Science.gov

Sample records for sea breeze types

  1. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the Southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 10 km to 40 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes, respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the eastern coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature during the sea breeze season do not significantly affect the circulation, suggesting that a thermal contrast is only needed as a precondition to the development of the sea breeze. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of assessments of the offshore wind energy climate.

  2. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of both assessments of the offshore wind energy climate and

  3. Spatial-temporal Detection of Sea-breeze Penetration Over Megacities from Himawari-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdiansyah, M. R.; Inagaki, A.; Kanda, M.

    2017-12-01

    For a coastal urban region, sea breeze is very important for air ventilation and cooling. However, most of sea-breeze monitoring is lacking and inadequate temporally and spatially. Japanese new geostationary meteorological satellite (Himawari-8) has been launched which can provide high resolution satellite imagery. This enables better monitoring of mesoscale weather phenomena such as sea breeze. In this study, we first attempt the feasibility of acquiring temporal-spatial information of sea breeze in a coastal urban region using Himawari-8. For study area, Tokyo (Japan) and Jakarta (Indonesia) area were selected as representative coastal urban regions; both cities located in very distant latitudes. Sea breeze events (Tokyo:16 cases and Jakarta:17 cases) in JAS season of 2015 and 2016 were analyzed. Convergence zones of two sea-breeze systems and delayed sea-breeze penetration were found for both Tokyo and Jakarta. Estimation of inland penetration speed and convergence area for sea breeze event, accompanied by the formation of non-precipitating cumulus type cloudline, is the primary objective. From the visible band image of Himawari-8, cumulus cloudline for each sea breeze event was extracted. The inland penetration speed was then estimated automatically from temporal evolution of these cloudlines. For the case of Tokyo, it was found that the sea breeze from Tokyo Bay had slower penetration speed than another sea breeze (Sagami Bay) coming from a less urbanized area. The average penetration speed of sea-breeze front was estimated to be 3.6 m/s and 1.3 m/s for sea breeze from Sagami Bay and Tokyo Bay, respectively. The penetration differences (from Sagami Bay and Tokyo Bay) could be attributed to the difference in urbanization levels between the coastal areas of Sagami and Tokyo Bay. For the case of Jakarta, the convergence of two sea-breeze systems were found persistent slightly east from the center of Jakarta. Interestingly, the sea-breeze delay was more pronounced

  4. Interaction of the sea breeze with a river breeze in an area of complex coastal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Takle, Eugene S.; Leone, John M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the sea-breeze circulation with a river-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating (east coast of Florida) was studied using a 3D finite-element mesoscale model. The model simulations are compared with temperature and wind fields observed on a typical fall day during the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. The results from numerical experiments designed to isolate the effect of the river breeze indicate that the convergence in the sea-breeze front is suppressed when it passes over the cooler surface of the rivers.

  5. Interaction between a wildfire and the sea-breeze front

    Treesearch

    Deborah E. Hanley; Philip Cunningham; Scott Goodrick

    2013-01-01

    Florida experiences sea breezes, lake breezes, and bay breezes almost every day during the year, and there are frequently complex interactions between many of these breezes. Given the often-rapid changes in temperature, humidity, and wind speed that accompany these breezes, most wildfires and prescribed fires in Florida are affected in some way by their interaction...

  6. Sensitivity of Offshore Surface Fluxes and Sea Breezes to the Spatial Distribution of Sea-Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Kelly; Sinsky, Eric; Edson, James; Whitney, Michael M.; Jia, Yan

    2018-03-01

    A series of numerical sensitivity experiments is performed to quantify the impact of sea-surface temperature (SST) distribution on offshore surface fluxes and simulated sea-breeze dynamics. The SST simulations of two mid-latitude sea-breeze events over coastal New England are performed using a spatially-uniform SST, as well as spatially-varying SST datasets of 32- and 1-km horizontal resolutions. Offshore surface heat and buoyancy fluxes vary in response to the SST distribution. Local sea-breeze circulations are relatively insensitive, with minimal differences in vertical structure and propagation speed among the experiments. The largest thermal perturbations are confined to the lowest 10% of the sea-breeze column due to the relatively high stability of the mid-Atlantic marine atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) suppressing vertical mixing, resulting in the depth of the marine layer remaining unchanged. Minimal impacts on the column-averaged virtual potential temperature and sea-breeze depth translates to small changes in sea-breeze propagation speed. This indicates that the use of datasets with a fine-scale SST may not produce more accurate sea-breeze simulations in highly stable marine ABL regimes, though may prove more beneficial in less stable sub-tropical environments.

  7. Morning transition case between the land and the sea breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Guijarro, Jose A.; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-05-01

    An experimental field campaign took place in September 2013 near the coastline in the southeastern Campos basin in the island of Mallorca to characterize experimentally the transition between the sea and the land breezes and to further study the successful cases with the corresponding high-resolution numerical simulations. Favorable weather conditions were only found for one episode that comprised a well-formed nocturnal land breeze, followed by the morning transition to sea breeze until noon the next day, when incoming clouds switched off the breeze regime. To analyse this transition between land and sea breezes, the official network of stations is used, supplemented by a portable station close to the shore and soundings of temperature (taken by a captive balloon and remotely controlled multicopter). These data are used to check the goodness of the corresponding simulation at a horizontal resolution of 1 km. Model and observations see similarly both regimes and the transition, showing some differences in the timing and the details in the surface layer. This transient event is analyzed in terms of phases, going consecutively through land breeze, phase previous to the sea breeze, when land heating starts, but it is still colder than the sea, the preparatory phase when the land becomes warmer than the sea, and the development phase when the breeze front progresses inland.

  8. Sea breeze: Induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, M. E.; Pielke, R. A.; Cotton, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Sea-breeze-deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula were investigated using a cloud/mesoscale numerical model. The objective was to gain a better understanding of sea-breeze and deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula using a high resolution convectively explicit model and to use these results to evaluate convective parameterization schemes. A 3-D numerical investigation of Florida convection was completed. The Kuo and Fritsch-Chappell parameterization schemes are summarized and evaluated.

  9. Land- and sea-surface impacts on local coastal breezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Hughes, C.; Gilchrist, J.; Lodise, J.; Goldman, W.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Delaware has seen significant increases in population along the coastline in the past three decades. With this increase in population have come changes to the land surface, as forest and farmland has been converted to residential and commercial purposes, causing changes in the surface roughness, temperature, and land-atmosphere fluxes. There is also a semi-permanent upwelling center in the spring and summer outside the Delaware Bay mouth that significantly changes the structure of the sea surface temperature both inside and outside the Bay. Through a series of high resolution modeling and observational studies, we have determined that in cases of strong synoptic forcing, the impact of the land-surface on the boundary layer properties can be advected offshore, creating a false coastline and modifying the location and timing of the sea breeze circulation. In cases of weak synoptic forcing, the influence of the upwelling and the tidal circulation of the Delaware Bay waters can greatly change the location, strength, and penetration of the sea breeze. Understanding the importance of local variability in the surface-atmosphere interactions on the sea breeze can lead to improved prediction of sea breeze onset, penetration, and duration which is important for monitoring air quality and developing offshore wind power production.

  10. A case study of sea breeze circulation at Thumba Coast through observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunhikrishnan, P. K.; Ramachandran, Radhika; Alappattu, Denny P.; Kiran Kumar, N. V. P.; Balasubrahamanyam, D.

    2006-12-01

    A case study of sea breeze circulation at a coastal region Thumba (8.5°N, 76.9°E) was carried out using Doppler Sodar, surface wind, temperature, humidity measurements and radiosonde ascents. The analysis of surface meteorological data showed that the onset of sea breeze on 12th April 2006 was at 0945 hrs. GPS sonde observation over sea at 1425 hrs and Radiosonde observation over land at 1730 showed a well developed sea breeze circulation over Thumba coast by afternoon hours. The vertical extent of sea breeze circulation was ~1000m over sea as well as on land. The Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) depth associated with sea breeze circulation was about 400m at 8 km away from coast. The marine mixed layer height was ~500m about 12 km away from the coast. Numerical simulation of sea breeze was made using HRM (High Resolution Model) and compared the results with the observations.

  11. Sea breezes and advective effects in southwest James Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckendry, Ian; Roulet, Nigel

    1994-01-01

    Observations from a transect extending 100 km inland during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) in 1990 show that the sea breeze develops on approximately 25% of days during summer and may penetrate up to 100 km inland on occasions. The sea breeze exhibits a marked diurnal clockwise rotation as a result of the Coriolis effect along the unobstructed coastline. The marine advective effect is shown to depend on gradient wind direction. With northwesterly upper level flow the sea breeze tends to be northeasterly in direction and is associated with decreased temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD). With southwesterly upper level flow the sea breeze tends to have a southeasterly direction and less effect on temperatures and VPD. This is attributed to shorter residence times of air parcels over water. For two cases, Colorado State University mesoscale model simulations show good agreement with surface wind observations and suggest that under northwesterly gradient flow, Bowen ratios are increased in the onshore flow along western James Bay, while during southwesterly gradient flow these effects are negligible. These results have implications for the interpretation of local climate, ecology, and hydrology as well as land-based and airborne turbulent flux measurements made during NOWES.

  12. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. K.; Chagnon, J. M.; Gray, S. L.

    2013-09-01

    The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST) and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze. On the day of the case study the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  13. North-western Mediterranean sea-breeze circulation in a regional climate system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie; Arsouze, Thomas; Béranger, Karine; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Stéfanon, Marc

    2017-04-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, moisture transport can occur over large distance from remote regions by the synoptic circulation or more locally by sea breezes, driven by land-sea thermal contrast. Sea breezes play an important role in inland transport of moisture especially between late spring and early fall. In order to explicitly represent the two-way interactions at the atmosphere-ocean interface in the Mediterranean region and quantify the role of air-sea feedbacks on regional meteorology and climate, simulations at 20 km resolution performed with WRF regional climate model (RCM) and MORCE atmosphere-ocean regional climate model (AORCM) coupling WRF and NEMO-MED12 in the frame of HyMeX/MED-CORDEX are compared. One result of this study is that these simulations reproduce remarkably well the intensity, direction and inland penetration of the sea breeze and even the existence of the shallow sea breeze despite the overestimate of temperature over land in both simulations. The coupled simulation provides a more realistic representation of the evolution of the SST field at fine scale than the atmosphere-only one. Temperature and moisture anomalies are created in direct response to the SST anomaly and are advected by the sea breeze over land. However, the SST anomalies are not of sufficient magnitude to affect the large-scale sea-breeze circulation. The temperature anomalies are quickly damped by strong surface heating over land, whereas the water vapor mixing ratio anomalies are transported further inland. The inland limit of significance is imposed by the vertical dilution in a deeper continental boundary-layer.

  14. Variability of three-dimensional sea breeze structure in southern France: observations and evaluation of empirical scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobinski, P.; Bastin, S.; Dabas, A.; Delville, P.; Reitebuch, O.

    2006-08-01

    Sea-breeze dynamics in southern France is investigated using an airborne Doppler lidar, a meteorological surface station network and radiosoundings, in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. The airborne Doppler lidar WIND contributed to three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of the sea breeze circulation in an unprecedented way. The data allow access to the onshore and offshore sea breeze extents (xsb), and to the sea breeze depth (zsb) and intensity (usb). They also show that the return flow of the sea breeze circulation is very seldom seen in this area due to (i) the presence of a systematic non zero background wind, and (ii) the 3-D structure of the sea breeze caused by the complex coastline shape and topography. A thorough analysis is conducted on the impact of the two main valleys (Rhône and Durance valleys) affecting the sea breeze circulation in the area.

    Finally, this dataset also allows an evaluation of the existing scaling laws used to derive the sea breeze intensity, depth and horizontal extent. The main results of this study are that (i) latitude, cumulative heating and surface friction are key parameters of the sea breeze dynamics; (ii) in presence of strong synoptic flow, all scaling laws fail in predicting the sea breeze characteristics (the sea breeze depth, however being the most accurately predicted); and (iii) the ratio zsb/usb is approximately constant in the sea breeze flow.

  15. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  16. Investigation on the fine structure of sea-breeze during ESCOMPTE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puygrenier, V.; Lohou, F.; Campistron, B.; Saïd, F.; Pigeon, G.; Bénech, B.; Serça, D.

    2005-03-01

    Surface and remote-sensing instruments deployed during ESCOMPTE experiment over the Marseille area, along the Mediterranean coast, were used to investigate the fine structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) during sea-breeze circulation in relation to pollutant transport and diffusion. Six sea-breeze events are analyzed with a particular focus on 25 June 2001. Advection of cool and humid marine air over land has a profound influence on the daytime ABL characteristics. This impact decreases rapidly with the inland distance from the sea. Nearby the coast (3 km inland), the mixing height Zi rises up to 750 m and falls down after 15:00 (UT) when the breeze flow reaches its maximum intensity. A more classical evolution of the ABL is observed at only 11-km inland where Zi culminates in the morning and stabilizes in the afternoon at about 1000 m height. Fine inspection of the data revealed an oscillation of the sea-breeze with a period about 2 h 47 min. This feature, clearly discernable for 3 days at least, is present in several atmospheric variables such as wind, temperature, not only at the ground but also aloft in the ABL as observed by sodar/RASS and UHF wind profilers. In particular, the mixing height Zi deduced from UHF profilers observations is affected also by the same periodicity. This pulsated sea-breeze is observed principally above Marseille and, at the northern and eastern shores of the Berre pond. In summary, the periodic intrusion over land of cool marine air modifies the structure of the ABL in the vicinity of the coast from the point of view of stability, turbulent motions and pollutants concentration. An explanation of the source of this pulsated sea-breeze is suggested.

  17. Meteorological and Land Surface Properties Impacting Sea Breeze Extent and Aerosol Distribution in a Dry Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Adele L.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Johnson, Jill S.

    2018-01-01

    The properties of sea breeze circulations are influenced by a variety of meteorological and geophysical factors that interact with one another. These circulations can redistribute aerosol particles and pollution and therefore can play an important role in local air quality, as well as impact remote sensing. In this study, we select 11 factors that have the potential to impact either the sea breeze circulation properties and/or the spatial distribution of aerosols. Simulations are run to identify which of the 11 factors have the largest influence on the sea breeze properties and aerosol concentrations and to subsequently understand the mean response of these variables to the selected factors. All simulations are designed to be representative of conditions in coastal sub tropical environments and are thus relatively dry, as such they do not support deep convection associated with the sea breeze front. For this dry sea breeze regime, we find that the background wind speed was the most influential factor for the sea breeze propagation, with the soil saturation fraction also being important. For the spatial aerosol distribution, the most important factors were the soil moisture, sea-air temperature difference, and the initial boundary layer height. The importance of these factors seems to be strongly tied to the development of the surface-based mixed layer both ahead of and behind the sea breeze front. This study highlights potential avenues for further research regarding sea breeze dynamics and the impact of sea breeze circulations on pollution dispersion and remote sensing algorithms.

  18. The Influence of Soil Moisture, Coastline Curvature, and Land-Breeze Circulations on Sea-Breeze Initiated Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David R.; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2000-01-01

    Idealized numerical simulations are performed with a coupled atmosphere/land-surface model to identify the roles of initial soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land breeze circulations on sea breeze initiated precipitation. Data collected on 27 July 1991 during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CAPE) in central Florida are used. The 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud resolving model is coupled with the Goddard Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model, thus providing a tool to simulate more realistically land-surface/atmosphere interaction and convective initiation. Eight simulations are conducted with either straight or curved coast-lines, initially homogeneous soil moisture or initially variable soil moisture, and initially homogeneous horizontal winds or initially variable horizontal winds (land breezes). All model simulations capture the diurnal evolution and general distribution of sea-breeze initiated precipitation over central Florida. The distribution of initial soil moisture influences the timing, intensity and location of subsequent precipitation. Soil moisture acts as a moisture source for the atmosphere, increases the connectively available potential energy, and thus preferentially focuses heavy precipitation over existing wet soil. Strong soil moisture-induced mesoscale circulations are not evident in these simulations. Coastline curvature has a major impact on the timing and location of precipitation. Earlier low-level convergence occurs inland of convex coastlines, and subsequent precipitation occurs earlier in simulations with curved coastlines. The presence of initial land breezes alone has little impact on subsequent precipitation. however, simulations with both coastline curvature and initial land breezes produce significantly larger peak rain rates due to nonlinear interactions.

  19. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. K.; Chagnon, J. M.; Gray, S. L.

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST) and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze immediately offshore. On the day of the case study, the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. Although a colder SST would also imply a larger land-sea temperature contrast and hence a stronger onshore wind - an effect which alone would discourage blocking - the increased static stability exerts a dominant control over whether blocking takes place. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  20. The inland boundary layer at low latitudes: II Sea-breeze influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, J. R.; Physick, W. L.

    1985-11-01

    Two-dimensional mesoscale model results support the claim of evening sea-breeze activity at Daly Waters, 280 km inland from the coast in northern Australia, the site of the Koorin boundary-layer experiment. The sea breeze occurs in conditions of strong onshore and alongshore geostrophic winds, not normally associated with such activity. It manifests itself at Daly Waters and in the model as a cooling in a layer 500 1000 m deep, as an associated surface pressure jump, as strong backing of the wind and, when an offshore low-level wind is present, as a collapse in the inland nocturnal jet. Both observational analysis and model results illustrate the rotational aspects of the deeply penetrating sea breeze; in our analysis this is represented in terms of a surge vector — the vector difference between the post- and pre-frontal low-level winds. There is further evidence to support earlier work that the sea breeze during the afternoon and well into the night — at least for these low-latitude experiments — behaves in many ways as an atmospheric gravity current, and that inland penetrations up to 500 km occur.

  1. A Coastal Bay Summer Breeze Study, Part 2: High-resolution Numerical Simulation of Sea-breeze Local Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Isabelle; Mestayer, Patrice G.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Herlédant, Olivier

    2018-04-01

    We complete the analysis of the data obtained during the experimental campaign around the semi circular bay of Quiberon, France, during two weeks in June 2006 (see Part 1). A reanalysis of numerical simulations performed with the Advanced Regional Prediction System model is presented. Three nested computational domains with increasing horizontal resolution down to 100 m, and a vertical resolution of 10 m at the lowest level, are used to reproduce the local-scale variations of the breeze close to the water surface of the bay. The Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model is used to assimilate the meteorological data. Comparisons of the simulations with the experimental data obtained at three sites reveal a good agreement of the flow over the bay and around the Quiberon peninsula during the daytime periods of sea-breeze development and weakening. In conditions of offshore synoptic flow, the simulations demonstrate that the semi-circular shape of the bay induces a corresponding circular shape in the offshore zones of stagnant flow preceding the sea-breeze onset, which move further offshore thereafter. The higher-resolution simulations are successful in reproducing the small-scale impacts of the peninsula and local coasts (breeze deviations, wakes, flow divergences), and in demonstrating the complexity of the breeze fields close to the surface over the bay. Our reanalysis also provides guidance for numerical simulation strategies for analyzing the structure and evolution of the near-surface breeze over a semi-circular bay, and for forecasting important flow details for use in upcoming sailing competitions.

  2. Impact of the Rhône and Durance valleys on sea-breeze circulation in the Marseille area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastin, Sophie; Drobinski, Philippe; Dabas, Alain; Delville, Patricia; Reitebuch, Oliver; Werner, Christian

    2005-03-01

    Sea-breeze dynamics in the Marseille area, in the south of France, is investigated in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. Under particular attention in this paper is the sea-breeze channelling by the broad Rhône valley and the narrow Durance valley, both oriented nearly-north-south, i.e., perpendicular to the coastline, and its possible impact on the sea-breeze penetration, intensity and depth, which are key information for air pollution issues. One situation of slight synoptic pressure gradient leading to a northerly flow in the Rhône valley (25 June 2001) and one situation of a weak onshore prevailing synoptic wind (26 June 2001) are compared. The impact of the Rhône and Durance valleys on the sea-breeze dynamics on these two typical days is generalized to the whole ESCOMPTE observing period. The present study shows by combining simple scaling analysis with wind data from meteorological surface stations and Doppler lidars that (i) the Durance valley always affects the sea breeze by accelerating the flow. A consequence is that the Durance valley contributes to weaken the temperature gradient along the valley and thus the sea-breeze circulation. In some cases, the acceleration of the channelled flow in the Durance valley suppresses the sea-breeze flow by temperature gradient inhibition; (ii) the Rhône valley does not generally affect the sea breeze significantly. However, if the sea breeze is combined with an onshore flow, it leads to further penetration inland and intensification of the low-level southerly flow. In this situation, lateral constriction may accelerate the sea breeze. Simple scaling analysis suggests that Saint Paul (44.35°N, about 100 km from the coastline) is the lower limit where sea breeze can be affected by the Rhône valley. These conclusions have implications in air quality topics as channelled sea breeze may

  3. Modelling Local Sea-Breeze Flow and Associated Dispersion Patterns Over a Coastal Area in North-East Spain: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, M. R.; Arasa, R.; Merino, M.; Olid, M.; Ortega, S.

    2011-07-01

    The structure and evolution of the sea breeze in the north-west part of the Mediterranean (Catalonia, north-east Spain) is studied both experimentally and, predominantly, using numerical models to increase understanding of sea-breeze structure and three-dimensional (3D) pollution distributions in coastal environments. Sea-breeze components are modelled and analyzed using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Centre for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The results show that the growth and structure of the sea-breeze circulation is modulated by the synoptic flow and especially by the complex topography of the area. 3D pollution transport in a sea breeze is modelled by coupling the MM5 to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, with results indicating that topography and synoptic flow are the main factors modulating horizontal and vertical pollutant transport in sea-breeze episodes. In this way, horizontal dispersion is limited by the complex topography of the area, whilst the sea-breeze flow is intensified by anabatic upslope winds that contribute to vertical pollutant transport. The numerical model results also indicate that the sea-breeze circulation with a weak return flow at upper levels grows due to a synoptic onshore wind component. However, such a sea-breeze circulation is capable of transporting pollutants towards the coast.

  4. Fog water collection under sea breeze conditions in the Western Mediterranean basin (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Corell, D.; Estrela, M. J.; Valiente, J. A.

    2010-07-01

    Orographic fog occurrences associated with sea breezes determine water collection potential over the mountain ranges near the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous works have confirmed that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. The primary impact of sea breeze flows corresponds to low stratiform clouds (Stratus, St, and Stratocumulus, Sc) formed in the convective internal boundary layer due to the inflow of moist sea air at lower levels. The formation of Sc clouds is caused by the rising and cooling of turbulent moist sea air over the highest slopes of the mountains at the end of the day. In the most Sc formation, we also observed dense fog banks of Stratus nebulosus (St neb) and dew during the early next morning, covering the inland topographical depressions. The aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on fog water collection in the convective internal boundary layer. The study area is located in the eastern of the Iberian Peninsula (Valencia region, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 7-yr study period (2003-2009). This research is based upon a small network of eight passive fog water collectors distributed over 6 coastal- and 2 inland-mountain areas. A cylindrical fog water instrument (i.e. omnidirectional collection efficiency) based on the ASRC (Atmospheric Science Research Centre, State University of New York) string collector is used to sample fog water volumes on a daily basis. These stations also sampled temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction and precipitation measurements. The current study used these meteorological measurements to apply an automated and manual selection methodologies for identifying past sea breeze episodes. The dataset created by means of these selection techniques allows for the study of fog water volumes associated with sea breeze situations. A detailed statistical characterization of the

  5. The Sea Breeze in South-Iceland: Observations with an unmanned aircraft and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opsanger Jonassen, Marius; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Rasol, Dubravka; Reuder, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Sea breeze events, 19-20 July 2009, observed during the international field campaign MOSO, at the southcoast of Iceland, have been investigated using high resolution numerical simulations. Thanks to the use of a small unmanned aircraft system (UAS), SUMO, the wind and temperature aloft could be observed at a high resolution in both space and time. Simultaneously with the UAS operations, conventional platforms were used to obtain surface measurements. The observations show a distinct sea breeze circulation with an onset at around noon and a final decay around 19:00 UTC. At the maximum, the sea breeze layer reached a height of appr. 400 m, marked by a capping wind minimum. When compared to the flow aloft, the sea breeze layer was found to exhibit relatively low temperatures and an expected turn from an off-shore to an on-shore flow. Overall, the agreement between the observations and simulations are relatively good. The simulations suggest a horizontal extent of the circulation some 20-30 km off-shore, but only around 5 km on-shore.

  6. A characterisation of sea-breeze events in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain) from observational data and WRF simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The behaviour of the sea breeze along the north coast of Spain is investigated using observations of two topographically contrasting sites together with simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An objective and systematic selection method is used to detect sea-breeze days from a database of two summer months. The direction and intensity of the sea breeze are significantly affected by the topography of the area; indeed, the estimated sea-breeze intensity shows an opposite relationship with the cross-shore temperature gradient for both sites. WRF simulations reproduce the onset of the sea breeze, but some characteristics are not adequately simulated: they generally overestimate the wind speed, smooth the temperature evolution and they do not represent the correct interaction with the terrain-induced flows. Additionally, four sensitivity experiments are performed with the WRF model varying the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme, as well as the grid analysis nudging for an anomalous case study which is incorrectly filtered. As the two simulations considering nudging reproduce an unreal (not observed) sea breeze, this day turns out to be of great interest: it allows to evaluate the influence of the passage of the sea-breeze front (SBF) in other variables mainly related to turbulence. Furthermore, the best model scores are obtained for the PBL scheme that does not use a TKE closure.

  7. A morning transition case between the land and the sea breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Guijarro, Jose A.; Cuxart, Joan

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the diurnal cycle of the Sea-Breeze (SB) in the island of Mallorca, during September 2013 the Mallorca Sea Breeze experimental field campaign (MSB13) took place in the Campos basin (located in the south side of the island). Measurements in the lower boundary layer (captive balloon and multicopter) and close to the surface were taken in a site close to the coast (500m inland). In this work an observed morning transition of the SB is further analysed through the observations and a high-resolution mesoscale simulation of this selected case. With the combined inspection of model results and observations, it is found that during the night-time the air flows out of the island: a land-breeze is found near the coast and downslope winds at the mountain slopes. After sunrise and during the previous phase (0600-0800 UTC) the temperature difference between land and sea is reduced meanwhile the wind has the land-breeze direction. During the preparatory phase (0800-1000 UTC) the land surface temperature is warmer than the sea and the wind weakens and veers towards the SB direction. Finally, during the development phase (1000-1200 UTC) the SB front propagates through the center of the Campos basin to the end of the basin, enhanced by the mountain upslope winds. Therefore, the radiative warming stops. The temperature, momentum and TKE budgets are used to understand the most relevant physical processes involved in each of the phases.

  8. Soil Moisture, Coastline Curvature, and Sea Breeze Initiated Precipitation Over Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, R. David; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    1999-01-01

    Land surface-atmosphere interaction plays a key role in the development of summertime convection and precipitation over the Florida peninsula. Land-ocean temperature contrasts induce sea-breeze circulations along both coasts. Clouds develop along sea-breeze fronts, and significant precipitation can occur during the summer months. However, other factors such as soil moisture distribution and coastline curvature may modulate the timing, location, and intensity of sea breeze initiated precipitation. Here, we investigate the role of soil moisture and coastline curvature on Florida precipitation using the 3-D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model coupled with the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. This study utilizes data from the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CaPE) collected on 27 July 1991. Our numerical simulations suggest that a realistic distribution of soil moisture influences the location and intensity of precipitation but not the timing of precipitation. In contrast, coastline curvature affects the timing and location of precipitation but has little influence on peak rainfall rates. However, both factors (soil moisture and coastline curvature) are required to fully account for observed rainfall amounts.

  9. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs<1 m) short-period (Tp<4 s) NE waves approaching with a high incidence wave angle. These wave conditions drive westward alongshore currents of up to 0.6 m/s in the inner surf zone and hence produce an active sediment transport in the swash zone. On the other hand, the more energetic (Hs>1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  10. Diagnosis of sea breeze cases over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, C.; Freitas, E. D.

    2013-05-01

    The sea breeze is a great responsible for the organization of severe weather events, climate patterns and air pollution dispersion over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), being the knowledge about its correct predictability very important in the region. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model was used to simulate some events of sea breeze propagation over the MASP during the winter season of 2009 (18th and 20th june, 29th august, 02nd September) with the objective to analyze the skill of the model on the predictability of this events using the default parameterizations available in the model and identify some flaws and possible adjustments to be made in the model. For this purpose, the simulation results were compared with the observed velocity and wind direction collected in the "Campo de Marte" Airport - SP. The model had a good response for all simulated days, where the horizontal wind and the vapor mixing ratio indicating correctly the sea breeze arrival over the region. Another important feature observed in the wind moisture fields was the moments that the sea breeze reaches different parts of MASP in response to the Urban Heat Island effect, which can accelerate or prevent the sea breeze propagation depending on location, as observed in other studies, and the relative position of the metropolitan area with respect to the sea-shore and the topography of the region. It was observed that the sea-breeze front reaches the southwest portion of MASP approximately two hours before it reaches the northwest portion.

  11. A numerical study of the effects of a large sandbar upon sea breeze development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, R. C.; Pielke, R. A.; Mcqueen, J.; Eppel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of sea breeze development over a large sandbar on the North Sea coast of Germany are reported. The numerical model used in these experiments contains a detailed treatment of soil moisture, which allows evaluation of the effects of differential surface characteristics on the airflow pattern. Results of the simulations indicate that the contrast between the moist sandbar and adjacent dry land, the tidal inundation of the sandbar, and the westward penetration of the Baltic sea breeze play important roles in the development of mesoscale airflow patterns in the sandbar region.

  12. Field Observations of Swash-Zone Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Beach at the Yucatán Peninsula, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardon-Maldonado, P.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2016-02-01

    Sea breezes can modify the nearshore processes and alter beach morphology depending on the geographical location. Prior studies have shown that surf zone wave energy intensifies during strong sea-breeze conditions (wind speeds > 10 ms-1) and the impact on the coast can be similar to a small storm. However, few research efforts have investigated the coastal dynamics on sea-breeze dominated beaches (e.g., Masselink and Pattiaratchi, 1998, Mar. Geol.; Pattiaratchi et al., 1997, Cont. Shelf Res.) and, to the authors' knowledge, only one study has focused on swash-zone processes (Sonu et al., 1973, EOS). A field study was performed on a microtidal, low wave energy, sea-breeze dominated sandy beach in order to investigate the effects of local (sea breeze) and synoptic (storm) scale meteorological events on swash-zone dynamics. In-situ measurements of swash-zone hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes were collected from March 31st to April 12th, 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán located on the northern coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. Flow velocities and suspended sediment concentrations were measured concurrently, at multiple cross-shore and alongshore locations, using Vectrino-II profiling velocimeters and optical backscatter sensors, respectively. The high resolution data allowed the quantification of bed shear stress, turbulent dissipation rate, sediment loads and sediment flux during a mesoscale frontal system (cold-front passage referred to as an El Norte) and local sea-breeze cycles. Field observations showed that strong swash-zone bed shear stresses, turbulence intensity and sediment suspension occur during energetic conditions (i.e., El Norte event). On the other hand, despite milder energy conditions during the sea-breeze events, the alongshore component of bed-shear stresses and velocities can be significant owing to the high incidence wave angle associated with the sea-breeze system in the study area. The increased forcing in the swash zone induced sediment

  13. Possible impacts of the pre-monsoon dry line and sea breeze front on nocturnal rainfall over northeast Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew; Toniazzo, Thomas; Kolstad, Erik; Spengler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The northeast region of Bangladesh receives a large amount of rainfall before the large-scale monsoon circulation begins. For example, in April (a "pre-monsoon" month) 2010, 804 mm of rain fell in the regional capital Sylhet. It was the second wettest month of the entire year. From our conversations with the local people, we know that this pre-monsoon rainfall is extremely important to their livelihoods. We therefore need to understand it's triggering mechanisms. Several theories have been published, all of which are likely to be at play. However, in this work we look more closely at how the sea breeze front and prominent pre-monsoonal dry line in this region may play a role. If these mechanisms play a role in the convection, then it is likely that they trigger convection further afield, and then the resulting systems then propagate towards northeast Bangladesh. We believe this because rainfall associated with dry line/sea-breeze front convection often occurs during the late afternoon, but the rainfall over northeast Bangladesh shows a clear late-night/early-morning maxima. At present, the temporal and spatial resolution of the regional observations is inappropriate for examining these possible mechanisms. We therefore use a numerical model (WRF) to investigate the possible links between the convection and the sea breeze front and dry line. We use April 2010 as a case study since it was such a wet pre-monsoon month. The simulation shows that a sea breeze circulation often develops during the day in the coastal zone of Bangladesh and northeast India. After sunset the sea breeze front propagates inland pushing back the hot, dry air over India. On several days during the simulation, convection is triggered along the sea breeze front, which then propagates towards northeast Bangladesh and intensifies across the topography surrounding the Sylhet region. From our simulations, it appears that nocturnal convection over northeast Bangladesh is triggered by several

  14. Land Surface Data Assimilation and the Northern Gulf Coast Land/Sea Breeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 4-km domain for this particular application. It is recognized that a 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  15. Application of Land Surface Data Assimilation to Simulations of Sea Breeze Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackaro, Scott; Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske

    2003-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite- observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSUNCAR MM5 V3-5 and applied at spatial resolutions of 12- and 4-km. It is recognized that even 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  16. Diurnal Course of Evaporation From the Dead Sea in Summer: A Distinct Double Peak Induced by Solar Radiation and Night Sea Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensky, N. G.; Lensky, I. M.; Peretz, A.; Gertman, I.; Tanny, J.; Assouline, S.

    2018-01-01

    Partitioning between the relative effects of the radiative and aerodynamic components of the atmospheric forcing on evaporation is challenging since diurnal distributions of wind speed and solar radiation typically overlap. The Dead Sea is located about a 100 km off the Eastern Mediterranean coast, where and the Mediterranean Sea breeze front reaches it after sunset. Therefore, in the Dead Sea the peaks of solar radiation and wind speed diurnal cycles in the Dead Sea are distinctly separated in time, offering a unique opportunity to distinguish between their relative impacts on evaporation. We present mid-summer eddy covariance and meteorological measurements of evaporation rate and surface energy fluxes over the Dead Sea. The evaporation rate is characterized by a clear diurnal cycle with a daytime peak, few hours after solar radiation peak, and a nighttime peak coincident with wind speed peak. Evaporation rate is minimum during sunrise and sunset. Measurements of evaporation rate from two other water bodies that are closer to the Mediterranean coast, Eshkol Reservoir, and Lake Kinneret, present a single afternoon peak, synchronous with the sea breeze. The inland diurnal evaporation rate cycle varies with the distance from the Mediterranean coast, following the propagation of sea breeze front: near the coast, wind speed, and radiation peaks are close and consequently a single daily evaporation peak appears in the afternoon; at the Dead Sea, about a 100 km inland, the sea breeze front arrives at sunset, resulting in a diurnal evaporation cycle characterized by a distinct double peak.

  17. Effect of sea breeze circulation on aerosol mixing state and radiative properties in a desert setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derimian, Yevgeny; Choël, Marie; Rudich, Yinon; Deboudt, Karine; Dubovik, Oleg; Laskin, Alexander; Legrand, Michel; Damiri, Bahaiddin; Koren, Ilan; Unga, Florin; Moreau, Myriam; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Karnieli, Arnon

    2017-09-01

    Chemical composition, microphysical, and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel are found to be influenced by daily occurrences of sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Abrupt increases in aerosol volume concentration and shifts of size distributions towards larger sizes, which are associated with increase in wind speed and atmospheric water content, were systematically recorded during the summertime at a distance of at least 80 km from the coast. Chemical imaging of aerosol samples showed an increased contribution of highly hygroscopic particles during the intrusion of the sea breeze. Besides a significant fraction of marine aerosols, the amount of internally mixed marine and mineral dust particles was also increased during the sea breeze period. The number fraction of marine and internally mixed particles during the sea breeze reached up to 88 % in the PM1-2. 5 and up to 62 % in the PM2. 5-10 size range. Additionally, numerous particles with residuals of liquid coating were observed by SEM/EDX analysis. Ca-rich dust particles that had reacted with anthropogenic nitrates were evidenced by Raman microspectroscopy. The resulting hygroscopic particles can deliquesce at very low relative humidity. Our observations suggest that aerosol hygroscopic growth in the Negev Desert is induced by the daily sea breeze arrival. The varying aerosol microphysical and optical characteristics perturb the solar and thermal infrared radiations. The changes in aerosol properties induced by the sea breeze, relative to the background situation, doubled the shortwave radiative cooling at the surface (from -10 to -20.5 W m-2) and increased by almost 3 times the warming of the atmosphere (from 5 to 14 W m-2), as evaluated for a case study. Given the important value of observed liquid coating of particles, we also examined the possible influence of the particle homogeneity assumption on the retrieval of aerosol microphysical characteristics

  18. Evaluation of weather research and forecasting model parameterizations under sea-breeze conditions in a North Sea coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Nadir; Reis, Neyval Costa; Santos, Jane Meri; Albuquerque, Taciana Toledo de Almeida; Loriato, Ayres Geraldo; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Sokolov, Anton; Moreira, Davidson Martins

    2016-12-01

    Three atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes and two land surface models that are used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, version 3.4.1, were evaluated with numerical simulations by using data from the north coast of France (Dunkerque). The ABL schemes YSU (Yonsei University), ACM2 (Asymmetric Convective Model version 2), and MYJ (Mellor-Yamada-Janjic) were combined with two land surface models, Noah and RUC (Rapid Update Cycle), in order to determine the performances under sea-breeze conditions. Particular attention is given in the determination of the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL), which is very important in air pollution scenarios. The other physics parameterizations used in the model were consistent for all simulations. The predictions of the sea-breeze dynamics output from the WRF model were compared with observations taken from sonic detection and ranging, light detection and ranging systems and a meteorological surface station to verify that the model had reasonable accuracy in predicting the behavior of local circulations. The temporal comparisons of the vertical and horizontal wind speeds and wind directions predicted by the WRF model showed that all runs detected the passage of the sea-breeze front. However, except for the combination of MYJ and Noah, all runs had a time delay compared with the frontal passage measured by the instruments. The proposed study shows that the synoptic wind attenuated the intensity and penetration of the sea breeze. This provided changes in the vertical mixing in a short period of time and on soil temperature that could not be detected by the WRF model simulations with the computational grid used. Additionally, among the tested schemes, the combination of the localclosure MYJ scheme with the land surface Noah scheme was able to produce the most accurate ABL height compared with observations, and it was also able to capture the TIBL.

  19. Mesoscale model response to random, surface-based perturbations — A sea-breeze experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.; Miller, W. F.; Lee, T. J.

    1990-09-01

    The introduction into a mesoscale model of random (in space) variations in roughness length, or random (in space and time) surface perturbations of temperature and friction velocity, produces a measurable, but barely significant, response in the simulated flow dynamics of the lower atmosphere. The perturbations are an attempt to include the effects of sub-grid variability into the ensemble-mean parameterization schemes used in many numerical models. Their magnitude is set in our experiments by appeal to real-world observations of the spatial variations in roughness length and daytime surface temperature over the land on horizontal scales of one to several tens of kilometers. With sea-breeze simulations, comparisons of a number of realizations forced by roughness-length and surface-temperature perturbations with the standard simulation reveal no significant change in ensemble mean statistics, and only small changes in the sea-breeze vertical velocity. Changes in the updraft velocity for individual runs, of up to several cms-1 (compared to a mean of 14 cms-1), are directly the result of prefrontal temperature changes of 0.1 to 0.2K, produced by the random surface forcing. The correlation and magnitude of the changes are entirely consistent with a gravity-current interpretation of the sea breeze.

  20. The influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool on the Florida panhandle sea breeze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Moeller, Lauren; Stefanova, Lydia; Chan, Steven; O'Brien, James J.; Smith, Thomas J.; Plant, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the variations of the boreal summer season sea breeze circulation along the Florida panhandle coast from relatively high resolution (10 km) regional climate model integrations. The 23 year climatology (1979–2001) of the multidecadal dynamically downscaled simulations forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) Reanalysis II at the lateral boundaries verify quite well with the observed climatology. The variations at diurnal and interannual time scales are also well simulated with respect to the observations. We show from composite analyses made from these downscaled simulations that sea breezes in northwestern Florida are associated with changes in the size of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on interannual time scales. In large AWP years when the North Atlantic Subtropical High becomes weaker and moves further eastward relative to the small AWP years, a large part of the southeast U.S. including Florida comes under the influence of relatively strong anomalous low-level northerly flow and large-scale subsidence consistent with the theory of the Sverdrup balance. This tends to suppress the diurnal convection over the Florida panhandle coast in large AWP years. This study is also an illustration of the benefit of dynamic downscaling in understanding the low-frequency variations of the sea breeze.

  1. Investigation of the Mesoscale Interaction between the Sea Breeze Circulation and the Sandhills Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Aaron P.

    In the Carolinas of the United States, there are two key land-surface features over which convective precipitation often forms during the summer months. These geomorphic features are the Sandhills and coastline. Along the coastline, sea-breeze circulations regularly form and are known to initiate convection. The Sandhills is a transitional zone of sandy soil surrounded by mixture of soils that include clay and loam. It extends through the central part of the Carolinas and into Georgia and is also the origin of convective storms. The two geographical features, the coastline and the Sandhills, are in regional proximity of each other and the resultant sea-breeze front and the Sandhills convection interact during summer. During this research, the investigation of the mechanism of interaction between these two features has led to the discovery of the Sandhills front, a shallow outflow density current that develops from deep convection over the Sandhills and propagates eastward toward the coast. The convergence of the Sandhills front and the sea-breeze front initiates and enhances convection between the Sandhills and the coastline. Observations during the month of June for the period 2004 to 2015 are used to evaluate the interaction between these two phenomena. On average, these interactions occur on approximately 24% of all days in June and on 36% of all days in June when synoptic scale systems are absent. Thus, the interactions between the sea-breeze and the Sandhills circulations do contribute to the precipitation in this region. Background wind speeds and directions influence the location and the strength of convection associated with this interaction. Onshore, offshore, and southwesterly flow classifications each present different strengths and locations of the interactions. Light winds ( 3 m s-1 to 6 m s-1 ) also influence the interactions differently. Observations indicate that moderate southwesterly flow has the highest total average and total maximum

  2. A study of the Merritt Island, Florida sea breeze flow regimes and their effect on surface heat and moisture fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubes, M. T.; Cooper, H. J.; Smith, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected during the Convective and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment were analyzed as part of an investigation of the sea breeze in the vicinity of Merritt Island, Florida. Analysis of near-surface divergence fields shows that the classical 24-hour oscillation in divergence over the island due to the direct sea breeze circulation is frequently disrupted and exhibits two distinct modes: the classical sea breeze pattern and deviations from that pattern. A comparison of clear day surface energy fluxes with fluxes on other days indicates that changes in magnitudes were dominated by the presence or absence of clouds. Non-classical sea breeze days tended to lose more available energy in the morning than classical sea breeze days due to earlier development of small cumulus over the island. A composite storm of surface winds, surface energy fluxes, rainfall, and satellite visible data was constructed. A spectral transmittance over the visible wavelengths for the cloud cover resulting from the composite storm was calculated. It is shown that pre-storm transmittances of 0.8 fall to values near 0.1 as the downdraft moves directly over the site. It is also found that under post-composite storm conditions of continuous clear sky days, 3.5 days are required to evaporate back into the atmosphere the latent heat energy lost to the surface by rainfall.

  3. The influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool on the Florida panhandle sea breeze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misra, V.; Moeller, L.; Stefanova, L.; Chan, S.; O'Brien, J. J.; Smith, T.J.; Plant, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the variations of the boreal summer season sea breeze circulation along the Florida panhandle coast from relatively high resolution (10 km) regional climate model integrations. The 23 year climatology (1979-2001) of the multidecadal dynamically downscaled simulations forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) Reanalysis II at the lateral boundaries verify quite well with the observed climatology. The variations at diurnal and interannual time scales are also well simulated with respect to the observations. We show from composite analyses made from these downscaled simulations that sea breezes in northwestern Florida are associated with changes in the size of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on interannual time scales. In large AWP years when the North Atlantic Subtropical High becomes weaker and moves further eastward relative to the small AWP years, a large part of the southeast U.S. including Florida comes under the influence of relatively strong anomalous low-level northerly flow and large-scale subsidence consistent with the theory of the Sverdrup balance. This tends to suppress the diurnal convection over the Florida panhandle coast in large AWP years. This study is also an illustration of the benefit of dynamic downscaling in understanding the low-frequency variations of the sea breeze. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Analysis of Delayed Sea Breeze Onset for Fort Ord Prescribed Burning Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Gahmberg et al. (2009) provided additional detail to the synoptic flow through the Coriolis effect . All directions are as seen from the sea with...ambient flows left of the offshore direction providing the strongest opposing winds as Coriolis effects provide additional support in the offshore...support the development of the sea breeze due to Coriolis effects , the mesoscale flow at the surface is quite different. The 1600 UTC through 1900

  5. Identification of the Sea-Land Breeze Event and Influence to the Convective Activities on the Coast of Deli Serdang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragih, I. J. A.; Putra, A. W.; Nugraheni, I. R.; Rinaldy, N.; Yonas, B. W.

    2017-12-01

    Located close to the sea indicates that there are influences of the sea-land breeze circulation on the weather condition in Deli Serdang. The purpose of this study is to simulate sea-land breeze occurrence and its influence on the convective activities in Deli Serdang. The research area covers the area of Deli Serdang Regency and the surrounding ocean region in the coordinates 02°57‧-03°16‧N & 98°33‧-99°27‧E where Kualanamu Meteorological Station is the centre of the research area at coordinate 03°34‧N & 98°44‧E and the elevation about 27MAMSL. The research time is a day with the highest rainfall in the highest peak rainy month. The raw data consist of the Himawari-8 satellite image from BMKG, FNL (Final Analysis) data from http://rda.ucar.edu, and meteorological observation data from Kualanamu Meteorology Station. This study indicates that WRF-ARW can simulate the sea-land breeze occurrence on the coast of Deli Serdang well. The existence of the convective index cover in the convergence area proves the sea-land breeze occurred in the coast of Deli Serdang can form the convergence area as the interacted result with the wind from other directions that support convective activities.

  6. Evaluation of the atmospheric model WRF on the Qatar peninsula for a converging sea-breeze event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Nayak, Sashikant; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Qatar, a narrow peninsula covering an area of 11437 sq km, extends northwards into the Arabian Gulf for about 160km and has a maximum width of 88km. The convex shape of the coast-line and narrowness of the peninsula results in the Qatar region experiencing complex wind patterns. The geometry is favorable for formation of the land-sea breeze from both coastal sides of the peninsula. This can lead to the development of sea breeze convergence zones in the middle of the country. Although circulations arising from diurnal thermal contrast of land and water are amongst most intensively studied meteorological phenomena, there is no reported study for the Qatar peninsula and very few studies are reported for the Arabian Gulf region as whole. It is necessary to characterize the wind field for applications such as assessing air pollution, renewable energy etc. A non-hydrostatic mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a nested high resolution grid permits the investigation of such fine scale phenomena. Data from eighteen land based Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and two offshore buoys deployed and maintained by the Qatar Meteorological Department were analyzed. Based on the analysis a clear case of sea breeze convergence were seen on 18 September 2015. Model simulations were used to investigate the synoptic conditions associated with the formation of this event. The season is characterized by week ambient north westerly wind over the Arabian Gulf. The WRF model performance is validated using observed in-situ data. Model simulations show that vertical extent of sea breeze cell was up to 1 km and the converging sea breeze regions were characterized with high vertical velocities. The WRF simulation also revealed that with high resolution, the model is capable of reproducing the fine scale patterns accurately. The error of predictions in the inner domain (highest resolution) are found to be relatively lower than coarse resolution domain. The maximum wind speed

  7. 78 FR 39062 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA BREEZE 27; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0079] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA BREEZE 27; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel SEA...

  8. Nearshore circulation on a sea breeze dominated beach during intense wind events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Freyermuth, Alec; Puleo, Jack A.; DiCosmo, Nick; Allende-Arandía, Ma. Eugenia; Chardón-Maldonado, Patricia; López, José; Figueroa-Espinoza, Bernardo; de Alegria-Arzaburu, Amaia Ruiz; Figlus, Jens; Roberts Briggs, Tiffany M.; de la Roza, Jacobo; Candela, Julio

    2017-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted on the northern Yucatan coast from April 1 to April 12, 2014 to investigate the role of intense wind events on coastal circulation from the inner shelf to the swash zone. The study area is characterized by a micro-tidal environment, low-energy wave conditions, and a wide and shallow continental shelf. Furthermore, easterly trade winds, local breezes, and synoptic-scale events, associated with the passage of cold-fronts known as Nortes, are ubiquitous in this region. Currents were measured concurrently at different cross-shore locations during both local and synoptic-scale intense wind events to investigate the influence of different forcing mechanisms (i.e., large-scale currents, winds, tides, and waves) on the nearshore circulation. Field observations revealed that nearshore circulation across the shelf is predominantly alongshore-directed (westward) during intense winds. However, the mechanisms responsible for driving instantaneous spatial and temporal current variability depend on the weather conditions and the across-shelf location. During local strong sea breeze events (W > 10 m s-1 from the NE) occurring during spring tide, westward circulation is controlled by the tides, wind, and waves at the inner-shelf, shallow waters, and inside the surf/swash zone, respectively. The nearshore circulation is relaxed during intense land breeze events (W ≈ 9 m s-1 from the SE) associated with the low atmospheric pressure system that preceded a Norte event. During the Norte event (Wmax≈ 15 m s-1 from the NNW), westward circulation dominated outside the surf zone and was correlated to the Yucatan Current, whereas wave breaking forces eastward currents inside the surf/swash zone. The latter finding implies the existence of large alongshore velocity shear at the offshore edge of the surf zone during the Norte event, which enhances mixing between the surf zone and the inner shelf. These findings suggest that both sea breezes and Nortes play

  9. Vertical Structure of the Urban Boundary Layer over Marseille Under Sea-Breeze Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonsu, Aude; Bastin, Sophie; Masson, Valéry; Drobinski, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    During the UBL-ESCOMPTE program (June July 2001), intensive observations were performed in Marseille (France). In particular, a Doppler lidar, located in the north of the city, provided radial velocity measurements on a 6-km radius area in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere. Thus, it is well adapted to document the vertical structure of the atmosphere above complex terrain, notably in Marseille, which is bordered by the Mediterranean sea and framed by numerous massifs. The present study focuses on the last day of the intensive observation period 2 (26 June 2001), which is characterized by a weak synoptic pressure gradient favouring the development of thermal circulations. Under such conditions, a complex stratification of the atmosphere is observed. Three-dimensional numerical simulations, with the Méso-NH atmospheric model including the town energy balance (TEB) urban parameterization, are conducted over south-eastern France. A complete evaluation of the model outputs was already performed at both regional and city scales. Here, the 250-m resolution outputs describing the vertical structure of the atmosphere above the Marseille area are compared to the Doppler lidar data, for which the spatial resolution is comparable. This joint analysis underscores the consistency between the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) observed by the Doppler lidar and that modelled by Méso-NH. The observations and simulations reveal the presence of a shallow sea breeze (SSB) superimposed on a deep sea breeze (DSB) above Marseille during daytime. Because of the step-like shape of the Marseille coastline, the SSB is organized in two branches of different directions, which converge above the city centre. The analysis of the 250-m wind fields shows evidence of the role of the local topography on the local dynamics. Indeed, the topography tends to reinforce the SSB while it weakens the DSB. The ABL is directly affected by the different sea-breeze circulations, while the urban effects appear

  10. On the use of GPS tomography to investigate water vapor variability during a Mistral/sea breeze event in southeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastin, Sophie; Champollion, Cédric; Bock, Olivier; Drobinski, Philippe; Masson, Frédéric

    2005-03-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) tomography analyses of water vapor, complemented by high-resolution numerical simulations are used to investigate a Mistral/sea breeze event in the region of Marseille, France, during the ESCOMPTE experiment. This is the first time GPS tomography has been used to validate the three-dimensional water vapor concentration from numerical simulation, and to analyze a small-scale meteorological event. The high spatial and temporal resolution of GPS analyses provides a unique insight into the evolution of the vertical and horizontal distribution of water vapor during the Mistral/sea-breeze transition.

  11. Solar breeze power package and saucer ship

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, S. E.

    1985-11-12

    A solar breeze power package having versatile sail and windmast options useful both on land and sea and especially useful in the saucer ship type design. The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) of the several Darrieus designs in conjunction with roll-up or permanently mounted solar cells combine in a hybrid or are used separately to provide power to a battery bank or other storage device.

  12. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  13. Interaction between turbulent flow and sea breeze front over urban-like coast in large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ping; Wen, Zhiping; Sha, Weiming; Chen, Guixing

    2017-05-01

    Turbulent flow and its interaction with a sea breeze front (SBF) over an urban-like coast with a regular block array were investigated using a building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model. It was found that during daytime with an offshore ambient flow, streaky turbulent structures tended to grow within the convective boundary layer (CBL) over a warm urban surface ahead of the SBF. The structures were organized as streamwise streaks at an interval of a few hundred meters, which initiated at the rooftop level with strong wind shear and strengthens in the CBL with moderate buoyancy. The streaks then interacted with the onshore-propagating SBF as it made landfall. The SBF, which was initially characterized as a shallow and quasi-linear feature over the sea, developed three-dimensional structures with intensified updrafts at an elevated frontal head after landfall. Frontal updrafts were locally enhanced at intersections where the streaks merged with the SBF, which greatly increased turbulent fluxes at the front. The frontal line was irregular because of merging, tilting, and transformation effects of vorticity associated with streaky structures. Inland penetration of the SBF was slowed by the frictional effect of urban-like surfaces and turbulent flow on land. The overall SBF intensity weakened after the interaction with turbulent flow. These findings aid understanding of local weather over coastal cities during typical sea breeze conditions.

  14. The monsoon system: Land-sea breeze or the ITCZ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Sulochana

    2018-02-01

    For well over 300 years, the monsoon has been considered to be a gigantic land-sea breeze driven by the land-ocean contrast in surface temperature. In this paper, this hypothesis and its implications for the variability of the monsoon are discussed and it is shown that the observations of monsoon variability do not support this popular theory of the monsoon. An alternative hypothesis (whose origins can be traced to Blanford's (1886) remarkably perceptive analysis) in which the basic system responsible for the Indian summer monsoon is considered to be the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) or the equatorial trough, is then examined and shown to be consistent with the observations. The implications of considering the monsoon as a manifestation of the seasonal migration of the ITCZ for the variability of the Indian summer monsoon and for identification of the monsoonal regions of the world are briefly discussed.

  15. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  16. Influence of sea-land breezes on the tempospatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols over coastal region.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Lin, Chitsan; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2011-04-01

    The influence of sea-land breezes (SLBs) on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere was investigated over coastal Taiwan. PM was simultaneously sampled at inland and offshore locations during three intensive sampling periods. The intensive PM sampling protocol was continuously conducted over a 48-hr period. During this time, PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm and between 2.5 and 10 microm, respectively) were simultaneously measured with dichotomous samplers at four sites (two inland and two offshore sites) and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < or =10 microm) was measured with beta-ray monitors at these same 4 sites and at 10 sites of the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network. PM sampling on a mobile air quality monitoring boat was further conducted along the coastline to collect offshore PM using a beta-ray monitor and a dichotomous sampler. Data obtained from the inland sites (n=12) and offshore sites (n=2) were applied to plot the PM10 concentration contour using Surfer software. This study also used a three-dimensional meteorological model (Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meteorological Model 5) and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions to simulate surface wind fields and spatial distribution of PM10 over the coastal region during the intensive sampling periods. Spatial distribution of PM10 concentration was further used in investigating the influence of SLBs on the transport of PM10 over the coastal region. Field measurement and model simulation results showed that PM10 was transported back and forth across the coastline. In particular, a high PM10 concentration was observed at the inland sites during the day because of sea breezes, whereas a high PM10 concentration was detected offshore at night because of land breezes. This study revealed that the accumulation of PM in the near-ocean region because of SLBs influenced the

  17. A study of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides at a coastal site using a modified Gaussian model and a mesoscale sea breeze model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, R.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Somayaji, K. M.

    Ground level concentration and sky-shine dose due to radioactive emissions from a nuclear power plant at a coastal site have been estimated using the standard Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) and the modified GPM suggested by Misra (Atmospheric Environment 14 (1980) 397), which incorporates fumigation effect under sea breeze condition. The difference in results between these two models is analysed in order to understand their significance and errors that would occur if proper choice were not made. Radioactive sky-shine dose from 41Ar, emitted from a 100 m stack of the nuclear plant is continuously recorded by environmental gamma dose monitors and the data is used to validate the modified GPM. It is observed that the dose values increase by a factor of about 2 times than those of the standard GPM estimates, up to a downwind distance of 6 km during sea breeze hours. In order to examine the dispersion of radioactive effluents in the mesoscale range, a sea breeze model coupled with a particle dispersion model is used. The deposited activity, thyroid dose and sky-shine radioactive dose are simulated for a range of 30 km. In this range, the plume is found to deviate from its straight-line trajectory, as otherwise assumed in GPM. A secondary maximum in the concentration and the sky-shine dose is also observed in the model results. These results are quite significant in realistically estimating the area affected under any unlikely event of an accidental release of radioactivity.

