmII) and four trypsin inhibitors were isolated from the aqueous extract of sea anemone Radianthus macrodactylus. The method of isolation involved precipitation with acetone, gel filtration on acrylex P-4, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-32 cellulose, affinity chromatography on trypsin-binding sepharose 4B, ion exchange chromatography on an Ultrapore TSK CM-3SW column, and reversed phase HPLC on a Silasorb C18 column. RmI, RmII, and JnI inhibitor displayed molecular masses 5100, 6100, and 7100 Da, respectively, when subjected to SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric points were 9.2 and 9.3 for RmI and RmII, respectively. The amino acid composition and N-terminal amino acid residue (glycine) were determined for RmI, RmII, and JnI. Both proteins were nontoxic to mice and crabs. Hemolytic activity was determined to be 25 and 20 HU/mg for RmI and RmII, respectively, and their action on erythrocyte membrane was not inhibited by exogenous sphingomyelin. RmI and RmII exhibited antihistamine activity.

  16. Interactions between the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen of corals.

    PubMed

    Krediet, Cory J; Meyer, Julie L; Gimbrone, Nicholas; Yanong, Roy; Berzins, Ilze; Alagely, Ali; Castro, Herman; Ritchie, Kim B; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-06-01

    Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we tested the susceptibility of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida to an opportunistic coral pathogen (Serratia marcescens). A. pallida was susceptible to S. marcescens PDL100 and responded to this opportunistic coral pathogen with darkening of the tissues and retraction of tentacles, followed by complete disintegration of polyp tissues. Histological observations revealed loss of zooxanthellae and structural changes in eosinophilic granular cells in response to pathogen infection. A screen of S. marcescens mutants identified a motility and tetrathionate reductase mutants as defective in virulence in the A. pallida infection model. In co-infections with the wild-type strain, the tetrathionate reductase mutant was less fit within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer of the host coral Acropora palmata.

  17. The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Sebastian; Simakov, Oleg; Esherick, Lisl Y; Liew, Yi Jin; Lehnert, Erik M; Michell, Craig T; Li, Yong; Hambleton, Elizabeth A; Guse, Annika; Oates, Matt E; Gough, Julian; Weis, Virginia M; Aranda, Manuel; Pringle, John R; Voolstra, Christian R

    2015-09-22

    The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis. These features include genomic rearrangements and taxonomically restricted genes that may be functionally related to the symbiosis, aspects of host dependence on alga-derived nutrients, a novel and expanded cnidarian-specific family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might be involved in the animal-algal interactions, and extensive lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer. Extensive integration of genes of prokaryotic origin, including genes for antimicrobial peptides, presumably reflects an intimate association of the animal-algal pair also with its prokaryotic microbiome.

  18. Fast Neurotransmission Related Genes Are Expressed in Non Nervous Endoderm in the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Matan; Brikner, Itzchak; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Cnidarian nervous systems utilize chemical transmission to transfer signals through synapses and neurons. To date, ample evidence has been accumulated for the participation of neuropeptides, primarily RFamides, in neurotransmission. Yet, it is still not clear if this is the case for the classical fast neurotransmitters such as GABA, Glutamate, Acetylcholine and Monoamines. A large repertoire of cnidarian Fast Neurotransmitter related Genes (FNGs) has been recently identified in the genome of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. In order to test whether FNGs are localized in cnidarian neurons, we characterized the expression patterns of eight Nematostella genes that are closely or distantly related to human central and peripheral nervous systems genes, in adult Nematostella and compared them to the RFamide localization. Our results show common expression patterns for all tested genes, in a single endodermal cell layer. These expressions did not correspond with the RFamide expressing nerve cell network. Following these results we suggest that the tested Nematostella genes may not be directly involved in vertebrate-like fast neurotransmission. PMID:24705400

  19. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, Aldine R.; Johnston, Hereroa T.; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F.; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation. PMID:26633371

  20. Copper accumulation and oxidative stress in the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida, after waterborne copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Main, W P L; Ross, C; Bielmyer, G K

    2010-03-01

    Copper is a common marine pollutant yet its effects on symbiotic cnidarians are largely understudied. To further understand the impact of elevated copper concentrations on marine symbiotic organisms, toxicity tests were conducted using the model sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida, with and without its zooxanthellae symbiont. Symbiotic and aposymbiotic A. pallida were exposed to sublethal copper concentrations (0, 5, 15, and 50 microg/L) for 7d and copper accumulation, behavior, and the activity of the oxidative stress enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were measured. Additionally, acute 96-h toxicity tests were conducted to determine LC(50) values of the organisms after copper exposure. Both symbiotic and aposymbiotic A. pallida rapidly accumulated copper in a time and dose dependent manner. However, higher copper concentrations accumulated in the aposymbiotic as compared to the symbiotic A. pallida. In response to the highest two copper exposures (15 and 50 microg/L) symbiotic A. pallida upregulated CAT activity to combat the damaging effects of hydrogen peroxide. Contrary to these results, SOD activity significantly decreased during the highest copper exposure, when compared to controls. CAT activity was not detected and SOD was substantially (>10 fold) reduced in aposymbiotic A. pallida, suggesting that the zooxanthellae are associated with the oxidative stress response. Copper exposure as low as 5 microg/L caused tentacle retraction and increased mucus production in both symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones. The LC(50) values for symbiotic and aposymbiotic A. pallida exposed to copper for 96 h were 148 microg/L (95% confidence interval=126.4, 173.8) and 206 microg/L (95% confidence interval=175.2, 242.2), respectively. Understanding the varying responses of symbiotic and aposymbiotic A. pallida to copper stress may advance our comprehension of the functional roles of zooxanthellae and host. Although the mechanism of copper toxicity has not been

  1. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    PubMed Central

    Borell, Esther M.; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A

  2. Halobacillus naozhouensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Zhang, You-Xiang; Tang, Shu-Kun; Borrathybay, Entomack; Li, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Long

    2009-06-01

    A moderately halophilic, Gram-positive, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 071068(T), was isolated from a sea anemone (Anthopleura xanthogrammica) collected from the Naozhou Island on the Leizhou Bay in the South China Sea. Cells were motile by means of peritrichous flagella and formed ellipsoidal endospores lying in subterminal swollen sporangia. Strain JSM 071068(T) was able to grow with 1-20% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 6-9%), at pH values of 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and a temperature range of 10-35 degrees C (optimum, 25 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and iso-C(15:0). The genomic DNA G + C content was 42.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 071068(T) belonged to the genus Halobacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain JSM 071068(T) and the type strains of the recognized Halobacillus species ranged from 97.9% (with Halobacillus alkaliphilus) to 95.3% (with Halobacillus kuroshimensis). The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and the type strains of H. alkaliphilus, Halobacillus campisalis, Halobacillus halophilus and Halobacillus seohaensis were 25.6, 22.1, 10.8 and 13.2%, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 071068(T) represents a new species of the genus Halobacillus, for which the name Halobacillus naozhouensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 071068(T) (=DSM 21183(T) =KCTC 13234(T)) as the type strain.

  3. Alteromonas halophila sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Borrathybay, Entomack; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun; Liu, Yan-Qi

    2009-10-01

    A pale yellow-colored, moderately halophilic, Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped, motile, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 073008(T), was isolated from a sea anemone (Anthopleura xanthogrammica) collected from Naozhou Island, Leizhou Bay, South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 1-20% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 5-10%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and 10-40 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C). The major cellular fatty acids were C(16:0), C(16:1) omega7c/iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and C(18:1) omega7c. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the genomic DNA G + C content was 47.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 073008(T) should be assigned to the genus Alteromonas, being most closely related to Alteromonas hispanica F-32(T) (sequence similarity 96.9%), followed by Alteromonas genovensis LMG 24078(T) (96.6%) and Alteromonas litorea TF-22(T) (96.4%). The sequence similarities between the novel isolate and the type strains of other recognized Alteromonas species ranged from 95.9% (with Alteromonas stellipolaris ANT 69a(T)) to 94.5% (with Alteromonas simiduii BCRC 17572(T)). The combination of phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 073008(T) represents a new species of the genus Alteromonas, for which the name Alteromonas halophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 073008(T) (=CCTCC AA 207035(T) = KCTC 22164(T)).

  4. Bacillus neizhouensis sp. nov., a halophilic marine bacterium isolated from a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-12-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, slightly halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, strain JSM 071004(T), was isolated from a sea anemone collected from Neizhou Bay in the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 0.5-10 % (w/v) total salts (optimum 2-4 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum pH 8.5) and 4-30 degrees C (optimum 25 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 39.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 071004(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, being related most closely to the type strain of Bacillus agaradhaerens (sequence similarity 97.3 %), followed by the type strains of Bacillus cellulosilyticus (96.2 %), Bacillus clarkii (96.1 %) and Bacillus polygoni (96.0 %). The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data support the proposal that strain JSM 071004(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus neizhouensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 071004(T) (=CCTCC AB 207161(T) =DSM 19794(T) =KCTC 13187(T)) as the type strain.

  5. Fatty acid and phospholipid syntheses are prerequisites for the cell cycle of Symbiodinium and their endosymbiosis within sea anemones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hsueh; Lee, Hsieh-He; Fang, Lee-Shing; Mayfield, Anderson B; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2013-01-01

    Lipids are a source of metabolic energy, as well as essential components of cellular membranes. Although they have been shown to be key players in the regulation of cell proliferation in various eukaryotes, including microalgae, their role in the cell cycle of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the effects of a lipid synthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, on the cell cycle of both cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) and those engaged in an endosymbiotic association with the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. In the former, cerulenin exposure was found to inhibit free fatty acid (FFA) synthesis, as it does in other organisms. Additionally, while it also significantly inhibited the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), it did not affect the production of sterol ester (SE) or phosphatidylcholine (PC). Interestingly, cerulenin also significantly retarded cell division by arresting the cell cycles at the G0/G1 phase. Cerulenin-treated Symbiodinium were found to be taken up by anemone hosts at a significantly depressed quantity in comparison with control Symbiodinium. Furthermore, the uptake of cerulenin-treated Symbiodinium in host tentacles occurred much more slowly than in untreated controls. These results indicate that FFA and PE may play critical roles in the recognition, proliferation, and ultimately the success of endosymbiosis with anemones. PMID:24009685

  6. Fatty Acid and Phospholipid Syntheses Are Prerequisites for the Cell Cycle of Symbiodinium and Their Endosymbiosis within Sea Anemones

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Hsueh; Lee, Hsieh-He; Fang, Lee-Shing; Mayfield, Anderson B.; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2013-01-01

    Lipids are a source of metabolic energy, as well as essential components of cellular membranes. Although they have been shown to be key players in the regulation of cell proliferation in various eukaryotes, including microalgae, their role in the cell cycle of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the effects of a lipid synthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, on the cell cycle of both cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) and those engaged in an endosymbiotic association with the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. In the former, cerulenin exposure was found to inhibit free fatty acid (FFA) synthesis, as it does in other organisms. Additionally, while it also significantly inhibited the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), it did not affect the production of sterol ester (SE) or phosphatidylcholine (PC). Interestingly, cerulenin also significantly retarded cell division by arresting the cell cycles at the G0/G1 phase. Cerulenin-treated Symbiodinium were found to be taken up by anemone hosts at a significantly depressed quantity in comparison with control Symbiodinium. Furthermore, the uptake of cerulenin-treated Symbiodinium in host tentacles occurred much more slowly than in untreated controls. These results indicate that FFA and PE may play critical roles in the recognition, proliferation, and ultimately the success of endosymbiosis with anemones. PMID:24009685

  7. Changes of cellular superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during cultivation from two anemones found in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou; Wang, Guangce

    2008-02-01

    Symbiotic algae from two anemones, Radianthus macrodactylus and Stichodactyla mertensii, found in the South China Sea, were cultivated in ASP-8A medium in this study. Changes of superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during the cultivation were studied by means of a microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A number of small cavities appeared on the surfaces of symbiotic algae after they were cultivated for 10 h. The cavities enlarged and the cell contents were lost with extended cultivation. Our data suggested that the presence of cavities on symbiotic algae surfaces may be one of the main reasons for failure to culture symbiotic algae in an artificial medium.

  8. Differential distribution of lipids in epidermis, gastrodermis and hosted Symbiodinium in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Revel, Johana; Massi, Lionel; Mehiri, Mohamed; Boutoute, Marc; Mayzaud, Patrick; Capron, Laure; Sabourault, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis mainly relies on nutrient recycling, thus providing both partners with a competitive advantage in nutrient-poor waters. Essential processes related to lipid metabolism can be influenced by various factors, including hyperthermal stress. This can affect the lipid content and distribution in both partners, while contributing to symbiosis disruption and bleaching. In order to gain further insight into the role and distribution of lipids in the cnidarian metabolism, we investigated the lipid composition of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its photosynthetic dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium). We compared the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the host cellular layers, non-symbiotic epidermal and symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells, and those of Symbiodinium, in a mass spectrometry-based assessment. Lipids were more concentrated in Symbiodinium cells, and the lipid class distribution was dominated by polar lipids in all tissues. The fatty acid distribution between host cell layers and Symbiodinium cells suggested potential lipid transfers between the partners. The lipid composition and distribution was modified during short-term hyperthermal stress, mainly in Symbiodinium cells and gastrodermis. Exposure to elevated temperature rapidly caused a decrease in polar lipid C18 unsaturated fatty acids and a strong and rapid decrease in the abundance of polar lipid fatty acids relative to sterols. These lipid indicators could therefore be used as sensitive biomarkers to assess the physiology of symbiotic cnidarians, especially the effect of thermal stress at the onset of cnidarian bleaching. Overall, the findings of this study provide some insight on key lipids that may regulate maintenance of the symbiotic interaction. PMID:26478191

  9. Mercury Distribution, Methylation and Volatilization in Microcosms with and without the Sea Anemone Bunodosoma caissarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, N. R.; Correia, R. R. S.; Fernandez, M. A. S.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Guimarães, J. R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be a dangerous contaminant and has a complex biogeochemical cycling in aquatic environments. The sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum is an endemic species in Brazil capable of bioaccumulating Hg from the ambient seawater. The radiotracer 203Hg was used in order to investigate mechanisms of Hg uptake and depuration of B. caissarum and the distribution of Hg in laboratory model systems, with and without B. caissarum. A single initial spike of 203Hg was added to each microcosm. Microcosms had continuous air renovation and trapping of Hg volatile forms. Total Hg in different compartments was measured by gamma spectrometry. In the uptake experiment 203Hg activity was determined periodically in seawater and specimens for 6 days. At the end, specimens had an average bioconcentration factor of 70. After the uptake experiment, methylmercury (MeHg) in seawater was extracted and measured by liquid scintillation. In microcosms with and without B. caissarum, respectively 0.05% and 0.32% of the initial spike was found as MeHg. Hg was probably less available for methylation in the first because of bioaccumulation and higher concentrations of suspended particulate matter that could form complexes with Hg. After that, specimens were transferred to unspiked microcosms. After a 48 day depuration specimens still retained 35 - 70% of the previously bioaccumulated Hg and 0.2 - 2.4% of the total Hg was MeHg. The presence of B. caissarum resulted in an unexpected higher volatilization of Hg (58%) compared to controls (17%). This increased volatilization is possibly a result of Hg2+ reduction mediated by microorganisms associated with its tissues and mucus secretions and/or an unknown defense mechanism of this species.

  10. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  11. Nocardiopsis litoralis sp. nov., a halophilic marine actinomycete isolated from a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tang, Shu-Kun; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Xu, Li-Hua; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-11-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, alkalitolerant, filamentous, aerobic actinomycete, designated strain JSM 073097(T), was isolated from a sea anemone collected from a tidal flat in the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate was a member of the genus Nocardiopsis and was most closely related to Nocardiopsis kunsanensis HA-9(T), Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis YIM 90004(T) and Nocardiopsis salina YIM 90010(T) (99.6, 98.5 and 98.1 % similarity, respectively). Phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data also indicated that strain JSM 073097(T) was a member of the genus Nocardiopsis. The strain grew well on most of the media tested, producing white to yellow-white substrate mycelium and white aerial mycelium and straight to flexuous hyphae. The substrate mycelium was well developed and fragmented with age; the aerial mycelium produced long, straight to flexuous spore chains with non-motile, smooth-surfaced, rod-shaped spores. The strain grew in the presence of 1-15 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 6.0-10.5 and 20-35 degrees C; optimum growth occurred in the presence of 5-7 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 8.5 and 25 degrees C. Whole-cell hydrolysates of strain JSM 073097(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H(4)), MK-10(H(6)) and MK-10(H(8)). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(16 : 0) and 10-methyl C(18 : 0). Polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain JSM 073097(T) was 70.4 mol%. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the suggestion that strain JSM 073097(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardiopsis, for which the name Nocardiopsis litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 073097(T) (=DSM 45168(T)=KCTC 19473

  12. A new sea anemone peptide, APETx2, inhibits ASIC3, a major acid-sensitive channel in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Diochot, Sylvie; Baron, Anne; Rash, Lachlan D; Deval, Emmanuel; Escoubas, Pierre; Scarzello, Sabine; Salinas, Miguel; Lazdunski, Michel

    2004-04-01

    From a systematic screening of animal venoms, we isolated a new toxin (APETx2) from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, which inhibits ASIC3 homomeric channels and ASIC3-containing heteromeric channels both in heterologous expression systems and in primary cultures of rat sensory neurons. APETx2 is a 42 amino-acid peptide crosslinked by three disulfide bridges, with a structural organization similar to that of other sea anemone toxins that inhibit voltage-sensitive Na+ and K+ channels. APETx2 reversibly inhibits rat ASIC3 (IC50=63 nM), without any effect on ASIC1a, ASIC1b, and ASIC2a. APETx2 directly inhibits the ASIC3 channel by acting at its external side, and it does not modify the channel unitary conductance. APETx2 also inhibits heteromeric ASIC2b+3 current (IC50=117 nM), while it has less affinity for ASIC1b+3 (IC50=0.9 microM), ASIC1a+3 (IC50=2 microM), and no effect on the ASIC2a+3 current. The ASIC3-like current in primary cultured sensory neurons is partly and reversibly inhibited by APETx2 with an IC50 of 216 nM, probably due to the mixed inhibitions of various co-expressed ASIC3-containing channels. PMID:15044953

  13. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria.

  14. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

  15. The influence of salinity and copper exposure on copper accumulation and physiological impairment in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pratikkumar P; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-02-01

    Copper is a common pollutant in many aquatic environments, particularly those surrounding densely populated areas with substantial anthropogenic inputs. These same areas may also experience changes in salinity due to freshwater discharge and tidal influence. Biota that inhabit near-shore coastal environments may be susceptible to both stressors. Although copper is a noted concern in marine environments, effects of copper and varying salinity on symbiotic cnidarians are only scarcely studied. The sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, was used to investigate effects of copper on physiological impairment (i.e. activities of anti-oxidant enzymes) at two different salinities (20 and 25ppt). E. pallida was exposed to a control and three elevated copper concentrations for up to 21d, and copper accumulation and activity of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and carbonic anhydrase were measured in the anemones. Photosynthetic parameters in E. pallida's symbiotic dinoflagellate algae were also quantified. Over the course of the exposure, E. pallida accumulated copper in a concentration-dependent manner. Higher tissue copper concentrations were observed in anemones exposed to the lower salinity water (20ppt), and physiological impairment was observed as a consequence of both increased copper exposure and decreased salinity; however, changes in salinity caused a greater response than copper exposure, at the levels tested. In general, antioxidant enzyme activity increased as a consequence of decreased salinity and/or increased copper exposure. These results clearly demonstrated the influence of two local stressors, at environmentally realistic concentrations, on a sensitive cnidarian, and highlight the importance of characterizing combined exposure scenarios.

  16. From Sea Anemone to Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Arnold

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  17. From Sea Anemone to Homo sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Arnold

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  18. Uptake and biochemical response to B[a]P in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gutierrez, Claudia Mariana; Guerra-Rivas, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima at the biochemical level. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome P450 were assayed in A. elegantissima under toxicant. One toxicity test was performed with 75 organisms distributed in 5 groups. Animals in groups G1, G2 and G3 were given increasing B[a]P. Two groups named GC and GS were used as controls. GC was treated with seawater and GS was treated with acetone. After 72 h of exposure, enzymatic activities were determined. Microsomes were isolated from the columnar tissue and exposed in vitro to the toxicant in order to explore their ability to incorporate B[a]P. Basal activity for this enzyme was 1.69 +/- 0.18 (Mean +/- standard deviation) nmol cyt C red min(-1) mg(-1) and there was no significant effect in GS organisms compared to GC organisms. Significant increases were observed in NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase in G3 organisms. In this group, the enzyme activity was 3.53 +/- 0.40 nmol cyt C red min(-1) mg(-1). For cytochrome P450 content, a gradual increase was observed in organisms in groups G1 to G3. Basal content was 10.25 +/- 0.49 pmol mg(-1) microsomal protein. For G3 animals, P450 content was 27.51 +/- 0.32 pmol mg(-1) microsomal. For the test in vitro, it was found that microsomes isolated from G2 and G3 had the capacity to incorporate this substance when exposed to B[a]P at a level of 4 mu M in the surrounding medium. Spectrum recorded from 350 to 450 nm after a 40-min exposure for these groups showed significant difference from spectra obtained for microsomes in GC, GS and G1. It was concluded that the capacity to increase NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase activity as well as to increase NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase activity as well as to increase P450 content shows the ability of A. elegantissima to induce a mixed function oxidase activity in the presence of B[a]P. PMID:20390840

  19. Metal accumulation and sublethal effects in the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida, after waterborne exposure to metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brock, J R; Bielmyer, G K

    2013-09-01

    The marine environment is subjected to contamination by a complex mixture of metals from various anthropogenic sources. Measuring the biological responses of organisms to a complex mixture of metals allows for examination of metal-specific responses in an environmentally realistic exposure scenario. To address this issue, the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida was exposed to a control and a metal mixture (copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium) at three exposure levels (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) for 7 days. Anemones were then transferred to metal-free seawater for an additional 7 days after the metal exposure to assess metal depuration and recovery. Metal accumulation, activity of the enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase, as well as, cell density of the symbiotic zooxanthellae were measured over 14 days. Metal accumulation in A. pallida occurred in a concentration dependent manner over the 7-day exposure period. Altered enzyme activity and tentacle retraction of the host, as well as decreased zooxanthellae cell density were observed responses over the 7 days, after exposure to a metal concentration as low as 10 μg/L. Metal depuration and physiological recovery were dependent on both the metal and the exposure concentration. Understanding how A. pallida and their symbionts are affected by metal exposures in the laboratory may allow better understanding about the responses of symbiotic cnidarians in metal polluted aquatic environments. PMID:23845877

  20. Symbiodinium diversity in the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor on the east Australian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontasch, S.; Scott, A.; Hill, R.; Bridge, T.; Fisher, P. L.; Davy, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    The diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in Entacmaea quadricolor was analysed from five locations along ~2,100 km on the east coast of Australia using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) combined with bacterial cloning. DGGE revealed that E. quadricolor predominantly associated with six types of clade C (four of which are novel) and that most anemones harboured multiple types simultaneously. Anemones from southern locations associated with a mixed assemblage of C25 and a variant of C3. This assemblage also dominated the central location, but was absent at the northern location. At central and northern sites, two novel variants of C42(type2) and C1 were found. Anemones hosting C42(type2) also showed a low abundance of variants of C3 and C1, and E1 was found in one sample, as revealed by bacterial cloning. The occurrence of geographically distinct ITS2 types or a consortium of types might reflect a need to optimise physiological performance of the symbiosis at different latitudes.

  1. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bulati, Matteo; Longo, Alessandra; Vlah, Sara; Bennici, Carmelo; Bonura, Angela; Tagliavia, Marcello; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines. PMID:27725939

  2. The rise of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis as a model system to investigate development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Layden, Michael J; Rentzsch, Fabian; Röttinger, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Reverse genetics and next-generation sequencing unlocked a new era in biology. It is now possible to identify an animal(s) with the unique biology most relevant to a particular question and rapidly generate tools to functionally dissect that biology. This review highlights the rise of one such novel model system, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nematostella is a cnidarian (corals, jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, etc.) animal that was originally targeted by EvoDevo researchers looking to identify a cnidarian animal to which the development of bilaterians (insects, worms, echinoderms, vertebrates, mollusks, etc.) could be compared. Studies in Nematostella have accomplished this goal and informed our understanding of the evolution of key bilaterian features. However, Nematostella is now going beyond its intended utility with potential as a model to better understand other areas such as regenerative biology, EcoDevo, or stress response. This review intends to highlight key EvoDevo insights from Nematostella that guide our understanding about the evolution of axial patterning mechanisms, mesoderm, and nervous systems in bilaterians, as well as to discuss briefly the potential of Nematostella as a model to better understand the relationship between development and regeneration. Lastly, the sum of research to date in Nematostella has generated a variety of tools that aided the rise of Nematostella to a viable model system. We provide a catalogue of current resources and techniques available to facilitate investigators interested in incorporating Nematostella into their research. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:408-428. doi: 10.1002/wdev.222 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26894563

  3. The rise of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis as a model system to investigate development and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rentzsch, Fabian; Röttinger, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reverse genetics and next‐generation sequencing unlocked a new era in biology. It is now possible to identify an animal(s) with the unique biology most relevant to a particular question and rapidly generate tools to functionally dissect that biology. This review highlights the rise of one such novel model system, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nematostella is a cnidarian (corals, jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, etc.) animal that was originally targeted by EvoDevo researchers looking to identify a cnidarian animal to which the development of bilaterians (insects, worms, echinoderms, vertebrates, mollusks, etc.) could be compared. Studies in Nematostella have accomplished this goal and informed our understanding of the evolution of key bilaterian features. However, Nematostella is now going beyond its intended utility with potential as a model to better understand other areas such as regenerative biology, EcoDevo, or stress response. This review intends to highlight key EvoDevo insights from Nematostella that guide our understanding about the evolution of axial patterning mechanisms, mesoderm, and nervous systems in bilaterians, as well as to discuss briefly the potential of Nematostella as a model to better understand the relationship between development and regeneration. Lastly, the sum of research to date in Nematostella has generated a variety of tools that aided the rise of Nematostella to a viable model system. We provide a catalogue of current resources and techniques available to facilitate investigators interested in incorporating Nematostella into their research. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:408–428. doi: 10.1002/wdev.222 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26894563

  4. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Taufiq Smith, Ewan St. John

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We have made a reasonable model of rat ASIC3 using published structure of chicken ASIC1. • We have docked sea anemone toxin APETx2 on the model. • We have identified two putative sites for toxin binding. • We have argued for plausibility one site over the other. • We have identified the residues that are likely to be critical for APETx2–ASIC3 interaction. - Abstract: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein–protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the ‘hot-spots’ that are likely to be critical for ASIC3–APETx2 interaction.

  5. Modeling habitat distribution from organism occurrences and environmental data: Case study using anemonefishes and their sea anemone hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guinotte, J.M.; Bartley, J.D.; Iqbal, A.; Fautin, D.G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the KGSMapper (Kansas Geological Survey Mapper), a straightforward, web-based biogeographic tool that uses environmental conditions of places where members of a taxon are known to occur to find other places containing suitable habitat for them. Using occurrence data for anemonefishes or their host sea anemones, and data for environmental parameters, we generated maps of suitable habitat for the organisms. The fact that the fishes are obligate symbionts of the anemones allowed us to validate the KGSMapper output: we were able to compare the inferred occurrence of the organism to that of the actual occurrence of its symbiont. Characterizing suitable habitat for these organisms in the Indo-West Pacific, the region where they naturally occur, can be used to guide conservation efforts, field work, etc.; defining suitable habitat for them in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is relevant to identifying areas vulnerable to biological invasions. We advocate distinguishing between these 2 sorts of model output, terming the former maps of realized habitat and the latter maps of potential habitat. Creation of a niche model requires adding biotic data to the environmental data used for habitat maps: we included data on fish occurrences to infer anemone distribution and vice versa. Altering the selection of environmental variables allowed us to investigate which variables may exert the most influence on organism distribution. Adding variables does not necessarily improve precision of the model output. KGSMapper output distinguishes areas that fall within 1 standard deviation (SD) of the mean environmental variable values for places where members of the taxon occur, within 2 SD, and within the entire range of values; eliminating outliers or data known to be imprecise or inaccurate improved output precision mainly in the 2 SD range and beyond. Thus, KGSMapper is robust in the face of questionable data, offering the user a way to recognize and clean such data. It also

  6. Predicting suitable habitat for the gold coral Savalia savaglia (Bertoloni, 1819) (Cnidaria, Zoantharia) in the South Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Michela; Innocenti, Carlo; Canese, Simonepietro

    2014-06-01

    The gold coral Savalia savaglia (Cnidaria, Zoantharia) is a rare component of the mesophotic zone of the Mediterranean Sea and northeastern Atlantic Ocean. During two field campaigns along the Italian coast in the South Tyrrhenian Sea, two populations of this species were discovered. The specimens were filmed and photographed by means of a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). To identify the role of local bathymetry and other derived variables on presence and distribution of S. savaglia we used a Habitat Suitability (HS) modeling technique based on Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA), utilizing high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and ROV data. Among the set of environmental variables derived from multibeam data, slope, rugosity, eastness and distance to rocks, appear to be the main variables involved in S. savaglia distribution, pointing out that the habitat differs considerably from the mean environmental conditions over the study area, and that S. savaglia ecological niche is significantly narrower than the available habitat. The HS map was developed to differentiate the sea floor into suitability classes. The comparison between suitability classes and presence data showed that the HS map is coherent with the observed spatial distribution of the species. The most suitable habitat for S. savaglia is characterized by a rough sea floor with rocks that is steeply sloped, oriented northeast, and within a water depth range of 34-77 m. Our study suggests that predictive modeling is an approach that can be applied to other deep coral species to locate areas with a suitable habitat. Considering the difficulties to reach the habitats in which these species live, this approach could be essential to planning further studies that help define areas where the species may be present.

  7. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH sub 2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Jacob, E.; Graff, D.; Reinscheid, R.K.; Nothacker, H.P. ); Rinehart, K.L.; Staley, A.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2}, the authors have purified a peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. By classical amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, the structure of this peptide was determined as 3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2}. By using reversed-phase HPLC and a chiral mobile phase, it was shown that the 3-phenyllactyl group had the L configuration. Immunocytochemical staining with antiserum against Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2} showed that L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2} (Antho-RNamide) was localized in neutrons of sea anemones. The L-3-phenyllactyl group has not been found earlier in neuropeptides of vertebrates or higher invertebrates. They propose that this residue renders Antho-RNamide resistant to nonspecific aminopeptidases, thereby increasing the stability of the peptide after neuronal release.

  8. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson.

    PubMed

    Maas, Amy E; Jones, Ian T; Reitzel, Adam M; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species. PMID:26772201

  9. Variation in partner benefits in a shrimp-sea anemone symbiosis.

    PubMed

    McKeon, C Seabird; O'Donnell, James L

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic interactions, where two species occur in close physical proximity for the majority of the participants' lifespans, may constrain the fitness of one or both of the participants. Host choice could result in lineage divergence in symbionts if fitness benefits vary across the interaction with hosts. Symbiotic interactions are common in the marine environment, particularly in the most diverse marine ecosystems: coral reefs. However, the variation in symbiotic interactions that may drive diversification is poorly understood in marine systems. We measured the fecundity of the symbiotic shrimp Periclimenes yucatanicus on two anemone hosts on coral reefs in Panama, and found that while fecundity varies among host species, this variation is explained largely by host size, not species. This suggests that shrimp on larger hosts may have higher fitness regardless of host species, which in turn could drive selection for host choice, a proposed driver of diversification in this group. PMID:26618082

  10. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Amy E.; Jones, Ian T.; Reitzel, Adam M.; Tarrant, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species. PMID:26772201

  11. Variation in partner benefits in a shrimp—sea anemone symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic interactions, where two species occur in close physical proximity for the majority of the participants’ lifespans, may constrain the fitness of one or both of the participants. Host choice could result in lineage divergence in symbionts if fitness benefits vary across the interaction with hosts. Symbiotic interactions are common in the marine environment, particularly in the most diverse marine ecosystems: coral reefs. However, the variation in symbiotic interactions that may drive diversification is poorly understood in marine systems. We measured the fecundity of the symbiotic shrimp Periclimenes yucatanicus on two anemone hosts on coral reefs in Panama, and found that while fecundity varies among host species, this variation is explained largely by host size, not species. This suggests that shrimp on larger hosts may have higher fitness regardless of host species, which in turn could drive selection for host choice, a proposed driver of diversification in this group. PMID:26618082

  12. Exploiting the Nephrotoxic Effects of Venom from the Sea Anemone, Phyllodiscus semoni, to Create a Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Model in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Masashi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Morgan, B. Paul

    2012-01-01

    In the natural world, there are many creatures with venoms that have interesting and varied activities. Although the sea anemone, a member of the phylum Coelenterata, has venom that it uses to capture and immobilise small fishes and shrimp and for protection from predators, most sea anemones are harmless to man. However, a few species are highly toxic; some have venoms containing neurotoxins, recently suggested as potential immune-modulators for therapeutic application in immune diseases. Phyllodiscus semoni is a highly toxic sea anemone; the venom has multiple effects, including lethality, hemolysis and renal injuries. We previously reported that venom extracted from Phyllodiscus semoni induced acute glomerular endothelial injuries in rats resembling hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), accompanied with complement dysregulation in glomeruli and suggested that the model might be useful for analyses of pathology and development of therapeutic approaches in HUS. In this mini-review, we describe in detail the venom-induced acute renal injuries in rat and summarize how the venom of Phyllodiscus semoni could have potential as a tool for analyses of complement activation and therapeutic interventions in HUS. PMID:22851928

  13. Sticholysins, two pore-forming toxins produced by the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus: their interaction with membranes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos; Mancheño, José M; Martínez, Diana; Tejuca, Mayra; Pazos, Fabiola; Lanio, María E

    2009-12-15

    Sticholysins (Sts) I and II (StI/II) are pore-forming toxins (PFTs) produced by the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus belonging to the actinoporin family, a unique class of eukaryotic PFTs exclusively found in sea anemones. As for the rest of the members of this family, Sts are cysteine-less proteins, with molecular weights around 20 kDa, high isoelectric points (>9.5), and a preference for sphingomyelin-containing membranes. A three-dimensional structure of StII, solved by X-ray crystallography, showed that it is composed of a hydrophobic beta-sandwich core flanked on the opposite sides by two alpha helices comprising residues 14-23 and 128-135. A variety of experimental results indicate that the first thirty N-terminal residues, which include one of the helices, are directly involved in pore formation. This region contains an amphipathic stretch, well conserved in all actinoporins, which is the only portion of the molecule that can change conformation without perturbing the general protein fold; in fact, binding to model membranes only produces a slight increase in the regular secondary structure content of Sts. Sts are produced in soluble form but they readily bind to different cell and model membrane systems such as lipidic monolayers, micelles, and lipid vesicles. Remarkably, both the binding and pore-formation steps are critically dependent on the physico-chemical nature of the membrane. In fact, a large population of toxin irreversibly binds with high affinity in membranes containing sphingomyelin whereas binding in membranes lacking this sphingolipid is relatively low and reversible. The joint presence of SM and cholesterol largely promotes binding and pore formation. Minor amounts of lipids favoring a non-lamellar organization also augment the efficiency of pore formation. The functional pore formed in cellular and model membranes has a diameter of approximately 2.0 nm and is presumably formed by the N-terminal alpha helices of four monomers

  14. Embryonic and larval development of the host sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor and Heteractis crispa.

    PubMed

    Scott, Anna; Harrison, Peter L

    2007-10-01

    Little information is available on the sexual reproductive biology of anemones that provide essential habitat for anemonefish. Here we provide the first information on the surface ultrastructural and morphological changes during development of the embryos and planula larvae of Entacmaea quadricolor and Heteractis crispa, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Newly spawned eggs of E. quadricolor and H. crispa averaged 794 microm and 589 microm diameter, respectively, and were covered by many spires of microvilli that were evenly distributed over the egg surface, except for a single bare patch. Eggs of both species contained abundant zooxanthellae when spawned, indicating vertical transmission of symbionts. Fertilization was external, and the resulting embryos displayed superficial cleavage. As development continued, individual blastomeres became readily distinguishable and a round-to-ovoid blastula was formed, which flattened with further divisions. The edges of the blastula thickened, creating a concave-convex dish-shaped gastrula. The outer margins of the gastrula appeared to roll inward, leading to the formation of an oral pore and a ciliated planula larva. Larval motility and directional movement were first observed 36 h after spawning. E. quadricolor larval survival remained high during the first 4 d after spawning, then decreased rapidly. PMID:17928518

  15. Anemonefish oxygenate their anemone hosts at night.

    PubMed

    Szczebak, Joseph T; Henry, Raymond P; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Chadwick, Nanette E

    2013-03-15

    Many stony coral-dwelling fishes exhibit adaptations to deal with hypoxia among the branches of their hosts; however, no information exists on the respiratory ecophysiology of obligate fish associates of non-coral organisms such as sea anemones and sponges. This study investigated metabolic and behavioral interactions between two-band anemonefish (Amphiprion bicinctus) and bulb-tentacle sea anemones (Entacmaea quadricolor) at night. We measured the net dark oxygen uptake ( , μmol O2 h(-1)) of fish-anemone pairs when partners were separate from each other, together as a unit, and together as a unit but separated by a mesh screen that prevented physical contact. We also measured the effects of water current on sea anemone and quantified the nocturnal behaviors of fish in the absence and presence of host anemones in order to discern the impacts of anemone presence on fish behavior. Net of united pairs was significantly higher than that of both separated pairs and united pairs that were separated by a mesh screen. Anemone increased with flow rate from 0.5 to 2.0 cm s(-1), after which remained constant up to a water flow rate of 8.0 cm s(-1). Furthermore, the percentage time and bout frequency of flow-modulating behaviors by fish increased significantly when anemones were present. We conclude that physical contact between anemonefish and sea anemones elevates the of at least one of the partners at night, and anemonefish behavior at night appears to oxygenate sea anemone hosts and to augment the metabolism of both partners. PMID:23447664

  16. Internal brooding favours pre-metamorphic chimerism in a non-colonial cnidarian, the sea anemone Urticina felina.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Annie; Sun, Zhao; Hamel, Jean-François

    2011-12-01

    The concept of intraorganismal genetic heterogeneity resulting from allogeneic fusion (i.e. chimerism) has almost exclusively been explored in modular organisms that have the capacity to reproduce asexually, such as colonial ascidians and corals. Apart from medical conditions in mammals, the natural development of chimeras across ontogenetic stages has not been investigated in any unitary organism incapable of asexual propagation. Furthermore, chimerism was mainly studied among gregarious settlers to show that clustering of genetically similar individuals upon settlement promotes the occurrence of multi-chimeras exhibiting greater fitness. The possible occurrence of chimeric embryos and larvae prior to settlement has not received any attention. Here we document for the first time the presence of natural chimeras in brooded embryos and larvae of a unitary cnidarian, the sea anemone Urticina felina. Rates of visible bi- and multi-chimerism of up to 3.13 per cent were measured in the broods of 16 females. Apart from these sectorial chimeras, monitored fusion events also yielded homogeneous chimeric entities (mega-larvae) suggesting that the actual rates of natural chimerism in U. felina are greater than predicted by visual assessment. In support of this assumption, the broods of certain individuals comprised a dominant proportion (to 90%) of inexplicably large embryos and larvae (relative to oocyte size). Findings of fusion and chimerism in a unitary organism add a novel dimension to the framework within which the mechanisms and evolutionary significance of genetic heterogeneity in animal taxa can be explored.

