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Sample records for sea walls

  1. 4. EAST VIEW OF HEAVILY DETERIORATED SECTION OF SEA WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST VIEW OF HEAVILY DETERIORATED SECTION OF SEA WALL LOOKING ACROSS ERODED EASTERN CORNER OF PEA PATCH ISLAND. BUILDING FOUNDATION REMAINS IN FOREGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  2. Before sailing on a domain-wall sea

    SciTech Connect

    Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal

    2005-02-01

    We discuss the very different roles of the valence-quark and the sea-quark residual masses (m{sub res}{sup v} and m{sub res}{sup s}) in dynamical domain-wall fermions simulations. Focusing on matrix elements of the effective weak Hamiltonian containing a power divergence, we find that m{sub res}{sup v} can be a source of a much bigger systematic error. To keep all systematic errors due to residual masses at the 1% level, we estimate that one needs am{sub res}{sup s} < or approx. 10{sup -3} and am{sub res}{sup v} < or approx. 10{sup -5}, at a lattice spacing a{approx}0.1 fm. The practical implications are that (1) optimal use of computer resources calls for a mixed scheme with different domain-wall fermion actions for the valence and sea quarks; (2) better domain-wall fermion actions are needed for both the sea and the valence sectors.

  3. Experimental Study on Tsunami Risk Reduction on Coastal Building Fronted by Sea Wall

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. T. R.; Shirazi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to idealize the efficacy of sea wall in controlling the tsunami forces on onshore structures. Different types of sea walls were placed in front of the building model. The tsunami forces and the wave heights were measured with and without the sea wall conditions. Types of sea wall, wall height, and wall positions were varied simultaneously to quantify the force reductions. Maximum of 41% forces was reduced by higher sea wall, positioned closer proximity to the model whereas this reduction was about 27% when the wall height was half of the high wall. Experimental investigations revealed that wall with adequate height and placed closer to the structures enables a satisfactory predictor of the force reduction on onshore structures. Another set of tests were performed with perforated wall placing near the building model. Less construction cost makes the provision of perforated sea wall interesting. The overall results showed that the efficacy of perforated wall is almost similar to solid wall. Hence, it can be efficiently used instead of solid wall. Moreover, overtopped water that is stuck behind the wall is readily gone back to the sea through perforations releasing additional forces on the nearby structures. PMID:24790578

  4. Run-up of surface waves on a sea wall built on a convex bottom profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulova, I. I.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Rodin, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Wave run-up on a sea wall built on a convex bottom profile is studied in the framework of linear shallow water theory. When the wall is located in "deeper water," a wave is reflected from the wall without changing its shape and phase, which is fully consistent with classical considerations. If the wall is shifted towards the shore, the shape of the wave changes in a complex way. Note that the wave phase changes to the opposite in the limiting case when the wall is located right on the shore. The role of nonlinear effects is studied by means of numerical simulations using nonlinear shallow water theory. It is shown that the contribution of nonlinear effects and breaking is high on a convex-shaped beach, which makes the structure of the wave field rather complicated.

  5. Hadron spectrum with domain-wall valence quarks on an improved staggered sea

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, David; Edwards, Robert; Orginos, Konstantinos

    2006-07-23

    The hadron spectrum is computed in full QCD using domain-wall valence fermions on an improved staggered sea, for pion masses down to around $350{approx}(/rm MeV)$. Emphasis is laid on the low-lying baryon spectrum. All possible baryon correlators obtainable from local and quasi-local quark sources are computed, using lattice group-theory methods Results are presented for the lowest-lying states in each isospin channel.

  6. Hadronic physics with domain-wall valence and improved staggered sea quarks

    SciTech Connect

    D. B. Renner; W. Schroers; R. Edwards; G. T. Fleming; Ph. Hagler; J. W. Negele; K. Orginos; A. V. Pochinski; D. Richards

    2004-06-01

    With the advent of chiral fermion formulations, the simulation of light valence quarks has finally become realistic for numerical simulations of lattice QCD. The simulation of light dynamical quarks, however, remains one of the major challenges and is still an obstacle to realistic simulations. We attempt to meet this challenge using a hybrid combination of Asqtad sea quarks and domain-wall valence quarks. Initial results for the proton form factor and the nucleon axial coupling are presented.

  7. Antibacterial activity of the body wall extracts of sea cucumber (Invertebrata; Echinodermata) on infectious oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Negin; Heidari, Behrooz; Rassa, Mehdi; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Heidari, Bijan

    2014-01-27

    Abstract Background: The present study was carried out to test the antibacterial effect of the body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota Brandt on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus salivarius. Methods: After sampling sea cucumbers from the Persian Gulf, different extractions were prepared. Then, aqueous, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.8), chloroform, hexane and methanolic extracts from sea cucumber body wall were screened for antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria S. mutans and S. salivarius using the disk diffusion method. Results: The PBS extract did not show any antibacterial or inhibitory activity; the chloroform extract, however, demonstrated high levels of antibacterial activity against S. salivarius while exhibiting low levels of activity against S. mutans. The hexane and methanolic extracts were found to show no antibacterial activity against S. mutans, but exhibited antibacterial activity against S. salivarius. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results demonstrated the possibility of utilizing sea cucumbers as a cheap source of potential antibacterial agents and for treating odontogenic diseases.

  8. Nonlinear contact between inner walls of deep sea pipelines in buckling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weilin; Yu, Jianxing; Zhou, Qingji; Xie, Bin; Cao, Jing; Li, Zhibo

    2015-02-01

    In order to study buckling propagation mechanism in deep sea pipelines, the contact between pipeline's inner walls in buckling process was studied. A two-dimensional ring model was used to represent the pipeline and a nonlinear spring model was adopted to simulate the contact between inner walls. Based on the elastoplastic constitutive relationship and the principle of virtual work theory, the coupling effect of pipeline's nonlinear large deformation and wall contact was included in the theoretical analysis with the aid of MATLAB, and the application scope of the theoretical model was also discussed. The calculated results show that during the loading process, the change in external pressure is closely related to the distribution of section stress, and once the walls are contacting each other, the external pressure increases and then remains stable after it reaches a specific value. Without fracture, the pipeline section will stop showing deformation. The results of theoretical calculations agree well with those of numerical simulations. Finally, in order to ensure reliability and accuracy of the theoretical results, the collapse pressure and propagation pressure were both verified by numerical simulations and experiments. Therefore, the theoretical model can be used to analyze pipeline's buckling deformation and contact between pipeline's inner walls, which forms the basis for further research on three-dimensional buckling propagation.

  9. Longevity, life history, and relative body wall size in sea urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, T.A.

    1982-12-01

    Annual survival rates in 38 populations of 17 sea urchin species in the Indo-West Pacific were related to relative size of the body wall and exposure to the surf. Populations were studied at Hawaii, Enewetak Atok, Queensland, New South Wales and Western Australia, Sri Lanka, Seychelles, Kenya, Zanzibar, and Isaerl (Eilat). Live animals were dissected to determine the size of body components. Parameters of the Richards growth function were determined from animals tagged with tetracycline. Tagged animals were collected after they had been in the field for 1 yr. Growth parameters were used with parameters from size-frequency distributions to estimate Z, the mortality coefficient. Stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between annual survival probability (p) and two indepencent variables, ..cap alpha.. and E, where E is a subjective measure of exposure to surf (1 = most exposed). Survivorship increases with increased relative size of the body wall and with increased protection from the surf. The positive relationship between survival probability and relative body wall size supports the hypothesis that survival is related to allocation of resources to maintenance. The significane of longevity in urchins probably is that it is related to the predictability of survival of prereproductive individuals. The greater the unpredictability, the longer life must be. Long life requires a greater investment in maintenance mechanisms and hence, among other adaptations, a more massive body wall.

  10. Generalized parton distributions from domain wall valence quarks and staggered sea quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Dru; Bratt, Jonathan; Edwards, Robert; Engelhardt, Michael; Fleming, George; Haegler, Philipp; Musch, Bernhard; Negele, John; Orginos, Konstantinos; Pochinsky, Andrew; Richards, David; Schroers, Wolfram

    2007-11-01

    Moments of the generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, calculated with a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks and asqtad staggered sea quarks, are presented for pion masses extending down to 359 MeV. Results for the moments of the unpolarized, helicity, and transversity distributions are given and compared to the available experimental measurements. Additionally, a selection of the generalized form factors are shown and the implications for the spin decomposition and transverse structure of the nucleon are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding systematic errors in the lattice calculation and exploring a variety of chiral extrapolations.