  18. An Israeli haboob: Sea breeze activating local anthropogenic dust sources in the Negev loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouvi, Onn; Dayan, Uri; Amit, Rivka; Enzel, Yehouda

    2017-02-01

    Meso-scale weather systems, such as convective haboobs, are considered to be an important dust generation mechanism. In Israel, however, rather than of meso-scale weather systems, most dust storms are generated by synoptic-scale systems, originating from Sahara and Arabia. Consequently, only distal sources of suspended and deposited dust in Israel are currently reported. Here we report the first detailed study on the merging of synoptic- and meso-scale weather systems leading to a prominent dust outbreak over the Negev, Israel. During the afternoon of May 2nd, 2007, a massive dust storm covered the northern Negev, forming a one kilometer high wall of dust. The haboob was associated with PM10 concentrations of 1000-1500 μg m-3 that advanced at a speed of 10-15 m s-1 and caused temporary closure of local airports. In contrast to most reported haboobs, this one was generated by a sea breeze front acting as a weak cold front enhanced by a cold core cyclone positioned over Libya and Egypt. The sea breeze that brought cold and moist marine air acted as a gravity current with strong surface winds. The sources for the haboob were the loessial soils of the northwestern Negev, especially agricultural fields that were highly disturbed in late spring to early summer. Such surface disturbance is caused by agricultural and/or intensive grazing practices. Our study emphasizes the importance of local dust sources in the Negev and stresses loess recycling as an important process in contemporary dust storms over Israel.

  19. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  20. Temperature And Wind Velocity Oscillations Along a Gentle Slope During Sea-Breeze Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastin, Sophie; Drobinski, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    The flow structure on a gentle slope at Vallon d’Ol in the northern suburbs of Marseille in southern France has been documented by means of surface wind and temperature measurements collected from 7 June to 14 July 2001 during the ESCOMPTE experiment. The analysis of the time series reveals temperature and wind speed oscillations during several nights (about 60--90 min oscillation period) and several days (about 120-180 min oscillation period) during the whole observing period. Oscillating katabatic winds have been reported in the literature from theoretical, experimental and numerical studies. In the present study, the dynamics of the observed oscillating katabatic winds are in good agreement with the theory.In contrast to katabatic winds, no daytime observations of oscillating anabatic upslope flows have ever been published to our knowledge, probably because of temperature inversion break-up that inhibits upslope winds. The present paper shows that cold air advection by a sea breeze generates a mesoscale horizontal temperature gradient, and hence baroclinicity in the atmosphere, which then allows low-frequency oscillations, similar to a katabatic flow. An expression for the oscillation period is derived that accounts for the contribution of the sea-breeze induced mesoscale horizontal temperature gradient. The theoretical prediction of the oscillation period is compared to the measurements, and good agreement is found. The statistical analysis of the wind flow at Vallon d’Ol shows a dominant north-easterly to easterly flow pattern for nighttime oscillations and a dominant south-westerly flow pattern for daytime oscillations. These results are consistent with published numerical simulation results that show that the air drains off the mountain along the maximum slope direction, which in the studied case is oriented south-west to north-east.

  1. Modelling study of sea breezes in a complex coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.-M.; Steyn, D. G.

    This study investigates a mesoscale modelling of sea breezes blowing from a narrow strait into the lower Fraser valley (LFV), British Columbia, Canada, during the period of 17-20 July, 1985. Without a nudging scheme in the inner grid, the CSU-RAMS model produces satisfactory wind and temperature fields during the daytime. In comparison with observation, the agreement indices for surface wind and temperature during daytime reach about 0.6 and 0.95, respectively, while the agreement indices drop to 0.4 at night. In the vertical, profiles of modelled wind and temperature generally agree with tethersonde data collected on 17 and 19 July. The study demonstrates that in late afternoon, the model does not capture the advection of an elevated warm layer which originated from land surfaces outside of the inner grid. Mixed layer depth (MLD) is calculated from model output of turbulent kinetic energy field. Comparison of MLD results with observation shows that the method generates a reliable MLD during the daytime, and that accurate estimates of MLD near the coast require the correct simulation of wind conditions over the sea. The study has shown that for a complex coast environment like the LFV, a reliable modelling study depends not only on local surface fluxes but also on elevated layers transported from remote land surfaces. This dependence is especially important when local forcings are weak, for example, during late afternoon and at night.

  2. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  3. Mesoscale Simulations of a Florida Sea Breeze Using the PLACE Land Surface Model Coupled to a 1.5-Order Turbulence Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Barry H.; Stauffer, David R.; Wetzel, Peter J.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Perlin, Natal; Baker, R. David; Munoz, Ricardo; Boone, Aaron; Jia, Yiqin

    1999-01-01

    A sophisticated land-surface model, PLACE, the Parameterization for Land Atmospheric Convective Exchange, has been coupled to a 1.5-order turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) turbulence sub-model. Both have been incorporated into the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) mesoscale model MM5. Such model improvements should have their greatest effect in conditions where surface contrasts dominate over dynamic processes, such as the simulation of warm-season, convective events. A validation study used the newly coupled model, MM5 TKE-PLACE, to simulate the evolution of Florida sea-breeze moist convection during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CaPE). Overall, eight simulations tested the sensitivity of the MM5 model to combinations of the new and default model physics, and initialization of soil moisture and temperature. The TKE-PLACE model produced more realistic surface sensible heat flux, lower biases for surface variables, more realistic rainfall, and cloud cover than the default model. Of the 8 simulations with different factors (i.e., model physics or initialization), TKE-PLACE compared very well when each simulation was ranked in terms of biases of the surface variables and rainfall, and percent and root mean square of cloud cover. A factor separation analysis showed that a successful simulation required the inclusion of a multi-layered, land surface soil vegetation model, realistic initial soil moisture, and higher order closure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). These were needed to realistically model the effect of individual, joint, and synergistic contributions from the land surface and PBL on the CAPE sea-breeze, Lake Okeechobee lake breeze, and moist convection.

  4. Observed and simulated features of the phases of the sea-breeze in the island of Mallorca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Maria A.; Cuxart, Joan; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Martinez-Villagrasa, Daniel; Guijarro, Jose A.; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Lopez, Alvaro; Picos, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    In order to better understand the diurnal cycle of the Sea-Breeze (SB) in the island of Mallorca, during September 2013 and June 2014 two experimental field campaigns have been conducted in the Campos basin (at the south side). A total of 6 IOPs (clear skies and weak pressure gradient conditions) are analysed using observations taken close to the coastline (about 900 m inland) that consist on a surface portable station (equipped with a temperature and humidity probe, and one 2-D and 3-D sonic anemometers), a captive balloon (temperature and humidity) and a multicopter (temperature and humidity). Besides, observations from automatic weather stations of the AEMET network are taken as well as satellite-derived surface temperatures that together with the model outputs from high-resolution mesoscale simulations are used to better understand the organization of the flow at lower levels. With the combined inspection of observations and model results it is found that during the previous phase (after sunrise) land-breeze conditions were present and the sensible heat flux turned to positive meanwhile the turbulence started. In the preparatory phase (about 3 hours after sunrise) the wind close to the coast started to veer progressively towards the SB direction. As soon as the SB was initiated (about 5 hours after sunrise), the SB front progressed to the inland direction reaching a mature phase starting at noon. Afterwards, the SB decaying starts and close to sunset the wind speed was close to zero and veered towards the land to sea direction. During the campaign all phases were measured with special emphasis to the morning transition (from LB to SB) and the evening transition (from SB to LB) because of the strong wind shear (turbulence) reported during the mature phase. It is found that for all the different phases the model is able to capture the organization of the flow at lower levels although it experiences some difficulties in reproducing the thermal profile during the

  5. A Coastal Bay Summer Breeze Study, Part 1: Results of the Quiberon 2006 Experimental Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestayer, Patrice G.; Calmet, Isabelle; Herlédant, Olivier; Barré, Sophie; Piquet, Thibaud; Rosant, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-01

    The Quiberon 2006 experiment was launched to document the onset and development of land and sea breezes over a semi-circular coastal bay propitious to inshore sailing competitions. The measurements were taken during the 2 weeks of 16-28 June 2006. Micrometeorological variables were recorded at three shore sites around the bay using turbulence sensors on 10-30-m high masts, on four instrumented catamarans at selected sites within the bay, and at a fourth shore site with a Sodar. Synoptic data and local measurements are analyzed here from the point of view of both micrometeorologists and competition skippers, testing in particular the empirical rules of breeze veering and backing according to the wind direction with respect to the coastline orientation at the mesoscale (the quadrant theory). Our analysis focuses on the patterns of lower-altitude wind direction and speed around the bay and over the water basin, and the temporal variations during the periods of the breeze onset, establishment and thermal reinforcement. In offshore synoptic-flow conditions (quadrants 1 and 2), the clockwise rotation of the surface flow had a very large amplitude, reaching up to 360°. The breeze strength was negatively correlated to that of the synoptic wind speed. In conditions of onshore synoptic flow from the west (quadrant 3) at an angle to the mainland coast but perpendicular to the Quiberon peninsula, the rotation of the flow was backwards in the early morning and clockwise during the day with a moderate amplitude (40°-50°) around the synoptic wind direction. As the surface wind speed was much larger than the synoptic wind speed, such a case we have designated as a "synoptic breeze". The breeze onset was shown to fail several times under the influence of weak non-thermal events, e.g., the passage of an occluded front or clouds or an excess of convection. Finally, several local-scale influences of the complex coastal shape appeared in our measurements, e.g., wind fanning in the

  6. 3D Structures of the Sea-Breeze Front in Dual-Doppler Lidar Analysis and a State-of-the-Art Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Iwai, H.; Seko, H.; Saito, K. K.; Sha, W.; Iwasaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Sea breeze occurs at coastal regions around the world, with great impacts on the weather and air quality. Observations and forecasts of the fine-scale structures and local impacts of sea-breeze front (SBF) are a challenge. Three-dimensional structures of a quasi-stationary SBF were observed by dual-Doppler lidar over Sendai Airport in June 2007. Using a state-of-the-art local prediction system in which a computational fluid dynamics model is nested to a mesoscale model with data assimilation, we perform a realistic simulation of the observed SBF structures at 10-m resolution. Numerical simulations reproduce the detailed features of the SBF, such as frontal lobes/clefts, intense updrafts, rear downdrafts, and Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, consistent with lidar observations. Several localized maxima of updrafts occur at the active SBF lobes with ascending marine air mass and adjacent windward sides, where the ambient warm flows encounter a steep front face and penetrate SBF aloft. Strong downdrafts of marine cool air dominate at the SBF rear where they trap a high concentration of air pollutants. These features are regularly activated by the arc-shaped gravity currents at a horizontal scale of several kilometers and a period of 30 minutes. They are also influenced by the coastal buildings and strongly regulate the spatio-temporal variations of local winds near surface. The findings suggest that a novel full-scale nested prediction system has potential for forecasting coastal weather and environment at high precision, which are valuable for aviation safety, marine activities, and air quality monitoring. AcknowledgmentsThis study was supported by the Strategic Programs for Innovative Research (SPIRE) funded by the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The numerical calculations were performed using the K computer at RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (Proposal numbers hp130012 and hp140220). The observational data were

  7. Impact of lake breezes on ozone and nitrogen oxides in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Meteorological and air quality datasets from summertime (May to September, 2010-2012) were analysed in order to assess the influence of lake-breeze circulations on pollutant levels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). While previous estimates of the frequency of summer days experiencing lake breezes range between 25 and 32 % for the GTA, a simple algorithm using surface meteorological observations suggested Lake Ontario breezes occurred on 56% of summer days, whereas a more reliable multiplatform approach yielded a frequency of 74%. Data from five air quality stations across the GTA were used to compare air quality on days during which a lake-breeze circulation formed ("lake breeze days") versus days when one did not ("non-lake breeze days"). Average daytime O3 maxima were 13.6-14.8 ppb higher on lake breeze days relative to non-lake breeze days. Furthermore, the Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria (AAQC) for 1-h average O3 (80 ppb) and 8-h average O3 (65 ppb) were exceeded only on lake breeze days and occurred on a total of 30 and 54 days throughout the study period, respectively. A causal link between lake-breeze circulations and enhanced O3 was identified by examining several days in which only some of the air quality sites were inside the lake-breeze circulation. O3 mixing ratios at sites located within the circulation were at least 30 ppb higher than sites outside the circulation, despite similar temperatures, cloud conditions and synoptic regimes across the region. Rapid O3 increases were concurrent with the arrival of the lake-breeze front, suggesting O3-rich air from over the lake is being advected inland throughout the day. Lake-breeze circulations were found to have less impact on nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels. Morning NOx was greater on lake breeze days, probably due to the stagnant conditions favourable for lake breeze formation. During the late afternoon, only inland sites experience increased NOx on lake breeze days, likely as a result of being downwind

  8. PUBLICATIONS; GULF BREEZE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bibliography, inclusive from 1967 through 1978, lists all publications authored by researchers employed by the Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, and its field station on St. Johns Island, SC, or by researchers conducting studies under funding or direction of the...

  9. Observations of Lake-Breeze Events During the Toronto 2015 Pan-American Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Zen; Dehghan, Armin; Joe, Paul; Sills, David

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced meteorological observations were made during the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games in Toronto in order to measure the vertical and horizontal structure of lake-breeze events. Two scanning Doppler lidars (one fixed and one mobile), a C-band radar, and a network including 53 surface meteorological stations (mesonet) provided pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind speed and direction measurements over Lake Ontario and urban areas. These observations captured the full evolution (prior, during, and after) of 27 lake-breeze events (73% of observation days) in order to characterize the convective and dynamic processes driving lake breezes at the local scale and mesoscale. The dominant signal of a passing lake-breeze front (LBF) was an increase in dew-point temperature of 2.3 ± 0.3°C, coinciding with a 180° shift in wind direction and a decrease in air temperature of 2.1 ± 0.2°C. Doppler lidar observations over the lake detected lake breezes 1 hour (on average) before detection by radar and mesonet. On days with the synoptic flow in the offshore direction, the lidars observed wedge-shaped LBFs with shallow depths, which inhibited the radar's ability to detect the lake breeze. The LBF's ground speed and inland penetration distance were found to be well-correlated (r = 0.78), with larger inland penetration distances occurring on days with non-opposing (non-offshore) synoptic flow. The observed enhanced vertical motion ({>} 1 m s^{-1}) at the LBF, observed by the lidar on 54% of lake-breeze days, was greater (at times {>} 2.5 m s^{-1}) than that observed in previous studies and longer-lasting over the lake than over land. The weaker and less pronounced lake-breeze structure over land is illustrated in two case studies highlighting the lifetime of the lake-breeze circulation and the impact of propagation distance on lake-breeze intensity.

  10. Land Breeze and Thermals: A Scale Threshold to Distinguish Their Effects

    Treesearch

    Yongqiang Liu

    2005-01-01

    Land breeze is a type of mesoscale circulation developed due to thermal forcing over a heterogeneous landscape. It can contribute to atmospheric dynamic and hydrologic processes through affecting heat and water fluxes on the land-atmosphere interface and generating shallow convective precipitation. If the scale of the landscape heterogeneity is smaller than a certain...

  11. NASA's Newest SeaWinds Instrument Breezes Into Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    One of NASA's newest Earth-observing instruments, the SeaWinds scatterometer aboard Japan's Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (Adeos) 2--now renamed Midori 2--has successfully transmitted its first radar data to our home planet, generating its first high-quality images.

    From its orbiting perch high above Earth, SeaWinds on Midori 2 ('midori' is Japanese for the color green, symbolizing the environment) will provide the world's most accurate, highest resolution and broadest geographic coverage of ocean wind speed and direction, sea ice extent and properties of Earth's land surfaces. It will complement and eventually replace an identical instrument orbiting since June 1999 on NASA's Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat) satellite. Its three- to five-year mission will augment a long-term ocean surface wind data series that began in 1996 with launch of the NASA Scatterometer on Japan's first Adeos spacecraft.

    Climatologists, meteorologists and oceanographers will soon routinely use data from SeaWinds on Midori 2 to understand and predict severe weather patterns, climate change and global weather abnormalities like El Nino. The data are expected to improve global and regional weather forecasts, ship routing and marine hazard avoidance, measurements of sea ice extent and the tracking of icebergs, among other uses.

    'Midori 2, its SeaWinds instrument and associated ground processing systems are functioning very smoothly,' said Moshe Pniel, scatterometer projects manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. 'Following initial checkout and calibration, we look forward to continuous operations, providing vital data to scientists and weather forecasters around the world.'

    'These first images show remarkable detail over land, ice and oceans,' said Dr. Michael Freilich, Ocean Vector Winds Science Team Leader, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. 'The combination of SeaWinds data and measurements from other instruments on Midori 2 with data from other

  12. Surf Zone Sediment Size Variation, Morphodynamics, and Hydrodynamics During Sea/Land Breeze and El-Norte Storm in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrushaid, T.; Figlus, J.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Dellapenna, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    Coastlines around the world are under ever-increasing pressure due to population trends, commerce, and geophysical processes like tropical storms and erosion. This multi-institutional field campaign was conducted to improve our understanding of complex nearshore processes under varying forcing conditions on a microtidal, sandy beach located in Sisal, Yucatan from 3/27 to 4/12/2014. Hydrodynamics, morphodynamics, and textural variability were investigated during: (1) a cold front event (referred to as El-Norte); (2) land breeze (LB); and (3) sea breeze (SB). The instrumentation layout included three surf/swash zone cross-shore transects where water elevation, suspended sediment concentration, bed load, and current velocities were measured, as well as several offshore ADCP for hydrodynamic measurements. TKE, τb, ɛ and were estimated using the data obtained from surf zone ADV. In addition, Hs and Tsin the surf zone were computed using measurements from ADV pressure sensors, while a separate pressure transducer was used to obtain water free-surface elevation within the swash zone. During SB cycles the study area experienced wind velocities reaching up to 12ms-1, and 15ms-1 during El-Norte. Elevated wind stress during El-Norte resulted in Hs of 1.5m and 0.6m in water depths of 10m and 0.4m, respectively. Surface sediment grab samples during SB/LB cycles showed that the swash zone had a moderately well sorted distribution with a mean grain size of 0.5mm, while poor sorting and a mean grain size of 0.7mm were found during El-Norte. Additionally, measured bathymetry data showed evidence for offshore sandbar migration during strong offshore currents (0.4ms-1) during El-Norte, while onshore sandbar migration was evident during SB/LB periods (0.3ms-1 and 0.1ms-1, respectively). This study highlights how different weather forcing conditions affect hydrodynamics, morphodynamics, and textural variability on a sandy beach. Aside from furthering our knowledge on these complex

  13. Study of the thermal internal boundary layer during sea-breeze events in the complex coastal area of Marseille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Isabelle; Mestayer, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    A revisit of two sea-breeze episodes is presented, based on higher spatial resolution large eddy simulations (LES) of the lower atmosphere over the coastal area of Marseille and measurements obtained during the June 2001 experimental campaign UBL-ESCOMPTE. The focus is on the development of thermal internal boundary layers (TIBL) over a complex topography: the dynamic and thermal mechanisms that contribute to the TIBL growth and its further degeneration into a convective mixed layer, the respective influences of the coast shape, the large-scale flow above and the local low-level slope flows. The high-resolution LES permits exploring the potential temperature and turbulent kinetic energy fields in relation with the evolution of TIBL depth and heat fluxes along representative streamlines. Several theoretical TIBL depth models are further compared to the LES-deduced inversion height and other parameters, leading to a discussion of the relationships between the values of these parameters, the respective influences of the governing physical phenomena, and the TIBL behaviour. A threshold value of 0.35 is proposed for the friction velocity to convective velocity scale ratio u */ w * between the two regimes where the TIBL is either dominated by dynamical kinetic energy production or controlled by buoyancy.

  14. Observational analysis of air-sea fluxes and sea water temperature offshore South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, X.; Huang, J.; Gao, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the air-sea fluxes (momentum flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) from eddy covariance method based on data collected at an offshore observation tower in the South China Sea from January 2009 to December 2016 and sea water temperature (SWT) on six different levels based on data collected from November 2011 to June 2013. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m. This study presents the in-situ measurements of continuous air-sea fluxes and SWT at different depths. Seasonal and diurnal variations in air-sea fluxes and SWT on different depths are examined. Results show that air-sea fluxes and all SWT changed seasonally; sea-land breeze circulation appears all the year round. Unlike winters where SWT on different depths are fairly consistent, the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) and sea temperature at 10 m water depth fluctuates dramatically and the maximum value reaches 7 °C during summer.

  15. Bay Breeze Influence on Surface Ozone at Edgewood, MD During July 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; Clark, Richard D.; Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Delgado, Ruben; Dickerson, Russell R.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was analyzed to investigate the role of the bay breeze on air quality at two locations in Edgewood, Maryland (lat: 39.4deg, lon: -76.3deg) for the month of July 2011. Measurements were taken as part of the first year of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture campaign and as part of NASA's Geostationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic campaign with DISCOVER-AQ (Geo-CAPE CBODAQ). Geo-CAPE CBODAQ complements DISCOVER-AQ by providing ship-based observations over the Chesapeake Bay. A major goal of DISCOVER-AQ is determining the relative roles of sources, photochemistry and local meteorology during air quality events in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Surface characteristics, transport and vertical structures of O3 during bay breezes were identified using in-situ surface, balloon and aircraft data, along with remote sensing equipment. Localized late day peaks in O3 were observed during bay breeze days, maximizing an average of 3 h later compared to days without bay breezes. Of the 10 days of July 2011 that violated the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 8 h O3 standard of 75 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at Edgewood, eight exhibited evidence of a bay breeze circulation. The results indicate that while bay breezes and the processes associated with them are not necessary to cause exceedances in this area, bay breezes exacerbate poor air quality that sustains into the late evening hours at Edgewood. The vertical and horizontal distributions of O3 from the coastal Edgewood area to the bay also show large gradients that are often determined by boundary layer stability. Thus, developing air quality models that can sufficiently resolve these dynamics and associated chemistry, along with more consistent monitoring of O3 and meteorology on and along the complex coastline of Chesapeake Bay must be a

  16. Bay breeze influence on surface ozone at Edgewood, MD during July 2011.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M; Martins, Douglas K; Clark, Richard D; Goldberg, Daniel L; Loughner, Christopher P; Delgado, Ruben; Dickerson, Russell R; Stehr, Jeffrey W; Tzortziou, Maria A

    Surface ozone (O 3 ) was analyzed to investigate the role of the bay breeze on air quality at two locations in Edgewood, Maryland (lat: 39.4°, lon: -76.3°) for the month of July 2011. Measurements were taken as part of the first year of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture campaign and as part of NASA's Geostationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic campaign with DISCOVER-AQ (Geo-CAPE CBODAQ). Geo-CAPE CBODAQ complements DISCOVER-AQ by providing ship-based observations over the Chesapeake Bay. A major goal of DISCOVER-AQ is determining the relative roles of sources, photochemistry and local meteorology during air quality events in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Surface characteristics, transport and vertical structures of O 3 during bay breezes were identified using in-situ surface, balloon and aircraft data, along with remote sensing equipment. Localized late day peaks in O 3 were observed during bay breeze days, maximizing an average of 3 h later compared to days without bay breezes. Of the 10 days of July 2011 that violated the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 8 h O 3 standard of 75 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at Edgewood, eight exhibited evidence of a bay breeze circulation. The results indicate that while bay breezes and the processes associated with them are not necessary to cause exceedances in this area, bay breezes exacerbate poor air quality that sustains into the late evening hours at Edgewood. The vertical and horizontal distributions of O 3 from the coastal Edgewood area to the bay also show large gradients that are often determined by boundary layer stability. Thus, developing air quality models that can sufficiently resolve these dynamics and associated chemistry, along with more consistent monitoring of O 3 and meteorology on and along the complex coastline of Chesapeake Bay

  17. Bay breeze climatology at two sites along the Chesapeake bay from 1986-2010: Implications for surface ozone.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M

    Hourly surface meteorological measurements were coupled with surface ozone (O 3 ) mixing ratio measurements at Hampton, Virginia and Baltimore, Maryland, two sites along the Chesapeake Bay in the Mid-Atlantic United States, to examine the behavior of surface O 3 during bay breeze events and quantify the impact of the bay breeze on local O 3 pollution. Analyses were performed for the months of May through September for the years 1986 to 2010. The years were split into three groups to account for increasingly stringent environmental regulations that reduced regional emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ): 1986-1994, 1995-2002, and 2003-2010. Each day in the 25-year record was marked either as a bay breeze day, a non-bay breeze day, or a rainy/cloudy day based on the meteorological data. Mean eight hour (8-h) averaged surface O 3 values during bay breeze events were 3 to 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) higher at Hampton and Baltimore than on non-bay breeze days in all year periods. Anomalies from mean surface O 3 were highest in the afternoon at both sites during bay breeze days in the 2003-2010 study period. In conjunction with an overall lowering of baseline O 3 after the 1995-2002 period, the percentage of total exceedances of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 75 ppbv 8-h O 3 standard that occurred on bay breeze days increased at Hampton for 2003-2010, while remaining steady at Baltimore. These results suggest that bay breeze circulations are becoming more important to causing exceedance events at particular sites in the region, and support the hypothesis of Martins et al. (2012) that highly localized meteorology increasingly drives air quality events at Hampton.

  18. Observations of Urban Heat Island Mitigation in California Coastal Cities due to a Sea Breeze Induced Coastal-Cooling ``REVERSE-REACTION'' to Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2010-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures at over 300 urban and rural sites in California (CA) during summer (June-August, JJA). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily min temperatures increased faster than daily max temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily max temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. That daytime summer coastal cooling was seen in coastal urban areas implies that urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction sea breeze cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would have been even stronger. Analysis of daytime summer max temperatures at four adjacent pairs of urban and rural sites near the inland cooling-warming boundary, however, showed that the rural sites experienced cooling, while the urban sites showed warming due to UHI development. The rate of heat island growth was estimated as the sum of each urban warming rate and the absolute magnitude of the concurrent adjacent rural cooling rate. Values ranged from 0.12 to 0.55 K decade-1, and were proportional to changes in urban population and urban extent. As Sacramento, Modesto, Stockton, and San José have grown in aerial extent (21 to 59%) and population (40 to 118%), part of the observed increased JJA max values could be due to increased daytime UHI-intensity. Without UHI effects, the currently observed JJA SFBA

  19. NASA Newest SeaWinds Instrument Breezes Into Operation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-24

    One of NASA newest Earth-observing instruments, the SeaWinds scatterometer aboard Japan Advanced Earth Observing Satellite Adeos 2--now renamed Midori 2--has successfully transmitted its first radar data to our home planet.

  20. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  1. A breeze-driven current on sloped littoral waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohidi, A.; Jamali, M.

    2017-12-01

    Various natural phenomena, e. g. uniform/non-uniform solar radiation and diurnal cycles, affect water circulation patterns through aquatic canopies, that is (usually shallow) shorelines of the rivers, lakes, and lagoons. Amongst these factors is vegetation that, plays a crucial role in conserving and dispersing the nutrients, oxygen, temperature, and generally regulating the life and interactions of organisms with each other (ecology) in aquatic canopies. So far, however, very little attention has been paid to the effects of very low, breeze-like, winds over the water surface in these vegetated regions. In this exploratory study, the evolution of a breeze-driven gravity current traveling up the slope towards the shorelines is shown, experimentally. The flow is characterized using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. In addition, a detailed dimensional analysis of the parameter space of the phenomenon is conducted. The results strongly corroborate the experimental observations.

  2. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-25-000] Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  3. Gulf Breeze, FL Lab--Office of Research and Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Gulf Breeze lab is recognized as a leader in advancing scientific knowledge concerning the effects of human-made stressors on the ecosystems of the Gulf Coast, and the impacts of those effects on the health and well-being of people and communities.

  4. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  5. Examining the eastern Amazon Basin breeze circulations, channeling and boundary layer properties using altitude controlled meteorological balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Voss, P. B.; Silva, R. D.; Callahan, S.; Dewald, A.; do Vale, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    During the period August 24-28, 2016, in a delayed component the GO-Amazon Project, we launched nine altitude-controlled free balloons (CMET). Smaller than typical rawinsondes, CMET are equipped with altitude control, global communication via Iridium satellite, and aspirated sensors. The aims of our effort were to examine the interactions among convective boundary layer and dual river breeze circulations near the confluence of the Tapajos and Amazon Rivers in the eastern Basin. The week-long field campaign was timed to examine the reestablishment of the breeze circulations shortly after the passage of a strong instability line on August 22. Nine CMET were launched at the Curua-Una hydroelectric dam (2.8S; 54.3W), timed to encounter the Tapajos river breeze front by late afternoon. Soundings were made to establish the thickness of interface between the easterly trade and westerly Tapajos breeze circulation. Careful use of sounding strategies allowed these free balloons to track along the northerly channeled flow in the lowest 300 m above the River. Following the river encounter, balloons tracked to the west, sounding to describe the diurnal course of boundary layer in the forest west of the Tapajos River. The longest flight traveled more than 770 km over three days and twice rested overnight in the rain forest canopy. Ancillary data from surface climate and flux stations as well as the Santarem radiosonde, satellite images will be used to illustrate how the breeze circulations are seen near the surface and how they were disrupted by larger-scale events. Comparisons with HYSPLIT trajectories will illustrate how sensitive real trajectories are to the refraction that the encounter with the breeze effects.

  6. A New Objective Technique for Verifying Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Manobianco, John; Lane, John E.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a new objective technique to verify predictions of the sea-breeze phenomenon over east-central Florida by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. The Contour Error Map (CEM) technique identifies sea-breeze transition times in objectively-analyzed grids of observed and forecast wind, verifies the forecast sea-breeze transition times against the observed times, and computes the mean post-sea breeze wind direction and speed to compare the observed and forecast winds behind the sea-breeze front. The CEM technique is superior to traditional objective verification techniques and previously-used subjective verification methodologies because: It is automated, requiring little manual intervention, It accounts for both spatial and temporal scales and variations, It accurately identifies and verifies the sea-breeze transition times, and It provides verification contour maps and simple statistical parameters for easy interpretation. The CEM uses a parallel lowpass boxcar filter and a high-order bandpass filter to identify the sea-breeze transition times in the observed and model grid points. Once the transition times are identified, CEM fits a Gaussian histogram function to the actual histogram of transition time differences between the model and observations. The fitted parameters of the Gaussian function subsequently explain the timing bias and variance of the timing differences across the valid comparison domain. Once the transition times are all identified at each grid point, the CEM computes the mean wind direction and speed during the remainder of the day for all times and grid points after the sea-breeze transition time. The CEM technique performed quite well when compared to independent meteorological assessments of the sea-breeze transition times and results from a previously published subjective evaluation. The algorithm correctly identified a forecast or observed sea-breeze occurrence

  7. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.775 Section 334.775 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.775 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze...

  8. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.775 Section 334.775 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.775 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze...

  9. High-resolution modeling of local air-sea interaction within the Marine Continent using COAMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, T. G.; Chen, S.; Flatau, M. K.; Smith, T.; Rydbeck, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC) is a region of intense deep atmospheric convection that serves as an important source of forcing for the Hadley and Walker circulations. The convective activity in the MC region spans multiple scales from local mesoscales to regional scales, and impacts equatorial wave propagation, coupled air-sea interaction and intra seasonal oscillations. The complex distribution of islands, shallow seas with fairly small heat storage and deep seas with large heat capacity is challenging to model. Diurnal convection over land-sea is part of a land-sea breeze system on a small scale, and is highly influenced by large variations in orography over land and marginal seas. Daytime solar insolation, run-off from the Archipelago and nighttime rainfall tends to stabilize the water column, while mixing by tidal currents and locally forced winds promote vertical mixing. The runoff from land and rivers and high net precipitation result in fresh water lenses that enhance vertical stability in the water column and help maintain high SST. We use the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave version of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) developed at NRL with resolution of a few kilometers to investigate the air-sea interaction associated with the land-sea breeze system in the MC under active and inactive phases of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The high resolution enables simulation of strong SST gradients associated with local upwelling in deeper waters and strong salinity gradients near rivers and from heavy precipitation.

  10. Investigation of local meteorological events and their relationship with ozone and aerosols during an ESCOMPTE photochemical episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, P.; Delbarre, H.; Lohou, F.; Campistron, B.; Puygrenier, V.; Cachier, H.; Lombardo, T.

    2006-11-01

    The international ESCOMPTE campaign, which took place in summer 2001 in the most highly polluted French region, was devoted to validate air pollution prediction models. Surface and remote sensing instruments (Lidar, Radar and Sodar) were deployed over the Marseille area, along the Mediterranean coast, in order to investigate the fine structure of the sea-breeze circulation and its relationship with the pollutant concentrations. The geographical situation of the Marseille region combines a complex coastline and relief which both lead to a peculiar behaviour of the sea-breeze circulation. Several local sea breezes, perpendicular to the nearest coastline, settled in during the morning. In the afternoons, when the thermal gradient between the continental and marine surface grows up, a southerly or a westerly sea breeze may dominate. Their respective importance is then a function of time, space and altitude. Furthermore, an oscillation of the westerly sea breeze with a period of about 3 h is also highlighted. We show that these dynamical characteristics have profound influences on the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) development and on pollutant concentrations. In fact, the direction and intensity of the sea-breeze determine the route and the transit time of the stable marine air flow over the continental surface. Thus, the ABL depth may exhibit several collapses correlated with the westerly sea-breeze pulsation. The ozone and aerosol concentrations are also related to the dynamical features. In the suburbs and parts of the city under pulsed sea breezes, a higher ABL depth and higher ozone concentrations are observed. In the city centre, this relationship between pulsed sea-breeze intensity and ozone concentration is different, emphasising the importance of the transit time and also the build-up of pollutants in the marine air mass along the route. Finally, the variations of aerosol concentration are also described according to the breeze direction.

  11. Composition of individual aerosol particles above the Israelian Mediterranean coast during the summer time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganor, E.; Levin, Z.; Van Grieken, R.

    Aerosol particles were collected aboard a ship in Haifa Bay and Tel Aviv, Israel, during the summer time. The aerosol particles (6170) were analyzed as individual particles and classified according to their chemical composition, size, number concentration per cubic centimeter and morphology. Most of the aerosol particles could be classified into four groups. The first contains gypsum from the sea and from industrial sources brought in by land breezes. A second group is characterized by continental aluminosilicate and quartz. A third group consists of sea salt mixed with sulfate particles. The fourth group is characterized by an abundance of sulfate particles, some of which are ammonium sulfate brought by the land breezes. The particles were identified as marine and mineral aerosols which originated in Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean sea, while local aerosols brought by land breeze characterized by phosphate, fly ash and soil particles originated in the Haifa industrial zone. In addition, the aerosols were analyzed for sulfates and nitrates. Aerosols of sea and land breezes differed as follows: (1) Sulfate and nitrate concentrations in the aerosols were 5-10 times higher during land breeze than during sea breeze, and the total content of suspended particles was, respectively, 6-12 times higher. (2) Particle size spectra during land breeze were broader than during sea breeze and their concentrations were about 20 times greater. Analyses of individual particles by electron microscopy revealed that during the sea breeze the aerosols contained calcium sulfate, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid, of pH 2.5, is due to the long-range transport as previously reported ( Ganor et al., 1993) while the other sulfates are from the sea. This explains the high concentration of sulfates in the atmospheric sea breeze above the Israelian Mediterranean coast during the summertime.

  12. Impacts of the land-lake breeze of the Volta reservoir on the diurnal cycle of cloudiness and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Marcel; Fink, Andreas H.; Knippertz, Peter; Yorke, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Lake Volta in Ghana is the artificial lake on Earth with the largest surface area (8502 km2). It has been constructed in the early 1960s, with the lake being filled around 1966. Land-lake breezes and their effects on the diurnal cycle of local wind systems, cloudiness, and precipitation have been studied for several tropical lakes, among which studies on the effects of Lake Victoria in East Africa are one of the most perceived ones. To date, no studies on the strengths and effects of the land-lake breeze of the Volta reservoir are known to the authors. Using surface station data, a variety of satellite data on clouds and precipitation, and a convection-resolving regional model, the land-lake breeze and its impacts were studied for Lake Volta between 1998 and 2015. The observational data sets confirm a significant land-lake circulation. The only manned weather station operated by the Ghana Meteorological Service that is situated at the lake is Kete Krachi. Hourly observations for 2006 and 2014 show on several days a clearing of skies in the afternoon associated with a shift in the surface winds from southwest to southeast, the latter potentially indicating a lake breeze effect. Cloud occurrence frequency derived from the CLARA-A2, MODIS, and CLAAS2 cloud masks and the cloud physical properties from CLAAS2 clearly show the development of clouds at the lake breeze front in the course of the morning and around mid-day. This effect is most pronounced in March when also the difference between the surface temperatures of the lake and the desiccated land surface is strongest. During the peak of the wet season in July, the lake breeze cloudiness is masked by a high background cloudiness and likely also weaker due to the strong southwesterly monsoon flow that tends to weaken the land-lake circulation. However, the precipitation signal was found to be strongest in July, most probably due to the fact that in boreal fall, winter and spring, the lake breeze cloudiness often

  13. A scale model wind tunnel study of dispersion in the Cleveland area. Laboratory simulation of lake breeze effects on diffusion from ground level emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoydysh, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel simulation of the diffusion patterns in a sea breeze was attempted. The results indicate that the low level onshore flow was well simulated for neutral, stable, unstable, and elevated inversion conditions. Velocity, turbulence, shear stress, and temperature data were taken, and the spread of emissions from ground level sources was investigated. Comparison is made with theoretical predictions by E. Inoue and with the open, homogeneous plane field results of Pasquill. Agreement with the predictions by Inoue is good, and the comparison with Pasquill's results shows that the wind tunnel flows are shifted two categories towards more stable. The discrepancy may be explained as a matter of averaging time.

  14. A Simple Technique for Creating Regional Composites of Sea Surface Temperature from MODIS for Use in Operational Mesoscale NWP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knievel, Jason C.; Rife, Daran L.; Grim, Joseph A.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hacker, Joshua P.; Ge, Ming; Fisher, Henry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for creating regional, high-resolution, daytime and nighttime composites of sea surface temperature (SST) for use in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP). The composites are based on observations from NASA s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua and Terra. The data used typically are available nearly in real time, are applicable anywhere on the globe, and are capable of roughly representing the diurnal cycle in SST. The composites resolution is much higher than that of many other standard SST products used for operational NWP, including the low- and high-resolution Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses. The difference in resolution is key because several studies have shown that highly resolved SSTs are important for driving the air sea interactions that shape patterns of static stability, vertical and horizontal wind shear, and divergence in the planetary boundary layer. The MODIS-based composites are compared to in situ observations from buoys and other platforms operated by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) off the coasts of New England, the mid-Atlantic, and Florida. Mean differences, mean absolute differences, and root-mean-square differences between the composites and the NDBC observations are all within tenths of a degree of those calculated between RTG analyses and the NDBC observations. This is true whether or not one accounts for the mean offset between the skin temperatures of the MODIS dataset and the bulk temperatures of the NDBC observations and RTG analyses. Near the coast, the MODIS-based composites tend to agree more with NDBC observations than do the RTG analyses. The opposite is true away from the coast. All of these differences in point-wise comparisons among the SST datasets are small compared to the 61.08C accuracy of the NDBC SST sensors. Because skin-temperature variations from land to water so strongly affect the development and life cycle of the sea breeze, this

  15. Modelling the chemistry and transport of bromoform within a sea breeze driven convective system during the SHIVA Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Hossaini, R.; Pirre, M.; Warwick, N.; Chipperfield, M.; Samah, A. A.; Harris, N.; Robinson, A.; Quack, B.; Engel, A.; Krüger, K.; Atlas, E.; Subramaniam, K.; Oram, D.; Leedham, E.; Mills, G.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Sala, S.; Keber, T.; Bönisch, H.; Peng, L. K.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Lim, P. T.; Mujahid, A.; Anton, A.; Schlager, H.; Catoire, V.; Krysztofiak, G.; Fühlbrügge, S.; Dorf, M.; Sturges, W. T.

    2013-08-01

    We carry out a case study of the transport and chemistry of bromoform and its product gases (PGs) in a sea breeze driven convective episode on 19 November 2011 along the North West coast of Borneo during the "Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere" (SHIVA) campaign. We use ground based, ship, aircraft and balloon sonde observations made during the campaign, and a 3-D regional online transport and chemistry model capable of resolving clouds and convection explicitly that includes detailed bromine chemistry. The model simulates the temperature, wind speed, wind direction fairly well for the most part, and adequately captures the convection location, timing, and intensity. The simulated transport of bromoform from the boundary layer up to 12 km compares well to aircraft observations to support our conclusions. The model makes several predictions regarding bromine transport from the boundary layer to the level of convective detrainment (11 to 12 km). First, the majority of bromine undergoes this transport as bromoform. Second, insoluble organic bromine carbonyl species are transported to between 11 and 12 km, but only form a small proportion of the transported bromine. Third, soluble bromine species, which include bromine organic peroxides, hydrobromic acid (HBr), and hypobromous acid (HOBr), are washed out efficiently within the core of the convective column. Fourth, insoluble inorganic bromine species (principally Br2) are not washed out of the convective column, but are also not transported to the altitude of detrainment in large quantities. We expect that Br2 will make a larger relative contribution to the total vertical transport of bromine atoms in scenarios with higher CHBr3 mixing ratios in the boundary layer, which have been observed in other regions. Finally, given the highly detailed description of the chemistry, transport and washout of bromine compounds within our simulations, we make a series of recommendations about the physical and

  16. Local and Regional Winds: Their Names and Attributes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-30

    bryza morska ("sea breeze"), but it is weaker than it, blowing across the surface of a large lake toward the shore during the daylight hours, mainly...city toward its center, with a simultaneous increase in convection movements above it. Bryza morska ("sea breeze") -- a wind blowing from off the sea...during the summer season for several days during the month; the bryza morska ("sea breeze") may be felt, depending on its intensity, up to distances of

  17. The properties of coke breeze briquettes produced by ram briquetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, Yu. N.; Babailov, N. A.; Polyansky, L. I.

    2017-12-01

    The paper reports on the results of briquetting coke breeze with a binder in a closed cylindrical press-die. Liquid glass is used as a binder. Approximating curves for the "compaction ratio vs. compaction pressure" dependences are plotted from experimental data. The mechanical properties of the briquettes are determined, namely, drop damage resistance and breaking stress. The results are presented as approximating dependences in the form of a power function.

  18. Mesoscale Simulations of Coastal Circulations Evaluated Using Measurements from a Dense MESO Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    latent heat fluxes at the coast (left) and inland (right) color coded by each day (legend in MFL) in case #1 and #2 to show temporal error variances...the coast . This gradient is the main mechanism which drives sea breeze circulations. Numerous studies correlating SHF to sea breeze (Miao et al 2003...calculate. Abbs (1986) argues that water body dimensions play an important factor for sea breezes associated with semi-enclosed bays and lagoons

  19. Ice Types in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Determining the amount and type of sea ice in the polar oceans is crucial to improving our knowledge and understanding of polar weather and long term climate fluctuations. These views from two satellite remote sensing instruments; the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on board the RADARSAT satellite and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), illustrate different methods that may be used to assess sea ice type. Sea ice in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska was classified and mapped in these concurrent images acquired March 19, 2001 and mapped to the same geographic area.

    To identify sea ice types, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ice Center constructs ice charts using several data sources including RADARSAT SAR images such as the one shown at left. SAR classifies sea ice types primarily by how the surface and subsurface roughness influence radar backscatter. In the SAR image, white lines delineate different sea ice zones as identified by the National Ice Center. Regions of mostly multi-year ice (A) are separated from regions with large amounts of first year and younger ice (B-D), and the dashed white line at bottom marks the coastline. In general, sea ice types that exhibit increased radar backscatter appear bright in SAR and are identified as rougher, older ice types. Younger, smoother ice types appear dark to SAR. Near the top of the SAR image, however, red arrows point to bright areas in which large, crystalline 'frost flowers' have formed on young, thin ice, causing this young ice type to exhibit an increased radar backscatter. Frost flowers are strongly backscattering at radar wavelengths (cm) due to both surface roughness and the high salinity of frost flowers, which causes them to be highly reflective to radar energy.

    Surface roughness is also registered by MISR, although the roughness observed is at a different spatial scale. Older, rougher ice areas are predominantly backward scattering to

  20. Sea ice type dynamics in the Arctic based on Sentinel-1 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiker, Mohamed; Korosov, Anton; Park, Jeong-Won

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice observation from satellites has been carried out for more than four decades and is one of the most important applications of EO data in operational monitoring as well as in climate change studies. Several sensors and retrieval methods have been developed and successfully utilized to measure sea ice area, concentration, drift, type, thickness, etc [e.g. Breivik et al., 2009]. Today operational sea ice monitoring and analysis is fully dependent on use of satellite data. However, new and improved satellite systems, such as multi-polarisation Synthetic Apperture Radar (SAR), require further studies to develop more advanced and automated sea ice monitoring methods. In addition, the unprecedented volume of data available from recently launched Sentinel missions provides both challenges and opportunities for studying sea ice dynamics. In this study we investigate sea ice type dynamics in the Fram strait based on Sentinel-1 A, B SAR data. Series of images for the winter season are classified into 4 ice types (young ice, first year ice, multiyear ice and leads) using the new algorithm developed by us for sea ice classification, which is based on segmentation, GLCM calculation, Haralick texture feature extraction, unsupervised and supervised classifications and Support Vector Machine (SVM) [Zakhvatkina et al., 2016; Korosov et al., 2016]. This algorithm is further improved by applying thermal and scalloping noise removal [Park et al. 2016]. Sea ice drift is retrieved from the same series of Sentinel-1 images using the newly developed algorithm based on combination of feature tracking and pattern matching [Mukenhuber et al., 2016]. Time series of these two products (sea ice type and sea ice drift) are combined in order to study sea ice deformation processes at small scales. Zones of sea ice convergence and divergence identified from sea ice drift are compared with ridges and leads identified from texture features. That allows more specific interpretation of SAR

  1. Comprehensive Measurements of Wind Systems at the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kalthoff, Norbert; Wieser, Andreas; Alpert, Pinhas; Lati, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is located at the lowest point of the Jordan Rift valley and its water level is currently at -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). To the West the Judean Mountains (up to 1000 m amsl) and to the East the Moab mountains (up to 1300 m amsl) confine the north-south oriented valley. The whole region is located in a transition zone of semi-arid to arid climate conditions and together with the steep orography, this forms a quite complex and unique environment. The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric, hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. Previous studies showed that the valley's atmosphere is often governed by periodic wind systems (Bitan, 1974), but most of the studies were limited to ground measurements and could therefore not resolve the three dimensional development and evolution of these wind systems. Performed airborne measurements found three distinct layers above the Dead Sea (Levin, 2005). Two layers are directly affected by the Dead Sea and the third is the commonly observed marine boundary layer over Israel. In the framework of DESERVE a field campaign with the mobile observatory KITcube was conducted to study the three dimensional structure of atmospheric processes at the Dead Sea in 2014. The combination of several in-situ and remote sensing instruments allows temporally and spatially high-resolution measurements in an atmospheric volume of about 10x10x10 km3. With this data set, the development and evolution of typical local wind systems, as well as the impact of regional scale wind conditions on the valley's atmosphere could be analyzed. The frequent development of a nocturnal drainage flow with wind velocities of over 10 m s-1, the typical lake breeze during the day, its onset and vertical extension as well as strong downslope winds

  2. Sea-town interactions over Marseille: 3D urban boundary layer and thermodynamic fields near the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonsu, A.; Pigeon, G.; Masson, V.; Moppert, C.

    2006-02-01

    3D numerical simulations with the Meso-NH atmospheric model including the Town Energy Balance urban parameterization, are conducted over the south-east of France and the one million inhabitants city of Marseille in the frameworks of the ESCOMPTE-UBL program. The geographic situation of the area is relatively complex, because of the proximity of the Mediterranean Sea and the presence of numerous massifs, inducing complex meteorological flows. The present work is focused on six days of the campaign, characterized by the development of strong summer sea-breeze circulations. A complete evaluation of the model is initially realized at both regional- and city-scales, by using the large available database. The regional evaluation shows a good behavior of the model, during the six days of simulation, either for the parameters near the surface or for the vertical profiles describing the structure of the atmosphere. The urban-scale evaluation indicates that the fine structure of the horizontal fields of air temperature above the city is correctly simulated by the model. A specific attention is then pointed to the 250-m horizontal resolution outputs, focused on the Marseille area, for two days of the campaign. From the study of the vertical structure of the Urban Boundary Layer and the thermodynamic fields near the surface, one underscores the important differences due to the regional and local flows, and the complex interactions that occur between the urban effects and the effects of sea breezes.

  3. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  4. Ozone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Wang, Yu; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Xinming; Jiang, Fei; Zeren, Yangzong; Pan, Wenzhuo; Huang, Xiaobo; Shen, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Marine atmosphere is usually considered to be a clean environment, but this study indicates that the near-coast waters of the South China Sea (SCS) suffer from even worse air quality than coastal cities. The analyses were based on concurrent field measurements of target air pollutants and meteorological parameters conducted at a suburban site (Tung Chung, TC) and a nearby marine site (Wan Shan, WS) from August to November 2013. The observations showed that the levels of primary air pollutants were significantly lower at WS than those at TC, while the ozone (O3) value was greater at WS. Higher O3 levels at WS were attributed to the weaker NO titration and higher O3 production rate because of stronger oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, O3 episodes were concurrently observed at both sites under certain meteorological conditions, such as tropical cyclones, continental anticyclones and sea-land breezes (SLBs). Driven by these synoptic systems and mesoscale recirculations, the interaction between continental and marine air masses profoundly changed the atmospheric composition and subsequently influenced the formation and redistribution of O3 in the coastal areas. When continental air intruded into marine atmosphere, the O3 pollution was magnified over the SCS, and the elevated O3 ( > 100 ppbv) could overspread the sea boundary layer ˜ 8 times the area of Hong Kong. In some cases, the exaggerated O3 pollution over the SCS was recirculated to the coastal inshore by sea breeze, leading to aggravated O3 pollution in coastal cities. The findings are applicable to similar mesoscale environments around the world where the maritime atmosphere is potentially influenced by severe continental air pollution.

  5. A multi-stage oil-water-separating process design for the sea oil spill recovery robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min-ge; Wu, Jian-guo; Lin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiao-ming

    2018-03-01

    Oil spill have the most common pollution to the marine ecological environment. In the late stage of physical method recovery, because of the thin oil and the strong sea breeze, the recovery vessels has low efficiency and high energy consumption. This paper develops a multi-stage oil-water-separating process carried by the sea oil spill recovery robot in severe conditions. This design consists of three separation process, among which both the first and third process adopt corrugated sheets horizontal oil-water separator, while the second is hydraulic rotary breaker. This design also equiptment with rectifier and cyclone separator and other important components. This process has high flexibility and high recovery efficiency. The implement effect is significant.

  6. The role of mesoscale meteorology in modulating the (222)Rn concentrations in Huelva (Spain)--impact of phosphogypsum piles.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Vargas, A; Arnold, D; Bolívar, J P

    2015-07-01

    The combined analysis of (222)Rn activity concentrations and mesoscale meteorological conditions at Huelva city (Spain) was addressed in this study to understand the potential impact of phosphogypsum piles on the (222)Rn activity concentrations registered at this area. Hourly mean data from April 2012 to February 2013 registered at two sampling sites (Huelva city and in the background station of El Arenosillo, located 27 km to the south-east) have been used in the study. The results of the present study showed a large difference in mean radon concentrations between the two stations during the sampling period, 6.3 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) at Huelva and 3.0 ± 0.2 Bq m(-3) at El Arenosillo. The analysis has demonstrated that hourly (222)Rn concentrations at Huelva city above 22 Bq m(-3), with nocturnal peaks up to 50 Bq/m(3), mainly coincided with the occurrence of a pure sea-land breeze cycle. Mesoscale circulations in this region are mainly characterized by two patterns of sea-land breeze, pure and non-pure, with the phosphosypsum piles directly upstream (south) of the city during the afternoon on pure sea-breeze days. The difference between mean (222)Rn activity concentrations at Huelva city were 9.9 ± 1.5 Bq m(-3) for the pure pattern and 3.3 ± 0.5 Bq m(-3) for the non-pure pattern, while in the background station concentrations were 3.9 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) and 2.8 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) respectively. Considering these large differences, a detailed analysis of composites and case studies of representative sea-land breeze cycles of both types and their impact on (222)Rn activity concentration was performed. The results suggested that the presence of the phosphogypsum piles was necessary in order to justify the high (222)Rn activity concentrations observed at Huelva compared with the background station in the afternoons on pure sea breeze days (1.5-2.0 Bq m(-3)). On the other hand, large night time differences between the two sites on these days were

  7. Tides in the Black Sea: Observations and Numerical Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Igor P.

    2018-05-01

    Longterm hourly data from 28 tide gauges were used to examine the main features of tides in the Black Sea. The tides in this basin are directly caused by tide-generating forces and the semidiurnal tides prevail over diurnal tides. Based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), a numerical model of tides in the Black Sea and adjacent Sea of Azov was developed and found to be in good agreement with tide gauge observations. Detailed tidal charts for amplitudes and phase lags of the major tidal harmonics in these two seas were constructed. The results of the numerical modelling and observations reveal for the semidiurnal tides the presence of an amphidromy with clockwise rotation and another one with counterclockwise rotation for the diurnal tides, both located in the central part of the sea near the Crimean Peninsula. Therefore, for this part of the sea the amplitudes of harmonics M 2 and K 1 are less than 0.1 cm. Relatively larger M 2 amplitudes are observed on the east and west coasts of the sea (2-3 cm). The maximum amplitude of the harmonic M 2 was found at Karkinit Bay—up to 4.5 cm—while the maximum tidal range varies from 1 cm near the Crimean Peninsula to 18-19 cm in the Dnieper-Bug Estuary and Karkinit Bay. Radiational tides, initiated mainly by sea breezes, make an important contribution to the formation of tidal oscillations in the Dnieper-Bug Estuary.

  8. Remote sensing of PBL meteorology and air quality: the outcome of the ESCOMPTE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobinski, P.

    2008-05-01

    In the French Mediterranean basin, the large city of Marseille and its industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources which cause frequent and hazardous pollution episodes especially in summer when intense solar heating enhances the photochemical activity and when sea-breeze circulation redistributes pollutants further north in the countryside. This paper summarizes the findings of five years of research on the sea-breeze in southeastern France and related mesoscale transport and dilution of pollutants within the ESCOMPTE program held in June and July 2001 (field experiment to constraint models of atmospheric pollution and emissions transport), obtained thanks to a composite observing system and a combination of remote sensing and in situ systems which produced a wealth of data. Indeed, the combination of established and novel and highly sophisticated remote sensing instruments with conventional in situ measurements (dense surface network and radiosondes) allowed to capture previously unseen details of the fine structure of the sea breeze, allowed unprecedented insight into the structure of the sea breeze flow and its contribution to ozone redistribution and allowed the validation of ultrahigh-resolution numerical research and weather prediction models as well as chemistry transport models.

  9. Classification of Baltic Sea ice types by airborne multifrequency microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kurvonen, L.; Hallikainen, M.

    An airborne multifrequency radiometer (24, 34, 48, and 94 GHz, vertical polarization) was used to investigate the behavior of the brightness temperature of different sea ice types in the Gulf of Bothnia (Baltic Sea). The measurements and the main results of the analysis are presented. The measurements were made in dry and wet conditions (air temperature above and below 0 C). The angle of incidence was 45{degree} in all measurements. The following topics are evaluated: (a) frequency dependency of the brightness temperature of different ice types, (b) the capability of the multifrequency radiometer to classify ice types for winter navigationmore » purposes, and (c) the optimum measurement frequencies for mapping sea ice. The weather conditions had a significant impact on the radiometric signatures of some ice types (snow-covered compact pack ice and frost-covered new ice); the impact was the highest at 94 GHz. In all cases the overall classification accuracy was around 90% (the kappa coefficient was from 0.86 to 0.96) when the optimum channel combination (24/34 GHz and 94 GHz) was used.« less

  10. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  11. Comparison of the safety-related physical and combustion properties of liquid hydrogen and liquid natural gas in the context of the SF-BREEZE high-speed fuel-cell ferry

    DOE PAGES

    Klebanoff, L. E.; Pratt, J. W.; LaFleur, C. B.

    2016-11-25

    Here, we review liquid hydrogen (LH 2) as a maritime vessel fuel, from descriptions of its fundamental properties to its practical application and safety aspects, in the context of the San Francisco Bay Renewable Energy Electric Vessel with Zero Emissions (SF-BREEZE) high-speed fuel-cell ferry. Since marine regulations have been formulated to cover liquid natural gas (LNG) as a primary propulsion fuel, we frame our examination of LH 2 as a comparison to LNG, for both maritime use in general, and the SF-BREEZE in particular. Due to weaker attractions between molecules, LH 2 is colder than LNG, and evaporates more easily.more » We describe the consequences of these physical differences for the size and duration of spills of the two cryogenic fuels. The classical flammability ranges are reviewed, with a focus on how fuel buoyancy modifies these combustion limits. We examine the conditions for direct fuel explosion (detonation) and contrast them with initiation of normal (laminar) combustion. Direct fuel detonation is not a credible accident scenario for the SF-BREEZE. For both fuels, we review experiments and theory elucidating the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). LH 2 fires have a shorter duration than energy-equivalent LNG fires, and produce significantly less thermal radiation. The thermal (infrared) radiation from hydrogen fires is also strongly absorbed by humidity in the air. Hydrogen permeability is not a leak issue for practical hydrogen plumbing. We describe the chemistry of hydrogen and methane at iron surfaces, clarifying their impact on steel-based hydrogen storage and transport materials. These physical, chemical and combustion properties are pulled together in a comparison of how a LH 2 or LNG pool fire on the Top Deck of the SF-BREEZE might influence the structural integrity of the aluminum deck. Neither pool fire scenario leads to net heating of the aluminum decking. Overall, LH 2 and LNG are very similar in their physical and combustion

  12. Comparison of the safety-related physical and combustion properties of liquid hydrogen and liquid natural gas in the context of the SF-BREEZE high-speed fuel-cell ferry

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, L. E.; Pratt, J. W.; LaFleur, C. B.