  17. The making of an embryo in a basal metazoan: Proteomic analysis in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Shimrit; Sher, Noa; Brekhman, Vera; Ziv, Tamar; Lubzens, Esther; Lotan, Tamar

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians are widely distributed basal metazoans that play an important role in the marine ecosystem. Their genetic diversity and dispersal depends on successful oogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis. To understand the processes that lead to successful embryogenesis in these basal organisms, we conducted comparative proteomics on the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We examined four developmental stages from oocyte maturation through early embryogenesis, as well as the oocyte jelly sac in which fertilization and embryogenesis take place. Our analysis revealed 37 stage-specifically expressed proteins, including cell cycle, cellular energy related and DNA replication proteins and transcription regulators. Using in situ hybridization, we show that within the mesenteria, two cell types support successful oocyte development and embryogenesis. Large somatic supporting cells synthesize vitellogenin, the most abundant egg yolk protein within the oocyte, whereas mesenteria gland cells synthesize mucin 5B, which was found to be the main component of the jelly sac. These findings shed light on the sexual reproduction program in cnidarians and suggest a high conservation with proteins governing oogenesis in Bilateria. PMID:26365810

  18. Two variants of the major serine protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Ziegelmüller, Patrick; González, Lidice; Mansur, Manuel; Machado, Yoan; Redecke, Lars; Hahn, Ulrich; Betzel, Christian; Chávez, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-07-01

    The major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (ShPI-1) is a non-specific inhibitor that binds trypsin and other trypsin-like enzymes, as well as chymotrypsin, and human neutrophil elastase. We performed site-directed mutagenesis of ShPI-1 to produce two variants (rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S) that were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized. After a single purification step, 65 mg and 15 mg of protein per liter of culture supernatant were obtained for rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S, respectively. Functional studies demonstrated a 100-fold decreased trypsin inhibitory activity as result of the K13L substitution at the reactive (P1) site. This protein variant has a novel tight-binding inhibitor activity of pancreatic elastase and increased activity toward neutrophil elastase in comparison to rShPI-1A. In contrast, the substitution Y15S at P2' site did not affect the Ki value against trypsin, but did reduce activity 10-fold against chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase. Our results provide two new ShPI-1 variants with modified inhibitory activities, one of them with increased biomedical potential. This study also offers new insight into the functional impact of the P1 and P2' sites on ShPI-1 specificity. PMID:26993255

  19. The transcriptomic response to thermal stress is immediate, transient and potentiated by ultraviolet radiation in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Moya, A; Ganot, P; Furla, P; Sabourault, C

    2012-03-01

    Among the environmental threats to coral reef health, temperature and ultraviolet increases have been proposed as major agents, although the relative contribution of each in the cnidarian/zooxanthellae symbiosis breakdown has been poorly addressed. We have investigated the transcriptomic response to thermal stress, with and without ultraviolet radiation (UVR), in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Using the Oligo2K A. viridis microarray, dedicated to genes potentially involved in the symbiosis interaction, we monitored the gene expression profiles after 1, 2 and 5 days of stresses that further lead to massive losses of zooxanthellae. Each stress showed a specific gene expression profile with very little overlap. We showed that the major response to thermal stress is immediate (24 h) but returns to the baseline gene expression profile after 2 days. UVR alone has little effect but potentiates thermal stress, as a second response at 5 days was observed when the two stresses were coupled. Several pathways were highlighted, such as mesoglea loosening, cell death and calcium homeostasis and described in more details. Finally, we showed that the dermatopontin gene family, potentially involved in collagen fibrillogenesis, issued from actinarian-specific duplication events, with one member preferentially expressed in the gastroderm and specifically responding to stress. Anemonia viridis EST sequences have been deposited into GenBank dbEST ([GenBank:FK719875–FK759813]. PMID:22288383

  20. Analogs of the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Beeton, Christine; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S

    2011-10-01

    CCR7- effector memory T (TEM) lymphocytes are involved in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. These cells express Kv1.3 potassium channels that play a major role in their activation. Blocking these channels preferentially inhibits the activation of CCR7- TEM cells, with little or no effects on CCR7+ naïve and central memory T cells. Blockers of lymphocyte Kv1.3 channels therefore show considerable potential as therapeutics for autoimmune diseases. ShK, a 35-residue polypeptide isolated from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, blocks Kv1.3 channels at picomolar concentrations. Although ShK was effective in treating rats with delayed type hypersensitivity and a model of multiple sclerosis, it lacks selectivity for Kv1.3 channels over closely-related Kv1 channels. Extensive mutagenesis studies combined with elucidation of the structure of ShK led to models of ShK docked with the channel. This knowledge was valuable in the development of new ShK analogs with improved selectivity and increasing stability, which have proven efficacious in preventing and/or treating animal models of delayed type hypersensitivity, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis without inducing generalized immunosuppression. They are currently undergoing further evaluation as potential immunomodulators for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:21824083

  1. Microinjection of mRNA or morpholinos for reverse genetic analysis in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Layden, Michael J; Röttinger, Eric; Wolenski, Francis S; Gilmore, Thomas D; Martindale, Mark Q

    2016-01-01

    We describe a protocol for microinjection of embryos for an emerging model system, the cnidarian sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. In addition, we provide protocols for carrying out overexpression and knockdown of gene function through microinjection of in vitro–translated mRNAs or gene-specific oligonucleotide morpholinos (Mos), respectively. our approach is simple, and it takes advantage of the natural adherence properties of the early embryo to position them in a single layer on a polystyrene dish. embryos are visualized on a dissecting microscope equipped with epifluorescence and injected with microinjection needles using a picospritzer forced-air injection system. a micromanipulator is used to guide the needle to impale individual embryos. Injection takes ∼1.5 h, and an experienced researcher can inject ∼2,000 embryos in a single session. With the availability of the published Nematostella genome, the entire protocol, including cloning and transcription of mRNAs, can be carried out in ∼1 week. PMID:23579781

  2. Sequence-specific H NMR assignments and secondary structure in the sea anemone polypeptide Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin I

    SciTech Connect

    Fogh, R.H.; Mabbutt, B.C.; Kem, W.R.; Norton, R.S. )

    1989-02-21

    Sequence-specific assignments are reported for the 500-MHz H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the 48-residue polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Sh I). Spin systems were first identified by using two-dimensional relayed or multiple quantum filtered correlation spectroscopy, double quantum spectroscopy, and spin lock experiments. Specific resonance assignments were then obtained from nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) connectivities between protons from residues adjacent in the amino acid sequence. Of a total of 265 potentially observable resonances, 248 (i.e., 94%) were assigned, arising from 39 completely and 9 partially assigned amino acid spin systems. The secondary structure of Sh I was defined on the basis of the pattern of sequential NOE connectivities. NOEs between protons on separate strands of the polypeptide backbone, and backbone amide exchange rates. Sh I contains a four-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet encompassing residues 1-5, 16-24, 30-33, and 40-46, with a {beta}-bulge at residues 17 and 18 and a reverse turn, probably a type II {beta}-turn, involving residues 27-30. No evidence of {alpha}-helical structure was found.

  3. Evaluation of the sea anemone Anthothoe albocincta as an augmentative biocontrol agent for biofouling on artificial structures.

    PubMed

    Atalah, Javier; Bennett, Holly; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative biocontrol, defined as the use of indigenous natural enemies to control pest populations, has not been explored extensively in marine systems. This study tested the potential of the anemone Anthothoe albocincta as a biocontrol agent for biofouling on submerged artificial structures. Biofouling biomass was negatively related to anemone cover. Treatments with high anemone cover (>35%) led to significant changes in biofouling assemblages compared to controls. Taxa that contributed to these changes differed among sites, but included reductions in cover of problematic fouling organisms, such as solitary ascidians and bryozoans. In laboratory trials, A. albocincta substantially prevented the settlement of larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina when exposed to three levels of larval dose, suggesting predation as an important biocontrol mechanism, in addition to space pre-emption. This study demonstrated that augmentative biocontrol using anemones has the potential to reduce biofouling on marine artificial structures, although considerable further work is required to refine this tool before its application.

  4. The phylum Cnidaria and investigations of its toxins and venoms until 1990.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tom; Kem, William R

    2009-12-15

    Cnidarians are the largest phylum of generally toxic animals, yet their toxins and venoms have not received as much scientific attention as those of many terrestrial (snakes, scorpions, spiders, etc.) and even some marine animals (i.e. cone snails). Approximately 13,000 living cnidarian species have been described by systematists. A major rationale for their study in the past, besides scientific curiosity, was to better treat victims of their envenomation. While that goal remains a high priority, it is now appreciated that the toxins of these mostly marine animals can be very useful molecular probes for the analysis of ion channels involved in electrical signaling, immune responses and other signal transduction processes of biomedical interest. For instance, anaphylaxis was discovered by Richet (1905) during experiments with sea anemone and hydrozoan tentacular extracts. Similarly, it has recently been shown that a toxin from another sea anemone is able to potently inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation in models of certain autoimmune diseases. Thus, these natural substances continue to be of relevance for understanding and treating human diseases. In addition to introducing phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata), we provide a short history of early (until about 1990) research on cnidarian toxins and venoms, to provide a perspective for appreciating the scientific advances of the past two decades that are summarized in the ensuing 19 papers in this special Toxicon issue.

  5. Pontibacillus litoralis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from a sea anemone, and emended description of the genus Pontibacillus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yi, Lang-Bo; Li, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Yong-Xiao; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Chen, Qi-Hui; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2010-03-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, moderately halophilic, Gram-positive, endospore-forming, motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain JSM 072002(T), was isolated from a sea anemone (Anthopleura xanthogrammica) collected from the South China Sea. Strain JSM 072002(T) was able to grow with 0.5-15 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 15-50 degrees C; optimum growth was observed with 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.5 and 35 degrees C. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0). The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 072002(T) should be assigned to the genus Pontibacillus and revealed relatively low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (<97 %) with the type strains of the three recognized Pontibacillus species (Pontibacillus chungwhensis BH030062(T), 96.8 %; Pontibacillus marinus KCTC 3917(T), 96.7 %; Pontibacillus halophilus JSM 076056(T), 96.0 %). The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supports the view that strain JSM 072002(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pontibacillus, for which the name Pontibacillus litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 072002(T) (=DSM 21186(T)=KCTC 13237(T)). An emended description of the genus Pontibacillus is also presented.

  6. The influence of UV radiation on number and ultrastructure of the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the sea anemone Cereus pedunculatus (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannack, K.; Kestler, P.; Sicken, O.; Westheide, W.

    1998-02-01

    The sea anemone Cereus pedunculatus was artificially UV-irradiated to test the effect of UV-light on the number of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in its gastrodermis and on their ultrastructure. Anemones were kept in the laboratory in a light: dark cycle (LD 12∶12; 13 W m-2) at 18 °C and briefly (2, 5 and 9 d) exposed to UV radiation at quasisolar intensities, 0.5 or 1 W m-2. Their tentacles were then examined in the electron microscope for qualitative and quantitative changes in the zooxanthellae. There was an intensity-dependent decrease in the number of symbionts, which in some cases were lost altogether (bleaching). Irradiated anemones contained a larger proportion of symbionts with ultrastructural abnormalities, namely diminished starch, some mitochondria with altered matrix and, in particular, characteristic changes in the chloroplasts; instead of being densely stacked, the thylakoids were spread apart and swollen at the ends of their membranes to form vesicle-like structures. Relatively large vesicles also appeared in the cytoplasm. The resulting enlargement of the whole dinoflagellate cell was documented morphometrically. Another intensity-dependent effect was a significant decrease in mitosis rate, established by counting dividing symbiont cells in TEM micrographs. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A03B6037 00006

  7. The evolution of microRNA pathway protein components in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Moran, Yehu; Praher, Daniela; Fredman, David; Technau, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, it became evident that posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is a central biological process in both plants and animals. Yet, our knowledge about microRNA biogenesis and utilization in animals stems mostly from the study of Bilateria. In this study, we identified genes encoding the protein components of different parts of the microRNA pathway in Cnidaria, the likely sister phylum of Bilateria. These genes originated from three cnidarian lineages (sea anemones, stony corals, and hydras) that are separated by at least 500 My from one another. We studied the expression and phylogeny of the cnidarian homologs of Drosha and Pasha (DGCR8) that compose the microprocessor, the RNAse III enzyme Dicer and its partners, the HEN1 methyltransferase, the Argonaute protein effectors, as well as members of the GW182 protein family. We further reveal that whereas the bilaterian dicer partners Loquacious/TRBP and PACT are absent from Cnidaria, this phylum contains homologs of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein HYL1, the Dicer partner found in plants. We also identified HYL1 homologs in a sponge and a ctenophore. This finding raises questions regarding the independent evolution of the microRNA pathway in plants and animals, and together with the other results shed new light on the evolution of an important regulatory pathway.

  8. Axial patterning and diversification in the cnidaria predate the Hox system.

    PubMed

    Kamm, Kai; Schierwater, Bernd; Jakob, Wolfgang; Dellaporta, Stephen L; Miller, David J

    2006-05-01

    Across the animal kingdom, Hox genes are organized in clusters whose genomic organization reflects their central roles in patterning along the anterior/posterior (A/P) axis . While a cluster of Hox genes was present in the bilaterian common ancestor, the origins of this system remain unclear (cf. ). With new data for two representatives of the closest extant phylum to the Bilateria, the sea anemone Nematostella and the hydromedusa Eleutheria, we argue here that the Cnidaria predate the evolution of the Hox system. Although Hox-like genes are present in a range of cnidarians, many of these are paralogs and in neither Nematostella nor Eleutheria is an equivalent of the Hox cluster present. With the exception of independently duplicated genes, the cnidarian genes are unlinked and in several cases are flanked by non-Hox genes. Furthermore, the cnidarian genes are expressed in patterns that are inconsistent with the Hox paradigm. We conclude that the Cnidaria/Bilateria split occurred before a definitive Hox system developed. The spectacular variety in morphological and developmental characteristics shown by extant cnidarians demonstrates that there is no obligate link between the Hox system and morphological diversity in the animal kingdom and that a canonical Hox system is not mandatory for axial patterning.

  9. Nme Gene Family Evolutionary History Reveals Pre-Metazoan Origins and High Conservation between Humans and the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Desvignes, Thomas; Pontarotti, Pierre; Bobe, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Background The Nme gene family is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes such as cellular differentiation, development, metastatic dissemination, and cilia functions. Despite the known importance of Nme genes and their use as clinical markers of tumor aggressiveness, the associated cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Over the last 20 years, several non-vertebrate model species have been used to investigate Nme functions. However, the evolutionary history of the family remains poorly understood outside the vertebrate lineage. The aim of the study was thus to elucidate the evolutionary history of the Nme gene family in Metazoans. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a total of 21 eukaryote species including 14 metazoans, the evolutionary history of Nme genes was reconstructed in the metazoan lineage. We demonstrated that the complexity of the Nme gene family, initially thought to be restricted to chordates, was also shared by the metazoan ancestor. We also provide evidence suggesting that the complexity of the family is mainly a eukaryotic innovation, with the exception of Nme8 that is likely to be a choanoflagellate/metazoan innovation. Highly conserved gene structure, genomic linkage, and protein domains were identified among metazoans, some features being also conserved in eukaryotes. When considering the entire Nme family, the starlet sea anemone is the studied metazoan species exhibiting the most conserved gene and protein sequence features with humans. In addition, we were able to show that most of the proteins known to interact with human NME proteins were also found in starlet sea anemone. Conclusion/Significance Together, our observations further support the association of Nme genes with key cellular functions that have been conserved throughout metazoan evolution. Future investigations of evolutionarily conserved Nme gene functions using the starlet sea anemone could shed new light on a wide variety of key developmental and

  10. 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR assignments of StnII-Y111N, a highly impaired mutant of the sea anemone actinoporin Sticholysin II.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Cea, Miguel A; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Martínez-del-Pozo, Alvaro; Gavilanes, José G; Bruix, Marta

    2010-04-01

    Sticholysin II is an actinoporin of 175 amino acids produced by the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. Several studies with different mutants have been performed to characterize its molecular properties and activity. As a first step towards a 3D structural characterization and its interaction with membrane models at a residue level, herein we report the nearly complete NMR (15)N, (13)C and (1)H chemical shifts assignments of the Y111N variant at pH 4.0 and 25 degrees C (BMRB No. 16630). The assignment is complete for the biologically relevant residues, specially for those implicated in membrane interactions.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, R.S.; Cossins, A.I.; Kem, W.R. )

    1989-02-21

    The solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Sh I) have been investigated by high-resolution H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at 300 MHz. The pH dependence of the spectra has been examined over the range 1.1-12.2 at 27{degree}C. Individual pK{sub a} values have been obtained for the {alpha}-ammonium group of Ala-1 (8.6) and the side chains of Glu-8 (3.7), Tyr-36 (10.9), and Tyr-37 (10.8). For the remaining seven carboxyl groups in the molecule, four pK{sub a} values can be clearly identified. The five Lys residues titrate in the range 10.5-11, but individual pK{sub a} values could not be obtained because of peak overlap. Conformational changes associated with the protonation of carboxylates occur below pH 4, while in the alkaline pH range major unfolding occurs above pH 10. The molecule also unfolds at elevated temperatures. Exchange of the backbone amide protons has been monitored at various values of pH and temperature in the ranges pH 4-5 and 12-27{degree}C. Comparison of these properties of Sh I in solution with those of the related polypeptides anthopleurin A and Anemonia sulcata toxins I and II indicates that Sh I is less stable thermally and that there are some significant differences in the ionic interactions that maintain the tertiary structure. The solvent accessibility of aromatic residues has been probed with photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization NMR at 360 MHz.

  12. Neptunomonas phycophila sp. nov. isolated from a culture of Symbiodinium sp., a dinoflagellate symbiont of the sea anemone Aiptasia tagetes.

    PubMed

    Frommlet, Jörg; Guimarães, Bárbara; Sousa, Lígia; Serôdio, João; Alves, Artur

    2015-03-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain SYM1(T), was isolated from a culture of Symbiodinium sp., an algal symbiont of the sea anemone Aiptasia tagetes collected in Puerto Rico. Growth was observed at 4-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and with 0.5-8 % (optimum 2 %) (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SYM1(T) was a member of the genus Neptunomonas with the type strain of Neptunomonas naphthovorans as the closest phylogenetic relative with a pairwise sequence similarity of 98.15 %. However, DNA-DNA relatedness between strain SYM1(T) and N. naphthovorans CIP 106451(T) was 24 %. Moreover, strain SYM1(T) could be distinguished from its closest relative by several phenotypic characteristics such as NaCl, pH and temperature tolerance, nitrate reduction and utilization of carbon substrates. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SYM1(T) was 45 mol%. Ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) was the only respiratory quinone detected. Based on a polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strain SYM1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Neptunomonas, for which the name Neptunomonas phycophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SYM1(T) ( = LMG 28329(T) = CECT 8716(T)). PMID:25563909

  13. Lack of genetic structure in the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) across European seas.

    PubMed

    Stopar, Katja; Ramsak, Andreja; Trontelj, Peter; Malej, Alenka

    2010-10-01

    The genetic structure of the holopelagic scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca was inferred based on the study of 144 adult medusae. The areas of study were five geographic regions in two European seas (Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea). A 655-bp sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and a 645-bp sequence of two nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were analyzed. The protein coding COI gene showed a higher level of divergence than the combined nuclear ITS fragment (haplotype diversity 0.962 vs. 0.723, nucleotide diversity 1.16% vs. 0.31%). Phylogeographic analysis on COI gene revealed two clades, the larger consisting of specimens from all sampling sites, and the smaller mostly formed of specimens from the Mediterranean Sea. Haplotype diversity was very high throughout the sampled area, and within sample diversity was higher than diversity among geographical regions. No strongly supported genetically or geographically distinct groups of P. noctiluca were found. The results - long distance dispersal, insignificant F(ST) values, lack of isolation by distance - pointed toward an admixture among Mediterranean and East Atlantic populations.

  14. Proteomic analysis of symbiosome membranes in Cnidaria-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shao-En; Wang, Yu-Bao; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Wan-Nan Uang; Lu, Chi-Yu; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2010-03-01

    Symbiosomes are specific intracellular membrane-bound vacuoles containing microalgae in a mutualistic Cnidaria (host)-dinoflagellate (symbiont) association. The symbiosome membrane is originally derived from host plasma membranes during phagocytosis of the symbiont; however, its molecular components and functions are not clear. In order to investigate the protein components of the symbiosome membranes, homogenous symbiosomes were isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and their purities and membrane intactness examined by Western blot analysis for host contaminants and microscopic analysis using various fluorescent probes, respectively. Pure and intact symbiosomes were then subjected to biotinylation by a cell impermeant agent (Biotin-XX sulfosuccinimidyl ester) to label membrane surface proteins. The biotinylated proteins, both Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble fractions, were subjected to 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by MS using an LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 17 proteins were identified. Based on their different subcellular origins and functional categories, it indicates that symbiosome membranes serve as the interface for interaction between host and symbiont by fulfilling several crucial cellular functions such as those of membrane receptors/cell recognition, cytoskeletal remodeling, ATP synthesis/proton homeostasis, transporters, stress responses/chaperones, and anti-apoptosis. The results of proteomic analysis not only indicate the molecular identity of the symbiosome membrane, but also provide insight into the possible role of symbiosome membranes during the endosymbiotic association. PMID:20049864

  15. Proteomic analysis of symbiosome membranes in Cnidaria-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shao-En; Wang, Yu-Bao; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Wan-Nan Uang; Lu, Chi-Yu; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2010-03-01

    Symbiosomes are specific intracellular membrane-bound vacuoles containing microalgae in a mutualistic Cnidaria (host)-dinoflagellate (symbiont) association. The symbiosome membrane is originally derived from host plasma membranes during phagocytosis of the symbiont; however, its molecular components and functions are not clear. In order to investigate the protein components of the symbiosome membranes, homogenous symbiosomes were isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and their purities and membrane intactness examined by Western blot analysis for host contaminants and microscopic analysis using various fluorescent probes, respectively. Pure and intact symbiosomes were then subjected to biotinylation by a cell impermeant agent (Biotin-XX sulfosuccinimidyl ester) to label membrane surface proteins. The biotinylated proteins, both Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble fractions, were subjected to 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by MS using an LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 17 proteins were identified. Based on their different subcellular origins and functional categories, it indicates that symbiosome membranes serve as the interface for interaction between host and symbiont by fulfilling several crucial cellular functions such as those of membrane receptors/cell recognition, cytoskeletal remodeling, ATP synthesis/proton homeostasis, transporters, stress responses/chaperones, and anti-apoptosis. The results of proteomic analysis not only indicate the molecular identity of the symbiosome membrane, but also provide insight into the possible role of symbiosome membranes during the endosymbiotic association.

  16. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata: Sequential and stereospecific resonance assignment and secondary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, P.C.; Clore, G.M.; Beress, L.; Gronenborn, A.M. )

    1989-03-07

    The sequential resonance assignment of the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata is presented. This is carried out with two-dimensional NMR techniques to identify through-bond and through-space (< 5{angstrom}) connectivities. Added spectral complexity arises from the fact that the sample is an approximately 1:1 mixture of two BDS-I isoproteins, (Leu-18)-BDS-I and (Phe-18)-BDS-I. Complete assignments, however, are obtained, largely due to the increased resolution and sensitivity afforded at 600 MHz. In addition, the stereospecific assignment of a large number of {beta}-methylene protons is achieved from an analysis of the pattern of {sup 3}J{sub {alpha}{beta}} coupling constants and the relative magnitudes of intraresidue NOEs involving the NH, C{sup {alpha}}H, and C{sup {beta}}H protons. Regular secondary structure elements are deduced from a qualitative interpretation of the nuclear Overhauser enhancement, {sup 3}J{sub HN{alpha}} coupling constant, and amide NH exchange data. A triple-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet is found to be related to that found in partially homologous sea anemone polypeptide toxins.

  17. Ultrastructural evidence for two-cell and three-cell neural pathways in the tentacle epidermis of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Jane A; Elliott, Carol F; Carlin, Ryan W

    2002-01-01

    Sensory and ganglion cells in the tentacle epidermis of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were traced in serial transmission electron micrographs to their synaptic contacts on other cells. Sensory cell synapses were found on spirocytes, muscle cells, and ganglion cells. Ganglion cells, in turn, synapsed on sensory cells, spirocytes, muscle cells, and other neurons and formed en passant axo-axonal synapses. Axonal synapses on nematocytes and gland cells were not traced to their cells of origin, i.e., identified sensory or ganglion cells. Direct synaptic contacts of sensory cells with spirocytes and sensory cells with muscle cells suggest a local two-cell pathway for spirocyst discharge and muscle cell contraction, whereas interjection of a ganglion cell between the sensory and effector cells creates a local three-cell pathway. The network of ganglion cells and their processes allows for a through-conduction system that is interconnected by chemical synapses. Although the sea anemone nervous system is more complex than that of Hydra, it has similar two-cell and three-cell effector pathways that may function in local responses to tentacle contact with food.

  18. Sea Anemone Peptide with Uncommon β-Hairpin Structure Inhibits Acid-sensing Ion Channel 3 (ASIC3) and Reveals Analgesic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Osmakov, Dmitry I.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Sanamyan, Nadezhda P.; Sanamyan, Karen E.; Dyachenko, Igor A.; Bondarenko, Dmitry A.; Murashev, Arkadii N.; Mineev, Konstantin S.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Three novel peptides were isolated from the venom of the sea anemone Urticina grebelnyi. All of them are 29 amino acid peptides cross-linked by two disulfide bridges, with a primary structure similar to other sea anemone peptides belonging to structural group 9a. The structure of the gene encoding the shared precursor protein of the identified peptides was determined. One peptide, π-AnmTX Ugr 9a-1 (short name Ugr 9-1), produced a reversible inhibition effect on both the transient and the sustained current of human ASIC3 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. It completely blocked the transient component (IC50 10 ± 0.6 μm) and partially (48 ± 2%) inhibited the amplitude of the sustained component (IC50 1.44 ± 0.19 μm). Using in vivo tests in mice, Ugr 9-1 significantly reversed inflammatory and acid-induced pain. The other two novel peptides, AnmTX Ugr 9a-2 (Ugr 9-2) and AnmTX Ugr 9a-3 (Ugr 9-3), did not inhibit the ASIC3 current. NMR spectroscopy revealed that Ugr 9-1 has an uncommon spatial structure, stabilized by two S-S bridges, with three classical β-turns and twisted β-hairpin without interstrand disulfide bonds. This is a novel peptide spatial structure that we propose to name boundless β-hairpin. PMID:23801332

  19. Menthol-induced bleaching rapidly and effectively provides experimental aposymbiotic sea anemones (Aiptasia sp.) for symbiosis investigations.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jennifer L; Sproles, Ashley E; Oakley, Clinton A; Grossman, Arthur R; Weis, Virginia M; Davy, Simon K

    2016-02-01

    Experimental manipulation of the symbiosis between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) is crucial to advancing the understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in host-symbiont interactions, and overall coral reef ecology. The anemone Aiptasia sp. is a model for cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, and notably it can be rendered aposymbiotic (i.e. dinoflagellate-free) and re-infected with a range of Symbiodinium types. Various methods exist for generating aposymbiotic hosts; however, they can be hugely time consuming and not wholly effective. Here, we optimise a method using menthol for production of aposymbiotic Aiptasia. The menthol treatment produced aposymbiotic hosts within just 4 weeks (97-100% symbiont loss), and the condition was maintained long after treatment when anemones were held under a standard light:dark cycle. The ability of Aiptasia to form a stable symbiosis appeared to be unaffected by menthol exposure, as demonstrated by successful re-establishment of the symbiosis when anemones were experimentally re-infected. Furthermore, there was no significant impact on photosynthetic or respiratory performance of re-infected anemones. PMID:26596538

  20. The Role of Complement in Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis and Immune Challenge in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Poole, Angela Z; Kitchen, Sheila A; Weis, Virginia M

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an innate immune pathway that in vertebrates, is responsible for initial recognition and ultimately phagocytosis and destruction of microbes. Several complement molecules including C3, Factor B, and mannose binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASP) have been characterized in invertebrates and while most studies have focused on their conserved role in defense against pathogens, little is known about their role in managing beneficial microbes. The purpose of this study was to (1) characterize complement pathway genes in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, (2) investigate the evolution of complement genes in invertebrates, and (3) examine the potential dual role of complement genes Factor B and MASP in the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge using qPCR based studies. The results demonstrate that A. pallida has multiple Factor B genes (Ap_Bf-1, Ap_Bf-2a, and Ap_Bf-2b) and one MASP gene (Ap_MASP). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the evolutionary history of complement genes is complex, and there have been many gene duplications or gene loss events, even within members of the same phylum. Gene expression analyses revealed a potential role for complement in both onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge. Specifically, Ap_Bf-1 and Ap_MASP are significantly upregulated in the light at the onset of symbiosis and in response to challenge with the pathogen Serratia marcescens suggesting that they play a role in the initial recognition of both beneficial and harmful microbes. Ap_Bf-2b in contrast, was generally downregulated during the onset and maintenance of symbiosis and in response to challenge with S. marcescens. Therefore, the exact role of Ap_Bf-2b in response to microbes remains unclear, but the results suggest that the presence of microbes leads to repressed expression. Together, these results indicate functional divergence between Ap_Bf-1

  1. The Role of Complement in Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis and Immune Challenge in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia pallida

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Angela Z.; Kitchen, Sheila A.; Weis, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an innate immune pathway that in vertebrates, is responsible for initial recognition and ultimately phagocytosis and destruction of microbes. Several complement molecules including C3, Factor B, and mannose binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASP) have been characterized in invertebrates and while most studies have focused on their conserved role in defense against pathogens, little is known about their role in managing beneficial microbes. The purpose of this study was to (1) characterize complement pathway genes in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, (2) investigate the evolution of complement genes in invertebrates, and (3) examine the potential dual role of complement genes Factor B and MASP in the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge using qPCR based studies. The results demonstrate that A. pallida has multiple Factor B genes (Ap_Bf-1, Ap_Bf-2a, and Ap_Bf-2b) and one MASP gene (Ap_MASP). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the evolutionary history of complement genes is complex, and there have been many gene duplications or gene loss events, even within members of the same phylum. Gene expression analyses revealed a potential role for complement in both onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge. Specifically, Ap_Bf-1 and Ap_MASP are significantly upregulated in the light at the onset of symbiosis and in response to challenge with the pathogen Serratia marcescens suggesting that they play a role in the initial recognition of both beneficial and harmful microbes. Ap_Bf-2b in contrast, was generally downregulated during the onset and maintenance of symbiosis and in response to challenge with S. marcescens. Therefore, the exact role of Ap_Bf-2b in response to microbes remains unclear, but the results suggest that the presence of microbes leads to repressed expression. Together, these results indicate functional divergence between Ap_Bf-1

  2. Development of Highly Selective Kv1.3-Blocking Peptides Based on the Sea Anemone Peptide ShK

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Michael W.; Chang, Shih Chieh; Chauhan, Satendra; Huq, Redwan; Tajhya, Rajeev B.; Chhabra, Sandeep; Norton, Raymond S.; Beeton, Christine

    2015-01-01

    ShK, from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, is a 35-residue disulfide-rich peptide that blocks the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 at ca. 10 pM and the related channel Kv1.1 at ca. 16 pM. We developed an analog of this peptide, ShK-186, which is currently in Phase 1b-2a clinical trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. While ShK-186 displays a >100-fold improvement in selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1 compared with ShK, there is considerable interest in developing peptides with an even greater selectivity ratio. In this report, we describe several variants of ShK that incorporate p-phophono-phenylalanine at the N-terminus coupled with internal substitutions at Gln16 and Met21. In addition, we also explored the combinatorial effects of these internal substitutions with an alanine extension at the C-terminus. Their selectivity was determined by patch-clamp electrophysiology on Kv1.3 and Kv1.1 channels stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. The peptides with an alanine extension blocked Kv1.3 at low pM concentrations and exhibited up to 2250-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. Analogs that incorporates p-phosphono-phenylalanine at the N-terminus blocked Kv1.3 with IC50s in the low pM range and did not affect Kv1.1 at concentrations up to 100 nM, displaying a selectivity enhancement of >10,000-fold for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. Other potentially important Kv channels such as Kv1.4 and Kv1.6 were only partially blocked at 100 nM concentrations of each of the ShK analogs. PMID:25603346

  3. Structure-function relationships of the major neurotoxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus with a new sodium channel receptor site

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have determined that ShN I, a 48-residue type 2 sea anemone toxin, delays the inactivation of the Na channel in lobster olfactory somas. The receptor for ShN I was identified in vesicle preparations of neuronal tissues from both crustaceans and mammals; however, the K{sub D} values for the former is more than 1,000 fold lower for the later. The binding of ({sup 125}I)-ShN I to this receptor was determined to be unaffected by Anemonia sulcata II, depolarization of the membrane, or veratridine. ShN I was unable to displace ({sup 125}I)-Androctonus austrialis Hector II, whereas unlabeled AaH II and As II displaced the labeled scorpion toxin from rat brain synaptosomes. This is the first characterization of a new Na channel receptor site which specifically binds type 2 anemone toxins. To study the interactions that specific amino acid residues of ShN I have with this receptor, we developed a strategy using solid phase peptide synthesis. Prior to the synthesis of analogs to ShN I, we assembled the native ShN I sequence and reoxidized the three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Chemical, physical, and pharmacological characterization of the purified synthetic ShN I showed it to be indistinguishable from the natural toxin.

  4. Detrimental effects of host anemone bleaching on anemonefish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz-Agudelo, P.; Jones, G. P.; Thorrold, S. R.; Planes, S.

    2011-06-01

    Coral bleaching and related reef degradation have caused significant declines in the abundance of reef-associated fishes. Most attention on the effects of bleaching has focused on corals, but bleaching is also prevalent in other cnidarians, including sea anemones. The consequences of anemone bleaching are unknown, and the demographic effects of bleaching on associated fish recruitment, survival, and reproduction are poorly understood. We examined the effect of habitat degradation including host anemone bleaching on fish abundance, egg production, and recruitment of the panda anemonefish ( Amphiprion polymnus) near Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Following a high-temperature anomaly in shallow waters of the region, most shallow anemones to a depth of 6 m (approximately 35% of all the anemones in this area) were severely bleached. Anemone mortality was low but bleached anemones underwent a ~34% reduction in body size. Total numbers of A. polymnus were not affected by bleaching and reduction in shelter area. While egg production of females living in bleached anemones was reduced by ~38% in 2009 compared to 2008, egg production of females on unbleached anemones did not differ significantly between years. Total recruitment in 2009 was much lower than in 2008. However, we found no evidence of recruiting larvae avoiding bleached anemones at settlement suggesting that other factors or different chemical cues were more important in determining recruitment than habitat quality. These results provide the first field evidence of detrimental effects of climate-induced bleaching and habitat degradation on reproduction and recruitment of anemonefish.

  5. Development of a chronic, early life-stage sub-lethal toxicity test and recovery assessment for the tropical zooxanthellate sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Howe, Pelli L; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Clark, Malcolm W

    2014-02-01

    There is an urgent need to identify additional tropical marine species and develop sensitive sub-lethal and chronic toxicity test methods for routine ecotoxicology. The tropical symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella is a suitable species for use in ecotoxicology and here we have assessed the effects of trace metal exposures on the development of asexually produced A. pulchella pedal lacerates to a juvenile stage. Concentrations of 55 µg/L for cadmium, 262 µg/L for cobalt, 5 µg/L for copper, and 269 µg/L for zinc were estimated to inhibit normal development by 50 percent after 8-d exposures, and are among the most sensitive available toxicity estimates for marine organisms. This work illustrates the potential value of this species and sub-lethal toxicological endpoint for routine ecotoxicology in tropical marine environments.

  6. The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskål), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintiroglou, Ch.; Koukouras, A.

    1992-03-01

    The feeding habits of the Mediterranean sea anemones Cereus pedunculatus, Actinia equina and Anemonia viridis were examined mainly by analysing their coelenteron contents. The three species are opportunistic omnivorous suspension feeders. Main source of food for A. viridis and C. pedunculatus are crustaceans (mainly amphipods and decapods, respectively), while for the midlittoral species A. equina, it is organic detritus. Using the same method, the temporal and spatial changes in the diet of A. viridis were examined. During the whole year, crustaceans seem to be the main source of food for A. viridis. The diet composition of this species, however, differs remarkably in space, possibly reflecting the different composition of the macrobenthic organismic assemblages in different areas. The data collected are compared with the limited bibliographical information.

  7. 1H-n.m.r. study of the solution properties and secondary structure of neurotoxin III from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, R S; Cross, K; Braach-Maksvytis, V; Wachter, E

    1993-01-01

    The solution properties, secondary structure and global fold of the 27-residue polypeptide neurotoxin III (ATX III), from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata, have been investigated using high-resolution 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy. Studies of the concentration dependence of the n.m.r. spectrum indicate that the molecule self-associates in the millimolar concentration range useable for n.m.r. analysis, the association being less pronounced at acidic pH values. The dependence on pH of association implies that electrostatic interactions play a role in this process, while the significant concentration-dependent shifts of the aromatic resonances of Tyr-7 and Trp-13 indicate that hydrophobic interactions also contribute. Individual pKa values have been determined for most ionizable groups in the molecule. Sequence-specific resonance assignments were obtained for all protons using a range of two-dimensional homonuclear-correlated and nuclear-Overhauser-effect (nOe) spectra. The secondary structure of the polypeptide was identified from sequential (i, i+1) and medium-range (i, i+2/3/4) nOe connectivities, NH to C alpha H coupling constants, C alpha H chemical shifts, and the location of slowly exchanging backbone-amide protons. ATX III contains no regular alpha-helix or beta-sheet, consisting instead of a network of reverse turns. nOe connectivities between half-cystine residues are consistent with the disulphide pairings 3-17, 4-11 and 6-22. ATX III has a well-defined structure and appears to lack the disordered loop which, in the longer sea anemone toxins (46-49 residues), may be part of the receptor-binding surface. PMID:8102051

  8. Rho participates in chemoreceptor-induced changes in morphology to hair bundle mechanoreceptors of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Kathryn M; Watson, Glen M

    2013-06-01

    Adjustable hair bundle mechanoreceptors located on anemone tentacles detect movements of nearby, swimming prey. The hair bundles are formed by numerous actin-based stereocilia that converge onto a single, central kinocilium. Interestingly, morphological and functional changes to the hair bundles are induced by activating chemoreceptors that bind prey-derived N-acetylated sugars and proline, respectively. Morphological changes to the hair bundles involve alterations to the actin cytoskeleton of stereocilia. A pharmacological activation of Rho induces hair bundles to elongate to lengths comparable to those normally induced by exposure to N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) and prevents shortening of hair bundles normally induced by proline. Rho inhibition prevents NANA-induced elongation, but does not prevent proline-induced shortening of hair bundles. Western blots feature a band similar in mass to that predicted for a Rho homolog in the genome of Nematostella. Immunocytochemistry localizes Rho in stereocilia of the hair bundle. Anemone hair bundles arise from multicellular complexes. Data from experiments using heptanol, a gap junction uncoupler, indicate that cell-cell communication is required in order for activated chemoreceptors to induce morphological changes to the hair bundles.

  9. CgNa, a type I toxin from the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea shows structural similarities to both type I and II toxins, as well as distinctive structural and functional properties(1).

    PubMed

    Salceda, Emilio; Pérez-Castells, Javier; López-Méndez, Blanca; Garateix, Anoland; Salazar, Hector; López, Omar; Aneiros, Abel; Ständker, Ludger; Béress, Lászlo; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Soto, Enrique; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2007-08-15

    CgNa (Condylactis gigantea neurotoxin) is a 47-amino-acid- residue toxin from the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea. The structure of CgNa, which was solved by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, is somewhat atypical and displays significant homology with both type I and II anemone toxins. CgNa also displays a considerable number of exceptions to the canonical structural elements that are thought to be essential for the activity of this group of toxins. Furthermore, unique residues in CgNa define a characteristic structure with strong negatively charged surface patches. These patches disrupt a surface-exposed cluster of hydrophobic residues present in all anemone-derived toxins described to date. A thorough characterization by patch-clamp analysis using rat DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons indicated that CgNa preferentially binds to TTX-S (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) voltage-gated sodium channels in the resting state. This association increased the inactivation time constant and the rate of recovery from inactivation, inducing a significant shift in the steady state of inactivation curve to the left. The specific structural features of CgNa may explain its weaker inhibitory capacity when compared with the other type I and II anemone toxins.

  10. Genomic survey of candidate stress-response genes in the estuarine anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Adam M; Sullivan, James C; Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Finnerty, John R

    2008-06-01

    Salt marshes are challenging habitats due to natural variability in key environmental parameters including temperature, salinity, ultraviolet light, oxygen, sulfides, and reactive oxygen species. Compounding this natural variation, salt marshes are often heavily impacted by anthropogenic insults including eutrophication, toxic contamination, and coastal development that alter tidal and freshwater inputs. Commensurate with this environmental variability, estuarine animals generally exhibit broader physiological tolerances than freshwater, marine, or terrestrial species. One factor that determines an organism's physiological tolerance is its ability to upregulate "stress-response genes" in reaction to particular stressors. Comparative studies on diverse organisms have identified a number of evolutionarily conserved genes involved in responding to abiotic and biotic stressors. We used homology-based scans to survey the sequenced genome of Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, an estuarine specialist, to identify genes involved in the response to three kinds of insult-physiochemical insults, pathogens, and injury. Many components of the stress-response networks identified in triploblastic animals have clear orthologs in the sea anemone, meaning that they must predate the cnidarian-triploblast split (e.g., xenobiotic receptors, biotransformative genes, ATP-dependent transporters, and genes involved in responding to reactive oxygen species, toxic metals, osmotic shock, thermal stress, pathogen exposure, and wounding). However, in some instances, stress-response genes known from triploblasts appear to be absent from the Nematostella genome (e.g., many metal-complexing genes). This is the first comprehensive examination of the genomic stress-response repertoire of an estuarine animal and a member of the phylum Cnidaria. The molecular markers of stress response identified in Nematostella may prove useful in monitoring estuary health and evaluating coastal

  11. Increasing pCO2 correlates with low concentrations of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Borell, Esther M; Steinke, Michael; Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-02-01

    Marine anthozoans maintain a mutualistic symbiosis with dinoflagellates that are prolific producers of the algal secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-cooling trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Surprisingly, little is known about the physiological role of DMSP in anthozoans and the environmental factors that regulate its production. Here, we assessed the potential functional role of DMSP as an antioxidant and determined how future increases in seawater pCO2 may affect DMSP concentrations in the anemone Anemonia viridis along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. There was no significant difference in zooxanthellae genotype and characteristics (density of zooxanthellae, and chlorophyll a) as well as protein concentrations between anemones from three stations along the gradient, V1 (3232 μatm CO2), V2 (682 μatm) and control (463 μatm), which indicated that A. viridis can acclimate to various seawater pCO2. In contrast, DMSP concentrations in anemones from stations V1 (33.23 ± 8.30 fmol cell(-1)) and V2 (34.78 ± 8.69 fmol cell(-1)) were about 35% lower than concentrations in tentacles from the control station (51.85 ± 12.96 fmol cell(-1)). Furthermore, low tissue concentrations of DMSP coincided with low activities of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Superoxide dismutase activity for both host (7.84 ± 1.37 U·mg(-1) protein) and zooxanthellae (2.84 ± 0.41 U·mg(-1) protein) at V1 was 40% lower than at the control station (host: 13.19 ± 1.42; zooxanthellae: 4.72 ± 0.57 U·mg(-1) protein). Our results provide insight into coastal DMSP production under predicted environmental change and support the function of DMSP as an antioxidant in symbiotic anthozoans. PMID:24634728

  12. Increasing pCO2 correlates with low concentrations of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis

    PubMed Central

    Borell, Esther M; Steinke, Michael; Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-01-01

    Marine anthozoans maintain a mutualistic symbiosis with dinoflagellates that are prolific producers of the algal secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-cooling trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Surprisingly, little is known about the physiological role of DMSP in anthozoans and the environmental factors that regulate its production. Here, we assessed the potential functional role of DMSP as an antioxidant and determined how future increases in seawater pCO2 may affect DMSP concentrations in the anemone Anemonia viridis along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. There was no significant difference in zooxanthellae genotype and characteristics (density of zooxanthellae, and chlorophyll a) as well as protein concentrations between anemones from three stations along the gradient, V1 (3232 μatm CO2), V2 (682 μatm) and control (463 μatm), which indicated that A. viridis can acclimate to various seawater pCO2. In contrast, DMSP concentrations in anemones from stations V1 (33.23 ± 8.30 fmol cell−1) and V2 (34.78 ± 8.69 fmol cell−1) were about 35% lower than concentrations in tentacles from the control station (51.85 ± 12.96 fmol cell−1). Furthermore, low tissue concentrations of DMSP coincided with low activities of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Superoxide dismutase activity for both host (7.84 ± 1.37 U·mg−1 protein) and zooxanthellae (2.84 ± 0.41 U·mg−1 protein) at V1 was 40% lower than at the control station (host: 13.19 ± 1.42; zooxanthellae: 4.72 ± 0.57 U·mg−1 protein). Our results provide insight into coastal DMSP production under predicted environmental change and support the function of DMSP as an antioxidant in symbiotic anthozoans. PMID:24634728

  13. Characterization of the Cadherin-Catenin Complex of the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis and Implications for the Evolution of Metazoan Cell-Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Donald Nathaniel; Miller, Phillip W; Lowe, Christopher J; Weis, William I; Nelson, William James

    2016-08-01

    The cadherin-catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell-cell adhesion in bilaterian animals by linking extracellular cadherin-based adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is unknown whether the basic organization of the complex is conserved across all metazoans. We tested whether protein interactions and actin-binding properties of the CCC are conserved in a nonbilaterian animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis We demonstrated that N. vectensis has a complete repertoire of cadherin-catenin proteins, including two classical cadherins, one α-catenin, and one β-catenin. Using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering, we showed that α-catenin and β-catenin formed a heterodimer that bound N. vectensis Cadherin-1 and -2. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin bound F-actin with equivalent affinity as either a monomer or an α/β-catenin heterodimer, and its affinity for F-actin was, in part, regulated by a novel insert between the N- and C-terminal domains. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin inhibited Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of actin filaments, a regulatory property previously thought to be unique to mammalian αE-catenin. Thus, despite significant differences in sequence, the key interactions of the CCC are conserved between bilaterians and cnidarians, indicating that the core function of the CCC as a link between cell adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton is ancestral in the eumetazoans. PMID:27189570

  14. Importance of time and place: patterns in abundance of Symbiodinium clades A and B in the tropical sea anemone Condylactis gigantea.