  11. Mixed Meson Mass for Domain-Wall Valence and Staggered Sea Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos; Andre Walker-Loud

    2007-05-01

    Mixed action lattice calculations allow for an additive lattice spacing dependent mass renormalization of mesons composed of one sea and one valence quark, regardless of the type of fermion discretization methods used in the valence and sea sectors. The value of the mass renormalization depends upon the lattice actions used. This mixed meson mass shift is the most important lattice artifact to determine for mixed action calculations: because it modifies the pion mass, it plays a central role in the low energy dynamics of all hadronic correlation functions. We determine the leading order and next to leading order additive mass renormalization of valence-sea mesons for a mixed lattice action with domain-wall valence fermions and staggered sea fermions. We find that on the asqtad improved coarse MILC lattices, the leading order additive mass renormalization for the mixed mesons is Δ(am)^2 LO = 0.0409(11) which corresponds to a^2 Δ_Mix = (319 MeV)^2± (53 MeV)^2 for a = 0.125 fm. We also find significant next to leading order contributions which reduce the mass renormalization by a significant amount, such that for 0 < am_π ≤ 0.22 the mixed meson mass renormalization is well approximated by Δ(am)^2 = 0.0340 (23) or a^2δ_Mix = (290 MeV)^2 ± (76 MeV)^2. The full next-to-leading order analysis is presented in the text.

  12. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  13. Nucleon structure from mixed action calculations using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jonathan; Engelhardt, Michael; Haegler, Philipp; Huey-Wen, Lin; Lin, Meifeng; Meyer, Harvey; Musch, Bernhard; Negele, John; Orginos, Konstantinos; Pochinsky, Andrew; Procura, Massimiliano; Richards, David; Schroers, Wolfram; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2010-11-01

    We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin.

  14. Isolation and characterization of collagen from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus monotuberculatus.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming; Chen, Ting; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-04-01

    To exploit a new collagen resource from the body wall of tropical sea cucumber, pepsin-solubilized collagen of Stichopus monotuberculatus (PSC-Sm) was isolated and characterized with UV-vis spectra, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), amino acid composition, enzyme-digested peptide maps, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), maximum transition temperature (Tm ), and solubilities. The maximum absorbance of PSC-Sm was exhibited at 218 nm in UV-vis spectra. The triple helical structure and activity of PSC-Sm could be indicated by FTIR. SDS-PAGE showed that the triple helix of PSC-Sm was formed as (α1 )3 by 3 α1 chain homologous with molecular weight of 137 kDa. The Tm of PSC-Sm and calf skin collagen (CSC) were 30.2 and 35.0 ºC, respectively, which consistent with the result of FTIR that CSC contained more stable triple-helix than PSC-Sm. Peptide maps were different between PSC-Sm and CSC, indicating the differences in their amino acid compositions and sequences. The maximum and minimum solubilities of PSC-Sm were observed at pH 2.0 and 4.0, respectively. A sharp decrease in solubility appeared when NaCl concentration was between 3% and 5%. These results showed that collagen from S. monotuberculatus had the type I collagen characteristics and good thermal stability, and therefore, it could be used as an alternative resource of collagen.

  15. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark P; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Würzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A Louise

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs.

  16. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark P; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Würzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A Louise

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs. PMID:24260319

  17. A Vertical Wall Dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, Part of an Undersampled Group of Deep-Sea Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark P.; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Würzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A. Louise

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland’s continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs. PMID:24260319

  18. Occurrence of chondroitin sulfate E in glycosaminoglycan isolated from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Y; Watabe, S; Hashimoto, K; Yoshida, K

    1990-03-25

    Glycosaminoglycan was isolated from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus by a method consisting of enzymatic digestion, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. One gram of sea cucumber glycosaminoglycan was composed of 2.50 mmol of sulfate, 0.47 mmol of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), 0.53 mmol of glucuronic acid (GlcA), 1.73 mmol of fucose, and a small amount of peptide. When mildly hydrolyzed with 0.1 N H2SO4, this glycosaminoglycan released two products, one consisting of fucose plus sulfate and the other of fucose only. Partially hydrolyzed glycosaminoglycan thus obtained was composed of sulfate, GalNAc, GlcA, and fucose at a molar ratio of 3:2:2:1. Partially hydrolyzed glycosaminoglycan was easily digested with chondroitinase AC II. In ion-exchange chromatography, the digest exhibited four sharp peaks whose retention times agreed with those of unsaturated 0-(delta Di-0S), mono-(delta Di-4S and delta Di-6S), and di-(delta Di-SE) sulfated disaccharide, respectively. The disaccharide unit of sea cucumber glycosaminoglycan was composed of 22.4% chondroitin sulfate E, 11.2% chondroitin, 10.4% chondroitin 4-sulfate, and 56.0% chondroitin 6-sulfate.

  19. Structure of fucose branches in the glycosaminoglycan from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Y; Watabe, S; Kyogashima, M; Ishihara, M; Ishii, T

    1997-01-17

    Fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate E was prepared from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. The purified glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was chemically desulfated, followed by carboxyl reduction. Intact, desulfated, and desulfated/carboxyl-reduced GAG fractions were subjected to per-O-methylation. GC-MS analyses of the resultant partially methylated alditol acetates demonstrated that the fucose branch is formed by two fucopyranosyl residues linked glycosidically through position (1-->3), and that the fucose branch and glucuronic acid are almost equimolar. In addition, it was elucidated that about 20% of the branches stretch from O-3 position of a glucuronic acid moiety of the core chondroitin sulfate polymer, while remaining fucose branches are postulated to protrude from O-4 and/or O-6 position(s) of a N-acetylgalactosamine moiety. This fucose branch was also confirmed to be highly sulfated according to six kinds of substitution pattern in methylation analysis. PMID:9060189

  20. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus. PMID:27374541

  1. Structure of fucose branches in the glycosaminoglycan from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Y; Watabe, S; Kyogashima, M; Ishihara, M; Ishii, T

    1997-01-17

    Fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate E was prepared from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. The purified glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was chemically desulfated, followed by carboxyl reduction. Intact, desulfated, and desulfated/carboxyl-reduced GAG fractions were subjected to per-O-methylation. GC-MS analyses of the resultant partially methylated alditol acetates demonstrated that the fucose branch is formed by two fucopyranosyl residues linked glycosidically through position (1-->3), and that the fucose branch and glucuronic acid are almost equimolar. In addition, it was elucidated that about 20% of the branches stretch from O-3 position of a glucuronic acid moiety of the core chondroitin sulfate polymer, while remaining fucose branches are postulated to protrude from O-4 and/or O-6 position(s) of a N-acetylgalactosamine moiety. This fucose branch was also confirmed to be highly sulfated according to six kinds of substitution pattern in methylation analysis.

  2. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus.

  3. Occurrence of a unique fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate in the body wall of a sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A

    1988-12-01

    The sulfated polysaccharides in the body wall of the sea cucumber occur as three fractions that differ markedly in molecular mass and chemical composition. The fraction containing a high molecular mass component has a high proportion of fucose and small amounts of galactose and amino sugars, whereas another fraction contains primarily a sulfated fucan. The third fraction (F-2), which represents the major portion of the sea cucumber-sulfated polysaccharides, contains approximately equimolar quantities of glucuronic acid, N-acetyl galactosamine, and fucose, and has a sulfate content higher than that in the other two fractions. The structure of fraction F-2 was examined in detail. This polysaccharide has an unusual structure composed of a chondroitin sulfate-like core, containing side chain disaccharide units of sulfated fucopyranosyl linked to approximately half of the glucuronic acid moieties through the O-3 position of the acid. These unusual fucose branches obstruct the access of chondroitinases to the chondroitin sulfate core of F-2. However, after partial acid hydrolysis, which removes the sulfated fucose residues from the polymer, fraction F-2 is degraded by chondroitinases into 6-sulfated and nonsulfated disaccharides.

  4. Incidence and Diversity of Microorganisms within the Walls of an Active Deep-Sea Sulfide Chimney

    PubMed Central

    Schrenk, Matthew O.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Delaney, John R.; Baross, John A.

    2003-01-01

    A large, intact sulfide chimney, designated Finn, was recovered from the Mothra Vent Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in 1998. Finn was venting 302°C fluids on the seafloor and contained complex mineralogical zones surrounding a large open central conduit. Examination of microorganisms within these zones, followed by community analysis with oligonucleotide probes, showed that there were variations in the abundance and diversity of eubacteria and archaea from the exterior to the interior of the chimney. The microbial abundance based upon epifluorescence microscopy and quantitative fatty acid analyses varied from >108 cells/g of sulfide 2 to 10 cm within the chimney wall to <105 cells/g in interior zones. Direct microscopic observation indicated that microorganisms were attached to mineral surfaces throughout the structure. Whole-cell hybridization results revealed that there was a transition from a mixed community of eubacteria and archaea near the cool exterior of the chimney to primarily archaea near the warm interior. Archaeal diversity was examined in three zones of Finn by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of sequences from the exterior of the chimney were related to marine group I of the Crenarchaeota and uncultured Euryarchaeota from benthic marine environments. In contrast, clone libraries from interior regions of the chimney contained sequences closely related to methanogens, Thermococcales, and Archaeoglobales, in addition to uncultured crenarchaeal phylotypes obtained from deep subsurface sites. These observations of microbial communities within an active hydrothermal chimney provide insight into the microbial ecology within such structures and may facilitate follow-up exploration into expanding the known upper temperature limits of life. PMID:12788766

  5. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: →3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1→4) [FucαX(1→3)]GlcAβ(1→, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  6. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  7. Highly acidic glycans from sea cucumbers. Isolation and fractionation of fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides from the body wall of Ludwigothurea grisea.