    Here, we review liquid hydrogen (LH 2) as a maritime vessel fuel, from descriptions of its fundamental properties to its practical application and safety aspects, in the context of the San Francisco Bay Renewable Energy Electric Vessel with Zero Emissions (SF-BREEZE) high-speed fuel-cell ferry. Since marine regulations have been formulated to cover liquid natural gas (LNG) as a primary propulsion fuel, we frame our examination of LH 2 as a comparison to LNG, for both maritime use in general, and the SF-BREEZE in particular. Due to weaker attractions between molecules, LH 2 is colder than LNG, and evaporates more easily.more » We describe the consequences of these physical differences for the size and duration of spills of the two cryogenic fuels. The classical flammability ranges are reviewed, with a focus on how fuel buoyancy modifies these combustion limits. We examine the conditions for direct fuel explosion (detonation) and contrast them with initiation of normal (laminar) combustion. Direct fuel detonation is not a credible accident scenario for the SF-BREEZE. For both fuels, we review experiments and theory elucidating the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). LH 2 fires have a shorter duration than energy-equivalent LNG fires, and produce significantly less thermal radiation. The thermal (infrared) radiation from hydrogen fires is also strongly absorbed by humidity in the air. Hydrogen permeability is not a leak issue for practical hydrogen plumbing. We describe the chemistry of hydrogen and methane at iron surfaces, clarifying their impact on steel-based hydrogen storage and transport materials. These physical, chemical and combustion properties are pulled together in a comparison of how a LH 2 or LNG pool fire on the Top Deck of the SF-BREEZE might influence the structural integrity of the aluminum deck. Neither pool fire scenario leads to net heating of the aluminum decking. Overall, LH 2 and LNG are very similar in their physical and combustion

  13. Detection of SEA-type α-thalassemia in embryo biopsies by digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ta-Hsien; Hsu, Ya-Chiung; Chang, Chia Lin

    2017-08-01

    Accurate and efficient pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) based on the analysis of single or oligo-cells is needed for timely identification of embryos that are affected by deleterious genetic traits in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the backbone of modern genetic diagnoses, and a spectrum of PCR-based techniques have been used to detect various thalassemia mutations in prenatal diagnosis (PND) and PGD. Among thalassemias, SEA-type α-thalassemia is the most common variety found in Asia, and can lead to Bart's hydrops fetalis and serious maternal complications. To formulate an efficient digital PCR for clinical diagnosis of SEA-type α-thalassemia in cultured embryos, we conducted a pilot study to detect the α-globin and SEA-type deletion alleles in blastomere biopsies with a highly sensitive microfluidics-based digital PCR method. Genomic DNA from embryo biopsy samples were extracted, and crude DNA extracts were first amplified by a conventional PCR procedure followed by a nested PCR reaction with primers and probes that are designed for digital PCR amplification. Analysis of microfluidics-based PCR reactions showed that robust signals for normal α-globin and SEA-type deletion alleles, together with an internal control gene, can be routinely generated using crude embryo biopsies after a 10 6 -fold dilution of primary PCR products. The SEA-type deletion in cultured embryos can be sensitively diagnosed with the digital PCR procedure in clinics. The adoption of this robust PGD method could prevent the implantation of IVF embryos that are destined to develop Bart's hydrops fetalis in a timely manner. The results also help inform future development of a standard digital PCR procedure for cost-effective PGD of α-thalassemia in a standard IVF clinic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobinski, P.; SaïD, F.; Ancellet, G.; Arteta, J.; Augustin, P.; Bastin, S.; Brut, A.; Caccia, J. L.; Campistron, B.; Cautenet, S.; Colette, A.; Coll, I.; Corsmeier, U.; Cros, B.; Dabas, A.; Delbarre, H.; Dufour, A.; Durand, P.; GuéNard, V.; Hasel, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C.; Lasry, F.; Lemonsu, A.; Lohou, F.; Masson, V.; Menut, L.; Moppert, C.; Peuch, V. H.; Puygrenier, V.; Reitebuch, O.; Vautard, R.

    2007-07-01

    In the French Mediterranean basin the large city of Marseille and its industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources that cause frequent and hazardous pollution episodes, especially in summer when intense solar heating enhances the photochemical activity and when the sea breeze circulation redistributes pollutants farther north in the countryside. This paper summarizes the findings of 5 years of research on the sea breeze in southern France and related mesoscale transport and dilution of pollutants within the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE) program held in June and July 2001. This paper provides an overview of the experimental and numerical challenges identified before the ESCOMPTE field experiment and summarizes the key findings made in observation, simulation, and theory. We specifically address the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation to local ozone vertical distribution and the mesoscale processes driving horizontal advection of pollutants and vertical transport and mixing via entrainment at the top of the sea breeze or at the front and venting along the sloped terrain. The crucial importance of the interactions between processes of various spatial and temporal scales is thus highlighted. The advances in numerical modeling and forecasting of sea breeze events and ozone pollution episodes in southern France are also underlined. Finally, we conclude and point out some open research questions needing further investigation.

  15. Modeling the feedback between aerosol and boundary layer processes: a case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development has led to frequent haze in Beijing. With mountains and sea surrounding Beijing, the pollution is found to be influenced by the mountain-plain breeze and sea-land breeze in complex ways. Meanwhile, the presence of aerosols may affect the surface energy balance and impact these boundary layer (BL) processes. The effects of BL processes on aerosol pollution and the feedback between aerosol and BL processes are not yet clearly understood. Thus, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the possible effects and feedbacks during a haze episode on 23 September 2011. Influenced by the onshore prevailing wind, sea-breeze, and upslope breeze, about 45% of surface particulate matter (PM)2.5 in Beijing are found to be contributed by its neighbor cities through regional transport. In the afternoon, the development of upslope breeze suppresses the growth of BL in Beijing by imposing a relatively low thermal stable layer above the BL, which exacerbates the pollution. Two kinds of feedback during the daytime are revealed as follows: (1) as the aerosols absorb and scatter the solar radiation, the surface net radiation and sensible heat flux are decreased, while BL temperature is increased, resulting in a more stable and shallower BL, which leads to a higher surface PM2.5 concentration in the morning and (2) in the afternoon, as the presence of aerosols increases the BL temperature over plains, the upslope breeze is weakened, and the boundary layer height (BLH) over Beijing is heightened, resulting in the decrease of the surface PM2.5 concentration there.

  16. Tectonic types of marginal and inner seas; their place in the development of the crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khain, V. E.; Levin, L. E.

    1980-12-01

    Inner and marginal deep seas are of considerable interest not only for their genesis but also as "micromodels" of oceans. In the latter case it must be noted that some of them essentially differ from oceans in several parameters. They have a shorter period of development, thicker sedimentary cover, less distinct linear magnetic anomalies or an absence of them, high heat-flow values and seismic activity over their whole area. Consequently, the analogy with the oceans has certain limitations as the deep structure of such seas is not homogeneous and they probably vary in genesis. Only a few marginal seas are cut off from the principal areas of the oceans by island arcs formed, most probably, along transform faults. The origin of this type is more or less reliably demonstrated for the Bering Sea. Other types of marginal seas are more numerous. Some of them (such as the Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of California) are embryonic apophyses connected with the oceans. Others are atrophied (the Tasman and the Labrador seas) small oceans. The group of marginal and inner seas which lie in the inside zone of mature or young island arcs is even more numerous. Only a few basins of this group resulted from linear spreading imprinted in the system of magnetic anomalies (the Shikoku-Parese-Vela basin), the rest are supposed to have been formed in the process of diffusal or polyaxial spreading of recent time as in Afar. The majority of inner and marginal seas are younger than recent oceans. They are formed by rifting, oriented crosswise to continental margins of the Atlantic type or along the strike of margins of Andean type. More ancient basins of marginal and inner seas have been involved in Phanerozoic orogens or more rarely became parts of platforms (Ciscaspian syneclise).

  17. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system near the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia, and the Point Breeze Refinery, southern Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water flow in the Potomac-Raritan- Magothy aquifer system (PRM) in south Philadelphia and adjacent southwestern New Jersey was simulated by use of a three-dimensional, seven-layer finite-difference numerical flow model. The simulation was run from 1900, which was prior to groundwater development, through 1995 with 21 stress periods. The focus of the modeling was on a smaller area of concern in south Philadelphia in the vicinity of the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia (DSCP) and the Point Breeze Refinery (PBR). In order to adequately simulate the ground-water flow system in the area of concern, a much larger area was modeled that included parts of New Jersey where significant ground-water withdrawals, which affect water levels in southern Philadelphia, had occurred in the past. At issue in the area of concern is a hydrocarbon plume of unknown origin and time of release.The ground-water-flow system was simulated to estimate past water-level altitudes in and near the area of concern and to determine the effect of the Packer Avenue sewer, which lies south of the DSCP, on the ground-water-flow system. Simulated water-level altitudes for the lower sand unit of the PRM on the DSCP prior to 1945 ranged from pre-development, unstressed altitudes to 3 feet below sea level. Simulated water-level altitudes for the lower sand unit ranged from 3 to 7 feet below sea level from 1946 to 1954, from 6 to 10 feet below sea level from 1955 to 1968, and from 9 to 11 feet below sea level from 1969 to 1978. The lowest simulated water-level altitude on the DSCP was 10.69 feet below sea level near the end of 1974. Model simulations indicate ground water was infiltrating the Packer Avenue sewer prior to approximately 1947 or 1948. Subsequent to that time, simulated ground-water-level altitudes were lower than the bottom of the sewer.

  18. The Relationship Between Sea Breeze Forcing and HF Radar-Derived Surface Currents in Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    the ocean wave backscattering the radar signal is one half the radar’s wavelength (Neal 1992). This process is called Bragg scattering (Barrick 1977...transmit frequency of radar is important because it helps us to figure out the length of the ocean waves and backscattered radar wavelength (Harlan et al...Representation of some remote sensing methods exploiting signals backscattered from the sea surface (from Shearman 1981). 7 HF radars have many advantages

  19. A multi-resolution ensemble study of a tropical urban environment and its interactions with the background regional atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Entekhabi, Dara; Roth, Matthias; Panda, Jagabandhu; Norford, Leslie K.

    2013-09-01

    This study employed the Weather Research and Forecasting model with a single-layer urban canopy model to investigate the urban environment of a tropical city, Singapore. The coupled model was evaluated against available observational data from a sensor network and flux tower. The effects of land use type and anthropogenic heat (AH) on the thermal and wind environment were investigated with a series of sensitivity tests using an ensemble approach for low advection, high convective available potential energy, intermonsoon season cases. The diurnal cycle and spatial pattern of urban heat island (UHI) intensity and planetary boundary layer height were investigated. The mean UHI intensity peaked in the early morning at 2.2°C, reaching 2.4°C in industrial areas. Sea and land breezes developed during daytime and nighttime, respectively, with the former much stronger than the latter. The model predicted that sea breezes from different coastlines of the Malay Peninsula meet and converge, inducing strong updrafts. AH was found to play roles in all the processes studied, while the effect of different land use types was most pronounced during nighttime, and least visible near noon.

  20. Time-resolved distributions of bulk parameters, diacids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of TC and TN in tropical Indian aerosols: Influence of land/sea breeze and secondary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Swaminathan, T.

    2015-02-01

    To better understand the photochemical production and diurnal distributions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the tropical coastal Indian atmosphere, the aerosol (TSP) samples were collected every 3 h during 30-31 January, 14-15 February and 28-29 May 2007 from Chennai and studied for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN) and their stable isotope ratios (δ13CTC and δ15NTN), carbonaceous components, inorganic ions, diacids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls. Time-resolved distributions of bulk parameters, inorganic ions, and diacids and related compounds, except for few species, did not show any clear diurnal trend but showed peaks at 6-9 h during all the study periods, except for the peak at 15-18 h on 28 May. SO42-, C2 - C6 diacids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls in February and on 29 May showed a diurnal trend. δ13CTC and δ15NTN stayed relatively constant during the study periods but showed 13C depletion (in January) and 15 N enrichment when TC and TN peaked. Based on these results together with air mass trajectories, we found that the diurnal distributions of Chennai aerosols are mainly influenced by land/sea breeze and the aged (photochemically processed) air masses, although in situ photochemical production and nighttime chemistry of secondary aerosol species, particularly C2-C4 diacids and SO42-, are significant. The characteristics of seasonal variations of carbonaceous components, and diacids and related compounds and comparisons of δ13CTC and δ15NTN of Chennai aerosols with the isotopic signatures of the point sources inferred that biofuel/biomass burning in South and Southeast Asia are the major sources of aerosols (TSP).

  1. Effect of food on specific dynamic action (SDA) of green and red types of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Jiang, Hongbo; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli

    2017-10-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the energy expended on all physiological processes that is associated with meal digestion and absorption, is strongly affected by food type. Effects of formulated diet (FMD), macroalgae (ALG) and sea mud (SMD) diets on the postprandial metabolic response of the green type and the red type of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were studied in order to understand their feeding physiology. Food offered to A. japonicus was different in protein, lipid content and energy but not in meal mass. SDA of A. japonicus resulted in a 1.3-2.7 folds of increase in oxygen consumption that can persist for up to 4.8-31.7 h after digesting three different diets. In a given type of sea cucumber, the magnitude of SDA was the highest when fed with FMD, medium with ALG, and the lowest with SMD, which is probably due to the differences in diet components and protein contents. The red type sea cucumber showed greater SDA magnitude than the green type with each diet treatment, which might result from the difference in factorial scope between the two types of sea cucumber. However, the smallest magnitude or even no difference was observed between the two types of A. japonicus in SMD group, perhaps owing to the poor nutrition and digestion of sea mud.

  2. A numerical model simulation of the regional air pollution meteorology of the greater Chesapeake Bay area - Summer day case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.; Mcnider, R. T.; Mcdougal, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The mesoscale numerical model of the University of Virginia (UVMM), has been applied to the greater Chesapeake Bay area in order to provide a detailed description of the air pollution meteorology during a typical summer day. This model provides state of the art simulations for land-sea thermally induced circulations. The model-predicted results agree favorably with available observed data. The effects of synoptic flow and sea breeze coupling on air pollution meteorological characteristics in this region, are demonstrated by a spatial and temporal presentation of various model predicted fields. A transport analysis based on predicted wind velocities indicated possible recirculation of pollutants back onto the Atlantic coast due to the sea breeze circulation.

  3. The epizootiology of type C botulism in fish-eating birds at Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nol, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1996, type C avian botulism killed over 15,000 fish-eating birds at the Salton Sea in southern California. Amont those affected were nearly 10,000 western white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and over 1,200 endangered California brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus). Since 1996, smaller epizootics have occurred every year. Type C botulism is not typically associated with fish-eating birds. In the case of the Salton Sea, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) are the suspected source of type C toxin, although the mechanism by which the fish acquire the toxin is still unknown. The goals of this study were to: 1) Determine presence/absence of active Clostridium botulinum type C and type C botulinum toxin in tilapia in the Salton Sea. 2) Use geospatial analyses to evaluate relationships between patterns of mortality in birds and fish and presence/absence of toxin and/or toxin-producing bacteria in sediments and fish. We investigated a method of detecting C. botulinum type C cells in the intestinal contents of Mozambique tilapia. This method involved extraction of predominantly cellular DNA and uses a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect presence of type C toxin gene. We collected sick, dead and healthy fish from various sites throughout the Sea during the summers of 1999 to 2001 in order to test them for the presence of active C. botulinum type C by PCR and for the presence of type C toxin by ELISA and mouse test. The results demonstrate that the tilapia population in the Salton Sea harbors C. botulinum type C cells within their gastrointestinal tract and the prevalence of this organism varies from year to year. The total number of fish with toxin-producing bacteria was significantly greater in 2000 than in 2001. No difference in the numbers of positives was detected between sick and dead fish compared to live fish, and there were no differences noted with regard to location of fish collection. The prevalence of active type C

  4. Alaska: Beaufort Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), illustrate different methods that may be used to assess sea ice type. Sea ice in the Beaufort Sea ... March 19, 2001 - Illustration of different methods to assess sea ice type. project:  MISR ...

  5. Small plastic debris in sediments from the Central Adriatic Sea: Types, occurrence and distribution.

    PubMed

    Mistri, Michele; Infantini, Vanessa; Scoponi, Marco; Granata, Tommaso; Moruzzi, Letizia; Massara, Francesca; De Donati, Miriam; Munari, Cristina

    2017-11-15

    This is the first survey to investigate the occurrence and extent of microplastic contamination in sediments collected along a coast-open sea 140km-long transect in the Central Adriatic Sea. Plastic debris extracted from 64 samples of sediments were counted, weighted and identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Several types of plastic particles were observed in 100% of the stations. Plastic particles ranged from 1 to 30mm in length. The primary shape types by number were filaments (69.3%), followed by fragments (16.4%), and film (14.3%). Microplastics (1-5mm) accounted for 65.1% of debris, mesoplastics (5-20mm) made up 30.3% of total amount, while macro debris (>20mm) accounted for 4.6% of total plastics collected. Identification through FT-IR spectroscopy evidenced the presence of 6 polymer types: the majority of plastic debris were nylon, polyethylene and ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer. Our data are a baseline for microplastic research in the Adriatic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Some Observational and Modeling Studies of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Mississippi Gulf Coast for Air Pollution Dispersion Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu; Challa, Venkata Srinivas; Indracanti, Jayakumar; Dasari, Hariprasad; Baham, Julius; Patrick, Chuck; Young, John; Hughes, Robert; White, Lorren D.; Hardy, Mark G.; Swanier, Shelton

    2008-01-01

    Coastal atmospheric conditions widely vary from those over inland due to the land-sea interface, temperature contrast and the consequent development of local circulations. In this study a field meteorological experiment was conducted to measure vertical structure of boundary layer during the period 25–29 June, 2007 at three locations Seabee base, Harrison and Wiggins sites in the Mississippi coast. A GPS Sonde along with slow ascent helium balloon and automated weather stations equipped with slow and fast response sensors were used in the experiment. GPS sonde were launched at three specific times (0700 LT, 1300 LT and 1800 LT) during the experiment days. The observations indicate shallow boundary layer near the coast which gradually develops inland. The weather research and forecasting (WRF) meso-scale atmospheric model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (HYSPLIT) are used to simulate the lower atmospheric flow and dispersion in a range of 100 km from the coast for 28–30 June, 2007. The simulated meteorological parameters were compared with the experimental observations. The meso-scale model results show significant temporal and spatial variations in the meteorological fields as a result of development of sea breeze flow, its coupling with the large scale flow field and the ensuing alteration in the mixing depth across the coast. Simulated ground-level concentrations of SO2 from four elevated point sources located along the coast indicate diurnal variation and impact of the local sea-land breeze on the direction of the plume. Model concentration levels were highest during the stable morning condition and during the sea-breeze time in the afternoon. The highest concentrations were found up to 40 km inland during sea breeze time. The study illustrates the application of field meteorological observations for the validation of WRF which is coupled to HYSPLIT for dispersion assessment in the coastal region. PMID:19151446

  7. Population structure of sea-type and lake-type sockeye salmon and kokanee in the Fraser River and Columbia River drainages

    PubMed Central

    Withler, Ruth E.

    2017-01-01

    Population structure of three ecotypes of Oncorhynchus nerka (sea-type Sockeye Salmon, lake-type Sockeye Salmon, and Kokanee) in the Fraser River and Columbia River drainages was examined with microsatellite variation, with the main focus as to whether Kokanee population structure within the Fraser River drainage suggested either a monophyletic or polyphyletic origin of the ecotype within the drainage. Variation at 14 microsatellite loci was surveyed for sea-type and lake-type Sockeye Salmon and Kokanee sampled from 121 populations in the two river drainages. An index of genetic differentiation, FST, over all populations and loci was 0.087, with individual locus values ranging from 0.031 to 0.172. Standardized to an ecotype sample size of 275 individuals, the least genetically diverse ecotype was sea-type Sockeye Salmon with 203 alleles, whereas Kokanee displayed the greatest number of alleles (260 alleles), with lake-type Sockeye Salmon intermediate (241 alleles). Kokanee populations from the Columbia River drainage (Okanagan Lake, Kootenay Lake), the South Thompson River (a major Fraser River tributary) drainage populations, and the mid-Fraser River populations all clustered together in a neighbor-joining analysis, indicative of a monophyletic origin of the Kokanee ecotype in these regions, likely reflecting the origin of salmon radiating from a refuge after the last glaciation period. However, upstream of the mid-Fraser River populations, there were closer relationships between the lake-type Sockeye Salmon ecotype and the Kokanee ecotype, indicative of the Kokanee ecotype evolving independently from the lake-type Sockeye Salmon ecotype in parallel radiation. Kokanee population structure within the entire Fraser River drainage suggested a polyphyletic origin of the ecotype within the drainage. Studies employing geographically restricted population sampling may not outline accurately the phylogenetic history of salmonid ecotypes. PMID:28886033

  8. Investigation of mesoscale precipitation processes in the Carolinas using a radar-based climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyles, Ryan Patrick

    The complex topography, shoreline, soils, and land use patterns makes the Carolinas a unique location to study mesoscale processes. Using gage-calibrated radar estimates and a series of numerical model simulations, warm season mesoscale precipitation patterns are analyzed over the Carolinas. Gage-calibrated radar precipitation estimates are compared with surface gage observations. Stage IV estimates generally compared better than Stage II estimates, but some Stage II and Stage IV estimates have gross errors during autumn, winter, and spring seasons. Analysis of days when sea breeze is observed suggests that sea breeze induced precipitation occurs on nearly 40% of days in June, July, and August, but only 18% in May and 6% of days in April. Precipitation on days with sea breeze convection can contribute to over 50% of seasonal precipitation. Rainfall associated with sea breeze is generally maximized along east-facing shores 10-20 km inland, and minimized along south-facing shores in North Carolina. The shape of the shoreline along Cape Fear is associated with a local precipitation maximum that may be caused by the convergence of two sea breeze fronts from the south and east shores. Differential heating associated with contrasting soils along the Carolina Sandhills is suggested as a mechanism for enhancement in local precipitation. A high-resolution summer precipitation climatology suggests that precipitation is enhanced along the Sandhills region in both wet and dry years. Analysis of four numerical simulations suggests that contrasts in soils over the Carolinas Sandhills dominates over vegetation contrasts to produce heat flux gradients and a convergence zone along the sand-to-clay transition. Orographically induced precipitation is consistently observed in the summer, and appears to be isolated along windward slopes at 20km--40km from the ridge line. Amounts over external ridges are generally 50-100% higher than amounts observed over the foothills. Precipitation

  9. PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air: a focus on the effect of meteorology.

    PubMed

    Giakoumi, A; Maggos, Th; Michopoulos, J; Helmis, C; Vasilakos, Ch

    2009-05-01

    PM(2.5) and VOCs (benzene, toluene, m-p-o-xylenes) concentrations were measured in an urban and a suburban site in Athens, Greece, during the period between April and November 2004. This period, which is considered to be the warmer period in Greece, is characterized by the development of sea-breeze over the Attica Basin. Additionally strong Northern, North-eastern winds called "The Etesians", predominate during the summer months (July-August), acting positively to the dispersion of pollutants. In this campaign, 24 days with sea-breeze development were observed, 15 days with northern winds, 6 days with southern winds while the rest of the days presented no specific wind profile. Maximum concentrations of PM(2.5), VOCs and nitrogen oxides, were detected during the days with sea-breeze, while minimum concentrations during the days with northern winds. Ozone was the only pollutant that appeared to have higher concentrations in the background site and not in the city centre, where benzene presented strong negative correlation with ozone, indicating the photochemical reaction of hydrocarbons that lead to the ozone formation. The BTX ratios were similar for both sites and wind profiles, indicating common sources for those pollutants. T/B ratio ranged in low levels, between 3-5 for site A and 2-5 for site B, suggesting vehicles emissions as the main sources of volatile compounds. Finally, the strong correlations of PM(2.5) and benzene concentrations, between the two sampling sites, indicate that both the city centre and the background site, are affected by the same sources, under common meteorological conditions (sea-breeze, northern winds).

  10. Type C botulism in pelicans and other fish-eating birds at the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Nol, P.; Pelizza, C.; Sturm, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, type C avian botulism killed over 10,000 pelicans and nearly 10,000 other fish-eating birds at the Salton Sea in southern California. Although botulism had been previously documented in waterbirds at the Sea, this die-off was unusual in that it involved primarily fish-eating birds. The American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorynchos) was the species with the greatest mortality in 1996. Since 1996, mortality has recurred every year but losses have declined (<2,000 birds/year), with relatively more Brown Pelicans (P. occidentalis) than White Pelicans afflicted. In 2000, morbidity and mortality of Brown Pelicans with type C botulism (1311) approached the numbers afflicted in 1996 (2034). In recent years, mortality reached a peak earlier in the summer, July and August, in contrast to 1996 when mortality reached a peak in September. An exotic fish species, tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), has been implicated as the source of toxin for birds at Salton Sea, but the source of toxin for fish is unknown.

  11. Retrieving Arctic Sea Fog Geometrical Thickness and Inversion Characteristics from Surface and Radiosonde Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilson, Gaëlle; Jiskoot, Hester

    2017-04-01

    Arctic sea fog hasn't been extensively studied despite its importance for environmental impact such as on traffic safety and on glacier ablation in coastal Arctic regions. Understanding fog processes can improve nowcasting of environmental impact in such remote regions where few observational data exist. To understand fog's physical, macrophysical and radiative properties, it is important to determine accurate Arctic fog climatology. Our previous study suggested that fog peaks in July over East Greenland and associates with sea ice break-up and a sea breeze with wind speeds between 1-4 m/s. The goal of this study is to understand Arctic coastal fog macrophysical properties and quantify its vertical extent. Radiosonde profiles were extracted from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) between 1980-2012, coincident with manual and automated fog observations at three synoptic weather stations along the coast of East Greenland. A new method using air mass saturation ratio and thermodynamic stability was developed to derive fog top height from IGRA radiosonde profiles. Soundings were classified into nine categories, based on surface and low-level saturation ratio, inversion type, and the fog top height relative to the inversion base. Results show that Arctic coastal fog mainly occurs under thermodynamically stable conditions characterized by deep and strong low-level inversions. Fog thickness is commonly about 100-400 m, often reaching the top of the boundary layer. Fog top height is greater at northern stations, where daily fog duration is also longer and often lasts throughout the day. Fog thickness is likely correlated to sea ice concentration density during sea ice break-up. Overall, it is hypothesized that our sounding classes represent development or dissipation stages of advection fog, or stratus lowering and fog lifting processes. With a new automated method, it is planned to retrieve fog height from IGRA data over Arctic terrain around the entire North

  12. Automated connectionist-geostatistical classification as an approach to identify sea ice and land ice types, properties and provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz-Weiss, L. R.; Herzfeld, U. C.; Trantow, T.; Hunke, E. C.; Maslanik, J. A.; Crocker, R. I.

    2016-12-01

    An important problem in model-data comparison is the identification of parameters that can be extracted from observational data as well as used in numerical models, which are typically based on idealized physical processes. Here, we present a suite of approaches to characterization and classification of sea ice and land ice types, properties and provinces based on several types of remote-sensing data. Applications will be given to not only illustrate the approach, but employ it in model evaluation and understanding of physical processes. (1) In a geostatistical characterization, spatial sea-ice properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Sea and in Elsoon Lagoon are derived from analysis of RADARSAT and ERS-2 SAR data. (2) The analysis is taken further by utilizing multi-parameter feature vectors as inputs for unsupervised and supervised statistical classification, which facilitates classification of different sea-ice types. (3) Characteristic sea-ice parameters, as resultant from the classification, can then be applied in model evaluation, as demonstrated for the ridging scheme of the Los Alamos sea ice model, CICE, using high-resolution altimeter and image data collected from unmanned aircraft over Fram Strait during the Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment (CASIE). The characteristic parameters chosen in this application are directly related to deformation processes, which also underly the ridging scheme. (4) The method that is capable of the most complex classification tasks is the connectionist-geostatistical classification method. This approach has been developed to identify currently up to 18 different crevasse types in order to map progression of the surge through the complex Bering-Bagley Glacier System, Alaska, in 2011-2014. The analysis utilizes airborne altimeter data and video image data and satellite image data. Results of the crevasse classification are compare to fracture modeling and found to match.

  13. Monitoring Arctic Sea ice using ERTS imagery. [Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and other minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft.

  14. The discrimination of sea ice types using SAR backscatter statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, Robert A.; Wackerman, Christopher C.; Maffett, Andrew L.; Onstott, Robert G.; Sutherland, Laura L.

    1989-01-01

    X-band (HH) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data of sea ice collected during the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in March and April of 1987 was statistically analyzed with respect to discriminating open water, first-year ice, multiyear ice, and Odden. Odden are large expanses of nilas ice that rapidly form in the Greenland Sea and transform into pancake ice. A first-order statistical analysis indicated that mean versus variance can segment out open water and first-year ice, and skewness versus modified skewness can segment the Odden and multilayer categories. In additions to first-order statistics, a model has been generated for the distribution function of the SAR ice data. Segmentation of ice types was also attempted using textural measurements. In this case, the general co-occurency matrix was evaluated. The textural method did not generate better results than the first-order statistical approach.

  15. Wind systems the driving force of evaporation at the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Alpert, Pinhas

    2017-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is located in the Eastern Mediterranean at the lowest point of the Jordan Rift valley and its water level is currently at 429 m below mean sea level. The region is located in a transition zone of semi-arid to arid climate conditions and endangered by severe environmental problems, especially the rapid lake level decline (>1m/year), causing the shifting of fresh/saline groundwater interfaces and the drying up of the lake. Two key features are relevant for these environmental changes: the evaporation from the water surface and its driving mechanisms. The main driver of evaporation at the Dead Sea is the wind velocity and hence the governing wind systems with different scales in space and time. In the framework of the Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) an extensive field campaign was conducted to study the governing wind systems in the valley and the energy balance of the water and land surface simultaneously. The combination of several in-situ and remote sensing instruments allowed temporally and spatially high-resolution measurements to investigate the frequency of occurrence of the wind systems, their three-dimensional structure, associated wind velocities and their impact on evaporation. The characteristics of the three local wind systems governing the valley's wind field, as well as their impact on evaporation, will be presented. Mostly decoupled from the large scale flow a local lake breeze determines the conditions during the day. Strong downslope winds drive the evaporation in the afternoon, and down valley flows with wind velocities of over 10 m s-1 dominate during the night causing unusually high evaporation rates after sunset.

  16. The influence of terrain forcing on the initiation of deep convection over Mediterranean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthlott, Christian; Kirshbaum, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The influence of mountainous islands on the initiation of deep convection is investigated using the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model. The study day is 26 August 2009 on which moist convection occurred over both the Corsica and Sardinia island in the Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity runs with systematically modified topography are explored to evaluate the relative importance of the land-sea contrast and the terrain height for convection initiation. Whereas no island precipitation is simulated when the islands are completely removed, all simulations that represent these land surfaces develop convective precipitation. Although convection initiates progressively earlier in the day over taller islands, the precipitation rates and accumulations do not show a fixed relationship with terrain height. This is due to the competing effects of different physical processes. First, whereas the forcing for low-level ascent increases over taller islands, the boundary-layer moisture supply decreases, which diminishes the conditional instability and precipitable water. Second, whereas taller islands enhance the inland propagation speeds of sea-breeze fronts, they also mechanically block these fronts and prevent them from reaching the island interior. As a result, the island precipitation is rather insensitive to island terrain height except for one particular case in which the island precipitation increases considerably due to an optimal superposition of the sea breeze and upslope flow. These results demonstrate the complexity of interactions between sea breezes and orography and reinforce that an adequate representation of detailed topographic features is necessary to account for thermally induced wind systems that initiate deep convection.

  17. The Implementation and Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) at Cape Canaveral Air Station/Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Tremback, Craig J.; Lyons, Walter A.

    1996-01-01

    The Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) is a system which combines the mesoscale meteorological prediction model RAMS with the diffusion models REEDM and HYPACT. Operators use a graphical user interface to run the models for emergency response and toxic hazard planning at CCAS/KCS. The Applied Meteorology Unit has been evaluating the ERDAS meteorological and diffusion models and obtained the following results: (1) RAMS adequately predicts the occurrence of the daily sea breeze during non-cloudy conditions for several cases. (2) RAMS shows a tendency to predict the sea breeze to occur slightly earlier and to move it further inland than observed. The sea breeze predictions could most likely be improved by better parameterizing the soil moisture and/or sea surface temperatures. (3) The HYPACT/REEDM/RAMS models accurately predict launch plume locations when RAMS winds are accurate and when the correct plume layer is modeled. (4) HYPACT does not adequately handle plume buoyancy for heated plumes since all plumes are presently treated as passive tracers. Enhancements should be incorporated into the ERDAS as it moves toward being a fully operational system and as computer workstations continue to increase in power and decrease in cost. These enhancements include the following: activate RAMS moisture physics; use finer RAMS grid resolution; add RAMS input parameters (e.g. soil moisture, radar, and/or satellite data); automate data quality control; implement four-dimensional data assimilation; modify HYPACT plume rise and deposition physics; and add cumulative dosage calculations in HYPACT.

  18. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 29: SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Aiken, James; Moore, Gerald F.; Trees, Charles C.; Clark, Dennis K.

    1995-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission will provide operational ocean color that will be superior to the previous Coastal Zone Color Sensor (CZCS) proof-of-concept mission. an algorithm is needed that exploits the full functionality of SeaWiFS whilst remaining compatible in concept with algorithms used for the CZCS. This document describes the theoretical rationale of radiance band-radio methods for determining chlorophyll alpha and other important biogeochemical parameters, and their implementation for the SeaWiFS mission. Pigment interrelationships are examined to explain the success of the CZCS algorithms. In the context where chlorophyll alpha absorbs only weakly at 520 nm, the success of the 520 nm to 550 nm CZCS band ratio needs to be explained. This is explained by showing that in pigment data from a range of oceanic provinces chlorophyll alpha (absorbing at less than 490 nm), carotenoids (absorbing at greater than 460 nm), and total pigment are highly correlated. Correlations within pigment groups particularly photoprotectant and photosynthetic carotenoids are less robust. The sources of variability in optical data re examined using the NIMBUS Experiment Team (NET) bio-optical data set and bio-optical model. In both the model and NET data, the majority of the variance in the optical data is attributed to variability in pigment (chlorophyll alpha, and total particulates, with less than 5% of the variability resulting from pigment assemblage. The relationships between band ratios and chlorophyll is examined analytically, and a new formulation based on a dual hyperbolic model is suggested which gives a better calibration curve than the conventional log-log linear regression fit. The new calibration curve shows that 490:555 ratio is the best single-band ratio and is the recommended CZCS-type pigment algorithm. Using both the model and NET data, a number of multiband algorithms are developed; the best of which is an algorithm based on the

  19. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  20. The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

  1. Effects of Explicit Urban-Canopy Representation on Local Circulations Above a Tropical Mega-City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Rojas, José L.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.; Karam, Hugo A.; Vemado, Felipe; Masson, Valéry

    2018-01-01

    The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) is coupled with the tropical town energy budget (tTEB) scheme to analyze the effects of the urban canopy circulation over the metropolitan area of São Paulo and its interactions with the sea breeze and mountain-valley circulation in the eastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two experiments are carried out for the typical sea-breeze event occurring on 22 August 2014 under weak synoptic forcing and clear-sky conditions: (a) a control run with the default semi-desert surface parametrization and; (b) a tTEB run for the urban canopy of São Paulo. A realistic land-use database over the south-eastern domain of Brazil is used in the downscaling simulation to a horizontal grid resolution of 3 km. Our results indicate that ARPS effectively simulates features of the nighttime and early morning land-breeze circulation, which is affected by the surrounding hills and the nocturnal heat island of São Paulo. By early afternoon, the south-eastern sea-breeze circulation moves inland perpendicular to the upslope of the Serra do Mar scarp, which generates a line of moisture convergence and updrafts further inland. Later, the convergence line reaches São Paulo and interacts with the circulation arising from the urban heat island (UHI), which increases the moisture convergence and strength of updrafts. The surface energy balance indicates that the UHI is caused by large sensible heat storage within the urban canopy during the day, which is later released in the afternoon and at night. The simulations are verified with available radiosonde and surface weather station data, land-surface-temperature estimates from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, as well as the National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis databases. The three-dimensional geometry of the urban canyons within the tTEB scheme consistently improves the thermodynamically-induced circulation over São Paulo.

  2. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: Modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, John F.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Ware, Paul L. G.

    1998-05-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (˜200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (˜100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  3. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Turner, R.J.W.; Ware, P.L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (~200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor-hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (~100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  4. Microplastic pollution in sediments from the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianmin; Ran, Wen; Teng, Jia; Liu, Yongliang; Liu, Hui; Yin, Xiaonan; Cao, Ruiwen; Wang, Qing

    2018-06-02

    Microplastics are one of the most significant pollutants in the marine environment and accumulate in sediments all over the world. To assess the pollution level in the marine environment in China, the distribution and abundance of microplastics in sediments from the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea were investigated in this study. The sediment samples were collected from 72 different sites in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. Microplastics were separated from sediment through density flotation and categorized according to shape and size under a microscope. Additionally, polymer types were identified using Fourier-Transform Infrared Micro-spectroscopy (μ-FT-IR). Our study demonstrated that microplastics were consistently found in all samples, which emphasized their extensive distribution throughout the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. The average microplastic abundance was 171.8, 123.6 and 72.0 items per kg of dry weight sediment for the Bohai Sea, Northern Yellow Sea and Southern Yellow Sea, respectively. Among the sampled microplastics, fiber (93.88%) and small microplastics (<1000 μm) (71.06%) were the most frequent types. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (μ-FT-IR) analysis determined that the main types of microplastics were rayon (RY), polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Our results highlighted the widespread distribution of microplastics in sediments from the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea and provided useful information for evaluating the environmental risks of microplastics in China. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 29; The SeaWiFS CZCS-Type Pigment Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Aiken, James; Moore, Gerald F.; Trees, Charles C.; Clark, Dennis K.

    1995-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission will provide operational ocean color that will be superior to the previous Coastal Zone Color Sensor (CZCS) proof-of-concept mission. An algorithm is needed that exploits the full functionality of SeaWiFS whilst remaining compatible in concept with algorithms used for the CZCS. This document describes the theoretical rationale of radiance band-ratio methods for determining chlorophyll-a and other important biogeochemical parameters, and their implementation for the SeaWIFS mission. Pigment interrelationships are examined to explain the success of the CZCS algorithms. In the context where chlorophyll-a absorbs only weakly at 520 nm, the success of the 520 nm to 550 nm CZCS band ratio needs to be explained. This is explained by showing that in pigment data from a range of oceanic provinces chlorophyll-a (absorbing at less than 490 nm), carotenoids (absorbing at greater than 460 nm), and total pigment are highly correlated. Correlations within pigment groups particularly photoprotectant and photosynthetic carotenoids are less robust. The sources of variability in optical data are examined using the NIMBUS Experiment Team (NET) bio-optical data set and bio-optical model. In both the model and NET data, the majority of the variance in the optical data is attributed to variability in pigment (chlorophyll-a), and total particulates, with less than 5% of the variability resulting from pigment assemblage. The relationships between band ratios and chlorophyll is examined analytically, and a new formulation based on a dual hyperbolic model is suggested which gives a better calibration curve than the conventional log-log linear regression fit. The new calibration curve shows the 490:555 ratio is the best single-band ratio and is the recommended CZCS-type pigment algorithm. Using both the model and NET data, a number of multiband algorithms are developed; the best of which is an algorithm based on the 443:555 and 490

  6. Circulation types related to lightning activity over Catalonia and the Principality of Andorra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, N.; Esteban, P.; Trapero, L.; Soler, X.; Beck, C.

    In the present study, we use a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to characterize the surface 6-h circulation types related to substantial lightning activity over the Catalonia area (north-eastern Iberia) and the Principality of Andorra (eastern Pyrenees) from January 2003 to December 2007. The gridded data used for classification of the circulation types is the NCEP Final Analyses of the Global Tropospheric Analyses at 1° resolution over the region 35°N-48°N by 5°W-8°E. Lightning information was collected by the SAFIR lightning detection system operated by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC), which covers the region studied. We determined nine circulation types on the basis of the S-mode orthogonal rotated Principal Component Analysis. The “extreme scores” principle was used previous to the assignation of all cases, to obtain the number of final types and their centroids. The distinct differences identified in the resulting mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP) fields enabled us to group the types into three main patterns, taking into account their scale/dynamical origin. The first group of types shows the different distribution of the centres of action at synoptic scale associated with the occurrence of lightning. The second group is connected to mesoscale dynamics, mainly induced by the relief of the Pyrenees. The third group shows types with low gradient SLP patterns in which the lightning activity is a consequence of thermal dynamics (coastal and mountain breezes). Apart from reinforcing the consistency of the groups obtained, analysis of the resulting classification improves our understanding of the geographical distribution and genesis factors of thunderstorm activity in the study area, and provides complementary information for supporting weather forecasting. Thus, the catalogue obtained will provide advances in different climatological and meteorological applications, such as nowcasting products or detection of climate change trends.

  7. Warm Breeze due to Charge Exchange Collisions Between Neutral He Atoms and He+ Ions in the Outer Heliosheath.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Czechowski, A.; Grygorczuk, J.

    2017-12-01

    We simulated the signal due to neutral He atoms, observed by Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), assuming that charge exchange collisions between neutral He atoms and He+ ions operate everywhere between the heliopause and a distant source region in the local interstellar cloud (LIC). We chose the limiting distance of calculations at 5000 AU, where the neutral and charged components are in thermal equilibrium. From that distance we integrated the signal for test particles that we know they reach the IBEX detector, calculating for each particle the balance of losses and gains in the LIC, the ionization losses inside the HP, and the distribution function at 5000 AU. The resulting statistical weights were integrated over speed, inflow direction, collimator transmission, observation times, and IBEX spin angle bins to simulate the count rate actually observed by IBEX. We simulated several test cases of the plasma flow within the outer heliosheath and investigated the signal generation for plasma flows both in the presence and in the absence of the interstellar magnetic field. We found that a signal in the portion of IBEX data identified as due to the Warm Breeze does not arise when a homogeneous plasma flow in front of the heliopause is assumed. However, it appears immediately when any reasonable disturbance in the plasma flow due to the presence of the heliosphere is assumed. We obtained a good qualitative agreement between the data and the simulations for a model flow with the velocity vector of the unperturbed gas and the direction and intensity of magnetic field adopted from recent determinations. We conclude that direct-sampling observations of neutral He atoms at 1 AU from the Sun are a sensitive tool for investigating the flow of interstellar matter in the outer heliosheath; the Warm Breeze is indeed the secondary population of interstellar helium, as it was hypothesized earlier; the WB signal is consistent with that predicted by comet-like models of the

  8. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST) is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS) and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection. PMID:26404308

  9. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa

    PubMed Central

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Zelepuga, Elena; Sintsova, Oksana; Tabakmakher, Valentin; Gnedenko, Oksana; Ivanov, Alexis; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:26404319

  10. Numerical Studies of the Georgia Coast Sea Breeze

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-09

    the 1991 Pan American Games. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 5-16. ____, S. Rinard, C. Garza, and G. Hoogenboom , 1996: Wind forecasting for the sailing...events of the Summer Olympic Games. Conf on Coastal Oceanic and Atmos. Pred., Atlanta, GA, pp 336-343. Rinard, S., M. Powell, C. Garza and G. Hoogenboom

  11. The Sensitivity of SeaWiFS Ocean Color Retrievals to Aerosol Amount and Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Sayer, Andrew M.; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Franz, Bryan A.

    2016-01-01

    As atmospheric reflectance dominates top-of-the-atmosphere radiance over ocean, atmospheric correction is a critical component of ocean color retrievals. This paper explores the operational Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) algorithm atmospheric correction with approximately 13 000 coincident surface-based aerosol measurements. Aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD(sub 440)) is overestimated for AOD below approximately 0.1-0.15 and is increasingly underestimated at higher AOD; also, single-scattering albedo (SSA) appears overestimated when the actual value less than approximately 0.96.AOD(sub 440) and its spectral slope tend to be overestimated preferentially for coarse-mode particles. Sensitivity analysis shows that changes in these factors lead to systematic differences in derived ocean water-leaving reflectance (Rrs) at 440 nm. The standard SeaWiFS algorithm compensates for AOD anomalies in the presence of nonabsorbing, medium-size-dominated aerosols. However, at low AOD and with absorbing aerosols, in situ observations and previous case studies demonstrate that retrieved Rrs is sensitive to spectral AOD and possibly also SSA anomalies. Stratifying the dataset by aerosol-type proxies shows the dependence of the AOD anomaly and resulting Rrs patterns on aerosol type, though the correlation with the SSA anomaly is too subtle to be quantified with these data. Retrieved chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl) are affected in a complex way by Rrs differences, and these effects occur preferentially at high and low Chl values. Absorbing aerosol effects are likely to be most important over biologically productive waters near coasts and along major aerosol transport pathways. These results suggest that future ocean color spacecraft missions aiming to cover the range of naturally occurring and anthropogenic aerosols, especially at wavelengths shorter than 440 nm, will require better aerosol amount and type constraints.

  12. NASA Applied Sciences' DEVELOP National Program: Summer 2010 Florida Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, Zachary C.; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    The main agricultural areas in South Florida are located within the fertile land surrounding Lake Okeechobee. The Atlantic Watershed monthly rainfall anomalies showed a weak but statistically significant correlation to the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI). No other watershed s anomalies showed significant correlations with ONI or the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). During La Nina months, less sea breeze days and more disturbed days were found to occur compared to El Nino and neutral months. The increase in disturbed days can likely by attributed to the synoptic pattern during La Nina, which is known to be favorable for tropical systems to follow paths that affect South Florida. Overall, neither sea breeze rainfall patterns nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida s main agricultural areas were found to be strongly influenced by the El Nino Southern Oscillation during our study time.

  13. Impact of Lake Okeechobee Sea Surface Temperatures on Numerical Predictions of Summertime Convective Systems over South Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Splitt, Michael E.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Santos, Pablo; Lazarus, Steven M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, the Florida Institute of Technology, and the NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Office at Miami, FL (MFL) are collaborating on a project to investigate the impact of using high-resolution, 2-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) composites within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) prediction system. The NWS MFL is currently running WRF in real-time to support daily forecast operations, using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical core within the NWS Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling System (EMS) software. Twenty-seven hour forecasts are run daily initialized at 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2100 UTC on a domain with 4-km grid spacing covering the southern half of Florida and adjacent waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. The SSTs are initialized with the NCEP Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses at 1/12deg resolution. The project objective is to determine whether more accurate specification of the lower-boundary forcing over water using the MODIS SST composites within the 4-km WRF runs will result in improved sea fluxes and hence, more accurate e\\olutiono f coastal mesoscale circulations and the associated sensible weather elements. SPoRT conducted parallel WRF EMS runs from February to August 2007 identical to the operational runs at NWS MFL except for the use of MODIS SST composites in place of the RTG product as the initial and boundary conditions over water. During the course of this evaluation, an intriguing case was examined from 6 May 2007, in which lake breezes and convection around Lake Okeechobee evolved quite differently when using the high-resolution SPoRT MODIS SST composites versus the lower-resolution RTG SSTs. This paper will analyze the differences in the 6 May simulations, as well as examine other cases from the summer 2007 in which the WRF

  14. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    . It would further clarify popular understanding if the term "actual sea level rise" were used in place of "eustatic sea level rise". (2)Geologists have approximated the the practice of paleontologists and biologists in establishing type examples of important geological features. This is a useful practice. A graduate geologist holds in mind clear conceptions of "beach cusps", "drumlin fields", "birdfoot deltas", and "igneous sills" based on seeing field examples accepted by professional geologists as representative of these features. However, although publications frequently report that sea level rise erodes a particular beach, no one identifies a type beach where that cause has been proven to produce the alleged effect. At the type beach, it is necessary to show that sea level is rising, and that the beach erodes primarily from this sea level rise, rather than from interrupted longshore transport. Thus, the second challenge is to identify a type ocean beach proven to erode because of sea level rise.

  15. Impact of Land-Sea Thermal Contrast on Inland Penetration of Sea Fog over The Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. Y.; Chang, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Sea fog can be classified into a cold sea fog that occurs when sea surface temperature (SST) is colder than sea air temperature (SAT) and a warm sea fog that occurs when the SST is warmer than the SAT. We simulated two sea fog events over the Yellow Sea which is surrounded by Korean Peninsula and mainland China using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Our first aim is to understand contributions of major factors for the sea fog formation. First, the two sea fog events are designated as cold and warm types, and cooling rates as well as moistening rates are calculated employing bulk aerodynamic methods. Both cases show cooling and moistening by turbulent fluxes play an important role in condensation either favorably or unfavorably. However, longwave radiative cooling is as or even stronger than turbulent cooling, suggesting it is the most decisive factor in formation of sea fogs regardless of their type. Our second purpose of the study is to understand inland penetration of sea fog in terms of thermal contrast (TC) and it was conducted through sensitivity tests of SST and land skin temperature (LST). In the SST sensitivity tests, increase of SSTs lead to that of upward turbulent heat fluxes so that SATs rise which are responsible for evaporation of cloud waters and it is common response of the two events. In addition, change of the SST induce that of the TC and may affect the inland penetration of sea fog. However, when the cloud waters over the sea evaporate, it is hard to fully determine the inland penetration. As a remedy for this limitation, LST is now modified instead of SST to minimize the evaporation effect, maintaining the equivalent TC. In the case of cold sea fog, land air temperature (LAT) is warmer than SAT. Here, decrease of the LAT leads to weakening of the TC and favors the inland penetration. On the other hand, LAT is colder than the SAT in the warm sea fog event. When the LAT decreases, the TC is intensified resulting in blocking of the

  16. [THE EFFECT OF 5 DAYS IMMERSION IN DEAD SEA WATER ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Brzezinski Sinai, Isaac; Lior, Yotam; Brzezinski Sinai, Noa; Harari, Marco; Liberty, Idit F

    2016-02-01

    Body immersion in plain water or mineral water induces significant and unique physiological changes in most body systems. In a previous pilot study, a significant reduction in blood glucose levels among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients was found following a single immersion in Dead Sea water but not after immersion in plain water. To study the immediate and long term effects of immersion in mineral water for five consecutive days on blood glucose in patients with type 2 DM. A total of 34 patients with type 2 DM were divided into 2 groups: The first immersed in a plain water pool and the second immersed in a Dead Sea water pool; both pools were warmed to a temperature of 35°C. Immersions for 20 minutes occurred twice daily: two hours after breakfast and before dinner. Seven samples of capillary blood glucose levels were taken: fasting, before and after every immersion, prior to lunch and before bedtime. Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) was taken prior to the study and a re-check was conducted during the 12 weeks following the study. Blood glucose levels significantly decreased immediately after immersion both in Dead Sea water and plain water compared to their values prior to immersion (p<0.001). No significant difference was noted between both types of water. A decrease in fasting glucose levels was observed only in the group immersed in Dead Sea water when compared to plain water (6.83±5.68 mg/dl versus 4.37±1.79 respectively and the difference was close to statistical significance (p=0.071. There were no changes in HbA1c levels. Immersion for 20 minutes in water (Dead Sea or plain water) at a temperature of 35°C induced an immediate reduction in glucose levels in patients with type 2 DM.

  17. Aeronautical Knowledge (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-11

    distribution unlimited. THIS TRANSLATION IS A RENDITION OF THE ORIGI. NAL FOREIGN TEXT WITH4OUT ANY ANALYTICAL ORt EDITORIAL COMMENT. STATEMENTS ORt THEORIES...An operator busily touched a row of milky white switches on a computer . Groups of vermilion number codes incessantly flickered on a light blue display...On a Surface Observation Ship in the Launch Sea Area Blue sky and azure sea with light breeze and small waves were scenes of the launch sea area. In

  18. Identification of sea ice types in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Rignot, Eric; Holt, Benjamin; Onstott, R.

    1992-01-01

    This study presents an approach for identification of sea ice types in spaceborne SAR image data. The unsupervised classification approach involves cluster analysis for segmentation of the image data followed by cluster labeling based on previously defined look-up tables containing the expected backscatter signatures of different ice types measured by a land-based scatterometer. Extensive scatterometer observations and experience accumulated in field campaigns during the last 10 yr were used to construct these look-up tables. The classification approach, its expected performance, the dependence of this performance on radar system performance, and expected ice scattering characteristics are discussed. Results using both aircraft and simulated ERS-1 SAR data are presented and compared to limited field ice property measurements and coincident passive microwave imagery. The importance of an integrated postlaunch program for the validation and improvement of this approach is discussed.

  19. Sensitivities of Summertime Mesoscale Circulations in the Coastal Carolinas to Modifications of the Kain–Fritsch Cumulus Parameterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two mesoscale circulations, the Sandhills circulation and the sea breeze, influence the initiation of deep convection over the Sandhills and the coast in the Carolinas during the summer months. The interaction of these two circulations causes additional convection in this coastal...

  20. Contour Error Map Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis; Lane, John; Immer, Christopher; Case, Jonathan; Manobianco, John

    2005-01-01

    The contour error map (CEM) algorithm and the software that implements the algorithm are means of quantifying correlations between sets of time-varying data that are binarized and registered on spatial grids. The present version of the software is intended for use in evaluating numerical weather forecasts against observational sea-breeze data. In cases in which observational data come from off-grid stations, it is necessary to preprocess the observational data to transform them into gridded data. First, the wind direction is gridded and binarized so that D(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on forecast data and d(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on gridded observational data. Here, i and j are spatial indices representing 1.25-km intervals along the west-to-east and south-to-north directions, respectively; and n is a time index representing 5-minute intervals. A binary value of D or d = 0 corresponds to an offshore wind, whereas a value of D or d = 1 corresponds to an onshore wind. CEM includes two notable subalgorithms: One identifies and verifies sea-breeze boundaries; the other, which can be invoked optionally, performs an image-erosion function for the purpose of attempting to eliminate river-breeze contributions in the wind fields.

  1. The MOSO field experiment - Overview of findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Haraldur; Jonassen, Marius O.; Ágústsson, Hálfdán; Rögnvaldsson, Ólafur; Hjarðar, Bjarni G. Þ.; Rasol, Dubravka; Reuder, Joachim; Jónsson, Sigurður; Líf Kristinsdóttir, Birta

    2013-04-01

    In 2009 and 2011, the MOSO I and MOSO II meteorological field experiments took place in SW-Iceland. The main objectives were to describe the low level atmospheric coastal flows in the vicinity of mountains. The observations for the MOSO dataset were made using a large number of automatic weather stations, microbarographs, radiosoundings and a remotely piloted aircraft. The highlights of the findings include a four-dimensional description of the sea-breeze in Iceland, weak downslope acceleration, summer- and winter-time mountain wake flow, transition between wake flow and sea-breeze. The orographic drag force is explored and shown to be not so high most of the time in the predicted high-drag state. The observations from the remotely piloted aircraft have been used successfully to nudge simulations of the flow and are shown to be promising for operational use in numerical prediction of mesoscale coastal and orographic flows.

  2. Meteorological impact assessment of possible large scale irrigation in Southwest Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Maat, H. W.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Ohba, R.; Ueda, H.; Bisselink, B.; Bauer, T.

    2006-11-01

    On continental to regional scales feedbacks between landuse and landcover change and climate have been widely documented over the past 10-15 years. In the present study we explore the possibility that also vegetation changes over much smaller areas may affect local precipitation regimes. Large scale (˜ 10 5 ha) irrigated plantations in semi-arid environments under particular conditions may affect local circulations and induce additional rainfall. Capturing this rainfall 'surplus' could then reduce the need for external irrigation sources and eventually lead to self-sustained water cycling. This concept is studied in the coastal plains in South West Saudi Arabia where the mountains of the Asir region exhibit the highest rainfall of the peninsula due to orographic lifting and condensation of moisture imported with the Indian Ocean monsoon and with disturbances from the Mediterranean Sea. We use a regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) forced by ECMWF analysis data to resolve the effect of complex surface conditions in high resolution (Δ x = 4 km). After validation, these simulations are analysed with a focus on the role of local processes (sea breezes, orographic lifting and the formation of fog in the coastal mountains) in generating rainfall, and on how these will be affected by large scale irrigated plantations in the coastal desert. The validation showed that the model simulates the regional and local weather reasonably well. The simulations exhibit a slightly larger diurnal temperature range than those captured by the observations, but seem to capture daily sea-breeze phenomena well. Monthly rainfall is well reproduced at coarse resolutions, but appears more localized at high resolutions. The hypothetical irrigated plantation (3.25 10 5 ha) has significant effects on atmospheric moisture, but due to weakened sea breezes this leads to limited increases of rainfall. In terms of recycling of irrigation gifts the rainfall enhancement in this particular

  3. Arctic intermediate water in the Norwegian sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blindheim, Johan

    1990-09-01

    At least two types of intermediate water propagate into the Norwegian Sea from the Iceland and Greenland seas. North Icelandic Winter Water flows along the slope of the Faroe-Iceland Ridge towards the Faroes. The distribution of this intermediate water is limited to the southern Norwegian Sea. The second type intrudes between the bottom water and the Atlantic Water, and can be traced as a slight salinity minimum of the entire area of the Norwegian Sea. There seems to be along-isopycnal advection of this water type along the Arctic Front from both the Iceland and Greenland Seas. Although the salinity minimum is less distinct along the slope of the continental shelf than in the western Norwegian Sea, this intermediate water separates the deep water and the Atlantic Water, and prohibits direct mixing of these two water masses.