    PubMed

    Venn, A A; Loram, J E; Trapido-Rosenthal, H G; Joyce, D A; Douglas, A E

    2008-12-01

    The capacity of some corals and other cnidarians to form symbioses with multiple algae (Symbiodinium) is a candidate route by which these symbioses tolerate variable environmental conditions. On Bermuda, the coral reef dwelling anemone Condylactis gigantea bears Symbiodinium of clades A and B. At thermally variable inshore and nearshore sites, clade A predominates (as sole symbiont or in mixed infection with clade B), whereas animals at offshore sites with more uniform temperatures bear only clade B or mixed infections. Individual animals at one nearshore site monitored over a year by sampling tentacles showed increased prevalence of clade A in March-November, when sea waters were warm (average 26 degrees C), and increased clade B in November-March when cool waters prevailed (average 18.5 degrees C). In laboratory analyses of excised tentacles, the symbiosis with clade B, but not clade A, bleached at elevated temperature (32 degrees C), suggesting that thermal tolerance may contribute to the higher prevalence of clade A at inshore/nearshore sites and in the summer. The temporal changes in the algal complement were not accompanied by bleaching, and Symbiodinium density fluctuated in hosts with stable Symbiodinium composition but not in hosts with variable composition. This suggests that changes in the relative abundance of Symbiodinium clades do not require bleaching and may even protect the symbiosis from large fluctuations in algal density. PMID:19098145

  15. Nitric oxide mediates coral bleaching through an apoptotic-like cell death pathway: evidence from a model sea anemone-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Bradley, Benjamin J; Davy, Simon K

    2013-12-01

    Coral bleaching (involving the loss of symbiotic algae from the cnidarian host) is a major threat to coral reefs and appears to be mediated at the cellular level by nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we examined the specific role of NO in bleaching using the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, a model system for the study of corals. Exposure of A. pulchella to high-temperature shock (26-33°C over <1 h) or an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione) resulted in significant increases in host caspase-like enzyme activity. These responses were reflected in the intensities of bleaching, which were significantly higher in heat- or NO-treated specimens than in controls maintained in seawater at 26°C. Notably, the inhibition of caspase-like activity prevented bleaching even in the presence of an NO donor or at elevated temperature. The additional use of an NO scavenger controlled for effects mediated by agents other than NO. We also exposed A. pulchella to a more ecologically relevant treatment (an increase from 26 to 33°C over 6-7 d). Again, host NO synthesis correlated with the activation of caspase-like enzyme activity. Therefore, we conclude that NO's involvement in cnidarian bleaching arises through the regulation of host apoptotic pathways. PMID:23934282

  16. Nitric oxide mediates coral bleaching through an apoptotic-like cell death pathway: evidence from a model sea anemone-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Bradley, Benjamin J; Davy, Simon K

    2013-12-01

    Coral bleaching (involving the loss of symbiotic algae from the cnidarian host) is a major threat to coral reefs and appears to be mediated at the cellular level by nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we examined the specific role of NO in bleaching using the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, a model system for the study of corals. Exposure of A. pulchella to high-temperature shock (26-33°C over <1 h) or an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione) resulted in significant increases in host caspase-like enzyme activity. These responses were reflected in the intensities of bleaching, which were significantly higher in heat- or NO-treated specimens than in controls maintained in seawater at 26°C. Notably, the inhibition of caspase-like activity prevented bleaching even in the presence of an NO donor or at elevated temperature. The additional use of an NO scavenger controlled for effects mediated by agents other than NO. We also exposed A. pulchella to a more ecologically relevant treatment (an increase from 26 to 33°C over 6-7 d). Again, host NO synthesis correlated with the activation of caspase-like enzyme activity. Therefore, we conclude that NO's involvement in cnidarian bleaching arises through the regulation of host apoptotic pathways.

  17. Two-dimensional crystallization on lipid monolayers and three-dimensional structure of sticholysin II, a cytolysin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Benito, J; Gavilanes, F; de Los Ríos, V; Mancheño, J M; Fernández, J J; Gavilanes, J G

    2000-01-01

    Sticholysin II (Stn II), a potent cytolytic protein isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, has been crystallized on lipid monolayers. With Fourier-based methods, a three-dimensional (3D) model of Stn II, up to a resolution of 15 A, has been determined. The two-sided plane group is p22(1)2, with dimensions a = 98 A, b = 196 A. The 3D model of Stn II displays a Y-shaped structure, slightly flattened, with a small curvature along its longest dimension (51 A). This protein, with a molecular mass of 19. 2 kDa, is one of the smallest structures reconstructed with this methodology. Two-dimensional (2D) crystals of Stn II on phosphatidylcholine monolayers present a unit cell with two tetrameric motifs, with the monomers in two different orientations: one with its longest dimension lying on the crystal plane and the other with this same axis leaning at an angle of approximately 60 degrees with the crystal plane. PMID:10827995

  18. Characterization of the Cadherin–Catenin Complex of the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis and Implications for the Evolution of Metazoan Cell–Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Donald Nathaniel; Miller, Phillip W.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Weis, William I.; Nelson, William James

    2016-01-01

    The cadherin–catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell–cell adhesion in bilaterian animals by linking extracellular cadherin-based adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is unknown whether the basic organization of the complex is conserved across all metazoans. We tested whether protein interactions and actin-binding properties of the CCC are conserved in a nonbilaterian animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We demonstrated that N. vectensis has a complete repertoire of cadherin–catenin proteins, including two classical cadherins, one α-catenin, and one β-catenin. Using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering, we showed that α-catenin and β-catenin formed a heterodimer that bound N. vectensis Cadherin-1 and -2. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin bound F-actin with equivalent affinity as either a monomer or an α/β-catenin heterodimer, and its affinity for F-actin was, in part, regulated by a novel insert between the N- and C-terminal domains. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin inhibited Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of actin filaments, a regulatory property previously thought to be unique to mammalian αE-catenin. Thus, despite significant differences in sequence, the key interactions of the CCC are conserved between bilaterians and cnidarians, indicating that the core function of the CCC as a link between cell adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton is ancestral in the eumetazoans. PMID:27189570

  19. The Effect of Cholesterol on the Long-Range Network of Interactions Established among Sea Anemone Sticholysin II Residues at the Water-Membrane Interface

    PubMed Central

    García-Linares, Sara; Alm, Ida; Maula, Terhi; Gavilanes, José G.; Slotte, Johan Peter; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Actinoporins are α-pore forming proteins with therapeutic potential, produced by sea anemones. Sticholysin II (StnII) from Stichodactyla helianthus is one of its most extensively characterized members. These proteins remain stably folded in water, but upon interaction with lipid bilayers, they oligomerize to form a pore. This event is triggered by the presence of sphingomyelin (SM), but cholesterol (Chol) facilitates pore formation. Membrane attachment and pore formation require changes involving long-distance rearrangements of residues located at the protein-membrane interface. The influence of Chol on membrane recognition, oligomerization, and/or pore formation is now studied using StnII variants, which are characterized in terms of their ability to interact with model membranes in the presence or absence of Chol. The results obtained frame Chol not only as an important partner for SM for functional membrane recognition but also as a molecule which significantly reduces the structural requirements for the mentioned conformational rearrangements to occur. However, given that the DOPC:SM:Chol vesicles employed display phase coexistence and have domain boundaries, the observed effects could be also due to the presence of these different phases on the membrane. In addition, it is also shown that the Arg51 guanidinium group is strictly required for membrane recognition, independently of the presence of Chol. PMID:25815890

  20. Effects of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn on asexual reproduction and early development of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Howe, Pelli L; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Clark, Malcolm W

    2014-11-01

    Currently few studies present sub-lethal toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there are no routine toxicity tests using marine cnidarians. The symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella has been identified as a useful species for ecotoxicological risk assessment, and would provide a tropical marine cnidarian representative. Chronic sub-lethal toxicity tests assessing the effects of 28-day trace metal exposure on asexual reproduction in A. pulchella were investigated, and concentration-dependant reductions in the number of offspring that were produced were evident for all metal exposures. Metal concentration estimates causing 50% reductions in the numbers of asexually-reproduced juveniles after 28-day exposures (28-day effect concentrations 50%: EC50s) were 14 µg/L for copper, 63 µg/L for zinc, 107 µg/L for cobalt, 145 µg/L for cadmium, and 369 µg/L for nickel. Slightly higher 28-day EC50s of 16 µg/L for copper, 192 µg/L for zinc, 172 µg/L for cobalt, 185 µg/L for cadmium, and 404 µg/L for nickel exposures and were estimated based on reductions in the total number of live developed and undeveloped offspring. These sensitive and chronic sub-lethal toxicity estimates help fill the knowledge gap related to metal effects on cnidarians over longer exposure periods, and this newly-developed bioassay may provide a much needed tool for ecotoxicological risk assessment relevant to tropical marine environments.

  1. Production of a reference transcriptome and transcriptomic database (EdwardsiellaBase) for the lined sea anemone, Edwardsiella lineata, a parasitic cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is an informative model system for evolutionary-developmental studies of parasitism. In this species, it is possible to compare alternate developmental pathways leading from a larva to either a free-living polyp or a vermiform parasite that inhabits the mesoglea of a ctenophore host. Additionally, E. lineata is confamilial with the model cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, providing an opportunity for comparative genomic, molecular and organismal studies. Description We generated a reference transcriptome for E. lineata via high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated from five developmental stages (parasite; parasite-to-larva transition; larva; larva-to-adult transition; adult). The transcriptome comprises 90,440 contigs assembled from >15 billion nucleotides of DNA sequence. Using a molecular clock approach, we estimated the divergence between E. lineata and N. vectensis at 215–364 million years ago. Based on gene ontology and metabolic pathway analyses and gene family surveys (bHLH-PAS, deiodinases, Fox genes, LIM homeodomains, minicollagens, nuclear receptors, Sox genes, and Wnts), the transcriptome of E. lineata is comparable in depth and completeness to N. vectensis. Analyses of protein motifs and revealed extensive conservation between the proteins of these two edwardsiid anemones, although we show the NF-κB protein of E. lineata reflects the ancestral structure, while the NF-κB protein of N. vectensis has undergone a split that separates the DNA-binding domain from the inhibitory domain. All contigs have been deposited in a public database (EdwardsiellaBase), where they may be searched according to contig ID, gene ontology, protein family motif (Pfam), enzyme commission number, and BLAST. The alignment of the raw reads to the contigs can also be visualized via JBrowse. Conclusions The transcriptomic data and database described here provide a platform for studying the evolutionary developmental genomics

  2. Insights into the toxicological properties of a low molecular weight fraction from Zoanthus sociatus (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Pérez, Dany; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; García-Delgado, Neivys; Sierra-Gómez, Yusvel; Castañeda, Olga; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-08-13

    The phylum Cnidaria is an ancient group of venomous animals, specialized in the production and delivery of toxins. Many species belonging to the class Anthozoa have been studied and their venoms often contain a group of peptides, less than 10 kDa, that act upon ion channels. These peptides and their targets interact with high affinity producing neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects, and even death, depending on the dose and the administration pathway. Zoanthiniaria is an order of the Subclass Hexacorallia, class Anthozoa, and unlike sea anemone (order Actiniaria), neither its diversity of toxins nor the in vivo effects of the venoms has been exhaustively explored. In this study we assessed some toxicological tests on mice with a low molecular weight fraction obtained by gel filtration in Sephadex G-50 from Zoanthus sociatus crude extract. The gel filtration chromatogram at 280 nm revealed two major peaks, the highest absorbance corresponding to the low molecular weight fraction. The toxicological effects seem to be mostly autonomic and cardiotoxic, causing death in a dose dependent manner with a LD50 of 792 μg/kg. Moreover, at a dose of 600 μg/kg the active fraction accelerated the KCl-induced lethality in mice.

  3. Cyphastrea kausti sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), a new species of reef coral from the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Benzoni, Francesca; Baird, Andrew H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea kausti sp. n., is described from 13 specimens from the Red Sea. It is characterised by the presence of eight primary septa, unlike the other species of the genus, which have six, ten or 12 primary septa. The new species has morphological affinities with Cyphastrea microphthalma, from which it can be distinguished by the lower number of septa (on average eight instead of ten), and smaller calices and corallites. This species was observed in the northern and central Red Sea and appears to be absent from the southern Red Sea. PMID:25931952

  4. Prolonged exposure to elevated CO(2) promotes growth of the algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei in the intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    PubMed

    Towanda, Trisha; Thuesen, Erik V

    2012-07-15

    Some photosynthetic organisms benefit from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, but studies on the effects of elevated PCO(2) on the algal symbionts of animals are very few. This study investigated the impact of hypercapnia on a photosynthetic symbiosis between the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its zooxanthella Symbiodinium muscatinei. Anemones were maintained in the laboratory for 1 week at 37 Pa PCO(2) and pH 8.1. Clonal pairs were then divided into two groups and maintained for 6 weeks under conditions naturally experienced in their intertidal environment, 45 Pa PCO(2), pH 8.1 and 231 Pa PCO(2), pH 7.3. Respiration and photosynthesis were measured after the 1-week acclimation period and after 6 weeks in experimental conditions. Density of zooxanthellal cells, zooxanthellal cell size, mitotic index and chlorophyll content were compared between non-clonemate anemones after the 1-week acclimation period and clonal anemones at the end of the experiment. Anemones thrived in hypercapnia. After 6 weeks, A. elegantissima exhibited higher rates of photosynthesis at 45 Pa (4.2 µmol O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) and 231 Pa (3.30 µmol O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) than at the initial 37 Pa (1.53 µmol O(2) g(-1) h(-1)). Likewise, anemones at 231 Pa received more of their respiratory carbon from zooxanthellae (CZAR  = 78.2%) than those at 37 Pa (CZAR  = 66.6%) but less than anemones at 45 Pa (CZAR  = 137.3%). The mitotic index of zooxanthellae was significantly greater in the hypercapnic anemones than in anemones at lower PCO(2). Excess zooxanthellae were expelled by their hosts, and cell densities, cell diameters and chlorophyll contents were not significantly different between the groups. The response of A. elegantissima to hypercapnic acidification reveals the potential adaptation of an intertidal, photosynthetic symbiosis for high PCO(2). PMID:23213455

  5. Phyla- and Subtype-Selectivity of CgNa, a Na+ Channel Toxin from the Venom of the Giant Caribbean Sea Anemone Condylactis Gigantea

    PubMed Central

    Billen, Bert; Debaveye, Sarah; Béress, Lászlo; Tytgat, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Because of their prominent role in electro-excitability, voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels have become the foremost important target of animal toxins. These toxins have developed the ability to discriminate between closely related NaV subtypes, making them powerful tools to study NaV channel function and structure. CgNa is a 47-amino acid residue type I toxin isolated from the venom of the Giant Caribbean Sea Anemone Condylactis gigantea. Previous studies showed that this toxin slows the fast inactivation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive NaV currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. To illuminate the underlying NaV subtype-selectivity pattern, we have assayed the effects of CgNa on a broad range of mammalian isoforms (NaV1.2–NaV1.8) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This study demonstrates that CgNa selectively slows the fast inactivation of rNaV1.3/β1, mNaV1.6/β1 and, to a lesser extent, hNaV1.5/β1, while the other mammalian isoforms remain unaffected. Importantly, CgNa was also examined on the insect sodium channel DmNaV1/tipE, revealing a clear phyla-selectivity in the efficacious actions of the toxin. CgNa strongly inhibits the inactivation of the insect NaV channel, resulting in a dramatic increase in peak current amplitude and complete removal of fast and steady-state inactivation. Together with the previously determined solution structure, the subtype-selective effects revealed in this study make of CgNa an interesting pharmacological probe to investigate the functional role of specific NaV channel subtypes. Moreover, further structural studies could provide important information on the molecular mechanism of NaV channel inactivation. PMID:21833172

  6. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): a new reef coral species from the Red Sea and its phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Terraneo, Tullia I.; Berumen, Michael L.; Arrigoni, Roberto; Waheed, Zarinah; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Caragnano, Annalisa; Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined. PMID:25152672

  7. Ecological and morphological characteristics of Ephelota gemmipara (Ciliophora, Suctoria), epibiontic on Eudendrium racemosum (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Tazioli, Silvia; Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the suctorian Ephelota gemmipara and the large hydroid Eudendrium racemosum from the North Adriatic Sea has been studied over its full annual cycle. Ephelota gemmipara settles on the perisarc of the hydroid, usually close to the hydranths in order to exploit the hydroid's food discharges. The life cycle of E. gemmipara is influenced by temperature variations and by its relationship with the host. The hydroid shows an active phase in the summer, and it gets through the adverse winter season forming resting stages. In April, when temperature increases, the hydroid starts its active phase and it is colonized by suctorians. From May to September the suctorians produce multiple buds (swarmers) that detach from the parental cells to settle on an Eudendrium colony. The abundance of the suctorian peaks in September, with more than 1.2 million ind. m(-2). Their proliferation coincides with the maximal abundance of their host and the highest water temperatures. On the contrary, sexual reproduction and the encystment occur when the temperature and the abundance of E. racemosum decrease. Lastly, we also report the presence of symbionts such as bacteria and the parasitic protozoans Tachyblaston ephelotensis and Enigmocoma acinetarum.

  8. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and related molecules in the sea fan Eunicella cavolini (Cnidaria: Octocorallia): a biochemical and immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Girosi, Laura; Ferrando, Sara; Beltrame, Francesco; Ciarcia, Gaetano; Diaspro, Alberto; Fato, Marco; Magnone, Mirko; Raiteri, Luca; Ramoino, Paola; Tagliafierro, Grazia

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study has been the biochemical demonstration of the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the Mediterranean sea fan Eunicella cavolini by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, and the description of the distribution pattern of GABA and its related molecules, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) and one of the GABA receptors (GABA(B) R) by immunohistochemical methods. The interrelationships of GABA, GAD and GABA receptor immunoreactivity have been established by using double-immunohistochemical methods and confocal microscopy. The immunodetection of monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies has revealed GABA immunoreactivity throughout the polyp tissue, both in neuronal and non-neuronal elements. GAD immunoreactivity has been mostly localized in the neuronal compartment, contacting epithelial and muscular elements. GABA(B) R immunoreactivity appears particularly intense in the nematocytes and in the oocyte envelope; its presence in GAD-immunoreactive neurons in the tentacles suggests an autocrine type of regulation. Western blot analysis has confirmed that a GABA(B) R, with a molecular weight of 142 kDa, similar to that of rat brain, is present in E. cavolini polyp tissue. The identification of the sites of the synthesis, vesicular transport, storage and reception of GABA strongly suggests the presence of an almost complete set of GABA-related molecules for the functioning of the GABAergic system in this simple nervous system. The distribution of these different immunoreactivities has allowed us to hypothesize GABA involvement in nematocyst discharge, in body wall and enteric muscular contraction, in neuronal integration and in male gametocyte differentiation.

  9. Multi-copy venom genes hidden in de novo transcriptome assemblies, a cautionary tale with the snakelocks sea anemone Anemonia sulcata (Pennant, 1977).

    PubMed

    Macrander, Jason; Broe, Michael; Daly, Marymegan

    2015-12-15

    Using a partial transcriptome of the snakelocks anemone (Anemonia sulcata) we identify toxin gene candidates that were incorrectly assembled into several Trinity components. Our approach recovers hidden diversity found within some toxin gene families that would otherwise go undetected when using Trinity, a widely used program for venom-focused transcriptome reconstructions. Unidentified hidden transcripts may significantly impact conclusions made regarding venom composition (or other multi-copy conserved genes) when using Trinity or other de novo assembly programs. PMID:26464059

  10. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Thums, Michele; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Furby, Kathryn A.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species) at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%); however, this percentage was much higher (19–100%) during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance. Conclusions/Significance Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked to the ability of

  11. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Technau, Ulrich; Steele, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    There is growing interest in the use of cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, jellyfish and hydroids) to investigate the evolution of key aspects of animal development, such as the formation of the third germ layer (mesoderm), the nervous system and the generation of bilaterality. The recent sequencing of the Nematostella and Hydra genomes, and the establishment of methods for manipulating gene expression, have inspired new research efforts using cnidarians. Here, we present the main features of cnidarian models and their advantages for research, and summarize key recent findings using these models that have informed our understanding of the evolution of the developmental processes underlying metazoan body plan formation.

  12. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Ikebe, Chiho; Watling, Les; Smith, Craig R; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Data were collected from the UK-1 exploration area following the methods described in Glover et al. (2015b). New information Morphological and genetic data are presented for 10 species and 18 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 2 primnoid octocorals, 2 isidid octocorals, 1 anemone, 4 hydroids (including 2 pelagic siphonophores accidentally caught) and a scyphozoan jellyfish (in the benthic stage of the life cycle). Two taxa matched previously published genetic sequences (pelagic siphonophores), two taxa matched published morphological descriptions (abyssal primnoids described from the same locality in 2015) and the remaining 6 taxa are potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. We have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. For some of the specimens we also provide image data collected at the seabed by ROV, wich may facilitate more accurate taxon designation in coming ROV or AUV surveys. PMID:27660533

  13. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Ikebe, Chiho; Watling, Les; Smith, Craig R; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Data were collected from the UK-1 exploration area following the methods described in Glover et al. (2015b). New information Morphological and genetic data are presented for 10 species and 18 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 2 primnoid octocorals, 2 isidid octocorals, 1 anemone, 4 hydroids (including 2 pelagic siphonophores accidentally caught) and a scyphozoan jellyfish (in the benthic stage of the life cycle). Two taxa matched previously published genetic sequences (pelagic siphonophores), two taxa matched published morphological descriptions (abyssal primnoids described from the same locality in 2015) and the remaining 6 taxa are potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. We have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. For some of the specimens we also provide image data collected at the seabed by ROV, wich may facilitate more accurate taxon designation in coming ROV or AUV surveys.

  14. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Diverse sessile organisms inhabit the coral reef ecosystems, including corals, sponges, and sea anemones. In the past decades, scleractinian corals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia) and their associated microorganisms have attracted much attention. Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) are commonly found in coral reefs. However, little is known about the community structure of zoanthid-associated microbiota. In this study, the microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae in the South China Sea was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. As a result, 2,353 bacterial, 583 archaeal, and 36 eukaryotic microbial ribotypes were detected, respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla (16 formally described phyla and six candidate phyla) were recovered. Proteobacteria was the most abundant group, followed by Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. High-abundance Rhizobiales and diverse Chloroflexi were observed in the bacterial community. The archaeal population was composed of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with Marine Group I as the dominant lineage. In particular, Candidatus Nitrosopumilus dominated the archaeal community. Besides bacteria and archaea, the zoanthid harbored eukaryotic microorganisms including fungi and algae though their diversity was very low. This study provided the first insights into the microbial community associated with P. australiae by 454 pyrosequencing, consequently laid a basis for the understanding of the association of P. australiae-microbes symbioses.

  15. Determination of the three-dimensional solution structure of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata: A study using nuclear magnetic resonance and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, P.C.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Beress, L.; Clore, G.M. )

    1989-03-07

    The three-dimensional solution structure of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata has been determined on the basis of 489 interproton and 24 hydrogen-bonding distance restraints supplemented by 23 {phi} backbone and 21 {sub {chi}1} side-chain torsion angle restraints derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. A total of 42 structures is calculated by a hybrid metric matrix distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing approach. Both the backbone and side-chain atom positions are well defined. The average atomic rms difference between the 42 individual SA structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 0.67 {plus minus} 0.12 {angstrom} for the backbone atoms and 0.90 {plus minus} 0.17 {angstrom} for all atoms. The core of the protein is formed by a triple-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet composed of residues 14-16 (strand 1), 30-34 (strand 2), and 37-41 (strand 3) with an additional mini-antiparallel {beta}-sheet at the N-terminus (residues 6-9). The first and second strands of the triple-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet are connected by a long exposed loop. A number of side-chain interactions are discussed in light of the structure.

  16. Structural Confirmation of a Unique Carotenoid Lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. Strain nbrc 104787 Isolated from a Sea Anemone and its Distribution in Dinoflagellates and Various Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Laza-Martínez, Aitor; Bin Haji Mohd Taha, Ahmad Iskandar; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Awai, Koichiro; Kawachi, Masanobu; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The molecular structure of the carotenoid lactoside P457, (3S,5R,6R,3'S,5'R,6'S)-13'-cis-5,6-epoxy-3',5'-dihydroxy-3-(β-d-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucosyl)oxy-6',7'-didehydro-5,6,7,8,5',6'-hexahydro-β,β-caroten-20-al, was confirmed by spectroscopic methods using Symbiodinium sp. strain NBRC 104787 cells isolated from a sea anemone. Among various algae, cyanobacteria, land plants, and marine invertebrates, the distribution of this unique diglycosyl carotenoid was restricted to free-living peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and marine invertebrates that harbor peridinin-containing zooxanthellae. Neoxanthin appeared to be a common precursor for biosynthesis of peridinin and P457, although neoxanthin was not found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates did not possess peridinin or P457; green dinoflagellates, which contain chlorophyll a and b, did not contain peridinin, fucoxanthin, or P457; and no unicellular algae containing both peridinin and P457, other than peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, have been observed. Therefore, the biosynthetic pathways for peridinin and P457 may have been coestablished during the evolution of dinoflagellates after the host heterotrophic eukaryotic microorganism formed a symbiotic association with red alga that does not contain peridinin or P457. PMID:27009990

  17. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Adam G; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Warner, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera) and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS) are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to environmental stress in

  18. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Adam G; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Warner, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera) and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS) are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to environmental stress in

  19. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Adam G.; Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera) and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS) are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to environmental stress in

  20. Developmental and light-entrained expression of melatonin and its relationship to the circadian clock in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary hormone of the vertebrate pineal gland, melatonin, has been identified broadly throughout the eukaryotes. While the role for melatonin in cyclic behavior via interactions with the circadian clock has only been reported in vertebrates, comparative research has shown that the transcription-translation loops of the animal circadian clock likely date to the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor, leaving open significant questions about the evolutionary origin of melatonin signaling in circadian behavior by interacting with the molecular clock. Results Expression of melatonin in adult anemones showed peak expression at the end of light period (zeitgeber time (ZT) = 12) when cultured under diel conditions, coinciding with expression of genes and enzyme activity for members of the melatonin synthesis pathway (tryptophan hydroxylase and hydroxyindol-O-methyltransferase), which also showed rhythmic expression. During embryogenesis and juvenile stages, melatonin showed cyclic oscillations in concentration, peaking in midday. Spatial (in situ hybridization) and quantitative (real-time PCR) transcription of clock genes during development of N. vectensis showed these ‘clock’ genes are expressed early in the development, prior to rhythmic oscillations, suggesting functions independent of a function in the circadian clock. Finally, time-course studies revealed that animals transferred from diel conditions to constant darkness lose circadian expression for most of the clock genes within 4 days, which can be reset by melatonin supplementation. Conclusions Our results support an ancient role for melatonin in the circadian behavior of animals by showing cyclic expression of this hormone under diel conditions, light-dependent oscillations in genes in the melatonin synthesis pathway, and the function of melatonin in initiating expression of circadian clock genes in the cnidarian N. vectensis. The differences in expression melatonin and the circadian clock gene

  1. SeaBase: a multispecies transcriptomic resource and platform for gene network inference.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Antje H L; Mozzherin, Dmitry; Eren, A Murat; Lans, Kristen D; Wilson, Nathan; Cosentino, Carlo; Smith, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Marine and aquatic animals are extraordinarily useful as models for identifying mechanisms of development and evolution, regeneration, resistance to cancer, longevity and symbiosis, among many other areas of research. This is due to the great diversity of these organisms and their wide-ranging capabilities. Genomics tools are essential for taking advantage of these "free lessons" of nature. However, genomics and transcriptomics are challenging in emerging model systems. Here, we present SeaBase, a tool for helping to meet these needs. Specifically, SeaBase provides a platform for sharing and searching transcriptome data. More importantly, SeaBase will support a growing number of tools for inferring gene network mechanisms. The first dataset available on SeaBase is a developmental transcriptomic profile of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria). Additional datasets are currently being prepared and we are aiming to expand SeaBase to include user-supplied data for any number of marine and aquatic organisms, thereby supporting many potentially new models for gene network studies. SeaBase can be accessed online at: http://seabase.core.cli.mbl.edu. PMID:24907201

  2. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from deep waters off Atlantic Canada and the first molecular phylogeny of the deep-sea family Schizopathidae.

    PubMed

    Macisaac, K G; Best, M; Brugler, M R; Kenchington, E L R; Anstey, L J; Jordan, T

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of deep-sea antipatharian, Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov., is described from the western North Atlantic off the coast of Canada. Five additional paratypes, consisting ofjuvenile to adult forms, are reported from the New England and Corner Rise Seamounts (NW Atlantic). Preliminary sequencing of a subsection of the nuclear ribosomal cistron confirmed the phylogenetic affinity of T. magna to the order Antipatharia, and in particular the family Schizopathidae. Subsequent sequencing of three mitochondrial DNA segments from nine of the 11 currently-recognized genera within the Schizopathidae revealed a well-supported phylogenetic relationship between T. magna and Stauropathes. This is the first study to use molecular techniques to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the Schizopathidae, a family of black corals almost exclusively found in the deep sea (depths > 200 m). Telopathes is distinguished from other genera within the family Schizopathidae by its largely pinnulated stalk, sparse branching pattern to the second degree that is not restricted to a single plane, two anterolateral rows of long, simple primary pinnules, arranged alternately to sub-opposite, and colony with an adhesive base. This record of T. magna brings the total number of nominal species of Antipatharia reported to occur off eastern Canada to 12 and represents the third new genus added to the Schizopathidae since a critical review of the family by Dennis Opresko in 2002. PMID:26106725

  4. Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from deep waters off Atlantic Canada and the first molecular phylogeny of the deep-sea family Schizopathidae.

    PubMed

    Macisaac, K G; Best, M; Brugler, M R; Kenchington, E L R; Anstey, L J; Jordan, T

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of deep-sea antipatharian, Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov., is described from the western North Atlantic off the coast of Canada. Five additional paratypes, consisting ofjuvenile to adult forms, are reported from the New England and Corner Rise Seamounts (NW Atlantic). Preliminary sequencing of a subsection of the nuclear ribosomal cistron confirmed the phylogenetic affinity of T. magna to the order Antipatharia, and in particular the family Schizopathidae. Subsequent sequencing of three mitochondrial DNA segments from nine of the 11 currently-recognized genera within the Schizopathidae revealed a well-supported phylogenetic relationship between T. magna and Stauropathes. This is the first study to use molecular techniques to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the Schizopathidae, a family of black corals almost exclusively found in the deep sea (depths > 200 m). Telopathes is distinguished from other genera within the family Schizopathidae by its largely pinnulated stalk, sparse branching pattern to the second degree that is not restricted to a single plane, two anterolateral rows of long, simple primary pinnules, arranged alternately to sub-opposite, and colony with an adhesive base. This record of T. magna brings the total number of nominal species of Antipatharia reported to occur off eastern Canada to 12 and represents the third new genus added to the Schizopathidae since a critical review of the family by Dennis Opresko in 2002.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of a deep-sea bamboo coral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Isididae): genome structure and putative origins of replication are not conserved among octocorals.

    PubMed

    Brugler, Mercer R; France, Scott C

    2008-08-01

    Octocoral mitochondrial (mt) DNA is subject to an exceptionally low rate of substitution, and it has been suggested that mt genome content and structure are conserved across the subclass, an observation that has been supported for most octocorallian families by phylogenetic analyses using PCR products spanning gene boundaries. However, failure to recover amplification products spanning the nad4L-msh1 gene junction in species from the family Isididae (bamboo corals) prompted us to sequence the complete mt genome of a deep-sea bamboo coral (undescribed species). Compared to the "typical" octocoral mt genome, which has 12 genes transcribed on one strand and 5 genes on the opposite (cox2, atp8, atp6, cox3, trnM), in the bamboo coral genome a contiguous string of 5 genes (msh1, rnl, nad2, nad5, nad4) has undergone an inversion, likely in a single event. Analyses of strand-specific compositional asymmetry suggest that (i) the light-strand origin of replication was also inverted and is adjacent to nad4, and (ii) the orientation of the heavy-strand origin of replication (OriH) has reversed relative to that of previously known octocoral mt genomes. Comparative analyses suggest that intramitochondrial recombination and errors in replication at OriH may be responsible for changes in gene order in octocorals and hexacorals, respectively. Using primers flanking the regions at either end of the inverted set of five genes, we examined closely related taxa and determined that the novel gene order is restricted to the deep-sea subfamily Keratoisidinae; however, we found no evidence for strand-specific mutational biases that may influence phylogenetic analyses that include this subfamily of bamboo corals.

  6. Interannual variability, growth, reproduction and feeding of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the Straits of Messina (Central Mediterranean Sea): Linkages with temperature and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, S.; Pansera, M.; Granata, A.; Guglielmo, L.

    2013-02-01

    To identify some of the possible environmental factors stimulating the increasingly frequent outbreaks of the scyphomedusa Pelagia noctiluca in the Straits of Messina, we investigated its abundance, growth, reproduction and feeding over a 4-year period, from 2007 to 2011, at two coastal sites. Using either field investigations and manipulative experiments we show that, among the various factors considered, shifts in water temperature (influencing medusae metabolism, growth and reproduction rates) and the size structure of the zooplankton community (their natural preys) can promote the proliferation of P. noctiluca. In particular, we show that increased temperature let jellyfishes to grow more rapidly and reach exceptional sizes. We also report a peculiar opportunistic behavior of P. noctiluca, which makes this species a potentially strong competitor in the pelagic trophic web of the Straits ecosystem. We therefore propose that more frequent P. noctiluca outbreaks stimulated by increasing sea surface temperature and shifts in their prey availability and composition would become, in the near future, a major cause of ecosystem shift.

  7. Evolutionary Diversification of Banded Tube-Dwelling Anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Stampar, Sergio N.; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Silveira, Fabio L. d.; Morandini, André C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed. PMID:22815928

  8. Evolutionary diversification of banded tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Stampar, Sergio N; Maronna, Maximiliano M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Silveira, Fabio L d; Morandini, André C

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed.

  9. Statolith formation in Cnidaria: effects of cadmium on Aurelia statoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Statolith formation in Cnidaria was reviewed with an emphasis on Aurelia statoliths. The review provides information on the chemical composition, mechanisms of initiation of mineralization, and effects of environmental factors on Cnidarian statolith formation. Environmental factors discussed included modified sea water ingredients, X-irradiation, clinostat rotation, and petroleum oil ingredients. A detailed account of the effects of cadmium on mineralization and demineralization of Aurelia statoliths is given. Cadmium at dosages of 2 to 4 micromoles significantly reduces statolith numbers in developing ephyrae. At a dosage of 3 micromoles, cadmium accelerates statolith loss in unfed ephyrae studied at 4 and 8 days following ephyrae release from strobilae. Cadmium, therefore, is shown to reduce statolith numbers in developing ephyrae and to cause greater reduction of statolith numbers in unfed ephyrae after 4 and 8 days than occurred in controls. Supplementation of Cd(2+)-containing artificial sea water (ASW) with calcium (3X and 5X ASW calcium content) results in higher numbers of statoliths at day 4 as compared with cadmium-treated ephyrae. At 8 days only the 5X calcium supplemented ASW is effective in enhancing statolith numbers in Cd(2+)-treated ephyrae. These results suggest that cadmium competes in some manner with calcium at the mineralizing sites of Aurelia.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase activity in Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Denker, Elsa; Chatonnet, Arnaud; Rabet, Nicolas

    2008-09-25

    Cholinesterase activity is known in representatives of all living organisms phyla but the origin of the cholinergic system as known in bilaterian animals is still undeciphered. In particular the implication of cholinesterases in the nervous system of non-bilaterian Metazoa is not well known. We thus chose to investigate this activity in the Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria) medusa. In toto histochemical staining revealed an acetylcholinesterase activity in the tentacle bulbs but not in the nervous system. Sequences homologous to acetylcholinesterase were searched within Clytia ESTs and compared to other sequences found in public databases.

  11. [Development of morphological polarity in embryogenesis of Cnidaria].

    PubMed

    Rodimov, A A

    2005-01-01

    A brief review dedicated to the relationship between the egg animal-vegetal axis and polarity of future larva in Cnidaria. Possible variants of changes in polarity of the embryo during development are discussed.

  12. Deep-water Hydrozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) in the Sea of Japan, collected during the 51st Cruise of R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev, with description Opercularella angelikae, sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.

    2013-02-01

    A report is given about Hydrozoa collected at depths between 455 and 3666 m in the Sea of Japan during the Russian-German expedition on R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev. Ten species were found, with four of them being typical bathyal-abyssal and abyssal zones. A new species, Opercularella angelikae, is described, and it was the dominant hydroid in samples from 970 to 3660 m. Four eurybathic species characteristics of the Sea of Japan were sampled between 455 and 582 m. Abyssal (pseudoabyssal after Andriashev, 1979) hydroid fauna in the Sea of Japan is reported. The hypothesis that an exclusively deep-water fauna is lacking in abyssal regions of the Sea of Japan is disputed. The author's personal opinion considered concerning the borders of 1000 m between shallow and deep hydrozoan species in the Sea of Japan.

  13. Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide.

    PubMed

    Cervino, J M; Hayes, R L; Honovich, M; Goreau, T J; Jones, S; Rubec, P J

    2003-05-01

    Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were exposed to varying concentrations of cyanide for varying time periods. Corals were exposed to 50, 100, 300, and 600 mg/l of cyanide ion (CN(-)) for 1-2 min (in seawater, the CN(-) forms hydrocyanic acid). These concentrations are much lower than those reportedly used by fish collectors. Exposed corals and anemones immediately retracted their tentacles and mesenterial filaments, and discharged copious amounts of mucus containing zooxanthellae. Gel electrophoreses techniques found changes in protein expression in both zooxanthellae and host tissue. Corals and anemones exposed to cyanide showed an immediate increase in mitotic cell division of their zooxenthellae, and a decrease in zooxanthellae density. In contrast, zooxanthellae cell division and density remained constant in controls. Histopathological changes included gastrodermal disruption, mesogleal degradation, and increased mucus in coral tissues. Zooxanthellae showed pigment loss, swelling, and deformation. Mortality occurred at all exposure levels. Exposed specimens experienced an increase in the ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria on the coral surface. The results demonstrate that exposure cyanide causes mortality to corals and anemones, even when applied at lower levels than that used by fish collectors. Even brief exposure to cyanide caused slow-acting and long-term damage to corals and their zooxanthellae. PMID:12735955

  14. Macrofouling of deep-sea instrumentation after three years at 3690 m depth in the Charlie Gibbs fracture zone, mid-Atlantic ridge, with emphasis on hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, R.; Shields, M. A.; Jamieson, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Macrofouling is a common problem when deploying underwater instrumentation for long periods of time. It is a problem which can effect scientific experiments and monitoring missions though the creation of artificial reefs (thus increasing local biological activity) and reduce the quality of scientific data. Macrofouling is an issue typically considered to be restricted to the photic zones and is absent or negligible in the deep sea. To the contrary, the recovery of an accidentally lost deep-sea lander after 3 years submergence at 3960 m on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (North Atlantic) revealed dense colonisation of macrofouling organisms. These organisms were found attached to all surfaces of the lander regardless of orientation and materials. The occurrence of such deep-sea macrofouling should be carefully investigated given the recent developments in long-term deep-sea observatory networks.

  15. Chemical constituents from rhizome of Anemone amurensis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chong-Ning; Li, Yan-Jiao; Wang, Jing; Qin, Ru-Lan; Lei, Tian-Li; Lu, Jin-Cai

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the rhizome of Anemone amurensis led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1 and 2. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR data, and HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 1 and 2 were tested for cytotoxicities against two human cancer cell lines (A549 and Hep-G2). Compound 2 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 38.53 and 66.17 μM, respectively, while compound 1 with IC50 > 100 μM. PMID:26978669

  16. Phylogenomic Analyses Support Traditional Relationships within Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Felipe; Goetz, Freya E; Smith, Stephen A; Howison, Mark; Siebert, Stefan; Church, Samuel H; Sanders, Steven M; Ames, Cheryl Lewis; McFadden, Catherine S; France, Scott C; Daly, Marymegan; Collins, Allen G; Haddock, Steven H D; Dunn, Casey W; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses using different partition schemes and models of molecular evolution, as well as topology tests for alternative phylogenetic relationships, support the monophyly of Medusozoa, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Hydrozoa, and a clade consisting of Staurozoa, Cubozoa, and Scyphozoa. Support for the monophyly of Hexacorallia is weak due to the equivocal position of Ceriantharia. Taken together, these results further resolve deep cnidarian relationships, largely support traditional phylogenetic views on relationships, and provide a historical framework for studying the evolutionary processes involved in one of the most ancient animal radiations.

  17. Knockdown of actin and caspase gene expression by RNA interference in the symbiotic anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Simon R; Phillips, Wendy S; Green, Douglas R; Weis, Virginia M

    2007-06-01

    Since the discovery of the ancient eukaryotic process of RNA-mediated gene silencing, the reverse-genetics technique RNA interference (RNAi) has increasingly been used to examine gene function in vertebrate and invertebrate systems. In this study, we report on the use of RNAi, adapted from studies on animal model systems, to manipulate gene expression in a symbiotic marine cnidarian. We describe gene knockdown of actin and of acasp--a cysteine protease, or caspase--in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida. Knockdown was assessed qualitatively with in situ hybridizations for both genes. Quantitative PCR and caspase activity assays were used as a quantitative measure of knockdown for acasp. PMID:17565114

  18. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino

  19. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino

  20. Phytocoetes sinensis n. sp. and Telmatactis clavata (Stimpson, 1855), two poorly known species of Metridioidea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chinese waters.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Rui-Yu; Xu, Kuidong

    2013-01-01

    Two acontiate sea anemones, Phytocoetes sinensis n. sp. within the family Halcampactinidae and Telmatactis clavata (Stimpson, 1855) within the family Andvakiidae, are described from the coastal region of Chinese waters. Phytocoetes sinensis is an elongated sea anemone discovered from the intertidal mudflat in the East China Sea. The new species is very similar to its only congener P. gangeticus, but differs distinctly by the larger body size (length usually 61-130 mm vs. no more than 30 mm) and a higher number of mesenteries (48 pairs vs. 12 or probably 24 pairs) and tentacles (usually 72-118 vs. 50-65). This is the first record of Halcampactinidae in China. Telmatactis clavata has been reported only from the warm waters of Japan. We redescribed the species in more details based on specimens collected from the South China Sea. So far the species is known only from warm waters in the western Pacific.

  1. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes.

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Schirosi, Roberto; Parisi, Maria Giovanna; Piraino, Stefano; Cammarata, Matteo

    2015-08-19

    The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758) for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%), whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9%) and inorganic matter (67.1%). The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia) and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones' mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest.