    PubMed

    Mourão, P A; Bastos, I G

    1987-08-01

    The body wall of the sea cucumber contains high amounts of sulfated glycans, which differ in structure from glycosaminoglycans of animal tissues and also from the fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides isolated from marine algae and from the jelly coat of sea urchin eggs. In Ludwigothurea grisea, glycans can be separated into three fractions which differ in molecular mass and chemical composition. The fraction containing a high-molecular-mass component has a high proportion of fucose and small amounts of amino sugars, whereas another fraction contains primarily a sulfated fucan. The third fraction, which represents the major portion of the sea cucumber polysaccharides, contains besides fucose, approximately equimolar proportions of glucuronic acid and amino sugars, and has a sulfate content higher than that in the other two fractions. Both D and L-isomers of fucose are found in these polysaccharides, and the sulfate is linked to the O-3 position of the fucose residues. The attachment position of the sulfate groups to the glucuronic acid units and amino sugars is still undetermined. It is possible that these compounds are involved in maintaining the integrity of the sea cucumber's body wall, in analogy with the role of other macromolecules in the vertebrate connective tissue.

  8. Transcription profiling using RNA-Seq demonstrates expression differences in the body walls of juvenile albino and normal sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina; Chen, Muyan

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus are one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Their normal body color is black to fit their surroundings. Wild albinos are rare and hard to breed. To understand the differences between albino and normal (control) sea cucumbers at the transcriptional level, we sequenced the transcriptomes in their body-wall tissues using RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing. Approximately 4.876 million (M) and 4.884 M 200-nucleotide-long cDNA reads were produced in the cDNA libraries derived from the body walls of albino and control samples, respectively. A total of 9 561 (46.89%) putative genes were identified from among the RNA-Seq reads in both libraries. After filtering, 837 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified in the albino library compared with in the control library, and 3.6% of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to have changed those more than five-fold. The expression levels of 10 DEGs were checked by real-time PCR and the results were in full accord with the RNA-Seq expression trends, although the amplitude of the differences in expression levels was lower in all cases. A series of pathways were significantly enriched for the DEGs. These pathways were closely related to phagocytosis, the complement and coagulation cascades, apoptosis-related diseases, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and cell adhesion. The differences in gene expression and enriched pathways between the albino and control sea cucumbers offer control targets for cultivating excellent albino A. japonicus strains in the future.

  9. Late Holocene sea-level rise in Tampa Bay: Integrated reconstruction using biomarkers, pollen, organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, and diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soelen, E. E.; Lammertsma, E. I.; Cremer, H.; Donders, T. H.; Sangiorgi, F.; Brooks, G. R.; Larson, R. A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Reichart, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    A suite of organic geochemical, micropaleontological and palynological proxies was applied to sediments from Southwest Florida, to study the Holocene environmental changes associated with sea-level rise. Sediments were recovered from Hillsborough Bay, part of Tampa Bay, and studied using biomarkers, pollen, organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts and diatoms. Analyses show that the site flooded around 7.5 ka as a consequence of Holocene transgression, progressively turning a fresh/brackish marl-marsh into a shallow, restricted marine environment. Immediately after the marine transgression started, limited water circulation and high amounts of runoff caused stratification of the water column. A shift in dinocysts and diatom assemblages to more marine species, increasing concentrations of marine biomarkers and a shift in the Diol Index indicate increasing salinity between 7.5 ka and the present, which is likely a consequence of progressing sea-level rise. Reconstructed sea surface temperatures for the past 4 kyrs are between 25 and 26 ° C, and indicate stable temperatures during the Late Holocene. A sharp increase in sedimentation rate in the top ˜50 cm of the core is attributed to human impact. The results are in agreement with parallel studies from the area, but this study further refines the environmental reconstructions having the advantage of simultaneously investigating changes in the terrestrial and marine environment.

  10. ROS production in homogenate from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus under UVA irradiation: ESR spin-trapping study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hang; Dong, Xiu-fang; Zhao, Ya-ping; Li, Nan; Fu, Hui; Feng, Ding-ding; Liu, Li; Yu, Chen-xu

    2016-02-01

    Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (S. japonicus) shows a strong ability of autolysis, which leads to severe deterioration in sea cucumber quality during processing and storage. In this study, to further characterize the mechanism of sea cucumber autolysis, hydroxyl radical production induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation was investigated. Homogenate from the body wall of S. japonicas was prepared and subjected to UVA irradiation at room temperature. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectra of the treated samples were subsequently recorded. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals (OH) became more abundant while the time of UVA treatment and the homogenate concentration were increased. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, EDTA, desferal, NaN3 and D2O to the homogenate samples led to different degrees of inhibition on OH production. Metal cations and pH also showed different effects on OH production. These results indicated that OH was produced in the homogenate with a possible pathway as follows: O2(-) → H2O2 → OH, suggesting that OH might be a critical factor in UVA-induced S. japonicus autolysis.

  11. Purification and partial characterisation of a cathepsin L-like proteinase from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) and its tissue distribution in body wall.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da-Yong; Chang, Xian-Na; Bao, Sha-Sha; Song, Liang; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Zong, Yuan; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Liu, Yu-Xin; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    A cathepsin L-like proteinase (CLP) with molecular weight of 30.9 kDa from the gut of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicas, S. japonicus) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by several chromatographic procedures. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and 50 °C, and showed thermostability up to 40 °C. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by Zn(2+), strongly inhibited by Fe(2+) and Cu(2+), drastically reduced by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, but slightly enhanced by thiol-activating agents. The enzyme efficiently hydrolysed the specific substrate of cathepsin L, but hardly hydrolysed the specific substrates for cathepsin B, cathepsin H and cathepsin K. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that the CLP was more abundant in the epidermis rather than in the dermis of S. japonicus body wall. The distribution of CLP showed positive correlation with autolysis rate. Therefore, the relationship between CLP and autolysis deserved further study.

  12. Isolation and partial characterization of fucan sulfates from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus and their ability to inhibit osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Yutaka; Mulloy, Barbara; Imai, Kyoko; Tominaga, Akihiro; Kaneko, Takuji; Asari, Akira; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Ishii, Tadashi

    2004-05-17

    Two types of fucan sulfate were isolated from chloroform/methanol extract of the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. One type (type A) contained 3.41 mmol fucose/g and 2.35 mmol sulfate/g, and the molecular mass was determined to be 9 kDa by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Structural analysis suggested that type A consists of a backbone of (1-->3)-linked fucosyl residues that are substituted at C-4 with fucosyl residues, and that fucosyl residues are sulfated at C-2 and/or C-4. Another type (type B) contained 3.90 mmol fucose/g and 3.07 mmol sulfate/g, and the molecular mass was determined to be 32kDa by GPC. Structural analysis showed that type B is largely composed of unbranched (1-->3)-linked fucosyl residues, and that sulfate substitution(s) occur at C-2 and/or C-4. The potential of both types to inhibit osteoclastogenesis was examined by an in vitro assay system, showing that both types of fucan sulfate inhibit osteoclastogenesis more than 95% at 50 microg/mL concentration. These results suggest that types A and B fucan sulfate from sea cucumber are potent inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis.

  13. Aspects of Precision Calculations of Nucleon Generalized Form Factors with Domain Wall Fermions on an Asqtad Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jonathan; Edwards, Robert; Engelhardt, Michael; Fleming, George; Hagler, Ph.; Lin, Meifeng; Meyer, Harvey; Musch, Bernhard; Negele, John; Orginos, Konstantinos; Pochinsky, Andrew; Procura, M.; Renner, Dru; Richards, David; Schroers, Wolfram; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2008-12-01

    In order to advance lattice calculations of moments of unpolarized, helicity, and transversity distributions, electromagnetic form factors, and generalized form factors of the nucleon to a new level of precision, this work investigates several key aspects of precision lattice calculations. We calculate the number of configurations required for constant statistical errors as a function of pion mass, describe the coherent sink method to help achieve these statistics, examine the statistical correlations between separate measurements, study correlations in the behavior of form factors at different momentum transfer, examine volume dependence, and compare mixed action results with those using comparable dynamical domain wall configurations. We also show selected form factor results and comment on the QCD evolution of our calculations of the flavor non-singlet nucleon angular momentum.