  4. Comparison of organotin accumulation on the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis between sea-run and freshwater-resident types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2011-01-01

    To examine the accumulation pattern of organotin compounds (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds and their derivatives were determined in the muscle tissue of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis. There were generally no significant correlations between the TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as the total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in S. leucomaenis. It is noteworthy that the TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run white-spotted charr were significantly higher than in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are intraspecies. These results suggest that the sea-run S. leucomaenis has a higher ecological risk of TBT and TPT exposure than the freshwater-residents during their life history.

  5. A-type granite and the Red Sea opening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.; DeBari, S.; Peterman, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Miocene-Oligocene A-type granite intrudes the eastern side of the Red Sea margin within the zone of extension from Jiddah, Saudi Arabia south to Yemen. The intrusions developed in the early stages of continental extension as Arabia began to move slowly away from Africa (around 30-20 Ma). Within the narrow zone of extension silicic magmas formed dikes, sills, small plutons and extrusive equivalents. In the Jabal Tirf area of Saudi Arabia these rocks occur in an elongate zone consisting of late Precambrian basement to the east, which is gradually invaded by mafic dikes. The number of dikes increases westward until an igneous complex is produced parallel to the present Red Sea axis. The Jabal Tirf igneous complex consists of diabase and rhyolite-granophyre sills (20-24 Ma). Although these are intrusine intrusive rocks their textures indicate shallow depths of intrusion (< 1 km). To the south, in the Yemen, contemporaneous with alkali basaltic eruptions (26-30 Ma) and later silicic eruptions, small plutons, dikes, and stocks of alkali granite invaded thick (1500 m) volcanic series, at various levels and times. Erosion within the uplifted margin of Yemen suggests that the maximum depth of intrusion was less than 1-2 km. Granophyric intrusions (20-30 Ma) within mafic dike swarms similar to the Jabal Tirf complex are present along the western edge of the Yemen volcanic plateau, marking a north-south zone of continental extension. The alkali granites of Yemen consist primarily of perthitic feldspar and quartz with some minor alkali amphiboles and acmite. These granites represent water-poor, hypersolvus magmas generated from parent alkali basalt magmas. The granophyric, two-feldspar granites associated with the mafic dike swarms and layered gabbros formed by fractional crystallization from tholeiitic basalt parent developed in the early stages of extension. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of these rocks and their bulk chemistry indicate that production of peralkaline and

  6. Divergence of turbulent fluxes in the surface layer: case of a coastal city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigeon, G.; Lemonsu, A.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Durand, P.; Thouron, O.; Masson, V.

    2007-08-01

    This study quantifies the processes that take place in the layer between the mean building height and the measurement level of an energy balance micrometeorological tower located in the dense old core of a coastal European city. The contributions of storage, vertical advection, horizontal advection and radiative divergence for heat are evaluated with the available measurements and with a three-dimensional, high-resolution meteorological simulation that had been evaluated against observations. The study focused on a summer period characterized by sea-breeze flows that affect the city. In this specific configuration, it appears that the horizontal advection is the dominant term. During the afternoon when the sea breeze is well established, correction of the sensible heat flux with horizontal heat advection increases the measured sensible heat flux up to 100 W m-2. For latent heat flux, the horizontal moisture advection converted to equivalent latent heat flux suggests a decrease of 50 W m-2. The simulation reproduces well the temporal evolution and magnitude of these terms.

  7. Using a Network of Boundary Layer Profilers to Characterize the Atmosphere at a Major Spaceport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Lambert, Winifred; Merceret, Francis; Ward, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Space launch, landing, and ground operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida are highly sensitive to mesoscale weather conditions throughout the year. Due to the complex land-water interfaces and the important role of mesoscale circulations, a high-resolution network of five 915-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profilers (DRWP) and 44 wind towers was installed over the KSC/CCAFS area. By using quality-controlled 915-MHz DRAT data along with the near-surface tower observations, the Applied Meteorology Unit and KSC Weather Office have studied the development and evolution of various mesoscale phenomena across KSC/CCAFS such as sea and land breezes, low-level jets, and frontal passages. This paper will present some examples of mesoscale phenomena that can impact space operations at KSC/CCAFS, focusing on the utility of the 915-MHz DRWP network in identifying important characteristics of sea/land breezes and low-level jets.

  8. The inland boundary layer at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1985-08-01

    Observations from the Koorin boundary-layer experiment in Australia (latitude 16 °S) were analysed in a study of the nocturnal jet development. For geostrophic winds in the range 10 20 m s-1, ageostrophic wind magnitudes of 5 10m s-1 were common above the surface layer near sunset, with cross-isobar flow angles of about 40 °. The jet that then developed by midnight was probably the result of these large ageostrophic winds, strong surface cooling and favourable baroclinity and sloping terrain. The analysis is supported by numerical model calculations with special emphasis on the role of long-wave radiative cooling on turbulent decay. Decay is rapid in the presence of radiation, although there is little influence on stress divergence levels. Evidence of sea-breeze influences on the jet evolution, and on features of deeply penetrating sea breezes in general, will be presented and discussed in part 2 of this study (submitted to Boundary-Layer Meteorol.).

  9. A Study Of The Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Radon And Air Pollutants As Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Toshio; Yunoki, Eiji; Shimizu, Mitsuo; Mori, Tadashige; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Ohashi, Yukitaka, Sahashi, Ken; Maitani, Toshihiko; Miyashita, Koh'ichi; Iwata, Toru; Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira; Shaw, Roger H.

    Concentrations of radon 222Rn andair pollutants, meteorological parametersnear the surface and vertical profiles of meteorological elements were measured atUchio (Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture, Japan) 12 km north from the coast ofthe Inland Sea of Japan. In the nighttime, the 222Rn concentration increased in the case of weak winds, but did not increase as much in the case of moderate or strong winds, as had been expected. In the daytime, the 222Rn concentrationheld at a slightly higher than average level for the period from sunrise to about 1100 JST. It is considered that this phenomenon is due to a period of morning calm, that is, a transition period from land breeze to sea breeze.NO, which is sensitive to traffic volume,brought information concerning advection.Oxidant concentrations,which reflect the availability of sunlight,acted in the reverse manner to 222Rnconcentrations. Thus, a set of 222Rn and air pollutants could provide useful information regarding the local conditions of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  10. Prevalence of neurotoxic Clostridium botulinum type C in the gastrointestinal tracts of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in the Salton Sea.

    PubMed

    Nol, P; Rocke, T E; Gross, K; Yuill, T M

    2004-07-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) have been implicated as the source of type C toxin in avian botulism outbreaks in pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Pelecanus occidentalis californicus) at the Salton Sea in southern California (USA). We collected sick, dead, and healthy fish from various sites throughout the Sea during the summers of 1999 through 2001 and tested them for the presence of Clostridium botulinum type C cells by polymerase chain reaction targeting the C(1) neurotoxin gene. Four of 96 (4%), 57 of 664 (9%), and five of 355 (1%) tilapia tested were positive for C. botulinum type C toxin gene in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. The total number of positive fish was significantly greater in 2000 than in 2001 (P<0.0001). No difference in numbers of positives was detected between sick and dead fish compared with live fish. In 2000, no significant relationships were revealed among the variables studied, such as location and date of collection.

  11. Prevalence of neurotoxic Clostridium botulinum type C in the gastrointestinal tracts of tilapis (Oreochromis mossambicus) in the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nol, P.J.; Rocke, T.E.; Gross, K.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) have been implicated as the source of type C toxin in avian botulism outbreaks in pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Pelecanus occidentalis californicus) at the Salton Sea in southern California (USA). We collected sick, dead, and healthy fish from various sites throughout the Sea during the summers of 1999 through 2001 and tested them for the presence of Clostridium botulinum type C cells by polymerase chain reaction targeting the C1 neurotoxin gene. Four of 96 (4%), 57 of 664 (9%), and five of 355 (1%) tilapia tested were positive for C. botulinum type C toxin gene in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. The total number of positive fish was significantly greater in 2000 than in 2001 (P<0.0001). No difference in numbers of positives was detected between sick and dead fish compared with live fish. In 2000, no significant relationships were revealed among the variables studied, such as location and date of collection.

  12. Coastal recirculation potential affecting air pollutants in Portugal: The role of circulation weather types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Jerez, Sonia; Mendes, Manuel; Trigo, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are under increasing development and experience air pollution episodes regularly. These episodes are often related to peaks in local emissions from industry or transportation, but can also be associated with regional transport from neighbour urban areas influenced by land-sea breeze recirculation. This study intends to analyze the relation between circulation weather patterns, air mass recirculation and pollution levels in three coastal airsheds of Portugal (Lisbon, Porto and Sines) based on the application of an objective quantitative measure of potential recirculation. Although ventilation events have a dominant presence throughout the studied 9-yrs period on all the three airsheds, recirculation and stagnation conditions occur frequently. The association between NO2, SO2 and O3 levels and recirculation potential is evident during summer months. Under high average recirculation potential and high variability, NO2 and SO2 levels are higher for the three airsheds, whilst for O3 each airshed responds differently. This indicates a high heterogeneity among the three airsheds in (1) the type of emission - traffic or industry - prevailing for each contaminant, and (2) the response to the various circulation weather patterns and recirculation situations. Irrespectively of that, the proposed methodology, based on iterative K-means clustering, allows to identify which prevailing patterns are associated with high recirculation potential, having the advantage of being applicable to any geographical location.

  13. The use of fractionated fly ash of thermal power plants as binder for production of briquettes of coke breeze and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temnikova, E. Yu; Bogomolov, A. R.; Lapin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose to use the slag and ash material of thermal power plants (TPP) operating on pulverized coal fuel. The elemental and chemical composition of fly ash of five Kuzbass thermal power plants differs insignificantly from the composition of the mineral part of coking coal because coke production uses a charge, whose composition defines the main task: obtaining coke with the required parameters for production of iron and steel. These indicators are as follows: CRI reactivity and strength of the coke residue after reaction with CO2 - CSR. The chemical composition of fly ash of thermal power plants and microsilica with bulk density of 0.3-0.6 t/m3 generated at production of ferroalloys was compared. Fly ash and microsilica are the valuable raw material for production of mineral binder in manufacturing coke breeze briquettes (fraction of 2-10 mm) and dust (0-200 μm), generated in large quantities during coking (up to 40wt%). It is shown that this binder is necessary for production of smokeless briquettes with low reactivity, high strength and cost, demanded for production of cupola iron and melting the silicate materials, basaltic rocks in low-shaft furnaces. It is determined that microsilica contains up to 90% of silicon oxide, and fly ash contains up to 60% of silicon oxide and aluminum oxide of up to 20%. On average, the rest of fly ash composition consists of basic oxides. According to calculation by the VUKHIN formula, the basicity index of briquette changes significantly, when fly ash is introduced into briquette raw material component as a binder. The technology of coke briquette production on the basis of the non-magnetic fraction of TPP fly ash in the ratio from 3.5:1 to 4.5:1 (coke breeze : coke dust) with the addition of the binder component to 10% is proposed. The produced briquettes meet the requirements by CRI and require further study on CSR requirements.

  14. Simulation of summer ozone episodes in Southeast Louisiana during 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Zhang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Southeast Louisiana experiences high ozone (O3) events due to immense emissions from industrial and urban sources and unique meteorology conditions of high temperatures, intensive solar radiation and land-sea breeze circulation. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with modified photochemical mechanism is used to investigate the contributions of regional transport to ozone (O3) and its precursors to Southeast Louisiana in summer months from 2006 to 2015. The meteorological and CMAQ model performance are validated. Spatial and temporal variations of O3 are investigated during summer episodes in 10 years. Contributions of different source types and regions to 1 hour O3 are also quantified. Changes in the contributions of different source types and regions are also obtained to help design intelligent control measures.

  15. Diurnal Cycle of Surface Flows During NAME and Comparison to Model Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.

    2007-05-01

    During the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) an unprecedented surface data set of winds and thermodynamic variables was collected over the core monsoon region. The surface network included 63 automated sites with 1-30 min resolution data, 27 SMN operational sites (1-3 hourly data), and 56 US operational sites (1-3 hourly data) along the northern fringe of the monsoon region. These data, along with twice daily QuikSCAT oceanic surface winds, were quality controlled and objectively analyzed on to a uniform grid with quarter-degree, 1-h resolution for the period from 1 July - 15 August. An important application of the gridded winds is their use in diagnosing surface vertical motion due to slope flows over the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) terrain. With this dataset we examine the diurnal characteristics of surface fields as the monsoon evolves and compare these analyses to similar surface products from the special North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for NAME. Observed surface fields indicate that a robust land-sea breeze circulation is present over most of Gulf of California (GOC) region in response to the strong diurnal heating of land masses on both sides of the gulf. For reasons unclear at this time, many features of this land-sea breeze circulation are missing in the NARR. Evolution of the diurnal cycle of temperature and the land- sea breeze circulation as the monsoon progresses through the season shows a strong sensitivity to rainfall over the SMO and the coastal plains. Such a relationship likely reflects changes in land surface characteristics, such as evapotranspiration and albedo, as the forests of the SMO respond to monsoonal rains.

  16. Techniques for Sea Ice Characteristics Extraction and Sea Ice Monitoring Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data in the Bohai Sea-Dragon 3 Programme Final Report (2012-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of Dragon-3 programme (ID: 10501) are to develop methods for classification sea ice types and retrieving ice thickness based on multi-sensor data. In this final results paper, we give a briefly introduction for our research work and mainly results. Key words: the Bohai Sea ice, Sea ice, optical and

  17. Odd cloud in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 28, 2002, MODIS captured this image of an interesting cloud formation in the boundary waters between Antarctica's Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean. A dragon? A snake? A fish? No, but it is an interesting example of the atmospheric physics of convection. The 'eye' of this dragon-looking cloud is likely a small spot of convection, the process by which hot moist air rises up into the atmosphere, often producing big, fluffy clouds as moisture in the air condenses as rises into the colder parts of the atmosphere. A false color analysis that shows different kinds of clouds in different colors reveals that the eye is composed of ice crystals while the 'body' is a liquid water cloud. This suggests that the eye is higher up in the atmosphere than the body. The most likely explanation for the eye feature is that the warm, rising air mass had enough buoyancy to punch through the liquid water cloud. As a convective parcel of air rises into the atmosphere, it pushes the colder air that is higher up out of its way. That cold air spills down over the sides of the convective air mass, and in this case has cleared away part of the liquid cloud layer below in the process. This spilling over of cold air from higher up in the atmosphere is the reason why thunderstorms are often accompanied by a cool breeze. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Numerical Modeling of the Propagation Environment in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Persian Gulf.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, B. W.; Li, J.-G.; Plant, R. S.

    2001-03-01

    Strong vertical gradients at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves and can produce radar ducts. A three-dimensional, time-dependent, nonhydrostatic numerical model was used to simulate the propagation environment in the atmosphere over the Persian Gulf when aircraft observations of ducting had been made. A division of the observations into high- and low-wind cases was used as a framework for the simulations. Three sets of simulations were conducted with initial conditions of varying degrees of idealization and were compared with the observations taken in the Ship Antisubmarine Warfare Readiness/Effectiveness Measuring (SHAREM-115) program. The best results occurred with the initialization based on a sounding taken over the coast modified by the inclusion of data on low-level atmospheric conditions over the Gulf waters. The development of moist, cool, stable marine internal boundary layers (MIBL) in air flowing from land over the waters of the Gulf was simulated. The MIBLs were capped by temperature inversions and associated lapses of humidity and refractivity. The low-wind MIBL was shallower and the gradients at its top were sharper than in the high-wind case, in agreement with the observations. Because it is also forced by land-sea contrasts, a sea-breeze circulation frequently occurs in association with the MIBL. The size, location, and internal structure of the sea-breeze circulation were realistically simulated. The gradients of temperature and humidity that bound the MIBL cause perturbations in the refractivity distribution that, in turn, lead to trapping layers and ducts. The existence, location, and surface character of the ducts were well captured. Horizontal variations in duct characteristics due to the sea-breeze circulation were also evident. The simulations successfully distinguished between high- and low-wind occasions, a notable feature of the SHAREM-115 observations. The modeled magnitudes of duct

  19. Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics during the ESCOMPTE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saïd, F.; Brut, A.; Campistron, B.; Cousin, F.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents some results about the behavior of the atmospheric boundary layer observed during the ESCOMPTE experiment. This campaign, which took place in south-eastern France during summer 2001, was aimed at improving our understanding of pollution episodes in relation to the dynamics of the lower troposphere. Using a large data set, as well as a simulation from the mesoscale non-hydrostatic model Meso-NH, we describe and analyze the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) development during two specific meteorological conditions of the second Intensive Observation Period (IOP). The first situation (IOP2a, from 22 June to 23 June) corresponds to moderate, dry and cold northerly winds (end of Mistral event), coupled with a sea-breeze in the lower layer, whereas sea-breeze events with weak southerly winds occurred during the second part of the period (IOP2b, from 24 June to 26 June). In this study, we first focus on the validation of the model outputs with a thorough comparison of the Meso-NH simulations with fields measurements on three days of the IOP: 22 June, 23 June and 25 June. We also investigate the structure of the boundary layer on IOP2a when the Mistral is superimposed on a sea breeze. Then, we describe the spatial and diurnal variability of the ABL depths over the ESCOMPTE domain during the whole IOP. This step is essential if one wants to know the depth of the layer where the pollutants can be diluted or accumulated. Eventually, this study intends to describe the ABL variability in relation to local or mesoscale dynamics and/or induced topographic effects, in order to explain pollution transport processes in the low troposphere.

  20. Two years observations on the diurnal evolution of coastal atmospheric boundary layer features over Thiruvananthapuram (8.5∘ N, 76.9∘ E), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anurose, T. J.; Subrahamanyam, D. Bala; Sunilkumar, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over a given coastal station is influenced by the presence of mesoscale sea breeze circulation, together with the local and synoptic weather, which directly or indirectly modulate the vertical thickness of ABL ( z ABL). Despite its importance in the characterization of lower tropospheric processes and atmospheric modeling studies, a reliable climatology on the temporal evolution of z ABL is not available over the tropics. Here, we investigate the challenges involved in determination of the ABL heights, and discuss an objective method to define the vertical structure of coastal ABL. The study presents a two year morphology on the diurnal evolution of the vertical thickness of sea breeze flow ( z SBF) and z ABL in association with the altitudes of lifting condensation level ( z LCL) over Thiruvananthapuram (8.5∘ N, 76.9∘ E), a representative coastal station on the western coastline of the Indian sub-continent. We make use of about 516 balloon-borne GPS sonde measurements in the present study, which were carried out as part of the tropical tropopause dynamics field experiment under the climate and weather of the sun-earth system (CAWSES)-India program. Results obtained from the present study reveal major differences in the temporal evolution of the ABL features in relation to the strength of sea breeze circulation and monsoonal wind flow during the winter and summer monsoon respectively. The diurnal evolution in z ABL is very prominent in the winter monsoon as against the summer monsoon, which is attributed to the impact of large-scale monsoonal flow over the surface layer meteorology. For a majority of the database, the z LCL altitudes are found to be higher than that of the z ABL, indicating a possible decoupling of the ABL with the low-level clouds.

  1. Observations of the trade wind wakes of Kauai and Oahu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Jian; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2008-02-01

    The Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Oahu stand in the path of the east-northeasterly trade winds, creating wakes in the lee. For the first time, the structure of the wakes and their diurnal cycle were observed on a cruise during 18-20 December 2006. The dynamic wakes, characterized by reduced trades, extend about 1 km in height with strong wind shear at the top. Thermal forcing of these small islands also affects the wake circulations. Sea breezes develop in the afternoon turning the winds into westerly near the shore in the wakes. At night, land breezes advect cool air from the islands, creating a shallow cool layer between the sea surface and a capping inversion. The warming in the wake in the afternoon extends much deeper (1.4 km) than the cool layer (0.5 km) at night. The effect of diurnal changes on cloud formation in the wakes is discussed, and the sharp variations in wind velocity lee of the islands may affect ocean currents, waves and mixing.

  2. Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System(ERDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Lambert, Winifred C.; Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1996-01-01

    The emergency response dose assessment system (ERDAS) is a protype software and hardware system configured to produce routine mesoscale meteorological forecasts and enhanced dispersion estimates on an operational basis for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) region. ERDAS provides emergency response guidance to operations at KSC/CCAS in the case of an accidental hazardous material release or an aborted vehicle launch. This report describes the evaluation of ERDAS including: evaluation of sea breeze predictions, comparison of launch plume location and concentration predictions, case study of a toxic release, evaluation of model sensitivity to varying input parameters, evaluation of the user interface, assessment of ERDA's operational capabilities, and a comparison of ERDAS models to the ocean breeze dry gultch diffusion model.

  3. Geochemical typing of crude oils from the Gulf of Thailand and the Natuna Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Shiefelbein, C.; Haven, H.L.T.

    The geochemical characteristics of approximately thirty oils from the Gulf of Thailand and Natuna Sea have been measured, viz., sulfur, vanadium and nickel content, density, [sup 13]C isotopes of the isolated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, capillary gas chromatography of the whole oil, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis included the classical monitoring of specific ions (SIM mode) as well as sophisticated multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) measurements (MRM mode). These latter analyses are of key importance for the detection of 24-propylsteranes, a prerequisite for the discrimination between lacustrine/deltaic oils vs. marine crude oils. Classification of the different typesmore » of oil families encountered in this region was based on visual inspection of the data, supported by multivariate statistical analysis. In the Gulf of Thailand, which includes oils from the Pattani trough and the northern part of the Malay basin, essentially three different types are recognized, generated by lacustrine, resinous, and carbonate source rocks. The situation encountered in the Natuna sea, including oils from the southern part of the Malay basin (Indonesia), the Penyu basin, and the west and east Natuna basins is almost similar to the same suite of different oil types. Although the geochemical characteristics of the resinous-derived oils are more or less similar in all basins, the lacustrine-derived oils exhibit large variations especially expressed in their isotopic signature. Interestingly, the carbonate-sourced oils from the east Natuna basin show characteristics that resemble those of the main oil family found offshore northwest Palawan.« less

  4. Range-Specific High-Resolution Mesoscale Model Setup: Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale weather conditions can have an adverse effect on space launch, landing, and ground processing at the Eastern Range (ER) in Florida and Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. During summer, land-sea interactions across Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) lead to sea breeze front formation, which can spawn deep convection that can hinder operations and endanger personnel and resources. Many other weak locally driven low-level boundaries and their interactions with the sea breeze front and each other can also initiate deep convection in the KSC/CCAFS area. Some of these other boundaries include the Indian River breeze front, Banana River breeze front, outflows from previous convection, horizontal convective rolls, convergence lines from other inland bodies of water such as Lake Okeechobee, the trailing convergence line from convergence of sea breeze fronts due to the shape of Cape Canaveral, frictional convergence lines from the islands in the Bahamas, convergence lines from soil moisture differences, convergence lines from cloud shading, and others. All these subtle weak boundary interactions often make forecasting of operationally important weather very difficult at KSC/CCAFS during the convective season (May-Oct). These convective processes often build quickly, last a short time (60 minutes or less), and occur over small distances, all of which also poses a significant challenge to the local forecasters who are responsible for issuing weather advisories, watches, and warnings. Surface winds during the transition seasons of spring and fall pose the most difficulties for the forecasters at WFF. They also encounter problems forecasting convective activity and temperature during those seasons. Therefore, accurate mesoscale model forecasts are needed to aid in their decision making. Both the ER and WFF would benefit greatly from high-resolution mesoscale model output to better forecast a variety of unique weather

  5. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  6. Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: An Undergraduate Teacher Prospective Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalis, T. R.; Liliasari; Herdiwidjaya, D.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose this case study was to describe characteristic features learning activities in the domain of earth and space science. Context of this study is earth and space learning activities on three groups of student teachers prospective, respectively on the subject of the shape and size of Earth, land and sea breeze, and moon's orbit. The analysis is conducted qualitatively from activity data and analyze students doing project work, student worksheets, group project report documents, note and audio recordings of discussion. Research findings identified the type of abduction: theoretical models abduction, factual abduction, and law abduction during the learning process. Implications for science inquiry learning as well as relevant research were suggested.

  7. Mass Balance of Multiyear Sea Ice in the Southern Beaufort Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    model of MY ice circulation, which is shown in Figure 1. In this model , we consider the Beaufort Sea to consist of four zones defined by mean drift...Arctic Regional Climate Model Simulation Project 3 International Arctic Buoy Program 4 Sea ice Experiment - Dynamic Nature of the Arctic 5Cold...2 Table 2: Datasets compiled to date Geophysical data type Source Time period acquired Buoy tracks IABP 12 hrly position data 1978-2012 Ice

  8. SEA: a super-enhancer archive.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanjun; Zhang, Shumei; Shang, Shipeng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Song; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Fang; Su, Jianzhong; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Hongbo; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-04

    Super-enhancers are large clusters of transcriptional enhancers regarded as having essential roles in driving the expression of genes that control cell identity during development and tumorigenesis. The construction of a genome-wide super-enhancer database is urgently needed to better understand super-enhancer-directed gene expression regulation for a given biology process. Here, we present a specifically designed web-accessible database, Super-Enhancer Archive (SEA, http://sea.edbc.org). SEA focuses on integrating super-enhancers in multiple species and annotating their potential roles in the regulation of cell identity gene expression. The current release of SEA incorporates 83 996 super-enhancers computationally or experimentally identified in 134 cell types/tissues/diseases, including human (75 439, three of which were experimentally identified), mouse (5879, five of which were experimentally identified), Drosophila melanogaster (1774) and Caenorhabditis elegans (904). To facilitate data extraction, SEA supports multiple search options, including species, genome location, gene name, cell type/tissue and super-enhancer name. The response provides detailed (epi)genetic information, incorporating cell type specificity, nearby genes, transcriptional factor binding sites, CRISPR/Cas9 target sites, evolutionary conservation, SNPs, H3K27ac, DNA methylation, gene expression and TF ChIP-seq data. Moreover, analytical tools and a genome browser were developed for users to explore super-enhancers and their roles in defining cell identity and disease processes in depth. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Coral Sr/Ca-based sea surface temperature and air temperature variability from the inshore and offshore corals in the Seribu Islands, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Cahyarini, Sri Yudawati; Zinke, Jens; Troelstra, Simon; Suharsono; Aldrian, Edvin; Hoeksema, B W

    2016-09-30

    The ability of massive Porites corals to faithfully record temperature is assessed. Porites corals from Kepulauan Seribu were sampled from one inshore and one offshore site and analyzed for their Sr/Ca variation. The results show that Sr/Ca of the offshore coral tracked SST, while Sr/Ca variation of the inshore coral tracked ambient air temperature. In particular, the inshore SST variation is related to air temperature anomalies of the urban center of Jakarta. The latter we relate to air-sea interactions modifying inshore SST associated with the land-sea breeze mechanism and/or monsoonal circulation. The correlation pattern of monthly coral Sr/Ca with the Niño3.4 index and SEIO-SST reveals that corals in the Seribu islands region respond differently to remote forcing. An opposite response is observed for inshore and offshore corals in response to El Niño onset, yet similar to El Niño mature phase (December to February). SEIO SSTs co-vary strongly with SST and air temperature variability across the Seribu island reef complex. The results of this study clearly indicate that locations of coral proxy record in Indonesia need to be chosen carefully in order to identify the seasonal climate response to local and remote climate and anthropogenic forcing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coordinated Mapping of Sea Ice Deformation Features with Autonomous Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksym, T.; Williams, G. D.; Singh, H.; Weissling, B.; Anderson, J.; Maki, T.; Ackley, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Decreases in summer sea ice extent in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas has lead to a transition from a largely perennial ice cover, to a seasonal ice cover. This drives shifts in sea ice production, dynamics, ice types, and thickness distribution. To examine how the processes driving ice advance might also impact the morphology of the ice cover, a coordinated ice mapping effort was undertaken during a field campaign in the Beaufort Sea in October, 2015. Here, we present observations of sea ice draft topography from six missions of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle run under different ice types and deformation features observed during autumn freeze-up. Ice surface features were also mapped during coordinated drone photogrammetric missions over each site. We present preliminary results of a comparison between sea ice surface topography and ice underside morphology for a range of sample ice types, including hummocked multiyear ice, rubble fields, young ice ridges and rafts, and consolidated pancake ice. These data are compared to prior observations of ice morphological features from deformed Antarctic sea ice. Such data will be useful for improving parameterizations of sea ice redistribution during deformation, and for better constraining estimates of airborne or satellite sea ice thickness.

  11. Analysis of occupational injuries in the sea fishing industry according to the type of fishery and the fishing activity.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Christine; Le Bouar, Gilbert; Lardjane, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Sea fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations. Numerous studies have already sought to evaluate the risk level of this occupation through the analysis of the frequency and seriousness of occupational injuries. The purpose of the present study is to analyse these accidents in terms of two main characteristics of the vessels involved: the fishery type (high seas, offshore, coastal, or inshore fishery) and the fishing activity (use of passive or active gears). Injury rates were calculated for the Brittany region and for the year 2012. A second analysis was carried out on 8,286 reported injuries that occurred in France from 2002 to 2012, while vessels were in the process of fishing. This first analysis shows that the incidence rate is very high (103 per 1,000 full-time equivalent fishermen) and that it depends more on the fishery type than on the fishing activity; the highest rates concern the offshore and the coastal fleets. Results of the second analysis show that the nature of accidents depends more on the fishing activity than on the type of fishery. These findings lead to a discussion of the causes of the highest incidence rate values and the causes of the observed variations. The discussion also involves the methodological difficulties related to the incidence rate calculations.

  12. Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum

    PubMed Central

    Orts, Diego J. B.; Peigneur, Steve; Madio, Bruno; Cassoli, Juliana S.; Montandon, Gabriela G.; Pimenta, Adriano M. C.; Bicudo, José E. P. W.; Freitas, José C.; Zaharenko, André J.; Tytgat, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) venom is an important source of bioactive compounds used as tools to study the pharmacology and structure-function of voltage-gated K+ channels (KV). These neurotoxins can be divided into four different types, according to their structure and mode of action. In this work, for the first time, two toxins were purified from the venom of Bunodosoma caissarum population from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveals that BcsTx1 and BcsTx2 are the newest members of the sea anemone type 1 potassium channel toxins. Their functional characterization was performed by means of a wide electrophysiological screening on 12 different subtypes of KV channels (KV1.1–KV1.6; KV2.1; KV3.1; KV4.2; KV4.3; hERG and Shaker IR). BcsTx1 shows a high affinity for rKv1.2 over rKv1.6, hKv1.3, Shaker IR and rKv1.1, while Bcstx2 potently blocked rKv1.6 over hKv1.3, rKv1.1, Shaker IR and rKv1.2. Furthermore, we also report for the first time a venom composition and biological activity comparison between two geographically distant populations of sea anemones. PMID:23466933

  13. Seasonal budgets of ozone and oxidant precursors in an industrial coastal area of northern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, T.; Alberti, L.; Bonasoni, P.; Fortezza, F.; Giovanelli, G.; Strocchi, V.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonal budgets and evolution of photochemical oxidants reported for greater Ravenna's urban-industrial area in the present study were calculated using the combined data from on-site systematic surveys (1978-1989) and from the monitoring network of the local environmental authorities. The notable differences in the concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxides depended on season, and meteorological variables showed a marked correlation to the seasonal budget of trace constituents. The weak local circulation, the land-sea breeze system, and high solar radiation in summer, which may persist at length because of the anticyclonic conditions, can produce episodes of intense photochemical reactions. In winter, by contrast, low solar radiation and the absence of the breeze system results in very different evolutions of both pollutant concentrations and their seasonal budget.

  14. Biologically-Oriented Processes in the Coastal Sea Ice Zone of the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, I. A.

    2002-12-01

    The annual advance and retreat of sea ice is a major physical determinant of spatial and temporal changes in the structure and function of marine coastal biological communities. Sea ice biological data obtained in the tidal zone of Kandalaksha Gulf (White Sea) during 1996-2001 period will be presented. Previous observations in this area were mainly conducted during the ice-free summer season. However, there is little information on the ice-covered winter season (6-7 months duration), and, especially, on the sea-ice biology in the coastal zone within tidal regimes. During the January-May period time-series observations were conducted on transects along shorelines with coastal and fast ice. Trends in the annual extent of sea ice showed significant impacts on ice-associated biological communities. Three types of sea ice impact on kelps, balanoides, littorinas and amphipods are distinguished: (i) positive, when sea ice protects these populations from grinding (ii) negative, when ice grinds both fauna and flora, and (iii) a combined effect, when fast ice protects, but anchored ice grinds plant and animals. To understand the full spectrum of ecological problems caused by pollution on the coastal zone, as well as the problems of sea ice melting caused by global warming, an integrated, long-term study of the physical, chemical, and biological processes is needed.

  15. Neoplasia of captive yellow sea horses (Hippocampus kuda) and weedy sea dragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus).

    PubMed

    LePage, Véronique; Dutton, Christopher J; Kummrow, Maya; McLelland, David J; Young, Karrie; Lumsden, John S

    2012-03-01

    Syngnathidae is the family of fish that includes sea horses, pipefish, and sea dragons. To date, only a single publication has described neoplasia in syngnathids, a fibrosarcoma of the brood pouch in an aquarium-reared lined sea horse (Hippocampus erectus). From 1998 until 2010, the Toronto Zoo submitted 172 syngnathids for postmortem; species included the spotted or yellow sea horse (Hippocampus kuda), the pot-bellied sea horse (Hippocampus abdominalis) and the weedy sea dragon (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus). Seven neoplasms and two neoplastic-like lesions were identified from these cases. Under light microscopy, the neoplasms had morphological characteristics of a cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma, renal adenocarcinoma, renal adenoma, renal round cell tumors, which were likely lymphomas, exocrine pancreatic carcinoma, and intestinal carcinoma. Of these neoplasms, four had clear evidence of metastasis: the pancreatic and intestinal carcinomas and both round cell tumors. As syngnathids are highly fastidious animals, they can be difficult to maintain in captivity. In order to improve their husbandry, preventative and palliative care, as well as treatment, it is important to investigate and document the types of diseases affecting syngnathids.

  16. Peptide fingerprinting of the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica mucus revealed neurotoxins, Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors and a new β-defensin α-amylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sintsova, Oksana; Gladkikh, Irina; Chausova, Victoria; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Anastyuk, Stanislav; Chernikov, Oleg; Yurchenko, Ekaterina; Aminin, Dmitriy; Isaeva, Marina; Leychenko, Elena; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2018-02-20

    Sea anemone mucus, due to its multiple and vital functions, is a valuable substance for investigation of new biologically active peptides. In this work, compounds of Heteractis magnifica mucus were separated by multistage liquid chromatography and resulting fractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Peptide maps constructed according to the molecular masses and hydrophobicity showed presence of 326 both new and known peptides. Several major peptides from mucus were identified, including the sodium channel toxin RpII isolated earlier from H. magnifica, and four Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors identical to H. crispa ones. Kunitz-type transcript diversity was studied and sequences of mature peptides were deduced. New β-defensin α-amylase inhibitor, a homolog of helianthamide from Stichodactyla helianthus, was isolated and structurally characterized. Overall, H. magnifica is a source of biologically active peptides with great pharmacological potential. Proteinase and α-amylase inhibitors along with toxins are major components of H. magnifica mucus which play an important role in the successful existence of sea anemones. Obtained peptide maps create a basis for more accurate identification of peptides during future transcriptomic/genomic studies of sea anemone H. magnifica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relation between aerosol sources and meteorological parameters for inhalable atmospheric particles in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Fatima; Orsini, Celso; Maenhaut, Willy

    Stacked filter units were used to collect atmospheric particles in separate coarse and fine fractions at the Sao Paulo University Campus during the winter of 1989. The samples were analysed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the data were subjected to an absolute principal component analysis (APCA). Five sources were identified for the fine particles: industrial emissions, which accounted for 13% of the fine mass; emissions from residual oil and diesel, explaining 41%; resuspended soil dust, with 28%; and emissions of Cu and of Mg, together with 18%. For the coarse particles, four sources were identified: soil dust, accounting for 59% of the coarse mass; industrial emissions, with 19%; oil burning, with 8%; and sea salt aerosol, with 14% of the coarse mass. A data set with various meteorological parameters was also subjected to APCA, and a correlation analysis was performed between the meteorological "absolute principal component scores" (APCS) and the APCS from the fine and coarse particle data sets. The soil dust sources for the fine and coarse aerosol were highly correlated with each other and were anticorrelated with the sea breeze component. The industrial components in the fine and coarse size fractions were also highly positively correlated. Furthermore, the industrial component was related with the northeasterly wind direction and, to a lesser extent, with the sea breeze component.

  18. Frost flowers on young Arctic sea ice: The climatic, chemical, and microbial significance of an emerging ice type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. G.; Ehn, J. K.; Pućko, M.; Rysgaard, S.; Deming, J. W.; Bowman, J. S.; Papakyriakou, T.; Galley, R. J.; Søgaard, D. H.

    2014-10-01

    Ongoing changes in Arctic sea ice are increasing the spatial and temporal range of young sea ice types over which frost flowers can occur, yet the significance of frost flowers to ocean-sea ice-atmosphere exchange processes remains poorly understood. Frost flowers form when moisture from seawater becomes available to a cold atmosphere and surface winds are low, allowing for supersaturation of the near-surface boundary layer. Ice grown in a pond cut in young ice at the mouth of Young Sound, NE Greenland, in March 2012, showed that expanding frost flower clusters began forming as soon as the ice formed. The new ice and frost flowers dramatically changed the radiative and thermal environment. The frost flowers were about 5°C colder than the brine surface, with an approximately linear temperature gradient from their base to their upper tips. Salinity and δ18O values indicated that frost flowers primarily originated from the surface brine skim. Ikaite crystals were observed to form within an hour in both frost flowers and the thin pond ice. Average ikaite concentrations were 1013 µmol kg-1 in frost flowers and 1061 µmol kg-1 in the surface slush layer. Chamber flux measurements confirmed an efflux of CO2 at the brine-wetted sea ice surface, in line with expectations from the brine chemistry. Bacteria concentrations generally increased with salinity in frost flowers and the surface slush layer. Bacterial densities and taxa indicated that a selective process occurred at the ice surface and confirmed the general pattern of primary oceanic origin versus negligible atmospheric deposition.

  19. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-12-15

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains.

  20. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I.; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26694432

  1. Dead Sea evaporation by eddy covariance measurements vs. aerodynamic, energy budget, Priestley-Taylor, and Penman estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jutta; Nied, Manuela; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kleffmann, Jörg; Kottmeier, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake, located in an arid environment. Evaporation is the key component of the Dead Sea water budget and accounts for the main loss of water. So far, lake evaporation has been determined by indirect methods only and not measured directly. Consequently, the governing factors of evaporation are unknown. For the first time, long-term eddy covariance measurements were performed at the western Dead Sea shore for a period of 1 year by implementing a new concept for onshore lake evaporation measurements. To account for lake evaporation during offshore wind conditions, a robust and reliable multiple regression model was developed using the identified governing factors wind velocity and water vapour pressure deficit. An overall regression coefficient of 0.8 is achieved. The measurements show that the diurnal evaporation cycle is governed by three local wind systems: a lake breeze during daytime, strong downslope winds in the evening, and strong northerly along-valley flows during the night. After sunset, the strong winds cause half-hourly evaporation rates which are up to 100 % higher than during daytime. The median daily evaporation is 4.3 mm d-1 in July and 1.1 mm d-1 in December. The annual evaporation of the water surface at the measurement location was 994±88 mm a-1 from March 2014 until March 2015. Furthermore, the performance of indirect evaporation approaches was tested and compared to the measurements. The aerodynamic approach is applicable for sub-daily and multi-day calculations and attains correlation coefficients between 0.85 and 0.99. For the application of the Bowen ratio energy budget method and the Priestley-Taylor method, measurements of the heat storage term are inevitable on timescales up to 1 month. Otherwise strong seasonal biases occur. The Penman equation was adapted to calculate realistic evaporation, by using an empirically gained linear function for the heat storage term, achieving correlation coefficients between 0

  2. Wind Forecasting for Yacht Racing at the 1991 Pan American Games.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Mark D.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Sailing Team competed successfully at the 1991 Pan American Games despite having no previous experience with the sailing conditions off Havana, Cuba. One of the key factors in the team's success was meteorological support in the form of wind climate analysis; application of sea breeze forecasting typical of the south Florida area, modified by tropical weather systems; and effective preregatta briefing.

  3. Regulatory heterochronies and loose temporal scaling between sea star and sea urchin regulatory circuits.

    PubMed

    Gildor, Tsvia; Hinman, Veronica; Ben-Tabou-De-Leon, Smadar

    2017-01-01

    It has long been argued that heterochrony, a change in relative timing of a developmental process, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. Heterochronic changes of regulatory gene activation could be the underlying molecular mechanism driving heterochronic changes through evolution. Here, we compare the temporal expression profiles of key regulatory circuits between sea urchin and sea star, representative of two classes of Echinoderms that shared a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. The morphologies of the sea urchin and sea star embryos are largely comparable, yet, differences in certain mesodermal cell types and ectodermal patterning result in distinct larval body plans. We generated high resolution temporal profiles of 17 mesodermally-, endodermally- and ectodermally-expressed regulatory genes in the sea star, Patiria miniata, and compared these to their orthologs in the Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. We found that the maternal to zygotic transition is delayed in the sea star compared to the sea urchin, in agreement with the longer cleavage stage in the sea star. Interestingly, the order of gene activation shows the highest variation in the relatively diverged mesodermal circuit, while the correlations of expression dynamics are the highest in the strongly conserved endodermal circuit. We detected loose scaling of the developmental rates of these species and observed interspecies heterochronies within all studied regulatory circuits. Thus, after 500 million years of parallel evolution, mild heterochronies between the species are frequently observed and the tight temporal scaling observed for closely related species no longer holds.

  4. The classification of the Arctic Sea ice types and the determination of surface temperature using advanced very high resolution radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massom, Robert; Comiso, Josefino C.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate quantification of new ice and open water areas and surface temperatures within the sea ice packs is a key to the realistic parameterization of heat, moisture, and turbulence fluxes between ocean and atmosphere in the polar regions. Multispectral NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer/2 (AVHRR/2) satellite images are analyzed to evaluate how effectively the data can be used to characterize sea ice in the Bering and Greenland seas, both in terms of surface type and physical temperature. The basis of the classification algorithm, which is developed using a late wintertime Bering Sea ice cover data, is that frequency distributions of 10.8- micrometers radiances provide four distinct peaks, represeting open water, new ice, young ice, and thick ice with a snow cover. The results are found to be spatially and temporally consistent. Possible sources of ambiguity, especially associated with wider temporal and spatial application of the technique, are discussed. An ice surface temperature algorithm is developed for the same study area by regressing thermal infrared data from 10.8- and 12.0- micrometers channels against station air temperatures, which are assumed to approximate the skin temperatures of adjacent snow and ice. The standard deviations of the results when compared with in situ data are about 0.5 K over leads and polynyas to about 0.5-1.5 K over thick ice. This study is based upon a set of in situ data limited in scope and coverage. Cloud masks are applied using a thresholding technique that utilizes 3.74- and 10.8- micrometers channel data. The temperature maps produced show coherence with surface features like new ice and leads, and consistency with corresponding surface type maps. Further studies are needed to better understand the effects of both the spatial and temporal variability in emissivity, aerosol and precipitable atmospheric ice particle distribution, and atmospheric temperature inversions.

  5. Origin of the Indian Ocean-type isotopic signature in basalts from Philippine Sea plate spreading centers: An assessment of local versus large-scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary

    1998-09-01

    Basalts erupted from spreading centers on the Philippine Sea plate between 50 Ma and the present have the distinctive isotopic characteristics of Indian Ocean mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), such as high 208Pb/204Pb and low 143Nd/144Nd for a given 206Pb/204Pb compared with Pacific and Atlantic Ocean MORB. This feature may indicate that the upper mantle of the Philippine Sea plate originated as part of the existing Indian Ocean upper mantle domain, or, alternatively, that local processes duplicated these isotopic characteristics within the sub-Philippine Sea plate upper mantle. Synthesis of new and published isotopic data for Philippine Sea plate basin basalts and island arc volcanic rocks, radiometric ages, and tectonic reconstructions of the plate indicates that local processes, such as contamination of the upper mantle by subducted materials or by western Pacific mantle plumes, did not produce the Indian Ocean-type signature in Philippine Sea plate MORB. It is more likely that the plate originated over a rapidly growing Indian Ocean upper mantle domain that had spread into the area between Australia/New Guinea and southeast Asia before 50 Ma.

  6. [Reflectance of sea ice in Liaodong Bay].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhan-tang; Yang, Yue-zhong; Wang, Gui-fen; Cao, Wen-xi; Kong, Xiang-peng

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the relationships between sea ice albedo and the bidirectional reflectance distribution in Liaodong Bay were investigated. The results indicate that: (1) sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is closely related to the components of sea ice, the higher the particulate concentration in sea ice surface is, the lower the sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. On the contrary, the higher the bubble concentration in sea ice is, the higher sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. (2) Sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is similar to the bidirectional reflectance factor R(f) when the probe locates at nadir. The R(f) would increase with the increase in detector zenith theta, and the correlation between R(f) and the detector azimuth would gradually increase. When the theta is located at solar zenith 63 degrees, the R(f) would reach the maximum, and the strongest correlation is also shown between the R(f) and the detector azimuth. (3) Different types of sea ice would have the different anisotropic reflectance factors.

  7. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundar, N.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Thomas, N.J.; Majumdar, D.; Dubey, J.P.; Su, C.

    2008-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been reported to become infected with Toxoplasma gondiiand at times succumb to clinical disease. Here, we determined genotypes of 39 T. gondiiisolates from 37 sea otters in two geographically distant locations (25 from California and 12 from Washington). Six genotypes were identified using 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico, and by DNA sequencing of loci SAG1 and GRA6 in 13 isolates. Of these 39 isolates, 13 (33%) were clonal Type II which can be further divided into two groups at the locus Apico. Two of the 39 isolates had Type II alleles at all loci except a Type I allele at locus L358. One isolate had Type II alleles at all loci except the Type I alleles at loci L358 and Apico. One isolate had Type III alleles at all loci except Type II alleles at SAG2 and Apico. Two sea otter isolates had a mixed infection. Twenty-one (54%) isolates had an unique allele at SAG1 locus. Further genotyping or DNA sequence analysis for 18 of these 21 isolates at loci SAG1 and GRA6 revealed that there were two different genotypes, including the previously identified Type X (four isolates) and a new genotype named Type A (14 isolates). The results from this study suggest that the sea otter isolates are genetically diverse.

  8. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Sensitivity Comparisons for Warm Season Convective Initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Hoeth, Brian; Blottman, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Mesoscale weather conditions can significantly affect the space launch and landing operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). During the summer months, land-sea interactions that occur across KSC and CCAFS lead to the formation of a sea breeze, which can then spawn deep convection. These convective processes often last 60 minutes or less and pose a significant challenge to the forecasters at the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG). The main challenge is that a "GO" forecast for thunderstorms and precipitation at the Shuttle Landing Facility is required at the 90 minute deorbit decision for End Of Mission (EOM) and at the 30 minute Return To Launch Site (RTLS) decision. Convective initiation, timing, and mode also present a forecast challenge for the NWS in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The NWS MLB issues such tactical forecast information as Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF5), Spot Forecasts for fire weather and hazardous materials incident support, and severe/hazardous weather Watches, Warnings, and Advisories. Lastly, these forecasting challenges can also affect the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), which provides comprehensive weather forecasts for shuttle launch, as well as ground operations, at KSC and CCAFS. The need for accurate mesoscale model forecasts to aid in their decision making is crucial. This study specifically addresses the skill of different model configurations in forecasting warm season convective initiation. Numerous factors influence the development of convection over the Florida peninsula. These factors include sea breezes, river and lake breezes, the prevailing low-level flow, and convergent flow due to convex coastlines that enhance the sea breeze. The interaction of these processes produces the warm season convective patterns seen over the Florida peninsula. However, warm season convection remains one of the most poorly forecast meteorological parameters. To determine which

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing: Passive-Microwave Measurements of Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite passive-microwave measurements of sea ice have provided global or near-global sea ice data for most of the period since the launch of the Nimbus 5 satellite in December 1972, and have done so with horizontal resolutions on the order of 25-50 km and a frequency of every few days. These data have been used to calculate sea ice concentrations (percent areal coverages), sea ice extents, the length of the sea ice season, sea ice temperatures, and sea ice velocities, and to determine the timing of the seasonal onset of melt as well as aspects of the ice-type composition of the sea ice cover. In each case, the calculations are based on the microwave emission characteristics of sea ice and the important contrasts between the microwave emissions of sea ice and those of the surrounding liquid-water medium.

  10. Polysaccharide Constituents of Three Types of Sea Urchin Shells and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Heng; Shang, Xiaohui; Dong, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used as preliminary distinguishing indicators among three sea urchin shell species. Besides, the anti-inflammatory activities of the polysaccharides from sea urchin shells and their gonads were also determined. The gonad polysaccharide of Anthocidaris crassispina showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among all samples tested. PMID:26389925

  11. Polysaccharide Constituents of Three Types of Sea Urchin Shells and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Heng; Shang, Xiaohui; Dong, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiaoling

    2015-09-16

    As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used as preliminary distinguishing indicators among three sea urchin shell species. Besides, the anti-inflammatory activities of the polysaccharides from sea urchin shells and their gonads were also determined. The gonad polysaccharide of Anthocidaris crassispina showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among all samples tested.

  12. The surface sediment types and their rare earth element characteristics from the continental shelf of the northern south China sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuhong; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Han; Li, Liang; Yan, Wen

    2014-10-01

    The grain size as well as some major and trace elements, including rare earth element (REE), for 273 surface sediment samples collected from the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea were analyzed in this study. The sediment types are mainly sandy silt and silt, making up 60% of the whole samples, and secondly are mud, sandy mud, muddy sand and silty sand, making up 28% of the whole samples, based on grain-size in which the Folk's classification was used. The total REE content (ΣREE) show a wide variation from 21 ppm to 244 ppm with an average value of 155 ppm, which similar to the average ΣREE of the China loess, but much different from that in deep-sea clay, showing a significant terrigenous succession. The REE contents in different sediment types vary greatly, mainly enriching in silt, sandy silt, mud and sandy mud. The REE distribution contours parallel to the coastal, presenting like strips and their contents gradually reduce with increasing distance from the coast. The high content of the western Pearl River Mouth, Shang/Xiachuan Islands and Hailing Bay might be regarded to the coastal current developed from the east to the west along to the Pearl River Mouth in the northern South China Sea. But the chondrite-normalized REE patterns in various sediment types have no difference, basically same as those of coastal rivers and upper crust. They all show relative enrichments in light rare earth element (LREE), noticeable negative Eu anomaly and no Ce anomaly, indicating that those sediments are terrigenous sediments and from the same source region. Further analysis suggest that the sedimentary environment in the study area is relatively stable and granite widely distributed in the South China mainland is the main source of REE, which are transported mainly by the Pearl River. The late diagenesis has little effect on the REE.

  13. South China Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  14. Severe Weather Guide - Mediterranean Ports. 4. Augusta Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    the year. The track o-f strong extratropical storms has moved northward and poses little tiireat to Augusta Bay. Sea breezes are daily occurrences...as temperatures, begin to moderate. Extratropi cal systems begin to transit Europe as the storm track moves southward in advance of the winter...SUB-GROUP 18. SUBJECT TERMS {Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Storm haven Mediterranean meteorology Augusta Bay

  15. The effect of local circulations on the variation of atmospheric pollutants in the northwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Pay-Liam Lin; Hsin-Chih Lai

    1996-12-31

    A field experiment was held in the northwestern Taiwan as a part of a long-term research program for studying Taiwan`s local circulation. The program has been named as Taiwan Regional-circulation Experiment (TREX). The particular goal of this research is to investigate characteristics of boundary layer and local Circulation and their impact on the distribution and Variation of pollutants in the northwestern Taiwan during Mei-Yu season. It has been known for quite sometime that land-sea breeze is very pronounced under hot and humid conditions. Extensive network includes 11 pilot ballon stations, 3 acoustic sounding sites, and 14 surface stations in aboutmore » 20 km by 20 km area centered at National Central University, Chung-Li. In addition, there are ground temperature measurements at 3 sites, Integrated Sounding System (ISS) at NCU, air plane observation, tracer experiment with 10 collecting stations, 3 background upper-air sounding stations, 2 towers etc. NOAA and GMS satellite data, sea surface temperature radar, and precipitation data are collected. The local circulations such as land/sea breezes and mountain/valley winds, induced by thermal and topographical effects often play an important role in transporting, redistributing and transforming atmospheric pollutants. This study documents the effects of the development of local circulations and the accompanying evolution of boundary layer on the distribution and the variation of the atmospheric pollutants in the north western Taiwan during Mei-Yu season.« less

  16. Convection anomalies associated with warm eddy at the coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, R.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    A possible correlation between a warm eddy and thunderstorms and convective precipitations are investigated at the coastal area in the northwestern South China Sea. Compared to the climatological mean in August from 2006 to 2013, an extreme enhancement of thunderstorm activities and precipitation rate are identified at the southern offshore area of Hainan island in August 2010 when a strong and long-live warm eddy was observed near the coastline at the same time. The 3 hourly satellite data (TRMM) indicate that the nocturnal convections is strong offshore and that could be responsible for the extreme positive anomalies of thunderstorms and rainfall in August 2010. The TRMM data also show a small reduction of thunderstorm activities and rainfall on the island in the afternoon. Meanwhile, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was applied to simulate the change of rainfall in August 2010. The WRF simulation of rainfall rate is comparable with the observation results while there is some difference in the spatial distribution. The WRF simulation successfully captured the strong offshore rainfall and the diurnal variation of rainfall in August 2010. The WRF simulation indicated that the different convergence induced by sea/land breeze could be one essential reason for the adjustment of thunderstorms and rainfall in 2010. The substantial connection between sea/land breeze and upper layer heat content modified by the warm eddy is still on ongoing and will be reported in the future work.

  17. Optimizing larval assessment to support sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Richards, Jessica M.; Fodale, Michael F.; Larson, Geraldine L.; Ollila, Dale J.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Young, Robert J.; Zerrenner, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Elements of the larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) assessment program that most strongly influence the chemical treatment program were analyzed, including selection of streams for larval surveys, allocation of sampling effort among stream reaches, allocation of sampling effort among habitat types, estimation of daily growth rates, and estimation of metamorphosis rates, to determine how uncertainty in each element influenced the stream selection program. First, the stream selection model based on current larval assessment sampling protocol significantly underestimated transforming sea lam-prey abundance, transforming sea lampreys killed, and marginal costs per sea lamprey killed, compared to a protocol that included more years of data (especially for large streams). Second, larval density in streams varied significantly with Type-I habitat area, but not with total area or reach length. Third, the ratio of larval density between Type-I and Type-II habitat varied significantly among streams, and that the optimal allocation of sampling effort varied with the proportion of habitat types and variability of larval density within each habitat. Fourth, mean length varied significantly among streams and years. Last, size at metamorphosis varied more among years than within or among regions and that metamorphosis varied significantly among streams within regions. Study results indicate that: (1) the stream selection model should be used to identify streams with potentially high residual populations of larval sea lampreys; (2) larval sampling in Type-II habitat should be initiated in all streams by increasing sampling in Type-II habitat to 50% of the sampling effort in Type-I habitat; and (3) methods should be investigated to reduce uncertainty in estimates of sea lamprey production, with emphasis on those that reduce the uncertainty associated with larval length at the end of the growing season and those used to predict metamorphosis.

  18. Barents Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Phytoplankton bloom in the Barents Sea captured August 14, 2011. At times nature exceeds the ability of the artist’s brush to blend brilliant colors, interweave textures and combine patterns to create stunning panoramas, while using only the palette of land, water, cloud and vegetation. This stunning and artistic image of a phytoplankton bloom in the Barents Sea was by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite was captured on August 14, 2011. The peacock-hued swirls of blues and green that paint the navy-blue sea water are created by light reflecting off of millions of phytoplankton, microscopic plants that grow in the sunlit surface water of the world’s oceans. Different types of phytoplankton reflect different colored light, so a multi-color bloom such as this typically contains multiple species. The depth of the bloom also affects coloration – the deeper the organism, the less light is reflected and the duller the color. Coccolithophores, a type of phytoplankton which flourish in nutrient-poor, sub-polar waters, have unique limestone (calcite) scales. This white coating makes the plant highly reflective, and thus a bloom can appear to be a bright, almost iridescent blue. The chalky coating can also cause whitish swirls in the water, making the blues washed out with a milky hue. August is a highly active month for phytoplankton blooms in the Barents Sea, but the timing, development, abundance and species composition is variable in this area. The distribution of phytoplankton is largely controlled by the polar front, ice cover, freshwater runoff and ice melting. Each water source – the Artic, the Atlantic and the coastal water – all bring their own characteristic species into the Barents Sea, creating a multi-specie and multi-color spectacle. Because phytoplankton are the base of the marine food chain, places were blooms are large and frequent often support a thriving marine population. This is certainly the case

  19. A Case Study On the Relative Influence of Free Tropospheric Subsidence, Long Range Transport and Local Production in Modulating Ozone Concentrations over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis; Fountoukis, Christos; Gladich, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) operates a network of air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) around the Doha metropolitan area and an ozonesonde station with regular weekly launches and occasional higher frequency launch experiments (HFLE). Six ozonesondes were launched at 0700 LT/0400 UTC and 1300 LT/1000 UTC over a three day period between 10-12 September, 2013. We present the analysis of the ozonesonde data coupled with regional chemical transport modeling over the same time period using WRF-Chem validated against both the ozonesonde and surface AQMS measurements. The HFLE and modeling show evidence of both subsidence and transboundary transport of ozone during the study period, coupled with a strong sea breeze circulation on the 11th of September resulting in elevated ozone concentrations throughout the boundary layer. The development of the sea breeze during the course of the day and influence of the early morning residual layer versus daytime production is quantified. The almost complete titration of ozone in the morning hours of 11 September, 2013 is attributed to local vehicular emissions of NOx and stable atmospheric conditions prevailing over the Doha area. The relative contribution of long range transport of ozone along the Arabian Gulf coast and local urban emissions are discussed.