  2. [Cytological aspects of similarity and difference of Myxozoa and Cnidaria].

    PubMed

    Uspenskaia, A V; Raĭkova, E V

    2001-01-01

    A comparative cytomorphological analysis of Myxozoa and parasitic Cnidaria Polypodium hydriforme has been carried out in view of the Weill (1938) hypothesis, which regards Myxozoa as a reduced Cnidaria. The question on the relation of Myxozoa and Cnidaria was arising several times with the application of some new methods during the Myxozoa studies. At present the idea on their phylogenetic relationships has appeared again in connection with an absolutely new understanding of the myxozoan life cycle (Wolf, Markiw, 1984), as well as with the application of molecular-biological methods for their phylogenetic studies. The latter, however, provided some diverse results. So far no comparative cytomorphological analysis of Myxozoa and Polypodium has been carried out. The present paper is to fill the gap on the basis of accumulated facts. According to Weill (1938), the features of similarity of parasitic Cnidaria and Myxozoa are the following: 1) the presence in both of extrusomes (nematocysts and polar capsules) whose structure and development are surprizingly similar; 2) the nuclear dimorphism and somato-generative segregation; 3) the presence of a somatic nutritional cell, surrounding the multiplying generative cells; at present it is known that polyploidy of somatic nuclei and the absence of parasitophorous vacuole are characteristic of trophamnion of Polypodium and trophozoite of Myxozoa; 4) the presence of radial symmetry in both groups; 5) the construction of a diblastic organism made of a cluster of endodermal cells and a few ectodermal cells; 6) the similarity of their cell contacts (Grassé, 1970). At present it is possible to add to Weill's (1938) list of features common for parasitic Cnidaria and Myxozoa the number of important similarities between Polypodium and Myxozoa, some of which being not characteristic of Cnidaria: 1) the "cell in cell" organization of all Polypodium parasitic stages and all Myxozoa life cycle stages; 2) the presence of gametophore

  3. Phylogenomic Analyses Support Traditional Relationships within Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Felipe; Goetz, Freya E.; Smith, Stephen A.; Howison, Mark; Siebert, Stefan; Church, Samuel H.; Sanders, Steven M.; Ames, Cheryl Lewis; McFadden, Catherine S.; France, Scott C.; Daly, Marymegan; Collins, Allen G.; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses using different partition schemes and models of molecular evolution, as well as topology tests for alternative phylogenetic relationships, support the monophyly of Medusozoa, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Hydrozoa, and a clade consisting of Staurozoa, Cubozoa, and Scyphozoa. Support for the monophyly of Hexacorallia is weak due to the equivocal position of Ceriantharia. Taken together, these results further resolve deep cnidarian relationships, largely support traditional phylogenetic views on relationships, and provide a historical framework for studying the evolutionary processes involved in one of the most ancient animal radiations. PMID:26465609

  4. Molecular phylogenetics of the siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Casey W; Pugh, Philip R; Haddock, Steven H D

    2005-12-01

    Siphonophores are a group of pelagic colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria) that have long been of general interest because of the division of labor between the polyps and medusae that make up these "superorganisms." These polyps and medusae are each homologous to free living animals but are generated by an incomplete asexual budding process that leaves them physiologically integrated. They are functionally specialized for different tasks and are precisely organized within each colony. The number of functional types of polyps and medusae varies across taxa, and different authors have used this character to construct phylogenies polarized in opposite directions, depending on whether they thought siphonophore evolution proceeded by a reduction or an increase in functional specialization. We have collected taxa across all major groups of siphonophores, many of which are found exclusively in the deep sea, using remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) and by SCUBA diving from ships in the open ocean. We have used 52 siphonophores and four outgroup taxa to estimate the siphonophore phylogeny with molecular data from the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S) and the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S). Parsimony reconstructions indicate that functionally specialized polyps and medusae have been gained and lost across the phylogeny. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of morphological data suggest that the transition rate for decreased functional specialization is greater than the transition rate for increased functional specialization for three out of the four investigated categories of polyps and medusae. The present analysis also bears on several long-standing questions about siphonophore systematics. It indicates that the cystonects are sister to all other siphonophores, a group that we call the Codonophora. We also find that the Calycophorae are nested within the Physonectae, and that the Brachystelia, a historically recognized grouping of

  5. Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Chang, E Sally; Neuhof, Moran; Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Diamant, Arik; Philippe, Hervé; Huchon, Dorothée; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-12-01

    The Myxozoa comprise over 2,000 species of microscopic obligate parasites that use both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts as part of their life cycle. Although the evolutionary origin of myxozoans has been elusive, a close relationship with cnidarians, a group that includes corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, and hydroids, is supported by some phylogenetic studies and the observation that the distinctive myxozoan structure, the polar capsule, is remarkably similar to the stinging structures (nematocysts) in cnidarians. To gain insight into the extreme evolutionary transition from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic endoparasite, we analyzed genomic and transcriptomic assemblies from two distantly related myxozoan species, Kudoa iwatai and Myxobolus cerebralis, and compared these to the transcriptome and genome of the less reduced cnidarian parasite, Polypodium hydriforme. A phylogenomic analysis, using for the first time to our knowledge, a taxonomic sampling that represents the breadth of myxozoan diversity, including four newly generated myxozoan assemblies, confirms that myxozoans are cnidarians and are a sister taxon to P. hydriforme. Estimations of genome size reveal that myxozoans have one of the smallest reported animal genomes. Gene enrichment analyses show depletion of expressed genes in categories related to development, cell differentiation, and cell-cell communication. In addition, a search for candidate genes indicates that myxozoans lack key elements of signaling pathways and transcriptional factors important for multicellular development. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the myxozoan body plan from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic parasitic cnidarian was accompanied by extreme reduction in genome size and gene content. PMID:26627241

  6. Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Chang, E Sally; Neuhof, Moran; Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Diamant, Arik; Philippe, Hervé; Huchon, Dorothée; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-12-01

    The Myxozoa comprise over 2,000 species of microscopic obligate parasites that use both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts as part of their life cycle. Although the evolutionary origin of myxozoans has been elusive, a close relationship with cnidarians, a group that includes corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, and hydroids, is supported by some phylogenetic studies and the observation that the distinctive myxozoan structure, the polar capsule, is remarkably similar to the stinging structures (nematocysts) in cnidarians. To gain insight into the extreme evolutionary transition from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic endoparasite, we analyzed genomic and transcriptomic assemblies from two distantly related myxozoan species, Kudoa iwatai and Myxobolus cerebralis, and compared these to the transcriptome and genome of the less reduced cnidarian parasite, Polypodium hydriforme. A phylogenomic analysis, using for the first time to our knowledge, a taxonomic sampling that represents the breadth of myxozoan diversity, including four newly generated myxozoan assemblies, confirms that myxozoans are cnidarians and are a sister taxon to P. hydriforme. Estimations of genome size reveal that myxozoans have one of the smallest reported animal genomes. Gene enrichment analyses show depletion of expressed genes in categories related to development, cell differentiation, and cell-cell communication. In addition, a search for candidate genes indicates that myxozoans lack key elements of signaling pathways and transcriptional factors important for multicellular development. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the myxozoan body plan from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic parasitic cnidarian was accompanied by extreme reduction in genome size and gene content.

  7. Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Chang, E. Sally; Neuhof, Moran; Rubinstein, Nimrod D.; Diamant, Arik; Philippe, Hervé; Huchon, Dorothée; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    The Myxozoa comprise over 2,000 species of microscopic obligate parasites that use both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts as part of their life cycle. Although the evolutionary origin of myxozoans has been elusive, a close relationship with cnidarians, a group that includes corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, and hydroids, is supported by some phylogenetic studies and the observation that the distinctive myxozoan structure, the polar capsule, is remarkably similar to the stinging structures (nematocysts) in cnidarians. To gain insight into the extreme evolutionary transition from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic endoparasite, we analyzed genomic and transcriptomic assemblies from two distantly related myxozoan species, Kudoa iwatai and Myxobolus cerebralis, and compared these to the transcriptome and genome of the less reduced cnidarian parasite, Polypodium hydriforme. A phylogenomic analysis, using for the first time to our knowledge, a taxonomic sampling that represents the breadth of myxozoan diversity, including four newly generated myxozoan assemblies, confirms that myxozoans are cnidarians and are a sister taxon to P. hydriforme. Estimations of genome size reveal that myxozoans have one of the smallest reported animal genomes. Gene enrichment analyses show depletion of expressed genes in categories related to development, cell differentiation, and cell–cell communication. In addition, a search for candidate genes indicates that myxozoans lack key elements of signaling pathways and transcriptional factors important for multicellular development. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the myxozoan body plan from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic parasitic cnidarian was accompanied by extreme reduction in genome size and gene content. PMID:26627241

  8. Secondary metabolites and insecticidal activity of Anemone pavonina.

    PubMed

    Varitimidis, Christos; Petrakis, Panos V; Vagias, Constantinos; Roussis, Vassilios

    2006-01-01

    The insecticidal properties of the crude extracts of the leaves and flowers of Anemone pavonina were evaluated on Pheidole pallidula ants and showed significant levels of activity. Bioassay-guided fractionations led to the isolation of the butenolide ranunculin (1) as the active principle. Chemical investigations of the extracts showed them to contain as major components the sitosterol glycopyranoside lipids 2-5 and the glycerides 6-8. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated, following acetylation and hydrolysis of the natural products, by interpretation of their NMR and mass spectral data. The uncommon lipid metabolites 2-8 were isolated for the first time from the genus Anemone and this is the first report of insecticidal activity of the Anemone metabolite ranunculin against ants.

  9. Searching for a toxic key to unlock the mystery of anemonefish and anemone symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Nedosyko, Anita M; Young, Jeanne E; Edwards, John W; Burke da Silva, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-six species of anemonefish of the genera Amphiprion and monospecific Premnas, use only 10 species of anemones as hosts in the wild (Families: Actiniidae, Stichodactylidae and Thalassianthidae). Of these 10 anemone species some are used by multiple species of anemonefish while others have only a single anemonefish symbiont. Past studies have explored the different patterns of usage between anemonefish species and anemone species; however the evolution of this relationship remains unknown and has been little studied over the past decade. Here we reopen the case, comparing the toxicity of crude venoms obtained from anemones that host anemonefish as a way to investigate why some anemone species are used as a host more than others. Specifically, for each anemone species we investigated acute toxicity using Artemia francisca (LC50), haemolytic toxicity using ovine erythrocytes (EC50) and neurotoxicity using shore crabs (Ozius truncatus). We found that haemolytic and neurotoxic activity varied among host anemone species. Generally anemone species that displayed greater haemolytic activity also displayed high neurotoxic activity and tend to be more toxic on average as indicated by acute lethality analysis. An overall venom toxicity ranking for each anemone species was compared with the number of anemonefish species that are known to associate with each anemone species in the wild. Interestingly, anemones with intermediate toxicity had the highest number of anemonefish associates, whereas anemones with either very low or very high toxicity had the fewest anemonefish associates. These data demonstrate that variation in toxicity among host anemone species may be important in the establishment and maintenance of anemonefish anemone symbiosis. PMID:24878777

  10. Transmission of a heterologous clade C Symbiodinium in a model anemone infection system via asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Nan U; Hsiao, Ya-Ju; Mayfield, Anderson B; Young, Ryan; Hsu, Ling-Lan; Peng, Shao-En

    2016-01-01

    Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1) populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1). We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration). In order to corroborate the establishment of stable symbiosis, we used microscopic techniques and genetic analyses to examine several generations of anemones, and the results of these endeavors confirmed the sustainability of the system. These findings provide a framework for understanding the differences in infection dynamics between homologous and heterologous dinoflagellate types using a model anemone infection system. PMID:27635330

  11. Transmission of a heterologous clade C Symbiodinium in a model anemone infection system via asexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Hsiao, Ya-Ju; Mayfield, Anderson B.; Young, Ryan; Hsu, Ling-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1) populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1). We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration). In order to corroborate the establishment of stable symbiosis, we used microscopic techniques and genetic analyses to examine several generations of anemones, and the results of these endeavors confirmed the sustainability of the system. These findings provide a framework for understanding the differences in infection dynamics between homologous and heterologous dinoflagellate types using a model anemone infection system. PMID:27635330

  12. Transmission of a heterologous clade C Symbiodinium in a model anemone infection system via asexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Hsiao, Ya-Ju; Mayfield, Anderson B.; Young, Ryan; Hsu, Ling-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1) populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1). We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration). In order to corroborate the establishment of stable symbiosis, we used microscopic techniques and genetic analyses to examine several generations of anemones, and the results of these endeavors confirmed the sustainability of the system. These findings provide a framework for understanding the differences in infection dynamics between homologous and heterologous dinoflagellate types using a model anemone infection system.

  13. Transmission of a heterologous clade C Symbiodinium in a model anemone infection system via asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Nan U; Hsiao, Ya-Ju; Mayfield, Anderson B; Young, Ryan; Hsu, Ling-Lan; Peng, Shao-En

    2016-01-01

    Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1) populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1). We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration). In order to corroborate the establishment of stable symbiosis, we used microscopic techniques and genetic analyses to examine several generations of anemones, and the results of these endeavors confirmed the sustainability of the system. These findings provide a framework for understanding the differences in infection dynamics between homologous and heterologous dinoflagellate types using a model anemone infection system.

  14. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate. PMID:26375331

  15. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate.

  16. Statistical Study of Chromospheric Anemone Jets Observed with Hinode/SOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizuka, N.; Nakamura, T.; Kawate, T.; Singh, K. A. P.; Shibata, K.

    2011-04-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode has revealed numerous tiny jets in all regions of the chromosphere outside of sunspots. A typical chromospheric anemone jet has a cusp-shaped structure and bright footpoint, similar to the shape of an X-ray anemone jet observed previously with the Soft X-ray Telescope on board Yohkoh. The similarity in the shapes of chromospheric and X-ray anemone jets suggests that chromospheric anemone jets are produced as a result of the magnetic reconnection between a small bipole (perhaps a tiny emerging flux) and a pre-existing uniform magnetic field in the lower chromosphere. We examine various chromospheric anemone jets in the solar active region near the solar limb and study the typical features (e.g., length, width, lifetime, and velocity) of the chromospheric anemone jets. Statistical studies show that chromospheric anemone jets have: (1) a typical length ~1.0-4.0 Mm, (2) a width ~100-400 km, (3) a lifetime ~100-500 s, and (4) a velocity ~5-20 km s-1. The velocity of the chromospheric anemone jets is comparable to the local Alfvén speed in the lower solar chromosphere (~10 km s-1). The histograms of chromospheric anemone jets near the limb and near the disk center show similar averages and shapes of distributions, suggesting that the characteristic behavior of chromospheric anemone jets is independent of whether they are observed on the disk or at the limb. The observed relationship between the velocity and length of chromospheric anemone jets shows that the jets do not follow ballistic motion but are more likely accelerated by some other mechanism. This is consistent with numerical simulations of chromospheric anemone jets.

  17. STATISTICAL STUDY OF CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS OBSERVED WITH HINODE/SOT

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizuka, N.; Nakamura, T.; Kawate, T.; Singh, K. A. P.; Shibata, K.

    2011-04-10

    The Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode has revealed numerous tiny jets in all regions of the chromosphere outside of sunspots. A typical chromospheric anemone jet has a cusp-shaped structure and bright footpoint, similar to the shape of an X-ray anemone jet observed previously with the Soft X-ray Telescope on board Yohkoh. The similarity in the shapes of chromospheric and X-ray anemone jets suggests that chromospheric anemone jets are produced as a result of the magnetic reconnection between a small bipole (perhaps a tiny emerging flux) and a pre-existing uniform magnetic field in the lower chromosphere. We examine various chromospheric anemone jets in the solar active region near the solar limb and study the typical features (e.g., length, width, lifetime, and velocity) of the chromospheric anemone jets. Statistical studies show that chromospheric anemone jets have: (1) a typical length {approx}1.0-4.0 Mm, (2) a width {approx}100-400 km, (3) a lifetime {approx}100-500 s, and (4) a velocity {approx}5-20 km s{sup -1}. The velocity of the chromospheric anemone jets is comparable to the local Alfven speed in the lower solar chromosphere ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}). The histograms of chromospheric anemone jets near the limb and near the disk center show similar averages and shapes of distributions, suggesting that the characteristic behavior of chromospheric anemone jets is independent of whether they are observed on the disk or at the limb. The observed relationship between the velocity and length of chromospheric anemone jets shows that the jets do not follow ballistic motion but are more likely accelerated by some other mechanism. This is consistent with numerical simulations of chromospheric anemone jets.

  18. Overview of the genus Briareum (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Briareidae) in the Indo-Pacific, with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The status of Indo-Pacific Briareum species (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Briareidae) is reviewed by presenting their sclerite features and habitus descriptions. Following the re-examination of type material, museum specimens and newly collected specimens, a species identification key is provided. The species distributions are discussed and updated distribution ranges are depicted. Moreover, a new taxon, Briareum cylindrum sp. n. is described and depicted, whereas Briareum excavatum (Nutting, 1911) is synonymised with Briareum stechei (Kükenthal, 1908). Briareum hamrum (Gohar, 1948) is recorded from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea for the first time. Consequently, in total four Briareum species are recognized in the Indo-Pacific; Briareum hamrum from the western Indian Ocean, and Briareum cylindrum sp. n., Briareum stechei, and Briareum violaceum from the central and eastern Indo-Pacific region. PMID:26877697

  19. Chromospheric anemone jets as evidence of ubiquitous reconnection.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Kazunari; Nakamura, Tahei; Matsumoto, Takuma; Otsuji, Kenichi; Okamoto, Takenori J; Nishizuka, Naoto; Kawate, Tomoko; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Ueno, Satoru; Kitai, Reizaburo; Nozawa, Satoshi; Tsuneta, Saku; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Tarbell, Theodore D; Berger, Thomas E; Lites, Bruce W; Shine, Richard A; Title, Alan M

    2007-12-01

    The heating of the solar chromosphere and corona is a long-standing puzzle in solar physics. Hinode observations show the ubiquitous presence of chromospheric anemone jets outside sunspots in active regions. They are typically 3 to 7 arc seconds = 2000 to 5000 kilometers long and 0.2 to 0.4 arc second = 150 to 300 kilometers wide, and their velocity is 10 to 20 kilometers per second. These small jets have an inverted Y-shape, similar to the shape of x-ray anemone jets in the corona. These features imply that magnetic reconnection similar to that in the corona is occurring at a much smaller spatial scale throughout the chromosphere and suggest that the heating of the solar chromosphere and corona may be related to small-scale ubiquitous reconnection. PMID:18063790

  20. [Morphogenetic foundations for increased evolutionary complexity in the organization of thecate hydroids shoots (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae)].

    PubMed

    Kosevich, I A

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenetic approach is applied to analyze the diversity of spatial organization of shoots in thecate hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae). The main tendencies and constraints of increased evolutionary complexity in thecate hydroids colonies are uncovered.

  1. Correction: Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nathaniel M; Lindner, Alberto; Raikova, Ekaterina V; Collins, Allen G; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2009-07-15

    Correction to Evans, N.M., Lindner, A., Raikova, E.V., Collins, A.G. and Cartwright, P. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the phylum Cnidaria. BMC Evol Biol, 2008, 8:139.

  2. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Stabili, Loredana; Schirosi, Roberto; Parisi, Maria Giovanna; Piraino, Stefano; Cammarata, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758) for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%), whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9%) and inorganic matter (67.1%). The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia) and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones’ mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest. PMID:26295400

  3. Is dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced by the symbionts or the host in an anemone-zooxanthella symbiosis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Alstyne, K. L.; Dominique, V. J.; Muller-Parker, G.

    2009-03-01

    Many groups of tropical cnidarians including scleractinian corals, octocorals, corallimorphs, and anemones contain the tertiary sulfonium compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). It is not known if the compound is synthesized by the animals, their microalgal symbionts, or derived through their diet. We determined the source of the DMSP in several species of tropical and temperate anemones using three approaches: (1) conducting comparative measurements of DMSP in aposymbiotic and zooxanthellate anemones of three species that harbor zooxanthellae, and similar measurements in one species that can harbor both zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae, (2) manipulating the presence or absence of zooxanthellae by inoculating juvenile aposymbiotic anemones ( Aiptasia pallida) with their symbiont, Symbiodinium bermudense, and (3) manipulating the numbers of S. bermudense by growing aposymbiotic and zooxanthellate A. pallida in the light and the dark. DMSP was present in zooxanthellate anemones in concentrations of 3.4-15 μmol g-1 fresh mass (FM). In aposymbiotic Aiptasia spp. and Anthopleura elegantissima that lacked large numbers of zooxanthellae, concentrations ranged from being undetectable to 0.43 μmol g-1 FM. When aposymbiotic A. pallida were inoculated with zooxanthellae, concentrations of DMSP were an average of 4.24 μmol g-1 FM after 5 weeks; DMSP was undetectable in uninoculated control animals. Aposymbiotic anemones maintained in the light or the dark for 6 weeks contained no DMSP or zooxanthellae. Zooxanthellate anemones in the light contained five times as many zooxanthellae and approximately 7.5 times as much DMSP as zooxanthellate anemones maintained in the dark. Taken together, these data show that the zooxanthellae are the sole source of DMSP in A. pallida. The trends in DMSP concentrations in other species of zooxanthellate anemones suggest that this phenomenon is not limited to A. pallida but may be more generally true for other anemones or even other

  4. Anemonefish depletion reduces survival, growth, reproduction and fishery productivity of mutualistic anemone-anemonefish colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Ashley J.; Rizzari, Justin R.; Munkres, Katherine P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Intimate knowledge of both partners in a mutualism is necessary to understand the ecology and evolution of each partner, and to manage human impacts that asymmetrically affect one of the partners. Although anemonefishes and their host anemones are iconic mutualists and widely sought by ornamental fisheries, the degree to which anemones depend on anemonefishes, and thus the colony-level effects of collecting anemonefishes, is not well understood. We tracked the size and abundance of anemone Entacmaea quadricolor and anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus colonies for 3 yr after none, some, or all of the resident anemonefish were experimentally removed. Total and partial removal of anemonefish had rapid and sustained negative effects on growth, reproduction and survival of anemones, as well as cascading effects on recruitment and productivity of anemonefish in the remaining colony. As predicted, total removal of anemonefish caused acute declines in size and abundance of anemones, although most anemone colonies (76 %) slowly resumed growth and reproduction after the arrival of anemonefish recruits, which subsequently grew and defended the hosts. Partial removal of anemonefish had similar but typically less severe effects on anemones. Remarkably, the colony-level effects on anemones and anemonefish were proportional to the size and number of anemonefish that were experimentally removed. In particular, anemone survival and anemonefish productivity were highest when one or more adult anemonefish remained in the colony, suggesting that adult fish not only enhanced the protection of anemones, but also increased the recruitment and/or survival of conspecifics. We conclude that the relationship between E. quadricolor and A. melanopus is not only obligate, but also demographically rigid and easily perturbed by anemonefish fisheries. Clearly, these two species must be managed together as a unit and with utmost precaution. To this end, we propose several tangible management actions

  5. Transmission genetics of allorecognition in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Mokady, O.; Buss, L.W.

    1996-06-01

    Allorecognition is ubiquitous, or nearly so, amongst colonial invertebrates. Despite the prominent role that such phenomena have played both in evolutionary theory and in speculations on the origin of the vertebrate immune system, unambiguous data on the transmission genetics of fusibility (i.e., the ability of two individuals to fuse upon tissue contact) is lacking for any metazoan outside of the phylum Chordata. We have developed lines of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Phylum Cnidaria) inbred for fusibility and here report results of breeding experiments establishing that fusibility segregates as expected for a single locus with codominantly expressed alleles, with one shared allele producing a fusible phenotype. Surveys of fusibility in field populations and additional breeding experiments indicate the presence of an extensive allele series. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Transmission Genetics of Allorecognition in Hydractinia Symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Mokady, O.; Buss, L. W.

    1996-01-01

    Allorecognition is ubiquitous, or nearly so, amongst colonial invertebrates. Despite the prominent role that such phenomena have played both in evolutionary theory and in speculations on the origin of the vertebrate immune system, unambiguous data on the transmission genetics of fusibility (i.e., the ability of two individuals to fuse upon tissue contact) is lacking for any metazoan outside of the phylum Chordata. We have developed lines of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Phylum Cnidaria) inbred for fusibility and here report results of breeding experiments establishing that fusibility segregates as expected for a single locus with codominantly expressed alleles, with one shared allele producing a fusible phenotype. Surveys of fusibility in field populations and additional breeding experiments indicate the presence of an extensive allele series. PMID:8725230

  7. Analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of three members of the Montastraea annularis coral species complex (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Hironobu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2005-11-01

    Complete mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two individuals each of Montastraea annularis, Montastraea faveolata, and Montastraea franksi were determined. Gene composition and order differed substantially from the sea anemone Metridium senile, but were identical to that of the phylogenetically distant coral genus Acropora. However, characteristics of the non-coding regions differed between the two scleractinian genera. Among members of the M. annularis complex, only 25 of 16,134 base pair positions were variable. Sixteen of these occurred in one colony of M. franksi, which (together with additional data) indicates the existence of multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages in this species. Overall, rates of evolution for these mitochondrial genomes were extremely slow (0.03 0.04% per million years based on the fossil record of the M. annularis complex). At higher taxonomic levels, patterns of genetic divergence and synonymous/nonsynonymous substitutions suggest non-neutral and unequal rates of evolution between the two lineages to which Montastraea and Acropora belong.

  8. Circadian clocks in the cnidaria: environmental entrainment, molecular regulation, and organismal outputs.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Adam M; Tarrant, Ann M; Levy, Oren

    2013-07-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular network that translates predictable environmental signals, such as light levels, into organismal responses, including behavior and physiology. Regular oscillations of the molecular components of the clock enable individuals to anticipate regularly fluctuating environmental conditions. Cnidarians play important roles in benthic and pelagic marine environments and also occupy a key evolutionary position as the likely sister group to the bilaterians. Together, these attributes make members of this phylum attractive as models for testing hypotheses on roles for circadian clocks in regulating behavior, physiology, and reproduction as well as those regarding the deep evolutionary conservation of circadian regulatory pathways in animal evolution. Here, we review and synthesize the field of cnidarian circadian biology by discussing the diverse effects of daily light cycles on cnidarians, summarizing the molecular evidence for the conservation of a bilaterian-like circadian clock in anthozoan cnidarians, and presenting new empirical data supporting the presence of a conserved feed-forward loop in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Furthermore, we discuss critical gaps in our current knowledge about the cnidarian clock, including the functions directly regulated by the clock and the precise molecular interactions that drive the oscillating gene-expression patterns. We conclude that the field of cnidarian circadian biology is moving rapidly toward linking molecular mechanisms with physiology and behavior.

  9. Circadian Clocks in the Cnidaria: Environmental Entrainment, Molecular Regulation, and Organismal Outputs

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Adam M.; Tarrant, Ann M.; Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular network that translates predictable environmental signals, such as light levels, into organismal responses, including behavior and physiology. Regular oscillations of the molecular components of the clock enable individuals to anticipate regularly fluctuating environmental conditions. Cnidarians play important roles in benthic and pelagic marine environments and also occupy a key evolutionary position as the likely sister group to the bilaterians. Together, these attributes make members of this phylum attractive as models for testing hypotheses on roles for circadian clocks in regulating behavior, physiology, and reproduction as well as those regarding the deep evolutionary conservation of circadian regulatory pathways in animal evolution. Here, we review and synthesize the field of cnidarian circadian biology by discussing the diverse effects of daily light cycles on cnidarians, summarizing the molecular evidence for the conservation of a bilaterian-like circadian clock in anthozoan cnidarians, and presenting new empirical data supporting the presence of a conserved feed-forward loop in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Furthermore, we discuss critical gaps in our current knowledge about the cnidarian clock, including the functions directly regulated by the clock and the precise molecular interactions that drive the oscillating gene-expression patterns. We conclude that the field of cnidarian circadian biology is moving rapidly toward linking molecular mechanisms with physiology and behavior. PMID:23620252

  10. New phylogenomic and comparative analyses provide corroborating evidence that Myxozoa is Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jin-Mei; Xiong, Jie; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Yang, Ya-Lin; Yao, Bin; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Miao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Myxozoa, a diverse group of morphologically simplified endoparasites, are well known fish parasites causing substantial economic losses in aquaculture. Despite active research, the phylogenetic position of Myxozoa remains ambiguous. After obtaining the genome and transcriptome data of the myxozoan Thelohanellus kitauei, we examined the phylogenetic position of Myxozoa from three different perspectives. First, phylogenomic analyses with the newly sequenced genomic data strongly supported the monophyly of Myxozoa and that Myxozoa is sister to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Second, we detected two homologs to cnidarian-specific minicollagens in the T. kitauei genome with molecular characteristics similar to cnidarian-specific minicollagens, suggesting that the minicollagen homologs in T. kitauei may have functions similar to those in Cnidaria and that Myxozoa is Cnidaria. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the minicollagens in myxozoans and medusozoans have a common ancestor. Third, we detected 11 of the 19 proto-mesodermalgenes in the T. kitauei genome, which were also present in the cnidarian Hydra magnipapillata, indicating Myxozoa is within Cnidaria. Thus, our results robustly support Myxozoa as a derived cnidarian taxon with an affinity to Medusozoa, helping to understand the diversity of the morphology, development and life cycle of Cnidaria and its evolution.

  11. Evolution of the anemone AR NOAA 10798 and the related geo-effective flares and CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Ayumi; Shibata, Kazunari; Ishii, Takako T.; Oka, Mitsuo; Kataoka, Ryuho; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2009-02-01

    We present a detailed examination of the features of the active region (AR) NOAA 10798. This AR generated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that caused a large geomagnetic storm on 24 August 2005 with the minimum Dst index of -216 nT. We examined the evolution of the AR and the features on/near the solar surface and in the interplanetary space. The AR emerged in the middle of a small coronal hole, and formed a sea anemone like configuration. Hα filaments were formed in the AR, which have southward axial field. Three M class flares were generated, and the first two that occurred on 22 August 2005 were followed by Halo-type CMEs. The speeds of the CMEs were fast, and recorded about 1200 and 2400 km s-1, respectively. The second CME was especially fast, and caught up and interacted with the first (slower) CME during their travelings toward Earth. These acted synergically to generate an interplanetary disturbance with strong southward magnetic field of about -50 nT, which was followed by the large geomagnetic storm.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE WIDELY INTRODUCED ESTUARINE ANEMONE NEMATOSTELLA VECTENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We characterized ten polymorphic microsatellite loci from Nematostella vectensis, a burrowing anemone recently introduced to estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America and the southeast coast of England. Preliminary results indicate high variability and significant depar...

  13. Anthocyanins from the scarlet flowers of Anemone coronaria.

    PubMed

    Toki, K; Saito, N; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    2001-04-01

    Three acylated anthocyanins were isolated from the scarlet flowers of Anemone coronaria 'St. Brigid Red' along with a known pigment, pelargonidin 3-lathyroside. The structures of the acylated pigments were based on a pelargonidin 3-lathyroside skeleton acylated at different positions with malonic acid. The first pigment was identified as pelargonidin 3-O-[2-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside], the second was pelargonidin 3-O-[2-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(methyl-malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside], and the third was (6''-O-(pelargonidin 3-O-[2''-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl]))((4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-trans-caffeoyl)-O-tartatryl)malonate.

  14. Benthic Community Composition and Seabed Characteristics of a Chukchi Sea Pockmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Bluhm, B.; Iken, K.; Gagaev, S.; Robinson, S.

    2005-12-01

    Several dozen seafloor features were mapped by Larry Mayer and his colleagues using swath bathymetry during a 2003 cruise with the USCGC HEALY near the eastern edge of the Chukchi Plateau (Chukchi Sea 76.6N, 163.9W). These were sub-circular depressions ranging from approximately 250 to over 1000m in width, with depths of up to 50m below the surrounding seabed, and situated in water depths from 500 to 950m. The origin of these features was undetermined, but one possibility was that they were pockmarks formed as a result of gas or fluid expulsion processes. We report here on benthic sampling undertaken at one of these pockmarks on 18 July 2005, also from USCGC HEALY. This elongated feature had maximum water depth of approximately 940m, was 1200m in maximum width, and was depressed approximately 40m below the surrounding seabed. The ocean in the vicinity of the pockmark was heavily ice-covered, which tightly restricted the ship's mobility during sampling operations. We used an ROV to collect and photograph the benthic epifauna during a 6h transit that crossed from the outside of the pockmark to near the center over a distance of 900m. We used a down-looking digital camera to collect over 800 pictures of the benthos at altitudes of 2 to 3m above the seabed. We also collected three cores with a 25x25cm box corer. Our investigations did not provide any direct evidence for gas or fluid flux through the seabed of this feature. Neither did we see any secondary indications of methane flux such as authigenic carbonates or bacterial mats. The abundance and diversity of benthic epifauna at this station was the highest among 8 stations sampled using similar methods during a 30 day cruise. The ROV observed brittle stars, various types of anemones, shrimps, eel pouts, stalked crinoids, benthic ctenophore (likely new species), burrows and mounts, gooseneck barnacles, mysids. Holothurians (c.f. Peneagone sp.) were the single most abundant group and were often photographed in

  15. Reaction of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia) to Eugymnanthea inquilina (Cnidaria) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria) concurrent infestation.

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona; Petrić, Mirela; Hrabar, Jerko; Bočina, Ivana; Peharda, Melita

    2012-05-01

    In total 480 individuals of Mytilus galloprovincialis were sampled monthly from October 2009 to September 2010, at the shellfish farm in the Mali Ston Bay, south Adriatic Sea (Croatia) in order to assess the extent of pathology imposed by two parasites, Eugymnanthea inquilina (Cnidaria) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria). Although a deteriorating impact on host reproduction or condition index was lacking, we evidenced ultrastructural and functional alteration in host cells at the attachment site. Ultrastructural changes included hemocytic encapsulation of the turbellarian and cell desquamation in medusoid infestation. Caspase positive reaction inferred by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was triggered in cases of turbellarian infestation, in contrast with hydroids, suggesting that the former exhibits more complex host-parasite interaction, reflected in the persistent attempts of the parasite to survive bivalve reaction. We have evidenced that both organisms trigger specific host reaction that although not costly in terms of host reproductive cycle or growth, results in mild tissue destruction and hemocyte activation. A lower degree of tissue reaction was observed in cases of hydroid infestation, compared to turbellarian.

  16. Identification of rDNA-specific non-LTR retrotransposons in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K; Kuma, Kei-ichi; Toh, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2006-10-01

    Ribosomal RNA genes are abundant repetitive sequences in most eukaryotes. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) contains many insertions derived from mobile elements including non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. R2 is the well-characterized 28S rDNA-specific non-LTR retrotransposon family that is distributed over at least 4 bilaterian phyla. R2 is a large family sharing the same insertion specificity and classified into 4 clades (R2-A, -B, -C, and -D) based on the N-terminal domain structure and the phylogeny. There is no observation of horizontal transfer of R2; therefore, the origin of R2 dates back to before the split between protostomes and deuterostomes. Here, we in silico identified 1 R2 element from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis and 2 R2-like retrotransposons from the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata. R2 from N. vectensis was inserted into the 28S rDNA like other R2, but the R2-like elements from H. magnipapillata were inserted into the specific sequence in the highly conserved region of the 18S rDNA. We designated the Hydra R2-like elements R8. R8 is inserted at 37 bp upstream from R7, another 18S rDNA-specific retrotransposon family. There is no obvious sequence similarity between targets of R2 and R8, probably because they recognize long DNA sequences. Domain structure and phylogeny indicate that R2 from N. vectensis is the member of the R2-D clade, and R8 from H. magnipapillata belongs to the R2-A clade despite its different sequence specificity. These results suggest that R2 had been generated before the split between cnidarians and bilaterians and that R8 is a retrotransposon family that changed its target from the 28S rDNA to the 18S rDNA.

  17. Ecological speciation in anemone-associated snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus species complex).

    PubMed

    Hurt, C; Silliman, K; Anker, A; Knowlton, N

    2013-09-01

    Divergent natural selection driven by competition for limited resources can promote speciation, even in the presence of gene flow. Reproductive isolation is more likely to result from divergent selection when the partitioned resource is closely linked to mating. Obligate symbiosis and host fidelity (mating on or near the host) can provide this link, creating ideal conditions for speciation in the absence of physical barriers to dispersal. Symbiotic organisms often experience competition for hosts, and host fidelity ensures that divergent selection for a specific host or host habitat can lead to speciation and strengthen pre-existing reproductive barriers. Here, we present evidence that diversification of a sympatric species complex occurred despite the potential for gene flow and that partitioning of host resources (both by species and by host habitat) has contributed to this diversification. Four species of snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus, A. immaculatus, A. polystictus and A. roquensis) are distributed mainly sympatrically in the Caribbean, while the fifth species (A. rudolphi) is restricted to Brazil. All five species are obligate commensals of sea anemones with a high degree of fidelity and ecological specificity for host species and habitat. We analysed sequence data from 10 nuclear genes and the mitochondrial COI gene in 11-16 individuals from each of the Caribbean taxa and from the only available specimen of the Brazilian taxon. Phylogenetic analyses support morphology-based species assignments and a well-supported Caribbean clade. The Brazilian A. rudolphi is recovered as an outgroup to the Caribbean taxa. Isolation-migration coalescent analysis provides evidence for historical gene flow among sympatric sister species. Our data suggest that both selection for a novel host and selection for host microhabitat may have promoted diversification of this complex despite gene flow. PMID:23859595

  18. Ecological speciation in anemone-associated snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus species complex).

    PubMed

    Hurt, C; Silliman, K; Anker, A; Knowlton, N

    2013-09-01

    Divergent natural selection driven by competition for limited resources can promote speciation, even in the presence of gene flow. Reproductive isolation is more likely to result from divergent selection when the partitioned resource is closely linked to mating. Obligate symbiosis and host fidelity (mating on or near the host) can provide this link, creating ideal conditions for speciation in the absence of physical barriers to dispersal. Symbiotic organisms often experience competition for hosts, and host fidelity ensures that divergent selection for a specific host or host habitat can lead to speciation and strengthen pre-existing reproductive barriers. Here, we present evidence that diversification of a sympatric species complex occurred despite the potential for gene flow and that partitioning of host resources (both by species and by host habitat) has contributed to this diversification. Four species of snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus, A. immaculatus, A. polystictus and A. roquensis) are distributed mainly sympatrically in the Caribbean, while the fifth species (A. rudolphi) is restricted to Brazil. All five species are obligate commensals of sea anemones with a high degree of fidelity and ecological specificity for host species and habitat. We analysed sequence data from 10 nuclear genes and the mitochondrial COI gene in 11-16 individuals from each of the Caribbean taxa and from the only available specimen of the Brazilian taxon. Phylogenetic analyses support morphology-based species assignments and a well-supported Caribbean clade. The Brazilian A. rudolphi is recovered as an outgroup to the Caribbean taxa. Isolation-migration coalescent analysis provides evidence for historical gene flow among sympatric sister species. Our data suggest that both selection for a novel host and selection for host microhabitat may have promoted diversification of this complex despite gene flow.

  19. Chromospheric anemone jets and magnetic reconnection in partially ionized solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Shibata, K.; Nishizuka, N.; Isobe, H.

    2011-11-01

    The solar optical telescope onboard Hinode with temporal resolution of less than 5 s and spatial resolution of 150 km has observed the lower solar atmosphere with an unprecedented detail. This has led to many important findings, one of them is the discovery of chromospheric anemone jets in the solar chromosphere. The chromospheric anemone jets are ubiquitous in solar chromosphere and statistical studies show that the typical length, life time and energy of the chromospheric anemone jets are much smaller than the coronal events (e.g., jets/flares/CMEs). Among various observational parameters, the apparent length and maximum velocity shows good correlation. The velocity of chromospheric anemone jets is comparable to the local Alfvén speed in the lower solar chromosphere. Since the discovery of chromospheric anemone jets by Hinode, several evidences of magnetic reconnection in chromospheric anemone jets have been found and these observations are summarized in this paper. These observations clearly suggest that reconnection occurs quite rapidly as well as intermittently in the solar chromosphere. In the solar corona (λi > δSP), anomalous resistivity arises due to various collisionless processes. Previous MHD simulations show that reconnection becomes fast as well as strongly time-dependent due to anomalous resistivity. Such processes would not arise in the solar chromosphere which is fully collisional and partially-ionized. So, it is unclear how the rapid and strongly time-dependent reconnection would occur in the solar chromosphere. It is quite likely that the Hall and ambipolar diffusion are present in the solar chromosphere and they could play an important role in driving such rapid, strongly time-dependent reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  20. Chromospheric anemone jets and magnetic reconnection in partially ionized solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. A. P.; Shibata, K.; Nishizuka, N.; Isobe, H.

    2011-11-15

    The solar optical telescope onboard Hinode with temporal resolution of less than 5 s and spatial resolution of 150 km has observed the lower solar atmosphere with an unprecedented detail. This has led to many important findings, one of them is the discovery of chromospheric anemone jets in the solar chromosphere. The chromospheric anemone jets are ubiquitous in solar chromosphere and statistical studies show that the typical length, life time and energy of the chromospheric anemone jets are much smaller than the coronal events (e.g., jets/flares/CMEs). Among various observational parameters, the apparent length and maximum velocity shows good correlation. The velocity of chromospheric anemone jets is comparable to the local Alfven speed in the lower solar chromosphere. Since the discovery of chromospheric anemone jets by Hinode, several evidences of magnetic reconnection in chromospheric anemone jets have been found and these observations are summarized in this paper. These observations clearly suggest that reconnection occurs quite rapidly as well as intermittently in the solar chromosphere. In the solar corona ({lambda}{sub i} > {delta}{sub SP}), anomalous resistivity arises due to various collisionless processes. Previous MHD simulations show that reconnection becomes fast as well as strongly time-dependent due to anomalous resistivity. Such processes would not arise in the solar chromosphere which is fully collisional and partially-ionized. So, it is unclear how the rapid and strongly time-dependent reconnection would occur in the solar chromosphere. It is quite likely that the Hall and ambipolar diffusion are present in the solar chromosphere and they could play an important role in driving such rapid, strongly time-dependent reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  1. Anemone altaica Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-Chang; Chiang, Tsay-I; Lo, Chun; Lai, Yi-Hua; Yue, Chia-Herng; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Hsu, Li-Sung; Lee, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, no significant improvement has been made in chemotherapy for osteosarcoma (OS). To develop improved agents against OS, we screened 70 species of medicinal plants and treated two human OS cell lines with different agent concentrations. We then examined cell viability using the MTT assay. Results showed that a candidate plant, particularly the rhizomes of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey aqueous extract (AAE), suppressed the viability of HOS and U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that AAE significantly increased the amount of cell shrinkage (Sub-G1 fragments) in HOS and U2OS cells. Moreover, AAE increased cytosolic cytochrome c and Bax, but decreased Bcl-2. The amount of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were significantly increased. AAE suppressed the growth of HOS and U2OS through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Data suggest that AAE is cytotoxic to HOS and U2OS cells and has no significant influence on human osteoblast hFOB cells. The high mRNA levels of apoptosis-related factors (PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4) and cellular proliferation markers (SKA2 and BUB1B) were significantly altered by the AAE treatment of HOS and U2OS cells. Results show that the anticancer activity of AAE could up-regulate the expression of a cluster of genes, especially those in the apoptosis-related factor family and caspase family. Thus, AAE has great potential as a useful therapeutic drug for human OS. PMID:26224029

  2. A new species of Pachycerianthus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Ceriantharia) from Tropical Southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Stampar, Sérgio N; Morandini, André C; Da Silveira, Fábio Lang

    2014-07-04

    A new species of Pachycerianthus (Cnidaria: Ceriantharia) is described from the Brazilian coast of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Pachycerianthus schlenzae sp. nov. is found in fine sand or mud in shallow waters of Abrolhos and Royal Charlotte Bank. The new species is only known from this area and is most notably different from other species of the genus Pachycerianthus in mesentery arrangement and cnidome. In addition to the description, we provide some biological data collected from individuals cultivated under laboratory conditions.