  14. Preservation of benthic foraminifera and reliability of deep-sea temperature records: Importance of sedimentation rates, lithology, and the need to examine test wall structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Philip F.; Wilson, Paul A.

    2009-06-01

    Preservation of planktic foraminiferal calcite has received widespread attention in recent years, but the taphonomy of benthic foraminiferal calcite and its influence on the deep-sea palaeotemperature record have gone comparatively unreported. Numerical modeling indicates that the carbonate recrystallization histories of deep-sea sections are dominated by events in their early burial history, meaning that the degree of exchange between sediments and pore fluids during the early postburial phase holds the key to determining the palaeotemperature significance of diagenetic alteration of benthic foraminifera. Postburial sedimentation rate and lithology are likely to be important determinants of the paleoceanographic significance of this sediment-pore fluid interaction. Here we report an investigation of the impact of extreme change in sedimentation rate (a prolonged and widespread Upper Cretaceous hiatus in the North Atlantic Ocean) on the preservation and δ18O of benthic foraminifera of Middle Cretaceous age (nannofossil zone NC10, uppermost Albian/lowermost Cenomanian, ˜99 Ma ago) from multiple drill sites. At sites where this hiatus immediately overlies NC10, benthic foraminifera appear to display at least moderate preservation of the whole test. However, on closer inspection, these tests are shown to be extremely poorly preserved internally and yield δ18O values substantially higher than those from contemporaneous better preserved benthic foraminifera at sites without an immediately overlying hiatus. These high δ18O values are interpreted to indicate alteration close to the seafloor in cooler waters during the Late Cretaceous hiatus. Intersite differences in lithology modulate the diagenetic impact of this extreme change in sedimentation rate. Our results highlight the importance of thorough examination of benthic foraminiferal wall structures and lend support to the view that sedimentation rate and lithology are key factors controlling the paleoceanographic

  15. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from the body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali: conformation, selectin binding, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Charalampos G; Thomson, Derek S; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D; Kelly, Maeve S; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-10-10

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: → 3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1 → 4) [FucαX(1 → 3)]GlcAβ(1 →, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Le(x) blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu(2+)-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  16. A new lineage of halophilic, wall-less, contractile bacteria from a brine-filled deep of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Antunes, André; Rainey, Fred A; Wanner, Gerhard; Taborda, Marco; Pätzold, Jürgen; Nobre, M Fernanda; da Costa, Milton S; Huber, Robert

    2008-05-01

    A novel strictly anaerobic bacterium designated strain SSD-17B(T) was isolated from the hypersaline brine-sediment interface of the Shaban Deep, Red Sea. Cells were pleomorphic but usually consisted of a central coccoid body with one or two "tentacle-like" protrusions. These protrusions actively alternated between a straight, relaxed form and a contracted, corkscrew-like one. A peptidoglycan layer was not detected by electron microscopy. The organism forms "fried-egg"-like colonies on MM-X medium. The organism is strictly anaerobic and halophilic and has an optimum temperature for growth of about 30 to 37 degrees C and an optimum pH of about 7. Nitrate and nitrite are reduced; lactate is a fermentation product. The fatty acid profile is dominated by straight saturated and unsaturated chain compounds. Menaquinone 4 is the major respiratory quinone. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated strain SSD-17B(T) represents a novel and distinct lineage within the radiation of the domain Bacteria. The branching position of strain SSD-17B(T) was equidistant to the taxa considered to be representative lineages of the phyla Firmicutes and Tenericutes (with its sole class Mollicutes). The phenotypic and phylogenetic data clearly show the distinctiveness of this unusual bacterium, and we therefore propose that strain SSD-17B(T) (= DSM 18853 = JCM 14575) represents a new genus and a new species, for which we recommend the name Haloplasma contractile gen. nov., sp. nov. We are also of the opinion that the organism represents a new order-level taxon, for which we propose the name Haloplasmatales.

  17. From Sea to Shining Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Deep down in the depths of the sea, beautiful fish, mysterious ocean life, and unusual plants glimmer and glow in the eerie atmosphere of an ever-changing ocean. This article describes how, with this vision and a purpose in mind, three teachers pulled open classroom walls and joined forces so their second graders could create a mammoth 30 x 75"…

  18. Great Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Steve; Moore, Tim

    1996-01-01

    Explains why installing a well-designed indoor climbing wall can draw new users to an athletic facility. Climbing-wall design elements and gear are discussed and a checklist for working with contractors is provided.(GR)

  19. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  20. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  1. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  2. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  3. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  4. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  5. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  6. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  7. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  8. Sound Bridging By Wall Ties in Cavity Brick Walls: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, P. P.

    1994-07-01

    In cavity brick wall construction, wall ties are frequently used to provide resistance to water penetration and to transfer lateral forces, thereby increasing the load-carrying capacity of the wall. The presence of such ties, however, introduces an additional path through which sound and vibration transmission can take place. As a consequence, the sound insulation performance of cavity walls with ties may be lower than those of identical walls with no ties. In this paper, sound transmission loss results obtained from laboratory measurements on a common cavity wall system with two different types of wall ties are reported. The statistical energy analysis (SEA) method is used to construct a model representing a cavity wall system with or without ties, and predicted airborne sound transmission loss values are compared with experimental results. By considering the wall ties as rigid point bridges that excite the second leaf, which in turn radiates the transmitted sound power, expressions are developed that allow the calculation of the reduction in transmission loss at different frequencies. Reasonable agreement between theory and experimental results has been found by using both methods.

  9. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Meier, W.R.

    1982-08-17

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. Produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithiumceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  10. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  11. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  12. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  13. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  14. A Generalized Wall Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero wall stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-wall region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the wall unless the near-wall flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the wall functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the wall which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the wall shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified wall function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the wall. The extended wall functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.

  15. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  16. Cell wall integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The plant cell wall, a dynamic network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins of significant compositional and structural complexity, functions in plant growth, development and stress responses. In recent years, the existence of plant cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance mechanisms has been demonstrated, but little is known about the signaling pathways involved, or their components. Examination of key mutants has shed light on the relationships between cell wall remodeling and plant cell responses, indicating a central role for the regulatory network that monitors and controls cell wall performance and integrity. In this review, we present a short overview of cell wall composition and discuss post-synthetic cell wall modification as a valuable approach for studying CWI perception and signaling pathways. PMID:23857352

  17. Metallic Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan Michael (Inventor); Hofer, Richard Robert (Inventor); Mikellides, Ioannis G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A Hall thruster apparatus having walls constructed from a conductive material, such as graphite, and having magnetic shielding of the walls from the ionized plasma has been demonstrated to operate with nearly the same efficiency as a conventional non-magnetically shielded design using insulators as wall components. The new design is believed to provide the potential of higher power and uniform operation over the operating life of a thruster device.

  18. Arabian Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... sometimes results in copious phytoplankton production and oxygen depletion of the subsurface waters. Although red phytoplankton fluorescences have been associated with the low oxygen concentrations in the intermediate and deep waters of the Arabian Sea, ...

  19. Sea Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  20. 'Stucco' Walls-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial 'clodding' or cementation of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and makes up half of the projected 'Stucco Walls' image.

  1. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  2. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  3. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  4. 5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall next to the inner wall with its alternating courses of channel tile and hollow tile. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  5. 22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SAME POINT AS VIEW NO. 21. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Swimming Near the Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel; Moored, Keith; Dewey, Peter; Lauder, George; Smits, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads on rectangular panels undergoing heave and pitch oscillations near a solid wall were measured using a 6-axis ATI sensor. Over a range of Strouhal numbers, reduced frequencies and flexibilities, swimming near the wall was found to increase thrust and therefore the self-propelled swimming speed. Experimental particle image velocimetry revealed an asymmetric wake structure with a momentum jet angled away from the wall. Both the thrust amplification and the asymmetric wake structure were verified and investigated further using an in-house inviscid panel method code. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-08-1-0642.

  7. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  8. Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Flagellar propulsion near walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Confinement and wall effects are known to affect the kinematics and propulsive characteristics of swimming microorganisms. When a solid body is dragged through a viscous fluid at constant velocity, the presence of a wall increases fluid drag, and thus the net force required to maintain speed has to increase. In contrast, recent optical trapping experiments have revealed that the propulsive force generated by human spermatozoa is decreased by the presence of boundaries. Here we use simple models to analytically elucidate the propulsive effects of a solid boundary on passively actuated filaments and model eukaryotic flagella. We show that in some cases, the increase in fluid friction induced by the wall can lead to a change in the waveform expressed by the flagella which results in a decrease of their propulsive force near a no-slip wall.

  10. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health care provider may have you learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ), use estrogen cream in ... GM. Anatomic defects of the abdominal wall and pelvic floor: abdominal and inguinal hernias, cystocele, urethrocele, enterocele, rectocele, ...