  20. Response of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Soil Layer to a High Altitude, Dense Aerosol Cover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, J. R.; Pittock, A. B.; Walsh, K.

    1990-01-01

    The response of the atmospheric boundary layer to the appearance of a high-altitude smoke layer has been investigated in a mesoscale numerical model of the atmosphere. Emphasis is placed on the changes in mean boundary-layer structure and near-surface temperatures when smoke of absorption optical depth (AOD) in the, range 0 to 1 is introduced. Calculations have been made at 30°S, for different soil thermal properties and degrees of surface wetness, over a time period of several days during which major smoke-induced cooling occurs. The presence of smoke reduces the daytime mixed-layer depth and, for large enough values of AOD, results in a daytime surface inversion with large cooling confined to heights of less than a few hundred meters. Smoke-induced reductions in daytime soil and air temperatures of several degrees are typical, dependent critically upon soil wetness and smoke AOD. Locations near the coast experience reduced cooling whenever there is a significant onshore flow related to a sea breeze (this would also be the case with a large-scale onshore flow). The sea breeze itself disappears for large enough smoke AOD and, over sloping coastal terrain, a smoke-induced, offshore drainage flow may exist throughout the diurnal cycle.

  1. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model for Weather Support to the United States Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Nutter, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) conducted a year-long evaluation of NCEP's 29-km mesoscale Eta (meso-eta) weather prediction model in order to identify added value to forecast operations in support of the United States space program. The evaluation was stratified over warm and cool seasons and considered both objective and subjective verification methodologies. Objective verification results generally indicate that meso-eta model point forecasts at selected stations exhibit minimal error growth in terms of RMS errors and are reasonably unbiased. Conversely, results from the subjective verification demonstrate that model forecasts of developing weather events such as thunderstorms, sea breezes, and cold fronts, are not always as accurate as implied by the seasonal error statistics. Sea-breeze case studies reveal that the model generates a dynamically-consistent thermally direct circulation over the Florida peninsula, although at a larger scale than observed. Thunderstorm verification reveals that the meso-eta model is capable of predicting areas of organized convection, particularly during the late afternoon hours but is not capable of forecasting individual thunderstorms. Verification of cold fronts during the cool season reveals that the model is capable of forecasting a majority of cold frontal passages through east central Florida to within +1-h of observed frontal passage.

  2. Aquatic antagonists: cutaneous sea urchin spine injury.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Clifford; Aronson, Erica R; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M

    2016-11-01

    Injuries from sea urchin spines are commonly seen in coastal regions with high levels of participation in water activities. Although these injuries may seem minor, the consequences vary based on the location of the injury. Sea urchin spine injuries may cause arthritis and synovitis from spines in the joints. Nonjoint injuries have been reported, and dermatologic aspects of sea urchin spine injuries rarely have been discussed. We present a case of a patient with sea urchin spines embedded in the thigh who subsequently developed painful skin nodules. Tissue from the site of the injury demonstrated foreign-body type granulomas. Following the removal of the spines and granulomatous tissue, the patient experienced resolution of the nodules and associated pain. Extraction of sea urchin spines can attenuate the pain and decrease the likelihood of granuloma formation, infection, and long-term sequelae.

  3. The economics of fishing the high seas.

    PubMed

    Sala, Enric; Mayorga, Juan; Costello, Christopher; Kroodsma, David; Palomares, Maria L D; Pauly, Daniel; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk

    2018-06-01

    While the ecological impacts of fishing the waters beyond national jurisdiction (the "high seas") have been widely studied, the economic rationale is more difficult to ascertain because of scarce data on the costs and revenues of the fleets that fish there. Newly compiled satellite data and machine learning now allow us to track individual fishing vessels on the high seas in near real time. These technological advances help us quantify high-seas fishing effort, costs, and benefits, and assess whether, where, and when high-seas fishing makes economic sense. We characterize the global high-seas fishing fleet and report the economic benefits of fishing the high seas globally, nationally, and at the scale of individual fleets. Our results suggest that fishing at the current scale is enabled by large government subsidies, without which as much as 54% of the present high-seas fishing grounds would be unprofitable at current fishing rates. The patterns of fishing profitability vary widely between countries, types of fishing, and distance to port. Deep-sea bottom trawling often produces net economic benefits only thanks to subsidies, and much fishing by the world's largest fishing fleets would largely be unprofitable without subsidies and low labor costs. These results support recent calls for subsidy and fishery management reforms on the high seas.

  4. An optical model for the microwave properties of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Larabee, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The complex refractive index of sea ice is modeled and used to predict the microwave signatures of various sea ice types. Results are shown to correspond well with the observed values of the complex index inferred from dielectic constant and dielectric loss measurements performed in the field, and with observed microwave signatures of sea ice. The success of this modeling procedure vis a vis modeling of the dielectric properties of sea ice constituents used earlier by several others is explained. Multiple layer radiative transfer calculations are used to predict the microwave properties of first-year sea ice with and without snow, and multiyear sea ice.

  5. A Model for Predicting Cognitive and Emotional Health from Structural and Functional Neurocircuitry Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    of flowers or the smell of a fresh sea breeze or freshly baked bread. ................................ Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly...Score I. Four-Wheeled Ship BUS Bike Train 2. Dining Items SPOON Pan Bowl Can Opener 3. Clothing Jump Rope Ball SHOES Crayons 4. Fruits BANANA Bean...Love-Hate 14. TV-Newspaper 15. Smooth-Rough 16. Shoulder-Ankle 17. Sit-Run 18. Child-Adult 19. Steam-Cloud • 20 . .’, Bird~ Flower 21. 1 22 .. J

  6. Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-28

    Sometimes these winds are interrupted by cool seasonal storms with southerly winds; dry offshore storms with southeasterly winds, called Santa Ana...winds; coastal eddies during the warm season with southeasterly winds over the inner waters; and alternating land and sea breezes that occur closer to...mean temperature of 14 oC (58 oF). Total annual precipitation averages 21.3 centimeters (8.4 inches). The dry season ranges from May to September and

  7. Thunderstorm clouds over Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The overshooting tops of a series of strong thunderstorms are seen in this late afternoon scene over the African Ivory Coast, exact location unknown. The low sun angle of the setting sun casts long shadows, accentuating the shapes and heights of the clouds. This seasonal thunderstorm is an African Intertropical Front located along the land/sea breeze interface over the West African coastline and is a normal occurance for this time of year.

  8. Effect of Sea buckthorn on liver fibrosis: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ze-Li; Gu, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Feng-Tao; Jiang, Fo-Hu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To appraise the effect of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) on cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Fifty cirrhotic patients of Child-Pugh grade A and B were randomly divided into two groups: Group A as the treated group (n = 30), taking orally the sea buckthorn extract, 15 g 3 times a day for 6 mo. Group B as the control group (n = 18), taking vitamin B complex one tablet, 3 times a day for 6 mo. The following tests were performed before and after the treatment in both groups to determine LN, HA, collagens types III and IV, cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, liver serum albumin, total bile acid, ALT, AST and prothrombin time. RESULTS: The serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, laminin and type IV collagen in group A were significantly higher than those in the control group. After a course of sea buckthorn treatment, the serum levels of LN, HA, collagen types III and IV, total bile acid (TBA) decreased significantly as compared with those before and after treatment in the control group. The sea buckthorn notably shortened the duration for normalization of aminotransferases. CONCLUSION: Sea buckthorn may be a hopeful drug for prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:12854177

  9. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy application for sea salt quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Rangel, António O S S

    2011-10-26

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode was explored with the objective of discriminating sea salts according to their quality type (traditional salt vs "flower of salt") and geographical origin (Atlantic vs Mediterranean). Sea salts were also analyzed in terms of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations to support spectroscopic results. High concentrations of Mg(2+) and K(+) characterized Atlantic samples, while a high Ca(2+) content was observed in traditional sea salts. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis model considering the 8500-7500 cm(-1) region permitted the discrimination of salts by quality types. The regions 4650-4350 and 5900-5500 cm(-1) allowed salts classification according to their geographical origin. It was possible to classify correctly 85.3 and 94.8% of the analyzed samples according to the salt type and to the geographical origin, respectively. These results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy is a suitable and very efficient tool for sea salt quality evaluation.

  10. Boundary Layer Depth In Coastal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porson, A.; Schayes, G.

    The results of earlier studies performed about sea breezes simulations have shown that this is a relevant feature of the Planetary Boundary Layer that still requires effort to be diagnosed properly by atmospheric models. Based on the observations made during the ESCOMPTE campaign, over the Mediterranean Sea, different CBL and SBL height estimation processes have been tested with a meso-scale model, TVM. The aim was to compare the critical points of the BL height determination computed using turbulent kinetic energy profile with some other standard evaluations. Moreover, these results have been analysed with different mixing length formulation. The sensitivity of formulation is also analysed with a simple coastal configuration.

  11. Adriatic storm surges and related cross-basin sea-level slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Međugorac, Iva; Orlić, Mirko; Janeković, Ivica; Pasarić, Zoran; Pasarić, Miroslava

    2018-05-01

    Storm surges pose a severe threat to the northernmost cities of the Adriatic coast, with Venice being most prone to flooding. It has been noted that some flooding episodes cause significantly different effects along the eastern and western Adriatic coasts, with indications that the difference is related to cross-basin sea-level slope. The present study aims to determine specific atmospheric conditions under which the slope develops and to explore connection with increased sea level along the two coastlines. The analysis is based on sea-level time series recorded at Venice and Bakar over the 1984-2014 interval, from which 38 most intensive storm-surge episodes were selected, and their meteorological backgrounds (ERA-Interim) were studied. The obtained sea-level extremes were grouped into three categories according to their cross-basin sea-level slope: storm surges that slope strongly westward (W type), those that slope eastward (E type) and ordinary storm surges (O type). Results show that the slope is controlled by wind action only, specifically, by the wind component towards a particular coast and by the cross-basin shear of along-basin wind. Meteorological fields were used to force an oceanographic numerical model in order to confirm the empirically established connection between the atmospheric forcing and the slope. Finally, it has been found that the intensity of storm surges along a particular Adriatic coast is determined by an interplay of sea-level slopes in the along and cross-basin directions.

  12. An example of aerosol pattern variability over bright surface using high resolution MODIS MAIAC: The eastern and western areas of the Dead Sea and environs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sever; Pinhas, Alpert; Alexei, Lyapustin; Yujie, Wang; Alexandra, Chudnovsky A

    2017-09-01

    The extreme rate of evaporation of the Dead Sea (DS) has serious implicatios for the surrounding area, including atmospheric conditions. This study analyzes the aerosol properties over the western and eastern parts of the DS during the year 2013, using MAIAC (Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction) for MODIS, which retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) data at a resolution of 1km. The main goal of the study is to evaluate MAIAC over the study area and determine, for the first time, the prevailing aerosol spatial patterns. First, the MAIAC-derived AOD data was compared with data from three nearby AERONET sites (Nes Ziona - an urban site, and Sede Boker and Masada - two arid sites), and with the conventional Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) retrievals for the same days and locations, on a monthly basis throughout 2013. For the urban site, the correlation coefficient (r) for DT/DB products showed better performance than MAIAC (r=0.80, 0.75, and 0.64 respectively) year-round. However, in the arid zones, MAIAC showed better correspondence to AERONET sites than the conventional retrievals (r=0.58-0.60 and 0.48-0.50 respectively). We investigated the difference in AOD levels, and its variability, between the Dead Sea coasts on a seasonal basis and calculated monthly/seasonal AOD averages for presenting AOD patterns over arid zones. Thus, we demonstrated that aerosol concentrations show a strong preference for the western coast, particularly during the summer season. This preference, is most likely a result of local anthropogenic emissions combined with the typical seasonal synoptic conditions, the Mediterranean Sea breeze, and the region complex topography. Our results also indicate that a large industrial zone showed higher AOD levels compared to an adjacent reference-site, i.e., 13% during the winter season.

  13. SeaShark and Starfish opertional data processing schemes for AVHRR and SeaWiFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowerdew, R. J.; Corlyon, Anaa M.; Greer, W. A. D.; Newby, Steve J.; Winder, C. P.

    1997-02-01

    SeaShark is an operational software package for processing, archiving and cataloguing AVHRR and SeaWiFS data using an operator friendly GUI. Upon receipt of a customer order, it produces standard AVHRR data products, including Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and it has recently been modified to include SeaWiFS level 2 data processing. This uses an atmospheric correction scheme developed by the Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK (PML) that builds upon the standard Gordon and Wang approach to be applicable over both case 1 and case 2 waters. Higher level products are then generated using PML algorithms, including chlorophyll a, a CZCS-type pigment, Kd, and suspended particulate matter. Outputs are in CEOS-compatible format. The software also produces fast delivery products (FDPs) of chlorophyll a and SST. These FDPs are combined in the StarFish software package to provide maps indicating potential location of phytoplankton and the preferred thermal environment of certain pelagic fish species. Fishing vessels may obtain these maps over Inmarsat, allowing them to achieve a greater efficiency hence lower cost.

  14. Determination of sound types and source levels of airborne vocalizations by California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, in rehabilitation at the Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, Afton Leigh

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are a highly popular and easily recognized marine mammal in zoos, aquariums, circuses, and often seen by ocean visitors. They are highly vocal and gregarious on land. Surprisingly, little research has been performed on the vocalization types, source levels, acoustic properties, and functions of airborne sounds used by California sea lions. This research on airborne vocalizations of California sea lions will advance the understanding of this aspect of California sea lions communication, as well as examine the relationship between health condition and acoustic behavior. Using a PhillipsRTM digital recorder with attached microphone and a calibrated RadioShackRTM sound pressure level meter, acoustical data were recorded opportunistically on California sea lions during rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, CA. Vocalizations were analyzed using frequency, time, and amplitude variables with Raven Pro: Interactive Sound Analysis Software Version 1.4 (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY). Five frequency, three time, and four amplitude variables were analyzed for each vocalization. Differences in frequency, time, and amplitude variables were not significant by sex. The older California sea lion group produced vocalizations that were significantly lower in four frequency variables, significantly longer in two time variables, significantly higher in calibrated maximum and minimum amplitude variables, and significantly lower in frequency at maximum and minimum amplitude compared with pups. Six call types were identified: bark, goat, growl/grumble, bark/grumble, bark/growl, and grumble/moan. The growl/grumble call was higher in dominant beginning, ending, and minimum frequency, as well as in the frequency at maximum amplitude compared with the bark, goat, bark/grumble calls in the first versus last vocalization sample. The goat call was significantly higher in first harmonic interval than any other call type

  15. Nematode assemblages in the deep-sea benthos of the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Preben

    1988-07-01

    The deep-sea benthos of the Norwegian Sea contains 20-204 nematodes per 10 cm 2 down to 3 cm depth at seven stations sampled between 970 and 3294 m water depth. The majority of nematodes occur in the uppermost cm. Biomass varies from 3 to 73 μg C per 10 cm 2. Individual adult weight of the most dominant species differs by a factor of almost 1000, i.e. from 3-4 ng C to 3400 ng C; however, the majority of the nematodes is small-sized. Species diversity and evenness are high at all stations and each station harbours its specific fauna with little overlap between stations. Analysis of trophic group composition suggests that microbial feeding types (deposit and epistrate feeders) prevail in the deep-sea benthos; predators and scavengers are scarce. It is concluded that the nematode assemblage at each station consists of a mosaic of many microhabitats. The small nematode body weight probably results from limited food supply and/or poor food quality.

  16. Difference of nitrogen-cycling microbes between shallow bay and deep-sea sediments in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tiantian; Li, Meng; Niu, Mingyang; Fan, Xibei; Liang, Wenyue; Wang, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    In marine sediments, microorganisms are known to play important roles in nitrogen cycling; however, the composition and quantity of microbes taking part in each process of nitrogen cycling are currently unclear. In this study, two different types of marine sediment samples (shallow bay and deep-sea sediments) in the South China Sea (SCS) were selected to investigate the microbial community involved in nitrogen cycling. The abundance and composition of prokaryotes and seven key functional genes involved in five processes of the nitrogen cycle [nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox)] were presented. The results showed that a higher abundance of denitrifiers was detected in shallow bay sediments, while a higher abundance of microbes involved in ammonia oxidation, anammox, and DNRA was found in the deep-sea sediments. Moreover, phylogenetic differentiation of bacterial amoA, nirS, nosZ, and nrfA sequences between the two types of sediments was also presented, suggesting environmental selection of microbes with the same geochemical functions but varying physiological properties.

  17. In situ observations of Arctic cloud properties across the Beaufort Sea marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, C.; Moore, R.; Winstead, E.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Crosbie, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Martin, R.; Shook, M.; Corbett, J.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Anderson, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    Clouds play an important role in Arctic climate. This is particularly true over the Arctic Ocean where feedbacks between clouds and sea-ice impact the surface radiation budget through modifications of sea-ice extent, ice thickness, cloud base height, and cloud cover. This work summarizes measurements of Arctic cloud properties made aboard the NASA C-130 aircraft over the Beaufort Sea during ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea&Ice Experiment) in September 2014. The influence of surface-type on cloud properties is also investigated. Specifically, liquid water content (LWC), droplet concentrations, and droplet size distributions are compared for clouds sampled over three distinct regimes in the Beaufort Sea: 1) open water, 2) the marginal ice zone, and 3) sea-ice. Regardless of surface type, nearly all clouds intercepted during ARISE were liquid-phase clouds. However, differences in droplet size distributions and concentrations were evident for the surface types; clouds over the MIZ and sea-ice generally had fewer and larger droplets compared to those over open water. The potential implication these results have for understanding cloud-surface albedo climate feedbacks in Arctic are discussed.

  18. "Worth Ten Men on a Rope": A Lesson Plan on Sea Chanties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kracht, James B.

    In this lesson, middle school students explore a musical expression, the sea chantey, which provided a rhythm necessary to help 19th century sailors work together. Objectives are to help students understand the purpose of sea chanties, realize how different types of chanties were especially suited to different types of jobs, and identify the…

  19. Global ship accidents and ocean swell-related sea states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2017-11-01

    With the increased frequency of shipping activities, navigation safety has become a major concern, especially when economic losses, human casualties and environmental issues are considered. As a contributing factor, the sea state plays a significant role in shipping safety. However, the types of dangerous sea states that trigger serious shipping accidents are not well understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the sea state characteristics during ship accidents that occurred in poor weather or heavy seas based on a 10-year ship accident dataset. Sea state parameters of a numerical wave model, i.e., significant wave height, mean wave period and mean wave direction, were analyzed for the selected ship accident cases. The results indicated that complex sea states with the co-occurrence of wind sea and swell conditions represent threats to sailing vessels, especially when these conditions include similar wave periods and oblique wave directions.

  20. The Effect of the South Asia Monsoon on the Wind Sea and Swell Patterns in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    Ocean surface gravity waves have a considerable impact on coastal and offshore infrastructures, and are determinant on ship design and routing. But waves also play an important role on the coastal dynamics and beach erosion, and modulate the exchanges of momentum, and mass and other scalars between the atmosphere and the ocean. A constant quantitative and qualitative knowledge of the wave patterns is therefore needed. There are two types of waves at the ocean surface: wind-sea and swell. Wind-sea waves are growing waves under the direct influence of local winds; as these waves propagate away from their generation area, or when their phase speed overcomes the local wind speed, they are called swell. Swell waves can propagate thousands of kilometers across entire ocean basins. The qualitative analysis of ocean surface waves has been the focus of several recent studies, from the wave climate to the air-sea interaction community. The reason for this interest lies mostly in the fact that waves have an impact on the lower atmosphere, and that the air-sea coupling is different depending on the wave regime. Waves modulate the exchange of momentum, heat, and mass across the air-sea interface, and this modulation is different and dependent on the prevalence of one type of waves: wind sea or swell. For fully developed seas the coupling between the ocean-surface and the overlaying atmosphere can be seen as quasi-perfect, in a sense that the momentum transfer and energy dissipation at the ocean surface are in equilibrium. This can only occur in special areas of the Ocean, either in marginal seas, with limited fetch, or in Open Ocean, in areas with strong and persistent wind speed with little or no variation in direction. One of these areas is the Arabian Sea, along the coasts of Somalia, Yemen and Oman. The wind climate in the Arabian sea is under the direct influence of the South Asia monsoon, where the wind blows steady from the northeast during the boreal winter, and

  1. Nugget-Navaho-Aztec sandstone: interaction of eolian sand sea with Andean-type volcanic arc

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    The Nugget-Navaho-Aztec sand sea was deposited east of an Andean-type volcanic arc. During the early stage of eolian deposition, fluvially transported sand was concentrated in the marine littoral zone and returned inland by onshore winds from the northwest. With progressive development of the arc, the sea withdrew. Wind direction changed from northwest to northeast. Previously deposited eolian sand was transported southwestward into the volcanic arc. Proximity of the arc can be detected with great difficulty by examining eolian and underlying red-bed facies. In southern Nevada, the volcanic arc is undetectable in eolian facies, but thin sandstone beds containing volcanic clastsmore » or weathered feldspar in the finer grained red-bed facies indicate arc volcanism; volcanic clasts are distinct in a basal conglomerate. Westward into California, the sub-Aztec Sandstone contains volcanic pebbles. The upper part of the Aztec Sandstone contains a 1 to 2-m thick volcaniclastic siltstone. Farther west, the Aztec Sandstone is interbedded with volcanic flows, ash flows, and flow breccias. These rocks might easily be mistaken for red beds in well cores or cuttings. Sand in sets of large-scale cross-beds remain virtually identical in composition and texture to sand in eolian facies of the Colorado Plateau. Where sets of eolian cross-beds lie on volcanics, the quartzose sandstone contains pebble to cobble-size volcanic clasts. Locally, cross-bed sets of yellowish-white, quartzose sandstone alternate with purplish-gray cross-bed sets containing numerous pebble to cobble-size volcanic clasts. The ability to recognize volcanic indicators within Nugget-Navaho-Aztec eolian facies is important in delineating the western margin of the back-arc eolian basin.« less

  2. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice leads in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. J.; Hutchings, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Shapiro, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Leads in sea ice play an important role in the polar marine environment where they allow heat and moisture transfer between the oceans and atmosphere and act as travel pathways for both marine mammals and ships. Examining AVHRR thermal imagery of the Beaufort Sea, collected between 1994 and 2010, sea ice leads appear in repeating patterns and locations (Eicken et al 2005). The leads, resolved by AVHRR, are at least 250m wide (Mahoney et al 2012), thus the patterns described are for lead systems that extend up to hundreds of kilometers across the Beaufort Sea. We describe how these patterns are associated with the location of weather systems relative to the coastline. Mean sea level pressure and 10m wind fields from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to identify if particular lead patterns can be uniquely forecast based on the location of weather systems. Ice drift data from the NSIDC's Polar Pathfinder Daily 25km EASE-Grid Sea Ice Motion Vectors indicates the role shear along leads has on the motion of ice in the Beaufort Gyre. Lead formation is driven by 4 main factors: (i) coastal features such as promontories and islands influence the origin of leads by concentrating stresses within the ice pack; (ii) direction of the wind forcing on the ice pack determines the type of fracture, (iii) the location of the anticyclone (or cyclone) center determines the length of the fracture for certain patterns; and (iv) duration of weather conditions affects the width of the ice fracture zones. Movement of the ice pack on the leeward side of leads originating at promontories and islands increases, creating shear zones that control ice transport along the Alaska coast in winter. . Understanding how atmospheric conditions influence the large-scale motion of the ice pack is needed to design models that predict variability of the gyre and export of multi-year ice to lower latitudes.

  3. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert J.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period and the challenge will be to develop a long-term proactive assessment approach to manage this challenge. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these coastal cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). In these cities we wish to avoid major flood events, with associated damage and potentially deaths and ultimately decline of the cities. Flood risks grow with sea-level rise as it raises extreme sea levels. As sea levels continue to rise, protection will have to be progressively upgraded. Even with this, the magnitude of losses when flood events do occur would increase as coastal cities expand, and water depths and hence unit damage increase with sea-level rise/subsidence. This makes it critical to also prepare for larger coastal flood disasters than we experience today and raises questions on the limits to adaptation. There is not an extensive literature or significant empirical information on the limits to adaptation in coastal cities. These limits are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment, a defence upgrade or something else. There are several types of potential limits that could be categorised into three broad types: • Physical

  4. Differences between the bacterial community structures of first- and multi-year Arctic sea ice in the Lincoln Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatam, I.; Beckers, J. F.; Haas, C.; Lanoil, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice composition is shifting from predominantly thick perennial ice (multiyear ice -MYI) to thinner, seasonal ice (first year ice -FYI). The effects of the shift on the Arctic ecosystem and macro-organisms of the Arctic Ocean have been the focus of many studies and have also been extensively debated in the public domain. The effect of this shift on the microbial constituents of the Arctic sea ice has been grossly understudied, although it is a vast habitat for a microbial community that plays a key role in the biogeochemical cycles and energy flux of the Arctic Ocean. MYI and FYI differ in many chemical and physical attributes (e.g. bulk salinity, brine volume, thickness and age), therefore comparing and contrasting the structure and composition of microbial communities from both ice types will be crucial to our understanding of the challenges that the Arctic Ocean ecosystem faces as MYI cover continues to decline. Here, we contend that due to the differences in abiotic conditions, differences in bacterial community structure will be greater between samples from different ice types than within samples from the same ice type. We also argue that since FYI is younger, its community structure will be closer to that of the surface sea water (SW). To test this hypotheses, we extracted DNA and used high throughput sequencing to sequence V1-V3 regions of the bacterial 16s rRNA gene from 10 sea ice samples (5 for each ice type) and 4 surface sea water (SW) collected off the shore of Northern Ellesmere Island, NU, CAN, during the month of May from 2010-2012. Our results showed that observed richness was higher in FYI than MYI. FYI and MYI shared 26% and 36% of their observed richness respectively. While FYI shared 23% of its observed richness with SW, MYI only shared 17%. Both ice types showed similar levels of endemism (61% of the observed richness). This high level of endemism results in the grouping of microbial communities from MYI, FYI, and SW to three

  5. New types of submarine groundwater discharge from a saliferous clay formation - the case of the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Christian; Broder, Merkel; Thomas, Pohl; Yossi, Yechieli; Eldat, Hazan; Danny, Ionescu; Ulf, Mallast

    2017-04-01

    Along the coastline of the hyper-saline and dramatically dropping Dead Sea, fresh to highly saline groundwaters discharge abundantly from dry falling lakebed. During its history, the level and hence salinity of the lake strongly fluctuated, resulting in the deposition of an alternating sequence of clayey and chemical sediments (mainly halite, carbonates and sulfates), intercalated by thick beds of halite and of coarse clastics around wadi outlets, respectively. Due to the asymmetrical shape of the lake's basin, these strata are deposited unequally along the eastern and western flank, why only groundwaters coming from the west have to pass thick layers of these sediments on their way into the lake. On the base of trace elements (REE), element ratios, stable and radioisotopes and microbiological findings, the observed onshore and offshore springs revealed, freshwaters discharge from both Cretaceous limestone aquifers and efficiently dissolve the easily soluble halite and flush the interstitial brines from the saliferous clay formation, immediately after entering the sedimentary strata. Abundant microbial activity result in the widespread production of sulfuric acid, accelerating erosion of carbonates and sulfates. These processes result in a fast and striking karstification of the strata, enabling groundwaters to transcendent the fresh/saltwater interface trough open pipes. As results, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) occurs randomly and in addition to terrestrial, submarine sinkholes develop very quickly too. Due to the variable maturity of the flow paths, salinity and chemical composition of SGD shows an extremely wide range, from potable water to TDS of >250 g/l. Submarine emerging groundwaters with salinities even higher then that of the Dead Sea and distinctly different chemical and isotopic composition form outlets, which are not known elsewhere and represent a novel and unique type of SGD, only observed in the Dead Sea yet.

  6. Aral Sea basin: a sea dies, a sea also rises.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Michael H

    2007-06-01

    The thesis of this article is quite different from many other theses of papers, books, and articles on the Aral Sea. It is meant to purposely highlight the reality of the situation in Central Asia: the Aral Sea that was once a thriving body of water is no more. That sea is dead. What does exist in its place are the Aral seas: there are in essence three bodies of water, one of which is being purposefully restored and its level is rising (the Little Aral), and two others which are still marginally connected, although they continue to decline in level (the Big Aral West and the Big Aral East). In 1960 the level of the sea was about 53 m above sea level. By 2006 the level had dropped by 23 m to 30 m above sea level. This was not a scenario generated by a computer model. It was a process of environmental degradation played out in real life in a matter of a few decades, primarily as a result of human activities. Despite wishes and words to the contrary, it will take a heroic global effort to save what remains of the Big Aral. It would also take a significant degree of sacrifice by people and governments in the region to restore the Big Aral to an acceptable level, given that the annual rate of flow reaching the Amudarya River delta is less than a 10th of what it was several decades ago. Conferring World Heritage status to the Aral Sea(s) could spark restoration efforts for the Big Aral.

  7. The influence of urban design on outdoor thermal comfort in the hot, humid city of Colombo, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Erik; Emmanuel, Rohinton

    2006-11-01

    The outdoor environment is deteriorating in many tropical cities due to rapid urbanization. This leads to a number of problems related to health and well-being of humans and also negatively affects social and commercial outdoor activities. The creation of thermally comfortable microclimates in urban environments is therefore very important. This paper discusses the influence of street-canyon geometry on outdoor thermal comfort in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Five sites with different urban geometry, ground cover, and distance from the sea were studied during the warmest season. The environmental parameters affecting thermal comfort, viz. air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation, were measured, and the thermal comfort was estimated by calculating the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The thermal comfort is far above the assumed comfort zone due to the combination of intense solar radiation, high temperatures, and low wind speeds, especially on clear days. The worst conditions were found in wide streets with low-rise buildings and no shade trees. The most comfortable conditions were found in narrow streets with tall buildings, especially if shade trees were present, as well as in areas near the coast where the sea breeze had a positive effect. In order to improve the outdoor comfort in Colombo, it is suggested to allow a more compact urban form with deeper street canyons and to provide additional shade through the use of trees, covered walkways, pedestrian arcades, etc. The opening up of the city’s coastal strip would allow the sea breeze to penetrate further into the city.

  8. The influence of urban design on outdoor thermal comfort in the hot, humid city of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Erik; Emmanuel, Rohinton

    2006-11-01

    The outdoor environment is deteriorating in many tropical cities due to rapid urbanization. This leads to a number of problems related to health and well-being of humans and also negatively affects social and commercial outdoor activities. The creation of thermally comfortable microclimates in urban environments is therefore very important. This paper discusses the influence of street-canyon geometry on outdoor thermal comfort in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Five sites with different urban geometry, ground cover, and distance from the sea were studied during the warmest season. The environmental parameters affecting thermal comfort, viz. air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation, were measured, and the thermal comfort was estimated by calculating the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The thermal comfort is far above the assumed comfort zone due to the combination of intense solar radiation, high temperatures, and low wind speeds, especially on clear days. The worst conditions were found in wide streets with low-rise buildings and no shade trees. The most comfortable conditions were found in narrow streets with tall buildings, especially if shade trees were present, as well as in areas near the coast where the sea breeze had a positive effect. In order to improve the outdoor comfort in Colombo, it is suggested to allow a more compact urban form with deeper street canyons and to provide additional shade through the use of trees, covered walkways, pedestrian arcades, etc. The opening up of the city's coastal strip would allow the sea breeze to penetrate further into the city.

  9. The economics of fishing the high seas

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga, Juan; Costello, Christopher; Pauly, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    While the ecological impacts of fishing the waters beyond national jurisdiction (the “high seas”) have been widely studied, the economic rationale is more difficult to ascertain because of scarce data on the costs and revenues of the fleets that fish there. Newly compiled satellite data and machine learning now allow us to track individual fishing vessels on the high seas in near real time. These technological advances help us quantify high-seas fishing effort, costs, and benefits, and assess whether, where, and when high-seas fishing makes economic sense. We characterize the global high-seas fishing fleet and report the economic benefits of fishing the high seas globally, nationally, and at the scale of individual fleets. Our results suggest that fishing at the current scale is enabled by large government subsidies, without which as much as 54% of the present high-seas fishing grounds would be unprofitable at current fishing rates. The patterns of fishing profitability vary widely between countries, types of fishing, and distance to port. Deep-sea bottom trawling often produces net economic benefits only thanks to subsidies, and much fishing by the world’s largest fishing fleets would largely be unprofitable without subsidies and low labor costs. These results support recent calls for subsidy and fishery management reforms on the high seas. PMID:29881780

  10. Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; den Besselaar Else, van; Abdel, Hannachi; Jaak, Jaagus; Elizabeth, Kent; Christiana, Lefebvre; Gudrun, Rosenhagen; Anna, Rutgersson; Frederik, Schenk; der Schrier Gerard, van; Tim, Woolings

    2017-04-01

    in extrema in the Baltic and North Sea regions. In particular, we will discuss different measures of storminess, compare the persistence of circulation types and investigate to what extent atmospheric circulation over the Baltic and North Sea regions is controlled influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades.

  11. Black Sea GIS developed in MHI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Isaeva, E.

    2016-08-01

    The work aims at creating the Black Sea geoinformation system (GIS) and complementing it with a model bank. The software for data access and visualization was developed using client server architecture. A map service based on MapServer and MySQL data management system were chosen for the Black Sea GIS. Php-modules and python-scripts are used to provide data access, processing, and exchange between the client application and the server. According to the basic data types, the module structure of GIS was developed. Each type of data is matched to a module which allows selection and visualization of the data. At present, a GIS complement with a model bank (the models build in to the GIS) and users' models (programs launched on users' PCs but receiving and displaying data via GIS) is developed.

  12. Seasonal variability of the Red Sea, from GRACE time-variable gravity and altimeter sea surface height measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahr, John; Smeed, David; Leuliette, Eric; Swenson, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variability of sea surface height and mass within the Red Sea, occurs mostly through the exchange of heat with the atmosphere and wind-driven inflow and outflow of water through the strait of Bab el Mandab that opens into the Gulf of Aden to the south. The seasonal effects of precipitation and evaporation, of water exchange through the Suez Canal to the north, and of runoff from the adjacent land, are all small. The flow through the Bab el Mandab involves a net mass transfer into the Red Sea during the winter and a net transfer out during the summer. But that flow has a multi-layer pattern, so that in the summer there is actually an influx of cool water at intermediate (~100 m) depths. Thus, summer water in the southern Red Sea is warmer near the surface due to higher air temperatures, but cooler at intermediate depths (especially in the far south). Summer water in the northern Red Sea experiences warming by air-sea exchange only. The temperature profile affects the water density, which impacts the sea surface height but has no effect on vertically integrated mass. Here, we study this seasonal cycle by combining GRACE time-variable mass estimates, altimeter (Jason-1, Jason-2, and Envisat) measurements of sea surface height, and steric sea surface height contributions derived from depth-dependent, climatological values of temperature and salinity obtained from the World Ocean Atlas. We find good consistency, particularly in the northern Red Sea, between these three data types. Among the general characteristics of our results are: (1) the mass contributions to seasonal SSHT variations are much larger than the steric contributions; (2) the mass signal is largest in winter, consistent with winds pushing water into the Red Sea through the Strait of Bab el Mandab in winter, and out during the summer; and (3) the steric signal is largest in summer, consistent with summer sea surface warming.

  13. Unique system of photoreceptors in sea urchin tube feet

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich-Lüter, Esther M; Dupont, Sam; Arboleda, Enrique; Hausen, Harald; Arnone, Maria Ina

    2011-01-01

    Different sea urchin species show a vast variety of responses to variations in light intensity; however, despite this behavioral evidence for photosensitivity, light sensing in these animals has remained an enigma. Genome information of the recently sequenced purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) allowed us to address this question from a previously unexplored molecular perspective by localizing expression of the rhabdomeric opsin Sp-opsin4 and Sp-pax6, two genes essential for photoreceptor function and development, respectively. Using a specifically designed antibody against Sp-Opsin4 and in situ hybridization for both genes, we detected expression in two distinct groups of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) located in the animal's numerous tube feet. Specific reactivity of the Sp-Opsin4 antibody with sea star optic cushions, which regulate phototaxis, suggests a similar visual function in sea urchins. Ultrastructural characterization of the sea urchin PRCs revealed them to be of a microvillar receptor type. Our data suggest that echinoderms, in contrast to chordates, deploy a microvillar, r-opsin–expressing PRC type for vision, a feature that has been so far documented only in protostome animals. Surprisingly, sea urchin PRCs lack any associated screening pigment. Indeed, one of the tube foot PRC clusters may account for directional vision by being shaded through the opaque calcite skeleton. The PRC axons connect to the animal internal nervous system, suggesting an integrative function beyond local short circuits. Because juveniles display no phototaxis until skeleton completion, we suggest a model in which the entire sea urchin, deploying its skeleton as PRC screening device, functions as a huge compound eye. PMID:21536888

  14. Two ultrastructurally distinct tubulin paracrystals induced in sea-urchin eggs by vinblastine sulphate.

    PubMed

    Starling, D

    1976-01-01

    Two types of ultrastructurally distinct tubulin paracrystals have been induced in sea-urchin eggs with vinblastine sulphate (VLB) under different sets of conditions. One type of paracrystal appears to consist of hexagonally-close packed microtubules and closely resembles paracrystals present in mammalian cells treated with vinblastine or vincristine sulphate, but not previously reported in sea-urchin eggs. The other type is also made up of tubulin subunits, but these do not seem to have polymerized into microtubules. Both types of paracrystal are induced in sea-urchin eggs in the presence of VLB at a time when tubulin subunits would not normally polymerize. Possible mechanisms for tubulin activation and the induction of paracrystal formation are discussed in respect to the available information on the binding sites of the tubulin subunits.

  15. [Hygiene problems in inland and sea navigation].

    PubMed

    Goethe, H

    1983-09-01

    Both waste and sewage disposal are ubiquitous problems which have also affected navigation. Shipping is a very important transport carrier on a worldwide basis which together with the fishing industry employs roughly two million people. The problems associated with waste and sewage disposal obviously present a severe hazard to the coastal areas, narrow sea basins and, in particular, to inland and open-sea waterways. These problems are particularly alarming in large sea-ports, docks without outfall etc. The reduction of the crews aboard the ships operated by the industialised countries has helped to quantitatively ease the problem of waste and sewage disposal caused by the crews. However, passenger steamers with high waste and sewage volumes cause considerable nuisance in small harbours and the same holds for the disposal of technical waste products from ships such as dunnage packing material, ropes, plastic material, oil, etc. The quantity of waste water aboard a sea-going vessel including that from the toilets, washrooms, galley, and cleaning is rather considerable and is estimated at 300 litres per person and day under tropical climates. The volume of waste varies greatly and depends mainly on the type of material used aboard as mentioned above. Passenger liners with a very high volume of kitchen refuse and other solid waste give rise to specially insidious problems. In the past, sea-going vessels as well as ships employed in inland navigation used to throw overboard any type of refuse and sewage. However, during the last few decades the port authorities and also governments have introduced local and national regulations ruling that waste may no longer be thrown into harbour basins, but must be collected and disposed of on shore. Most ships have complied with these provisions, but some of them kept the collected refuse aboard and disposed of it on the open sea outside the harbours. International agreements on the prohibition of emptying oil and oil

  16. Atmospheric Profiles, Clouds, and the Evolution of Sea Ice Cover in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas Atmospheric Observations and Modeling as Part of the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Cover in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas Atmospheric Observations and Modeling as Part of the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Axel...how changes in sea ice and sea surface conditions in the SIZ affect changes in cloud properties and cover . • Determine the role additional atmospheric...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Profiles, Clouds, and the Evolution of Sea Ice Cover in the

  17. A multisensor approach to sea ice classification for the validation of DMSP-SSM/I passive microwave derived sea ice products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K.; Schweiger, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The validation of sea ice products derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) on board a DMSP platform is examined using data from the Landsat MSS and NOAA-AVHRR sensors. Image processing techniques for retrieving ice concentrations from each type of imagery are developed and results are intercompared to determine the ice parameter retrieval accuracy of the SSM/I NASA-Team algorithm. For case studies in the Beaufort Sea and East Greenland Sea, average retrieval errors of the SSM/I algorithm are between 1.7 percent for spring conditions and 4.3 percent during freeze up in comparison with Landsat derived ice concentrations. For a case study in the East Greenland Sea, SSM/I derived ice concentration in comparison with AVHRR imagery display a mean error of 9.6 percent.

  18. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, W. F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)

  19. The Helium Warm Breeze in IBEX Observations As a Result of Charge-exchange Collisions in the Outer Heliosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena A.; Czechowski, Andrzej

    2017-08-10

    We simulated the signal due to neutral He atoms, observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer ( IBEX ), assuming that charge-exchange collisions between neutral He atoms and He{sup +} ions operate everywhere between the heliopause and a distant source region in the local interstellar cloud, where the neutral and charged components are in thermal equilibrium. We simulated several test cases of the plasma flow within the outer heliosheath (OHS) and investigated the signal generation for plasma flows both in the absence and in the presence of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). We found that a signal in the portion ofmore » IBEX data identified as being due to the Warm Breeze (WB) does not arise when a homogeneous plasma flow in front of the heliopause is assumed, but it appears immediately when any reasonable disturbance in its flow due to the presence of the heliosphere is assumed. We obtained a good qualitative agreement between the data selected for comparison and the simulations for a model flow with the velocity vector of the unperturbed gas and the direction and intensity of magnetic field adopted from recent determinations. We conclude that direct-sampling observations of neutral He atoms at 1 au from the Sun are a sensitive tool for investigating the flow of interstellar matter in the OHS, that the WB is indeed the secondary population of interstellar helium, which was hypothesized earlier, and that the WB signal is consistent with the heliosphere distorted from axial symmetry by the ISMF.« less

  20. The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2013-11-01

    A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

  1. Complete genome sequence of the aerobic, heterotroph Marinithermus hydrothermalis type strain (T1T) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Alex; Gu, Wei; Yasawong, Montri; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Pagani, Ioanna; Tapia, Roxanne; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Pan, Chongle; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Sikorski, Johannes; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C.; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003 is the type species of the monotypic genus Marinithermus. M. hydrothermalis T1T was the first isolate within the phylum “Thermus-Deinococcus” to exhibit optimal growth under a salinity equivalent to that of sea water and to have an absolute requirement for NaCl for growth. M. hydrothermalis T1T is of interest because it may provide a new insight into the ecological significance of the aerobic, thermophilic decomposers in the circulation of organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Marinithermus and the seventh sequence from the family Thermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,269,167 bp long genome with its 2,251 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:22675595

  2. Diurnal Sea Breeze Effects on Nearshore Temperature Variability in Southern Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    from multi-year, single-location measurements of the velocity profiles (Fewings et al. 2008; Lentz et al. 2008; Hendrickson and MacMahan 2009) to...shorter O(0-2 months) experiments with multi-location moorings (Hally- Rosendahl et al. 2015; Reniers et al. 2009). Direct approaches for accounting for...zone (~5m). Two cross-shore arrays were deployed to account for the spatial heterogeneity of cross- shore flows associated with rip currents on the

  3. The Nature of The Propagation of Sea Breeze Fronts in Central California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    propagation vector % ith stations in the southern portion of Monterey Bay shows that the front is curved on the mesoscale. 20 Distribution Availabilit of...solar radiation warms the land more than the adjacent water . The resulting temperature contrast produces a slight variation in pressure. The isobaric...surfaces bend upward over the land, producing an upper-level high. The upper-level air flows seaward increasing the surface pressure over the water . The

  4. Trapping fresh sea breeze in desert? Health status of Camanchaca, Atacama's fog.

    PubMed

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Cunha Lima, Ricardo; Martínez Turrieta, Gladys

    2018-05-24

    Water fog composition was investigated at a fog harvesting installation in the coast of Atacama (North Chile). Chañaral is historically affected by mining contamination discharges. Hydro-chemical characterization of fog water from top of the mountain (where capture installation is located) and at the bottom of the mountain (after vertical transportation where an aquaponic system is located) revealed many compositional differences that compromise the use of water. High acidity and high concentrations in Cu and As in water collected on top of the mountain were found; meanwhile, acidity and Cu decreased, and As levels overpassed the drinking water standards after the vertical transportation. Collected data was assessed according to national and international regulatory standards, neutralization factors (NF), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and ion ratios to determine origin of contamination and suitability of destined for human consumption, irrigation, or aquaculture purposes.

  5. Model study of meteorology and photochemical air pollution over un urban area in south-eastern France (ESCOMPTE campaign).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi, M.; Cautenet, S.

    2003-04-01

    The ESCOMPTE Campaign has been conducted over Southern France (Provence region including the Marseille, Aix and Toulon cities and the Fos-Berre industrial center) in June and July of 2001. In order to study the redistribution of the pollutants emitted by anthropic and biogenic emissions and their impact on the atmospheric chemistry, we used meso-scale modeling (RAMS model, paralleled version 4.3, coupled on line with chemical modules : MOCA2.2 (Poulet et al, 2002) including 29 gaseous species). The hourly high resolution emissions were obtained from ESCOMPTE database (Ponche et al, 2002). The model was coupled with the dry deposition scheme (Walmsley and Weseley,1996). In this particular case of complex circulation (sea breeze associated with topography), the processes involving peaks of pollution were strongly non linear, and the meso scale modeling coupled on line with chemistry module was an essential step for a realistic redistribution of chemical species. Two nested grids satisfactorily describe the synoptic dynamics and the sea breeze circulations. The ECMWF meteorological fields provide the initial and boundary conditions. Different events characterized by various meteorological situations were simulated. Meteorological fields retrieved by modeling, also Modeled ozone, NOx, CO and SO2 concentrations, were compared with balloons, lidars, aircrafts and surface stations measurements. The chemistry regimes were explained according to the distribution of plumes. The stratified layers were examined.

  6. New Coccolithophore Bloom in Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the fourth year in a row it appears as if there is a bloom of coccolithophores-marine single-celled plants with calcite scales-in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska. Similar blooms were rare before 1997, but they have appeared every year since then. Scientists believe the coccolithophore blooms are the result of changing wind patterns in the region. Weaker than normal winds fail to mix the water of the Bering Sea, resulting in the growth of coccolithophores instead of other types of phytoplankton. Seabird populations have also been changing as a result of this climate change. The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, saw the coccolith-brightened waters of the Bering Sea in 1997, 1998, and 1999. The waters have looked fairly bright again this winter and spring, as seen in this SeaWiFS image acquired April 29, 2000. But scientists are unsure whether this year's phenomenon is caused by living coccolithophorids, re-suspended coccoliths, or something else. Like all phytoplankton, coccolithophores contain chlorophyll and have the tendency to multiply rapidly near the surface. Yet, in large numbers, coccolithophores periodically shed their tiny scales, called 'coccoliths,' by the bucketful into the surrounding waters. The calcium-rich coccoliths turn the normally dark water a bright, milky aquamarine, making coccolithophore blooms easy to spot in satellite imagery. The edge of the whitish cloud in the water seen in this image is roughly 50 kilometers off the West Coast of Alaska. For more information see: SeaWiFS home page Changing Currents Color the Bering Sea a New Shade of Blue Image courtesy SeaWiFS project

  7. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. A 15-year-long effort funded research on sea duck habitats through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and the Endangered or Threatened Species programs of the United States and Canada. Nevertheless, important gaps remain in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered by anthropogenic activities. The goal of this chapter is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, we examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Last, we evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for sea ducks.

  8. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss...

  11. Analysis of Experimental Sea-level Transient Data and Analog Method of Obtaining Altitude Response for Turbine-propeller Engine with Relay-type Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasu, George; Pack, George J

    1951-01-01

    Correlation has been established between transient engine and control data obtained experimentally and data obtained by simulating the engine and control with an analog computer. This correlation was established at sea-level conditions for a turbine-propeller engine with a relay-type speed control. The behavior of the controlled engine at altitudes of 20,000 and 35,000 feet was determined with an analog computer using the altitude pressure and temperature generalization factors to calculate the new engine constants for these altitudes. Because the engine response varies considerably at altitude some type of compensation appears desirable and four methods of compensation are discussed.

  12. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  13. Holocene sea surface temperature and sea ice extent in the Okhotsk and Bering Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harada, Naomi; Katsuki, Kota; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Akiko; Seki, Osamu; Addison, Jason A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Sato, Miyako

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of future climate requires an understanding of the mechanisms of the Holocene climate; however, the driving forces, mechanisms, and processes of climate change in the Holocene associated with different time scales remain unclear. We investigated the drivers of Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice extent in the North Pacific Ocean, and the Okhotsk and Bering Seas, as inferred from sediment core records, by using the alkenone unsaturation index as a biomarker of SST and abundances of sea ice-related diatoms (F. cylindrus and F. oceanica) as an indicator of sea ice extent to explore controlling mechanisms in the high-latitude Pacific. Temporal changes in alkenone content suggest that alkenone production was relatively high during the middle Holocene in the Okhotsk Sea and the western North Pacific, but highest in the late Holocene in the eastern Bering Sea and the eastern North Pacific. The Holocene variations of alkenone-SSTs at sites near Kamchatka in the Northwest Pacific, as well as in the western and eastern regions of the Bering Sea, and in the eastern North Pacific track the changes of Holocene summer insolation at 50°N, but at other sites in the western North Pacific, in the southern Okhotsk Sea, and the eastern Bering Sea they do not. In addition to insolation, other atmosphere and ocean climate drivers, such as sea ice distribution and changes in the position and activity of the Aleutian Low, may have systematically influenced the timing and magnitude of warming and cooling during the Holocene within the subarctic North Pacific. Periods of high sea ice extent in both the Okhotsk and Bering Seas may correspond to some periods of frequent or strong winter–spring dust storms in the Mongolian Gobi Desert, particularly one centered at ∼4–3 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Variation in storm activity in the Mongolian Gobi Desert region may reflect changes in the strength and positions of the Aleutian Low and Siberian

  14. Classification of sea ice types with single-band (33.6 GHz) airborne passive microwave imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, Duane T.; Farmer, L. Dennis; Lohanick, Alan W.; Hoover, Mervyn

    1986-09-01

    During March 1983 extensive high-quality airborne passive Ka band (33.6 GHz) microwave imagery and coincident high-resolution aerial photography were obtained of ice along a 378-km flight line in the Beaufort Sea. Analysis of these data suggests that four classes of winter surfaces can be distinguished solely on the basis of 33.6-GHz brightness temperature: open water, frazil, old ice, and young/first-year ice. New ice (excluding frazil) and nilas display brightness temperatures that overlap the range of temperatures characteristic of old ice and, to a lesser extent, young/first-year ice. Scenes in which a new ice or nilas are present in appreciable amounts are subject to substantial errors in classification if static measures of Ka band radiometric brightness temperature alone are considered. Textural characteristics of nilas and new ice, however, differ significantly from textural features characteristic of other ice types and probably can be used with brightness temperature data to classify ice type in high-resolution single-band microwave images. In any case, open water is radiometrically the coldest surface observed in any scene. Lack of overlap between brightness temperatures characteristic of other surfaces indicates that estimates of the areal extent of open water based on only 33.6-GHz brightness temperatures are accurate.

  15. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss... paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section, except to the extent that similar provisions apply to claims...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss... paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section, except to the extent that similar provisions apply to claims...

  17. Effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Munk, Peter; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Improper activation and swelling of in vitro produced eggs of European eel, Anguilla anguilla, has been shown to negatively affect embryonic development and hatching. We investigated this phenomenon by examining the effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg dimensions, cell cleavage patterns and egg buoyancy. Egg diameter after activation, using natural seawater adjusted to different salinities, varied among female eels, but no consistent pattern emerged. Activation salinities between 30-40 practical salinity unit (psu) produced higher quality eggs and generally larger egg diameters. Chorion diameters reached maximal values of 1642 ± 8 μm at 35 psu. A positive relationship was found between egg neutral buoyancy and activation salinity. Nine salt types were investigated as activation and incubation media. Five of these types induced a substantial perivitelline space (PVS), leading to large egg sizes, while the remaining four salt types resulted in smaller eggs. All salt types except NaCl treatments led to high fertilization rates and had no effect on fertilization success as well as egg neutral buoyancies at 7 h post-fertilization. The study points to the importance of considering ionic composition of the media when rearing fish eggs and further studies are encouraged.

  18. Expansion of divergent SEA domains in cell surface proteins and nucleoporin 54.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2017-03-01

    SEA (sea urchin sperm protein, enterokinase, agrin) domains, many of which possess autoproteolysis activity, have been found in a number of cell surface and secreted proteins. Despite high sequence divergence, SEA domains were also proposed to be present in dystroglycan based on a conserved autoproteolysis motif and receptor-type protein phosphatase IA-2 based on structural similarity. The presence of a SEA domain adjacent to the transmembrane segment appears to be a recurring theme in quite a number of type I transmembrane proteins on the cell surface, such as MUC1, dystroglycan, IA-2, and Notch receptors. By comparative sequence and structural analyses, we identified dystroglycan-like proteins with SEA domains in Capsaspora owczarzaki of the Filasterea group, one of the closest single-cell relatives of metazoans. We also detected novel and divergent SEA domains in a variety of cell surface proteins such as EpCAM, α/ε-sarcoglycan, PTPRR, collectrin/Tmem27, amnionless, CD34, KIAA0319, fibrocystin-like protein, and a number of cadherins. While these proteins are mostly from metazoans or their single cell relatives such as choanoflagellates and Filasterea, fibrocystin-like proteins with SEA domains were found in several other eukaryotic lineages including green algae, Alveolata, Euglenozoa, and Haptophyta, suggesting an ancient evolutionary origin. In addition, the intracellular protein Nucleoporin 54 (Nup54) acquired a divergent SEA domain in choanoflagellates and metazoans. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  19. Occurrence of microplastics in the beach sand of the Chinese inner sea: the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xubiao; Peng, Jinping; Wang, Jundong; Wang, Kan; Bao, Shaowu

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of microplastics in the beach sand of the Bohai Sea was investigated for the first time. The Bohai Sea is the largest Chinese inner sea and its coastal region is one of the most densely urbanized and industrialized zones of China. Samples from three costal sites (i.e., Bijianshan, Xingcheng and Dongdaihe) were collected, quantified and identified for microplastic analysis. Effects of sample depth and tourism activity were investigated. Surface samples (2 cm) contained higher microplastic concentrations than deep samples (20 cm). Samples from the bathing beach exhibited higher microplastic concentrations than the non-bathing beach, suggesting the direct contribution of microplastics from tourism activity. Of eight types of microplastics that were found, PEVA (polyethylene vinyl acetate), LDPE (light density polyethylene) and PS (polystyrene) were the largest in abundances. Moreover, the non-plastic items from samples were analyzed and results revealed that the majority abundance of the observed non-plastics were viscose cellulose fibers. Further studies are required to evaluate the environmental hazards of microplastics, especially as they may "act as a contaminant transporter" to the Bohai Sea ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of topography and land-sea distribution on east Asian paleoenvironmental patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. S.; Wang, H. J.; Guo, Z. T.; Jiang, D. B.

    2006-03-01

    Much geological research has illustrated the transition of paleoenvironmental patterns during the Cenozoic from a planetary-wind-dominant type to a monsoon-dominant type, indicating the initiation of the East Asian monsoon and inland-type aridity. However, there is a dispute about the causes and mechanisms of the transition, especially about the impact of the Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau uplift and the Paratethys Sea retreat. Thirty numerical sensitivity experiments under different land-sea distributions and Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau topography conditions are performed here to simulate the evolution of climate belts with emphasis on changes in the rain band, and these are compared with the changes in the paleoenvironmental patterns during the Cenozoic recovered by geological records, The consistency between simulations and the geological evidence indicates that both the Tibetan Plateau uplift and the Paratethys Sea retreat play important roles in the formation of the monsoon-dominant environmental pattern. Furthermore, the simulations show the monsoon-dominant environmental pattern comes into being when the Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau reaches 1000-2000 m high and the Paratethys Sea retreats to the Turan Plate.