  3. Populations of Symbiodinium muscatinei show strong biogeographic structuring in the intertidal anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Jon G; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Among temperate cnidarian symbioses, the partnership between the intertidal anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its dinoflagellate and chlorophyte symbionts is one of the most well characterized. Biogeographic, reciprocal transplant, and physiological studies have convincingly demonstrated a relationship between environmental factors such as temperature and irradiance and the distribution of symbionts from both algal phyla. However, little is known about the fine-scale diversity or biogeographic distribution within symbiont lineages of this anemone. We used sequence information from the mitochondrial cytochrome b and chloroplast 23S ribosomal genes and restriction fragment length polymorphism data from the 18S nuclear ribosomal gene to characterize the Symbiodinium populations in tentacles clipped from 105 anemones at 14 sites along the entire California coast, spanning about 1200 km. Our results show the presence of at least three primary biogeographic regions with breaks around Cape Mendocino and Monterey Bay, each dominated by a different Symbiodinium muscatinei genotype. Sharp clines suggest limited gene flow between adjacent regions. Few sampling locations or individual anemones showed symbiont diversity at either organellar locus within the limits of our detection method, while sequence analysis of cloned nr18S polymerase chain reaction product suggests that nuclear pseudogenes may underlie intra-host diversity observed at that locus. PMID:21712228

  4. Agent of whirling disease meets orphan worm: phylogenomic analyses firmly place Myxozoa in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Nesnidal, Maximilian P; Helmkampf, Martin; Bruchhaus, Iris; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Myxozoa are microscopic obligate endoparasites with complex live cycles. Representatives are Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids, and the enigmatic "orphan worm" Buddenbrockia plumatellae parasitizing in Bryozoa. Originally, Myxozoa were classified as protists, but later several metazoan characteristics were reported. However, their phylogenetic relationships remained doubtful. Some molecular phylogenetic analyses placed them as sister group to or even within Bilateria, whereas the possession of polar capsules that are similar to nematocysts of Cnidaria and of minicollagen genes suggest a close relationship between Myxozoa and Cnidaria. EST data of Buddenbrockia also indicated a cnidarian origin of Myxozoa, but were not sufficient to reject a closer relationship to bilaterians. Phylogenomic analyses of new genomic sequences of Myxobolus cerebralis firmly place Myxozoa as sister group to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Based on the new dataset, the alternative hypothesis that Myxozoa form a clade with Bilateria can be rejected using topology tests. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this result is not affected by long branch attraction artifacts or compositional bias.

  5. Similar specificities of symbiont uptake by adults and larvae in an anemone model system for coral biology.

    PubMed

    Hambleton, Elizabeth A; Guse, Annika; Pringle, John R

    2014-05-01

    Reef-building corals depend for much of their energy on photosynthesis by symbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) that live within their gastrodermal cells. However, the cellular mechanisms underpinning this ecologically critical symbiosis, including those governing the specificity of symbiont uptake by the host, remain poorly understood, in part because of the difficulties of working with corals in the laboratory. Here, we used the small symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia as an experimentally tractable model system to analyze the specificity and timing of symbiosis onset in larval and adult animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Using four clonal, axenic Symbiodinium strains, we found no difference in uptake specificity between larvae (even when very young) and adults. Although both compatible and incompatible algal strains were found within the larval guts, only the former appeared to be internalized by gastrodermal cells, and they (but not incompatible algae) proliferated rapidly within the larvae in the absence of detectable exchange with other larvae. Older larvae showed reduced ingestion of both compatible and incompatible algae, and the addition of food failed to promote the uptake of an incompatible algal strain. Thus, Aiptasia adults and larvae appear to have similar mechanisms for discriminating between compatible and incompatible dinoflagellate types prior to phagocytosis by host gastrodermal cells. Whether a particular algal strain is compatible or incompatible appears to be stable during years of axenic culture in the absence of a host. These studies provide a foundation for future analyses of the mechanisms of symbiont-uptake specificity in this emerging model system. PMID:24526722

  6. Numerical Simulations of Chromospheric Anemone Jets Associated with Moving Magnetic Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liping; He, Jiansen; Peter, Hardi; Tu, Chuanyi; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xueshang; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-11-01

    Observations with the space-based solar observatory Hinode show that small-scale magnetic structures in the photosphere are found to be associated with a particular class of jets of plasma in the chromosphere called anemone jets. The goal of our study is to conduct a numerical experiment of such chromospheric anemone jets related to the moving magnetic features (MMFs). We construct a 2.5 dimensional numerical MHD model to describe the process of magnetic reconnection between the MMFs and the pre-existing ambient magnetic field, which is driven by the horizontal motion of the magnetic structure in the photosphere. We include thermal conduction parallel to the magnetic field and optically thin radiative losses in the corona to account for a self-consistent description of the evaporation process during the heating of the plasma due to the reconnection process. The motion of the MMFs leads to the expected jet and our numerical results can reproduce many observed characteristics of chromospheric anemone jets, topologically and quantitatively. As a result of the tearing instability, plasmoids are generated in the reconnection process that are consistent with the observed bright moving blobs in the anemone jets. An increase in the thermal pressure at the base of the jet is also driven by the reconnection, which induces a train of slow-mode shocks propagating upward. These shocks are a secondary effect, and only modulate the outflow of the anemone jet. The jet itself is driven by the energy input due to the reconnection of the MMFs and the ambient magnetic field.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS ASSOCIATED WITH MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Liping; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Zhang, Lei; Peter, Hardi; Feng, Xueshang; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-11-01

    Observations with the space-based solar observatory Hinode show that small-scale magnetic structures in the photosphere are found to be associated with a particular class of jets of plasma in the chromosphere called anemone jets. The goal of our study is to conduct a numerical experiment of such chromospheric anemone jets related to the moving magnetic features (MMFs). We construct a 2.5 dimensional numerical MHD model to describe the process of magnetic reconnection between the MMFs and the pre-existing ambient magnetic field, which is driven by the horizontal motion of the magnetic structure in the photosphere. We include thermal conduction parallel to the magnetic field and optically thin radiative losses in the corona to account for a self-consistent description of the evaporation process during the heating of the plasma due to the reconnection process. The motion of the MMFs leads to the expected jet and our numerical results can reproduce many observed characteristics of chromospheric anemone jets, topologically and quantitatively. As a result of the tearing instability, plasmoids are generated in the reconnection process that are consistent with the observed bright moving blobs in the anemone jets. An increase in the thermal pressure at the base of the jet is also driven by the reconnection, which induces a train of slow-mode shocks propagating upward. These shocks are a secondary effect, and only modulate the outflow of the anemone jet. The jet itself is driven by the energy input due to the reconnection of the MMFs and the ambient magnetic field.

  8. Shared antigenicity between the polar filaments of myxosporeans and other Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Ringuette, Maurice J; Koehler, Anne; Desser, Sherwin S

    2011-02-01

    Nematocysts containing coiled polar filaments are a distinguishing feature of members of the phylum Cnidaria. As a first step to characterizing the molecular structure of polar filaments, a polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against a cyanogen bromide-resistant protein extract of mature cysts containing spores of Myxobolus pendula. The antiserum reacted only with proteins associated with extruded polar filaments. Western blot and whole-mount immunohistochemical analyses indicated a conservation of polar filament epitopes between M. pendula and 2 related cnidarians, i.e., the anthozoan, Nematostella vectensis, and the hydrozoan, Hydra vulgaris. This conservation of polar filament epitopes lends further support to a shared affinity between Myxozoa and cnidarians.

  9. Tentacle Transcriptome and Venom Proteome of the Pacific Sea Nettle, Chrysaora fuscescens (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Dalia; Brinkman, Diane L.; Potriquet, Jeremy; Mulvenna, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish venoms are rich sources of toxins designed to capture prey or deter predators, but they can also elicit harmful effects in humans. In this study, an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify putative toxins and their potential role in the venom of the scyphozoan jellyfish Chrysaora fuscescens. A de novo tentacle transcriptome, containing more than 23,000 contigs, was constructed and used in proteomic analysis of C. fuscescens venom to identify potential toxins. From a total of 163 proteins identified in the venom proteome, 27 were classified as putative toxins and grouped into six protein families: proteinases, venom allergens, C-type lectins, pore-forming toxins, glycoside hydrolases and enzyme inhibitors. Other putative toxins identified in the transcriptome, but not the proteome, included additional proteinases as well as lipases and deoxyribonucleases. Sequence analysis also revealed the presence of ShKT domains in two putative venom proteins from the proteome and an additional 15 from the transcriptome, suggesting potential ion channel blockade or modulatory activities. Comparison of these potential toxins to those from other cnidarians provided insight into their possible roles in C. fuscescens venom and an overview of the diversity of potential toxin families in cnidarian venoms. PMID:27058558

  10. Tentacle Transcriptome and Venom Proteome of the Pacific Sea Nettle, Chrysaora fuscescens (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Ponce, Dalia; Brinkman, Diane L; Potriquet, Jeremy; Mulvenna, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Jellyfish venoms are rich sources of toxins designed to capture prey or deter predators, but they can also elicit harmful effects in humans. In this study, an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify putative toxins and their potential role in the venom of the scyphozoan jellyfish Chrysaora fuscescens. A de novo tentacle transcriptome, containing more than 23,000 contigs, was constructed and used in proteomic analysis of C. fuscescens venom to identify potential toxins. From a total of 163 proteins identified in the venom proteome, 27 were classified as putative toxins and grouped into six protein families: proteinases, venom allergens, C-type lectins, pore-forming toxins, glycoside hydrolases and enzyme inhibitors. Other putative toxins identified in the transcriptome, but not the proteome, included additional proteinases as well as lipases and deoxyribonucleases. Sequence analysis also revealed the presence of ShKT domains in two putative venom proteins from the proteome and an additional 15 from the transcriptome, suggesting potential ion channel blockade or modulatory activities. Comparison of these potential toxins to those from other cnidarians provided insight into their possible roles in C. fuscescens venom and an overview of the diversity of potential toxin families in cnidarian venoms. PMID:27058558

  11. NMR analysis of sequence of toxin II from the sea anemone Radianthus paumotensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wemmer, D.E.; Kumar, N.V.; Metrione, R.M.; Lazdunski, M.; Drobny, G.; Kallenbach, N.R.

    1986-11-04

    Toxin II from Radianthus paumotensis (Rp/sub II/) has been investigated by high-resolution NMR and chemical sequencing methods. Resonance assignments have been obtained for this protein by the sequential approach. NMR assignments could not be made consistent with the previously reported primary sequence for this protein, and chemical methods have been used to determine a sequence with which the NMR data are consistent. Analysis of the 2D NOE spectra shows that the protein secondary structure is comprised of two sequences of ..beta..-sheet, probably joined into a distorted continuous sheet, connected by turns and extended loops, without any regular ..cap alpha..-helical segments. The residues previously implicated in activity in this class of proteins, D8 and R13, occur in a loop region.

  12. The impact of the Tekay chromoviral elements on genome organisation and evolution of Anemone s.l. (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Mlinarec, J; Franjević, D; Harapin, J; Besendorfer, V

    2016-03-01

    We studied the highly abundant chromoviral Tekay clade in species from three sister genera - Anemone, Pulsatilla and Hepatica (Ranunculaceae). With this clade, we performed a concomitant survey of its phylogenetic diversity, chromosomal organisation and transcriptional activity in Anemone s.l. in order to investigate dynamics of the Tekay elements at a finer scale than previously achieved in this or any other flowering clade. The phylogenetic tree built from Tekay sequences conformed to expected evolutionary relationships of the species; exceptions being A. nemorosa and A. sylvestris, which appeared more closely related that expected, and we invoke hybridisation events to explain the observed topology. The separation of elements into six clusters could be explained by episodic bursts of activity since divergence from a common ancestor at different points in their respective evolutionary histories. In Anemone s.l. the Tekay elements do not have a preferential position on chromosomes, i.e. they can have a: (i) centromeric/pericentromeric position; (ii) interstitial position in DAPI-positive AT-rich heterochromatic regions; can be (iii) dispersed throughout chromosomes; or even (iv) be absent from large heterochromatic blocks. Widespread transcriptional activity of the Tekay elements in Anemone s.l. taxa indicate that some copies of Tekay elements could still be active in this plant group, contributing to genome evolution and speciation within Anemone s.l. Identification of Tekay elements in Anemone s.l. provides valuable information for understanding how different localisation patterns might help to facilitate plant genome organisation in a structural and functional manner. PMID:26370195

  13. Active nematocyst isolation via nudibranchs.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Ami; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi

    2009-01-01

    Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable tools for biomedical research and drug development. They are contained within nematocysts, the stinging organelles of cnidarians. Several methods exist for the isolation of nematocysts from cnidarian tissues; most are tedious and target nematocysts from specific tissues. We have discovered that the isolated active nematocyst complement (cnidome) of several sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) species is readily accessible. These nematocysts are isolated, concentrated, and released to the aqueous environment as a by-product of aeolid nudibranch Spurilla neapolitana cultures. S. neapolitana feed on venomous sea anemones laden with stinging nematocysts. The ingested stinging organelles of several sea anemone species are effectively excreted in the nudibranch feces. We succeeded in purifying the active organelles and inducing their discharge. Thus, our current study presents the attractive possibility of using nudibranchs to produce nematocysts for the investigation of novel marine compounds. PMID:19184220

  14. Multiple Plasma Ejections and Intermittent Nature of Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Chromospheric Anemone Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Isobe, H.; Nishizuka, N.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.

    2012-11-01

    The recent discovery of chromospheric anemone jets with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode has shown an indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere. However, the basic nature of magnetic reconnection in chromosphere is still unclear. We studied nine chromospheric anemone jets from SOT/Hinode using Ca II H filtergrams, and we found multiple bright, plasma ejections along the jets. In most cases, the major intensity enhancements (larger than 30% relative to the background intensity) of the loop correspond to the timing of the plasma ejections. The typical lifetime and size of the plasma ejecta are about 20-60 s and 0.3-1.5 Mm, respectively. The height-time plot of jet shows many sub-structures (or individual jets) and the typical lifetime of the individual jet is about one to five minutes. Before the onset of the jet activity, a loop appears in Ca II H and gradually increases in size, and after few minutes several jets are launched from the loop. Once the jet activity starts and several individual jets are launched, the loop starts shrinking with a speed of ~4 km s-1. In some events, a downward moving blob with a speed of ~35 km s-1 was observed, associated with the upward moving plasma along one of the legs of the loop hosting the jets. The upward moving plasma gradually developed into jets. Multiple plasma ejections in chromospheric anemone jet show the strongly time-dependent as well as intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  15. MULTIPLE PLASMA EJECTIONS AND INTERMITTENT NATURE OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.; Isobe, H.; Nishizuka, N. E-mail: nishida@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: isobe@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2012-11-01

    The recent discovery of chromospheric anemone jets with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode has shown an indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere. However, the basic nature of magnetic reconnection in chromosphere is still unclear. We studied nine chromospheric anemone jets from SOT/Hinode using Ca II H filtergrams, and we found multiple bright, plasma ejections along the jets. In most cases, the major intensity enhancements (larger than 30% relative to the background intensity) of the loop correspond to the timing of the plasma ejections. The typical lifetime and size of the plasma ejecta are about 20-60 s and 0.3-1.5 Mm, respectively. The height-time plot of jet shows many sub-structures (or individual jets) and the typical lifetime of the individual jet is about one to five minutes. Before the onset of the jet activity, a loop appears in Ca II H and gradually increases in size, and after few minutes several jets are launched from the loop. Once the jet activity starts and several individual jets are launched, the loop starts shrinking with a speed of {approx}4 km s{sup -1}. In some events, a downward moving blob with a speed of {approx}35 km s{sup -1} was observed, associated with the upward moving plasma along one of the legs of the loop hosting the jets. The upward moving plasma gradually developed into jets. Multiple plasma ejections in chromospheric anemone jet show the strongly time-dependent as well as intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  16. Global Diversity and Review of Siphonophorae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Mapstone, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review the history of discovery of siphonophores, from the first formal description by Carl Linnaeus in 1785 to the present, is summarized, and species richness together with a summary of world-wide distribution of this pelagic group within the clade Hydrozoa discussed. Siphonophores exhibit three basic body plans which are briefly explained and figured, whilst other atypical body plans are also noted. Currently, 175 valid siphonophore species are recognized in the latest WoRMS world list, including 16 families and 65 genera. Much new information since the last review in 1987 is revealed from the first molecular analysis of the group, enabling identification of some new morphological characters diagnostic for physonect siphonophores. Ten types of nematocysts (stinging cells) are identified in siphonophores, more than in any other cnidarian; these are incorporated into batteries in the side branches of the tentacles in most species (here termed tentilla), and tentilla are reviewed in the last section of this paper. Their discharge mechanisms are explained and also how the tentilla of several physonect siphonophores are modified into lures. Of particular interest is the recent discovery of a previously unknown red fluorescent lure in the tentilla of the deep sea physonect Erenna, the first described example of emission of red light by an invertebrate to attract prey. PMID:24516560

  17. Serotonin-immunoreactive neural system and contractile system in the hydroid Cladonema (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Mayorova, T D; Kosevich, I A

    2013-12-01

    Serotonin is a widespread neurotransmitter which is present in almost all animal phyla including lower metazoans such as Cnidaria. Serotonin detected in the polyps of several cnidarian species participates in the functioning of a neural system. It was suggested that serotonin coordinates polyp behavior. For example, serotonin may be involved in muscle contraction and/or cnidocyte discharge. However, the role of serotonin in cnidarians is not revealed completely yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural system of Cladonema radiatum polyps. We detected the net of serotonin-positive processes within the whole hydranth body using anti-serotonin antibodies. The hypostome and tentacles had denser neural net in comparison with the gastric region. Electron microscopy revealed muscle processes throughout the hydranth body. Neural processes with specific vesicles and neurotubules in their cytoplasm were also shown at an ultrastructural level. This work demonstrates the structure of serotonin-positive neural system and smooth muscle layer in C. radiatum hydranths.

  18. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Polypodium hydriforme is a parasite with an unusual life cycle and peculiar morphology, both of which have made its systematic position uncertain. Polypodium has traditionally been considered a cnidarian because it possesses nematocysts, the stinging structures characteristic of this phylum. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies using 18S rDNA sequence data have challenged this interpretation, and have shown that Polypodium is a close relative to myxozoans and together they share a closer affinity to bilaterians than cnidarians. Due to the variable rates of 18S rDNA sequences, these results have been suggested to be an artifact of long-branch attraction (LBA). A recent study, using multiple protein coding markers, shows that the myxozoan Buddenbrockia, is nested within cnidarians. Polypodium was not included in this study. To further investigate the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium, we have performed phylogenetic analyses of metazoans with 18S and partial 28S rDNA sequences in a large dataset that includes Polypodium and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa. Results Analyses of a combined dataset of 18S and partial 28S sequences, and partial 28S alone, support the placement of Polypodium within Cnidaria. Removal of the long-branched myxozoans from the 18S dataset also results in Polypodium being nested within Cnidaria. These results suggest that previous reports showing that Polypodium and Myxozoa form a sister group to Bilateria were an artifact of long-branch attraction. Conclusion By including 28S rDNA sequences and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa, we demonstrate that previously conflicting hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium can be reconciled. Specifically, the data presented provide evidence that Polypodium is indeed a cnidarian and is either the sister taxon to Hydrozoa, or part of the hydrozoan clade, Leptothecata. The former hypothesis is consistent with the traditional view that Polypodium

  19. New records of Primnoidae (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) in Brazilian deep waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, Renata C. M.; Loiola, Livia L.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of octocorals occurring in Brazilian deep waters is still lacking, with only a few studies conducted so far, most of which focused on large-scale marine habitats characterization. Primnoidae are common and characteristic of seamounts and deepwater coral banks, often providing habitat for other marine species. Although primnoids occur in all ocean basins, only Primnoella and Plumarella species were recorded along the Brazilian coast before this study. Primnoid specimens were obtained through dredging and remotely operated vehicles (ROV) sampling, collected by research projects conducted off the Brazilian coast, between 15 and 34°S. Taxonomic assessment resulted in 5 new records of Primnoidae genera in Brazil: Calyptrophora, Candidella, Dasystenella, Narella and Thouarella. The occurrences of Narella-off Salvador and Vitória, and in Campos Basin (935-1700 m), and Calyptrophora-in Campos Basin (1059-1152 m), are herein reported for the first time in the South Atlantic. Calyptrophora microdentata was previously known in Lesser Antilles, New England and Corner Rise Seamounts, between 686 and 2310 m. Candidella imbricata geographical distribution includes Western and Eastern Atlantic (514-2063 m and 815-2139 m, respectively), being registered herein in Campos Basin, between 1059 and 1605 m. Dasystenella acanthina collected off Rio Grande do Sul state (810 m) and occurs also off Argentina and Southern Ocean, between 150 and 5087 m. Plumarella diadema, which type locality is off São Sebastião, Brazil, has its geographical range extended northwards, occurring in Campos Basin (650 m). Thouarella koellikeri previously known for Patagonia and Antartic Peninsula, is registered for the off Brazil for the first time, in Campos Basin and off São Sebastião (609-659 m). There is a lot of work yet to be done in terms of taxonomic knowledge of Brazilian deep-sea octocorals. Research projects focusing on the investigations, including ROV sampling, of other

  20. Chromospheric Anemone Jets Observed with Hinode/SOT and Hida Ca II Spectroheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, S.; Shibata, K.; Ueno, S.; Ichimoto, K.; Kitai, R.; Otsuji, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present the first simultaneous observations of chromospheric “anemone” jets in active regions with the Ca II H broadband filetergram on the Hinode/SOT and with the Ca II K spetroheliogram on the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at the Hida Observatory. During coordinated observation period, 9 chromospheric anemone jets were simultaneously observed with the two instruments. These observations revealed: (1) the jets are generated in the low chromosphere because these cannot be seen in Ca II K3, (2) these jets are associated with mixed polarity regions which are either small emerging flux regions or moving magnetic features, (3) the Ca II K line often show red or blue asymmetry in K2/K1 component; the footpoint of the jets associated with emerging flux regions often show red asymmetry (2-16 km s-1), while the one with moving magnetic features show blue asymmetry (˜5 km s-1). The magnetic cancellations were observed at the footpoint of the jets. The canceling rates are of order of 1016 Mx s-1, and the resulting magnetic energy release rate (1.1-10)×1024 erg s-1, with the total energy release (1-13)×1026 erg for the duration of the magnetic cancellations, ˜130 s. These are comparable to the estimated total energy, ˜1026 erg, in a single chromospheric anemone jet.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.

    PubMed

    Larson, Paul G; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behaviors in the sea anemone genus Epiactis provide an opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive phenomena such as brooding and sex allocation (hermaphroditic vs. gonochoric) in a group of closely related and easily accessible species. However, given its broad geographic distribution, the striking diversity in reproductive behaviors, and the lack of synapomorphy for the genus, the monophyly of Epiactis is questionable. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses to test the monophyly of Epiactis and the validity of Cnidopus, which consists entirely of species once assigned to Epiactis. We use the large number of brooding species in Epiactis to investigate evolutionary patterns in brooding modes and characteristics associated with them. We find a monophyletic group of North Pacific Epiactis species: this group includes the type species of the genus and species that brood internally or externally, and that are hermaphroditic or gonochoric. Based on the results, we reject the genus Cnidopus because its circumscription renders Epiactis sensu stricto paraphyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction indicates that in the North Pacific, externally brooding species evolved from internally brooding ancestors and that sex allocation is highly labile. Species relationships in Epiactis and Aulactinia appear to conform to geographic patterns more strongly than to taxonomic hypotheses. Contrary to expectations based on other invertebrates, we fail to find a strong correlation between brooding and hermaphroditism. PMID:26477737

  2. Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.

    PubMed

    Larson, Paul G; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behaviors in the sea anemone genus Epiactis provide an opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive phenomena such as brooding and sex allocation (hermaphroditic vs. gonochoric) in a group of closely related and easily accessible species. However, given its broad geographic distribution, the striking diversity in reproductive behaviors, and the lack of synapomorphy for the genus, the monophyly of Epiactis is questionable. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses to test the monophyly of Epiactis and the validity of Cnidopus, which consists entirely of species once assigned to Epiactis. We use the large number of brooding species in Epiactis to investigate evolutionary patterns in brooding modes and characteristics associated with them. We find a monophyletic group of North Pacific Epiactis species: this group includes the type species of the genus and species that brood internally or externally, and that are hermaphroditic or gonochoric. Based on the results, we reject the genus Cnidopus because its circumscription renders Epiactis sensu stricto paraphyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction indicates that in the North Pacific, externally brooding species evolved from internally brooding ancestors and that sex allocation is highly labile. Species relationships in Epiactis and Aulactinia appear to conform to geographic patterns more strongly than to taxonomic hypotheses. Contrary to expectations based on other invertebrates, we fail to find a strong correlation between brooding and hermaphroditism.

  3. Catalog to families, genera, and species of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Fautin, Daphne Gail

    2016-01-01

    This book inventories all available (and some unavailable) names in the family, genus, and species groups of extant members of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia [cnidarian subclass Hexacorallia (Zoantharia) of class Anthozoa], providing a benchmark of names, their status, and taxon membership. I have attempted to make the compilation complete as of 2010; some names created after 2010 are included. The book is derived from a database I compiled that was available through a website. Most of the book is from the literature that defines taxa and documents their geographic distribution-primarily publications on nomenclature, taxonomy, and biogeography, but also some on ecology, pharmacology, reproductive biology, physiology, etc. of anemones (the common name for these groups); the reference section comprises 845 entries. As for previous anemone catalogs, this contains taxonomic as well as nomenclatural information,  the former based on subjective opinion of working biologists, the latter objectively verifiable and unchanging (except by action of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature).        Each family-group name, genus-group name, and original combination for species-group names has an entry. The entry contains the bibliographic reference to the publication in which each name was made available. This book contains for Corallimorpharia seven family names (four considered valid [57%]), 20 generic names (10 considered valid [50%] and one unavailable), and 65 species names (46 considered valid [70%]). It contains for Actiniaria 86 family names (50 considered valid [58%] and three unavailable), 447 generic names (264 considered valid [59%] and two unavailable), and 1427 species names (1101 considered valid [77%] and nine unavailable). Type specimens are inventoried from more than 50 natural history museums in Africa, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and North America, including those with the largest collections of anemones; the geographic

  4. Dangerous reef aquaristics: Palytoxin of a brown encrusting anemone causes toxic corneal reactions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Yasmin; Fuchs, Joan; Beuschel, Ralf; Tschopp, Markus; Goldblum, David

    2015-11-01

    Although frequently observed in domestic saltwater aquariums, literature on exposure to palytoxin (PTX) of encrusting anemones (Zoanthidea) kept in aquariums is rare. Handling these animals for propagation purposes or during cleaning work can lead to dermal, ocular or respiratory contact with the PTX generated by some Zoanthids. The present study describes a case of ocular exposure to liquid from a Zoanthid, which led to corneal ulcers. The patient also suffered from systemic symptoms of dyspnea and shivering and a suspected rhabdomyolysis, which required monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit. After symptomatic treatment provided insufficient results, the corneal ulcers improved with an amniotic membrane transplantation. A review of the literature regarding ocular exposures to this diverse order of Hexacorallia reveals that severe and systemic symptoms can develop with minimal contact. PMID:26365918

  5. Acylated anthocyanins from the blue-violet flowers of Anemone coronaria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norio; Toki, Kenjiro; Moriyama, Hidekazu; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2002-06-01

    Five polyacylated anthocyanins were isolated from blue-violet flowers of Anemone coronaria 'St. Brigid'. They were identified as delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-3'-O-[beta-D-glucuronopyranoside], and its demalonylated form, delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(2-O-tartaryl)malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-3'-O-[beta-D-glucuronopyranoside], and its cyanidin analog as well as delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(2-O-(tartaryl)malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside].

  6. Growth of the Antarctic octocoral Primnoella scotiae and predation by the anemone Dactylanthus antarcticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Lloyd S.; Brockington, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Growth rates in Antarctic marine ectotherms have been demonstrated to be slowed by two to five times compared to shallow-water temperate species, with no previous reports for octocorals. Here growth rates were estimated in the single axis, non-branching Antarctic octocoral Primnoella scotiae using repeated in situ length measures covering both summer and winter periods, for tagged colonies from three sites at Signy Island over a two year period. Mean rates of length increase at the different sites ranged from 0.96 mm yr-1 to 55.3 mm yr-1. The fastest individual colony growth rate at any site ranged from 2.55 mm yr-1 to 175.6 mm yr-1. The mean of the fastest growth rates across all sites was 33.0 mm yr-1±14.7 (s.e.). Growth was significantly different between sites, and also between seasons and years. The mean overall increase in diameter of the average sized colony in the study (222.5 mm in axis length) was 0.053 mm yr-1. This is the slowest reported growth rate of any octocoral to date, and is five times slower than growth in most cold water octocorals. During the study it was noted that colonies were being attacked and consumed by the anemone Dactylanthus antarcticus. At one of the sites studied, between 5% and 8% of colonies surveyed were attacked each month. Anemone dispersal was via whole body inflation and drifting to new prey colonies that were attached to using tentacle-like column protuberances.

  7. Evolution of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa), a group of highly toxic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Yanagihara, Angel A; Lewis, Cheryl; Richards, Gemma S; Collins, Allen G

    2010-02-01

    Cubozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) represents a small clade of approximately 50 described species, some of which cause serious human envenomations. Our understanding of the evolutionary history of Cubozoa has been limited by the lack of a sound phylogenetic hypothesis for the group. Here, we present a comprehensive cubozoan phylogeny based on ribosomal genes coding for near-complete nuclear 18S (small subunit) and 28S (large subunit) and partial mitochondrial 16S. We discuss the implications of this phylogeny for our understanding of cubozoan venom evolution, biogeography and life-history evolution. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that: (i) the last common ancestor of Carybdeida probably possessed the mechanism(s) underlying Irukandji syndrome, (ii) deep divergences between Atlantic and Indo-Pacific clades may be explained by ancient vicariant events, and (iii) sexual dimorphism evolved a single time in concert with complex sexual behaviour. Furthermore, several cubozoan taxa are either para- or polyphyletic, and we address some of these taxonomic issues by designating a new family, Carukiidae, a new genus, Copula, and by redefining the families Tamoyidae and Tripedaliidae. Lastly, cubozoan species identities have long been misunderstood and the data presented here support many of the recent scientific descriptions of cubozoan species. However, the results of a phylogeographic analysis of Alatina moseri from Hawai'i and Alatina mordens from Australia indicate that these two nominal species represent a single species that has maintained metapopulation cohesion by natural or anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:19923131

  8. Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Central Indo-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, James D.; Poliseno, Angelo; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite the Central Indo-Pacific (CIP) and the Indonesian Archipelago being a well-known region of coral reef biodiversity, particularly in the ‘Coral Triangle’, little published information is available on its zoantharians (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia). In order to provide a basis for future research on the Indo-Pacific zoantharian fauna and facilitate comparisons between more well-studied regions such as Japan and the Great Barrier Reef, this report deals with CIP zoantharian specimens in the Naturalis collection in Leiden, the Netherlands; 106 specimens were placed into 24 morpho-species and were supplemented with 88 in situ photographic records from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. At least nine morpho-species are likely to be undescribed species, indicating that the region needs more research in order to properly understand zoantharian diversity within the CIP. The Naturalis’ zoantharian specimens are listed by species, as well as all relevant collection information, and in situ images are provided to aid in future studies on zoantharians in the CIP. PMID:25349499

  9. Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Work, Thierry M; Aeby, Greta S; Knapp, Ingrid S; Davy, Simon K

    2011-02-01

    We conducted gross and microscopic characterizations of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. We found growth anomalies (GA) to be the most commonly encountered lesion. Cases of discoloration and tissue loss were rare. GAs had a focal or multi-focal distribution and were predominantly nodular, exophytic, and umbonate. In scleractinians, the majority of GAs manifested as hyperplasia of the basal body wall (52% of cases), with an associated absence or reduction of polyp structure (mesenteries and filaments, actinopharynx and tentacles), and depletion of zooxanthellae in the gastrodermis of the upper body wall. In the soft corals Sinularia sp. and Lobophytum sp., GAs exclusively manifested as prominent hyperplasia of the coenenchyme with an increased density of solenia. In contrast to scleractinians, soft coral GAs displayed an inflammatory and necrotizing component with marked edema of the mesoglea, accompanied by infiltrates of variably-sized granular amoebocytes. Fungi, algae, sponges, and Crustacea were present in some scleractinian GAs, but absent in soft coral GAs. Fragmentation of tissues was a common finding in Acropora acuminata and Montipora cf. dilatata colonies with tissue loss, although no obvious causative agents were seen. Discoloration in the zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was found to be the result of necrosis, while in Lobophytum sp. discoloration was the result of zooxanthellar depletion (bleaching). Soft corals with discoloration or tissue loss showed a marked inflammatory response, however no obvious causative organisms were seen. Lesions that appeared similar at the gross level were revealed to be distinct by microscopy, emphasizing the importance of histopathology.

  10. Evolution of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa), a group of highly toxic invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Lewis, Cheryl; Richards, Gemma S.; Collins, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    Cubozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) represents a small clade of approximately 50 described species, some of which cause serious human envenomations. Our understanding of the evolutionary history of Cubozoa has been limited by the lack of a sound phylogenetic hypothesis for the group. Here, we present a comprehensive cubozoan phylogeny based on ribosomal genes coding for near-complete nuclear 18S (small subunit) and 28S (large subunit) and partial mitochondrial 16S. We discuss the implications of this phylogeny for our understanding of cubozoan venom evolution, biogeography and life-history evolution. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that: (i) the last common ancestor of Carybdeida probably possessed the mechanism(s) underlying Irukandji syndrome, (ii) deep divergences between Atlantic and Indo-Pacific clades may be explained by ancient vicariant events, and (iii) sexual dimorphism evolved a single time in concert with complex sexual behaviour. Furthermore, several cubozoan taxa are either para- or polyphyletic, and we address some of these taxonomic issues by designating a new family, Carukiidae, a new genus, Copula, and by redefining the families Tamoyidae and Tripedaliidae. Lastly, cubozoan species identities have long been misunderstood and the data presented here support many of the recent scientific descriptions of cubozoan species. However, the results of a phylogeographic analysis of Alatina moseri from Hawai'i and Alatina mordens from Australia indicate that these two nominal species represent a single species that has maintained metapopulation cohesion by natural or anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:19923131

  11. Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Gareth J.; Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Knapp, Ingrid S.; Davy, Simon K.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted gross and microscopic characterizations of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. We found growth anomalies (GA) to be the most commonly encountered lesion. Cases of discoloration and tissue loss were rare. GAs had a focal or multi-focal distribution and were predominantly nodular, exophytic, and umbonate. In scleractinians, the majority of GAs manifested as hyperplasia of the basal body wall (52% of cases), with an associated absence or reduction of polyp structure (mesenteries and filaments, actinopharynx and tentacles), and depletion of zooxanthellae in the gastrodermis of the upper body wall. In the soft corals Sinularia sp. and Lobophytum sp., GAs exclusively manifested as prominent hyperplasia of the coenenchyme with an increased density of solenia. In contrast to scleractinians, soft coral GAs displayed an inflammatory and necrotizing component with marked edema of the mesoglea, accompanied by infiltrates of variably-sized granular amoebocytes. Fungi, algae, sponges, and Crustacea were present in some scleractinian GAs, but absent in soft coral GAs. Fragmentation of tissues was a common finding in Acropora acuminata and Montipora cf. dilatata colonies with tissue loss, although no obvious causative agents were seen. Discoloration in the zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was found to be the result of necrosis, while in Lobophytum sp. discoloration was the result of zooxanthellar depletion (bleaching). Soft corals with discoloration or tissue loss showed a marked inflammatory response, however no obvious causative organisms were seen. Lesions that appeared similar at the gross level were revealed to be distinct by microscopy, emphasizing the importance of histopathology.

  12. Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Work, Thierry M; Aeby, Greta S; Knapp, Ingrid S; Davy, Simon K

    2011-02-01

    We conducted gross and microscopic characterizations of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. We found growth anomalies (GA) to be the most commonly encountered lesion. Cases of discoloration and tissue loss were rare. GAs had a focal or multi-focal distribution and were predominantly nodular, exophytic, and umbonate. In scleractinians, the majority of GAs manifested as hyperplasia of the basal body wall (52% of cases), with an associated absence or reduction of polyp structure (mesenteries and filaments, actinopharynx and tentacles), and depletion of zooxanthellae in the gastrodermis of the upper body wall. In the soft corals Sinularia sp. and Lobophytum sp., GAs exclusively manifested as prominent hyperplasia of the coenenchyme with an increased density of solenia. In contrast to scleractinians, soft coral GAs displayed an inflammatory and necrotizing component with marked edema of the mesoglea, accompanied by infiltrates of variably-sized granular amoebocytes. Fungi, algae, sponges, and Crustacea were present in some scleractinian GAs, but absent in soft coral GAs. Fragmentation of tissues was a common finding in Acropora acuminata and Montipora cf. dilatata colonies with tissue loss, although no obvious causative agents were seen. Discoloration in the zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was found to be the result of necrosis, while in Lobophytum sp. discoloration was the result of zooxanthellar depletion (bleaching). Soft corals with discoloration or tissue loss showed a marked inflammatory response, however no obvious causative organisms were seen. Lesions that appeared similar at the gross level were revealed to be distinct by microscopy, emphasizing the importance of histopathology. PMID:20709072

  13. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  14. Evolution of Hox-like genes in Cnidaria: Study of Hydra Hox repertoire reveals tailor-made Hox-code for Cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Unni, Manu K; Gungi, Akhila; Agarwal, Pallavi; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-11-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes play decisive roles in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in Bilateria. Evolutionary origin of Hox genes and primary body axis predate the divergence of Bilateria and Cnidaria. However, function of Cnidarian Hox-like genes and their regulation in axis determination is obscure due to studies limited to a few representative model systems. Present investigation is conducted using Hydra, a Hydrozoan member of phylum Cnidaria, to gain insights into the roles of Cnidarian Hox-like genes in primary axis formation. Here, we report identification of six Hox-like genes from our in-house transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes shows bilaterian counterparts of Hox1, Gsx and Mox. Additionally, we report CnoxB_HVUL, CnoxC2_HVUL and CnoxC3_HVUL belonging to two Cnidarian specific groups. In situ hybridization analysis of Hydra homologues provided important clues about their possible roles in pattern formation of polyps and bud development. Specifically, Hox1_HVUL is regulated by Wnt signaling and plays critical role in head formation. Collating information about expression patterns of different Hox-like genes from previous reports and this study reveals no conformity within Cnidaria. Indicating that unlike in Bilateria, there is no consolidated Hox-code determining primary body axis in Cnidaria.

  15. Recent advances in deep-sea natural products.

    PubMed

    Skropeta, Danielle; Wei, Liangqian

    2014-08-01

    Covering: 2009 to 2013. This review covers the 188 novel marine natural products described since 2008, from deep-water (50->5000 m) marine fauna including bryozoa, chordata, cnidaria, echinodermata, microorganisms, mollusca and porifera. The structures of the new compounds and details of the source organism, depth of collection and country of origin are presented, along with any relevant biological activities of the metabolites. Where reported, synthetic studies on the deep-sea natural products have also been included. Most strikingly, 75% of the compounds were reported to possess bioactivity, with almost half exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity towards a range of human cancer cell lines, along with a significant increase in the number of microbial deep-sea natural products reported.

  16. Recent advances in deep-sea natural products.

    PubMed

    Skropeta, Danielle; Wei, Liangqian

    2014-08-01

    Covering: 2009 to 2013. This review covers the 188 novel marine natural products described since 2008, from deep-water (50->5000 m) marine fauna including bryozoa, chordata, cnidaria, echinodermata, microorganisms, mollusca and porifera. The structures of the new compounds and details of the source organism, depth of collection and country of origin are presented, along with any relevant biological activities of the metabolites. Where reported, synthetic studies on the deep-sea natural products have also been included. Most strikingly, 75% of the compounds were reported to possess bioactivity, with almost half exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity towards a range of human cancer cell lines, along with a significant increase in the number of microbial deep-sea natural products reported. PMID:24871201

  17. Observations of Chromospheric Anemone Jets with Hinode CaII Broadband Filtergraph and Hida CaII Spectroheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Satoshi; Shibata, Kazunari; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Otsuji, Ken-Ichi

    2010-08-01

    We report on the first simultaneous observations of chromospheric ``anemone'' jets in solar active regions with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) CaII H broadband filtergraph and the CaII K spetroheliograph on the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory. During the period of coordinated observations, nine chromospheric anemone jets were simultaneously observed with the two instruments. These observations revealed three important features: (1) the jets are generated in the lower chromosphere; i.e., these cannot be seen in CaII K3; (2) the length and lifetime of the jets are 0.4-5 Mm and 40-320 s, respectively; (3) the apparent velocity of the jets observed with the SOT is 3-24 km s-1, while the CaII K3 component at the jets shows a blueshift (in 5 events) in the range of 2-6 km s-1. The chromospheric anemone jets are associated with mixed polarity regions, which are either small emerging flux regions or moving magnetic features. It is found that the CaII K line often shows red or blue asymmetry in the K2/K1 component; the footpoint of the jets associated with emerging flux regions often shows a redshift (2-16 km s-1), while the one with moving magnetic features shows a blueshift (˜5 km s-1). A detailed analysis of the magnetic evolution of the jet-forming regions revealed that the reconnection rate (or canceling rate) of the total magnetic flux at the footpoint of the jets is on the order of 1016 Mx s-1, and the resulting magnetic energy release rate is (1.1-10) × 1024 erg s-1, with a total energy release of (1-13) × 1026 erg for the duration of the magnetic cancellation, ˜130 s. These are comparable to the estimated total energy, ˜1026 erg, in a single chromospheric anemone jet. In addition to the DST CaII K spectroheliogram and the SOT CaII H broadband filtergram, we also used for analysis an SOT magnetogram as well as a Hida Hα filtergram. We present a physical model of the jet based on the observation, and discuss the relation between

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a steroidogenic enzyme, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14, from the stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chung, Yi-Jou; Chiu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Yi-Jie; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroids play a fundamental role not only in reproduction but also in various other biological processes in vertebrates. Although the presence of sex steroids has been confirmed in cnidarians (e.g., coral, sea anemone, jellyfish, and hydra), which are basal metazoans, only a few studies to date have characterized steroidogenesis-related genes in cnidarians. Based on a transcriptomic analysis of the stony coral Euphyllia ancora, we identified the steroidogenic enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14 (17beta-hsd 14), an oxidative enzyme that catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent inactivation of estrogen/androgen (estradiol to estrone and testosterone to androstenedione) in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. ancora 17beta-Hsd 14 (Ea17beta-Hsd 14) clusters with other animal 17beta-HSD 14s but not with other members of the 17beta-HSD family. Subsequent quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a lack of correlation of Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript levels with the coral's reproductive cycle. In addition, Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript and protein were detected in all tissues examined, such as the tentacles, mesenterial filaments, and gonads, at similar levels in both sexes, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting with an anti-Ea17beta-Hsd 14 antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is mainly distributed in the endodermal regions of the polyps, but the protein was also observed in all tissues examined. These results suggest that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is involved in important functions that commonly occur in endodermal cells or has multiple functions in different tissues. Our data provide information for comparison with advanced animals as well as insight into the evolution of steroidogenesis-related genes in metazoans. PMID:26868454

  19. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.