  11. Ross Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Icebergs in the Ross Sea     View Larger Image Two large icebergs, designated B-15A and C-16, are captured in this Multi-angle Imaging ... the longitudinal quadrant in which it is first seen, and new icebergs sighted in that quadrant are sequentially numbered. B-15 divided from ...

  12. Aral Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... The retreating shoreline leaves the surface encrusted with salt and with agrochemicals brought in by the rivers. As the Sea's moderating ... Large Aral, and may be associated with windblown snow and/or salt particles carried aloft. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

  13. Measurement and simulation of brick wall sound reduction index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Paixao, Dinara X.; Teodoro, Elias B.; Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of an experimental, numerical simulation and analytical model of sound reduction index of solid brick wall. The solid brick used has the following dimensions: 22 x10 x5 cm and density of 1850 kg/m3. The physic-mechanical characteristics: density, resistance, and elasticity modulus were measured using a set of small walls (0.60 x0.63 m). One wall of 4.10 x3.20 x0.10 m (length/height/thickness) was built between two reverberant rooms, with 60 and 63 cubic meters in volume, respectively. Two kinds of junctions were used between the wall and the concrete walls of the reverberant rooms: elastic junction (with a thin layer of rubber, sealed with silicon rubber on both sides and the top of the wall) and rigid junction (using the normal mortar). The sound reduction index was measured according to ISO 140-3 using airborne transmission. The brick characteristics were used as input data for the statistical energy analysis (SEA) model. The results from SEA, analytical, and measured models are compared.

  14. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  15. Musculoskeletal chest wall pain

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

    1985-01-01

    The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

  16. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  17. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  18. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  19. Factors controlling ebro deep-sea fan growth, Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Alonso, B.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, W.B.F.; Kastens, K.; O'Connel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Tectonic, sediment-source and sea-level factors control depositional patterns of the Ebro deep-sea fan system. In unstable, steep continental slope terrain, mass movement of material results in wide gullied canyons and formation of non-channelized debris aprons. These fan channels develop low sinuosity and generally traverse the continental rise without feeding into depositional lobes because of steep gradients (1:50 to 1:100) and sediment draining into the subsiding Valencia Valley graben. An abundance of sediment input points from mass failure and many river-fed canyons contributes to a depositional pattern of side-by-side debris aprons and separate channel-levee complexes. When a large sediment supply feeds a channel for a relatively long period 1) fan valley sinuosity increases: 2) channel walls are modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays: 3) channel bifurcation occurs: 4) incipient depositional lobe formation begins. Lowering of sea levels in Late Pleistocene time permitted the access of coarse river sediment to slope valleys and promoted deposition of numerous turbidites and active growth of the fan. During the Holocene, when sea levels have been high, a regime of hemipelagic sedimentation, mass movement, and debris apron sedimentation has dominated.

  20. A School without Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Len Tai

    1994-01-01

    During the summer, selected students of Hawaiian ancestry who have completed seventh or eighth grade participate in a boarding program with outdoor activities such as pulling taro, star gazing, and camping. The activities eliminate walls of doubt and fear and nurture self-confidence, creativity, personal growth, leadership, and cultural awareness.…

  1. Wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

  2. The Wall Coverings Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Students love nothing better than personalizing their space--desk, bedroom, or even their cars. This article describes a classroom challenge that gives students a chance to let their spirits soar with the invention of a new form of wall treatment. A trip to a big box store might prove to be most helpful for students to visualize their new product…

  3. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  4. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  5. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  6. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  7. EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL OF CRUSHING MILL IN CENTER. GABLE END OF BOILING HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  8. 4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  10. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  11. 1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS FORGEMAN'S HOUSE NO. 1 AT RIGHT - Mount Etna Iron Works, Forgeman's House No. 1, Legislative Route 07020 between junctions of T.R. 461 & 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  12. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  13. Mammals of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  14. Melting Ice, Rising Seas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

  15. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  16. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  17. 38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED WITH RANDOM WIDTH BOARDS WHICH WERE PAPERED OR PLASTERED OVER. THIS WAS TYPICAL THROUGHOUT HOUSE EXCEPT FOR WOOD PANELED WALLS - John Mark Verdier House, 801 Bay & Scott Streets, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  18. 25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST FROM A POINT ABOUT 500 FEET FROM THE MIDDLE HARBOR PARK FISHING PIER. (Panoramic view 1 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. The Trobriand Subduction System in the Western Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, J.; Davies, H. L.; Tiffin, D. L.; Murakami, F.; Kisimoto, K.

    1987-09-01

    A south-dipping Subduction system which underlies the Trobriand Trough and 149° Embayment, on the southern margin of the Solomon Sea, is active or was recently active. Oceanic basement is overlain by 2.5 s, two-way travel time (TWTT), of sediment that shows at least two stages of deformation: early thrusts (inner wall) and normal faults (outer wall), and later normal faults that have elevated the outer trench margin. Thrust anticlines and slope basins are developed on the inner wall. The floor of the Solomon Sea Basin arches upward between the Trobriand Trough and the New Britain Trench to form isolated peaks and ridges in the east (152° Peaks) and an east-west Central Ridge in the west. Structures in the subduction system, and in the Solomon Sea Basin, plunge westward towards the point of collision with the New Britain Trench.

  20. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  1. Bumper wall for plasma device

    DOEpatents

    Coultas, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    Operation of a plasma device such as a reactor for controlled thermonuclear fusion is facilitated by an improved bumper wall enclosing the plasma to smooth the flow of energy from the plasma as the energy impinges upon the bumper wall. The bumper wall is flexible to withstand unequal and severe thermal shocks and it is readily replaced at less expense than the cost of replacing structural material in the first wall and blanket that surround it.

  2. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  3. Directional drill keys completion of South China Sea pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Callnon, D.; Weeks, K.

    1996-04-08

    Directional drilling laid dual 12-in. natural gas pipelines beneath a critical sea wall on Lantau Island, Hong Kong New Territories, to complete a 30-mile gas-pipeline crossing of the South China Sea. The project was part of Towngas Lantau construction for Hong Kong`s new Chek Lap Kok International Airport on the island. To avoid disturbing a newly installed sea wall at Ta Pang Po beach, NKK subcontracted parallel beach approaches to Cherrington Corp., Sacramento. Between July 11 and Aug. 2, 1995, Cherrington Corp. drilled and forward-reamed two, 20 in., 1,294-ft holes to pull back the twin pipelines. The project was completed during typhoon weather, high seas, strong currents, and logistical problems associated with operating in a remote uninhabited area. This paper reviews the design of the beach approach entries; staging and site preparations; drilling equipment used; and overall project operations.

  4. Geometric optics radome analysis wall incorporating effects of wall curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakoff, Dennis J.

    1993-07-01

    In this research, a principal unmodeled error contributor in radome analysis is identified as the local plane approximation at the ray intercept point. An improved approach to modeling and computing the effects of the radome wall was developed which improves the radome wall transmission wall analysis in three respects: use of surface integration, utilization of a divergence factor (DF) to account for wall curvature, and incorporation of the effects of multiple refraction (MR). Modeling an incident plane wave on an external reference plane as an ensemble of Huygen's sources, geometric optics is used to trace the fields from the reference plane through the radome wall to a receiving monopulse antenna, where the wall transmissions on each ray are collected. The fact that the integration of a bundle of rays through the radome wall, as opposed to a single ray, more densely samples the curvature variation results in a more robust model. A DF derived from Snell's law for spherical shells accounts for the local wall curvature at the ray intercept point. To validate the approach, a microwave measurement setup was assembled around a network analyzer. Swept frequency data were obtained for similar monolithic wall dielectric panels but with different wall curvatures. Comparisons were then with measured data and the predictions of the model herein.

  5. Axions from wall decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  6. Eye-wall resection.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Miller, T; Crawford, J B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ocular retention rates, visual results, and metastases in uveal tumors managed with eye-wall resection techniques. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of uveal tumors selected for eye-wall resection with the surgical procedures performed by a single surgeon. All enucleation specimens were reviewed by one author. Both parametric and non-parametric analysis of data was performed. RESULTS: A total of 132 eyes were scheduled for eye-wall resection surgery. Mean patient age was 52 years (range, 11 to 86 years). Tumors involved the iris alone in 17 cases, the iris-ciliary body in 53, the ciliary body alone in 16, and the choroid (ciliochoroidal, iris-ciliary body-choroid, or choroid) in 46 cases. A total of 114 eyes harbored melanomas; tumors located more posteriorly were more likely to have epithelioid cells (P < .05). Mean follow-up was 6 years. Mean number of clock hours in iris and iris-ciliary body tumors was 3.5. In tumors that involved the choroid, the mean largest diameter was 12.6 mm and the mean thickness was 8.2 mm. Ninety-three (70%) of 132 eyes were retained. Histologic assessment of surgical margins did not correlate with either evidence of tumor in enucleated eyes or metastatic disease. Surgical margins of tumors located more anteriorly were more likely to be clear on histologic evaluation (P < .05). Approximately 56% of retained eyes had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better; visual results were significantly better in tumors located more anteriorly (P < .05). All retained eyes with iris tumors had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. In tumors that involved the choroid, 8 of 25 retained eyes kept visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Metastases developed in 8 patients; all metastatic events developed in patients with tumors that involved the choroid, and 7 of 8 were mixed cell melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Seventy percent of eyes were retained, and 56% of these had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Only 7% of patients

  7. Gullies in Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    6 April 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies in the wall of a large impact crater in Newton Basin near 41.9oS, 158.1oW. Such gullies may have formed by downslope movement of wet debris--i.e., water. Unfortunately, because the responsible fluid (if there was one) is no longer present today, only the geomorphology of the channels and debris aprons can be used to deduce that water might have been involved. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  8. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  9. Beaufort Sea: information update

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.