  1. Sea lamprey mark type, marking rate, and parasite-host relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  2. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, Shane

    Executive Summary Renewable Energy Initiatives for Clark County Parks and Recreation Solar Project DOE grant # DE-EE0003180 In accordance with the goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for promoting solar energy as clean, carbon-free and cost-effective, the County believed that a recreational center was an ideal place to promote solar energy technologies to the public. This project included the construction of solar electricity generation facilities (40kW) at two Clark County facility sites, Desert Breeze Recreational Center and Hollywood Recreational Center, with educational kiosks and Green Boxes for classroom instruction. The major objectivesmore » and goals of this Solar Project include demonstration of state of the art technologies for the generation of electricity from solar technology and the creation of an informative and educational tool in regards to the benefits and process of generating alternative energy. Clark County partnered with Anne Johnson (design architect/consultant), Affiliated Engineers Inc. (AEI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Morse Electric. The latest photovoltaic technologies were used in the project to help create the greatest expected energy savings for60443 each recreational center. This coupled with the data created from the monitoring system will help Clark County and NREL further understand the real time outputs from the system. The educational portion created with AEI and DRI incorporates material for all ages with a focus on K - 12. The AEI component is an animated story telling the fundamentals of how sunlight is turned into electricity and DRI‘s creation of Solar Green Boxes brings environmental education into the classroom. In addition to the educational component for the public, the energy that is created through the photovoltaic system also translates into saved money and health benefits for the general public. This project has helped Clark County to further add to

  3. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-08

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  4. Effect of short-term hypoxia on marine nematode community structure and vertical distribution pattern in three different sediment types of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Mehrshad; Braeckman, Ulrike; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The responses of nematode communities to short-term hypoxia (1 and 7 days) were investigated in three North Sea stations with different sediment types (coarse silt, fine sand and medium sand). In the field, nematode density, diversity, vertical distribution and community structure differ among the stations. In the laboratory, oxic and hypoxic treatments were established for 1 and 7 days for all sediment types. Comparison between field control and oxic day 1 treatments showed that experimental sediment handling did not affect nematode characteristics. Our results revealed that short-term hypoxia did not affect total density, diversity, community composition, vertical density profiles (except in the fine sand) and densities of five dominant species in all sediment types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved method for sea ice age computation based on combination of sea ice drift and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosov, Anton; Rampal, Pierre; Lavergne, Thomas; Aaboe, Signe

    2017-04-01

    propose an improved algorithm for sea ice age computation based on combination of sea ice drift and concentration, both derived from satellite measurements. The base sea ice drift product is from the Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (EUMETSAT OSI-SAF, Lavergne et al., 2011). This operational product was recently upgraded to also process ice drift during the summer season [http://osisaf.met.no/]. . The Sea Ice Concentration product from the ESA Sea Ice Climate Change Initiative (ESA SI CCI) project is used to adjust the partial concentrations at every advection step [http://esa-cci.nersc.no/]. Each grid cell is characterised by its partial concentration of water and ice of different ages. Also, sea ice convergence and divergence are used to realistically adjust the ratio of young ice / multi year ice. Comparison of results from this new algorithm with results derived from drifting ice buoys deployed in 2013 - 2016 demonstrates clear improvement in the ice age estimation. The spatial distribution of sea ice age in the new product compares better to the Sea Ice Type derived from satellite passive microwave and scatterometer measurements, both with regard to the decreased patchiness and the shape. The new ice age algorithm is developed in the context of the ESA CCI, and is designed for production of more accurate sea ice age climate data records in the future.

  6. Investigation Hydrometeorological Regime of the White Sea Based on Satellite Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergey A.

    2016-08-01

    The White Sea are the seas of the Arctic Ocean. Today complicated hydrodynamic, tidal, ice, and meteorological regimes of these seas may be investigated on the basis of remote sensing data, specifically of satellite altimetry data. Results of calibration and validation of satellite altimetry measurements (sea surface height and sea surface wind speed) and comparison with regional tidal model show that this type of data may be successfully used in scientific research and in monitoring of the environment. Complex analysis of the tidal regime of the White Sea and comparison between global and regional tidal models show advantages of regional tidal model for use in tidal correction of satellite altimetry data. Examples of using the sea level data in studying long-term variability of the Barents and White Seas are presented. Interannual variability of sea ice edge position is estimated on the basis of altimetry data.

  7. The use of sea ice habitat by female polar bears in the Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Nielson, Ryan M.; McDonald, Trent

    2003-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) depend on ice-covered seas to satisfy life history requirements. Modern threats to polar bears include oil spills in the marine environment and changes in ice composition resulting from climate change. Managers need practical models that explain the distribution of bears in order to assess the impacts of these threats. We used stepwise procedures to create resource selection models of habitat use for radio-collared female polar bears in the Beaufort Sea. Sea ice characteristics and ocean depths at known polar bear locations were compared to the same features at randomly selected locations. Models generated for each of four seasons confirmed complexities of habitat use by polar bears and their response to numerous factors. Bears preferred shallow water areas where ice concentrations were > 80 % and different ice types intersected. Variation among seasons was reflected mainly in differential selection of ice stages, floe sizes, and their interactions. Water depth, total ice concentration and distance to the nearest interface between different ice types were significant terms in models for most seasons. Variation in ice stage and form also appeared in three models, and several interaction effects were identified. Habitat selection by polar bears is likely related to prey abundance and availability. Use of habitats in shallow water possibly reflects higher productivity in those areas. Habitat use in close proximity to ice edges is probably related to greater access of prey in those habitats.

  8. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 6: SeaWiFS technical report series cumulative index: Volumes 1-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in August 1993, on the Sea Star satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memoranda Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous five volumes and consists of four main sections including an index to key words and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is our intention to publish a summary index of this type after every five volumes in the series. This will cover the topics published in all previous editions of the indices, that is, each new index will include all of the information contained in the preceding indices.

  9. Wind-sea surface temperature-sea ice relationship in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas during autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Stegall, Steve T.; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-03-01

    Dramatic climate changes, especially the largest sea ice retreat during September and October, in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas could be a consequence of, and further enhance, complex air-ice-sea interactions. To detect these interaction signals, statistical relationships between surface wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea ice concentration (SIC) were analyzed. The results show a negative correlation between wind speed and SIC. The relationships between wind speed and SST are complicated by the presence of sea ice, with a negative correlation over open water but a positive correlation in sea ice dominated areas. The examination of spatial structures indicates that wind speed tends to increase when approaching the ice edge from open water and the area fully covered by sea ice. The anomalous downward radiation and thermal advection, as well as their regional distribution, play important roles in shaping these relationships, though wind-driven sub-grid scale boundary layer processes may also have contributions. Considering the feedback loop involved in the wind-SST-SIC relationships, climate model experiments would be required to further untangle the underlying complex physical processes.

  10. Deep-sea pennatulaceans (sea pens) - recent discoveries, morphological adaptations, and responses to benthic oceanographic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Pennatulaceans are sessile, benthic marine organisms that are bathymetrically wide-ranging, from the intertidal to approximately 6300 m in depth, and are conspicuous constituents of deep-sea environments. The vast majority of species are adapted for anchoring in soft sediments by the cylindrical peduncle - a muscular hydrostatic skeleton. However, in the past decade a few species ("Rockpens") have been discovered and described that can attach to hard substratum such as exposed rocky outcrops at depths between 669 and 1969 m, by a plunger-like adaptation of the base of the peduncle. Of the thirty-six known genera, eleven (or 30%) have been recorded from depths greater than 1000 m. The pennatulacean depth record holders are an unidentified species of Umbellula from 6260 m in the Peru-Chile Trench and a recently-discovered and described genus and species, Porcupinella profunda, from 5300 m the Porcupine Abyssal Plain of the northeastern Atlantic. A morphologically-differentiated type of polyp (acrozooid) have recently been discovered and described in two genera of shallow-water coral reef sea pens. Acrozooids apparently represent asexual buds and presumably can detach from the adult to start clonal colonies through asexual budding. Acrozooids are to be expected in deep-sea pennatulaceans, but so far have not been observed below 24 m in depth. Morphological responses at depths greater than 1000 m in deep-sea pennatulaceas include: fewer polyps, larger polyps, elongated stalks, and clustering of polyps along the rachis. Responses to deep-ocean physical parameters and anthropogenic changes that could affect the abundance and distribution of deep-sea pennatulaceans include changes in bottom current flow and food availability, changes in seawater temperature and pH, habitat destruction by fish trawling, and sunken refuse pollution. No evidence of the effects of ocean acidification or other effects of anthropogenic climate change in sea pens of the deep-sea has been

  11. Spatial variations in trace element concentrations of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, a first reference study in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ternengo, S; Marengo, M; El Idrissi, O; Yepka, J; Pasqualini, V; Gobert, S

    2018-04-01

    A study on Trace Elements (TE) from sea urchin gonads has been conducted in the western Mediterranean Sea. Contamination data were used to determine a Trace Method Pollution Index (TEPI). TE concentrations varied considerably depending on the location of the sampling stations. The results showed that five trace elements (Zn, Fe, As, Al, Cu) are ubiquitous. The geographical area considered (Corsica) represents an important range of environmental conditions and types of pressure that can be found in the western Mediterranean Sea. TEPI was used to classify the studied sites according to their degree of contamination and allowed reliable comparison of TE contamination between local and international sites. TE contamination of the western Mediterranean Sea displayed a north-to-south gradient, from the Italian coasts down through the insular Corsican coasts to the north African littoral. Due to the increasing environmental pressure on the Mediterranean Sea, a regular monitoring of TE levels in marine organisms is necessary to prevent any further environmental deterioration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Observations of Near-Bottom Currents with Low-Cost SeaHorse Tilt Current Meters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observations of Near-Bottom Currents with Low-Cost SeaHorse Tilt...sheremet/ SeaHorse LONG-TERM GOALS The SeaHorse TCM is a low-cost, easy to use, robust current meter based on the drag principle. Use of a large...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Observations of Near-Bottom Currents with Low-Cost SeaHorse

  13. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage. 697... MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 697.12 At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage. (a) The Regional Administrator...-approved sea sampler/observer. If requested by the Regional Administrator to carry a sea sampler/observer...

  14. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage. 697... MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 697.12 At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage. (a) The Regional Administrator...-approved sea sampler/observer. If requested by the Regional Administrator to carry a sea sampler/observer...

  15. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage. 697... MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 697.12 At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage. (a) The Regional Administrator...-approved sea sampler/observer. If requested by the Regional Administrator to carry a sea sampler/observer...

  16. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 43; SeaWiFS Prelaunch Technical Report Series Final Cumulative Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, on the SeaStar satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566 and 1998-104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume, which is the last of the so-called Prelaunch Series serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 42 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an addenda, an errata, an index to key words and phrases, lists of acronyms and symbols used, and a list of all references cited. The editors have published a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes. Each index covers the reference topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index includes all of the information contained in the preceding indexes with the exception of any addenda.

  17. Phytoplankton Bloom in the Barents Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image acquired August 31, 2010 To see a detail of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4971318856/ In this natural-color image from August 31, 2010, the ocean’s canvas swirls with turquoise, teal, navy, and green, the abstract art of the natural world. The colors were painted by a massive phytoplankton bloom made up of millions of tiny, light-reflecting organisms growing in the sunlit surface waters of the Barents Sea. Such blooms peak every August in the Barents Sea. The variations in color are caused by different species and concentrations of phytoplankton. The bright blue colors are probably from coccolithophores, a type of phytoplankton that is coated in a chalky shell that reflects light, turning the ocean a milky turquoise. Coccolithophores dominate the Barents Sea in August. Shades of green are likely from diatoms, another type of phytoplankton. Diatoms usually dominate the Barents Sea earlier in the year, giving way to coccolithophores in the late summer. However, field measurements of previous August blooms have also turned up high concentrations of diatoms. The Barents Sea is a shallow sea sandwiched between the coastline of northern Russia and Scandinavia and the islands of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaya Zemlya. Within the shallow basin, currents carrying warm, salty water from the Atlantic collide with currents carrying cold, fresher water from the Arctic. During the winter, strong winds drive the currents and mix the waters. When winter’s sea ice retreats and light returns in the spring, diatoms thrive, typically peaking in a large bloom in late May. The shift between diatoms and coccolithophores occurs as the Barents Sea changes during the summer months. Throughout summer, perpetual light falls on the waters, gradually warming the surface. Eventually, the ocean stratifies into layers, with warm water sitting on top of cooler water. The diatoms deplete most of the nutrients in the surface waters and stop growing

  18. Sea-Level Projections from the SeaRISE Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) is a community organized modeling effort, whose goal is to inform the fifth IPCC of the potential sea-level contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the 21st and 22nd century. SeaRISE seeks to determine the most likely ice sheet response to imposed climatic forcing by initializing an ensemble of models with common datasets and applying the same forcing to each model. Sensitivity experiments were designed to quantify the sea-level rise associated with a change in: 1) surface mass balance, 2) basal lubrication, and 3) ocean induced basal melt. The range of responses, resulting from the multi-model approach, is interpreted as a proxy of uncertainty in our sea-level projections. http://websrv.cs .umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

  19. On Sea Ice Characterisation By Multi-Frequency SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahn, Jakob; Brekke, Camilla; Eltoft, Torbjorn; Holt, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    By means of polarimetric target decomposition, quad-pol SAR data of sea ice is analysed at two frequency bands. In particular, the non negative eigenvalue decomposition (NNED) is applied on L- and C-band NASA/JPL AIR- SAR data acquired over the Beaufort sea in 2004. The de- composition separates the scattered radar signal into three types, dominated by double, volume and single bounce scattering respectively. Using ground truth derived from RADARSAT-1 and meteorological data, we investigate how the different frequency bands compare in terms of these scattering types. The ground truth contains multi year ice and three types of first year ice of different age and thickness. We find that C-band yields a higher scattered intensity in most ice and scattering types, as well as a more homogeneous intensity. L-band on the other hand yields more pronounced deformation features, such as ridges. The mean intensity contrast between the two thinnest ice types is highest in the double scattering component of C- band, although the contrast of the total signal is greater in L-band. This may indicate that the choice of polarimetric parameters is important for discriminating thin ice types.

  20. Greenland Sea Odden sea ice feature: Intra-annual and interannual variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shuchman, R.A.; Josberger, E.G.; Russel, C.A.; Fischer, K.W.; Johannessen, O.M.; Johannessen, J.; Gloersen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The "Odden" is a large sea ice feature that forms in the east Greenland Sea that may protrude eastward to 5??E from the main sea ice pack (at about 8??W) between 73?? and 77??N. It generally forms at the beginning of the winter season and can cover 300,000 km2. Throughout the winter the outer edge of the Odden may advance and retreat by several hundred kilometers on timescales of a few days to weeks. Satellite passive microwave observations from 1978 through 1995 provide a continuous record of the spatial and temporal variations of this extremely dynamic phenomenon. Aircraft synthetic aperture radar, satellite passive microwave, and ship observations in the Odden show that the Odden consists of new ice types, rather than older ice types advected eastward from the main pack. The 17-year record shows both strong interannual and intra-annual variations in Odden extent and temporal behavior. For example, in 1983 the Odden was weak, in 1984 the Odden did not occur, and in 1985 the Odden returned late in the season. An analysis of the ice area and extent time series derived from the satellite passive microwave observations along with meteorological data from the International Arctic Buoy Program (IABP) determined the meteorological forcing associated with Odden growth, maintenance, and decay. The key meteorological parameters that are related to the rapid ice formation and decay associated with the Odden are, in order of importance, air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. Oceanographic parameters must play an important role in controlling Odden formation, but it is not yet possible to quantify this role because of a lack of long-term oceanographic observations. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Aircraft measurements of microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilheit, T.; Nordberg, W.; Blinn, J.; Campbell, W.; Edgerton, A.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of the microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice were made with aircraft at 8 wavelengths ranging from 0.510 to 2.81 cm. The expected contrast in emissivities between ice and water was observed at all wavelengths. Distributions of sea ice and open water were mapped from altitudes up to 11 km in the presence of dense cloud cover. Different forms of ice also exhibited strong contrasts in emissivity. Emissivity differences of up to 0.2 were observed between two types of ice at the 0.811-cm wavelength. The higher emissivity ice type is tentatively identified as having been formed more recently than the lower emissivity ice. ?? 1971.

  2. Aircraft measurements of microwave emission from Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, T. T.; Blinn, J.; Campbell, W. J.; Edgerton, A. T.; Nordberg, W.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of the microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice were made with aircraft at 8 wavelengths ranging from 0.510 cm to 2.81 cm. The expected contrast in emissivities between ice and water was observed at all wavelengths. Distributions of sea ice and open water were mapped from altitudes up to 11 km in the presence of dense cloud cover. Different forms of ice also exhibited strong contrasts in emissivity. Emissivity differences of up to 0.2 were observed between two types of ice at 0.811 cm wavelength. The higher emissivity ice type is tentatively identified as having been formed more recently than the lower emissivity ice.

  3. Modeling ocean wave propagation under sea ice covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Shen, Hayley H.; Cheng, Sukun

    2015-02-01

    Operational ocean wave models need to work globally, yet current ocean wave models can only treat ice-covered regions crudely. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of ice effects on wave propagation and different research methodology used in studying these effects. Based on its proximity to land or sea, sea ice can be classified as: landfast ice zone, shear zone, and the marginal ice zone. All ice covers attenuate wave energy. Only long swells can penetrate deep into an ice cover. Being closest to open water, wave propagation in the marginal ice zone is the most complex to model. The physical appearance of sea ice in the marginal ice zone varies. Grease ice, pancake ice, brash ice, floe aggregates, and continuous ice sheet may be found in this zone at different times and locations. These types of ice are formed under different thermal-mechanical forcing. There are three classic models that describe wave propagation through an idealized ice cover: mass loading, thin elastic plate, and viscous layer models. From physical arguments we may conjecture that mass loading model is suitable for disjoint aggregates of ice floes much smaller than the wavelength, thin elastic plate model is suitable for a continuous ice sheet, and the viscous layer model is suitable for grease ice. For different sea ice types we may need different wave ice interaction models. A recently proposed viscoelastic model is able to synthesize all three classic models into one. Under suitable limiting conditions it converges to the three previous models. The complete theoretical framework for evaluating wave propagation through various ice covers need to be implemented in the operational ocean wave models. In this review, we introduce the sea ice types, previous wave ice interaction models, wave attenuation mechanisms, the methods to calculate wave reflection and transmission between different ice covers, and the effect of ice floe breaking on shaping the sea ice morphology

  4. Weather types across the Caribbean basin and their relationship with rainfall and sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moron, Vincent; Gouirand, Isabelle; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Eight weather types (WTs) are computed over 98.75°W-56.25°W, 8.75°N-31.25°N using cluster analysis of daily low-level (925 hPa) winds and outgoing longwave radiation, without removing the mean annual cycle, by a k-means algorithm from 1979 to 2013. The WTs can be firstly interpreted as snapshots of the annual cycle with a clear distinction between 5 "wintertime" and 3 "summertime" WTs, which account together for 70 % of the total mean annual rainfall across the studied domain. The wintertime WTs occur mostly from late November to late April and are characterized by varying intensity and location of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and transient synoptic troughs along the northern edge of the domain. Large-scale subsidence dominates the whole basin but rainfall can occur over sections of the basin, especially on the windward shores of the troughs associated with the synoptic waves. The transition between wintertime and summertime WTs is rather abrupt, especially in May. One summertime WT (WT 4) is prevalent in summer, and almost exclusive around late July. It is characterized by strong NASH, fast Caribbean low level jet and rainfall mostly concentrated over the Caribbean Islands, the Florida Peninsula, the whole Central America and the tropical Eastern Pacific. The two remaining summertime WTs display widespread rainfall respectively from Central America to Bermuda (WT 5) and over the Eastern Caribbean (WT 6). Both WTs combine reduced regional scale subsidence and weaker Caribbean low-level jet relatively to WT 4. The relationships between WT frequency and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are broadly linear. Warm central and eastern ENSO events are associated with more WT 4 (less WT 5-6) during boreal summer and autumn (0) while this relationship is reversed during boreal summer (+1) for central events only. In boreal winter, the largest anomalies are observed for two WTs consistent with negative (WT 2) and positive (WT 8) phases of the

  5. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ALTEROMONAS-LIKE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE BLACK SEA WATER].

    PubMed

    Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii strains isolated from the Black sea water were similar in their fatty acids composition with the type strain of this species. Analysis of lipid composition of 10 A. macleodii strains isolated from the deep and surface water layers in different World ocean regions including the Black sea water has shown that the deep and surface isolates of this species formed two groups different in their fatty acids profiles. The Black sea isolates of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. citrea, P. flavipulchra conformed to these species type strains in their fatty acids composition. On the basis of the fatty acids spectra similarity of three Pseudoalteromonas species strains with Plipolytica described in 2010 has been established. Presence of three isomers C16:1ψ7, C 16:1ψ9 and C16:1ψ6--components of hexadecenic acid in the Black sea isolates of Shewanella baltica has been shown.

  6. Making connections: Listening to visitor conversations at different styles of sea jelly exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, Tamara M.

    This study sought to determine what types of connections to prior experiences and knowledge were being made at two different styles of exhibits focusing on sea jellies. Family groups, consisting of one or two adults with one or two children aged 6-11, were audio recorded and tracked as they visited a view-only or touch pool sea jelly exhibit. A short interview was given after their visit to the sea jelly exhibit. The discourse from the exhibit and survey were coded for types of learning talk. Coding was also done to determine the inspiration for the connection and the subject of the connection (structural or behavioral). Visitors made connections regardless of the seajelly.exhibit design and results showed no differences in the type or frequency of the connections made. However, visitors were more likely to make connections on the subject of the sea jelly structure at the view only exhibit. Many of the connections, regardless of subject or inspiration, were metaphoric connections, demonstrating the importance of metaphors for making prior experience connections. Findings provide useful information for future aquarium practice.

  7. Experimental Study on Tsunami Risk Reduction on Coastal Building Fronted by Sea Wall

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. T. R.; Shirazi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to idealize the efficacy of sea wall in controlling the tsunami forces on onshore structures. Different types of sea walls were placed in front of the building model. The tsunami forces and the wave heights were measured with and without the sea wall conditions. Types of sea wall, wall height, and wall positions were varied simultaneously to quantify the force reductions. Maximum of 41% forces was reduced by higher sea wall, positioned closer proximity to the model whereas this reduction was about 27% when the wall height was half of the high wall. Experimental investigations revealed that wall with adequate height and placed closer to the structures enables a satisfactory predictor of the force reduction on onshore structures. Another set of tests were performed with perforated wall placing near the building model. Less construction cost makes the provision of perforated sea wall interesting. The overall results showed that the efficacy of perforated wall is almost similar to solid wall. Hence, it can be efficiently used instead of solid wall. Moreover, overtopped water that is stuck behind the wall is readily gone back to the sea through perforations releasing additional forces on the nearby structures. PMID:24790578

  8. Synoptic conditions of fine-particle transport to the last interglacial Red Sea-Dead Sea from Nd-Sr compositions of sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchan, Daniel; Stein, Mordechai; Goldstein, Steven L.; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Tirosh, Ofir; Erel, Yigal

    2018-01-01

    The sediments deposited at the depocenter of the Dead Sea comprise high-resolution archive of hydrological changes in the lake's watershed and record the desert dust transport to the region. This paper reconstructs the dust transport to the region during the termination of glacial Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6; ∼135-129 ka) and the last interglacial peak period (MIS5e, ∼129-116 ka). We use chemical and Nd and Sr isotope compositions of fine detritus material recovered from sediment core drilled at the deepest floor of the Dead Sea. The data is integrated with data achieved from cores drilled at the floor of the Red Sea, thus, forming a Red Sea-Dead Sea transect extending from the desert belt to the Mediterranean climate zone. The Dead Sea accumulated flood sediments derived from three regional surface cover types: settled desert dust, mountain loess-soils and loess-soils filling valleys in the Dead Sea watershed termed here "Valley Loess". The Valley Loess shows a distinct 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7081 ± 1, inherited from dissolved detrital calcites that originate from dried waterbodies in the Sahara and are transported with the dust to the entire transect. Our hydro-climate and synoptic conditions reconstruction illustrates the following history: During glacial period MIS6, Mediterranean cyclones governed the transport of Saharan dust and rains to the Dead Sea watershed, driving the development of both mountain soils and Valley Loess. Then, at Heinrich event 11, dry western winds blew Saharan dust over the entire Red Sea - Dead Sea transect marking latitudinal expansion of the desert belt. Later, when global sea-level rose, the Dead Sea watershed went through extreme aridity, the lake retreated, depositing salt and accumulating fine detritus of the Valley Loess. During peak interglacial MIS 5e, enhanced flooding activity flushed the mountain soils and fine detritus from all around the Dead Sea and Red Sea, marking a significant "contraction" of the desert belt

  9. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 24: SeaWiFS Technical Report Series Cumulative Index, Volumes 1-23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in 1995, on the SeaStar satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 23 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an errata, an addendum (summaries of various SeaWiFS Working Group Bio-optical Algorithm and Protocols Subgroups Workshops, and other auxiliary information), an index to key words and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is the editors' intention to publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes in the series. Each index covers the topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index will include all of the information contained in the preceding indices.

  10. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 24: SeaWiFS technical report series cumulative index, volumes 1-23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in 1995, on the SeaStar satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 23 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an errata, an addendum (summaries of various SeaWiFS Working Group Bio-optical Algorithm and Protocols Subgroups Workshops, and other auxiliary information), an index to key words and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is the editors' intention to publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes in the series. Each index covers the topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index will include all of the information contained in the preceeding indices.

  11. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 18: SeaWiFS technical report series cumulative index: Volumes 1-17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) which ceased operations in 1986 after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in 1995 on the SeaStar satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 17 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an errata, an addendum (summaries of various SeaWiFS Working Group Bio-optical Algorithm and Protocols Subgroups Workshops, and other auxiliary information), an index to key words and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is the editor's intention to publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes in the series. Each index covers the topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index includes all of the information contained in the preceding indices.

  12. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 12, SeaWiFS technical report series cumulative index: Volumes 1-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an 8-year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in 1994, on the SeaStar satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 11 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an errata, an addendum (a summary of the SeaWiFS Working Group Bio-optical Algorithm and Protocols Subgroups Workshops), an index to keywords and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is the editors' intention to publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes in the series. This will cover the topics published in all previous editions of the indices, that is, each new index will include all of the information contained in the preceding indices.

  13. Weather types in the South Shetlands (Antarctica) using a circulation type approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Carla; João Rocha, Maria; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel; Vieira, Gonçalo; Fragoso, Marcelo; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Weather types in the South Shetlands (Antarctica) were defined using an automated method based on the Lamb Weather Type classification scheme (Jones et al. 1993). This is an objective classification originally developed for the British Isles (Jones et al., 1993) and also applied to southeast (Goodess and Palutikof 1998) and northwest Spain (Lorenzo et al, 2009), Portugal (Trigo and DaCamara 2000) and Greece (Maheras et al. 2004) with good results. Daily atmospheric circulation in the South Shetlands region from 1989 to 2009 was classified using a 16-node grid of sea level pressure data from the ERA Interim. The classification is obtained through the comparison of the magnitudes of the directional and rotational components of the geostrophic flow. Basic circulation types were combined into 10 groups of weather types: four directional types (NW, N, S and SW), three anticyclonic types (A, ASW and ANW), and three cyclonic types (C, CSW and CNW). Westerly flow and cyclonic circulation are the most frequent events throughout the year. The sea level pressure field for each weather type is presented and the synoptic characteristics are described. The analysis is based on ERA-Interim fields, including mean sea level pressure, precipitation, cloud cover, humidity and air temperature. Snow thickess modelled using HTESSEL is also considered. Analysis of variance (anova) and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis) are applied to evaluate the characteristics of each weather type. This circulation-type approach showed good results in the past for the downscaling of precipitation in other regions, and we are interested in evaluating the possibilities that the classification offers for downscaling precipitation, but also for snow and air temperature. For this we will be using observational data at test sites in Livingston and Deception islands. We are also motivated by the possibility of using the circulation-type approach as a predictor in statistical downscaling

  14. Timing and regional patterns of snowmelt on Antarctic sea ice from passive microwave satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Stefanie; Willmes, Sascha; Dierking, Wolfgang; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    The better understanding of temporal variability and regional distribution of surface melt on Antarctic sea ice is crucial for the understanding of atmosphere-ocean interactions and the determination of mass and energy budgets of sea ice. Since large regions of Antarctic sea ice are covered with snow during most of the year, observed inter-annual and regional variations of surface melt mainly represents melt processes in the snow. It is therefore important to understand the mechanisms that drive snowmelt, both at different times of the year and in different regions around Antarctica. In this study we combine two approaches for observing both surface and volume snowmelt by means of passive microwave satellite data. The former is achieved by measuring diurnal differences of the brightness temperature TB at 37 GHz, the latter by analyzing the ratio TB(19GHz)/TB(37GHz). Moreover, we use both melt onset proxies to divide the Antarctic sea ice cover into characteristic surface melt patterns from 1988/89 to 2014/15. Our results indicate four characteristic melt types. On average, 43% of the ice-covered ocean shows diurnal freeze-thaw cycles in the surface snow layer, resulting in temporary melt (Type A), less than 1% shows continuous snowmelt throughout the snowpack, resulting in strong melt over a period of several days (Type B), 19% shows Type A and B taking place consecutively (Type C), and for 37% no melt is observed at all (Type D). Continuous melt is primarily observed in the outflow of the Weddell Gyre and in the northern Ross Sea, usually 20 days after the onset of temporary melt. Considering the entire data set, snowmelt processes and onset do not show significant temporal trends. Instead, areas of increasing (decreasing) sea-ice extent have longer (shorter) periods of continuous snowmelt.

  15. Isolation of Lacinutrix venerupis strains associated with disease outbreaks in sea bream Sparus aurata and European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    López, Jose R; Alcantara, Rafael; Lorenzo, Laura; Navas, J I

    2017-03-30

    Four Gram-negative bacterial isolates were recovered from 2 disease outbreaks that occurred in 2013 affecting European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax fry and sea bream Sparus aurata adults. Main symptoms were erratic swimming, eroded fins and, in the sea bream outbreak, haemorrhages on the body surface; bacteria were always recovered from internal organs, almost in pure culture. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were identified as Lacinutrix venerupis, a bacterium not previously reported as a fish pathogen. The highest 16S rDNA sequence similarities were recorded with the type strain of this species (99.9-100% similarity), while other species showed similarities below 97%, the closest relative being L. mariniflava (96.3% similarity). Phenotypic characterization showed some discrepancies with the L. venerupis type strain (mainly in BIOLOG GN profile); however, DNA-DNA hybridization assays with L. venerupis and L. mariniflava type strains confirmed that these isolates belong to the former species (levels of DNA relatedness were 98-100% and 38-50%, respectively). Finally, a virulence evaluation of the isolates using Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis fry was also performed; significant mortalities (80-100% mortality within 4 d) were recorded after intraperitoneal injection, but only with high doses of bacteria (107colony forming units fish-1). Further studies will be necessary to determine the importance of this species as a fish pathogen.

  16. Spume Drops: Their Potential Role in Air-Sea Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Edward C.; Staniec, Allison; Vlahos, Penny