    2010-03-01

    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Internal anatomy of Haliclystus antarcticus (Cnidaria, Staurozoa) with a discussion on histological features used in Staurozoan taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lucília S; Collins, Allen G; Marques, Antonio C

    2013-12-01

    Stauromedusae have relatively few macromorphological characters, making both their taxonomy and identification difficult. For this reason, histological characters are also employed in the taxonomy of the group. This study presents a detailed description of the histomorphology of Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Cnidaria, Staurozoa). We make new observations for the species and for the class, and address functional, taxonomical, and evolutionary aspects of staurozoan histo-anatomy. A complete reconstruction of H. antarcticus body plan is used to guide a more detailed observation, based on light microscopy, of structures rarely cited in the literature, such as the intertentacular lobules, the ostia between adjacent perradial pockets, and the male and female gonadal vesicles. Two possible regions of nematocyst formation are hypothesized and discussed. We also provide a review of the current use of histological characters in the taxonomy of the group. Understanding the body plan of stauromedusae is a challenge, because each single individual presents characters found in medusae and in polyps of other medusozoans. Comprehensive histological descriptions are important to establish relations of homology within Staurozoa and Cnidaria, providing crucial data on their evolution.

  1. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria.

  2. Catalog to families, genera, and species of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Fautin, Daphne Gail

    2016-01-01

    This book inventories all available (and some unavailable) names in the family, genus, and species groups of extant members of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia [cnidarian subclass Hexacorallia (Zoantharia) of class Anthozoa], providing a benchmark of names, their status, and taxon membership. I have attempted to make the compilation complete as of 2010; some names created after 2010 are included. The book is derived from a database I compiled that was available through a website. Most of the book is from the literature that defines taxa and documents their geographic distribution-primarily publications on nomenclature, taxonomy, and biogeography, but also some on ecology, pharmacology, reproductive biology, physiology, etc. of anemones (the common name for these groups); the reference section comprises 845 entries. As for previous anemone catalogs, this contains taxonomic as well as nomenclatural information,  the former based on subjective opinion of working biologists, the latter objectively verifiable and unchanging (except by action of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature).        Each family-group name, genus-group name, and original combination for species-group names has an entry. The entry contains the bibliographic reference to the publication in which each name was made available. This book contains for Corallimorpharia seven family names (four considered valid [57%]), 20 generic names (10 considered valid [50%] and one unavailable), and 65 species names (46 considered valid [70%]). It contains for Actiniaria 86 family names (50 considered valid [58%] and three unavailable), 447 generic names (264 considered valid [59%] and two unavailable), and 1427 species names (1101 considered valid [77%] and nine unavailable). Type specimens are inventoried from more than 50 natural history museums in Africa, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and North America, including those with the largest collections of anemones; the geographic

  3. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae) in Wild Populations of Canada.

    PubMed

    Kricsfalusy, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae) in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile) are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes. PMID:27376340

  4. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae) in Wild Populations of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kricsfalusy, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae) in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile) are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes. PMID:27376340

  5. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Mitzi; Tennant, Allyn F.; Alexander, Caroline E.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Woolley, Robert

    2016-05-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120'' across), beginning at approximately 19:00 UT on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 Å, 304 Å, and 94 Å, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  6. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi; Tennant, Allyn; Alexander, Caroline; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald; Woolley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120 arcseconds across), beginning at approximately 19:00 Universal Time on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 angstroms, 304 angstroms, and 94 angstroms, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  7. Imaging intracellular pH in a reef coral and symbiotic anemone.

    PubMed

    Venn, A A; Tambutté, E; Lotto, S; Zoccola, D; Allemand, D; Tambutté, S

    2009-09-29

    The challenges corals and symbiotic cnidarians face from global environmental change brings new urgency to understanding fundamental elements of their physiology. Intracellular pH (pHi) influences almost all aspects of cellular physiology but has never been described in anthozoans or symbiotic cnidarians, despite its pivotal role in carbon concentration for photosynthesis and calcification. Using confocal microscopy and the pH sensitive probe carboxy SNARF-1, we mapped pHi in short-term light and dark-incubated cells of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata and the symbiotic anemone Anemonia viridis. In all cells isolated from both species, pHi was markedly lower than the surrounding seawater pH of 8.1. In cells that contained symbiotic algae, mean values of pHi were significantly higher in light treated cells than dark treated cells (7.41 +/- 0.22 versus 7.13 +/- 0.24 for S. pistillata; and 7.29 +/- 0.15 versus 7.01 +/- 0.27 for A. viridis). In contrast, there was no significant difference in pHi in light and dark treated cells without algal symbionts. Close inspection of the interface between host cytoplasm and algal symbionts revealed a distinct area of lower pH adjacent to the symbionts in both light and dark treated cells, possibly associated with the symbiosome membrane complex. These findings are significant developments for the elucidation of models of inorganic carbon transport for photosynthesis and calcification and also provide a cell imaging procedure for future investigations into how pHi and other fundamental intracellular parameters in corals respond to changes in the external environment such as reductions in seawater pH. PMID:19720994

  8. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian.

  9. Long-term fluctuations of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphomedusa) in the western Mediterranean Sea. Prediction by climatic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goy, Jacquelinn; Morand, Pierre; Etienne, Michéle

    1989-02-01

    The archives of the Station Zoologique at Villefranche-sur-Mer contain records of "years with Pelagia noctiluca" and 'years without Pelagia". These records, plus additional data, indicate that over the past 200 years (1785-1985) outburst of Pelagia have occured about every 12 years. Using a forecasting model, climatic variables, notably temperature, rainfall and atmospheric pressure, appear to predict "years with Pelagia".

  10. Leptohelia flexibilis gen. nov. et sp. nov., a remarkable deep-sea stylasterid (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) from the southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Alberto; Cairns, Stephen D; Zibrowius, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Leptohelia flexibilis gen. nov. et sp. nov., the first stylasterid with a combined calcified and non-calcified skeleton, is described from seamounts and the slope off the islands of New Caledonia, in the southwestern Pacific. The new species is distinguished from all other species of the family Stylasteridae by having a non-calcified organic axis, internal to the basal portion of the calcified corallum. The internal axis is flexible and enclosed by a series of up to 10 calcified annuli, allowing passive lateral bending of the colony. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Leptohelia flexibilis is a stylasterid coral and reveal that the species is closely related to Leptohelia microstylus comb. nov., a southwestern Pacific stylasterid that lacks an internal axis. PMID:25543758

  11. Leptohelia flexibilis gen. nov. et sp. nov., a remarkable deep-sea stylasterid (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) from the southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Alberto; Cairns, Stephen D; Zibrowius, Helmut

    2014-12-24

    Leptohelia flexibilis gen. nov. et sp. nov., the first stylasterid with a combined calcified and non-calcified skeleton, is described from seamounts and the slope off the islands of New Caledonia, in the southwestern Pacific. The new species is distinguished from all other species of the family Stylasteridae by having a non-calcified organic axis, internal to the basal portion of the calcified corallum. The internal axis is flexible and enclosed by a series of up to 10 calcified annuli, allowing passive lateral bending of the colony. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Leptohelia flexibilis is a stylasterid coral and reveal that the species is closely related to Leptohelia microstylus comb. nov., a southwestern Pacific stylasterid that lacks an internal axis.

  12. The Evolution of the Four Subunits of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels: Ancient Roots, Increasing Complexity, and Multiple Losses

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Zakon, Harold H.

    2014-01-01

    The alpha subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels (Cavs) are large transmembrane proteins responsible for crucial physiological processes in excitable cells. They are assisted by three auxiliary subunits that can modulate their electrical behavior. Little is known about the evolution and roles of the various subunits of Cavs in nonbilaterian animals and in nonanimal lineages. For this reason, we mapped the phyletic distribution of the four channel subunits and reconstructed their phylogeny. Although alpha subunits have deep evolutionary roots as ancient as the split between plants and opistokonths, beta subunits appeared in the last common ancestor of animals and their close-relatives choanoflagellates, gamma subunits are a bilaterian novelty and alpha2/delta subunits appeared in the lineage of Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. We note that gene losses were extremely common in the evolution of Cavs, with noticeable losses in multiple clades of subfamilies and also of whole Cav families. As in vertebrates, but not protostomes, Cav channel genes duplicated in Cnidaria. We characterized by in situ hybridization the tissue distribution of alpha subunits in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a nonbilaterian animal possessing all three Cav subfamilies common to Bilateria. We find that some of the alpha subunit subtypes exhibit distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns. Further, all six sea anemone alpha subunit subtypes are conserved in stony corals, which separated from anemones 500 MA. This unexpected conservation together with the expression patterns strongly supports the notion that these subtypes carry unique functional roles. PMID:25146647

  13. Yolk formation in a stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): insight into the evolution of vitellogenesis in nonbilaterian animals.

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chen, Chieh-Jhen; Chung, Yi-Jou; Shao, Zi-Fan; Liou, Jhe-Yu; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2013-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is a major yolk protein precursor in numerous oviparous animals. Numerous studies in bilateral oviparous animals have shown that Vg sequences are conserved across taxa and that Vgs are synthesized by somatic-cell lineages, transported to and accumulated in oocytes, and eventually used for supporting embryogenesis. In nonbilateral animals (Polifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora), which are regarded as evolutionarily primitive, although Vg cDNA has been identified in 2 coral species from Cnidaria, relatively little is known about the characteristics of yolk formation in their bodies. To address this issue, we identified and characterized 2 cDNA encoding yolk proteins, Vg and egg protein (Ep), in the stony coral Euphyllia ancora. RT-PCR analysis revealed that expression levels of both Vg and Ep increased in the female colonies as coral approached the spawning season. In addition, high levels of both Vg and Ep transcripts were detected in the putative ovarian tissue, as determined by tissue distribution analysis. Further analyses using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry determined that, within the putative ovarian tissue, these yolk proteins are synthesized in the mesenterial somatic cells but not in oocytes themselves. Furthermore, Vg proteins that accumulated in eggs were most likely consumed during the coral embryonic development, as assessed by immunoblotting. The characteristics of Vg that we identified in corals were somewhat similar to those of Vg in bilaterian oviparous animals, raising the hypothesis that such characteristics were likely present in the oogenesis of some common ancestor prior to divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages.

  14. Yolk formation in a stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): insight into the evolution of vitellogenesis in nonbilaterian animals.

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chen, Chieh-Jhen; Chung, Yi-Jou; Shao, Zi-Fan; Liou, Jhe-Yu; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2013-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is a major yolk protein precursor in numerous oviparous animals. Numerous studies in bilateral oviparous animals have shown that Vg sequences are conserved across taxa and that Vgs are synthesized by somatic-cell lineages, transported to and accumulated in oocytes, and eventually used for supporting embryogenesis. In nonbilateral animals (Polifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora), which are regarded as evolutionarily primitive, although Vg cDNA has been identified in 2 coral species from Cnidaria, relatively little is known about the characteristics of yolk formation in their bodies. To address this issue, we identified and characterized 2 cDNA encoding yolk proteins, Vg and egg protein (Ep), in the stony coral Euphyllia ancora. RT-PCR analysis revealed that expression levels of both Vg and Ep increased in the female colonies as coral approached the spawning season. In addition, high levels of both Vg and Ep transcripts were detected in the putative ovarian tissue, as determined by tissue distribution analysis. Further analyses using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry determined that, within the putative ovarian tissue, these yolk proteins are synthesized in the mesenterial somatic cells but not in oocytes themselves. Furthermore, Vg proteins that accumulated in eggs were most likely consumed during the coral embryonic development, as assessed by immunoblotting. The characteristics of Vg that we identified in corals were somewhat similar to those of Vg in bilaterian oviparous animals, raising the hypothesis that such characteristics were likely present in the oogenesis of some common ancestor prior to divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages. PMID:23766130

  15. Nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle assemblies with mesoscale morphologies: nano-cabbage versus sea-anemone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, Masih; Gebre, Tesfaye; Mitchell, Lucas; Erwin, William; Bardhan, Rizia; Levan, M. Douglas; Mochena, Mogus D.; Dickerson, James H.

    2014-05-01

    We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation.We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization procedures, TEM/XRD of samples prepared at different temperature and water content, table of nitrogen adsorption-desorption values of different samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06154j

  16. Anemone-like nanostructures for non-lithographic, reproducible, large-area, and ultra-sensitive SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglar, Bihter; Demirel, Gokcen Birlik; Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Tobail, Osama; Altuntas, Sevde; Buyukserin, Fatih; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10 000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ~1011. This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform.The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of

  17. Evolutionary origins of germline segregation in Metazoa: evidence for a germ stem cell lineage in the coral Orbicella faveolata (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Barfield, Sarah; Aglyamova, Galina V; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-01-13

    The ability to segregate a committed germ stem cell (GSC) lineage distinct from somatic cell lineages is a characteristic of bilaterian Metazoans. However, the occurrence of GSC lineage specification in basally branching Metazoan phyla, such as Cnidaria, is uncertain. Without an independently segregated GSC lineage, germ cells and their precursors must be specified throughout adulthood from continuously dividing somatic stem cells, generating the risk of propagating somatic mutations within the individual and its gametes. To address the potential for existence of a GSC lineage in Anthozoa, the sister-group to all remaining Cnidaria, we identified moderate- to high-frequency somatic mutations and their potential for gametic transfer in the long-lived coral Orbicella faveolata (Anthozoa, Cnidaria) using a 2b-RAD sequencing approach. Our results demonstrate that somatic mutations can drift to high frequencies (up to 50%) and can also generate substantial intracolonial genetic diversity. However, these somatic mutations are not transferable to gametes, signifying the potential for an independently segregated GSC lineage in O. faveolata. In conjunction with previous research on germ cell development in other basally branching Metazoan species, our results suggest that the GSC system may be a Eumetazoan characteristic that evolved in association with the emergence of greater complexity in animal body plan organization and greater specificity of stem cell functions.

  18. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Four Anthozoan (Phylum Cnidaria) Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Sheila A; Crowder, Camerron M; Poole, Angela Z; Weis, Virginia M; Meyer, Eli

    2015-11-01

    Many nonmodel species exemplify important biological questions but lack the sequence resources required to study the genes and genomic regions underlying traits of interest. Reef-building corals are famously sensitive to rising seawater temperatures, motivating ongoing research into their stress responses and long-term prospects in a changing climate. A comprehensive understanding of these processes will require extending beyond the sequenced coral genome (Acropora digitifera) to encompass diverse coral species and related anthozoans. Toward that end, we have assembled and annotated reference transcriptomes to develop catalogs of gene sequences for three scleractinian corals (Fungia scutaria, Montastraea cavernosa, Seriatopora hystrix) and a temperate anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima). High-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries produced ~20-30 million reads per sample, and de novo assembly of these reads produced ~75,000-110,000 transcripts from each sample with size distributions (mean ~1.4 kb, N50 ~2 kb), comparable to the distribution of gene models from the coral genome (mean ~1.7 kb, N50 ~2.2 kb). Each assembly includes matches for more than half the gene models from A. digitifera (54-67%) and many reasonably complete transcripts (~5300-6700) spanning nearly the entire gene (ortholog hit ratios ≥0.75). The catalogs of gene sequences developed in this study made it possible to identify hundreds to thousands of orthologs across diverse scleractinian species and related taxa. We used these sequences for phylogenetic inference, recovering known relationships and demonstrating superior performance over phylogenetic trees constructed using single mitochondrial loci. The resources developed in this study provide gene sequences and genetic markers for several anthozoan species. To enhance the utility of these resources for the research community, we developed searchable databases enabling researchers to rapidly recover sequences for genes of interest. Our

  19. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Four Anthozoan (Phylum Cnidaria) Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Sheila A; Crowder, Camerron M; Poole, Angela Z; Weis, Virginia M; Meyer, Eli

    2015-09-17

    Many nonmodel species exemplify important biological questions but lack the sequence resources required to study the genes and genomic regions underlying traits of interest. Reef-building corals are famously sensitive to rising seawater temperatures, motivating ongoing research into their stress responses and long-term prospects in a changing climate. A comprehensive understanding of these processes will require extending beyond the sequenced coral genome (Acropora digitifera) to encompass diverse coral species and related anthozoans. Toward that end, we have assembled and annotated reference transcriptomes to develop catalogs of gene sequences for three scleractinian corals (Fungia scutaria, Montastraea cavernosa, Seriatopora hystrix) and a temperate anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima). High-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries produced ~20-30 million reads per sample, and de novo assembly of these reads produced ~75,000-110,000 transcripts from each sample with size distributions (mean ~1.4 kb, N50 ~2 kb), comparable to the distribution of gene models from the coral genome (mean ~1.7 kb, N50 ~2.2 kb). Each assembly includes matches for more than half the gene models from A. digitifera (54-67%) and many reasonably complete transcripts (~5300-6700) spanning nearly the entire gene (ortholog hit ratios ≥0.75). The catalogs of gene sequences developed in this study made it possible to identify hundreds to thousands of orthologs across diverse scleractinian species and related taxa. We used these sequences for phylogenetic inference, recovering known relationships and demonstrating superior performance over phylogenetic trees constructed using single mitochondrial loci. The resources developed in this study provide gene sequences and genetic markers for several anthozoan species. To enhance the utility of these resources for the research community, we developed searchable databases enabling researchers to rapidly recover sequences for genes of interest. Our

  20. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Four Anthozoan (Phylum Cnidaria) Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Sheila A.; Crowder, Camerron M.; Poole, Angela Z.; Weis, Virginia M.; Meyer, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Many nonmodel species exemplify important biological questions but lack the sequence resources required to study the genes and genomic regions underlying traits of interest. Reef-building corals are famously sensitive to rising seawater temperatures, motivating ongoing research into their stress responses and long-term prospects in a changing climate. A comprehensive understanding of these processes will require extending beyond the sequenced coral genome (Acropora digitifera) to encompass diverse coral species and related anthozoans. Toward that end, we have assembled and annotated reference transcriptomes to develop catalogs of gene sequences for three scleractinian corals (Fungia scutaria, Montastraea cavernosa, Seriatopora hystrix) and a temperate anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima). High-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries produced ∼20–30 million reads per sample, and de novo assembly of these reads produced ∼75,000–110,000 transcripts from each sample with size distributions (mean ∼1.4 kb, N50 ∼2 kb), comparable to the distribution of gene models from the coral genome (mean ∼1.7 kb, N50 ∼2.2 kb). Each assembly includes matches for more than half the gene models from A. digitifera (54–67%) and many reasonably complete transcripts (∼5300–6700) spanning nearly the entire gene (ortholog hit ratios ≥0.75). The catalogs of gene sequences developed in this study made it possible to identify hundreds to thousands of orthologs across diverse scleractinian species and related taxa. We used these sequences for phylogenetic inference, recovering known relationships and demonstrating superior performance over phylogenetic trees constructed using single mitochondrial loci. The resources developed in this study provide gene sequences and genetic markers for several anthozoan species. To enhance the utility of these resources for the research community, we developed searchable databases enabling researchers to rapidly recover sequences for genes

  1. Population genetics of the invasive cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, along the southeastern Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales-Aguirre, C. B.; Quiñones, A.; Hernández, C. E.; Neill, P. E.; Brante, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in biological invasions is understanding the factors and mechanisms determining the invasion success of non-native species. Theoretical and empirical works have shown that genetic diversity is a determinant of invasion success; thus, studying spatial patterns of genetic diversity, and exploring how biological and physical factors shape this population trait, are fundamental for understanding this phenomenon. Coastal marine ecosystems are one of the most susceptible habitats to invasion given the complex network of maritime transport. In this work we study the cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, which has rapidly increased its geographical range southward during the last 50 years (approx. 2000 km) along the southeastern Pacific coast. Based on COI mtDNA sequences we evaluated three main hypotheses: a) the genetic diversity of A. alicemartinae decreases according to the direction of invasion (from north to south); b) there is biogeographic-phylogeographic concordance at the 30°S biogeographic break; and c) the demographic history is coherent with a recent geographic expansion. A total of 161 individual samples of A. alicemartinae were collected along the southeastern Pacific coast range of distribution, covering more than 2000 km, including samples along the 30°S biogeographical break. Results showed low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.253; π = 0.08) and a lack of geographic population genetic structure (FST = - 0.009, p-value = 0.656). The highest genetic diversity was observed in Peru (Chero and Mesas) and at localities close to the main Chilean seaports. We did not observe concordance between biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns or isolation by distance. Demographic indices (D = - 2.604, p < 0.001; Fu's = - 26.619, p < 0.001), as well as a star-like configuration of the haplotype network support recent population expansion of this species. Our results, together with historical field observations, support the idea that

  2. Comprehensive Analysis of the Triterpenoid Saponins Biosynthetic Pathway in Anemone flaccida by Transcriptome and Proteome Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Chuansong; Li, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zeying; Yang, Tewu; Wang, Xuekui; Luo, Biaobiao; Zhang, Qiyun; Hu, Yanru; Hu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemone flaccida Fr. Shmidt (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as ‘Di Wu’ in China, is a perennial herb with limited distribution. The rhizome of A. flaccida has long been used to treat arthritis as a tradition in China. Studies disclosed that the plant contains a rich source of triterpenoid saponins. However, little is known about triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in A. flaccida. Results: In this study, we conducted the tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model medicinal plant, A. flaccida. Using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing and iTRAQ technique, a total of 46,962 high-quality unigenes were obtained with an average sequence length of 1,310 bp, along with 1473 unique proteins from A. flaccida. Among the A. flaccida transcripts, 36,617 (77.97%) showed significant similarity (E-value < 1e-5) to the known proteins in the public database. Of the total 46,962 unigenes, 36,617 open reading frame (ORFs) were predicted. By the fragments per kilobases per million reads (FPKM) statistics, 14,004 isoforms/unigenes were found to be upregulated, and 14,090 isoforms/unigenes were down-regulated in the rhizomes as compared to those in the leaves. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, all possible enzymes involved in the triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway of A. flaccida were identified, including cytosolic mevalonate pathway (MVA) and the plastidial methylerythritol pathway (MEP). Additionally, a total of 126 putative cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and 32 putative UDP glycosyltransferases were selected as the candidates of triterpenoid saponins modifiers. Among them, four of them were annotated as the gene of CYP716A subfamily, the key enzyme in the oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, based on RNA-Seq and proteome analysis, as well as quantitative RT-PCR verification, the expression level of gene and protein committed to triterpenoids biosynthesis in the leaf versus the rhizome was compared. Conclusion: A

  3. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Based on Mitochondrial CO1 Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Stolarski, Jarosław; Blair, David; Miller, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Classical morphological taxonomy places the approximately 1400 recognized species of Scleractinia (hard corals) into 27 families, but many aspects of coral evolution remain unclear despite the application of molecular phylogenetic methods. In part, this may be a consequence of such studies focusing on the reef-building (shallow water and zooxanthellate) Scleractinia, and largely ignoring the large number of deep-sea species. To better understand broad patterns of coral evolution, we generated molecular data for a broad and representative range of deep sea scleractinians collected off New Caledonia and Australia during the last decade, and conducted the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis to date of the order Scleractinia. Methodology Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 deep-sea (azooxanthellate) scleractinians and 11 shallow-water species. These new data were aligned with 158 published sequences, generating a 234 taxon dataset representing 25 of the 27 currently recognized scleractinian families. Principal Findings/Conclusions There was a striking discrepancy between the taxonomic validity of coral families consisting predominantly of deep-sea or shallow-water species. Most families composed predominantly of deep-sea azooxanthellate species were monophyletic in both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses but, by contrast (and consistent with previous studies), most families composed predominantly of shallow-water zooxanthellate taxa were polyphyletic, although Acroporidae, Poritidae, Pocilloporidae, and Fungiidae were exceptions to this general pattern. One factor contributing to this inconsistency may be the greater environmental stability of deep-sea environments, effectively removing taxonomic “noise” contributed by phenotypic plasticity. Our phylogenetic analyses imply that the most basal extant scleractinians are azooxanthellate solitary corals from deep

  4. A genomewide survey of bHLH transcription factors in the coral Acropora digitifera identifies three novel orthologous families, pearl, amber, and peridot.

    PubMed

    Gyoja, Fuki; Kawashima, Takeshi; Satoh, Nori

    2012-04-01

    Decoding the genome of the coral, Acropora digitifera, enabled us to characterize a nearly full set of 70 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in this organism. This number is comparable to 68 bHLH genes in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and larger than those in most other invertebrate metazoans. The 70 bHLH genes were assigned to 29 orthologous families previously reported. In addition, we identified three novel HLH orthologous families, which we designated pearl, amber, and peridot, increasing the number of orthologous families to 32. Pearl and amber orthologues were found in genomes and expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) of Mollusca and Annelida in addition to Cnidaria. Peridot orthologues were found in genomes and ESTs of Cephalochordata and Hemichordata in addition to Cnidaria. These three genes were likely lost in the clades of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Homo sapiens during animal evolution. PMID:22419240

  5. A genomewide survey of bHLH transcription factors in the coral Acropora digitifera identifies three novel orthologous families, pearl, amber, and peridot.

    PubMed

    Gyoja, Fuki; Kawashima, Takeshi; Satoh, Nori

    2012-04-01

    Decoding the genome of the coral, Acropora digitifera, enabled us to characterize a nearly full set of 70 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in this organism. This number is comparable to 68 bHLH genes in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and larger than those in most other invertebrate metazoans. The 70 bHLH genes were assigned to 29 orthologous families previously reported. In addition, we identified three novel HLH orthologous families, which we designated pearl, amber, and peridot, increasing the number of orthologous families to 32. Pearl and amber orthologues were found in genomes and expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) of Mollusca and Annelida in addition to Cnidaria. Peridot orthologues were found in genomes and ESTs of Cephalochordata and Hemichordata in addition to Cnidaria. These three genes were likely lost in the clades of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Homo sapiens during animal evolution.

  6. Distribution patterns of zoochlorellae and zooxanthellae hosted by two Pacific Northeast anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima and A. xanthogrammica.

    PubMed

    Bates, Amanda E; McLean, Lily; Laing, Patrick; Raeburn, Lisa A; Hare, Crystal

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated patterns in the relative abundance of two photosynthetic algal symbionts, zoochlorellae (ZC) and zooxanthellae (ZX), hosted by two temperate anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima and A. xanthogrammica. Previous studies have documented varying proportions of each symbiont along environmental gradients, presumably determined by their respective physiological capabilities. To test for differences in the algal type between the two host species, we sampled anemone tissues (tentacle or tentacle and body column) of similarly sized polyps that were located close together in multiple habitats: tidepools, crevices, underneath rock ledges, and along natural light gradients in caves. The ZC-A. elegantissima symbiosis was rare on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Even in low-irradiance habitats, ZC were the dominant algae hosted by A. xanthogrammica, while nearby A. elegantissima hosted ZX or was algae-free. As a first step in determining whether symbiont growth rates differed between the two host species, we quantified mitotic index (MI), the percentage of cells with division furrows, under artificial light and in the field by simultaneously sampling tentacles from both species. MI was more stable in A. elegantissima: the MI of ZX isolated from the tentacles of A. xanthogrammica was slightly higher at a light level of 80 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) than it was for ZX from A. elegantissima (respectively, 7.3 vs. 6.2) and relatively lower at 40 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) (3.9 vs. 5.6). Our data indicate host-specific differences in symbiont distributions and MI when extrinsic physical parameters were similar. PMID:20570847

  7. A Diploblastic Radiate Animal at the Dawn of Cambrian Diversification with a Simple Body Plan: Distinct from Cnidaria?

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Kinya; Reimer, James D.; Liu, Yunhuan; Yao, Xiaoyong; Kubo, Daisuke; Shu, Degan; Li, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Microfossils of the genus Punctatus include developmental stages such as blastula, gastrula, and hatchlings, and represent the most complete developmental sequence of animals available from the earliest Cambrian. Despite the extremely well-preserved specimens, the evolutionary position of Punctatus has relied only on their conical remains and they have been tentatively assigned to cnidarians. We present a new interpretation of the Punctatus body plan based on the developmental reconstruction aided by recent advances in developmental biology. Results Punctatus developed from a rather large egg, gastrulated in a mode of invagination from a coeloblastura, and then formed a mouth directly from the blastopore. Spiny benthic hatchlings were distinguishable from swimming or crawling ciliate larvae found in cnidarians and sponges. A mouth appeared at the perihatching embryonic stage and was renewed periodically during growth, and old mouths transformed into the body wall, thus elongating the body. Growing animals retained a small blind gut in a large body cavity without partitioning by septa and did not form tentacles, pedal discs or holdfasts externally. A growth center at the oral pole was sufficient for body patterning throughout life, and the body patterning did not show any bias from radial symmetry. Conclusions Contrary to proposed cnidarian affinity, the Punctatus body plan has basic differences from that of cnidarians, especially concerning a spacious body cavity separating ectoderm from endoderm. The lack of many basic cnidarian characters in the body patterning of Punctatus leads us to consider its own taxonomic group, potentially outside of Cnidaria. PMID:23840375

  8. Expression of Wnt pathway genes in polyps and medusa-like structures of Ectopleura larynx (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, Annalise M; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2013-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is conserved in its role in axial patterning throughout Metazoa. In some hydrozoans (Phylum Cnidaria), Wnt signaling is implicated in oral-aboral patterning of the different life cycle stages-the planula, polyp and medusa. Unlike most hydrozoans, members of Aplanulata lack a planula larva and the polyp instead develops directly from a brooded or encysted embryo. The Aplanulata species Ectopleura larynx broods such embryos within gonophores. These gonophores are truncated medusae that remain attached to the polyps from which they bud, and retain evolutionary remnants of medusa structures. In E. larynx, gonophores differ between males and females in their degree of medusa truncation, making them an ideal system for examining truncated medusa development. Using next-generation sequencing, we isolated genes from Wnt signaling pathways and examined their expression in E. larynx. Our data are consistent with the Wnt pathway being involved in axial patterning of the polyp and truncated medusa. Changes in the spatial expression of Wnt pathway genes are correlated with the development of different oral structures in male and female gonophores. The absence of expression of components of the Wnt pathway and presence of a Wnt pathway antagonist SFRP in the developing anterior end of the gonophore suggest that downregulation of the Wnt pathway could play a role in medusa reduction in E. larynx.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis with multiple markers indicates repeated loss of the adult medusa stage in Campanulariidae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Boero, Ferdinando; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2006-03-01

    The Campanulariidae is a group of leptomedusan hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) that exhibit a diverse array of life cycles ranging from species with a free medusa stage to those with a reduced or absent medusa stage. Perhaps the best-known member of the taxon is Obelia which is often used as a textbook model of hydrozoan life history. However, Obelia medusae have several unique features leading to a hypothesis that Obelia arose, in a saltational fashion, from an ancestor that lacked a medusa, possibly representing an example of a rare evolutionary reversal. To address the evolution of adult sexual stages in Campanulariidae, a molecular phylogenetic approach was employed using two nuclear (18S rDNA and calmodulin) and two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. Prior to the main analysis, we conducted a preliminary analysis of leptomedusan taxa which suggests that Campanulariidae as presently considered needs to be redefined. Campanulariid analyses are consistent with morphological understanding in that three major clades are recovered. However, several recognized genera are not monophyletic calling into question some "diagnostic" features. Furthermore, ancestral states were reconstructed using parsimony, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate possible evolutionary transitions in life-history stages. The results indicate that life-cycle transitions have occurred multiple times, and that Obelia might be derived from an ancestor with Clytia-like features.

  10. Ordered progression of nematogenesis from stem cells through differentiation stages in the tentacle bulb of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Denker, Elsa; Manuel, Michaël; Leclère, Lucas; Le Guyader, Hervé; Rabet, Nicolas

    2008-03-01

    Nematogenesis, the production of stinging cells (nematocytes) in Cnidaria, can be considered as a model neurogenic process. Most molecular data concern the freshwater polyp Hydra, in which nematocyte production is scattered throughout the body column ectoderm, the mature cells then migrating to the tentacles. We have characterized tentacular nematogenesis in the Clytia hemisphaerica hydromedusa and found it to be confined to the ectoderm of the tentacle bulb, a specialized swelling at the tentacle base. Analysis by a variety of light and electron microscope techniques revealed that while cellular aspects of nematogenesis are similar to Hydra, the spatio-temporal characteristics are markedly more ordered. The tentacle bulb nematogenic ectoderm (TBE) was found to be polarized, with a clear progression of successive nematoblast stages from a proximal zone (comprising a majority of undifferentiated cells) to the distal end where the tentacle starts. Pulse-chase labelling experiments demonstrated a continuous displacement of differentiating nematoblasts towards the tentacle tip, and that nematogenesis proceeds more rapidly in Clytia than in Hydra. Compact expression domains of orthologues of known nematogenesis-associated genes (Piwi, dickkopf-3, minicollagens and NOWA) were correspondingly staggered along the TBE. These distinct characteristics make the Clytia TBE a promising experimental system for understanding the mechanisms regulating nematogenesis.

  11. Nematocyst discharge in Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) oral arms can be affected by lidocaine, ethanol, ammonia and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Dossena, Silvia; La Spada, Giuseppa

    2014-06-01

    Nematocyst discharge and concomitant delivery of toxins is triggered to perform both defence and predation strategies in Cnidarians, and may lead to serious local and systemic reactions in humans. Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) is a jellyfish particularly abundant in the Strait of Messina (Italy). After accidental contact with this jellyfish, not discharged nematocysts or even fragments of tentacles or oral arms may tightly adhere to the human skin and, following discharge, severely increase pain and the other adverse consequences of the sting. The aim of the present study is to verify if the local anesthetic lidocaine and other compounds, like alcohols, acetic acid and ammonia, known to provide pain relief after jellyfish stings, may also affect in situ discharge of nematocysts. Discharge was induced by a combined physico-chemical stimulation of oral arms by chemosensitizers (such as N-acetylated sugars, aminoacids, proteins and nucleotides), in the presence or absence of 1% lidocaine, 70% ethanol, 5% acetic acid or 20% ammonia, followed by mechanical stimulation by a non-vibrating test probe. The above mentioned compounds failed to induce discharge per se, and dramatically impaired the chemosensitizer-induced discharge response. We therefore suggest that prompt local treatment of the stung epidermis with lidocaine, acetic acid, ethanol and ammonia may provide substantial pain relief and help in reducing possible harmful local and systemic adverse reaction following accidental contact with P. noctiluca specimens.

  12. Unravelling the nature of Waiparaconus, a pennatulacean (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) from the Late Mesozoic-Early Cainozoic of the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S; Campbell, Hamish J; Maurizot, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Enigmatic calcareous conical fossils have been known from marine Paleocene-Eocene sequences of New Zealand since the early 1870s. More recently, similar fossils have been recorded from both Late Cretaceous marine sequences of Western Australia, New Caledonia and Antarctica, and possibly from the Eocene of South America. The present paper extends the record to the late Cretaceous of New Caledonia. These remains are unlike any living taxa, and have been variously interpreted as molluscs (rudistid bivalves), cirripedes (stalked barnacles), annelids and inorganic structures. Assignation to the Cirripedia has been refuted by Buckeridge (1983, 1993), who proposed that the material would be better placed within the Cnidaria. We investigate this hypothesis in light of the New Caledonian material and by comparison with living gorgonians and pennatulaceans, and demonstrate that Waiparaconus is best placed within the Pennatulacea. Waiparaconus zelandicus varies in form somewhat, with 3 morphotypes defined and reinforced by geography. Comment is provided on the imperative to fit organic remains into known groups, with reflection on what may happen if taxa are left in insertae sedis.

  13. Unravelling the nature of Waiparaconus, a pennatulacean (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) from the Late Mesozoic-Early Cainozoic of the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S; Campbell, Hamish J; Maurizot, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Enigmatic calcareous conical fossils have been known from marine Paleocene-Eocene sequences of New Zealand since the early 1870s. More recently, similar fossils have been recorded from both Late Cretaceous marine sequences of Western Australia, New Caledonia and Antarctica, and possibly from the Eocene of South America. The present paper extends the record to the late Cretaceous of New Caledonia. These remains are unlike any living taxa, and have been variously interpreted as molluscs (rudistid bivalves), cirripedes (stalked barnacles), annelids and inorganic structures. Assignation to the Cirripedia has been refuted by Buckeridge (1983, 1993), who proposed that the material would be better placed within the Cnidaria. We investigate this hypothesis in light of the New Caledonian material and by comparison with living gorgonians and pennatulaceans, and demonstrate that Waiparaconus is best placed within the Pennatulacea. Waiparaconus zelandicus varies in form somewhat, with 3 morphotypes defined and reinforced by geography. Comment is provided on the imperative to fit organic remains into known groups, with reflection on what may happen if taxa are left in insertae sedis. PMID:24673757

  14. Sinularia polydactyla (Ehrenberg, 1834) (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) re-examined, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    van Ofwegen, Leen P; McFadden, Catherine S; Benayahu, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Sinularia polydactyla (Ehrenberg, 1834) is re-described and a lectotype assigned. This led to examination of related material from various Indo-Pacific regions. Consequently, Sinularia levi sp. n. is described from Eilat, Israel (Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea) and Sinularia compressa Tixier-Durivault, 1945 and Sinularia candidula Verseveldt and Benayahu, 1983 are synonymized with Sinularia polydactyla. Additional specimens identified in the literature as Sinularia polydactyla are provisionally reassigned to other taxa. PMID:27199582

  15. Sinularia polydactyla (Ehrenberg, 1834) (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) re-examined, with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    van Ofwegen, Leen P.; McFadden, Catherine S.; Benayahu, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sinularia polydactyla (Ehrenberg, 1834) is re-described and a lectotype assigned. This led to examination of related material from various Indo-Pacific regions. Consequently, Sinularia levi sp. n. is described from Eilat, Israel (Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea) and Sinularia compressa Tixier-Durivault, 1945 and Sinularia candidula Verseveldt and Benayahu, 1983 are synonymized with Sinularia polydactyla. Additional specimens identified in the literature as Sinularia polydactyla are provisionally reassigned to other taxa. PMID:27199582

  16. A new genus and species of pennatulacean octocoral from equatorial West Africa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Virgulariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of sea pen or virgulariid pennatulacean from the Gulf of Guinea in the tropical eastern Atlantic is described, and a key to the genera of the Virgulariidae is included. The new genus and species described here adds to the previously described five other genera of the family. It is distinguished by unique sclerite and polyp leaf characters from the superficially-similar genus Virgularia, which lacks conspicuous sclerites in the polyp leaves and coenenchyme (other than minute oval bodies that are generally <0.01 mm in length). PMID:26798304

  17. Mitochondrial genome of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): A linear DNA molecule encoding a putative DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhiyong; Graf, Shannon; Chaga, Oleg Y; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2006-10-15

    The 16,937-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) molecule of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) - the first mtDNA sequence from the class Scypozoa and the first sequence of a linear mtDNA from Metazoa - has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. In addition, two open reading frames of 324 and 969 base pairs in length have been found. The deduced amino-acid sequence of one of them, ORF969, displays extensive sequence similarity with the polymerase [but not the exonuclease] domain of family B DNA polymerases, and this ORF has been tentatively identified as dnab. This is the first report of dnab in animal mtDNA. The genes in A. aurita mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities; transcription proceeding toward the ends of the molecule. The determined sequences at the ends of the molecule are nearly identical but inverted and lack any obvious potential secondary structures or telomere-like repeat elements. The acquisition of mitochondrial genomic data for the second class of Cnidaria allows us to reconstruct characteristic features of mitochondrial evolution in this animal phylum.

  18. Differential gene expression in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) assessed with multiple next-generation sequencing workflows.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Stefan; Robinson, Mark D; Tintori, Sophia C; Goetz, Freya; Helm, Rebecca R; Smith, Stephen A; Shaner, Nathan; Haddock, Steven H D; Dunn, Casey W

    2011-01-01

    We investigated differential gene expression between functionally specialized feeding polyps and swimming medusae in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) with a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy. We assembled a set of partial gene reference sequences from long-read data (Roche 454), and generated short-read sequences from replicated tissue samples that were mapped to the references to quantify expression. We collected and compared expression data with three short-read expression workflows that differ in sample preparation, sequencing technology, and mapping tools. These workflows were Illumina mRNA-Seq, which generates sequence reads from random locations along each transcript, and two tag-based approaches, SOLiD SAGE and Helicos DGE, which generate reads from particular tag sites. Differences in expression results across workflows were mostly due to the differential impact of missing data in the partial reference sequences. When all 454-derived gene reference sequences were considered, Illumina mRNA-Seq detected more than twice as many differentially expressed (DE) reference sequences as the tag-based workflows. This discrepancy was largely due to missing tag sites in the partial reference that led to false negatives in the tag-based workflows. When only the subset of reference sequences that unambiguously have tag sites was considered, we found broad congruence across workflows, and they all identified a similar set of DE sequences. Our results are promising in several regards for gene expression studies in non-model organisms. First, we demonstrate that a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy is an effective way to collect gene expression data when an annotated genome sequence is not available. Second, our replicated sampling indicates that expression profiles are highly consistent across field-collected animals in this case. Third, the impacts of partial reference sequences on the ability to detect DE can be mitigated through

  19. Metal bioaccumulation pattern by Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; García, Gregorio; García-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water. Up to 65 individuals were sampled at 8 different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentration values for different elements considered were moderate (Pb: 0.04-29.50 ppm, Zn: 2.27-93.44 ppm, Cd: 0-0.67 ppm, As: 0.56-130.31 ppm) by dry weight of the jellyfish tissues (bell and oral arms combined), bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content because of their potential environmental and health implications. PMID:26250818

  20. Metal bioaccumulation pattern by Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; García, Gregorio; García-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water. Up to 65 individuals were sampled at 8 different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentration values for different elements considered were moderate (Pb: 0.04-29.50 ppm, Zn: 2.27-93.44 ppm, Cd: 0-0.67 ppm, As: 0.56-130.31 ppm) by dry weight of the jellyfish tissues (bell and oral arms combined), bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content because of their potential environmental and health implications.