    1988-04-01

    The report is based on a multi-disciplinary meeting held March 6-7, 1985, as part of preparations for the Beaufort Sea Sale 97. The chapters are based on presentations given: The causeway effect: Modification of nearshore thermal regime resulting from causeways; Summertime sea ice intrusions in the Chukchi Sea; The deepwater limit of ice gouging on the Beaufort Sea shelf; Distribution, abundance, migration, harvest, and stock identity of Belukha Whales in the Beaufort Sea; Ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea; Beaufort Sea socioeconomics; The Baffin Island Oil Spill, (BIOS) Project.

  10. Foucault pendulum ``wall clock''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, H. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Details are given for the construction of a 70-cm-long Foucault pendulum to be mounted on the wall, and for a simple modification that will make it display local clock time. The possibility of having a Foucault pendulum of such short length is the result of finding new or improved ways of reducing four perturbing effects that become more severe as the length is decreased. They relate to: precession due to ellipticity in the motion, the drive system for maintaining the amplitude, the means of limiting the growth of ellipticity, and the method of gripping the suspending wire at the top. With those improvements, successful Foucault operation was attained in pendulums as short as 15 cm, support to center of bob. Following that severe test, the length for the ``wall clock'' was set at a conservative 70 cm. At that length it is highly reliable, and accurate to within 2% when timed for the full revolution. Uniformity in rate when comparing different intervals of azimuth is of course less. A simple method of making the pendulum read local time is described. Two clocks, one in the author's office and one at home, have been in continuous operation for more than ten years.

  11. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    PubMed

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects.

  12. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyozato, Yuta; Higuchi, Masafumi; Nojiri, Shin'ichi

    2016-03-01

    Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25]), we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space-time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009) [23].

  13. Asymptotic dynamics of monopole walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R.

    2015-08-01

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are Abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  14. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  15. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  16. 7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM TAPE CONTROL SYSTEM (TECHNOLOGY CIRCA 1910) AT CENTER, AND ENTRY TO OFFICE AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  18. 13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) OF AR-9, ALSO SHOWING MORE RECENT CONTROL ROOM BUILDING AT RIGHT. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 10. VIEW OF LAMINARFLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF LAMINAR-FLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102). NOTE GROUNDING CABLES NEAR BASEBOARD IN LOWER RIGHT BACKGROUND. WHITE SQUARE IN FOREGROUND IS A FLOOR DRAIN COVERED WITH TAPE. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Monitoring Arctic Sea ice using ERTS imagery. [Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and other minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft.

  1. Aral Sea basin: a sea dies, a sea also rises.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Michael H

    2007-06-01

    The thesis of this article is quite different from many other theses of papers, books, and articles on the Aral Sea. It is meant to purposely highlight the reality of the situation in Central Asia: the Aral Sea that was once a thriving body of water is no more. That sea is dead. What does exist in its place are the Aral seas: there are in essence three bodies of water, one of which is being purposefully restored and its level is rising (the Little Aral), and two others which are still marginally connected, although they continue to decline in level (the Big Aral West and the Big Aral East). In 1960 the level of the sea was about 53 m above sea level. By 2006 the level had dropped by 23 m to 30 m above sea level. This was not a scenario generated by a computer model. It was a process of environmental degradation played out in real life in a matter of a few decades, primarily as a result of human activities. Despite wishes and words to the contrary, it will take a heroic global effort to save what remains of the Big Aral. It would also take a significant degree of sacrifice by people and governments in the region to restore the Big Aral to an acceptable level, given that the annual rate of flow reaching the Amudarya River delta is less than a 10th of what it was several decades ago. Conferring World Heritage status to the Aral Sea(s) could spark restoration efforts for the Big Aral.

  2. Great Wall of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.

    This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and

  3. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  4. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  8. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Beyond the college walls.

    PubMed

    Healy, B P

    1992-03-01

    The author outlines historical and current reasons that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and academic medicine are inherently political and are now facing expanding political exposure. She emphasizes especially the power of modern discoveries in biology; this power stems from the many practical benefits that these discoveries can bring and their economic implications, and the growing public awareness of these benefits and implications. She then discusses the political realities of the biomedical enterprise, illustrating them by describing the nature of issues surrounding (1) the NIH budget and (2) technology transfer. Discussion of the latter topic includes a detailed description of controversies about patents (which revolve around the issue of who owns and controls the distribution and use of scientific information) and several important policy issues that are raised by these controversies (e.g., should there be uniform international policies regarding intellectual property rights associated with discoveries of novel biologically expressed genes of uncertain in-vivo function, and if so, how is that achieved?). The author concludes by stating that these examples of the politics of knowledge and of the NIH are among many vital biomedical issues of American life (which she lists) that require the academic medicine community to look beyond its own walls and participate in the complex world of politics and public policy.

  10. All That Unplowed Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

  11. Reduction of wind tunnel wall interference by controlled wall flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, S. (Editor); Joppa, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    An alternate method of testing was developed in which flow through the porous walls of the tunnel was actively controlled so as to approximate free air conditions in the neighborhood of the model during the test. The amount and distribution of the controlled flow through the walls is computed using a potential flow representation of the model based on the measured lift. Theoretical analysis is presented to prove the convergence of the method to free air conditions and to substantiate the general three-dimensional theory of operation when the normal flow distribution is continuous. A two-dimensional tunnel was constructed to evaluate the concept. Results show that substantial reduction of wall interference may be achieved with relatively low values of porosity of actively controlled walls.

  12. 27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL FRAMING ELEVATIONS." Specifications No. ENG-04353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 27 of 148; file no. 1320/78. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, Rev. B; date: 15 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  14. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  15. Fly on the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The email was addressed not only to me, but also to all the Project Knowledge Sharing Community at Ames Research Center. We were invited to sit in on a major project review as a new experiment in knowledge sharing. This first-of-its-kind opportunity had been conceived by Claire Smith, who leads the knowledge sharing program, as well as heading up the Center's Project Leadership Development Program and serving as coordinator of the APPL-West program at Ames. The objective was to offer Ames project practitioners the opportunity to observe project-review processes as they happen. Not that I haven't participated in my share of project reviews, but this seemed like a great way for me to get up-to-date about a new project, the Kepler mission, and to experience a review from a new perspective. Typically, when you're being reviewed, it's difficult to see what's happening objectively-the same way it is on a project. Presenters are always thinking, 'Okay, what's on my slides? How much time do I have left? What are they going to ask me?' So when Claire's email pinged on my computer, I quickly responded by asking her to save a place for me. It was to be an informational review about progress on the project: what the team had done, where they were going, and what they needed to do to get there. There were people on the project team from all over the United States, and it was the first time for them to get together from all aspects of the project. For our part, as observers, we were asked to abide by a couple of rules: Don't ask any questions. and don't talk about the specifics of what we saw or heard. The idea was that we weren't supposed to be noticed. We weren't to buzz around and bother people. Hence the name for this experinient: Fly on the Wall.

  16. My Big Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    It was June and I was in Yosemite National Park in California, 2,000-feet off the ground. I was climbing El Capitan, a majestic 3,000-foot high, mile-wide granite monolith--one of the most sought after and spectacular rock climbs in the world. After three days of climbing on its sheer face, and having completed the most difficult part of the route, my partner and I were heading down. A thunderstorm lasting all night and into the morning had soaked our tiny perch and all our worldly possessions. We began rappelling down the vertical wall by sliding to the ends of two 50meter ropes tied together and looped through a set of fixed rings bolted into the rock. At the end of the ropes was another rappel station consisting of a set of rings, placed by previous climbers for retreating parties, which we used to anchor ourselves to the rock face. We then pulled the ropes down from the rings above, threaded the ones in front of our noses and started down another rope length. Everything we brought up for our five-day climb to the summit we had to bring back down with us: ropes, climbing gear of every sort, sleeping bags, extra clothes, food, water, and other essentials. All this we either stuffed into a haul bag (an oversized reinforced duffel bag) or slung over our shoulders. The retreat was slow and methodical, akin to a train backing down a mountain, giving me ample time to think. My situation made me think about my work, mostly, about all the projects I have managed, or been involved in managing. As a NASA project manager, I have worked on a number of successful projects. I have also been involved in a number of projects I never saw the end of. I thought about all the projects I transferred off of for other opportunities, projects that were in full stride and ran out of funding, and ones put on the shelf because they would not meet a flight date. Oh yes, I have had many success, to be sure, or I would have burned out years ago. Lessons from both the successful and not

  17. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  18. Wall effects in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevallier, J. P.; Vaucheret, X.