    2017-12-01

    After summarizing the time scales defining the change of the physical properties of spume and other droplets cast up from the sea surface, the time scales governing drop-atmosphere gas exchange are compared. Following a broad review of the spume drop production functions described in the literature, a subset of these functions is selected via objective criteria, to represent typical, upper bound, and lower bound production functions. Three complementary mechanisms driving spume-atmosphere gas exchange are described, and one is then used to estimate the relative importance, over a broad range of wind speeds, of this spume drop mechanism compared to the conventional, diffusional, sea surface mechanism in air-sea gas exchange. While remaining uncertainties in the wind dependence of the spume drop production flux, and in the immediate sea surface gas flux, preclude a definitive conclusion, the findings of this study strongly suggest that, at high wind speeds (>20 m s-1 for dimethyl sulfide and >30 m s-1 for gases such a carbon dioxide), spume drops do make a significant contribution to air-sea gas exchange.type="synopsis">type</span>="main">Plain Language SummaryThis paper evaluates the existing spume drop generation functions available to date and selects a reasonable upper, lower and mid range function that are reasonable for use in air <span class="hlt">sea</span> exchange models. Based on these the contribution of spume drops to overall air <span class="hlt">sea</span> gas exchange at different wind speeds is then evaluated to determine the % contribution of spume. Generally below 20ms-1 spume drops contribute <1% of gas exchange but may account for a significant amount of gas exchange at higher wind speeds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JCli...18..160R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JCli...18..160R"><span>The Aleutian Low and Winter Climatic Conditions in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Part I: Classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodionov, S. N.; Overland, J. E.; Bond, N. A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Aleutian low is examined as a primary determinant of surface air temperature (SAT) variability in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during the winter (December-January-February-March (DJFM)) months. The Classification and Regression Tree (CART) method is used to classify five <span class="hlt">types</span> of atmospheric circulation for anomalously warm months (W1-W5) and cold months (C1-C5). For the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, changes in the position of the Aleutian low are shown to be more important than changes in its central pressure. The first two <span class="hlt">types</span>, W1 and C1, account for 51% of the "warm" and 37% of the "cold" months. The W1-<span class="hlt">type</span> pattern is characterized by the anomalously deep Aleutian low shifted west and north of its mean position. In this situation, an increased cyclonic activity occurs in the western Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The C1-<span class="hlt">type</span> pattern represents a split Aleutian low with one center in the northwestern Pacific and the other in the Gulf of Alaska. The relative frequency of the W1 to C1 <span class="hlt">types</span> of atmospheric circulation varies on decadal time scales, which helps to explain the predominance of fluctuations on these time scales in the weather of the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Previous work has noted the prominence of multidecadal variability in the North Pacific. The present study finds multidecadal variations in frequencies of the W3 and C3 patterns, both of which are characterized by increased cyclonic activity south of 51°N. In general, the CART method is found to be a suitable means for characterizing the wintertime atmospheric circulation of the North Pacific in terms of its impact on the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The results show that similar pressure anomaly patterns for the North Pacific as a whole can actually result in different conditions for the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and that similar weather conditions in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> can arise from decidedly different large-scale pressure patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92....1W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92....1W"><span>Tradition and Technology: <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Science on Inuit Sleds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilkinson, Jeremy P.; Hanson, Susanne; Hughes, Nick E.; James, Alistair; Jones, Bryn; MacKinnon, Rory; Rysgaard, Søren; Toudal, Leif</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Arctic is home to a circumpolar community of native people whose culture and traditions have enabled them to thrive in what most would perceive as a totally inhospitable and untenable environment. In many ways, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice can be viewed as the glue that binds these northern communities together; it is utilized in all aspects of their daily life. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice acts as highways of the north; indeed, one can travel on these highways with dogsleds and snowmobiles. These travels over the frozen ocean occur at all periods of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cycle and over different ice <span class="hlt">types</span> and ages. Excursions may be hunting trips to remote regions or social visits to nearby villages. Furthermore, hunting on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice contributes to the health, culture, and commercial income of a community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI..104....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI..104....1H"><span>Zooplankton trophic niches respond to different water <span class="hlt">types</span> of the western Tasman <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: A stable isotope analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henschke, Natasha; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.; Smith, James A.; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Doblin, Martina A.; Taylor, Matthew D.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The trophic relationships of 21 species from an oceanic zooplankton community were studied using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Zooplankton and suspended particulate organic matter (POM) were sampled in three different water <span class="hlt">types</span> in the western Tasman <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: inner shelf (IS), a cold core eddy (CCE) and a warm core eddy (WCE). δ15N values ranged from 3.9‰ for the parasitic copepod Sapphirina augusta to 10.2‰ for the euphausiid, Euphausia spinifera. δ13C varied from -22.6 to -19.4‰ as a result of the copepod Euchirella curticauda and E. spinifera. The isotopic composition of POM varied significantly among water <span class="hlt">types</span>; as did the trophic enrichment of zooplankton over POM, with the lowest enrichment in the recently upwelled IS water <span class="hlt">type</span> (0.5‰) compared to the warm core eddy (1.6‰) and cold core eddy (2.7‰). The WCE was an oligotrophic environment and was associated with an increased trophic level for omnivorous zooplankton (copepods and euphausiids) to a similar level as carnivorous zooplankton (chaetognaths). Therefore carnivory in zooplankton can increase in response to lower abundance and reduced diversity in their phytoplankton and protozoan prey. Trophic niche width comparisons across three zooplankton species: the salp Thalia democratica, the copepod Eucalanus elongatus and the euphausiid Thysanoessa gregaria, indicated that both niche partitioning and competition can occur within the zooplankton community. We have shown that trophic relationships among the zooplankton are dynamic and respond to different water <span class="hlt">types</span>. The changes to the zooplankton isotopic niche, however, were still highly variable as result of oceanographic variation within water <span class="hlt">types</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24943152','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24943152"><span>On the colour <span class="hlt">types</span> in Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914) and species composition of the subgenus Furcimanus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae: Lycodes) in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> of Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saveliev, Pavel A; Balanov, Andrey A; Kukhlevskii, Andrey D</p> <p>2014-05-30</p> <p>Two colour <span class="hlt">types</span> were revealed in a zoarcid fish of the subgenus Furcimanus, genus Lycodes, in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan. A comparison of morphometric, meristic and genetic characters in dark coloured and light coloured individuals suggests that the two colour morphs represent a single species, determined to be Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). Variability in colouration within L. nakamurae and a lack of morphological or molecular characters distinguishing L. nakamurae from L. nishimurai Shinohara & Shirai, 2005 suggest that the latter should be considered a synonym of L. nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). A record of L. pectoralis in the waters of the Republic of Korea is regarded as a misidentification. Thus, we conclude that only one species of the Lycodes subgenus Furcimanus, L. nakamurae, with dark and light colour morphs as well as specimens of intermediate colouration, inhabits the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA07822&hterms=Arabic&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DArabic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA07822&hterms=Arabic&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DArabic"><span>Northern Sand <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>[figure removed for brevity, see original site] <p/> Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand <span class="hlt">sea</span> and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand <span class="hlt">seas</span> on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand <span class="hlt">sea</span> differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand <span class="hlt">sea</span> has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. <p/> This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand <span class="hlt">seas</span>, it is very common for a single <span class="hlt">type</span> of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes. <p/> Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. <p/> Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. <p/> NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e000643.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e000643.html"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice in the Greenland <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-12-08</p> <p>As the northern hemisphere experiences the heat of summer, ice moves and melts in the Arctic waters and the far northern lands surrounding it. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice off Greenland on July 16, 2015. Large chunks of melting <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice can be seen in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice off the coast, and to the south spirals of ice have been shaped by the winds and currents that move across the Greenland <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Along the Greenland coast, cold, fresh melt water from the glaciers flows out to the <span class="hlt">sea</span>, as do newly calved icebergs. Frigid air from interior Greenland pushes the ice away from the shoreline, and the mixing of cold water and air allows some <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice to be sustained even at the height of summer. According to observations from satellites, 2015 is on track to be another low year for arctic summer <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover. The past ten years have included nine of the lowest ice extents on record. The annual minimum typically occurs in late August or early September. The amount of Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover has been dropping as global temperatures rise. The Arctic is two to three times more sensitive to temperature changes as the Earth as a whole. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989BoLMe..48..377G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989BoLMe..48..377G"><span>On the sensitivity of mesoscale models to surface-layer parameterization constants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>The Colorado State University standard mesoscale model is used to evaluate the sensitivity of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) fields to differences in surface-layer parameterization “constants”. Such differences reflect the range in the published values of the von Karman constant, Monin-Obukhov stability functions and the temperature roughness length at the surface. The sensitivity of 1D boundary-layer structure, and 2D <span class="hlt">sea-breeze</span> intensity, is generally less than that found in published comparisons related to turbulence closure schemes generally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4741W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4741W"><span>The installation of a sub <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor observatory using the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor drill rig MeBo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wefer, G.; Freudenthal, T.; Kopf, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> floor drill rigs that can be deployed from standard research vessels are bridging the gap between dedicated drill ships that are used for deep drillings in the range of several hundred meters below <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor and conventional sampling tools like gravity corers, piston corer or dredges that only scratch the surface of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor. A major advantage of such robotic drill rigs is that the drilling action is conducted from a stable platform at the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bed independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. At the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen we developed the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bed drill rig MeBo that can be deployed from standard research vessels. The drill rig is deployed on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor and controlled from the vessel. Drilling tools for coring the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor down to 70 m can be stored on two magazines on the rig. A steel-armoured umbilical is used for lowering the rig to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bed in water depths up to 2000 m in the present system configuration. It was successfully operated on ten expeditions since 2005 and drilled more than 1000 m in different <span class="hlt">types</span> of geology including hemipelagic mud, glacial till as well as sedimentary and crystalline rocks. MeBo boreholes be equipped with sensors and used for long term monitoring are planned. Depending on the scientific demands, a MeBoCORK monitoring system will allow in situ measurements of eg. temperature and pressure. The "MeBoCORK" will be equipped with data loggers and data transmission interface for reading out the collected data from the vessel. By additional payload installation on the MeBoCORK with an ROV it will be possible to increase the energy capacity as well as to conduct fluid sampling in the bore hole for geochemical analyses. It is planned to install a prototype of this additional payload with the MARUM ROV QUEST4000M during the following R/V SONNE cruise in July 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5771Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5771Z"><span>Phenolic compounds in Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the <span class="hlt">type</span> of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 <span class="hlt">sea</span> water samples collected during a 2012 Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> waters near Victoria Land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA126283','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA126283"><span>Marine Seismic System At-<span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Test Deployment Operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-10-09</p> <p>ton crane can handle deck loads. An early version Deloo <span class="hlt">type</span> ASK ( Automatic Stationkeeping) system is used to maintain position over a deployed short...b --- 00 - Ir RPT 006-007EV "A 126283 [ I iMIIE SEISMIC SYSTEM I AT-<span class="hlt">SEA</span>-TEST DEP OYiN OFERATION I GLOBAL MARINE DEVELOPMENT INC 2302 Martin Street...Seismic System At-<span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Test Deployment Operation 6. PERFORNING *o. REPORT NUMOER IPT 006-007 7. AUTNMORI) O. CONTRACT Ol GRANT NUMOERIa iR. Wallerstedt</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24880796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24880796"><span>The study of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> cephalopods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Perez, Jose Angel A; Bolstad, Kathrin S R; Braid, Heather E; Evans, Aaron B; Fuchs, Dirk; Judkins, Heather; Kelly, Jesse T; Marian, José E A R; Nakajima, Ryuta; Piatkowski, Uwe; Reid, Amanda; Vecchione, Michael; Xavier, José C C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>"Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span>" cephalopods are here defined as cephalopods that spend a significant part of their life cycles outside the euphotic zone. In this chapter, the state of knowledge in several aspects of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> cephalopod research are summarized, including information sources for these animals, diversity and general biogeography and life cycles, including reproduction. Recommendations are made for addressing some of the remaining knowledge deficiencies using a variety of traditional and more recently developed methods. The <span class="hlt">types</span> of oceanic gear that are suitable for collecting cephalopod specimens and images are reviewed. Many groups of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> cephalopods require taxonomic reviews, ideally based on both morphological and molecular characters. Museum collections play a vital role in these revisions, and novel (molecular) techniques may facilitate new use of old museum specimens. Fundamental life-cycle parameters remain unknown for many species; techniques developed for neritic species that could potentially be applied to deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> cephalopods are discussed. Reproductive tactics and strategies in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> cephalopods are very diverse and call for comparative evolutionary and experimental studies, but even in the twenty-first century, mature individuals are still unknown for many species. New insights into diet and trophic position have begun to reveal a more diverse range of feeding strategies than the typically voracious predatory lifestyle known for many cephalopods. Regular standardized deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> cephalopod surveys are necessary to provide insight into temporal changes in oceanic cephalopod populations and to forecast, verify and monitor the impacts of global marine changes and human impacts on these populations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990084033&hterms=divergent+series&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddivergent%2Bseries','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990084033&hterms=divergent+series&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddivergent%2Bseries"><span>C-Band Backscatter Measurements of Winter <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Ice in the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Drinkwater, M. R.; Hosseinmostafa, R.; Gogineni, P.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>During the 1992 Winter Weddell Gyre Study, a C-band scatterometer was used from the German ice-breaker R/V Polarstern to obtain detailed shipborne measurement scans of Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice. The frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) radar operated at 4-3 GHz and acquired like- (VV) and cross polarization (HV) data at a variety of incidence angles (10-75 deg). Calibrated backscatter data were recorded for several ice <span class="hlt">types</span> as the icebreaker crossed the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and detailed measurements were made of corresponding snow and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice characteristics at each measurement site, together with meteorological information, radiation budget and oceanographic data. The primary scattering contributions under cold winter conditions arise from the air/snow and snow/ice interfaces. Observations indicate so e similarities with Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice scattering signatures, although the main difference is generally lower mean backscattering coefficients in the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. This is due to the younger mean ice age and thickness, and correspondingly higher mean salinities. In particular, smooth white ice found in 1992 in divergent areas within the Weddell Gyre ice pack was generally extremely smooth and undeformed. Comparisons of field scatterometer data with calibrated 20-26 deg incidence ERS-1 radar image data show close correspondence, and indicate that rough Antarctic first-year and older second-year ice forms do not produce as distinctively different scattering signatures as observed in the Arctic. Thick deformed first-year and second-year ice on the other hand are clearly discriminated from younger undeformed ice. thereby allowing successful separation of thick and thin ice. Time-series data also indicate that C-band is sensitive to changes in snow and ice conditions resulting from atmospheric and oceanographic forcing and the local heat flux environment. Variations of several dB in 45 deg incidence backscatter occur in response to a combination of thermally-regulated parameters</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSD....6..367L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSD....6..367L"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> - revisiting BASIS ice, a historical data set covering the period 1960/1961-1978/1979</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Löptien, U.; Dietze, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a seasonally ice-covered, marginal <span class="hlt">sea</span> in central northern Europe. It is an essential waterway connecting highly industrialised countries. Because ship traffic is intermittently hindered by <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, the local weather services have been monitoring <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions for decades. In the present study we revisit a historical monitoring data set, covering the winters 1960/1961 to 1978/1979. This data set, dubbed Data Bank for Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperatures (BASIS) ice, is based on hand-drawn maps that were collected and then digitised in 1981 in a joint project of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research (today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). BASIS ice was designed for storage on punch cards and all ice information is encoded by five digits. This makes the data hard to access. Here we present a post-processed product based on the original five-digit code. Specifically, we convert to standard ice quantities (including information on ice <span class="hlt">types</span>), which we distribute in the current and free Network Common Data Format (NetCDF). Our post-processed data set will help to assess numerical ice models and provide easy-to-access unique historical reference material for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. In addition we provide statistics showcasing the data quality. The website http://www.baltic-ocean.org hosts the post-processed data and the conversion code. The data are also archived at the Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science, PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.832353).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS31C1297H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS31C1297H"><span>Transient sensitivities of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice export through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago inferred from a coupled ocean/<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice adjoint model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heimbach, P.; Losch, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Campin, J.; Hill, C.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The sensitivity of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice export through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), measured in terms of its solid freshwater export through Lancaster Sound, to changes in various elements of the ocean and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice state, and to elements of the atmospheric forcing fields through time and space is assessed by means of a coupled ocean/<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice adjoint model. The adjoint model furnishes full spatial sensitivity maps (also known as Lagrange multipliers) of the export metric to a variety of model variables at any chosen point in time, providing the unique capability to quantify major drivers of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice export variability. The underlying model is the MIT ocean general circulation model (MITgcm), which is coupled to a Hibler-<span class="hlt">type</span> dynamic/thermodynamic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice model. The configuration is based on the Arctic face of the ECCO3 high-resolution cubed-sphere model, but coarsened to 36-km horizontal grid spacing. The adjoint of the coupled system has been derived by means of automatic differentiation using the software tool TAF. Finite perturbation simulations are performed to check the information provided by the adjoint. The <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice model's performance in the presence of narrow straits is assessed with different <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice lateral boundary conditions. The adjoint sensitivity clearly exposes the role of the model trajectory and the transient nature of the problem. The complex interplay between forcing, dynamics, and boundary condition is demonstrated in the comparison between the different calculations. The study is a step towards fully coupled adjoint-based ocean/<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice state estimation at basin to global scales as part of the ECCO efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol12-sec648-11.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol12-sec648-11.pdf"><span>50 CFR 648.11 - At-<span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> sampler/observer coverage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false At-<span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> sampler/observer coverage. 648... Provisions § 648.11 At-<span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> sampler/observer coverage. (a) The Regional Administrator may request any vessel holding a permit for Atlantic <span class="hlt">sea</span> scallops, NE multispecies, monkfish, skates, Atlantic mackerel...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41E0101Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41E0101Z"><span>The Impact of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature Front on Stratus-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Fog over the Yellow and East China <span class="hlt">Seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, S.; Li, M.; Liu, F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A stratus-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fog event occurred on 3 June 2011 over the Yellow and East China <span class="hlt">Seas</span> (as shown in figure) is investigated observationally and numerically. Emphasis is put on the influences of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature front (SSTF) and of the synoptic circulations on the transition of stratus to <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog. The southerly winds from a synoptic high pressure transport water vapor from the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, while the subsidence induced by the high contributes to the formation of the temperature inversion on the top of the stratus or stratocumulus that appears mainly over the warm flank of a <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature front in the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Forced by the SSTF, there is a secondary cell within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), with a sinking branch on the cold flank and a rising one on the warm flank of the SSTF. This sinking branch, in phase with the synoptic subsidence, forces the stratus or stratocumulus to lower in the elevation getting close to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface as these clouds move northward driven by the southerly winds. The cloud droplets can either reach to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface directly or evaporate into water vapor that may condense again when coming close to the cold <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface to form fog. In this later case, the stratus and fog may separate. The cooling effect of cold <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface counteracts the adiabatic heating induced by the subsidence and thus helps the transition of stratus to <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog in the southern Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. By smoothing the SSTF in the numerical experiment, the secondary cell weakens and the <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog patches shrink obviously over the cold flank of the SSTF though the synoptic subsidence and moist advection still exist. A conceptual model is suggested for the transition of stratus to <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog in the Yellow and East China <span class="hlt">Seas</span>, which is helpful for the forecast of <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog over these areas. The satellite visible image of the stratus-fog event. The fog appears in the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the stratocumulus in the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e000781.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e000781.html"><span>The Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> [high res</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-02-27</p> <p>Remote sensing of ocean color in the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> can be a challenge. Phytoplankton, suspended sediments, and dissolved organic matter color the water while various <span class="hlt">types</span> of aerosols modify those colors before they are "seen" by orbiting radiometers. The Aqua-MODIS data used to create the above image were collected on February 24, 2015. NASA's OceanColor Web is supported by the Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Our responsibilities include the collection, processing, calibration, validation, archive and distribution of ocean-related products from a large number of operational, satellite-based remote-sensing missions providing ocean color, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface salinity data to the international research community since 1996. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Ocean Color NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822330"><span>Heavy metals in fish from the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Arabian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and Indian Ocean: effect of origin, fish species and size and correlation among the metals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Obaidat, Mohammad M; Massadeh, Adnan M; Al-Athamneh, Ahmad M; Jaradat, Qasem M</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study determined the levels of As, Cu, Pb, and Cd in fish from Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Arabian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and Indian Ocean by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal levels were compared with international standards. The levels among fish <span class="hlt">types</span> and origin, the relationship among metals, and the correlation between the levels and fish size were statistically tested. Fish <span class="hlt">type</span> and origin significantly affected the levels. None of the fish contained As, Cu, and Pb above the FAO and EU codes. However, Cd exceeded the Jordanian, FAO, and EC codes from the three origins. As and Cd positively correlated with each other in Arabian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> fish. As and Pb correlated negatively, but Cu and Cd did not correlate with fish size. This study indicates that Cd is common in fish from the three origins regardless the fish size. This warrants continuous monitoring for heavy metals, especially Cd, in internationally traded fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28667427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28667427"><span>Variation of Synechococcus Pigment Genetic Diversity Along Two Turbidity Gradients in the China <span class="hlt">Seas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xia, Xiaomin; Liu, Hongbin; Choi, Donghan; Noh, Jae Hoon</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Synechococcus are important and widely distributed picocyanobacteria that encompass a high pigment diversity. In this study, we developed a primer set (peBF/peAR) for amplifying the cpeBA operon sequence from Synechococcus genomic DNA to study Synechococcus pigment diversity along two turbidity gradients in the China <span class="hlt">seas</span>. Our data revealed that all previously reported pigment <span class="hlt">types</span> occurred in the South (SCS) and East (ECS) China <span class="hlt">Seas</span>. In addition, a novel pigment genetic <span class="hlt">type</span> (<span class="hlt">type</span> 3f), represented by the high phycourobilin Synechococcus sp. strain KORDI-100 (Exc495:545 = 2.35), was detected. This pigment genetic <span class="hlt">type</span> differs from the 3c/3d <span class="hlt">types</span> not only for a very high PUB/PEB ratio but also for a different intergenic spacer sequence and gene organization of the phycobilisome. Synechococcus of different pigment <span class="hlt">types</span> exhibited clear niche differentiation. <span class="hlt">Type</span> 2 dominated in the coastal waters, whereas <span class="hlt">type</span> 3c/3d and 3f were predominant in oceanic waters of the SCS in summer. In the ECS, however, <span class="hlt">type</span> 3a was the major pigment <span class="hlt">type</span> throughout the transect. We suggest that in marine environment, various pigment <span class="hlt">types</span> often co-occur but with one <span class="hlt">type</span> dominant and PUB/PEB ratio is related to geographic distribution of Synechococcus pigment <span class="hlt">types</span>. The two marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> of China have markedly different Synechococcus pigment compositions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002288&hterms=moderating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmoderating','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002288&hterms=moderating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmoderating"><span>Ice in Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Kazakhstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In this MODIS image from December 3, 2001, winter <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) <span class="hlt">Seas</span>. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> averages only 17 ft in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18o F, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> continue to be diverted for agriculture, the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22246885-social-values-risk-from-sea-level-rise','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22246885-social-values-risk-from-sea-level-rise"><span>The social values at risk from <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graham, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.graham@unimelb.edu.au; Barnett, Jon, E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au; Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: r.fincher@unimelb.edu.au</p> <p></p> <p>Analysis of the risks of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values frommore » within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five <span class="hlt">types</span>: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise or <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise policies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10..401F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10..401F"><span>Late-summer <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice segmentation with multi-polarisation SAR features in C and X band</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fors, Ane S.; Brekke, Camilla; Doulgeris, Anthony P.; Eltoft, Torbjørn; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Gerland, Sebastian</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigate the potential of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice segmentation by C- and X-band multi-polarisation synthetic aperture radar (SAR) features during late summer. Five high-resolution satellite SAR scenes were recorded in the Fram Strait covering iceberg-fast first-year and old <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice during a week with air temperatures varying around 0 °C. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice thickness, surface roughness and aerial photographs were collected during a helicopter flight at the site. Six polarimetric SAR features were extracted for each of the scenes. The ability of the individual SAR features to discriminate between <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">types</span> and their temporal consistency were examined. All SAR features were found to add value to <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">type</span> discrimination. Relative kurtosis, geometric brightness, cross-polarisation ratio and co-polarisation correlation angle were found to be temporally consistent in the investigated period, while co-polarisation ratio and co-polarisation correlation magnitude were found to be temporally inconsistent. An automatic feature-based segmentation algorithm was tested both for a full SAR feature set and for a reduced SAR feature set limited to temporally consistent features. In C band, the algorithm produced a good late-summer <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice segmentation, separating the scenes into segments that could be associated with different <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">types</span> in the next step. The X-band performance was slightly poorer. Excluding temporally inconsistent SAR features improved the segmentation in one of the X-band scenes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/22702','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/22702"><span>South Dakota rangelands: More than a <span class="hlt">sea</span> of grass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>F. Robert Gartner; Carolyn Hull Sieg</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Presettlement explorers described the region’s landscape as a “<span class="hlt">sea</span> of grass.” Yet, this “<span class="hlt">sea</span>” was quite varied, and included a wealth of less obvious forested communities. Both physiographic and climatic gradients across the state of South Dakota contributed to the development of variable vegetation <span class="hlt">types</span> of South Dakota. The diverse flora truly identifies the state as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/127635-petroleum-geology-azov-black-sea-region','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/127635-petroleum-geology-azov-black-sea-region"><span>Petroleum geology of Azov-Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lukin, A.; Trofimenko, G.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>The main features of tectonics, stratigraphy, paleogeography, lithology, hydrogeology, geothermics and hydrocarbon-bearingness of Azov-Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Region are characterized on the basis of present-day data. Among the most prospective petroliferous complexes one ought to mention: Paleozoic (S - D - C{sub 1}) of Near-Dobrudga foredeep, Triassic - Jurassic of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (shelf and continental slope); Lower Cretaceous of the various parts of the Region; Upper Cretaceous of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf; Paleocene-Eocene of Azov <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. In addition certain prospects are connected with Precambrian and Paleozoic basements within conjunction zone between Eastern-Europe platform and Scythian plate. Geodynamic evolution of the Regionmore » is considered with determination of tension and compression stages and characteristic of the main regularities of diapirs, mud volcanos, swells, horsts and grabens distribution. There determined the most interesting <span class="hlt">types</span> of hydrocarbon traps connected with various tectonic forms, river and deltaic channels, bars, conturites, carbonate reefs, etc. Paleogeothermic and paleogeodynamic reconstructions allow to determine the main phases of oil and gas accumulation. The most prospective oil-gas-bearing zones and areas are mapped.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000020926','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000020926"><span>Rainfall Morphology in Semi-Tropical Convergence Zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shepherd, J. Marshall; Ferrier, Brad S.; Ray, Peter S.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Central Florida is the ideal test laboratory for studying convergence zone-induced convection. The region regularly experiences <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breeze</span> fronts and rainfall-induced outflow boundaries. The focus of this study is the common yet poorly-studied convergence zone established by the interaction of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breeze</span> front and an outflow boundary. Previous studies have investigated mechanisms primarily affecting storm initiation by such convergence zones. Few have focused on rainfall morphology yet these storms contribute a significant amount precipitation to the annual rainfall budget. Low-level convergence and mid-tropospheric moisture have both been shown to correlate with rainfall amounts in Florida. Using 2D and 3D numerical simulations, the roles of low-level convergence and mid-tropospheric moisture in rainfall evolution are examined. The results indicate that time-averaged, vertical moisture flux (VMF) at the <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breeze</span> front/outflow convergence zone is directly and linearly proportional to initial condensation rates. This proportionality establishes a similar relationship between VMF and initial rainfall. Vertical moisture flux, which encompasses depth and magnitude of convergence, is better correlated to initial rainfall production than surface moisture convergence. This extends early observational studies which linked rainfall in Florida to surface moisture convergence. The amount and distribution of mid-tropospheric moisture determines how rainfall associated with secondary cells develop. Rainfall amount and efficiency varied significantly over an observable range of relative humidities in the 850- 500 mb layer even though rainfall evolution was similar during the initial or "first-cell" period. Rainfall variability was attributed to drier mid-tropospheric environments inhibiting secondary cell development through entrainment effects. Observationally, 850-500 mb moisture structure exhibits wider variability than lower level moisture, which is virtually always</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ACP....18.3119M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ACP....18.3119M"><span>Aerosol-cloud interactions in mixed-phase convective clouds - Part 1: Aerosol perturbations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miltenberger, Annette K.; Field, Paul R.; Hill, Adrian A.; Rosenberg, Phil; Shipway, Ben J.; Wilkinson, Jonathan M.; Scovell, Robert; Blyth, Alan M.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Changes induced by perturbed aerosol conditions in moderately deep mixed-phase convective clouds (cloud top height ˜ 5 km) developing along <span class="hlt">sea-breeze</span> convergence lines are investigated with high-resolution numerical model simulations. The simulations utilise the newly developed Cloud-AeroSol Interacting Microphysics (CASIM) module for the Unified Model (UM), which allows for the representation of the two-way interaction between cloud and aerosol fields. Simulations are evaluated against observations collected during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) field campaign over the southwestern peninsula of the UK in 2013. The simulations compare favourably with observed thermodynamic profiles, cloud base cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC), cloud depth, and radar reflectivity statistics. Including the modification of aerosol fields by cloud microphysical processes improves the correspondence with observed CDNC values and spatial variability, but reduces the agreement with observations for average cloud size and cloud top height. Accumulated precipitation is suppressed for higher-aerosol conditions before clouds become organised along the <span class="hlt">sea-breeze</span> convergence lines. Changes in precipitation are smaller in simulations with aerosol processing. The precipitation suppression is due to less efficient precipitation production by warm-phase microphysics, consistent with parcel model predictions. In contrast, after convective cells organise along the <span class="hlt">sea-breeze</span> convergence zone, accumulated precipitation increases with aerosol concentrations. Condensate production increases with the aerosol concentrations due to higher vertical velocities in the convective cores and higher cloud top heights. However, for the highest-aerosol scenarios, no further increase in the condensate production occurs, as clouds grow into an upper-level stable layer. In these cases, the reduced precipitation efficiency (PE) dominates the precipitation response and no further</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840048826&hterms=invertebrates&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dinvertebrates','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840048826&hterms=invertebrates&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dinvertebrates"><span>Major determinants of the biogeographic pattern of the shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fauna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Valentine, J. W.; Jablonski, D.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The benthic shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> is defined as the region of <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor lying between the supralittoral zone at the shoreline and the impingement of the thermocline separating a warm shallow and variable portion of the water column from rather homogeneous and constant cooler waters beneath. Three <span class="hlt">types</span> of shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> provinces can be recognized: (1) one-dimensional, linear shelves; (2) two-dimensional shelves; and (3) scattered islands in two-dimensional arrays. Dispersal powers of marine invertebrates vary with developmental mode, and patterns of dispersal, endemism and speciation vary among the different provincial <span class="hlt">types</span>. Invertebrate developmental modes vary systematically with geography, and presumably are adaptive to environmental conditions. Clades with only a single mode of development tend to be restricted to regions appropriate to that mode, significantly affecting their biogeographic patterns. The consequences of geographic and other environmental changes are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174403','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174403"><span>Processes contributing to resilience of coastal wetlands to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cormier, Nicole; Conner, William H.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to identify processes that contribute to resilience of coastal wetlands subject to rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels and to determine whether the relative contribution of these processes varies across different wetland community <span class="hlt">types</span>. We assessed the resilience of wetlands to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise along a transitional gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW) to marsh by measuring processes controlling wetland elevation. We found that, over 5 years of measurement, TFFWs were resilient, although some marginally, and oligohaline marshes exhibited robust resilience to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. We identified fundamental differences in how resilience is maintained across wetland community <span class="hlt">types</span>, which have important implications for management activities that aim to restore or conserve resilient systems. We showed that the relative importance of surface and subsurface processes in controlling wetland surface elevation change differed between TFFWs and oligohaline marshes. The marshes had significantly higher rates of surface accretion than the TFFWs, and in the marshes, surface accretion was the primary contributor to elevation change. In contrast, elevation change in TFFWs was more heavily influenced by subsurface processes, such as root zone expansion or compaction, which played an important role in determining resilience of TFFWs to rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. When root zone contributions were removed statistically from comparisons between relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and surface elevation change, sites that previously had elevation rate deficits showed a surplus. Therefore, assessments of wetland resilience that do not include subsurface processes will likely misjudge vulnerability to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811317S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811317S"><span>Observational study of atmospheric surface layer and coastal weather in northern Qatar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Sadr, Reza</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric surface layer is the interaction medium between atmosphere and Earth's surface. Better understanding of its turbulence nature is essential in characterizing the local weather, climate variability and modeling of turbulent exchange processes. The importance of Middle East region, with its unique geographical, economical and weather condition is well recognized. However, high quality micrometeorological observational studies are rare in this region. Here we show experimental results from micrometeorological observations from an experimental site in the coastal region of Qatar during August-December 2015. Measurements of winds are obtained from three sonic anemometers installed on a 9 m tower placed at Al Ghariyah beach in northern Qatar (26.08 °N, 51.36 °E). Different surface layer characteristics is analyzed and compared with earlier studies in equivalent weather conditions. Monthly statistics of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and heat index are made from concurrent observations from sonic anemometer and weather station to explore variations with surface layer characteristics. The results also highlights potential impact of <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breeze</span> circulation on local weather and atmospheric turbulence. The observed daily maximum temperature and heat index during morning period may be related to <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breeze</span> circulations. Along with the operational micrometeorological observation system, a camera system and ultrasonic wave measurement system are installed recently in the site to study coastline development and nearshore wave dynamics. Overall, the complete observational set up is going to provide new insights about nearshore wind dynamics and wind-wave interaction in Qatar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010072241','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010072241"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series Cumulative Index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (<span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, onboard the OrbView-2 satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. The start of this documentation was titled the <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS Technical Report Series, which ended after 43 volumes were published. A follow-on series was started, titled the <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. This particular volume of the so-called "Postlaunch Series" serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 11 volumes and consists of 5 sections including an errata, an addendum, an index to key words and phrases, a list of acronyms used, and a list of all references cited. The editors will publish a cumulative index of this <span class="hlt">type</span> after every five volumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018FrEaS...6...22J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018FrEaS...6...22J"><span>Organic matter controls of iron incorporation in growing <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janssens, Julie; Meiners, Klaus M.; Townsend, Ashley T.; Lannuzel, Delphine</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>This study presents the first laboratory-controlled <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice growth experiment conducted under trace metal clean conditions. The role played by organic matter, in the incorporation of iron (Fe) into <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice was investigated by means of laboratory ice-growth experiments using a titanium cold-finger apparatus. Experiments were also conducted to understand the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the enrichment of ammonium in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice was grown from several seawater solutions containing different quantities and qualities of particulate Fe (PFe), dissolved Fe (DFe) and organic matter. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice and seawater were analyzed for particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, macro-nutrients, extracellular EPS, PFe and DFe, and particulate aluminium. The experiments showed that biogenic PFe is preferentially incorporated into <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice compared to lithogenic PFe. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice grown from ultra-violet (UV) and non-UV treated seawaters exhibits contrasting incorporation rates of organic matter and Fe. Whereas the effects of UV-treatments were not always significant, we do find indications that the <span class="hlt">type</span> or organic matter controls the enrichment of Fe in forming <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice.. Specifically, we come to the conclusion that the incorporation of DFe is favored by the presence of organic ligands in the source solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048953"><span>Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in <span class="hlt">sea</span> anemones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Ozbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael</p> <p>2012-04-07</p> <p>Jellyfish, hydras, corals and <span class="hlt">sea</span> anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent <span class="hlt">Type</span> I neurotoxin of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in <span class="hlt">sea</span> water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, <span class="hlt">Type</span> I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, <span class="hlt">Type</span> I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of <span class="hlt">sea</span> anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that <span class="hlt">sea</span> anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in <span class="hlt">sea</span> anemones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e001969.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e001969.html"><span>Phytoplankton Bloom in the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> [Detail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-12-08</p> <p>NASA image acquired August 31, 2010 To see the full view of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4970549945 In this natural-color image from August 31, 2010, the ocean’s canvas swirls with turquoise, teal, navy, and green, the abstract art of the natural world. The colors were painted by a massive phytoplankton bloom made up of millions of tiny, light-reflecting organisms growing in the sunlit surface waters of the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Such blooms peak every August in the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The variations in color are caused by different species and concentrations of phytoplankton. The bright blue colors are probably from coccolithophores, a <span class="hlt">type</span> of phytoplankton that is coated in a chalky shell that reflects light, turning the ocean a milky turquoise. Coccolithophores dominate the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in August. Shades of green are likely from diatoms, another <span class="hlt">type</span> of phytoplankton. Diatoms usually dominate the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> earlier in the year, giving way to coccolithophores in the late summer. However, field measurements of previous August blooms have also turned up high concentrations of diatoms. The Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a shallow <span class="hlt">sea</span> sandwiched between the coastline of northern Russia and Scandinavia and the islands of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaya Zemlya. Within the shallow basin, currents carrying warm, salty water from the Atlantic collide with currents carrying cold, fresher water from the Arctic. During the winter, strong winds drive the currents and mix the waters. When winter’s <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice retreats and light returns in the spring, diatoms thrive, typically peaking in a large bloom in late May. The shift between diatoms and coccolithophores occurs as the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> changes during the summer months. Throughout summer, perpetual light falls on the waters, gradually warming the surface. Eventually, the ocean stratifies into layers, with warm water sitting on top of cooler water. The diatoms deplete most of the nutrients in the surface waters and stop growing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10.3105P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10.3105P"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span>-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice model setup for the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pemberton, Per; Löptien, Ulrike; Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Haapala, Jari</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a seasonally ice-covered marginal <span class="hlt">sea</span> in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice component of a new NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice setup for the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region (NEMO-Nordic). The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961-2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, which compares reasonably well with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12405219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12405219"><span>Long-term changes in the <span class="hlt">type</span>, but not amount, of ingested plastic particles in short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vlietstra, Lucy S; Parga, Joyce A</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>We report the current (1997-1999, 2001) incidence and amount of ingested plastic in short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) in the southeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and compare our results with plastic reported in shearwaters during 1970-1978. We also examine correlations between plastic loads and shearwater body mass. We found that 84% (N = 330) of shearwaters sampled in 1997-1999 and 2001 contained plastic. The incidence and amount of ingested plastic have not significantly changed since the 1970s. In contrast, the predominant <span class="hlt">type</span> of plastic has changed over time, from industrial plastic to user plastic. S,asonal patterns in the incidence and amount of ingested plastic also changed from peak levels during early and late summer in the 1970s to mid summer in the late 1990s and 2001. We suggest that the availability of neuston plastic to seabirds in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> has undergone a shift in composition since the 1970s. Shearwater body mass appears little if at all impaired by plastic, at least at present levels of consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSDD...7..419L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSDD...7..419L"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> - revisiting BASIS ice, a~historical data set covering the period 1960/1961-1978/1979</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Löptien, U.; Dietze, H.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a seasonally ice-covered, marginal <span class="hlt">sea</span>, situated in central northern Europe. It is an essential waterway connecting highly industrialised countries. Because ship traffic is intermittently hindered by <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, the local weather services have been monitoring <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions for decades. In the present study we revisit a historical monitoring data set, covering the winters 1960/1961. This data set, dubbed Data Bank for Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperatures (BASIS) ice, is based on hand-drawn maps that were collected and then digitised 1981 in a joint project of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research (today Finish Meteorological Institute (FMI)) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). BASIS ice was designed for storage on punch cards and all ice information is encoded by five digits. This makes the data hard to access. Here we present a post-processed product based on the original five-digit code. Specifically, we convert to standard ice quantities (including information on ice <span class="hlt">types</span>), which we distribute in the current and free Network Common Data Format (NetCDF). Our post-processed data set will help to assess numerical ice models and provide easy-to-access unique historical reference material for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. In addition we provide statistics showcasing the data quality. The website <a href="www.baltic-ocean.org"target="_blank">www.baltic-ocean.org<a/> hosts the post-prossed data and the conversion code. The data are also archived at the Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science PANGEA (<a href="http://dx.doi.org/"target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGEA.832353<a/>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29322036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29322036"><span>MHC Class II Activation and Interferon-γ Mediate the Inhibition of Neutrophils and Eosinophils by Staphylococcal Enterotoxin <span class="hlt">Type</span> A (<span class="hlt">SEA</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferreira-Duarte, Ana P; Pinheiro-Torres, Anelize S; Anhê, Gabriel F; Condino-Neto, Antônio; Antunes, Edson; DeSouza, Ivani A</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Staphylococcal enterotoxins are classified as superantigens that act by linking T-cell receptor with MHC class II molecules, which are expressed on classical antigen-presenting cells (APC). Evidence shows that MHC class II is also expressed in neutrophils and eosinophils. This study aimed to investigate the role of MHC class II and IFN-γ on chemotactic and adhesion properties of neutrophils and eosinophils after incubation with <span class="hlt">SEA</span>. Bone marrow (BM) cells obtained from BALB/c mice were resuspended in culture medium, and incubated with <span class="hlt">SEA</span> (3-30 ng/ml; 1-4 h), after which chemotaxis and adhesion were evaluated. Incubation with <span class="hlt">SEA</span> significantly reduced the chemotactic and adhesive responses in BM neutrophils activated with IL-8 (200 ng/ml). Likewise, <span class="hlt">SEA</span> significantly reduced the chemotactic and adhesive responses of BM eosinophils activated with eotaxin (300 ng/ml). The inhibitory effects of <span class="hlt">SEA</span> on cell chemotaxis and adhesion were fully prevented by prior incubation with an anti-MHC class II blocking antibody (2 μg/ml). <span class="hlt">SEA</span> also significantly reduced the intracellular Ca 2+ levels in IL-8- and eotaxin-activated BM cells. No alterations of MAC-1, VLA4, and LFA-1α expressions were observed after <span class="hlt">SEA</span> incubation. In addition, <span class="hlt">SEA</span> elevated by 3.5-fold ( P < 0.05) the INF-γ levels in BM cells. Incubation of BM leukocytes with IFN-γ (10 ng/ml, 2 h) reduced both neutrophil and eosinophil chemotaxis and adhesion, which were prevented by prior incubation with anti-MHC class II antibody (2 μg/ml). In conclusion, <span class="hlt">SEA</span> inhibits neutrophil and eosinophil by MHC class II-dependent mechanism, which may be modulated by concomitant release of IFN-γ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.703E..23K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.703E..23K"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Salt Aerosol Forecasts Compared with Wave and <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Salt Measurements in the Open Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kishcha, P.; Starobinets, B.; Bozzano, R.; Pensieri, S.; Canepa, E.; Nickovie, S.; di Sarra, A.; Udisti, R.; Becagli, S.; Alpert, P.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span>-salt aerosol (SSA) could influence the Earth's climate acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, there were no regular measurements of SSA in the open <span class="hlt">sea</span>. At Tel-Aviv University, the DREAM-Salt prediction system has been producing daily forecasts of 3-D distribution of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-salt aerosol concentrations over the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (http://wind.tau.ac.il/saltina/ salt.html). In order to evaluate the model performance in the open <span class="hlt">sea</span>, daily modeled concentrations were compared directly with SSA measurements taken at the tiny island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean. In order to further test the robustness of the model, the model performance over the open <span class="hlt">sea</span> was indirectly verified by comparing modeled SSA concentrations with wave height measurements collected by the ODAS Italia 1 buoy and the Llobregat buoy. Model-vs.-measurement comparisons show that the model is capable of producing realistic SSA concentrations and their day-today variations over the open <span class="hlt">sea</span>, in accordance with observed wave height and wind speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017680','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017680"><span>Contrasts in Arctic shelf <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice regimes and some implications: Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> versus Laptev <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reimnitz, E.; Dethleff, D.; Nurnberg, D.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The winter ice-regime of the 500 km) from the mainland than in the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. As a result, the annual freeze-up does not incorporate old, deep-draft ice, and with a lack of compression, such deep-draft ice is not generated in situ, as on the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf. The Laptev <span class="hlt">Sea</span> has as much as 1000 km of fetch at the end of summer, when freezing storms move in and large (6 m) waves can form. Also, for the first three winter months, the polynya lies inshore at a water depth of only 10 m. Turbulence and freezing are excellent conditions for sediment entrainment by frazil and anchor ice, when compared to conditions in the short-fetched Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. We expect entrainment to occur yearly. Different from the intensely ice-gouged Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf, hydraulic bedforms probably dominate in the Laptev <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Corresponding with the large volume of ice produced, more dense water is generated in the Laptev <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, possibly accompanied by downslope sediment transport. Thermohaline convection at the midshelf polynya, together with the reduced rate of bottom disruption by ice keels, may enhance benthic productivity and permit establishment of open-shelf benthic communities which in the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> can thrive only in the protection of barrier islands. Indirect evidence for high benthic productivity is found in the presence of walrus, who also require year-round open water. By contrast, lack of a suitable environment restricts walrus from the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, although over 700 km farther to the south. We could speculate on other consequences of the different ice regimes in the Beaufort and Laptev <span class="hlt">Seas</span>, but these few examples serve to point out the dangers of exptrapolating from knowledge gained in the North American Arctic to other shallow Arctic shelf settings. ?? 1994.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA123890','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA123890"><span>Air Quality Procedures for Civilian Airports and Air Force Bases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-12-01</p> <p>s) - phase j (s) 6. aact approach INO a. P Propotion of Vehicles thate ftop. 6. i, rwlash of veh..iclaes -ha -w -per 7 Ni ~Averiq. ow-o o.vecls funn...light winlolowing from land to a large body of water at night due to temperature differences between land and water. I--. Lead This is a heavy metal...8217 . . ... ’•’. , ’ ’. -. . . . .i. .i .i -’’ <span class="hlt">Sea</span> <span class="hlt">Breeze</span> A light wind blowing from a large body of water to surrounding land areas during the day due to temperature differences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750005334','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750005334"><span>Downwind hazard calculations for space shuttle launches at Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg Air Force Base</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susko, M.; Hill, C. K.; Kaufman, J. W.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The quantitative estimates are presented of pollutant concentrations associated with the emission of the major combustion products (HCl, CO, and Al2O3) to the lower atmosphere during normal launches of the space shuttle. The NASA/MSFC Multilayer Diffusion Model was used to obtain these calculations. Results are presented for nine sets of typical meteorological conditions at Kennedy Space Center, including fall, spring, and a <span class="hlt">sea-breeze</span> condition, and six sets at Vandenberg AFB. In none of the selected typical meteorological regimes studied was a 10-min limit of 4 ppm exceeded.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3973276','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3973276"><span>Pelagic <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes dehydrate at <span class="hlt">sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic <span class="hlt">sea</span> snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at <span class="hlt">sea</span> and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at <span class="hlt">sea</span> where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001375&hterms=moderating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmoderating','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001375&hterms=moderating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmoderating"><span>Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In this Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from December 3, 2001, winter <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) <span class="hlt">Seas</span>. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> averages only 17 feet in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18oF, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> continue to be diverted for agriculture, the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5532643','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5532643"><span>The Deep-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Polyextremophile Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21 Rough-<span class="hlt">Type</span> LPS: Structure and Inhibitory Activity towards Toxic LPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Palmigiano, Angelo; Paciello, Ida; Pallach, Mateusz; Garozzo, Domenico; Bernardini, Maria-Lina; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M.; Molinaro, Antonio; Silipo, Alba</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from extremophiles has important implications in several biomedical and therapeutic applications. The polyextremophile Gram-negative bacterium Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21, isolated from one of the most extreme habitats on our planet, the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hypersaline anoxic basin Thetis, represents a fascinating microorganism to investigate in terms of its LPS component. Here we report the elucidation of the full structure of the R-<span class="hlt">type</span> LPS isolated from H. lacunaris TB21 that was attained through a multi-technique approach comprising chemical analyses, NMR spectroscopy, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cellular immunology studies were executed on the pure R-LPS revealing a very interesting effect on human innate immunity as an inhibitor of the toxic Escherichia coli LPS. PMID:28653982</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol6-sec160-058-2.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol6-sec160-058-2.pdf"><span>46 CFR 160.058-2 - <span class="hlt">Type</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Desalter Kits, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Water, for Merchant Vessels § 160.058-2 <span class="hlt">Type</span>. (a) Desalter kits specified by this subpart shall be of the <span class="hlt">type</span> described in the specification listed in § 160.058...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol6-sec160-058-2.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol6-sec160-058-2.pdf"><span>46 CFR 160.058-2 - <span class="hlt">Type</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Desalter Kits, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Water, for Merchant Vessels § 160.058-2 <span class="hlt">Type</span>. (a) Desalter kits specified by this subpart shall be of the <span class="hlt">type</span> described in the specification listed in § 160.058...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol6-sec160-058-2.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol6-sec160-058-2.pdf"><span>46 CFR 160.058-2 - <span class="hlt">Type</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Desalter Kits, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Water, for Merchant Vessels § 160.058-2 <span class="hlt">Type</span>. (a) Desalter kits specified by this subpart shall be of the <span class="hlt">type</span> described in the specification listed in § 160.058...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol6-sec160-058-2.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol6-sec160-058-2.pdf"><span>46 CFR 160.058-2 - <span class="hlt">Type</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Desalter Kits, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Water, for Merchant Vessels § 160.058-2 <span class="hlt">Type</span>. (a) Desalter kits specified by this subpart shall be of the <span class="hlt">type</span> described in the specification listed in § 160.058...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1645/0022-3395(2003)089%5B0397%3ASOAUSO%5D2.0.CO%3B2','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1645/0022-3395(2003)089%5B0397%3ASOAUSO%5D2.0.CO%3B2"><span>Sarcocysts of an unidentified species of Sarcocystis in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter (Enhydra lutris)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The number of Sarcocystis species that infect <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters (Enhydra lutris) is unknown. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> otter tissues were recently shown to harbor sarcocysts of S. neurona and of unidentified species of Sarcocystis. Whereas sarcocysts of S. neurona have walls 1a??3 I?m thick with <span class="hlt">type</span> 9 villar protrusions, ultrastructure of a distinct thin-walled sarcocyst (0.5a??0.7 I?m thick) lacking villar protrusions, but instead exhibiting minute <span class="hlt">type</span> 1 undulations on the sarcocyst wall, is described in this report. Parasites characterized from a <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter infection were inferred to be related to, but distinct from, other species belonging to Sarcocystis, based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a portion of the beta subunit of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase gene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65..223S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65..223S"><span>The wind <span class="hlt">sea</span> and swell waves climate in the Nordic <span class="hlt">seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Semedo, Alvaro; Vettor, Roberto; Breivik, Øyvind; Sterl, Andreas; Reistad, Magnar; Soares, Carlos Guedes; Lima, Daniela</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A detailed climatology of wind <span class="hlt">sea</span> and swell waves in the Nordic <span class="hlt">Seas</span> (North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span>), based on the high-resolution reanalysis NORA10, developed by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, is presented. The higher resolution of the wind forcing fields, and the wave model (10 km in both cases), along with the inclusion of the bottom effect, allowed a better description of the wind <span class="hlt">sea</span> and swell features, compared to previous global studies. The spatial patterns of the swell-dominated regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean, due to coastal geometry, fetch dimensions, and island sheltering. Nevertheless, swell waves are still more prevalent and carry more energy in the Nordic <span class="hlt">Seas</span>, with the exception of the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the winter regional wind <span class="hlt">sea</span> and swell patterns is also presented. The analysis of the decadal trends of wind <span class="hlt">sea</span> and swell heights during the NORA10 period (1958-2001) shows that the long-term trends of the total significant wave height (SWH) in the Nordic <span class="hlt">Seas</span> are mostly due to swell and to the wave propagation effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..449A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..449A"><span>Improving <span class="hlt">sea</span> level simulation in Mediterranean regional climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adloff, Fanny; Jordà, Gabriel; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Arsouze, Thomas; Meyssignac, Benoit; Li, Laurent; Planton, Serge</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>For now, the question about future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change in the Mediterranean remains a challenge. Previous climate modelling attempts to estimate future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change in the Mediterranean did not meet a consensus. The low resolution of CMIP-<span class="hlt">type</span> models prevents an accurate representation of important small scales processes acting over the Mediterranean region. For this reason among others, the use of high resolution regional ocean modelling has been recommended in literature to address the question of ongoing and future Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change in response to climate change or greenhouse gases emissions. Also, it has been shown that east Atlantic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variability is the dominant driver of the Mediterranean variability at interannual and interdecadal scales. However, up to now, long-term regional simulations of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> do not integrate the full <span class="hlt">sea</span> level information from the Atlantic, which is a substantial shortcoming when analysing Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level response. In the present study we analyse different approaches followed by state-of-the-art regional climate models to simulate Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variability. Additionally we present a new simulation which incorporates improved information of Atlantic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level forcing at the lateral boundary. We evaluate the skills of the different simulations in the frame of long-term hindcast simulations spanning from 1980 to 2012 analysing <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variability from seasonal to multidecadal scales. Results from the new simulation show a substantial improvement in the modelled Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level signal. This confirms that Mediterranean mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is strongly influenced by the Atlantic conditions, and thus suggests that the quality of the information in the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) is crucial for the good modelling of Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. We also found that the regional differences inside the basin, that are induced by circulation changes, are model-dependent and thus not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.C51A0965H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.C51A0965H"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Mass Reconciliation Exercise (SIMRE) for altimetry derived <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness data sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, S.; Haas, C.; Tsamados, M.; Kwok, R.; Kurtz, N. T.; Rinne, E. J.; Uotila, P.; Stroeve, J.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Satellite altimetry is the primary remote sensing data source for retrieval of Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice thickness. Observational data sets are available from current and previous missions, namely ESA's Envisat and CryoSat as well as NASA ICESat. In addition, freeboard results have been published from the earlier ESA ERS missions and candidates for new data products are the Sentinel-3 constellation, the CNES AltiKa mission and NASA laser altimeter successor ICESat-2. With all the different aspects of sensor <span class="hlt">type</span> and orbit configuration, all missions have unique properties. In addition, thickness retrieval algorithms have evolved over time and data centers have developed different strategies. These strategies may vary in choice of auxiliary data sets, algorithm parts and product resolution and masking. The <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Mass Reconciliation Exercise (SIMRE) is a project by the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice radar altimetry community to bridge the challenges of comparing data sets across missions and algorithms. The ESA Arctic+ research program facilitates this project with the objective to collect existing data sets and to derive a reconciled estimate of Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mass balance. Starting with CryoSat-2 products, we compare results from different data centers (UCL, AWI, NASA JPL & NASA GSFC) at full resolution along selected orbits with independent ice thickness estimates. Three regions representative of first-year ice, multiyear ice and mixed ice conditions are used to compare the difference in thickness and thickness change between products over the seasonal cycle. We present first results and provide an outline for the further development of SIMRE activities. The methodology for comparing data sets is designed to be extendible and the project is open to contributions by interested groups. Model results of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness will be added in a later phase of the project to extend the scope of SIMRE beyond EO products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17976688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17976688"><span>Estimating shipping emissions in the region of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara, Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deniz, Cengiz; Durmuşoğlu, Yalçin</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Ship emissions are significantly increasing globally and have remarkable impact on air quality on <span class="hlt">sea</span> and land. These emissions contribute serious adverse health and environmental effects. Territorial waters, inland <span class="hlt">seas</span> and ports are the regions most affected by ship emissions. As an inland <span class="hlt">sea</span> the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara is an area that has too much ship traffic. Since the region of the Marmara is highly urbanized, emissions from ships affect human health and the overall environment. In this paper exhaust gas emissions from ships in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara and the Turkish Straits are calculated by utilizing the data acquired in 2003. Main engine <span class="hlt">types</span>, fuel <span class="hlt">types</span>, operations <span class="hlt">types</span>, navigation times and speeds of vessels are taken into consideration in the study. Total emissions from ships in the study area were estimated as 5,451,224 t y(-1) for CO(2), 111,039 t y(-1) for NO(x), 87,168 t y(-1) for SO(2), 20,281 t y(-1) for CO, 5801 t y(-1) for VOC, 4762 t y(-1) for PM. The shipping emissions in the region are equivalent to 11% of NO(x) 0.1% of CO and 0.12% of PM of the corresponding total emissions in Turkey. The shipping emissions in the area are 46% of NO(x), 25% of PM and 1.5% of CO of road traffic emissions in Turkey data between which and correspond to a higher level than aircraft emissions and rail emissions in Turkey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ESD.....9...69K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ESD.....9...69K"><span>Contribution of atmospheric circulation to recent off-shore <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level variations in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karabil, Sitar; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The main purpose of this study is to quantify the contribution of atmospheric factors to recent off-shore <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level variability in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> on interannual timescales. For this purpose, we statistically analysed <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level records from tide gauges and satellite altimetry and several climatic data sets covering the last century. Previous studies had concluded that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the main pattern of atmospheric variability affecting <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in wintertime. However, we identify a different atmospheric circulation pattern that is more closely connected to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level variability than the NAO. This circulation pattern displays a link to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level that remains stable through the 20th century, in contrast to the much more variable link between <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and the NAO. We denote this atmospheric variability mode as the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Oscillation (BANOS) index. The <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level pressure (SLP) BANOS pattern displays an SLP dipole with centres of action located over (5° W, 45° N) and (20° E, 70° N) and this is distinct from the standard NAO SLP pattern in wintertime. In summertime, the discrepancy between the SLP BANOS and NAO patterns becomes clearer, with centres of action of the former located over (30° E, 45° N) and (20° E, 60° N). This index has a stronger connection to off-shore <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level variability in the study area than the NAO in wintertime for the period 1993-2013, explaining locally up to 90 % of the interannual <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level variance in winter and up to 79 % in summer. The eastern part of the Gulf of Finland is the area where the BANOS index is most sensitive to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in wintertime, whereas the Gulf of Riga is the most sensitive region in summertime. In the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region, the maximum <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level sensitivity to the BANOS pattern is located in the German Bight for both winter and summer seasons. We investigated, and when possible quantified, the contribution of several</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6421B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6421B"><span>Summary of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span>RISE Project's Experiments on Modeled Ice-Sheet Contributions to Future <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level: Linearities and Non-linearities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bindschadler, Robert</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sea</span>RISE (<span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) project achieved ice-sheet model ensemble responses to a variety of prescribed changes to surface mass balance, basal sliding and ocean boundary melting. Greenland ice sheet models are more sensitive than Antarctic ice sheet models to likely atmospheric changes in surface mass balance, while Antarctic models are most sensitive to basal melting of its ice shelves. An experiment approximating the IPCC's RCP8.5 scenario produces first century contributions to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level of 22.3 and 7.3 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 17 cm, respectively. By 200 years, these projections increase to 53.2 and 23.4 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 57 cm. The considerable range among models was not only in the magnitude of ice lost, but also in the spatial pattern of response to identical forcing. Despite this variation, the response of any single model to a large range in the forcing intensity was remarkably linear in most cases. Additionally, the results of sensitivity experiments to single <span class="hlt">types</span> of forcing (i.e., only one of the surface mass balance, or basal sliding, or ocean boundary melting) could be summed to accurately predict any model's result for an experiment when multiple forcings were applied simultaneously. This suggests a limited amount of feedback through the ice sheet's internal dynamics between these <span class="hlt">types</span> of forcing over the time scale of a few centuries (<span class="hlt">Sea</span>RISE experiments lasted 500 years).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA617970','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA617970"><span>The Seasonal Evolution of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Floe Size Distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-09-30</p> <p>summer breakup of the ice cover . Large-scale, lower resolution imagery from MODIS and other platforms will also be analyzed to determine changes in floe...number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2014 2. REPORT <span class="hlt">TYPE</span> 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Seasonal Evolution of <span class="hlt">Sea</span>...morphology of the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover over and annual cycle. These photos were taken over the pack ice near SHEBA in May (left) and August (right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.142..167S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.142..167S"><span>Fauna and habitat <span class="hlt">types</span> driven by turbidity currents in the lobe complex of the Congo deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sen, Arunima; Dennielou, Bernard; Tourolle, Julie; Arnaubec, Aurélien; Rabouille, Christophe; Olu, Karine</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>This study characterizes the habitats and megafaunal community of the Congo distal lobe complex driven by turbidity currents through the use of remotely operated vehicle (ROV) still imagery transects covering distances in the order of kilometers. In this sedimentary, abyssal area about 5000 m deep and 750 km offshore from western Africa, large quantities of deposited organic material supplied by the Congo River canyon and channel support aggregations of large sized foraminifers (Bathysiphon sp.) and vesicomyid clams (Christineconcha regab, Abyssogena southwardae) often associated with methane cold seeps, as well as opportunistic deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> scavengers. Additionally, bacterial mats, assumed to be formed by large sulfur-oxidizing filamentous bacteria (Beggiatoa <span class="hlt">type</span>), and black patches of presumably reduced sediment were seen which are, together with sulfur-oxidizing symbiont- bearing vesicomyids, indicators of sulfide-rich sediments. Habitat and faunal distribution were analyzed in relation to the microtopography obtained with the ROV multibeam echosounder, at three sites from the entrance of the lobe complex where the channel is still deep, to the main, flatter area of turbidite deposition. Specific characteristics of the system influence animal distributions: both the forams and the vesicomyid clams tended to avoid the channels characterized by high-speed currents, and are therefore preferentially located along channel flanks affected by sliding, and on levees formed by channel overspill. Foram fields are found in flat areas and form large fields, whereas the vesicomyids have a patchy distribution and appear to show a preference for regions of local topographical relief such as slide scars or collapsed blocks of sediments, which likely facilitate sulfide exhumation. The colonization of sulfide rich sediments by vesicomyids is limited, but nonetheless was seen to occur in the main deposition area where they have to cope with very high sedimentation rates (up to 20 cm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19009913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19009913"><span>Effect of a dietary supplement containing blueberry and <span class="hlt">sea</span> buckthorn concentrate on antioxidant capacity in <span class="hlt">type</span> 1 diabetic children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nemes-Nagy, E; Szocs-Molnár, T; Dunca, I; Balogh-Sămărghiţan, V; Hobai, S; Morar, R; Pusta, D L; Crăciun, E C</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Many studies have shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetes and its complications. New methods of treatment for prevention and control of this disease is a priority for the international scientific community. We investigated the relationship between the glycated hemoglobin, C peptide and two antioxidant enzymes. Thirty <span class="hlt">type</span> 1 diabetic children were treated with a blueberry and <span class="hlt">sea</span> buckthorn concentrate for two months. After two months of administering the product to diabetic children, the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher (p < 0.05). Levels of glycated hemoglobin were significantly lower (p < 0.05). The activity of whole blood glutathione peroxidase was moderately increased but the difference was not statistically significant. C peptide concentration was significantly higher after treatment with this dietary supplement (p < 0.05). These results suggest that treatment with this dietary supplement has a beneficial effect in the treatment of <span class="hlt">type</span> 1 diabetic children and it should be considered as a phytotherapeutic product in the fight against diabetes mellitus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29507286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29507286"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice dynamics across the Mid-Pleistocene transition in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Detlef, H; Belt, S T; Sosdian, S M; Smik, L; Lear, C H; Hall, I R; Cabedo-Sanz, P; Husum, K; Kender, S</p> <p>2018-03-05</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice and associated feedback mechanisms play an important role for both long- and short-term climate change. Our ability to predict future <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent, however, hinges on a greater understanding of past <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice dynamics. Here we investigate <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice changes in the eastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> prior to, across, and after the Mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT). The <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice record, based on the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice biomarker IP 25 and related open water proxies from the International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1343, shows a substantial increase in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent across the MPT. The occurrence of late-glacial/deglacial <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice maxima are consistent with <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice/land ice hysteresis and land-glacier retreat via the temperature-precipitation feedback. We also identify interactions of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice with phytoplankton growth and ocean circulation patterns, which have important implications for glacial North Pacific Intermediate Water formation and potentially North Pacific abyssal carbon storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29328929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29328929"><span>Eicosapentaenoic acid production from Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2 using deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> water in outdoor plastic-bag <span class="hlt">type</span> photobioreactors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Chun-Yen; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Cheah, Wai Yan</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>In this study, Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2 was grown in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> water (DSW)-based medium in 5-L plastic bag-<span class="hlt">type</span> photobioreactors (PBRs) for the autotrophic production of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). EPA production of N. oceanica CY2 was stimulated when it was grown in 100% DSW amended with 1.5 g L -1 NaNO 3 , achieving a EPA content of 3.1% and a biomass concentration of 3.3 g L -1 . An outdoor-simulated microalgae cultivation system was also conducted to validate the feasibility of outdoor cultivation of the CY2 strain in plastic bag-<span class="hlt">type</span> PBRs. Using an inoculum size of 0.6 g/L, the biomass concentration in the PBR culture was 3.5 g L -1 , while the EPA content and productivity reached a maximal level of 4.12% and 7.49 mg L -1  d -1 , respectively. When the PBRs were operated on semi-batch mode, the EPA productivity could further increase to 9.9 mg L -1  d -1 with a stable EPA content of 4.1%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMGC11E..05O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMGC11E..05O"><span>Extreme heat event projections for a coastal megacity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortiz, L. E.; Gonzalez, J.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>As summers become warmer, extreme heat events are expected to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration. Large urban centers may affect these projections by introducing feedbacks between the atmosphere and the built environment through processes involving anthropogenic heat, wind modification, radiation blocking, and others. General circulation models are often run with spatial resolutions in the order of 100 km, limiting their skill at resolving local scale processes and highly spatially varying features such as cities' heterogeneous landscape and mountain topography. This study employs climate simulations using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model coupled with a modified multi-layer urban canopy and building energy model to downscale CESM1 at 1 km horizontal resolution across three time slices (2006-2010, 2075-2079, and 2095-2099) and two projections (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). New York City Metropolitan area, with a population of over 20 million and a complex urban canopy, is used as a case study. The urban canopy model of WRF was modified to include a drag coefficient as a function of the building plant area fraction and the introduction of evaporative cooling systems at building roofs to reject the anthropogenic heat from the buildings, with urban canopy parameters computed from the New York City Property Land-Use Tax-lot Output (PLUTO). Model performance is evaluated against the input model and historical records from airport stations, showing improvement in the statistical characteristics in the downscaled model output. Projection results are presented as spatially distributed anomalies in heat wave frequency, duration, and maximum intensity from the 2006-2010 benchmark period. Results show that local <span class="hlt">sea-breeze</span> circulations mitigate heat wave impacts, following a positive gradient with increasing distance from the coastline. However, end of century RCP 8.5 projections show the possibility of reversal of this pattern, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures increase</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85...85H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85...85H"><span>Polar <span class="hlt">Seas</span> Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harms, Ingo</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar <span class="hlt">Seas</span> Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a rather shallow shelf <span class="hlt">sea</span> within the Arctic Ocean, located between the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to the west and the Laptev <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to the east. The importance of the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is manifold: climate change issues like ice formation and freshwater runoff, environmental problems from dumping of radioactive waste or oil exploitation, and finally, the Northern <span class="hlt">Sea</span> route, which crosses large parts of the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, underline the economical and ecological relevance of that region. In spite of severe climate conditions, the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is relatively well investigated. This was achieved through intense oceanographic expeditions, aircraft surveys, and polar drift stations. Russian scientists from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) carried out a major part of this outstanding work during the second half of the last century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20713471-delphi-matrix-approach-sea-its-application-within-tourism-sector-taiwan','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20713471-delphi-matrix-approach-sea-its-application-within-tourism-sector-taiwan"><span>A Delphi-matrix approach to <span class="hlt">SEA</span> and its application within the tourism sector in Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuo, N.-W.; Hsiao, T.-Y.; Yu, Y.-H.</p> <p></p> <p>Strategic Environmental Assessment (<span class="hlt">SEA</span>) is a procedural tool and within the framework of <span class="hlt">SEA</span>, several different <span class="hlt">types</span> of analytical methods can be used in the assessment. However, the impact matrix used currently in Taiwan has some disadvantages. Hence, a Delphi-matrix approach to <span class="hlt">SEA</span> is proposed here to improve the performance of Taiwan's <span class="hlt">SEA</span>. This new approach is based on the impact matrix combination with indicators of sustainability, and then the Delphi method is employed to collect experts' opinions. In addition, the assessment of National Floriculture Park Plan and Taiwan Flora 2008 Program is taken as an example to examine thismore » new method. Although international exhibition is one of the important tourism (economic) activities, <span class="hlt">SEA</span> is seldom about tourism sector. Finally, the Delphi-matrix approach to <span class="hlt">SEA</span> for tourism development plan is established containing eight assessment topics and 26 corresponding categories. In summary, three major <span class="hlt">types</span> of impacts: resources' usages, pollution emissions, and local cultures change are found. Resources' usages, such as water, electricity, and natural gas demand, are calculated on a per capita basis. Various forms of pollution resulting from this plan, such as air, water, soil, waste, and noise, are also identified.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr62W1..277H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr62W1..277H"><span>Acceleration of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise Over Malaysian <span class="hlt">Seas</span> from Satellite Altimeter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level trend over Malaysian <span class="hlt">seas</span> based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute <span class="hlt">sea</span> level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute <span class="hlt">sea</span> level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian <span class="hlt">seas</span> with the rate of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute <span class="hlt">sea</span> level trend of the Malaysian <span class="hlt">seas</span> has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial <span class="hlt">sea</span> level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24882098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24882098"><span>Contrasting population histories of the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> demersal fish, Lycodes matsubarai, in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan and the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakuma, Kay; Ueda, Yuji; Hamatsu, Tomonori; Kojima, Shigeaki</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Recent studies have revealed the impact of the drastic climate change during the last glacial period on coastal marine and anadromous species in the marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> of the northwestern Pacific Ocean; however, its influence on deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> species remains poorly understood. To compare the effects of the last glacial period on populations from the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan and the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk, we examined the mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lycodes matsubarai, a deepsea demersal fish that inhabits these two <span class="hlt">seas</span>. Our results showed clear genetic differentiation of populations between the two <span class="hlt">seas</span>. The populations may have diverged during the last glacial period, probably as a result of vicariance due to the drastic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change. The population in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk was larger than that in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan, but suddenly decreased after the last glacial period. However, the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan population expanded after the last glacial period, coincident with high levels of oxygenation in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> areas. These results elucidate regional-scale impacts of climate change on deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170003268&hterms=meteorology&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmeteorology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170003268&hterms=meteorology&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmeteorology"><span>Aerosol Meteorology of Maritime Continent for the 2012 7<span class="hlt">SEAS</span> Southwest Monsoon Intensive Study - Part 2: Philippine Receptor Observations of Fine-Scale Aerosol Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Boyd, Thomas J.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Xian, Peng; Posselt, Derek J.; Simpas, James B.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20170003268'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170003268_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170003268_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170003268_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170003268_hide"></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>. Indeed, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) simulations captured longer period aerosol events quite well but largely failed to capture the timing of high-frequency phenomena. Ultimately, the research findings of these cruises demonstrate the real world challenges of satellite-based missions, significant aerosol life cycle questions such as those the future Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) will investigate, and the importance of small-scale phenomena such as <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breezes</span>, squall lines, and nucleation events embedded within SWM patterns in dominating aerosol life cycle and potential relationships to clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1614057R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1614057R"><span>Aerosol meteorology of Maritime Continent for the 2012 7<span class="hlt">SEAS</span> southwest monsoon intensive study - Part 2: Philippine receptor observations of fine-scale aerosol behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Boyd, Thomas J.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Xian, Peng; Posselt, Derek J.; Simpas, James B.; Uy, Sherdon N.; Zaiger, Kimo; Blake, Donald R.