  1. Comparison of morphological and genetic analyses reveals cryptic divergence and morphological plasticity in Stylophora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, F.; Yang, S.-Y.; Pichon, M.; Galli, P.; Chen, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    A combined morphological and genetic study of the coral genus Stylophora investigated species boundaries in the Gulf of Aden, Yemen. Two mitochondrial regions, including the hypervariable IGS9 spacer and the control region, and a fragment of rDNA were used for phylogenetic analysis. Results were compared by multivariate analysis on the basis of branch morphology and corallite morphometry. Two species were clearly discriminated by both approaches. The first species was characterised by small corallites and a low morphological variability and was ascribed to a new geographical record of Stylophora madagascarensis on the basis of its phylogenetic distinction and its morphological similarity to the type material. The second species was characterised by larger corallite size and greater morphological variability and was ascribed to Stylophora pistillata. The analysis was extended to the intrageneric level for other S. pistillata populations from the Red Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Strong internal divergence was evident in the genus Sty lophora. S. pistillata populations were split into two highly divergent Red Sea/Gulf of Aden and western Pacific lineages with significant morphological overlap, which suggests they represent two distinct cryptic species. The combined use of morphological and molecular approaches, so far proved to be a powerful tool for the re-delineation of species boundaries in corals, provided novel evidence of cryptic divergence in this group of marine metazoans.

  2. Differences in the protein profiles of cultured and endosymbiotic symbiodinium sp. (pyrrophyta) from the anemone aiptasia pallida (anthozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Stochaj, W.R.; Grossman, A.R.

    1997-02-01

    One- and two-dimensional sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunological analyses were used to visualize differences in polypeptides synthesized by Symbiodinium sp. from the anemone Aiptasia pallida when grown in the cultured and endosymbiotic states (freshly isolated zooxanthellae). Surprisingly, a comparison of proteins in cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium sp. revealed only four major polypeptides with similar isoelectric and molecular mass characteristics. Using monospecific antibodies, we demonstrated differences in specific proteins synthesized by the dinoflagellate in the two different growth states. The dimeric, 14 kDa form of the peripheral membrane peridinin-chlorophyll a binding protein predominates under endosymbiotic conditions, whereas the monomeric, 35 kDa form predominates under the culture conditions used in this study. Antibodies to form II ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase revealed 62 and 60 kDa forms of this protein in the alga grown as an endosymbiont and in culture, respectively. Differences in the integral membrane peridinin-chlorophyll a-c-binding proteins were also observed. These results demonstrate that there are major changes in the populations of proteins synthesized by Symbiodinium sp. in response to the conditions in hospite. Such changes may reflect a developmental switch that tailors the physiology of the alga to the conditions encountered in the endosymbiotic state. 77 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis. PMID:27394557

  4. Small-scale distribution of deep-sea demersal nekton and other megafauna in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felley, J. D.; Vecchione, M.; Wilson, R. R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Videotapes from manned submersibles diving in the area of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge were used to investigate the distribution of fishes, large crustaceans, epifaunal and sessile organisms, and environmental features along a series of transects. Submersibles MIR 1 and MIR 2 conducted paired dives in an area of mixed sediment and rock (beginning depth ca. 3000 m) and on a large pocket of abyssal-like sediments (depth ca. 4000 m). In the shallower area, the submersibles passed over extremely heterogeneous terrain with a diversity of nekton, epifaunal forms and sessile forms. In the first pair of dives, MIR 1 rose along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from 3000 to 1700 m, while MIR 2 remained near the 3000 m isobath. Nekton seen in these relatively shallow dives included large and small macrourids (genus Coryphaenoides), shrimp (infraorder Penaeidea), Halosauropsis macrochir, Aldrovandia sp., Antimora rostrata, and alepocephalids. The last two were more characteristic of the upper areas of the slope reached by MIR 1, as it rose along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to depths less than 3000 m. Distributions of some forms seemed associated with depth and/or the presence of hard substrate. Sessile organisms such as sponges and large cnidaria were more likely to be found in rocky areas. The second pair of dives occurred in an abyssal area and the submersibles passed over sediment-covered plains, with little relief and many fewer countable organisms and features. The most evident of these were holes, mounds, small cerianthid anemones, small macrourids and the holothurian Benthodytes sp. A few large macrourids and shrimp also were seen in these deeper dives, as well as squat lobsters ( Munidopsis sp.). Sponges and larger cnidaria were mostly associated with a few small areas of rocky substrate. Holes and mounds showed distributions suggesting large-scale patterning. Over all dives, most sessile and epifaunal forms showed clumped distributions. However, large

  5. Invasive Ponto-Caspian hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia (hydrozoa: Cnidaria) in southern Baltic coastal lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obolewski, Krystian; Jarosiewicz, Anna; Ożgo, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Cordylophora caspia Pall. is a highly invasive Ponto-Caspian colonial hydroid with a worldwide distribution. It is a biofouling organism colonizing industrial water installations and causing serious economic problems. Here, we give the first report of its occurrence in southern Baltic coastal lakes, and analyze its distribution in relation to environmental factors and likely colonization routes. Samples were collected from the stalks of Phragmites australis at the total of 102 sites in 15 lakes and lagoons. The species was most numerous in lagoons, i.e. ß-oligohaline water bodies with a surface hydrological connection with the sea, where it reached mean densities of 1200-4800 hydranths m-2. In regression tree analysis, chloride concentration, followed by pH, were the strongest explanatory variables for its occurrence, with highest densities observed at chloride concentration above 1.18 g Cl L-1 and pH 8.05-9.26. At pH 5.77-8.04 higher densities were observed at temperatures above 20.3 °C. Generally, within the range of parameters observed in our study, high densities of C. caspia were associated with high chloride concentration, pH, temperature and electrical conductivity values. The species was also present in freshwater lakes; these colonies may have the highest capacity for future invasions of such habitats. Within lakes, high densities were observed at canals connecting these water bodies with the sea, and at sites close to the inflow of rivers. This distribution pattern can facilitate its further spread into inland waters.

  6. Increase of litter at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Melanie; Klages, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Although recent research has shown that marine litter has made it even to the remotest parts of our planet, little information is available about temporal trends on the deep ocean floor. To quantify litter on the deep seafloor over time, we analysed images from the HAUSGARTEN observatory (79°N) taken in 2002, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2011 (2500 m depth). Our results indicate that litter increased from 3635 to 7710 items km⁻² between 2002 and 2011 and reached densities similar to those reported from a canyon near the Portuguese capital Lisboa. Plastic constituted the majority of litter (59%) followed by a black fabric (11%) and cardboard/paper (7%). Sixty-seven percent of the litter was entangled or colonised by invertebrates such as sponges (41%) or sea anemones (15%). The changes in litter could be an indirect consequence of the receding sea ice, which opens the Arctic Ocean to the impacts of man's activities.

  7. Development of Microsatellite Markers in the Deep-Sea Cup Coral Desmophyllum dianthus by 454 Sequencing and Cross-Species Amplifications in Scleractinia Order.

    PubMed

    Addamo, Anna M; García-Jiménez, Ricardo; Taviani, Marco; Machordom, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated for the first time for the deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus, using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. We developed conditions for amplifying 24 markers in 10 multiplex reactions. Three to 16 alleles per locus were detected across 25 samples analyzed from Santa Maria di Leuca coral province (Mediterranean Sea). For the 24 polymorphic loci, observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.211 to 0.880 and 0.383 to 0.910, respectively; 3 loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, after null allele and sequential Holm-Bonferroni corrections. These newly isolated microsatellites are very useful genetic markers that provide data for future conservation strategies. Cross-amplification of these microsatellites, tested in 46 coral species, representing 40 genera, and 10 families of the phylum Cnidaria, produced informative allelic profiles for 1 to 24 loci. The utility of extending analyses to cross-species amplifications is also discussed.

  8. For she that hath, to her shall be given…Implications of flowering in Anemone nemorosa L.

    PubMed

    Pontoppidan, M-B; Petersen, P M; Philipp, M

    2011-11-01

    We looked for life-history trade-offs between flowering, vegetative growth and somatic maintenance in the common woodland herb Anemone nemorosa. A. nemorosa forms a horizontal rhizome system consisting of previously formed annual segments and terminated by a flowering or non-flowering shoot. Resources acquired by the aboveground parts are used for flowering, seed production, storage and growth of the annual segments. Resources stored in the rhizome during the growing period are used for preformation of buds, somatic maintenance between two growing periods and development of aboveground parts in the following spring. We hypothesised that the decision to invest in flower buds depends on the amount of resources stored in the recently formed annual segment. We also hypothesised a trade-off between flowering and segment growth and, finally, as a consequence, we expected individual rhizomes to alternate between the flowering and the non-flowering state. We found that segments producing flower buds were significantly longer than non-flowering segments, indicating that resource level influences the function of the preformed buds. Contrary to our expectations, we found flowering rhizomes produced longer annual segments than non-flowering rhizomes. We suggest the larger leaf area of flowering rhizomes and occasional abortion of flowers or seeds as possible mechanisms behind this pattern. Our study shows that even though the decision to produce a flower bud is taken in another time-frame than that in which the actual flowering and fruiting takes place, an ostensibly inexpedient decision is changed to a neutral or even an advantageous incident.

  9. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that

  10. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  11. SYSTEMATIC MOTION OF FINE-SCALE JETS AND SUCCESSIVE RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JET OBSERVED WITH THE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE/HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.; Isobe, H.

    2012-11-20

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A {lambda}-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets ({approx}1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  12. Systematic Motion of Fine-scale Jets and Successive Reconnection in Solar Chromospheric Anemone Jet Observed with the Solar Optical Telescope/Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Isobe, H.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A λ-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets (~1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  13. Life history and feeding biology of the deep-sea pycnogonid Nymphon hirtipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Annie; Baillon, Sandrine; Hamel, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Pycnogonids (sea spiders) are commonly collected at bathyal and abyssal depths all around the world; however, little is known about species from deep-water habitats. The present study explores the life history of Nymphon hirtipes collected in northeastern Newfoundland between 700 and 1450 m depth and monitored in mesocosms for over 2 years. The pycnogonids were found in association with octocorals, hydrozoans and sea anemones. Adult females developed mature oocytes between June and August. Paired mating followed by oviposition occurred between early July and mid-October. Up to three egg masses were brooded by each male. It took a maximum of 4 months for the propagules to hatch from the egg mass. Offspring developed from walking leg-bearing larvae to early juveniles over the next ~5 months before leaving the male's protection. Mating and oviposition coincided with the highest water temperatures of the annual cycle and dispersal of juveniles occurred in spring, when phytodetritus deposition was high and as ocean temperature rose markedly. All the females died after oviposition and the males ~9 months later, after juvenile dispersal. The sex ratio of mature individuals (~55-60 mm leg span) was 2 males for 3 females. Fecundity was estimated to be 184-288 eggs per adult female. Adults of N. hirtipes were seen feeding on hydrozoan polyps, small sea anemones (Stephanauge nexilis) and nudibranchs. Larvae and early juveniles did not feed while brooded by the male. Upon dispersal, their feeding apparatus became functional and they began feeding on hydrozoan polyps. After 13 months of growth post hatching, the juveniles reached ~21 mm leg span. Curve fitting estimated that ~7 years are required to reach the adult size of 55 mm leg span.

  14. Total Saponin from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt Prevents Bone Destruction in Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis via Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfang; Yang, Yue; Sun, Danni; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hui; Jia, Shiwei; Liu, Liang; Lin, Na

    2015-12-01

    Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt is used in the clinical compound prescription for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China and has the traditional use of draining dampness, diminishing swelling, and relieving pain. Total saponins (TS) are the characteristic components and also the main active ingredients of A. flaccida. Previous reports indicated that TS possess anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties; however, the effects of TS on bone destruction of RA have not been evaluated. In this study, our data first showed the therapeutic effects of TS on severity of arthritis and arthritis progression in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Then, by microfocal computed tomography (CT) quantification, TS significantly increased bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, and trabecular thickness and decreased trabecular separation of inflamed joints both at peri-articular and extra-articular locations. TS also diminished the level of the bone resorption marker CTX-I and simultaneously increased the bone formation marker osteocalcin in sera of CIA rats. Interestingly, TS prevented bone destruction by reducing the number of osteoclasts in inflamed joints, reducing the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κF (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and RANK, increasing the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), at both mRNA and protein levels, and decreasing the ratio of RANKL to OPG in inflamed joints and sera of CIA rats. This was further confirmed in the co-culture system of human fibroblast-like synovial and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, TS inhibited the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in bone resorption, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 in sera and joints. These findings offer convincing evidence that TS attenuate RA partially by preventing both focal bone destruction and systemic bone loss. This anti-erosive effect results in part from inhibiting osteoclastogenesis

  15. Total Saponin from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt Prevents Bone Destruction in Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis via Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfang; Yang, Yue; Sun, Danni; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hui; Jia, Shiwei; Liu, Liang; Lin, Na

    2015-12-01

    Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt is used in the clinical compound prescription for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China and has the traditional use of draining dampness, diminishing swelling, and relieving pain. Total saponins (TS) are the characteristic components and also the main active ingredients of A. flaccida. Previous reports indicated that TS possess anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties; however, the effects of TS on bone destruction of RA have not been evaluated. In this study, our data first showed the therapeutic effects of TS on severity of arthritis and arthritis progression in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Then, by microfocal computed tomography (CT) quantification, TS significantly increased bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, and trabecular thickness and decreased trabecular separation of inflamed joints both at peri-articular and extra-articular locations. TS also diminished the level of the bone resorption marker CTX-I and simultaneously increased the bone formation marker osteocalcin in sera of CIA rats. Interestingly, TS prevented bone destruction by reducing the number of osteoclasts in inflamed joints, reducing the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κF (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and RANK, increasing the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), at both mRNA and protein levels, and decreasing the ratio of RANKL to OPG in inflamed joints and sera of CIA rats. This was further confirmed in the co-culture system of human fibroblast-like synovial and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, TS inhibited the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in bone resorption, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 in sera and joints. These findings offer convincing evidence that TS attenuate RA partially by preventing both focal bone destruction and systemic bone loss. This anti-erosive effect results in part from inhibiting osteoclastogenesis

  16. Domain combination of the vertebrate-like TLR gene family: implications for their origin and evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baojun; Huan, Tianxiao; Gong, Jing; Zhou, Pin; Bai, Zengliang

    2011-12-01

    Domain shuffling, which is an important mechanism in the evolution of multi-domain proteins, has shaped the evolutionary development of the immune system in animals. Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Draft genome sequences provide the opportunity to compare the Toll/TLR gene repertoire among representative metazoans. In this study, we investigated the combination of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains of metazoan Toll/TLRs. Before Toll with both domains occurred in Cnidaria (sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis), through domain combinations, TIR-only and LRR-only proteins had already appeared in sponges (Amphimedon queenslandica). Although vertebrate-like TIR (V-TIR) domain already appeared in Cnidaria, the vertebrate-like TLR (V-TLR) with both domains appeared much later. The first combination between V-TIR domain and vertebrate-like LRR (V-LRR) domain for V-TLR may have occurred after the divergence of Cnidaria and bilateria. Then, another combination for V-TLR, a recombination of both domains, possibly occurred before or during the evolution of primitive vertebrates. Taken together, two rounds of domain combinations may thus have co-shaped the vertebrate TLRs. PMID:22227927

  17. Triterpenoid saponin flaccidoside II from Anemone flaccida triggers apoptosis of NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors via the MAPK-HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Lin-Tao; Fang, Yin; Cao, Yan; Wu, Feng-Hua; Liu, E; Mo, Guo-Yan; Huang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly aggressive soft tissue neoplasms that are extremely rare and are frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. MPNSTs are typically fatal, and there is no effective treatment so far. In our previous study, we showed that flaccidoside II, one of the triterpenoid saponins isolated from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, has antitumor potential by inducing apoptosis. In the present study, we found that flaccidoside II inhibits proliferation and facilitates apoptosis in MPNST cell lines ST88-14 and S462. Furthermore, this study provides a mechanism by which the downregulation of heme oxygenase-1 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways is involved in the apoptotic role of flaccidoside II. This study suggested the potential of flaccidoside II as a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach for MPNSTs. PMID:27103823

  18. Triterpenoid saponin flaccidoside II from Anemone flaccida triggers apoptosis of NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors via the MAPK-HO-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lin-tao; Fang, Yin; Cao, Yan; Wu, Feng-hua; Liu, E; Mo, Guo-yan; Huang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly aggressive soft tissue neoplasms that are extremely rare and are frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. MPNSTs are typically fatal, and there is no effective treatment so far. In our previous study, we showed that flaccidoside II, one of the triterpenoid saponins isolated from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, has antitumor potential by inducing apoptosis. In the present study, we found that flaccidoside II inhibits proliferation and facilitates apoptosis in MPNST cell lines ST88-14 and S462. Furthermore, this study provides a mechanism by which the downregulation of heme oxygenase-1 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways is involved in the apoptotic role of flaccidoside II. This study suggested the potential of flaccidoside II as a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach for MPNSTs. PMID:27103823

  19. Giant deep-sea protist produces bilaterian-like traces.

    PubMed

    Matz, Mikhail V; Frank, Tamara M; Marshall, N Justin; Widder, Edith A; Johnsen, Sönke

    2008-12-01

    One of the strongest paleontological arguments in favor of the origin of bilaterally symmetrical animals (Bilateria) prior to their obvious and explosive appearance in the fossil record in the early Cambrian, 542 million years ago, is the occurrence of trace fossils shaped like elongated sinuous grooves or furrows in the Precambrian. Being restricted to the seafloor surface, these traces are relatively rare and of limited diversity, and they do not show any evidence of the use of hard appendages. They are commonly attributed to the activity of the early nonskeletonized bilaterians or, alternatively, large cnidarians such as sea anemones or sea pens. Here we describe macroscopic groove-like traces produced by a living giant protist and show that these traces bear a remarkable resemblance to the Precambrian trace fossils, including those as old as 1.8 billion years. This is the first evidence that organisms other than multicellular animals can produce such traces, and it prompts re-evaluation of the significance of Precambrian trace fossils as evidence of the early diversification of Bilateria. Our observations also render indirect support to the highly controversial interpretation of the enigmatic Ediacaran biota of the late Precambrian as giant protists.

  20. Giant deep-sea protist produces bilaterian-like traces.

    PubMed

    Matz, Mikhail V; Frank, Tamara M; Marshall, N Justin; Widder, Edith A; Johnsen, Sönke

    2008-12-01

    One of the strongest paleontological arguments in favor of the origin of bilaterally symmetrical animals (Bilateria) prior to their obvious and explosive appearance in the fossil record in the early Cambrian, 542 million years ago, is the occurrence of trace fossils shaped like elongated sinuous grooves or furrows in the Precambrian. Being restricted to the seafloor surface, these traces are relatively rare and of limited diversity, and they do not show any evidence of the use of hard appendages. They are commonly attributed to the activity of the early nonskeletonized bilaterians or, alternatively, large cnidarians such as sea anemones or sea pens. Here we describe macroscopic groove-like traces produced by a living giant protist and show that these traces bear a remarkable resemblance to the Precambrian trace fossils, including those as old as 1.8 billion years. This is the first evidence that organisms other than multicellular animals can produce such traces, and it prompts re-evaluation of the significance of Precambrian trace fossils as evidence of the early diversification of Bilateria. Our observations also render indirect support to the highly controversial interpretation of the enigmatic Ediacaran biota of the late Precambrian as giant protists. PMID:19026540

  1. Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. and Phelliactis yapensis n. sp., two new deep-sea species of Hormathiidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from a seamount in the tropical Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of hormathiid actiniarians, Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. and Phelliactis yapensis n. sp., are described from a seamount near the Yap Trench in the tropical Western Pacific. Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. has a thick cuticle, a tuberculated column divisible into scapus and scapulus, a complete fifth cycle of mesenteries, an equal number of mesenteries at the margin and at the limbus, and up to 192 tentacles without aboral mesogloeal thickenings that are hexamerously arranged in six cycles. This species differs distinctly from the three known species of Paraphelliactis by the above mentioned features (vs. an incomplete fifth cycle of mesenteries, usually more mesenteries at the margin than at the limbus, and the tentacles with aboral mesogloeal thickenings). So far, it is the only member of the genus Paraphelliactis found in the Western Pacific. Phelliactis yapensis n. sp. has an asymmetric bilobed oral disc and column, tuberculated scapus and scapulus, an incomplete fifth cycle of mesenteries, and up to 162 tentacles with aboral mesogloeal thickenings that are alternately arranged in two cycles. In comparison with other Phelliactis species, the basitrichs of mesenterial filaments of Ph. yapensis are distinctly larger. Phelliactis yapensis n. sp. is the fourth species of Phelliactis found in the Western Pacific. PMID:27395930

  2. Biomass of Scyphozoan Jellyfish, and Its Spatial Association with 0-Group Fish in the Barents Sea

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Elena; Prozorkevich, Dmitry; Trofimov, Aleksandr; Howell, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An 0-group fish survey is conducted annually in the Barents Sea in order to estimate fish population abundance. Data on jellyfish by-catch have been recorded since 1980, although this dataset has never been analysed. In recent years, however, the ecological importance of jellyfish medusae has become widely recognized. In this paper the biomass of jellyfish (medusae) in 0–60 m depths is calculated for the period 1980–2010. During this period the climate changed from cold to warm, and changes in zooplankton and fish distribution and abundance were observed. This paper discusses the less well known ecosystem component; jellyfish medusae within the Phylum Cnidaria, and their spatial and temporal variation. The long term average was ca. 9×108 kg, with some years showing biomasses in excess of 5×109 kg. The biomasses were low during 1980s, increased during 1990s, and were highest in early 2000s with a subsequent decline. The bulk of the jellyfish were observed in the central parts of the Barents Sea, which is a core area for most 0-group fishes. Jellyfish were associated with haddock in the western area, with haddock and herring in the central and coastal area, and with capelin in the northern area of the Barents Sea. The jellyfish were present in the temperature interval 1°CSea jellyfish medusae; however their biomass has showed a recent moderate decline during years with record high temperatures in the Barents Sea. Jellyfish are undoubtedly an important component of the Barents Sea ecosystem, and the data presented here represent the best summary of jellyfish biomass and distribution yet published for the region. PMID:22457732

  3. ADP-Ribose Activates the TRPM2 Channel from the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Independently of the NUDT9H Domain.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Frank J P; Kühn, Cornelia; Winking, Mathis; Hoffmann, Daniel C; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The human redox-sensitive Transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (hTRPM2) channel contains the C-terminal Nudix hydrolase domain NUDT9H which most likely binds ADP-ribose. During oxidative stress, the intracellular release of ADP-ribose triggers the activation of hTRPM2. The TRPM2 orthologue from Nematostella vectensis (nv) is also stimulated by ADP-ribose but not by the oxidant hydrogen peroxide. For further clarification of the structure-function relationships of these two distantly related channel orthologues, we performed whole-cell as well as single channel patch-clamp recordings, Ca2+-imaging and Western blot analysis after heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated channels in HEK-293 cells. We demonstrate that the removal of the entire NUDT9H domain does not disturb the response of nvTRPM2 to ADP-ribose. The deletion, however, created channels that were activated by hydrogen peroxide, as did mutations within the NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 that presumably suppress its enzymatic function. The same findings were obtained with the nvTRPM2 channel when the NUDT9H domain was replaced by the corresponding sequences of the original hNUDT9 enzyme. Whenever the enzyme domain was mutated to presumably inactive variants, channel activation by hydrogen peroxide could be achieved. Moreover, we found strong evidences for ADPRase activity of the isolated NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 in co-expression experiments with the C-terminally truncated nvTRPM2 channel. Thus, there is a clear correlation between the loss of enzymatic activity and the capability of nvTRPM2 to respond to oxidative stress. In striking contrast, the channel function of the hTRPM2 orthologue, in particular its sensitivity to ADP-ribose, was abrogated by already small changes of the NUDT9H domain. These findings establish nvTRPM2 as a channel gated by ADP-ribose through a novel mechanism. We conclude that the endogenous NUDT9H domain does not directly affect ADP-ribose-dependent gating of the nvTRPM2 channel; instead it exerts an independent catalytic function which possibly controls the intracellular availability of ADP-ribose. PMID:27333281

  4. Immunochemistry of sea anemone toxins: structure-antigenicity relationships and toxin-receptor interactions probed by antibodies specific for one antigenic

    SciTech Connect

    Ayeb, M.E.; Bahraoui, E.M.; Granier, C.; Beress, L.; Rochat, H.

    1986-11-04

    Two antibody subpopulations directed against Anemonia sulcata toxin I or II have been purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. These antibodies are specific for a single antigenic region and were used in a structure-antigenicity relationship study using homologous toxins and chemically modified derivatives of A. sulcata toxin II. Asp-7 and/or Asp=9 and Gln-47 of toxin II were found to be implicated in the antigenic region recognized by the two antibody subpopulations. On the contrary, Arg-14, Lys-35, -36, and -46, and ..cap alpha..-NH/sub 2/ of the glycine residue of A. sulcata toxin II are not involved in the corresponding antigenic region. When assayed for interaction with the sodium channel, the antigenic region of toxin II, including Asp-9 and Gln-47, appeared fully accessible to its specific antibodies, suggesting that it is not involved in the binding of the toxin to its receptor.

  5. ApRab3, a biosynthetic Rab protein, accumulates on the maturing phagosomes and symbiosomes in the tropical sea anemone, Aiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Sen; Lin, Wen-Wen; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Ming-Chyuan

    2009-03-01

    Symbiosome biogenesis and function are central to the endosymbiotic interaction between symbiotic dinoflagellates and their host cnidarians. To understand these important organelles, we have been conducting studies to identify and characterize symbiosome-associated proteins of the Rab family, key regulatory components of vesicular trafficking and membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells. Our prior studies have implicated three endocytic Rab proteins in the regulation of symbiosome biogenesis. Here, we show that ApRab3 is a new member of the Rab3 subfamily, associating with symbiosomes and accumulating on the maturing phagosomes in the A. pulchella digestive cells. ApRab3 is 78% identical to human Rab3C, and contains all Rab 3-specific signature motifs. EGFP-ApRab3-labeled vesicular structures tended to either align along the cell peripheral, or aggregate at one side of the nucleus. ApRab3 specifically co-distributed with the TGN marker, WGA, but not other organelle-specific markers tested. Immunofluorescence staining with a specific peptide antibody showed similar results. Significantly, an expression of a constitutively active mutant caused the enlargement and random dispersion of EGFP-ApRab3-decorated compartments in PC12 cells. Together, these data suggest that ApRab3 is a new member of the Rab3 subfamily, participating in the biosynthetic trafficking pathway, and symbiosome biogenesis involves an interaction with ApRab3-positive vesicles. PMID:19110066

  6. Hyperthermic stress-induced increase in the expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase and glutathione levels in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Choi, Jinah; Forman, Henry Jay; Medina, Mónica

    2008-09-01

    Hyperthermic stress is known to trigger the loss of unicellular algae from a number of symbiotic cnidarians, a phenomenon commonly referred to as bleaching. Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been suggested to play a major role during the process of bleaching, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. In animals, the intracellular tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is involved in antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis and intracellular redox signaling. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that hyperthermal stress-induced bleaching in Aiptasia pallida, a model for symbiotic cnidarians, results in increased levels of GSH synthesis. We report the cDNA sequence and functional analysis of the catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in GSH biosynthesis. In a time-series experiment, both GCLC gene expression and total GSH levels increased 4- and 1.5-fold, respectively, in response to hyperthermal stress. These results suggest that hyperthermal stress triggers adaptive increases in intracellular GSH biosynthesis in cnidarians as a protective response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Our results show the conserved function of GCLC and GSH across animals while placing a new perspective on the role of GSH in redox signaling during cnidarian bleaching. PMID:18602489

  7. ADP-Ribose Activates the TRPM2 Channel from the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Independently of the NUDT9H Domain

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Frank J. P.; Kühn, Cornelia; Winking, Mathis; Hoffmann, Daniel C.; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The human redox-sensitive Transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (hTRPM2) channel contains the C-terminal Nudix hydrolase domain NUDT9H which most likely binds ADP-ribose. During oxidative stress, the intracellular release of ADP-ribose triggers the activation of hTRPM2. The TRPM2 orthologue from Nematostella vectensis (nv) is also stimulated by ADP-ribose but not by the oxidant hydrogen peroxide. For further clarification of the structure-function relationships of these two distantly related channel orthologues, we performed whole-cell as well as single channel patch-clamp recordings, Ca2+-imaging and Western blot analysis after heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated channels in HEK-293 cells. We demonstrate that the removal of the entire NUDT9H domain does not disturb the response of nvTRPM2 to ADP-ribose. The deletion, however, created channels that were activated by hydrogen peroxide, as did mutations within the NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 that presumably suppress its enzymatic function. The same findings were obtained with the nvTRPM2 channel when the NUDT9H domain was replaced by the corresponding sequences of the original hNUDT9 enzyme. Whenever the enzyme domain was mutated to presumably inactive variants, channel activation by hydrogen peroxide could be achieved. Moreover, we found strong evidences for ADPRase activity of the isolated NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 in co-expression experiments with the C-terminally truncated nvTRPM2 channel. Thus, there is a clear correlation between the loss of enzymatic activity and the capability of nvTRPM2 to respond to oxidative stress. In striking contrast, the channel function of the hTRPM2 orthologue, in particular its sensitivity to ADP-ribose, was abrogated by already small changes of the NUDT9H domain. These findings establish nvTRPM2 as a channel gated by ADP-ribose through a novel mechanism. We conclude that the endogenous NUDT9H domain does not directly affect ADP-ribose-dependent gating of the nvTRPM2 channel; instead it exerts an independent catalytic function which possibly controls the intracellular availability of ADP-ribose. PMID:27333281

  8. Two Streptomyces species producing antibiotic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory compounds are widespread among intertidal macroalgae and deep-sea coral reef invertebrates from the central Cantabrian Sea.

    PubMed

    Braña, Alfredo F; Braña, Afredo F; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Nava, Herminio; González, Verónica; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Molina, Axayacatl; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Streptomycetes are widely distributed in the marine environment, although only a few studies on their associations to algae and coral ecosystems have been reported. Using a culture-dependent approach, we have isolated antibiotic-active Streptomyces species associated to diverse intertidal marine macroalgae (Phyllum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta), from the central Cantabrian Sea. Two strains, with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities, were found to inhabit these coastal environments, being widespread and persistent over a 3-year observation time frame. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strains were identified as Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus M-27 and Streptomyces carnosus M-40. Similar isolates to these two strains were also associated to corals and other invertebrates from deep-sea coral reef ecosystem (Phyllum Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Sipuncula, and Anelida) living up to 4.700-m depth in the submarine Avilés Canyon, thus revealing their barotolerant feature. These two strains were also found to colonize terrestrial lichens and have been repeatedly isolated from precipitations from tropospheric clouds. Compounds with antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. Antitumor compounds with antibacterial activities and members of the anthracycline family (daunomycin, cosmomycin B, galtamycin B), antifungals (maltophilins), anti-inflamatory molecules also with antituberculosis properties (lobophorins) were identified in this work. Many other compounds produced by the studied strains still remain unidentified, suggesting that Streptomyces associated to algae and coral ecosystems might represent an underexplored promising source for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  9. Arabian Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... sometimes results in copious phytoplankton production and oxygen depletion of the subsurface waters. Although red phytoplankton fluorescences have been associated with the low oxygen concentrations in the intermediate and deep waters of the Arabian Sea, ...

  10. Sea Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of higher-level relationships within Hydroidolina (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) using mitochondrial genome data and insight into their mitochondrial transcription

    PubMed Central

    Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Lindsay, Dhugal J.; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Collins, Allen G.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrozoans display the most morphological diversity within the phylum Cnidaria. While recent molecular studies have provided some insights into their evolutionary history, sister group relationships remain mostly unresolved, particularly at mid-taxonomic levels. Specifically, within Hydroidolina, the most speciose hydrozoan subclass, the relationships and sometimes integrity of orders are highly unsettled. Here we obtained the near complete mitochondrial sequence of twenty-six hydroidolinan hydrozoan species from a range of sources (DNA and RNA-seq data, long-range PCR). Our analyses confirm previous inference of the evolution of mtDNA in Hydrozoa while introducing a novel genome organization. Using RNA-seq data, we propose a mechanism for the expression of mitochondrial mRNA in Hydroidolina that can be extrapolated to the other medusozoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using the full set of mitochondrial gene sequences provide some insights into the order-level relationships within Hydroidolina, including siphonophores as the first diverging clade, a well-supported clade comprised of Leptothecata-Filifera III–IV, and a second clade comprised of Aplanulata-Capitata s.s.-Filifera I–II. Finally, we describe our relatively inexpensive and accessible multiplexing strategy to sequence long-range PCR amplicons that can be adapted to most high-throughput sequencing platforms. PMID:26618080

  12. Parallel loss of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and mtDNA-encoded tRNAs in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Haen, Karri M; Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2010-10-01

    Unlike most animal mitochondrial (mt) genomes, which encode a set of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) sufficient for mt protein synthesis, those of cnidarians have only retained one or two tRNA genes. Whether the missing cnidarian mt-tRNA genes relocated outside the main mt chromosome or were lost remains unclear. It is also unknown what impact the loss of tRNA genes had on other components of the mt translational machinery. Here, we explored the nuclear genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis for the presence of mt-tRNA genes and their corresponding mt aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRS). We detected no candidates for mt-tRNA genes and only two mt-aaRS orthologs. At the same time, we found that all but one cytosolic aaRS appear to be targeted to mitochondria. These results indicate that the loss of mt-tRNAs in Cnidaria is genuine and occurred in parallel with the loss of nuclear-encoded mt-aaRS. Our phylogenetic analyses of individual aaRS revealed that although the nearly total loss of mt-aaRS is rare, aaRS gene deletion and replacement have occurred throughout the evolution of Metazoa.

  13. Deep-sea food web analysis using cross-reacting antisera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Robert J.; Zagursky, Gregory; Day, Elizabeth A.

    1985-04-01

    The high incidence of unrecognizable prey in the stomachs of deep-sea predators prompted the application of serological methods for identification of trophic connections. Antisera to whole-organism extracts of estuarine taxa cross-reacted with antigenic protein extracts of mid-water and deep-sea taxa along phylogenetically correct lines, indicating their potential as tools for gut contents immunoassay. Stomach, intestine, and rectum contents of grenadiers ( Coryphaenoides armatus) trapped at 2500 m in the North Atlantic were analyzed visually and with 32 antisera representing taxa from 10 common deep-sea phyla. While visual analysis only revealed the presence of fluids, parasites, crustacean exoskeletons, and gastropod opercula, the immunoassay indicated the presence of antigenic proteins from holothurian, anemone, gastropod, decapod, and foraminiferan prey in the same samples. This qualitative serological identification of prey at non-specific taxonomic levels provides evidence that benthic predation may be important within deep-sea communities. The immunoassay technique, although not a panacea for elucidating food web dynamics in remote environments, may be useful when other methods fail to identify trophic pathways.

  14. Compound-Specific Amino Acid Isotopic Analysis of Benthic Food Webs in the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Cooper, L. W.; Biasatti, D. M.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chukchi Sea is known for locally high standing stocks of benthic macrofauna and strong coupling between pelagic-benthic components of the ecosystem. However, benthic food structure is not fully understood, due to varied sources of particulate organic matter (POM) and the high diversity of benthic invertebrates. We provide the first demonstration of the application of compound-specific amino acid isotope analysis to study the dietary sources and trophic structure for this Arctic marginal sea. About 20 stations in Chukchi Sea were sampled during cruises in August of 2012 and 2013. At each station, phytoplankton, POM and benthic fauna were collected, processed and analyzed using GC-C-IRMS (gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry). Among benthic fauna, dominant species included the following taxonomic groups: Ophiuroidea, Amphipoda, Polychaeta, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Cnidaria. The benthic fauna showed similar patterns of individual amino acid δ13C, with glycine the most enriched in 13C and leucine the most depleted in 13C. Specific amino acids including phenylalanine showed spatial variability in δ13C and δ15N values within the sampled area, indicating contributions of different dietary sources including phytoplankton, sea ice algae, benthic algae and terrestrial organic materials. δ15N values of individual amino acids such as the difference between glutamic acid and phenylalanine, i.e. Δ15Nglu-phe (δ15Nglu - δ15Nphe), were also used to identify trophic levels of benthic invertebrates relative to estimates available from bulk δ15N values. These data will ultimately be used to evaluate the spatial variability of organic carbon sources and trophic level interactions of dominant benthic species in the Chukchi Sea.

  15. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  16. Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Ross Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Icebergs in the Ross Sea     View Larger Image Two large icebergs, designated B-15A and C-16, are captured in this Multi-angle Imaging ... the longitudinal quadrant in which it is first seen, and new icebergs sighted in that quadrant are sequentially numbered. B-15 divided from ...

  18. Aral Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... The retreating shoreline leaves the surface encrusted with salt and with agrochemicals brought in by the rivers. As the Sea's moderating ... Large Aral, and may be associated with windblown snow and/or salt particles carried aloft. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

  19. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Guberski, M.R.; Wood, D.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP) are working cooperatively to map and interpret features of the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. This report presents multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar data obtained during NOAA survey H11446, which was conducted in a 12-km2 area in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, NY. In addition, sediment and photographic data from 26 stations obtained during a USGS verification cruise are presented. Overall, the sea floor slopes gently seaward, but topography is more complex in sand-wave and boulder areas, which are evident in the multibeam and sidescan-sonar data from the study area. Sand waves generally have north-south-oriented crests with 10- to 20-m wavelengths. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates eastward net sediment transport in the east and westward net sediment transport in the northern and western parts of the study area. Areas with boulders on the sea floor are typically hummocky and are part of a glacial moraine system. Boulders are typically encrusted with seaweed, sponges, and anemones as shown in the bottom photography.

  20. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark P; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Würzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A Louise

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs.

  1. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark P; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Würzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A Louise

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs. PMID:24260319

  2. A Vertical Wall Dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, Part of an Undersampled Group of Deep-Sea Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark P.; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Würzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A. Louise

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland’s continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs. PMID:24260319

  3. Natural Selection and Neutral Evolution Jointly Drive Population Divergence between Alpine and Lowland Ecotypes of the Allopolyploid Plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae)

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Jamie R.; Vamosi, Jana C.; Rogers, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074–0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041–0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence. PMID:23874801

  4. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    McEwen, Jamie R; Vamosi, Jana C; Rogers, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  5. From Sea to Shining Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Deep down in the depths of the sea, beautiful fish, mysterious ocean life, and unusual plants glimmer and glow in the eerie atmosphere of an ever-changing ocean. This article describes how, with this vision and a purpose in mind, three teachers pulled open classroom walls and joined forces so their second graders could create a mammoth 30 x 75"…

  6. Mini-review: the evolution of neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank

    2012-08-10

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in basal animals with primitive nervous systems such as cnidarians (Hydra, jellyfishes, corals, and sea anemones). Most animals emerging after the Cnidaria belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Protostomia (to which the majority of invertebrates belong) and Deuterostomia (to which some minor groups of invertebrates, and all vertebrates belong). These two lineages split about 700 million years (Myr) ago. Many mammalian neuropeptide GPCRs have orthologues in the Protostomia and this is also true for some of the mammalian neuropeptides. Examples are oxytocin/vasopressin, GnRH, gastrin/CCK, and neuropeptide Y and their GPCRs. These results implicate that protostomes (for example insects and nematodes) can be used as models to study the biology of neuropeptide signaling.

  7. [Land and marine fauna constituting a threat for recreational divers in the tropics].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-09-01

    Due to intensively growing international tourism, increasing numbers of people leave for countries with hot climates, where various threats for human health and life exist. Besides climatic and sanitary conditions, a rich fauna, represented by predators and venomous animals, can be included. Based on available world literature and their own observations, the authors present the threats that a tourist can possibly encounter whilst relaxing on the beach or during recreational diving in tropical waters. When staying in water, a large threat is posed by marine fish of prey (sharks, barracuda, muraena), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, anemones) and venomous animals (fish, sea snakes). On land, on the other hand, a threat can be posed by venomous arthropods (scorpions, spiders) and Hymenoptera insects. The study presents the most important representatives of fauna present in coastal areas frequently visited by diving enthusiasts. Also, clinical image and conduct in the case of body injures are discussed. PMID:19112854

  8. Mini-review: the evolution of neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank

    2012-08-10

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in basal animals with primitive nervous systems such as cnidarians (Hydra, jellyfishes, corals, and sea anemones). Most animals emerging after the Cnidaria belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Protostomia (to which the majority of invertebrates belong) and Deuterostomia (to which some minor groups of invertebrates, and all vertebrates belong). These two lineages split about 700 million years (Myr) ago. Many mammalian neuropeptide GPCRs have orthologues in the Protostomia and this is also true for some of the mammalian neuropeptides. Examples are oxytocin/vasopressin, GnRH, gastrin/CCK, and neuropeptide Y and their GPCRs. These results implicate that protostomes (for example insects and nematodes) can be used as models to study the biology of neuropeptide signaling. PMID:22726357

  9. Climate-mediated changes in zooplankton community structure for the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Andrews, Alexander G.

    2014-11-01

    Zooplankton are critical to energy transfer between higher and lower trophic levels in the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem. Previous studies from the southeastern Bering Sea shelf documented substantial differences in zooplankton taxa in the Middle and Inner Shelf Domains between warm and cold years. Our investigation expands this analysis into the northern Bering Sea and the south Outer Domain, looking at zooplankton community structure during a period of climate-mediated, large-scale change. Elevated air temperatures in the early 2000s resulted in regional warming and low sea-ice extent in the southern shelf whereas the late 2000s were characterized by cold winters, extensive spring sea ice, and a well-developed pool of cold water over the entire Middle Domain. The abundance of large zooplankton taxa such as Calanus spp. (C. marshallae and C. glacialis), and Parasagitta elegans, increased from warm to cold periods, while the abundance of gelatinous zooplankton (Cnidaria) and small taxa decreased. Biomass followed the same trends as abundance, except that the biomass of small taxa in the southeastern Bering Sea remained constant due to changes in abundance of small copepod taxa (increases in Acartia spp. and Pseudocalanus spp. and decreases in Oithona spp.). Statistically significant changes in zooplankton community structure and individual species were greatest in the Middle Domain, but were evident in all shelf domains, and in both the northern and southern portions of the eastern shelf. Changes in community structure did not occur abruptly during the transition from warm to cold, but seemed to begin gradually and build as the influence of the sea ice and cold water temperatures persisted. The change occurred one year earlier in the northern than the southern Middle Shelf. These and previous observations demonstrate that lower trophic levels within the eastern Bering Sea respond to climate-mediated changes on a variety of time scales, including those shorter than

  10. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  11. Calibration of stable oxygen isotopes in Siderastrea radians (Cnidaria:Scleractinia): Implications for slow-growing corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Christopher S.; Swart, Peter K.; Dodge, Richard E.