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis of current trends in the reduction and computation of wall effects is presented. Some of the points discussed include: (1) for the two-dimensional, transonic tests, various control techniques of boundary conditions are used with adaptive walls offering high precision in determining reference conditions and residual corrections. A reduction in the boundary layer effects of the lateral walls is obtained at T2; (2) for the three-dimensional tests, the methods for the reduction of wall effects are still seldom applied due to a lesser need and to their complexity; (3) the supports holding the model of the probes have to be taken into account in the estimation of perturbatory effects.

  19. Adaptive wall testing sections (AWTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The lecture starts with conventional techniques of minimizing wall interference and explains the principle of wall streamlining. The history of AWTS development is highlighted, along with the benefits of wall streamlining, including minimized boundary interference, increased model size, reduced tunnel drive power, noise, and volume, as well as multiple flow field simulations to be performed using one test section. AWTS-associated problems coming from the need to adjust the test-section boundaries for each test condition are assessed, along with the requirements of a boundary-adjustment strategy. Examples of two- and three-dimensional test sections are presented, and attention is focused on residual interference and the effects of compressibility and model lift on flexible-wall contours.

  20. Localization and chiral symmetry in three flavor domain wall QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, David J.; Bowler, Kenneth C.; Boyle, Peter A.; Hart, Alistair; Kenway, Richard D.; Tweedie, Robert J.; Christ, Norman H.; Cohen, Saul D.; Li, Shu; Lin, Meifeng; Mawhinney, Robert D.; Clark, Michael A.; Dawson, Chris; Joo, Balint; Jung, Chulwoo; Maynard, Christopher M.; Ohta, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Azusa

    2008-01-01

    We present results for the dependence of the residual mass of domain wall fermions on the size of the fifth dimension and its relation to the density and localization properties of low-lying eigenvectors of the corresponding Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator in three flavor domain wall QCD. Using the DBW2 and Iwasaki gauge actions, we generate ensembles of configurations with a 16{sup 3}x32 space-time volume and an extent of 8 in the fifth dimension for the sea quarks. We demonstrate the existence of a regime where the degree of locality, the size of chiral symmetry breaking, and the rate of topology change can be acceptable for inverse lattice spacings a{sup -1}{>=}1.6 GeV, enabling a programme of simulations of 2+1 flavor QCD to be conducted safely in this region of parameter space.

  1. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  2. A system for telemetering sea wave parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zhengxu; Jin, Junmo; Suckling, E. E.

    1982-04-01

    A wave staff to be anchored at sea and containing sensing and telemetering equipment is described. This gives a record at the land station of water level changes due to tides and of waves as they pass the staff. The staff is a 13 metre long PCV tube, the upper half comprising a capacitance with inner plate a foil layer, dielectric the tube wall, and outer electrode the sea. Wave direction is obtained by a separate device comprising a raft moored near to the staff. The raft streams behind its mooring and substantially points into the advancing waves and changes its slope as these pass under it. This slope and its direction referred to magnetic north, are telemetered to the land station to give the direction from which the waves arrive.

  3. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  4. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Robert L.; Cavallo, James

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  5. Hydrocarbon potential of Dead Sea Rift valley

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.E.; Kashai, E.L.; Croker, P.F.

    1983-03-01

    The Dead Sea Rift is one of the world's unique geologic and topographic features, whose petroleum potential has not yet been evaluated. The sector of the Dead Sea is an asymmetric graben 20 km (12 mi) from rim to rim and over 120 km (75 mi) long. The total throw from the west rim, where the Upper Cretaceous crops out to the deeper portion of the grabens, is more than 8 km (26,200 ft). Throw on the eastern side is considerably greater as the valley wall is largely Precambrian. The level of the Dead Sea is -400 m (-1300 ft) - the lowest place on earth. Asphalt blocks floating from the Dead Sea, along with asphalt and heavy oil seeps in the valley, have been known since biblical times. These are suggestive of leaks from deeper accumulations. Although some exploration drilling has been done, no test has yet reached objectives in the deeper sunken block where the Miocene is figured to be at a depth of at least 7 km (23,000 ft.)

  6. East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Wall thickness effect on the resistive wall mode stability in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.T.

    2005-07-15

    The effect of finite wall thickness on the stability of n=1 resistive wall modes in toroidal plasmas is investigated. A fusion reactor-relevant configuration is examined. The investigation employs a novel ideal-magnetohydrodynamics adaptive shooting code for axisymmetric plasmas, extended to take into account the wall thickness. Although finite wall thickness generally reduces the growth rate of the resistive wall modes, no contribution to stabilization is found to be made by the portion of the wall that is located beyond the critical position for perfectly conducting wall stabilization. Thus, when the inner side of the wall lies near the critical wall position, the scaling of the growth rate versus wall thickness in the realistic thick-wall calculation is significantly different from that of the usual thin-wall theory. The thin-wall estimate is relevant only when the wall is brought very close to the plasma and is not too thick.

  8. Effects of the flexibility of the arterial wall on the wall shear stresses and wall tension in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Fernandez, Miguel; Chomaz, Jean-Marc

    2005-11-01

    As an abdominal aortic aneurysm develops, large changes occur in the composition and structure of the arterial wall, which result in its stiffening. So far, most studies, whether experimental or numerical, have been conducted assuming the walls to be rigid. A numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions is performed in different models of aneurysms in order to analyze the effects that the wall compliance might have on the flow topology. Both symmetric and non-symmetric models of aneurysms are considered, all idealistic in shape. The wall mechanical properties are varied in order to simulate the progressive stiffening of the walls. The spatial and temporal distributions of wall tension are calculated for the different values of the wall elasticity and compared to the results for the rigid walls. In the case of rigid walls, the calculation of the wall shear stresses and pressure compare very well with experimental results.

  9. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOEpatents

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  10. Functional domain walls in multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    During the last decade a wide variety of novel and fascinating correlation phenomena has been discovered at domain walls in multiferroic bulk systems, ranging from unusual electronic conductance to inseparably entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom. The domain walls represent quasi-2D functional objects that can be induced, positioned, and erased on demand, bearing considerable technological potential for future nanoelectronics. Most of the challenges that remain to be solved before turning related device paradigms into reality, however, still fall in the field of fundamental condensed matter physics and materials science. In this topical review seminal experimental findings gained on electric and magnetic domain walls in multiferroic bulk materials are addressed. A special focus is put on the physical properties that emerge at so-called charged domain walls and the added functionality that arises from coexisting magnetic order. The research presented in this review highlights that we are just entering a whole new world of intriguing nanoscale physics that is yet to be explored in all its details. The goal is to draw attention to the persistent challenges and identify future key directions for the research on functional domain walls in multiferroics.

  11. Wall thickness design and corrosion management

    SciTech Connect

    Gestel, W.M. van; Guijt, J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1995, Norske Shell will install two 36-in. sweet wet gas pipe lines in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The lines cross the Norwegian trench with water depths up to 350 meter. For the last 3.5 km. of the route the pipelines will be laid in a tunnel which will be flooded after construction. The two lines will transport largely untreated well fluids from the Troll field to an onshore processing plant at Kollsness, North of Bergen. From there sales gas will be transported to the continent via the Furopipe and Zeepipe systems. Gas contracts covering 30 years have been concluded with gas utilities on the continent. The maximum wall thickness that could be installed was limited by the capabilities of the present generation of lay barges and pipe mill capacities. The over-thickness, i.e. beyond that what is required for pressure containment and external collapse, is available as corrosion allowance. The paper discusses a novel probabilistic approach to define the corrosion control measures. The corrosion control system is based on the injection of glycol for corrosion mitigation and inspection by ultrasonic internal smart pigs, which in combination with identified fall back options, ensure a minimum 50 year service life.

  12. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    PubMed Central

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  13. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  14. Random vibration of compliant wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.-N.; Heller, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the realistic case of two-dimensional random motion of a membrane with bending stiffness supported on a viscoelastic spring substrate and on an elastic base plate under both subsonic and supersonic boundary layer turbulence. The cross-power spectral density of surface displacements is solved in terms of design variables of the compliant wall - such as the dimensions and material properties of the membrane (Mylar), substrate (PVC foam), and panel (aluminum) - so that a sensitivity analysis can be made to examine the influence of each design variable on the surface response statistics. Three numerical examples typical of compliant wall design are worked out and their response statistics in relation to wave drag and roughness drag are assessed. The results can serve as a guideline for experimental investigation of the drag reduction concept through the use of a compliant wall.