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Campbell, James R.; Chew, Boon Ning; Cliff, Steven S.; Holben, Brent N.; Holz, Robert E.; Hyer, Edward J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Lolli, Simone; Oo, Min; Perry, Kevin D.; Salinas, Santo V.; Sessions, Walter R.; Smirnov, Alexander; Walker, Annette L.; Wang, Qing; Yu, Liya; Zhang, Jianglong; Zhao, Yongjing</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>. Indeed, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) simulations captured longer period aerosol events quite well but largely failed to capture the timing of high-frequency phenomena. Ultimately, the research findings of these cruises demonstrate the real world challenges of satellite-based missions, significant aerosol life cycle questions such as those the future Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) will investigate, and the importance of small-scale phenomena such as <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breezes</span>, squall lines, and nucleation events embedded within SWM patterns in dominating aerosol life cycle and potential relationships to clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998EOSTr..79..239B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998EOSTr..79..239B"><span>The Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, The Lake and Its Setting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brink, Uri ten</p> <p></p> <p>I cannot think of a subject more befitting the description of interdisciplinary research with societal relevance than the study of the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, a terminal lake of the Jordan River in Israel and Jordan. The scientific study of the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is intimately connected with politics, religion, archeology, economic development, tourism, and environmental change.The Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a relatively closed geologic and limnologic system with drastic physical changes often occurring on human timescales and with a long human history to observe these changes. Research in this unique area covers diverse aspects such as active subsidence and deformation along strike-slip faults; vertical stratification and stability of the water column; physical properties of extremely saline and dense (1234 kg/m3) water; spontaneous precipitation of minerals in an oversaturated environment; origin of the unusual chemical composition of the brine; existence of life in extreme environments; use of lake level fluctuations as a paleoclimatic indicator; and effects on the environment of human intervention versus natural climatic variability. Although the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> covers a small area on a global scale, it is nevertheless one of the largest natural laboratories for these <span class="hlt">types</span> of research on Earth. These reasons make the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> a fascinating topic for the curious mind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRC..113.6031K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRC..113.6031K"><span>A near uniform basin-wide <span class="hlt">sea</span> level fluctuation over the Japan/East <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: A semienclosed <span class="hlt">sea</span> with multiple straits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Seung-Bum; Fukumori, Ichiro</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> level of the Japan/East <span class="hlt">Sea</span> observed by the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) satellite altimeter is analyzed using a 1/4°-resolution ocean general circulation model. A significant fraction of the Japan/East <span class="hlt">Sea</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variability is found to be spatially uniform with periods ranging from 20 d to a year. The model simulation is consistent with T/P records in terms of the basin-wide <span class="hlt">sea</span> level fluctuation's spectral energy and coherence. The simulation indicates that the changes are barotropic in nature and controlled, notably at high frequencies, by the net mass transport through the straits of the Japan/East <span class="hlt">Sea</span> driven by winds in the vicinity of the Korea/Tsushima and Soya Straits. A series of barotropic simulations suggest that the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level fluctuations are the result of a dynamic balance at the straits among near-strait winds, friction, and geostrophic control. The basin-wide <span class="hlt">sea</span> level response is a linear superposition of changes due to winds near the individual straits. In particular, a basin-wide <span class="hlt">sea</span> level response can be established by winds near either one of the straits alone. For the specific geometry and winds, winds near the Soya Strait have a larger impact on the Japan/East <span class="hlt">Sea</span> mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level than those near the Korea/Tsushima Strait.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018TCry...12.1157M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018TCry...12.1157M"><span>Canadian snow and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice: historical trends and projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Derksen, Chris; Howell, Stephen; Laliberté, Fred; Thackeray, Chad; Sospedra-Alfonso, Reinel; Vionnet, Vincent; Kushner, Paul J.; Brown, Ross</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>The Canadian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network is a climate research network focused on developing and applying state of the art observational data to advance dynamical prediction, projections, and understanding of seasonal snow cover and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in Canada and the circumpolar Arctic. Here, we present an assessment from the CanSISE Network on trends in the historical record of snow cover (fraction, water equivalent) and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice (area, concentration, <span class="hlt">type</span>, and thickness) across Canada. We also assess projected changes in snow cover and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice likely to occur by mid-century, as simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) suite of Earth system models. The historical datasets show that the fraction of Canadian land and marine areas covered by snow and ice is decreasing over time, with seasonal and regional variability in the trends consistent with regional differences in surface temperature trends. In particular, summer <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover has decreased significantly across nearly all Canadian marine regions, and the rate of multi-year ice loss in the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Canadian Arctic Archipelago has nearly doubled over the last 8 years. The multi-model consensus over the 2020-2050 period shows reductions in fall and spring snow cover fraction and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration of 5-10 % per decade (or 15-30 % in total), with similar reductions in winter <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration in both Hudson Bay and eastern Canadian waters. Peak pre-melt terrestrial snow water equivalent reductions of up to 10 % per decade (30 % in total) are projected across southern Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980HM.....33..596W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980HM.....33..596W"><span>Management of the Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolff, W. J.; Zijlstra, J. J.</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p>The Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span> situated along the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coasts of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany and The Netherlands represents one of the world's largest bar-built <span class="hlt">type</span> of estuaries. The area is a typical sedimentation and mineralization basin, with a large influx of organic matter from the adjoining North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, consequently a delicate oxygen balance and a rich benthic macrofauna, poor in species, which serves as food for juveniles of some commercially important North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> fishes and for large numbers of migrating and wintering waders and waterfowl. Past and present activities of the human society in the area include fisheries (mainly for shrimp and mussels, semi-culture), shipping, land reclamation, recreation, dredging for sand and shells, and waste discharge from industries and human communities. Until the present these activities, although sometimes conflicting, did not fundamentally affect the area and its biota (pollution excluded), but future claims, including the construction of large deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> harbours, drilling for natural gas and oil, large-scale land reclamation and increased industrialization etc., might gradually induce degradation. For instance, area reduction by continued land reclamation could lead to irreversible losses of specific biotopes (e. g. salt-marshes, mud-flats), which could affect the size of bird and fish populations in a much wider region. Increased pollution, which has already inflicted damage on bird and seal populations, could reduce the fauna and hence the value of the area as a natural sanctuary. In the event of a proposal for a new human activity in the area, the present standing practice in the countries concerned requires an evaluation of its safety and economic aspects and its environmental impact. However, the various plans are considered separately and there is a general need for integrated management of the area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27020676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27020676"><span>Microautophagy in nutritive phagocytes of <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalachev, Alexander V; Yurchenko, Olga V</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">types</span> of cells were observed in germinative epithelium of male and female <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins: germ cells and somatic accessory cells; the latter referred to as nutritive phagocytes. At the onset of gametogenesis, nutritive phagocytes accumulate nutrients and greatly increase in their size. As gametogenesis progresses, the accumulated nutrients are transferred from nutritive phagocytes into developing gametes, and size of the nutritive phagocytes decreases. An electron microscopic study of nutritive phagocytes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins, Strongylocentrotus intermedius, at different stages of annual reproductive cycle showed for the first time that both macro- and microautophagy take place in nutritive phagocytes. Both processes occur simultaneously and regulate size and composition of nutritive phagocytes in male and female <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins. Nutritive phagocytes consume redundant cytoplasm via macroautophagy. Microautophagy is probably involved in consumption of redundant membranes that appear within nutritive phagocytes due to destruction of nutrient-storing globules, macroautophagy, and phagocytosis of germ cells or their remnants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038117&hterms=SSM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSSM','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038117&hterms=SSM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSSM"><span>A Comparison of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice <span class="hlt">Type</span>, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Temperature, and Snow Thickness Distributions in the Arctic Seasonal Ice Zones with the DMSP SSM/I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>St.Germain, Karen; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Global climate studies have shown that <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is a critical component in the global climate system through its effect on the ocean and atmosphere, and on the earth's radiation balance. Polar energy studies have further shown that the distribution of thin ice and open water largely controls the distribution of surface heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere within the winter Arctic ice pack. The thickness of the ice, the depth of snow on the ice, and the temperature profile of the snow/ice composite are all important parameters in calculating surface heat fluxes. In recent years, researchers have used various combinations of DMSP SSMI channels to independently estimate the thin ice <span class="hlt">type</span> (which is related to ice thickness), the thin ice temperature, and the depth of snow on the ice. In each case validation efforts provided encouraging results, but taken individually each algorithm gives only one piece of the information necessary to compute the energy fluxes through the ice and snow. In this paper we present a comparison of the results from each of these algorithms to provide a more comprehensive picture of the seasonal ice zone using passive microwave observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5355G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5355G"><span>Future <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Secular <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variations in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are the result of a number of processes characterized by distinct time scales and spatial patterns. Here we predict the future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variations in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to year 2050 combining the contributions from terrestrial ice melt (TIM), glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and the ocean response (OR) that includes the thermal expansion and the ocean circulation contributions. The three contributions are characterized by comparable magnitudes but distinctly different <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level fingerprints across the Mediterranean basin. The TIM component of future <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise is taken from Spada et al. (2013) and it is mainly driven by the melt of small glaciers and ice caps and by the dynamic ice loss from Antarctica. The <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level fingerprint associated with GIA is studied using two distinct models available from the literature: ICE-5G(VM2) (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model progressively developed at the Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES) of the National Australian University (KL05) (see Fleming and Lambeck, 2004 and references therein). Both the GIA and the TIM <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level predictions have been obtained with the aid of the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007). The spatially-averaged OR component, which includes thermosteric and halosteric <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level variations, recently obtained using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (Carillo et al., 2012), vary between 2 and 7 cm according to scenarios adopted (EA1B and EA1B2, see Meehl at al., 2007). Since the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level variations associated with TIM mainly result from the gravitational interactions between the cryosphere components, the oceans and the solid Earth, and long-wavelength rotational variations, they are characterized by a very smooth global pattern and by a marked zonal symmetry reflecting the dipole geometry of the ice sources. Since the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is located in the intermediate far-field of major ice sources, TIM <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level changes have sub</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PApGe.169.2231Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PApGe.169.2231Y"><span>Chemical Composition of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Fog Water Along the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yue, Yanyu; Niu, Shengjie; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Feng</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The chemical and microphysical properties of <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog were measured during a field experiment on Donghai Island, Zhanjiang of China from March 15 to April 18, 2010. The average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) value of the six <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog cases during the experiment was 5.2 and 1,884 μS/cm. The observed total ion concentration of <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog was four orders of magnitude higher than those in the North Pacific and other <span class="hlt">sea</span> areas of China. The dominant anion and cation in all <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog water samples were Cl- and Na+, respectively. From backward trajectory analysis and ion loading computation, it can be concluded that the ions in the samples were transported either from pollutants in distant industrial cities or from local ion deposition processes. The concentration of Ca2+ in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog water samples in Case 2 suggested that a dust storm in the Inner Mongolia, a northern region of China several thousand kilometers away, could reach the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The data also showed that the <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog droplet spectrum over the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is unimodal. Through relationship analysis, it is illustrated that the evolution of microphysics (such as droplet concentration, diameter, and liquid water content) during fog process could affect the chemical properties of <span class="hlt">sea</span> fog.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.3765V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.3765V"><span>The Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: A Long-Standing Laboratory for <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka; Pasarić, Mira; Orlić, Mirko</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The paper provides a comprehensive review of all aspects of Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level research covered by the literature. It discusses changes occurring over millennial timescales and documented by a variety of natural and man-made proxies and post-glacial rebound models; mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level changes occurring over centennial to annual timescales and measured by modern instruments; and daily and higher-frequency changes (with periods ranging from minutes to a day) that are contributing to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level extremes and are relevant for present-day flooding of coastal areas. Special tribute is paid to the historic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level studies that shaped modern <span class="hlt">sea</span> level research in the Adriatic, followed by a discussion of existing in situ and remote sensing observing systems operating in the Adriatic area, operational forecasting systems for Adriatic storm surges, as well as warning systems for tsunamis and meteotsunamis. Projections and predictions of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and related hazards are also included in the review. Based on this review, open issues and research gaps in the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level studies are identified, as well as the additional research efforts needed to fill the gaps. The Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, thus, remains a laboratory for coastal <span class="hlt">sea</span> level studies for semi-enclosed, coastal and marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> in the world ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1372795','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1372795"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice thermohaline dynamics and biogeochemistry in the Arctic Ocean: Empirical and model results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Olsen, Lasse M.</p> <p></p> <p>Here, large changes in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice regime of the Arctic Ocean have occurred over the last decades justifying the development of models to forecast <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice physics and biogeochemistry. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Los Alamos <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Model (CICE) to simulate physical and biogeochemical properties at time scales of a few weeks and to use the model to analyze ice algal bloom dynamics in different <span class="hlt">types</span> of ice. Ocean and atmospheric forcing data and observations of the evolution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice properties collected from 18 April to 4 Junemore » 2015, during the Norwegian young <span class="hlt">sea</span> ICE expedition, were used to test the CICE model. Our results show the following: (i) model performance is reasonable for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness and bulk salinity; good for vertically resolved temperature, vertically averaged Chl a concentrations, and standing stocks; and poor for vertically resolved Chl a concentrations. (ii) Improving current knowledge about nutrient exchanges, ice algal recruitment, and motion is critical to improve <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice biogeochemical modeling. (iii) Ice algae may bloom despite some degree of basal melting. (iv) Ice algal motility driven by gradients in limiting factors is a plausible mechanism to explain their vertical distribution. (v) Different ice algal bloom and net primary production (NPP) patterns were identified in the ice <span class="hlt">types</span> studied, suggesting that ice algal maximal growth rates will increase, while <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice vertically integrated NPP and biomass will decrease as a result of the predictable increase in the area covered by refrozen leads in the Arctic Ocean.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1372795-sea-ice-thermohaline-dynamics-biogeochemistry-arctic-ocean-empirical-model-results','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1372795-sea-ice-thermohaline-dynamics-biogeochemistry-arctic-ocean-empirical-model-results"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice thermohaline dynamics and biogeochemistry in the Arctic Ocean: Empirical and model results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Olsen, Lasse M.; ...</p> <p>2017-06-08</p> <p>Here, large changes in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice regime of the Arctic Ocean have occurred over the last decades justifying the development of models to forecast <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice physics and biogeochemistry. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Los Alamos <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Model (CICE) to simulate physical and biogeochemical properties at time scales of a few weeks and to use the model to analyze ice algal bloom dynamics in different <span class="hlt">types</span> of ice. Ocean and atmospheric forcing data and observations of the evolution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice properties collected from 18 April to 4 Junemore » 2015, during the Norwegian young <span class="hlt">sea</span> ICE expedition, were used to test the CICE model. Our results show the following: (i) model performance is reasonable for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness and bulk salinity; good for vertically resolved temperature, vertically averaged Chl a concentrations, and standing stocks; and poor for vertically resolved Chl a concentrations. (ii) Improving current knowledge about nutrient exchanges, ice algal recruitment, and motion is critical to improve <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice biogeochemical modeling. (iii) Ice algae may bloom despite some degree of basal melting. (iv) Ice algal motility driven by gradients in limiting factors is a plausible mechanism to explain their vertical distribution. (v) Different ice algal bloom and net primary production (NPP) patterns were identified in the ice <span class="hlt">types</span> studied, suggesting that ice algal maximal growth rates will increase, while <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice vertically integrated NPP and biomass will decrease as a result of the predictable increase in the area covered by refrozen leads in the Arctic Ocean.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRG..122.1632D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRG..122.1632D"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice thermohaline dynamics and biogeochemistry in the Arctic Ocean: Empirical and model results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Olsen, Lasse M.; Kauko, Hanna M.; Assmy, Philipp; Rösel, Anja; Itkin, Polona; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Sundfjord, Arild; Steen, Harald; Hop, Haakon; Cohen, Lana; Peterson, Algot K.; Jeffery, Nicole; Elliott, Scott M.; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Turner, Adrian K.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Large changes in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice regime of the Arctic Ocean have occurred over the last decades justifying the development of models to forecast <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice physics and biogeochemistry. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Los Alamos <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Model (CICE) to simulate physical and biogeochemical properties at time scales of a few weeks and to use the model to analyze ice algal bloom dynamics in different <span class="hlt">types</span> of ice. Ocean and atmospheric forcing data and observations of the evolution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice properties collected from 18 April to 4 June 2015, during the Norwegian young <span class="hlt">sea</span> ICE expedition, were used to test the CICE model. Our results show the following: (i) model performance is reasonable for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness and bulk salinity; good for vertically resolved temperature, vertically averaged Chl a concentrations, and standing stocks; and poor for vertically resolved Chl a concentrations. (ii) Improving current knowledge about nutrient exchanges, ice algal recruitment, and motion is critical to improve <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice biogeochemical modeling. (iii) Ice algae may bloom despite some degree of basal melting. (iv) Ice algal motility driven by gradients in limiting factors is a plausible mechanism to explain their vertical distribution. (v) Different ice algal bloom and net primary production (NPP) patterns were identified in the ice <span class="hlt">types</span> studied, suggesting that ice algal maximal growth rates will increase, while <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice vertically integrated NPP and biomass will decrease as a result of the predictable increase in the area covered by refrozen leads in the Arctic Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091830"><span>First biological measurements of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals from the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R</p> <p>2013-10-03</p> <p>It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span>' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals from the central Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1466K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1466K"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> floor magnetic observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for <span class="hlt">sea</span> bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at <span class="hlt">sea</span> bed were studied in order to avoid two <span class="hlt">types</span> of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is <span class="hlt">sea</span> waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC24A..05K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC24A..05K"><span>Identifying Climate Model Teleconnection Mechanisms Between Arctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Loss and Mid-Latitude Winter Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kravitz, B.; Mills, C.; Rasch, P. J.; Wang, H.; Yoon, J. H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The role of Arctic amplification, including observed decreases in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration, thickness, and extent, with potential for exciting downstream atmospheric responses in the mid-latitudes, is a timely issue. We identify the role of the regionality of autumn <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss on downstream mid-latitude responses using engineering methodologies adapted to climate modeling, which allow for multiple Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> regions to be perturbed simultaneously. We evaluate downstream responses in various climate fields (e.g., temperature, precipitation, cloud cover) associated with perturbations in the Beaufort/Chukchi <span class="hlt">Seas</span> and the Kara/Barents <span class="hlt">Seas</span>. Simulations suggest that the United States response is primarily linked to <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice changes in the Beaufort/Chukchi <span class="hlt">Seas</span>, whereas Eurasian response is primarily due to Kara/Barents <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice coverage changes. Downstream effects are most prominent approximately 6-10 weeks after the initial perturbation (<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss). Our findings suggest that winter mid-latitude storms (connected to the so-called "Polar Vortex") are linked to <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss in particular areas, implying that further <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss associated with climate change will exacerbate these <span class="hlt">types</span> of extreme events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70112434','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70112434"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> lamprey mark <span class="hlt">type</span>, wounding rate, and parasite-host preference and abundance relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We examined how attack frequency by <span class="hlt">sea</span> lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult <span class="hlt">sea</span> lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed <span class="hlt">sea</span> lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing <span class="hlt">sea</span> lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.724E...6L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.724E...6L"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Wakes Observed by Spaceborne SAR in the Offshore Wind Farms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaoming; Lehner, Susanne; Jacobsen, Sven</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In the paper, we present some X-band spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images acquired at the offshore wind farms in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The high spatial resolution SAR images show different <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface wake patterns downstream of the offshore wind turbines. The analysis suggests that there are major two <span class="hlt">types</span> of wakes among the observed cases. The wind turbine wakes generated by movement of wind around wind turbines are the most often observed cases. In contrast, due to the strong local tidal currents in the near shore wind farm sites, the tidal current wakes induced by tidal current impinging on the wind turbine piles are also observed in the high spatial resolution TS-X images. The discrimination of the two <span class="hlt">types</span> of wakes observed in the offshore wind farms is also described in the paper.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.A24C2589W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.A24C2589W"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Scanner: An advanced catamaran to study the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wurl, O.; Mustaffa, N. I. H.; Ribas Ribas, M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Scanner is a remote-controlled catamaran with the capability to sample the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface microlayer in high resolution. The catamaran is equipped with a suite of sensors to scan the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface on chemical, biological and physical parameters. Parameters include UV absorption, fluorescence spectra, chlorophyll-a, photosynthetic efficiency, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and salinity. A further feature is a capability to collect remotely discrete water samples for detailed lab analysis. We present the first high-resolution (< 30 sec) data on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface microlayer. We discuss the variability of biochemical properties of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface and its implication on air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1392040-aerosol-meteorology-maritime-continent-southwest-monsoon-intensive-study-part-philippine-receptor-observations-fine-scale-aerosol-behavior','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1392040-aerosol-meteorology-maritime-continent-southwest-monsoon-intensive-study-part-philippine-receptor-observations-fine-scale-aerosol-behavior"><span>Aerosol meteorology of Maritime Continent for the 2012 7<span class="hlt">SEAS</span> southwest monsoon intensive study – Part 2: Philippine receptor observations of fine-scale aerosol behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.</p> <p></p> <p> difficult to model. Indeed, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) simulations captured longer period aerosol events quite well but largely failed to capture the timing of high-frequency phenomena. Ultimately, the research findings of these cruises demonstrate the real world challenges of satellite-based missions, significant aerosol life cycle questions such as those the future Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) will investigate, and the importance of small-scale phenomena such as <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breezes</span>, squall lines, and nucleation events embedded within SWM patterns in dominating aerosol life cycle and potential relationships to clouds.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900344"><span>Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, <span class="hlt">sea</span> kraits and <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pahari, Susanta; Bickford, David; Fry, Bryan G; Kini, R Manjunatha</p> <p>2007-09-27</p> <p>Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes' diet. Land snakes target various prey species including insects (arthropods), lizards (reptiles), frogs and toads (amphibians), birds (aves), and rodents (mammals), whereas <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes target a single vertebrate class (fishes) and often specialize on specific <span class="hlt">types</span> of fish. It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in <span class="hlt">sea</span> snake venoms compared to that of land snakes. Here we describe the expression of toxin genes in the venom glands of two <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes, Lapemis curtus (Spine-bellied <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Snake) and Acalyptophis peronii (Horned <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Snake), two members of a large adaptive radiation which occupy very different ecological niches. We constructed cDNA libraries from their venom glands and sequenced 214 and 192 clones, respectively. Our data show that despite their explosive evolutionary radiation, there is very little variability in the three-finger toxin (3FTx) as well as the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, the two main constituents of Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii venom. To understand the evolutionary trends among land snakes, <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes and <span class="hlt">sea</span> kraits, pairwise genetic distances (intraspecific and interspecific) of 3FTx and PLA2 sequences were calculated. Results show that these proteins appear to be highly conserved in <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes in contrast to land snakes or <span class="hlt">sea</span> kraits, despite their extremely divergent and adaptive ecological radiation. Based on these results, we suggest that streamlining in habitat and diet in <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes has possibly kept their toxin genes conserved, suggesting the idea that prey composition and diet breadth may contribute to the diversity and evolution of venom components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2174459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2174459"><span>Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, <span class="hlt">sea</span> kraits and <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pahari, Susanta; Bickford, David; Fry, Bryan G; Kini, R Manjunatha</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes' diet. Land snakes target various prey species including insects (arthropods), lizards (reptiles), frogs and toads (amphibians), birds (aves), and rodents (mammals), whereas <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes target a single vertebrate class (fishes) and often specialize on specific <span class="hlt">types</span> of fish. It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in <span class="hlt">sea</span> snake venoms compared to that of land snakes. Results Here we describe the expression of toxin genes in the venom glands of two <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes, Lapemis curtus (Spine-bellied <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Snake) and Acalyptophis peronii (Horned <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Snake), two members of a large adaptive radiation which occupy very different ecological niches. We constructed cDNA libraries from their venom glands and sequenced 214 and 192 clones, respectively. Our data show that despite their explosive evolutionary radiation, there is very little variability in the three-finger toxin (3FTx) as well as the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, the two main constituents of Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii venom. To understand the evolutionary trends among land snakes, <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes and <span class="hlt">sea</span> kraits, pairwise genetic distances (intraspecific and interspecific) of 3FTx and PLA2 sequences were calculated. Results show that these proteins appear to be highly conserved in <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes in contrast to land snakes or <span class="hlt">sea</span> kraits, despite their extremely divergent and adaptive ecological radiation. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest that streamlining in habitat and diet in <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes has possibly kept their toxin genes conserved, suggesting the idea that prey composition and diet breadth may contribute to the diversity and evolution of venom components. PMID:17900344</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811086D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811086D"><span>Atmospheric forcing of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice anomalies in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Polynya region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dale, Ethan; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Despite warming trends in global temperatures, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent in the southern hemisphere has shown an increasing trend over recent decades. Wind-driven <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice export from coastal polynyas is an important source of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice production. Areas of major polynyas in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, the region with largest increase in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent, have been suggested to produce the vast amount of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the region. We investigate the impacts of strong wind events on polynyas and the subsequent <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice production. We utilize Bootstrap <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration (SIC) measurements derived from satellite based, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature images. These are compared with surface wind measurements made by automatic weather stations of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Meteorology Program. Our analysis focusses on the winter period defined as 1st April to 1st November in this study. Wind data was used to classify each day into characteristic regimes based on the change of wind speed. For each regime, a composite of SIC anomaly was formed for the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region. We found that persistent weak winds near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are generally associated with positive SIC anomalies in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polynya area (RSP). Conversely we found negative SIC anomalies in this area during persistent strong winds. By analyzing <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice motion vectors derived from SSM/I brightness temperatures, we find significant <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice motion anomalies throughout the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during strong wind events. These anomalies persist for several days after the strong wing event. Strong, negative correlations are found between SIC within the RSP and wind speed indicating that strong winds cause significant advection of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the RSP. This rapid decrease in SIC is followed by a more gradual recovery in SIC. This increase occurs on a time scale greater than the average persistence of strong wind events and the resulting <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice motion anomalies, highlighting the production</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28514180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28514180"><span>Molecular <span class="hlt">Typing</span> of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated from Mollusks in the North Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Carraro, Roberta; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Meneguolo, Davide Boscolo; Martino, Maria Elena; Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Barco, Lisa; Novelli, Enrico; Balzan, Stefania; Fasolato, Luca</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging foodborne pathogen in the Mediterranean, usually associated with shellfish consumption. The increase in the number of outbreaks in Europe is primarily associated with the global warming of the ocean that has a great impact on the spread and genetic selection of waterborne pathogens. The primary role of Italy in Europe's mollusk production, together with the fact that cases of infections with V. parahaemolyticus are not always notified to the European community, highlighted the necessity of acquiring new information about the epidemiological involvement of shellfish products. The aim of the study was to provide useful insights into the first steps of the Risk Assessment associated with V. parahaemolyticus through the molecular characterization of isolates from commercialized mollusks. A total of 102 strains identified as V. parahaemolyticus were investigated as part of a larger sampling (1-year survey) from several shellfish species collected from the Venice lagoon and the North Adriatic <span class="hlt">sea</span>. All strains were characterized by multilocus sequence <span class="hlt">typing</span> and tested for the presence of virulence genes (trh and tdh). The study of sampling/environmental factors and epidemiological analyses was performed to describe the behaviors of the different genetic populations. The population structure analysis highlighted three genetic clusters that could be subject to temperature selection during cold (≤15°C) and warm (>16°C) seasons. Moreover, other factors, such as molluscan species (clams/mussels), probably played a role in the distribution of genetic clusters. Although few strains carried the virulence factors (n = 6 trh + ), epidemiological links with clinical isolates and a local dissemination of some sequence <span class="hlt">types</span> were underlined. This work provides a useful background on the genotype spread as a first step in the Hazard Identification in light of future climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13.1153B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13.1153B"><span>Highly variable Pliocene <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface conditions in the Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bachem, Paul E.; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial-interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) and ice-rafted debris (IRD) in the Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic <span class="hlt">Seas</span>, which may be linked to the expansion of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the Arctic and Nordic <span class="hlt">Seas</span>. A warm Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic <span class="hlt">Seas</span> due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870053374&hterms=sonar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsonar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870053374&hterms=sonar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsonar"><span>Remote sensing as a research tool. [<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice surveillance from aircraft and spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carsey, F. D.; Zwally, H. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The application of aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing techniques to <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice surveillance is evaluated. The effects of ice in the air-<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice system are examined. The measurement principles and characteristics of remote sensing methods for aircraft and spacecraft surveillance of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice are described. Consideration is given to ambient visible light, IR, passive microwave, active microwave, and laser altimeter and sonar systems. The applications of these systems to <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice surveillance are discussed and examples are provided. Particular attention is placed on the use of microwave data and the relation between ice thickness and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice interactions. It is noted that spacecraft and aircraft sensing techniques can successfully measure snow cover; ice thickness; ice <span class="hlt">type</span>; ice concentration; ice velocity field; ocean temperature; surface wind vector field; and air, snow, and ice surface temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/srp/srp029/of2007-1047srp029.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/srp/srp029/of2007-1047srp029.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice concentration temporal variability over the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and its relationship with tropical <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Barreira, S.; Compagnucci, R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in S-Mode (correlation between temporal series) was performed on <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice monthly anomalies, in order to investigate which are the main temporal patterns, where are the homogenous areas located and how are they related to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST). This analysis provides 9 patterns (4 in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen <span class="hlt">Seas</span> and 5 in the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) that represent the most important temporal features that dominated <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration anomalies (SICA) variability in the Weddell, Amundsen and Bellingshausen <span class="hlt">Seas</span> over the 1979-2000 period. Monthly Polar Gridded <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Concentrations data set derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm and acquired from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) were used. Monthly means SST are provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis. The first temporal pattern series obtained by PCA has its homogeneous area located at the external region of the Weddell and Bellingshausen <span class="hlt">Seas</span> and Drake Passage, mostly north of 60°S. The second region is centered in 30°W and located at the southeast of the Weddell. The third area is localized east of 30°W and north of 60°S. South of the first area, the fourth PC series has its homogenous region, between 30° and 60°W. The last area is centered at 0° W and south of 60°S. Correlation charts between the five Principal Components series and SST were performed. Positive correlations over the Tropical Pacific Ocean were found for the five PCs when SST series preceded SICA PC series. The sign of the correlation could relate the occurrence of an El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm (cold) event with posterior positive (negative) anomalies of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration over the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1111423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1111423"><span>Ultrastructural studies of regenerating spines of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. I. Cell <span class="hlt">types</span> without spherules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heatfield, B M; Travis, D F</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The fine structure of regenerating tips of spines of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus was investigated. Each conical tip consisted of an inner dermis, which deposits and contains the calcite skeleton, and an external layer of epidermis. Although cell <span class="hlt">types</span> termed spherulecytes containing large, intracellular membrane bound spherules were also present in spine tissues, only epidermal and dermal cell <span class="hlt">types</span> lacking such spherules are described in this paper. The epidermis was composed largely of free cells representing several functional <span class="hlt">types</span>. Over the apical portion of the tip these cells occurred in groups, while proximally they were distributed within longitudinal grooves present along the periphery of the spine from the base to the tip. The terminal portions of apical processes extending from some of the epidermal cells formed a thin, contiguous outer layer consisting of small individual islands of cytoplasm bearing microvilli. Adjacent islands were connected around the periphery by a junctional complex extending roughly 200 A in depth in which the opposing plasma membranes were separated by a narrow gap about 145 A in width bridged by amorphous material. Other epidermal cells were closely associated with the basal lamina, which was 900 A in thickness and delineated the dermoepidermal junction; some of these cells appeared to synthesize the lamina, while others may be sensory nerve cells. The dermis at the spine tip also consisted of several functional <span class="hlt">types</span> of free cells; the most interesting of these was the calcoblast, which deposits the skeleton. Calcoblasts extended a thin, cytoplasmic skeletal sheath which surrounded the tips and adjacent proximal portions of each of the longitudinally oriented microspines comprising the regenerating skeleton, and distally, formed a conical extracellular channel ahead of the mineralizing tip. The intimate relationship between calcoblasts and the growing mineral surface strongly suggests that these cells directly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014TCD.....8.1517K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014TCD.....8.1517K"><span>About uncertainties in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>One goal of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice Essential Climate Variable project is to provide a quality controlled 20 year long data set of Arctic Ocean winter-time <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness distribution. An important step to achieve this goal is to assess the accuracy of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness retrieval based on satellite radar altimetry. For this purpose a data base is created comprising <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and collocated observations of snow and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice freeboard from Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) air-borne campaigns, of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice draft from moored and submarine Upward Looking Sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E) and the Warren Climatology (Warren et al., 1999). An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets stresses the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. This is confirmed by a comparison of snow freeboard measured during OIB and CryoVEx and snow freeboard computed from radar altimetry. For first-year ice the agreement between OIB and AMSR-E snow depth within 0.02 m suggests AMSR-E snow depth as an appropriate alternative. Different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches are realized. The mean observed ULS <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice draft agrees with the mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice draft computed from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the realized approaches is able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice draft observed by moored ULS satisfactorily. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests: in order to obtain <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness as accurate as 0.5 m from radar altimetry, besides a freeboard estimate with centimetre accuracy, an ice-<span class="hlt">type</span> dependent <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice density is as mandatory</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4218K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4218K"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level variability over the Common Era</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kopp, Robert; Horton, Benjamin; Kemp, Andrew; Engelhart, Simon; Little, Chris</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> climate model simulations forced with sustained NAO-like heat fluxes. Changes in the wind-driven ocean circulation may also contribute to alongshore <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variability over the CE. To reveal global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variability, we combine the salt-marsh data from North American Atlantic coast with tide-gauge records and other high resolution proxies from the northern and southern hemispheres. All reconstructions are from coasts that are tectonically stable and are based on four <span class="hlt">types</span> of proxy archives (archaeological indicators, coral microatolls, salt marsh sediments and vermetid [mollusk] bioconstructions) that are best capable of capturing submeter-scale RSL changes. The database consists of reconstructions from Australasia (n = 2), Europe (n=5), Greenland (n = 3), North America (n = 6), the northern Gulf of Mexico (n = 3), the Mediterranean (n = 1), South Africa (n = 2), South America (n =2) and the South Pacific (n =3). We apply a noisy-input Gaussian process spatio-temporal modeling framework, which identifies a long-term falling global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level, interrupted in the middle of the 19th century by an acceleration yielding a 20th century rate of rise extremely likely (probability P = 0:95) faster than any previous century in the CE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21499688-uk-draft-guidance-health-sea-light-hia-community-priorities-unece-sea-protocol','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21499688-uk-draft-guidance-health-sea-light-hia-community-priorities-unece-sea-protocol"><span>The UK's Draft Guidance for Health in <span class="hlt">SEA</span> in light of HIA community priorities and the UNECE <span class="hlt">SEA</span> Protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Posas, Paula J., E-mail: pjposas@gmail.co</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>The Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (<span class="hlt">SEA</span>) to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Espoo Convention came into force on 11 July 2010. This Protocol, to which the European Union is party, gives a legal basis for enhanced attention to human health in the <span class="hlt">SEA</span> process. In this context, the United Kingdom's (UK's) 2007 Draft Guidance on Health in Strategic Environmental Assessment represents an important early government-led effort to bring health issues and public health considerations more significantly into the <span class="hlt">SEA</span> process. Since the UK is a worldwide leader in environmental and various other <span class="hlt">types</span> of impact assessment,more » and since other countries may eventually consider its example in efforts to meet UNECE <span class="hlt">SEA</span> Protocol requirements, scrutiny of its outputs is warranted. This paper thus examines the UK's Draft Guidance from both HIA academic and practitioner perspectives. First it assesses the extent to which the Draft Guidance reflects recent issues and lessons learned in the academic literature. In order to make the assessment, a meta-analysis of 70 HIA-related peer-reviewed articles was undertaken to extract authors' priority recommendations. These recommendations were subsequently compared with the contents of the Draft Guidance. Secondly, the Draft Guidance was assessed for its accordance with recommendations of the UNECE <span class="hlt">SEA</span> Protocol background paper written by two HIA practitioners. Overall, the Draft Guidance's accordance with both sets of recommendations was found to be high, with only a few easily-remedied gaps. This evaluation suggests that the UK's Draft Guidance can be a useful starting point in the creation of future guidance on health in <span class="hlt">SEA</span> in both the UK and other countries.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6259973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6259973"><span>Preliminary investigation of a possible lung worm (Parafilaroides decorus), fish (Girella nigricans), and marine mammal (Callorhinus ursinus) cycle for San Miguel <span class="hlt">sea</span> lion virus <span class="hlt">type</span> 5.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, A W; Skilling, D E; Brown, R J</p> <p>1980-11-01</p> <p>Colostrum-deprived neonatal Northern fur seal pups (Callorhinus ursinus) were exposed to San Miguel <span class="hlt">sea</span> lion virus <span class="hlt">type</span> 5 (SMSV-5) by feeding them fish (Girella nigricans) infected with virus or fish infected with both the <span class="hlt">sea</span> lion lung worm larvae (Parafilaroides decorus) and virus. Virus infection was demonstrated in 8 of 9 pups, and 1 of these developed a vesicular lesion on the flipper. In this sequence, P decorus larvae exposed to SMSV-5 were fed to G nigricans held at 15 C in a salt water aquarium; 32 days later, these fish were killed, then fed to the fur seal pups. The vesicle developed 22 days subsequent to this and SMSV-5 was reisolated from the lesion. The SMSV-5 was shown to persist for at least 23 days in infected neonatal fur seals. Attempts to establish P decorus infection in Northern fur seal pups were apparently unsuccessful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3906171','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3906171"><span>Combining Telephone Surveys and Fishing Catches Self-Report: The French <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Bass Recreational Fishery Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various <span class="hlt">types</span> of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at <span class="hlt">sea</span> and that the mean length of a kept <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and <span class="hlt">type</span> of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective <span class="hlt">type</span> of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools. PMID:24489885</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489885"><span>Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass recreational fishery assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various <span class="hlt">types</span> of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at <span class="hlt">sea</span> and that the mean length of a kept <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and <span class="hlt">type</span> of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective <span class="hlt">type</span> of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C43B0393W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C43B0393W"><span>Arctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Predictability and the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Prediction Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiggins, H. V.; Stroeve, J. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Drastic reductions in Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover have increased the demand for Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice predictions by a range of stakeholders, including local communities, resource managers, industry and the public. The science of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice prediction has been challenged to keep up with these developments. Efforts such as the SEARCH <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Outlook (SIO; http://www.arcus.org/sipn/<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice-outlook) and the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice for Walrus Outlook have provided a forum for the international <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice prediction and observing community to explore and compare different approaches. The SIO, originally organized by the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH), is now managed by the new <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), which is building a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to improve arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice prediction. The SIO synthesizes predictions from a variety of methods, including heuristic and from a statistical and/or dynamical model. In a recent study, SIO data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The analysis revealed that in some years the predictions were very successful, in other years they were not. Years that were anomalous compared to the long-term trend have proven more difficult to predict, regardless of which method was employed. This year, in response to feedback from users and contributors to the SIO, several enhancements have been made to the SIO reports. One is to encourage contributors to provide spatial probability maps of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover in September and the first day each location becomes ice-free; these are an example of subseasonal to seasonal, local-scale predictions. Another enhancement is a separate analysis of the modeling contributions. In the June 2014 SIO report, 10 of 28 outlooks were produced from models that explicitly simulate <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice from dynamic-thermodynamic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice models. Half of the models included fully-coupled (atmosphere, ice, and ocean) models that additionally employ data assimilation. Both of these subsets (models and coupled models with data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.4539F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.4539F"><span>Late summer <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice segmentation with multi-polarisation SAR features in C- and X-band</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fors, A. S.; Brekke, C.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Eltoft, T.; Renner, A. H. H.; Gerland, S.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In this study we investigate the potential of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice segmentation by C- and X-band multi-polarisation synthetic aperture radar (SAR) features during late summer. Five high-resolution satellite SAR scenes were recorded in the Fram Strait covering iceberg-fast first-year and old <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice during a week with air temperatures varying around zero degrees Celsius. In situ data consisting of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness, surface roughness and aerial photographs were collected during a helicopter flight at the site. Six polarimetric SAR features were extracted for each of the scenes. The ability of the individual SAR features to discriminate between <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">types</span> and their temporally consistency were examined. All SAR features were found to add value to <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">type</span> discrimination. Relative kurtosis, geometric brightness, cross-polarisation ratio and co-polarisation correlation angle were found to be temporally consistent in the investigated period, while co-polarisation ratio and co-polarisation correlation magnitude were found to be temporally inconsistent. An automatic feature-based segmentation algorithm was tested both for a full SAR feature set, and for a reduced SAR feature set limited to temporally consistent features. In general, the algorithm produces a good late summer <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice segmentation. Excluding temporally inconsistent SAR features improved the segmentation at air temperatures above zero degrees Celcius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.C32B..01T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.C32B..01T"><span>Some Results on <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Rheology for the Seasonal Ice Zone, Obtained from the Deformation Field of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Drift Pattern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toyota, T.; Kimura, N.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice rheology which relates <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice stress to the large-scale deformation of the ice cover has been a big issue to numerical <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice modelling. At present the treatment of internal stress within <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area is based mostly on the rheology formulated by Hibler (1979), where the whole <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area behaves like an isotropic and plastic matter under the ordinary stress with the yield curve given by an ellipse with an aspect ratio (e) of 2, irrespective of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area and horizontal resolution of the model. However, this formulation was initially developed to reproduce the seasonal variation of the perennial ice in the Arctic Ocean. As for its applicability to the seasonal ice zones (SIZ), where various <span class="hlt">types</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice are present, it still needs validation from observational data. In this study, the validity of this rheology was examined for the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk ice, typical of the SIZ, based on the AMSR-derived ice drift pattern in comparison with the result obtained for the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. To examine the dependence on a horizontal scale, the coastal radar data operated near the Hokkaido coast, Japan, were also used. Ice drift pattern was obtained by a maximum cross-correlation method with grid spacings of 37.5 km from the 89 GHz brightness temperature of AMSR-E for the entire <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk and the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and 1.3 km from the coastal radar for the near-shore <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk. The validity of this rheology was investigated from a standpoint of work rate done by deformation field, following the theory of Rothrock (1975). In analysis, the relative rates of convergence were compared between theory and observation to check the shape of yield curve, and the strain ellipse at each grid cell was estimated to see the horizontal variation of deformation field. The result shows that the ellipse of e=1.7-2.0 as the yield curve represents the observed relative conversion rates well for all the ice areas. Since this result corresponds with the yield criterion by Tresca and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01748.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01748.html"><span>Space Radar Image of North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface. Two <span class="hlt">types</span> of petroleum oil and six <span class="hlt">types</span> of oils resembling natural <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface slicks were poured on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a "natural oil" like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various <span class="hlt">types</span> of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMOS53C1227F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMOS53C1227F"><span>Matching Deep Tow Camera study and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Floor geochemical characterization of gas migration at the Tainan Ridge, South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, L. F.; Lien, K. L.; Hsieh, I. C.; Lin, S.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Methane seep in deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> environment could lead to build up of chemosynthesis communities, and a number of geological and biological anomalies as compare to the surrounding area. In order to examine the linkage between seep anomalies and those at the vicinity background area, and to detail mapping those spatial variations, we used a deep towed camera system (TowCam) to survey seafloor on the Tainan Ridge, Northeastern South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SCS). The underwater <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor pictures could provide better spatial variations to demonstrate impact of methane seep on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor. Water column variations of salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen were applied to delineate fine scale variations at the study area. In addition, sediment cores were collected for chemical analyses to confirm the existence of local spatial variations. Our results show large spatial variations existed as a result of differences in methane flux. In fact, methane is the driving force for the observed biogeochemical variations in the water column, on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor, and in the sediment. Of the area we have surveyed, there are approximately 7% of total towcam survey data showing abnormal water properties. Corresponding to the water column anomalies, underwater <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor pictures taken from those places showed that chemosynthetic clams and muscles could be identified, together with authigenic carbonate buildups, and bacterial mats. Moreover, sediment cores with chemical anomalies also matched those in the water column and on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor. These anomalies, however, represent only a small portion of the area surveyed and could not be identified with typical (random) coring method. Methane seep, therefore, require tedious and multiple <span class="hlt">types</span> of surveys to better understand the scale and magnitude of seep and biogeochemical anomalies those were driven by gas migrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0727/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0727/report.pdf"><span>Assessment of gray whale feeding grounds and <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor interaction in the northeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nelson, C.H.; Johnson, K.R.; Barber, John H.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A dense ampeliscid amphipod community in Chirikov Basin and around St. Lawrence Island in the northeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> has been outlined by summarizing biological studies, analyzing bioturbation in sediment samples, and examining <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor photos and videotapes. The amphipod population is associated with a homogeneous, relict fine-grained sand body 0.10-1.5 m thick that is deposited during the marine transgression over the Bering land bridge 8,000-10,000 yr B.P. Modern current and water mass movements and perhaps whale feeding activity prevent modern deposition in this area. The distribution of the transgressive sand sheet, associated amphipod community and feeding gray whales mapped by aerial survey correlate closely with three <span class="hlt">types</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor pits observed on high (500 kHz) and low (105 kHz) resolution side-scan sonar; they are attributed to gray whale feeding traces and their subsequent current scour modification. The fresh and modified feeding pits are present in 22,000 km2 of the basin and they cover a total of 2 to 18% of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor in different areas of the feeding region. The smallest size class of pits approximates whale mouth gape size and is assumed to represent fresh whale feeding pits. Fresh feeding disturbance of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor is estimated to average about 5.7% for a full feeding season. Combined with information that 34% of the measured benthic biomass is amphipod prey species, and calculating the number of gray whale feeding days in the Alaskan waters plus amount consumed per day, it can be estimated that Chirikov Basin, 2% of the feeding area, supplies a minimum of 5.3 to 7.1% of the gray whale's food resource in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Arctic Ocean. If a maximum of 50% of the fresh feeding features are assumed to be missed because they parallel side-scan beam paths, then a maximum whale food resource of 14.2% is possible in northeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Because of side-scan techniques and possible higher amphipod biomass estimates, a reasonable minimum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcMod..84...51L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcMod..84...51L"><span>Processes driving <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice variability in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in an eddying ocean/<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice model: Mean seasonal cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Linghan; McClean, Julie L.; Miller, Arthur J.; Eisenman, Ian; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Papadopoulos, Caroline A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The seasonal cycle of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice variability in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, together with the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that control it, are examined in a fine resolution (1/10°) global coupled ocean/<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice model configured in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The ocean/<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice model consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Los Alamos <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Model (CICE). The model was forced with time-varying reanalysis atmospheric forcing for the time period 1970-1989. This study focuses on the time period 1980-1989. The simulated seasonal-mean fields of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration strongly resemble satellite-derived observations, as quantified by root-mean-square errors and pattern correlation coefficients. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice energy budget reveals that the seasonal thermodynamic ice volume changes are dominated by the surface energy flux between the atmosphere and the ice in the northern region and by heat flux from the ocean to the ice along the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice force balance analysis shows that <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice motion is largely associated with wind stress. The force due to divergence of the internal ice stress tensor is large near the land boundaries in the north, and it is small in the central and southern ice-covered region. During winter, which dominates the annual mean, it is found that the simulated <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice was mainly formed in the northern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast due to cold air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive the model <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice southwestward from the north to the southwestern part of the ice-covered region. Along the ice edge in the western Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, model <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is melted by warm ocean water, which is carried by the simulated Bering Slope Current flowing to the northwest, resulting in the S-shaped asymmetric ice edge. In spring and fall, similar thermodynamic and dynamic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.C54A..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.C54A..01C"><span>Contemporary Arctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cazenave, A. A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring <span class="hlt">sea</span> level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, hence on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level budget. Budget studies show that regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed <span class="hlt">sea</span> level trend. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> level budget in the Arctic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29808356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29808356"><span>First report of Nitzschia navis-varingica in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and growth stimulatory effects of Nitzschia navis-varingica, Chrysochromulina alifera and Heterocapsa pygmaea on different mammalian cell <span class="hlt">types</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ayaz, Furkan; Eker-Develi, Elif; Sahin, Merve</p> <p>2018-05-28</p> <p>A benthic diatom, Nitzschia navis-varingica was found for the first time in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Effects of this diatom species together with the haptophyte Chrysochromulina alifera and the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa pygmaea isolated from the northeastern Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast on prostate, breast cancer and fibroblast cell lines were investigated. Algal extracts did not exert any toxic effect on these cell lines and it had growth stimulatory impact on the cells without discrimination of cell <span class="hlt">type</span>. Our results suggest potential use of these algal extracts in tissue repair and cell growth boosting additive in the diet of humans as well as animals. Moreover, these algal extracts have potential to be used as natural resource in the skin vitalizing creams of cosmetics industry and as wound healing agents in the atopic drugs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMOS42C0478C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMOS42C0478C"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature and Ocean Color Variability in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conaty, A. P.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a marginal <span class="hlt">sea</span> in the Southeast Asian region whose surface circulation is driven by monsoons and whose surface currents have complex seasonal patterns. Its rich natural resources and strategic location have made its small islands areas of political dispute among the neighboring nations. This study aims to show the seasonal and interannual variability of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature and ocean color in South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. It makes use of NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data sets on <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature for the period 1981-2000 and NASA's Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (<span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS) satellite data sets on pigment concentration (ocean color) for the period 1981-1996 and 1997-2000, respectively. Transect lines were drawn along several potential hotspot areas to show the variability in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature and pigment concentration through time. In-situ data on <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature along South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> were likewise plotted to see the variability with time. Higher seasonal variability in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature was seen at higher latitudes. Interannual variability was within 1-3 Kelvin. In most areas, pigment concentration was higher during northern hemisphere winter and autumn, after the monsoon rains, with a maximum of 30 milligrams per cubic meter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25872705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25872705"><span>Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by <span class="hlt">sea-breeze</span> could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-land and mountain-valley <span class="hlt">breeze</span> circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.6804D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.6804D"><span>Where is the ideal location for a US East Coast offshore grid?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dvorak, Michael J.; Stoutenburg, Eric D.; Archer, Cristina L.; Kempton, Willett; Jacobson, Mark Z.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>This paper identifies the location of an “ideal” offshore wind energy (OWE) grid on the U.S. East Coast that would (1) provide the highest overall and peak-time summer capacity factor, (2) use bottom-mounted turbine foundations (depth ≤50 m), (3) connect regional transmissions grids from New England to the Mid-Atlantic, and (4) have a smoothed power output, reduced hourly ramp rates and hours of zero power. Hourly, high-resolution mesoscale weather model data from 2006-2010 were used to approximate wind farm output. The offshore grid was located in the waters from Long Island, New York to the Georges Bank, ≈450 km east. Twelve candidate 500 MW wind farms were located randomly throughout that region. Four wind farms (2000 MW total capacity) were selected for their synergistic meteorological characteristics that reduced offshore grid variability. Sites likely to have <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breezes</span> helped increase the grid capacity factor during peak time in the spring and summer months. Sites far offshore, dominated by powerful synoptic-scale storms, were included for their generally higher but more variable power output. By interconnecting all 4 farms via an offshore grid versus 4 individual interconnections, power was smoothed, the no-power events were reduced from 9% to 4%, and the combined capacity factor was 48% (gross). By interconnecting offshore wind energy farms ≈450 km apart, in regions with offshore wind energy resources driven by both synoptic-scale storms and mesoscale <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breezes</span>, substantial reductions in low/no-power hours and hourly ramp rates can be made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAMES...7.1997P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAMES...7.1997P"><span>Impact of four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) on urban climate analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Linlin; Liu, Yubao; Liu, Yuewei; Li, Lei; Jiang, Yin; Cheng, Will; Roux, Gregory</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study investigates the impact of four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) on urban climate analysis, which employs the NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) WRF (the weather research and forecasting model) based on climate FDDA (CFDDA) technology to develop an urban-scale microclimatology database for the Shenzhen area, a rapidly developing metropolitan located along the southern coast of China, where uniquely high-density observations, including ultrahigh-resolution surface AWS (automatic weather station) network, radio sounding, wind profilers, radiometers, and other weather observation platforms, have been installed. CFDDA is an innovative dynamical downscaling regional climate analysis system that assimilates diverse regional observations; and has been employed to produce a 5 year multiscale high-resolution microclimate analysis by assimilating high-density observations at Shenzhen area. The CFDDA system was configured with four nested-grid domains at grid sizes of 27, 9, 3, and 1 km, respectively. This research evaluates the impact of assimilating high-resolution observation data on reproducing the refining features of urban-scale circulations. Two experiments were conducted with a 5 year run using CFSR (climate forecast system reanalysis) as boundary and initial conditions: one with CFDDA and the other without. The comparisons of these two experiments with observations indicate that CFDDA greatly reduces the model analysis error and is able to realistically analyze the microscale features such as urban-rural-coastal circulation, land/<span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breezes</span>, and local-hilly terrain thermal circulations. It is demonstrated that the urbanization can produce 2.5 k differences in 2 m temperatures, delays/speeds up the land/<span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breeze</span> development, and interacts with local mountain-valley circulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917622G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917622G"><span>Vulnerability of marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gomis, Damia; Jordà, Gabriel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> level rise (SLR) is a serious thread for coastal areas and has a potential negative impact on society and economy. SLR can lead for instance to land loss, beach reduction, increase of the damage of marine storms on coastal infrastructures and to the salinization of underground water streams. It is well acknowledged that future SLR will be inhomogeneous across the globe, with regional differences of up to 100% with respect to global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (GMSL). Several studies have addressed the projections of SLR at regional scale, but most of them are based on global climate models (GCMs) that have a relatively coarse spatial resolution (>1°). In marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> this has proven to be a strong limitation, as their particular configurations require spatial resolutions that are not reachable by present GCMs. A paradigmatic case is the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, connected to the global ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, a narrow passage of 14 km width. The functioning of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> involves a variety of processes including an overturning circulation, small-scale convection and a rich mesoscale field. Moreover, the long-term evolution of Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level has been significantly different from the global mean during the last decades. The observations of present climate and the projections for the next decades have lead some authors to hypothesize that the particular characteristics of the basin could allow Mediterranean mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level to evolve differently from the global mean. Assessing this point is essential to undertake proper adaptation strategies for the largely populated Mediterranean coastal areas. In this work we apply a new approach that combines regional and global projections to analyse future SLR. In a first step we focus on the quantification of the expected departures of future Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level from GMSL evolution and on the contribution of different processes to these departures. As a result we find that, in spite of its particularities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21963559','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21963559"><span>Medicinal and therapeutic potential of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suryakumar, Geetha; Gupta, Asheesh</p> <p>2011-11-18</p> <p>ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL CONTEXT: This review explores the medicinal and therapeutic applications of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in curtailing different <span class="hlt">types</span> of acute as well as chronic maladies. The plant is being used in different parts of the world for its nutritional and medicinal properties. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> buckthorn based preparations have been extensively exploited in folklore treatment of slow digestion, stomach malfunctioning, cardiovascular problems, liver injury, tendon and ligament injuries, skin diseases and ulcers. In the recent years, medicinal and pharmacological activities of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> buckthorn have been well investigated using various in vitro and in vivo models as well as limited clinical trials. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> buckthorn has been scientifically analyzed and many of its traditional uses have been established using several biochemical and pharmacological studies. Various pharmacological activities such as cytoprotective, anti-stress, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, radioprotective, anti-atherogenic, anti-tumor, anti-microbial and tissue regeneration have been reported. It is clear that <span class="hlt">Sea</span> buckthorn is an important plant because of its immense medicinal and therapeutic potential. However, several knowledge gaps identified in this paper would give impetus to new academic and R&D activities especially for the development of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> buckthorn based herbal medicine and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DSRII..51.1857J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DSRII..51.1857J"><span>Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is shared with other deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ISPAr42.3.2419Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ISPAr42.3.2419Z"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Drift Monitoring in the Bohai <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Based on GF4 Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Y.; Wei, P.; Zhu, H.; Xing, B.</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>The Bohai <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is the inland <span class="hlt">sea</span> with the highest latitude in China. In winter, the phenomenon of freezing occurs in the Bohai <span class="hlt">Sea</span> due to frequent cold wave influx. According to historical records, there have been three serious ice packs in the Bohai <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in the past 50 years which caused heavy losses to our economy. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor the drift of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the Bohai <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The GF4 image has the advantages of short imaging time and high spatial resolution. Based on the GF4 satellite images, the three methods of SIFT (Scale invariant feature - the transform and Scale invariant feature transform), MCC (maximum cross-correlation method) and sift combined with MCC are used to monitor <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice drift and calculate the speed and direction of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice drift, the three calculation results are compared and analyzed by using expert interpretation and historical statistical data to carry out remote sensing monitoring of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice drift results. The experimental results show that the experimental results of the three methods are in accordance with expert interpretation and historical statistics. Therefore, the GF4 remote sensing satellite images have the ability to monitor <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice drift and can be used for drift monitoring of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the Bohai <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..110.3205M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..110.3205M"><span>In situ airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties during photochemical pollution events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mallet, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Cachier, H.</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>Dry aerosol optical properties (scattering, absorbing coefficients, and single scattering albedo) were derived from in situ airborne measurements during two photochemical pollution events (25 and 26 June) observed during the Experience sur Site pour Contraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospherique et de Transport d'Emissions (ESCOMPTE) experiment. Two flights were carried out during daytime (one during the morning and one at noon) over a domain, allowing the investigation of how an air pollution event affects the particle optical properties. Both horizontal distribution and vertical profiles are presented. Results from the horizontal mapping show that plumes of enhanced scattering and absorption are formed in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during the day in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breeze</span>-driven outflow of the coastal urban-industrial area of Marseille-Fos de Berre. The domain-averaged scattering coefficient (at 550 nm) over land σs changes from 35 (28) Mm-1 during land <span class="hlt">breeze</span> to 63 (43) Mm-1 during <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">breeze</span> on 25 June (26 June), with local maxima reaching > 100 Mm-1. The increase in the scattering coefficient is associated with new particle formation, indicative of secondary aerosol formation. Simultaneously, the domain-averaged absorption coefficient increases from 5.6 (3.4) Mm-1 to 9.3 (8.0) Mm-1. The pollution plume leads to strong gradients in the single scattering albedo ωo over the domain studied, with local values as low as 0.73 observed inside the pollution plume. The role of photochemistry and secondary aerosol formation during the 25 June case is shown to increase ωo and to make the aerosol more `reflecting' while the plume moves away from the sources. The lower photochemical activity, observed in the 26 June case, induces a relatively higher contribution of black carbon, making the aerosol more absorbing. Results from vertical profiles at a single near-urban location in the domain indicate that the changes in optical properties happen almost entirely within</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME12B..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME12B..03L"><span>Under the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice: Exploration of the Relationships Between <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Patterns and Foraging Movements of a Marine Predator in East Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Labrousse, S.; Sallee, J. B.; Fraser, A. D.; Massom, R. A.; Reid, P.; Sumner, M.; Guinet, C.; Harcourt, R.; Bailleul, F.; Hindell, M.; Charrassin, J. B.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Investigating ecological relationships between top predators and their environment is essential to understand the response of marine ecosystems to climate variability. Specifically, variability and changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, which is known as an important habitat for marine ecosystems, presents complex patterns in East Antarctic. The impact for ecosystems of such changes of their habitat is however still unknown. Acting as an ecological double-edged sword, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice can impede access to marine resources while harboring a rich ecosystem during winter. Here, we investigated which <span class="hlt">type</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice habitat is used by male and female southern elephant seals during winter and examine if and how the spatio-temporal variability of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration (SIC) influence their foraging strategies. We also examined over a 10 years time-series the impact of SIC and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice advance anomaly on foraging activity. To do this, we studied 46 individuals equipped with Satellite linked data recorders between 2004 and 2014, undertaking post-moult trips in winter from Kerguelen to the peri-Antarctic shelf. The general patterns of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice use by males and females are clearly distinct; while females tended to follow the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice edge as it extended northward, males remained on the continental shelf. Female foraging activity was higher in late autumn in the outer part of the pack ice in concentrated SIC and spatially stable. They remained in areas of variable SIC over time and low persistence. The seal hunting time, a proxy of foraging activity inferred from the diving behaviour, was much higher during earlier advance of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice over female time-series. The females were possibly taking advantage of the ice algal autumn bloom sustaining krill and an under ice ecosystem without being trapped in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. Males foraging activity increased when they remained deep inside <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice over the shelf using variable SIC in time and space, presumably in polynyas or flaw leads between fast and pack ice. This strategy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3789407','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3789407"><span>First biological measurements of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals from the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roder, C.; Berumen, M. L.; Bouwmeester, J.; Papathanassiou, E.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Voolstra, C. R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals to cold-water habitats, with ‘deep-sea’ and ‘cold-water’ corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals from the central Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited. PMID:24091830</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950029651&hterms=Global+Positioning+System&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DThe%2BGlobal%2BPositioning%2BSystem','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950029651&hterms=Global+Positioning+System&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DThe%2BGlobal%2BPositioning%2BSystem"><span>Precise mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level measurements using the Global Positioning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the results of a <span class="hlt">sea</span> level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate <span class="hlt">sea</span> level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different <span class="hlt">types</span> of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two <span class="hlt">sea</span> level time series. An estimate of the mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined <span class="hlt">sea</span> level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate <span class="hlt">sea</span> level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, of temporal variations in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, and of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChJOL..33..458Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChJOL..33..458Z"><span>Influences of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice on eastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> phytoplankton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Qianqian; Wang, Peng; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Li, Bingqian; Gao, Yahui</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The influence of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice on the species composition and cell density of phytoplankton was investigated in the eastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in spring 2008. Diatoms, particularly pennate diatoms, dominated the phytoplankton community. The dominant species were Grammonema islandica (Grunow in Van Heurck) Hasle, Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger, F. oceanica (Cleve) Hasle, Navicula vanhoeffenii Gran, Thalassiosira antarctica Comber, T. gravida Cleve, T. nordenskiöeldii Cleve, and T. rotula Meunier. Phytoplankton cell densities varied from 0.08×104 to 428.8×104 cells/L, with an average of 30.3×104 cells/L. Using cluster analysis, phytoplankton were grouped into three assemblages defined by ice-forming conditions: open water, ice edge, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice assemblages. In spring, when the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice melts, the phytoplankton dispersed from the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice to the ice edge and even into open waters. Thus, these phytoplankton in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice may serve as a "seed bank" for phytoplankton population succession in the subarctic ecosystem. Moreover, historical studies combined with these results suggest that the sizes of diatom species have become smaller, shifting from microplankton to nannoplankton-dominated communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.B21A1017H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.B21A1017H"><span>Massive Organic Matter Fall Processing and Organic Enrichment in Deep <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Sediments: the Role of Fall <span class="hlt">Type</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hannides, A. K.; Smith, C. R.; Baco-Taylor, A. R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Resource-limited deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> sedimentary settings are occasionally punctuated with massive organic matter (MOM) falls, such as fish and marine mammal carcasses, macrophytes and wood. In the case of whale falls, previous studies have shown that sharp gradients in microbial activity exist within a few meters of these falls. These sites are characterized by intense sulfate reduction and sulfide generation, which are commonly attributed to sedimentary organic enrichment from MOM, and in part support extensive chemosynthetic communities that rely on endosymbiotic oxidation of this sulfide for energy. Enrichment is brought about by the fragmentation and dissemination activities of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> megafauna: scavengers in the case of carcasses and macrophytes, and wood borers in the case of wood.Differences in MOM fall composition and structure and the subsequent megafaunal processing raise questions concerning the patterns of organic enrichment around these falls and how these patterns vary with fall <span class="hlt">type</span>. We present an extensive data set of surface sediment organic carbon and nitrogen content at whale, kelp and wood falls of various ages in the California Borderland Basins region. Evidence for organic enrichment around whale falls is lacking, corroborating previous findings. However, distinctly low C:N ratios in surface sediments adjacent to whale falls suggest more complex processing of MOM in this zone. This pattern persists regardless of whale fall age. On the contrary, evidence for organic enrichment around kelp and wood falls abounds. Organic carbon and nitrogen content values adjacent to 3 month-old kelp falls are 25-50 % higher than those 1 m away from the falls and traces of this signal persist for at least 3 more months. In the case of wood falls, 6 month-old falls do not show any significant traces of enrichment, but 3 years after the fall event organic carbon content adjacent to the falls increases by 2-5 times that of background. C:N ratios concomitantly increase to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022547','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022547"><span>Classification methods for monitoring Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice using OKEAN passive/active two-channel microwave data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Belchansky, Gennady I.; Douglas, David C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents methods for classifying Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice using both passive and active (2-channel) microwave imagery acquired by the Russian OKEAN 01 polar-orbiting satellite series. Methods and results are compared to <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice classifications derived from nearly coincident Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data of the Barents, Kara, and Laptev <span class="hlt">Seas</span>. The Russian OKEAN 01 satellite data were collected over weekly intervals during October 1995 through December 1997. Methods are presented for calibrating, georeferencing and classifying the raw active radar and passive microwave OKEAN 01 data, and for correcting the OKEAN 01 microwave radiometer calibration wedge based on concurrent 37 GHz horizontal polarization SSM/I brightness temperature data. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">type</span> and ice concentration algorithms utilized OKEAN's two-channel radar and passive microwave data in a linear mixture model based on the measured values of brightness temperature and radar backscatter, together with a priori knowledge about the scattering parameters and natural emissivities of basic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">types</span>. OKEAN 01 data and algorithms tended to classify lower concentrations of young or first-year <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice when concentrations were less than 60%, and to produce higher concentrations of multi-year <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice when concentrations were greater than 40%, when compared to estimates produced from SSM/I data. Overall, total <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration maps derived independently from OKEAN 01, SSM/I, and AVHRR satellite imagery were all highly correlated, with uniform biases, and mean differences in total ice concentration of less than four percent (sd<15%).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28574469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28574469"><span>Fluorometric Index for Sensing Oil in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baszanowska, Emilia; Otremba, Zbigniew</p> <p>2017-06-02</p> <p>Excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) was applied to determine the fluorometric index (FI) as a parameter indicating the presence of a source of oil pollution in a specific area of the <span class="hlt">sea</span>. Seawater from the Polish coast (the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) and the same water combined with various amounts of crude oil extracted from the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf ( Petrobaltic -<span class="hlt">type</span> oil) were used in this study. The FI values were calculated for excitation and emission wavelengths found at the maximal peak, taking into account the natural seawater and the seawater artificially contaminated (for an oil-to-water ratio range of 0.5 × 10 -6 - 500 × 10 -6 ). The wavelength configurations (Ex/Em) (225/355 and 225/340) for the FI index were applied. It was found that, independent of the amount of oil, the FI achieves a higher value for natural seawater than for seawater that has had contact with oil. These results provide the basis to design a sensor signaling the appearance of oil in a defined <span class="hlt">sea</span> area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JOUC...17....1W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JOUC...17....1W"><span>Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> geohazards in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Shiguo; Wang, Dawei; Völker, David</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Various geological processes and features that might inflict hazards identified in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> by using new technologies and methods. These features include submarine landslides, pockmark fields, shallow free gas, gas hydrates, mud diapirs and earthquake tsunami, which are widely distributed in the continental slope and reefal islands of the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Although the study and assessment of geohazards in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> came into operation only recently, advances in various aspects are evolving at full speed to comply with National Marine Strategy and `the Belt and Road' Policy. The characteristics of geohazards in deep-water seafloor of the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are summarized based on new scientific advances. This progress is aimed to aid ongoing deep-water drilling activities and decrease geological risks in ocean development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMIN21B1175F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMIN21B1175F"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span>Rover: An Emerging Technology for <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Sensor Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fong, T.; Kudela, R.; Curcio, J.; Davidson, K.; Darling, D.; Kirkwood, B.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Introduction - <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Rover is envisioned as an autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) for coastal operations. It is intended to lower the cost of existing marine survey applications while enabling new science missions. The current conceptual design is a small vehicle with hull and propulsion system optimized to eliminate cavitation and EM noise. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Rover will make significant advances over existing platforms by providing longer duration science missions, better positioning and mission control, larger power budgets for instrumentation and significantly lower operational costs than existing vehicles. Science Enabled by <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Rover - <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Rover's unique design and autonomous capability provides several advantages compared to traditional autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) and crewed surface vessels: (1) Near surface sampling: <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Rover can sample within the top 1-2 meters. This is difficult to do with crewed vessels because of draft and perturbations from the hull. (2) Adaptive monitoring of dynamic events: <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Rover will be capable of intelligent decision making, as well as real-time remote control. This will enable highly-responsive autonomous tracking of moving phenomena (e.g., algal bloom). (3) Long term monitoring: <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Rover can be deployed for extended periods of time, allowing it to be used for longitudinal baseline studies. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Rover will represent an advance over existing platforms in terms of: (1) Mobility: operational range from 10-1000 km, GPS accuracy, trajectory control with meter precision, and launch in hours. (2) Duration: from days up to months. (3) Payload and Power: accommodate approximately 100 kg for a 6m hull. Its surface design will allow access to wind and sun energy. (4) Communication: radio, wireless, satellite, direct data return. (5) Operational Cost: target costs are $2K/day (24 hour operation), with no onboard operator. (6) Recovery/Reusability: autonomous return to safe harbor provides sample return and on-base maintenance. Large science and power</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4734V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4734V"><span>Ice2<span class="hlt">sea</span> - the future glacial contribution to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vaughan, D. G.; Ice2sea Consortium</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The melting of continental ice (glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets) is a substantial source of current <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, and one that is accelerating more rapidly than was predicted even a few years ago. Indeed, the most recent report from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted that the uncertainty in projections of future <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise is dominated by uncertainty concerning continental ice, and that understanding of the key processes that will lead to loss of continental ice must be improved before reliable projections of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise can be produced. Such projections are urgently required for effective <span class="hlt">sea</span>-defence management and coastal adaptation planning. Ice2<span class="hlt">sea</span> is a consortium of European institutes and international partners seeking European funding to support an integrated scientific programme to improve understanding concerning the future glacial co