    2006-09-01

    Geochemical proxies in the skeletons of corals used for the purpose of reconstructing environmental records have typically been obtained from relatively fast-growing corals (usually >8 mm yr-1) and from only a few key genera (most commonly Porites and Montastraea). In many areas, however, there are no suitable fast-growing corals available for such reconstructions. Here, we investigate the potential of Siderastrea radians, a slow-growing Atlantic and Caribbean zooxanthellate coral, as an archive of sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity over the period from 1891 to 2002. Sampling the skeleton of three corals from the Cape Verde Islands, we were able to reproduce a clear seasonal signal, but with limited correlation to monthly SST, arising from inadequate chronologic constraint of the individual samples. The SST-δ18O calibration slopes for different sampling scales on several cores can range from about -9°C ‰-1 to +2°C ‰-1 (compared to other published values of around -5 to -4°C ‰-1). Careful treatment produced a δ18O-SST calibration equation where SST(°C) = 12.56(±1.20) - 3.86(±0.39)*(δc-δw). The recognition of the limitations of calibration at such small growth rates due to skeletal complexity and suspicion of environmental interferences suggests the need for careful consideration in the interpretation of climate proxy results from S. radians and other slow-growing corals.

  12. The non-Siphonophoran Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Salento, Italy with notes on their life-cycles: an illustrated guide.

    PubMed

    Gravili, Cinzia; De Vito, Doris; Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Martell, Luis; Piraino, Stefano; Boero, Ferdinando

    2015-01-15

    The majority of Hydrozoa is represented by not readily noticeable, small species. In recent decades, however, taxonomic knowledge of the group has increased worldwide, with a significant number of investigations focused on the Mediterranean Sea. Over more than two decades, 115 species of hydrozoans were recorded from coastal waters along nearly 300 km of the Salento Peninsula (Apulia, Italy). For each species, records from different collections were merged into single sheets of a general database. For each species, the following information is reported: description, cnidome, biology, occurrence in Salento, worldwide distribution, and bibliography. Descriptions refer to the benthic hydroid stage and, when present, also to the planktonic medusa stage. The 115 species of Hydrozoa, recorded along the Salento coastline, represent 25% of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa fauna (totaling 461 species), and nearly 3% of 3,702 world's known species covered in a recent monograph. Four species are non-indigenous, three of them with invasive behavior (Clytia hummelincki, Clytia linearis, and Eudendrium carneum), and one species now very common (Eudendrium merulum) in Salento. The complete life cycle of Clytia paulensis (Vanhöffen, 1910) is described for the first time.

  13. Metazoan meiofauna in deep-sea canyons and adjacent open slopes: A large-scale comparison with focus on the rare taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchelli, S.; Gambi, C.; Zeppilli, D.; Danovaro, R.

    2010-03-01

    Metazoan meiofaunal abundance, total biomass, nematode size and the richness of taxa were investigated along bathymetric gradients (from the shelf break down to ca. 5000-m depth) in six submarine canyons and on five adjacent open slopes of three deep-sea regions. The investigated areas were distributed along >2500 km, on the Portuguese to the Catalan and South Adriatic margins. The Portuguese and Catalan margins displayed the highest abundances, biomass and richness of taxa, while the lowest values were observed in the Central Mediterranean Sea. The comparison between canyons and the nearby open slopes showed the lack of significant differences in terms of meiofaunal abundance and biomass at any sampling depth. In most canyons and on most slopes, meiofaunal variables did not display consistent bathymetric patterns. Conversely, we found that the different topographic features were apparently responsible for significant differences in the abundance and distribution of the rare meiofaunal taxa (i.e. taxa accounting for <1% of total meiofaunal abundance). Several taxa belonging to the temporary meiofauna, such as larvae/juveniles of Priapulida, Holothuroidea, Ascidiacea and Cnidaria, were encountered exclusively on open slopes, while others (including the Tanaidacea and Echinodea larvae) were found exclusively in canyons sediments. Results reported here indicate that, at large spatial scales, differences in deep-sea meiofaunal abundance and biomass are not only controlled by the available food sources, but also by the region or habitat specific topographic features, which apparently play a key role in the distribution of rare benthic taxa.

  14. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM AN ANEMONE ACTIVE REGION: RECONNECTION AND DEFLECTION OF THE 2005 AUGUST 22 ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lugaz, N.; Shibata, K.; Downs, C.; Roussev, I. I.; Asai, A.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2011-09-10

    We present a numerical investigation of the coronal evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2005 August 22 using a three-dimensional thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamic model, the space weather modeling framework. The source region of the eruption was anemone active region (AR) 10798, which emerged inside a coronal hole. We validate our modeled corona by producing synthetic extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, which we compare to EIT images. We initiate the CME with an out-of-equilibrium flux rope with an orientation and chirality chosen in agreement with observations of an H{alpha} filament. During the eruption, one footpoint of the flux rope reconnects with streamer magnetic field lines and with open field lines from the adjacent coronal hole. It yields an eruption which has a mix of closed and open twisted field lines due to interchange reconnection and only one footpoint line-tied to the source region. Even with the large-scale reconnection, we find no evidence of strong rotation of the CME as it propagates. We study the CME deflection and find that the effect of the Lorentz force is a deflection of the CME by about 3{sup 0} R{sup -1}{sub sun} toward the east during the first 30 minutes of the propagation. We also produce coronagraphic and EUV images of the CME, which we compare with real images, identifying a dimming region associated with the reconnection process. We discuss the implication of our results for the arrival at Earth of CMEs originating from the limb and for models to explain the presence of open field lines in magnetic clouds.

  15. Numerical Investigation of a Coronal Mass Ejection from an Anemone Active Region: Reconnection and Deflection of the 2005 August 22 Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaz, N.; Downs, C.; Shibata, K.; Roussev, I. I.; Asai, A.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2011-09-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the coronal evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2005 August 22 using a three-dimensional thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamic model, the space weather modeling framework. The source region of the eruption was anemone active region (AR) 10798, which emerged inside a coronal hole. We validate our modeled corona by producing synthetic extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, which we compare to EIT images. We initiate the CME with an out-of-equilibrium flux rope with an orientation and chirality chosen in agreement with observations of an Hα filament. During the eruption, one footpoint of the flux rope reconnects with streamer magnetic field lines and with open field lines from the adjacent coronal hole. It yields an eruption which has a mix of closed and open twisted field lines due to interchange reconnection and only one footpoint line-tied to the source region. Even with the large-scale reconnection, we find no evidence of strong rotation of the CME as it propagates. We study the CME deflection and find that the effect of the Lorentz force is a deflection of the CME by about 3° R -1 sun toward the east during the first 30 minutes of the propagation. We also produce coronagraphic and EUV images of the CME, which we compare with real images, identifying a dimming region associated with the reconnection process. We discuss the implication of our results for the arrival at Earth of CMEs originating from the limb and for models to explain the presence of open field lines in magnetic clouds.

  16. Tree litter and forest understorey vegetation: a conceptual framework to understand the effects of tree litter on a perennial geophyte, Anemone nemorosa

    PubMed Central

    Baltzinger, Marie; Archaux, Frédéric; Dumas, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Litter is a key factor in structuring plant populations, through positive or negative interactions. The litter layer forms a mechanical barrier that is often strongly selective against individuals lacking hypocotyle plasticity. Litter composition also interacts with plant growth by providing beneficial nutrients or, inversely, by allowing harmful allelopathic leaching. As conspicuous litter fall accumulation is often observed under deciduous forests, interactions between tree litter and understorey plant populations are worthy of study. Methods In a 1-year ex-situ experiment, the effects of tree litter on the growth of Anemone nemorosa, a small perennial forest geophyte, were investigated. Three ‘litter quantity’ treatments were defined, representative of forest floor litter (199, 356·5 and 514 g m−2), which were crossed with five ‘litter composition’ treatments (Quercus petraea, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Q. petraea + F. sylvatica and Q. petraea + C. betulus), plus a no-litter control. Path analysis was then used to investigate the pathways linking litter characteristics and components of adult plant growth. Key Results As expected, the heavier the litter, the longer the petiole; rhizome growth, however, was not depreciated by the litter-induced petiole lengthening. Both rhizome mass increment and number of initiated buds marginally increased with the amount of litter. Rhizome mass increment was in fact determined primarily by leaf area and leaf life span, neither of which was unequivocally correlated with any litter characteristics. However, the presence of litter significantly increased leafing success: following a late frost event, control rhizomes growing in the absence of litter experienced higher leaf mortality before leaf unfolding. Conclusions The study questions the role of litter as a physical or chemical barrier to ground vegetation; to better understand this role, there is a need for ex-situ, longer

  17. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  18. Mammals of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  19. Melting Ice, Rising Seas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

  20. First Evidence of Inbreeding, Relatedness and Chaotic Genetic Patchiness in the Holoplanktonic Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Aglieri, Giorgio; Papetti, Chiara; Zane, Lorenzo; Milisenda, Giacomo; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Genetic drift and non-random mating seldom influence species with large breeding populations and high dispersal potential, characterized by unstructured gene pool and panmixia at a scale lower than the minimum dispersal range of individuals. In the present study, a set of nine microsatellite markers was developed and used to investigate the spatio-temporal genetic patterns of the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Homozygote excess was detected at eight loci, and individuals exhibited intra-population relatedness higher than expected by chance in at least three samples. This result was supported by the presence of siblings in at least 5 out 8 samples, 4 of which contained full-sib in addition to half-sib dyads. Having tested and ruled out alternative explanations as null alleles, our results suggest the influence of reproductive and behavioural features in shaping the genetic structure of P. noctiluca, as outcomes of population genetics analyses pointed out. Indeed, the genetic differentiation among populations was globally small but highlighted: a) a spatial genetic patchiness uncorrelated with distance between sampling locations, and b) a significant genetic heterogeneity between samples collected in the same locations in different years. Therefore, despite its extreme dispersal potential, P. noctiluca does not maintain a single homogenous population, but rather these jellyfish appear to have intra-bloom localized recruitment and/or individual cohesiveness, whereby siblings more likely swarm together as a single group and remain close after spawning events. These findings provide the first evidence of family structures and consequent genetic patchiness in a species with highly dispersive potential throughout its whole life cycle, contributing to understanding the patterns of dispersal and connectivity in marine environments. PMID:24977703

  1. First evidence of inbreeding, relatedness and chaotic genetic patchiness in the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Aglieri, Giorgio; Papetti, Chiara; Zane, Lorenzo; Milisenda, Giacomo; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Genetic drift and non-random mating seldom influence species with large breeding populations and high dispersal potential, characterized by unstructured gene pool and panmixia at a scale lower than the minimum dispersal range of individuals. In the present study, a set of nine microsatellite markers was developed and used to investigate the spatio-temporal genetic patterns of the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Homozygote excess was detected at eight loci, and individuals exhibited intra-population relatedness higher than expected by chance in at least three samples. This result was supported by the presence of siblings in at least 5 out 8 samples, 4 of which contained full-sib in addition to half-sib dyads. Having tested and ruled out alternative explanations as null alleles, our results suggest the influence of reproductive and behavioural features in shaping the genetic structure of P. noctiluca, as outcomes of population genetics analyses pointed out. Indeed, the genetic differentiation among populations was globally small but highlighted: a) a spatial genetic patchiness uncorrelated with distance between sampling locations, and b) a significant genetic heterogeneity between samples collected in the same locations in different years. Therefore, despite its extreme dispersal potential, P. noctiluca does not maintain a single homogenous population, but rather these jellyfish appear to have intra-bloom localized recruitment and/or individual cohesiveness, whereby siblings more likely swarm together as a single group and remain close after spawning events. These findings provide the first evidence of family structures and consequent genetic patchiness in a species with highly dispersive potential throughout its whole life cycle, contributing to understanding the patterns of dispersal and connectivity in marine environments. PMID:24977703

  2. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Central Rhode Island Sound Southeast of Point Judith, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Nadeau, M.A.; Wood, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study sea-floor environments off the northeast coast of the United States. During 2008, NOAA survey H11996 collected multibeam echosounder data in a 65-square kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, southeast of Point Judith, Rhode Island. During 2010, the USGS collected bottom photographs and sediment samples from 25 stations in this study area. The bathymetry, photography, and sediment data are used to interpret sea-floor features including scour depressions, sand waves, trawl marks, and dredge spoils. Scour depressions cover the bathymetric highs in much of the study area. Sand waves are located mostly in the southwest, and trawl marks tend to be in the northern regions. Dredge spoils are located at a disposal site in a bathymetric low in the western end of the study area. Most stations have a sea-floor surface of sand or silty sand, but eight of the stations have boulders to pea-sized gravel or gravelly sediment on the surface. Photographs show sandy areas typically have scattered burrows, shells, amphipod communities, and worm tubes. Boulders and cobbles are commonly overgrown with hydrozoans and anemones.

  3. Diversity, distribution and nature of faunal associations with deep-sea pennatulacean corals in the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Baillon, Sandrine; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Anthoptilum grandiflorum and Halipteris finmarchica are two deep-sea corals (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) common on soft bottoms in the North Atlantic where they are believed to act as biogenic habitat. The former also has a worldwide distribution. To assist conservation efforts, this study examines spatial and temporal patterns in the abundance, diversity, and nature of their faunal associates. A total of 14 species were found on A. grandiflorum and 6 species on H. finmarchica during a multi-year and multi-site sampling campaign in eastern Canada. Among those, 7 and 5 species, respectively, were attached to the sea pens and categorized as close associates or symbionts. Rarefaction analyses suggest that the most common associates of both sea pens have been sampled. Biodiversity associated with each sea pen is analyzed according to season, depth and region using either close associates or the broader collection of species. Associated biodiversity generally increases from northern to southern locations and does not vary with depth (∼ 100-1400 m). Seasonal patterns in A. grandiflorum show higher biodiversity during spring/summer due to the transient presence of early life stages of fishes and shrimps whereas it peaks in fall for H. finmarchica. Two distinct endoparasitic species of highly modified copepods (families Lamippidae and Corallovexiidae) commonly occur in the polyps of A. grandiflorum and H. finmarchica, and a commensal sea anemone frequently associates with H. finmarchica. Stable isotope analyses (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) reveal potential trophic interactions between the parasites and their hosts. Overall, the diversity of obligate/permanent associates of sea pens is moderate; however the presence of mobile/transient associates highlights an ecological role that has yet to be fully elucidated and supports their key contribution to the enhancement of biodiversity in the Northwest Atlantic. PMID:25369515

  4. The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than

  5. Diversity, Distribution and Nature of Faunal Associations with Deep-Sea Pennatulacean Corals in the Northwest Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Baillon, Sandrine; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Anthoptilum grandiflorum and Halipteris finmarchica are two deep-sea corals (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) common on soft bottoms in the North Atlantic where they are believed to act as biogenic habitat. The former also has a worldwide distribution. To assist conservation efforts, this study examines spatial and temporal patterns in the abundance, diversity, and nature of their faunal associates. A total of 14 species were found on A. grandiflorum and 6 species on H. finmarchica during a multi-year and multi-site sampling campaign in eastern Canada. Among those, 7 and 5 species, respectively, were attached to the sea pens and categorized as close associates or symbionts. Rarefaction analyses suggest that the most common associates of both sea pens have been sampled. Biodiversity associated with each sea pen is analyzed according to season, depth and region using either close associates or the broader collection of species. Associated biodiversity generally increases from northern to southern locations and does not vary with depth (∼100–1400 m). Seasonal patterns in A. grandiflorum show higher biodiversity during spring/summer due to the transient presence of early life stages of fishes and shrimps whereas it peaks in fall for H. finmarchica. Two distinct endoparasitic species of highly modified copepods (families Lamippidae and Corallovexiidae) commonly occur in the polyps of A. grandiflorum and H. finmarchica, and a commensal sea anemone frequently associates with H. finmarchica. Stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ15N) reveal potential trophic interactions between the parasites and their hosts. Overall, the diversity of obligate/permanent associates of sea pens is moderate; however the presence of mobile/transient associates highlights an ecological role that has yet to be fully elucidated and supports their key contribution to the enhancement of biodiversity in the Northwest Atlantic. PMID:25369515

  6. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than

  7. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  8. Beaufort Sea: information update

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.

    1988-04-01

    The report is based on a multi-disciplinary meeting held March 6-7, 1985, as part of preparations for the Beaufort Sea Sale 97. The chapters are based on presentations given: The causeway effect: Modification of nearshore thermal regime resulting from causeways; Summertime sea ice intrusions in the Chukchi Sea; The deepwater limit of ice gouging on the Beaufort Sea shelf; Distribution, abundance, migration, harvest, and stock identity of Belukha Whales in the Beaufort Sea; Ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea; Beaufort Sea socioeconomics; The Baffin Island Oil Spill, (BIOS) Project.

  9. Modelling climate change effects on benthos: Distributional shifts in the North Sea from 2001 to 2099

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Michael; Mathis, Moritz; Kröncke, Ingrid; Neumann, Hermann; Pohlmann, Thomas; Reiss, Henning

    2016-06-01

    In the marine realm, climate change can affect a variety of physico-chemical properties with wide-ranging biological effects, but the knowledge of how climate change affects benthic distributions is limited and mainly restricted to coastal environments. To project the response of benthic species of a shelf sea (North Sea) to the expected climate change, the distributions of 75 marine benthic species were modelled and the spatial changes in distribution were projected for 2099 based on modelled bottom temperature and salinity changes using the IPCC scenario A1B. Mean bottom temperature was projected to increase between 0.15 and 5.4 °C, while mean bottom salinity was projected to moderately increase by 1.7. The spatial changes in species distribution were modelled with Maxent and the direction and extent of these changes were assessed. The results showed a latitudinal northward shift for 64% of the species (maximum 109 km; brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis) and a southward shift for 36% (maximum 101 km; hermit crab Pagurus prideaux and the associated cloak anemone Adamsia carciniopados; 105 km). The relatively low rates of distributional shifts compared to fish or plankton species were probably influenced by the regional topography. The environmental gradients in the central North Sea along the 50 m depth contour might act as a 'barrier', possibly resulting in a compression of distribution range and hampering further shifts to the north. For 49 species this resulted in a habitat loss up to 100%, while only 11 species could benefit from the warming in terms of habitat gain. Particularly the benthic communities of the southern North Sea, where the strongest temperature increase was projected, would be strongly affected by the distributional changes, since key species showed northward shifts and high rates of habitat loss, with potential ramifications for the functioning of the ecosystem.

  10. Evolution and functional diversity of jellyfish opsins.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    Cnidaria are the most basal animal phylum possessing complex eyes [1]. Their eyes predominantly use ciliary photoreceptor cells (c-PRCs) like vertebrates, whereas insect eyes use rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells (r-PRCs) [1-4]. These two cell types show not only different cytoarchitectures but distinct phototransduction cascades, which are triggered by the respective types of opsins (e.g., [5]), ciliary opsins (c-opsins) and rhabdomeric opsins (r-opsins) [6]. Recent reports suggested that the c- and r-PRCs and their respective opsins diverged at least before the deuterostome-protostome split [7-9]. To study the earlier evolution of animal PRCs and opsins, we investigated two hydrozoan jellyfishes. We report here the first-characterized cnidarian opsins. Molecular phylogeny revealed that the cloned 20 jellyfish opsins, together with all the opsins from a hydra and some from a sea anemone, are more closely related to the c-opsins than to any other major opsin subfamily, indicating that the divergence of c- and r-opsins antedates the Cnidaria-Bilateria split. Possible scenarios of animal PRC evolution are discussed. Furthermore, Cladonema opsins show several distinct tissue- and stage-specific expression patterns. The expression of specific opsins in the eyes suggests a role in vision, whereas that in the gonads suggests a role in light-controlled release of gametes.

  11. Evolution and functional diversity of jellyfish opsins.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    Cnidaria are the most basal animal phylum possessing complex eyes [1]. Their eyes predominantly use ciliary photoreceptor cells (c-PRCs) like vertebrates, whereas insect eyes use rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells (r-PRCs) [1-4]. These two cell types show not only different cytoarchitectures but distinct phototransduction cascades, which are triggered by the respective types of opsins (e.g., [5]), ciliary opsins (c-opsins) and rhabdomeric opsins (r-opsins) [6]. Recent reports suggested that the c- and r-PRCs and their respective opsins diverged at least before the deuterostome-protostome split [7-9]. To study the earlier evolution of animal PRCs and opsins, we investigated two hydrozoan jellyfishes. We report here the first-characterized cnidarian opsins. Molecular phylogeny revealed that the cloned 20 jellyfish opsins, together with all the opsins from a hydra and some from a sea anemone, are more closely related to the c-opsins than to any other major opsin subfamily, indicating that the divergence of c- and r-opsins antedates the Cnidaria-Bilateria split. Possible scenarios of animal PRC evolution are discussed. Furthermore, Cladonema opsins show several distinct tissue- and stage-specific expression patterns. The expression of specific opsins in the eyes suggests a role in vision, whereas that in the gonads suggests a role in light-controlled release of gametes. PMID:18160295

  12. Saponin 6 derived from Anemone taipaiensis induces U87 human malignant glioblastoma cell apoptosis via regulation of Fas and Bcl‑2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Chen; Tang, Hai-Feng; Hu, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Min-Hua; Qin, Hong-Yan; Li, San-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Fei, Zhou; Cheng, Guang

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor, and is associated with a poor prognosis. Saponin 6, derived from Anemone taipaiensis, exerts potent cytotoxic effects against the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line and the human promyelocytic leukemia HL‑60 cell line; however, the effects of saponin 6 on glioblastoma remain unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of saponin 6 on human U87 malignant glioblastoma (U87 MG) cells. The current study revealed that saponin 6 induced U87 MG cell death in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.83 µM after treatment for 48 h. However, saponin 6 was needed to be used at a lesser potency in HT‑22 cells, with an IC50 value of 6.24 µM. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry using Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining. DNA fragmentation and alterations in nuclear morphology were examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The present study demonstrated that treatment with saponin 6 induced cell apoptosis in U87 MG cells, and resulted in DNA fragmentation and nuclear morphological alterations typical of apoptosis. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that saponin 6 was able to induce cell cycle arrest. The present study also demonstrated that saponin 6‑induced apoptosis of U87 MG cells was attributed to increases in the protein expression levels of Fas, Fas ligand, and cleaved caspase‑3, ‑8 and ‑9, and decreases in the levels of B‑cell lymphoma 2. The current study indicated that saponin 6 may exhibit selective cytotoxicity toward U87 MG cells by activating apoptosis via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Therefore, saponin 6 derived from A. taipaiensis may possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of GBM. PMID

  13. Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO₂-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH₄Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na⁺-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na⁺/H⁺ plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited. PMID:24256552

  14. Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO₂-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH₄Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na⁺-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na⁺/H⁺ plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited.

  15. Monitoring Arctic Sea ice using ERTS imagery. [Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and other minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft.

  16. Aral Sea basin: a sea dies, a sea also rises.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Michael H

    2007-06-01

    The thesis of this article is quite different from many other theses of papers, books, and articles on the Aral Sea. It is meant to purposely highlight the reality of the situation in Central Asia: the Aral Sea that was once a thriving body of water is no more. That sea is dead. What does exist in its place are the Aral seas: there are in essence three bodies of water, one of which is being purposefully restored and its level is rising (the Little Aral), and two others which are still marginally connected, although they continue to decline in level (the Big Aral West and the Big Aral East). In 1960 the level of the sea was about 53 m above sea level. By 2006 the level had dropped by 23 m to 30 m above sea level. This was not a scenario generated by a computer model. It was a process of environmental degradation played out in real life in a matter of a few decades, primarily as a result of human activities. Despite wishes and words to the contrary, it will take a heroic global effort to save what remains of the Big Aral. It would also take a significant degree of sacrifice by people and governments in the region to restore the Big Aral to an acceptable level, given that the annual rate of flow reaching the Amudarya River delta is less than a 10th of what it was several decades ago. Conferring World Heritage status to the Aral Sea(s) could spark restoration efforts for the Big Aral.

  17. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  1. All That Unplowed Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

  2. Sea-floor geology in central Rhode Island Sound south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Worley, C.R.; Nadeau, M.A.; Van Hoy, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. NOAA collected multibeam-echosounder data during hydrographic survey H11995 in a 63-square-kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island. The USGS collected sediment samples, bottom video, and still photographs from 27 stations in this study area to verify an interpretation of the bathymetric data. Collected data are used to map areas of scour depressions and erosional outliers, megaripples, boulders, and relatively undisturbed modern marine sediments. In general, much of the eastern part of the study area, a submerged segment of the Harbor Hill-Roanoke Point-Charlestown-Buzzards Bay moraine, is bouldery. Bottom photography shows boulders are generally encrusted with hydrozoans, algae, and anemone. Scour depressions, presumably formed by long-period storm waves, and erosional outliers of Holocene sediments dominate the western part of the study area and several large areas in the east. The scour depressions tend to have coarser grained sediment than intervening erosional outliers. The coarseness likely creates turbulence in the water over these areas, which prevents fine-grained sediment deposition. Several small areas of megaripples are visible in the bathymetry data in the west. Other sandy areas are typically rippled, with burrows, worm tubes, and starfish present.

  3. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  4. [Marine life envenomations: example in New Caledonia].

    PubMed

    Rual, F

    1999-01-01

    Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents.

  5. A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras; Cech, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus) from Slovakia. A limited survey of shrews from the northern United States, Blarina brevicauda Say and Sorex sp. from New York, and Sorex spp. from Oregon, did not discover any infections, which is in stark contrast to the relatively high infection rates (up to 66%) in European shrew populations. We also provide a summary and discussion of literature records of species of Soricimyxum and a host survey. Given the lack of distinguishing morphological or morphometric characters between Soricimyxum spp., and the overlap in vertebrate hosts and geographic ranges, unambiguous identification of these closely related shrew parasites can presently only be achieved through sequence comparison of one or more variable SSU rDNA regions. PMID:27312127

  6. East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    PubMed Central

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  8. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  9. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  10. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

  11. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  12. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  13. Semi-Automated Image Analysis for the Assessment of Megafaunal Densities at the Arctic Deep-Sea Observatory HAUSGARTEN

    PubMed Central

    Schoening, Timm; Bergmann, Melanie; Ontrup, Jörg; Taylor, James; Dannheim, Jennifer; Gutt, Julian; Purser, Autun; Nattkemper, Tim W.

    2012-01-01

    Megafauna play an important role in benthic ecosystem function and are sensitive indicators of environmental change. Non-invasive monitoring of benthic communities can be accomplished by seafloor imaging. However, manual quantification of megafauna in images is labor-intensive and therefore, this organism size class is often neglected in ecosystem studies. Automated image analysis has been proposed as a possible approach to such analysis, but the heterogeneity of megafaunal communities poses a non-trivial challenge for such automated techniques. Here, the potential of a generalized object detection architecture, referred to as iSIS (intelligent Screening of underwater Image Sequences), for the quantification of a heterogenous group of megafauna taxa is investigated. The iSIS system is tuned for a particular image sequence (i.e. a transect) using a small subset of the images, in which megafauna taxa positions were previously marked by an expert. To investigate the potential of iSIS and compare its results with those obtained from human experts, a group of eight different taxa from one camera transect of seafloor images taken at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN is used. The results show that inter- and intra-observer agreements of human experts exhibit considerable variation between the species, with a similar degree of variation apparent in the automatically derived results obtained by iSIS. Whilst some taxa (e. g. Bathycrinus stalks, Kolga hyalina, small white sea anemone) were well detected by iSIS (i. e. overall Sensitivity: 87%, overall Positive Predictive Value: 67%), some taxa such as the small sea cucumber Elpidia heckeri remain challenging, for both human observers and iSIS. PMID:22719868

  14. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  15. High contents of trimethylamine oxide correlating with depth in deep-sea teleost fishes, skates, and decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R H; Yancey, P H

    1999-02-01

    In muscles of shallow-living marine animals, the osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is reportedly found (in millimoles of TMAO per kilogram of tissue wet weight) at 30-90 in shrimp, 5-50 in crabs, 61-181 in skates, and 10-70 in most teleost fish. Recently our laboratory reported higher levels (83-211 mmol/kg), correlating with habitat depth, in deep-sea gadiform teleosts. We now report the same trend in muscles of other animals, collected off the coast of Oregon from bathyal (1800-2000 m) and abyssal plain (2850 m) sites. TMAO contents (mmol/kg +/- SD) were as follows: zoarcid teleosts, 103 +/- 9 (bathyal) and 197 +/- 2 (abyssal); scorpaenid teleosts, 32 +/- 0 (shallow) and 141 +/- 16 (bathyal); rajid skates, 215 +/- 13 (bathyal) and 244 +/- 23 (abyssal); caridean shrimp, 76 +/- 16 (shallow), 203 +/- 35 (bathyal), and 299 +/- 28 (abyssal); Chionoecetes crabs, 22 +/- 2 (shallow) and 164 +/- 15 (bathyal). Deep squid, clams, and anemones also had higher contents than shallow species. Osmoconformers showed compensation between TMAO and other osmolytes. Urea contents (typically 300 mmol/kg in shallow elasmobranchs) in skates were 214 +/- 5 (bathyal) and 136 +/- 9 (abyssal). Glycine contents in shrimp were 188 +/- 17 (shallow) and 52 +/- 20 (abyssal). High TMAO contents may reflect diet, reduce osmoregulatory costs, increase buoyancy, or counteract destabilization of proteins by pressure. PMID:25575382

  16. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect

  17. Epibenthic assemblages in the Celtic Sea and associated with the Jones Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Martinez, I.; Burt, G. J.; Scott, B. E.

    2013-10-01

    The epibenthic assemblages in the Celtic Sea are described from the catches from 2 m beam trawl surveys undertaken from 2000 to 2009. During this period 154 samples were collected. The most ubiquitous species in the study area were the natantid shrimps Processa spp. and Crangon allmanni, the hermit crabs Pagurus prideaux and Anapagurus laevis, sand star Astropecten irregularis and spotted dragonet Callionymus maculatus. Multivariate community analyses indicated that catches (numbers per tow) were distributed across six assemblages, two of which were predominant in the study area. Most catches were attributed to either a 'shelf edge assemblage', which was widespread in deeper waters (114-423 m water depth) or an 'outer shelf assemblage' that occurred across much of the Celtic Sea north of 49°N in waters 49-175 m deep. The dominant species along the edge of the continental shelf were the hormathid anemome Actinauge richardi, sea spider Pycnogonum littorale (which associated with A. richardi), Devonshire cup coral Caryophyllia smithii and the swimming crab Macropipus tuberculatus. The dominant species in the outer shelf assemblage included P. prideaux, C. allmanni, A. laevis and common starfish Asterias rubens. Stations closer to shore were relatively distinct and catches in this 'inner shelf assemblage' were composed primarily of an inshore fauna (e.g. Ophiura ophiura, C. allmanni and Liocarcinus holsatus). Stations in the southern part of the survey grid were also relatively distinct ('southern Celtic Sea assemblage'), and several large echinoderms (Porania pulvillus, Stichastrella rosea and Anseropoda placenta) dominated at these sites. Three of the deepest stations were also relatively distinct, as were a group of stations in the muddy habitat of the Celtic Deep and comparable grounds elsewhere in the region, where Nucula sulcata and Alpheus glaber were characteristic. Catches on the shallower parts of the Jones Bank (and on another bank in the region) were

  18. The north Sulu Sea productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

  19. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project, Duxbury Reef, Bolinas, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Prescutti, K.; Ball, O.; Chang, E.; Darakananda, K.; Jessup, K.; Poutian, J.; Schwalbe, H.; Storm, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of the project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal ecology, interpretation and monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects (A and B), and using randomly determined points within a permanent 100 m2 area, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will analyze the population densities of aggregating anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima, for seasonal abundance variations as well as long-term population trends. We will also follow the seasonal and long-term population fluctuations of red algal turf, Endocladia muricata and Gelidium coulteri, and black turban snails, Tegula funebralis. Comparing populations of turf algae and the herbivorous black turban snails gathered before and after the November 7, 2007 San Francisco Bay oil spill shows very little impact on the Duxbury Reef intertidal inhabitants. Future analyses will

  20. Sensing the sea bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    William Wilcock and a team of scientists and engineers drilled holes in the sea floor, and inadvertently provided a breeding ground for octopuses, in their attempt to understand deep-ocean hydrothermal venting.

  1. Science at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mary Nied

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

  2. Sea Ice Minimum 2016

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover from its wintertime maximum extent, which was reached on Mar. 24, 2016, and was the lowest on record for the second year in a row, to ...

  3. Teacher at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighley, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the experiences of a teacher in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Teacher At Sea Program in which teachers are placed on NOAA vessels to work with professional scientists doing critical, real world research. (DDR)

  4. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  5. Dead Sea Scrolls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  6. Sea Raiders of Acadia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickason, Olive Patricia

    1976-01-01

    One of the French allies, the Micmac, waged much of the war against the English on the sea. This article discusses the determined stand by the Micmac seamen of the eastern coasts for their lands and way of life. (NQ)

  7. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  8. Sea ice ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  9. Sea level change

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  11. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  12. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  13. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  14. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  15. Analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature changes in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betul Avsar, Nevin; Jin, Shuanggen; Kutoglu, Hakan; Erol, Bihter

    2016-07-01

    The Black Sea is a nearly closed sea with limited interaction with the Mediterranean Sea through the Turkish Straits. Measurement of sea level change will provide constraints on the water mass balance and thermal expansion of seawaters in response to climate change. In this paper, sea level changes in the Black Sea are investigated between January 1993 and December 2014 using multi-mission satellite altimetry data and sea surface temperature (SST) data. Here, the daily Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) gridded with a 1/8°x1/8° spatial resolution from AVISO and the NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Anomaly data set are used. The annual cycles of sea level and sea surface temperature changes reach the maximum values in November and January, respectively. The trend is 3.16±0.77 mm/yr for sea level change and -0.06±0.01°C/yr for sea surface temperature during the same 22-year period. The observed sea level rise is highly correlated with sea surface warming for the same time periods. In addition, the geographical distribution of the rates of the Black Sea level and SST changes between January 1993 and December 2014 are further analyzed, showing a good agreement in the eastern Black Sea. The rates of sea level rise and sea surface warming are larger in the eastern part than in the western part except in the northwestern Black Sea. Finally, the temporal correlation between sea level and SST time series are presented based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis.

  16. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  17. Changes in extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Andersson, Helén; Nerheim, Signild; Jönsson, Anette

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed shallow water model for the Baltic Sea and North Sea is presented. The model is validated by means of a comparison with hindcast simulations with observational data sets. The aim of the development is to provide and apply a modelling tool to model extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The model approach will support the direct analysis of extreme sea level observations in the past and provide the possibility to extend the statistical data base by producing very long time series or very large ensembles of coastal sea levels. This effort is intended to contribute to an assessment of risks due to storm surges and coastal flooding in the 21st century along the coast of Sweden. By using different RCP climate scenarios downscaled with a regional, coupled climate model atmospheric forcing is available to project possible changes in extreme sea levels into the future. Projected sea level rise, changes in dynamical sea level in the North East Atlantic and tidal forcing in the northern North Sea are applied as boundary condition which allows to investigate their impact on the dynamics of regional sea level variability. Initial experiments focus on the impact of model resolution, resolution in the atmospheric forcing and the amount of details necessary in the bathymetry to faithfully model coastal sea level in the Baltic Sea and North Sea.

  18. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  19. Mitogenome rearrangement in the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) involves a long-term evolving group I intron.

    PubMed

    Emblem, Åse; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Evertsen, Jussi; Johansen, Steinar D

    2011-11-01

    Group I introns are genetic insertion elements that invade host genomes in a wide range of organisms. In metazoans, however, group I introns are extremely rare, so far only identified within mitogenomes of hexacorals and some sponges. We sequenced the complete mitogenome of the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa, the dominating deep sea reef-building coral species in the North Atlantic Ocean. The mitogenome (16,150 bp) has the same gene content but organized in a unique gene order compared to that of other known scleractinian corals. A complex group I intron (6460 bp) inserted in the ND5 gene (position 717) was found to host seven essential mitochondrial protein genes and one ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis supports a vertical inheritance pattern of the ND5-717 intron among hexacoral mitogenomes with no examples of intron loss. Structural assessments of the Lophelia intron revealed an unusual organization that lacks the universally conserved ωG at the 3' end, as well as a highly compact RNA core structure with overlapping ribozyme and protein coding capacities. Based on phylogenetic and structural analyses we reconstructed the evolutionary history of ND5-717, from its ancestral protist origin, through intron loss in some early metazoan lineages, and into a compulsory feature with functional implications in hexacorals.

  20. Offshore dispersion of ephyrae and medusae of Aurelia aurita s.l. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) from port enclosures: Physical and biological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makabe, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Hidetaka; Uye, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l. have been increasingly significant, particularly in human perturbed coastal waters, where numerous artificial constructions increase suitable habitat for polyp populations. We examined the spatiotemporal dispersion process in 6 ports of ephyrae of A. aurita after release from strobilating polyps, to offshore waters of northern Harima Nada (eutrophic eastern Inland Sea of Japan) from January to May 2010. Almost exclusive occurrence of the ephyra stage in the ports demonstrated that their seeding polyps reside in the port enclosures, and liberated ephyrae are rapidly exported offshore by tidal water exchange. Post-ephyra stages occurred primarily outside the ports, and their age increased gradually offshore, ca. up to 9 km off the ports, and the pattern of age increase could be simulated by a simple diffusion model. However, there was an abrupt decline in A. aurita density beyond ca. 3 km off the shore, where jellyfish-eating Chrysaora pacifica medusae were prevalent. We conclude that physical forces are primarily responsible for offshore dispersion of A. aurita, and a biological factor, i.e. predation by C. pacifica, jointly affects the distribution pattern of A. aurita.

  1. Simulation and observations of annual density banding in skeletons of Montastraea (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) growing under thermal stress associated with ocean warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worum, F.P.; Carricart-Ganivet, J. P.; Benson, L.; Golicher, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of annual density banding in skeletons of Montastraea coral species growing under thermal stress associated with an ocean-warming scenario. The model predicts that at sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) <29??C, high-density bands (HDBs) are formed during the warmest months of the year. As temperature rises and oscillates around the optimal calcification temperature, an annual doublet in the HDB (dHDB) occurs that consists of two narrow HDBs. The presence of such dHDBs in skeletons of Montastraea species is a clear indication of thermal stress. When all monthly SSTs exceed the optimal calcification temperature, HDBs form during the coldest, not the warmest, months of the year. In addition, a decline in mean-annual calcification rate also occurs during this period of elevated SST. A comparison of our model results with annual density patterns observed in skeletons of M. faveolata and M. franksi, collected from several localities in the Mexican Caribbean, indicates that elevated SSTs are already resulting in the presence of dHDBs as a first sign of thermal stress, which occurs even without coral bleaching. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  2. Mitogenome rearrangement in the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) involves a long-term evolving group I intron.

    PubMed

    Emblem, Åse; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Evertsen, Jussi; Johansen, Steinar D

    2011-11-01

    Group I introns are genetic insertion elements that invade host genomes in a wide range of organisms. In metazoans, however, group I introns are extremely rare, so far only identified within mitogenomes of hexacorals and some sponges. We sequenced the complete mitogenome of the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa, the dominating deep sea reef-building coral species in the North Atlantic Ocean. The mitogenome (16,150 bp) has the same gene content but organized in a unique gene order compared to that of other known scleractinian corals. A complex group I intron (6460 bp) inserted in the ND5 gene (position 717) was found to host seven essential mitochondrial protein genes and one ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis supports a vertical inheritance pattern of the ND5-717 intron among hexacoral mitogenomes with no examples of intron loss. Structural assessments of the Lophelia intron revealed an unusual organization that lacks the universally conserved ωG at the 3' end, as well as a highly compact RNA core structure with overlapping ribozyme and protein coding capacities. Based on phylogenetic and structural analyses we reconstructed the evolutionary history of ND5-717, from its ancestral protist origin, through intron loss in some early metazoan lineages, and into a compulsory feature with functional implications in hexacorals. PMID:21820066

  3. Endobiotic bacteria and their pathogenic potential in cnidarian tentacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Christian; Doepke, Hilke

    2010-09-01

    Endobiotic bacteria colonize the tentacles of cnidaria. This paper provides first insight into the bacterial spectrum and its potential of pathogenic activities inside four cnidarian species. Sample material originating from Scottish waters comprises the jellyfish species Cyanea capillata and C. lamarckii, hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa and sea anemone Sagartia elegans. Mixed cultures of endobiotic bacteria, pure cultures selected on basis of haemolysis, but also lyophilized samples were prepared from tentacles and used for DGGE-profiling with subsequent phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA fragments. Bacteria were detected in each of the cnidarian species tested. Twenty-one bacterial species including four groups of closely related organisms were found in culture material. The species within these groups could not be differentiated from each other (one group of Pseudoalteromonas spp., two groups of Shewanella spp., one group of Vibrio spp.). Each of the hosts exhibits a specific endobacterial spectrum. Solely Cyanea lamarckii harboured Moritella viscosa. Only in Cyanea capillata, members of the Shewanella group #2 and the species Pseudoalteromonas arctica, Shewanella violacea, Sulfitobacter pontiacus and Arcobacter butzleri were detected. Hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa provided an amazingly wide spectrum of nine bacterial species. Exclusively, in the sea anemone Sagartia elegans, the bacterial species P. aliena was found. Overall eleven bacterial species detected were described recently as novel species. Four 16S rDNA fragments generated from lyophilized material displayed extremely low relationship to their next neighbours. These organisms are regarded as members of the endobiotic “terra incognita”. Since the origin of cnidarian toxins is unclear, the possible pathogenic activity of endobiotic bacteria has to be taken into account. Literature data show that their next neighbours display an interesting diversity of haemolytic, septicaemic and necrotic actions including

  4. Transdermal Delivery of Scopolamine by Natural Submicron Injectors: In-Vivo Study in Pig

    PubMed Central

    Shaoul, Esther; Ayalon, Ari; Tal, Yossi; Lotan, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made a notable contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. While transdermal delivery systems would appear to provide an attractive solution for local and systemic drug delivery, only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through the outer layer of the skin. The most difficult to deliver in this way are hydrophilic drugs. The aquatic phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish and hydra, is one of the most ancient multicellular phyla that possess stinging cells containing organelles (cnidocysts), comprising a sophisticated injection system. The apparatus is folded within collagenous microcapsules and upon activation injects a thin tubule that immediately penetrates the prey and delivers its contents. Here we show that this natural microscopic injection system can be adapted for systemic transdermal drug delivery once it is isolated from the cells and uploaded with the drug. Using a topically applied gel containing isolated natural sea anemone injectors and the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, we found that the formulated injectors could penetrate porcine skin and immediately deliver this hydrophilic drug. An in-vivo study in pigs demonstrated, for the first time, rapid systemic delivery of scopolamine, with Tmax of 30 minutes and Cmax 5 times higher than in controls treated topically with a scopolamine-containing gel without cnidocysts. The ability of the formulated natural injection system to penetrate a barrier as thick as the skin and systemically deliver an exogenous compound presents an intriguing and attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:22363770

  5. The Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 par