  15. Tertiary foraminiferal rock samples from the western Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, David W.

    1986-12-01

    Rock fragments dredged from four R/VNatsushima stations contain Tertiary foraminifera. The oldest sample is an upper bathyal biomicrite of Early Eocene age (52 to 53.5 Ma) from the the Trobriand Platform. Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene neritic limestones were located off the Trobriand Platform and on the inner wall of the New Britain Trench. Miocene bathyal sediments come from the Trobriand Platform; similar Pliocene rocks were recovered here as well as from the inner wall of the New Britain Trench and the central part of the Solomon Sea Basin. No reworked pre-Tertiary foraminifera are present in any sample.

  16. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate diversity in sea cucumbers: a review.

    PubMed

    Myron, Pang; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Al Azad, Sujjat

    2014-11-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is structurally distinct glycosaminoglycans found from the sea cucumber body wall consisted of chondroitin sulfate type backbone with attached sulfated or non-sulfated fucose side chain. Structurally this compound plays an important role in maintaining the body wall integrity and possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities. Recently several glycosaminoglycans' structures have been solved to elucidate its physicochemical activity. The purpose of this review paper is to elaborate existing structural properties and functions, reporting over 30 years and systematically discussion herein.

  17. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  18. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  19. Sea Anemone: Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

  20. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

  1. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  2. Sarcocysts of an unidentified species of Sarcocystis in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The number of Sarcocystis species that infect sea otters (Enhydra lutris) is unknown. Sea otter tissues were recently shown to harbor sarcocysts of S. neurona and of unidentified species of Sarcocystis. Whereas sarcocysts of S. neurona have walls 1a??3 I?m thick with type 9 villar protrusions, ultrastructure of a distinct thin-walled sarcocyst (0.5a??0.7 I?m thick) lacking villar protrusions, but instead exhibiting minute type 1 undulations on the sarcocyst wall, is described in this report. Parasites characterized from a sea otter infection were inferred to be related to, but distinct from, other species belonging to Sarcocystis, based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a portion of the beta subunit of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase gene.

  3. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  4. Thermal breaking systems for metal stud walls -- Can metal stud walls perform as well as wood stud walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1997-12-31

    Metal stud wall systems for residential buildings are gaining in popularity. Strong thermal bridges caused by highly conductive metal studs degrade the thermal performance of such walls. Several wall configurations have been developed to improve their thermal performance. The authors tried to evaluate some of these wall systems. The thermal performance of metal stud walls is frequently compared with that of wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. In metal stud walls, thermal bridges generated by the metal components reduce their thermal performance by up to 55%. Today, metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar systems made of wood because steel has much higher thermal conductivity than wood. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is now widely recommended as the remedy for weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of promising metal stud wall configurations was analyzed. Some of these walls were designed and tested by the authors, some were tested in other laboratories, and some were developed and forgotten a long time ago. Several types of thermal breaking systems were used in these walls. Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer simulations were used to analyze 20 metal stud wall configurations. Also, a series of hot-box tests were conducted on several of these walls. Test results for 22 additional metal stud walls were analyzed. Most of these walls contained conventional metal studs. Commonly used fiberglass and EPS were used as insulation materials. The most promising metal stud wall configurations have reductions in the center-of-cavity R-values of less than 20%.

  5. Ordovician impacts at sea in Baltoscandia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstroem, M.; Puura, V.; Floden, T.; Bruun, A.

    1992-01-01

    Northern Europe has an assemblage of Ordovician probable impacts that is exceptional because the structures involved are relatively old yet well preserved because they formed at sea and because they formed within a restricted geological time in a relatively small area. The Tvaren, Kardla, and Lockne structures might not be strictly contemporaneous but all formed near the beginning of the Caradoc Age (about 460 Ma), whereas the Granby structure is about 20 Ma older. The range of diameters is from about 2 km (Tvaren, Granby) to 8 km (Lockne). The stratigraphic succession formed on impact at sea, as uniformly documented by these structures, begins with a breccia lens consisting of basement rocks that are intensely crushed. Owing to expulsion of sea water by the impact, this breccia formed under essentially dry conditions. Later on this breccia was in part hydrothermally altered. It is overlain by backsurge turbidite that formed from fragments of local sedimentary bedrock and crystalline basement when the sea water returned to the crater site. Either the turbidite is simply a Bouma sequence (although quite thick - as much as over 50 m) from very coarse rubble to mud, or it is more complex. After deposition of the backsurge turbidite, or turbidite complex, the craters still remained as 150-200-m-deep holes in the sea bed. Together with the presence of relatively shallow water over the rim wall, this situation created predictable hydrologic conditions for extended histories of sedimentation and biological development at the crater as well as within it. The presence of a concentration of craters within a limited area of well-preserved and accessible Ordovician deposits raises a question about the Ordovician, especially its middle portion, as potentially an age of relatively intense impact activity even in wider areas. In this connection it may be apposite to mention that the only fossil stony meteorites so far recorded in rocks are from the late Early and the Middle

  6. Dynamics of domain wall networks

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki; Sakai, Norisuke; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke

    2007-12-15

    Networks or webs of domain walls are admitted in Abelian or non-Abelian gauge theory coupled to fundamental Higgs fields with complex masses. We examine the dynamics of the domain wall loops by using the moduli approximation and find a phase rotation induces a repulsive force which can be understood as a Noether charge of Q-solitons. Non-Abelian gauge theory allows different types of loops which can be deformed to each other by changing a modulus. This admits the moduli geometry like a sandglass made by gluing the tips of the two cigar-(cone-)like metrics of a single triangle loop. We conclude that the sizes of all loops tend to grow for a late time in general models with complex Higgs masses, while the sizes are stabilized at some values once triplet masses are introduced for the Higgs fields. We also show that the stationary motion on the moduli space of the domain wall webs represents 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield Q-webs of walls.

  7. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  8. Chuck Close: "Off the Wall."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes the planning and design process of "Off the Wall," a student-developed CD-ROM multimedia project about the life and work of artist Chuck Close-the product of a studio-based course in Learning Experiments Design at the University of Georgia. The design includes an element of gaming; text is kept sparse; navigational elements are rendered…

  9. The Writing on the Wall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the artwork of William Christenberry, specifically on his work "Alabama Wall (Variant)," which was constructed with remnants of material culture found along Alabama rural roads. Includes a reproduction of this artwork and activities for natural science, language arts, visual arts, social studies, and history/economics. (CMK)

  10. Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim; Rose, M. Annette

    1998-01-01

    Students use tables of anthropometric data, their own measurements, underlying principles of physics, and math to solve a problem. The problem is to determine the height of a wall mirror, and where to mount it, so that 90% of the clientele can view their entire length without stretching or bending. (Author)

  11. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  12. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  13. Morphology and downslope sediment displacement in a deep-sea valley, the Valencia Valley (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, S.; Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Maldonado, A.; Malinverno, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, William B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Valencia Valley is a Quaternary, 200 km long deep-sea valley in the Valencia Trough, Western Mediterranean Sea. A swathmapping survey approximately mid-way along the valley length, where the floor has an average gradient of 1:250 (0.2??), shows valley walls that rise 200 to 350 m above the valley floor, with slopes of 2 to 18??. Sediment forming the walls is undergoing retrogressive, upslope-directed slumping with increasing bedding disruption along steeper walls. The valley exhibits a winding course with steep outer and gentler inner walls around bends, and bedforms on the valley floor. Lateral migration around bends is less than 5 km and the valley is deeply entrenched into Quaternary-bedded sediments. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  15. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH), and pectin methylesterases, and offer a critical assessment of their wall-loosening activity PMID:26918182

  16. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-01

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain.

  17. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect

  18. Wall conditioning of JET with the ITER-Like Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douai, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Esser, H. G.; Joffrin, E.; Keenan, T.; Knipe, S.; Kogut, D.; Lomas, P. J.; Marsen, S.; Nunes, I.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R. A.; Shimada, M.; de Vries, P.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2013-07-01

    The initial conditioning cycle of JET ILW is analysed and compared with restart and operation in 2008 with a carbon dominated wall. Comparable water and oxygen decay times are observed during bake-out in both cases. Despite a 2 × 10-3 mbar l/s leak rate during plasma operation, no further wall conditioning has been necessary after plasma restart in ILW, which dramatically contrasts with 2008. Plasma O content is lower with the ILW. Higher O levels are measured after nights or week-ends, BeO layers being formed and re-eroded, but do not impact plasma operation and performance. First results on isotopic wall changeover by GDC on the ILW six months of the first D2 campaign evidence a reservoir of about 3 × 1022 atoms, i.e. ten time lower than in carbon PFCs. A study in JET of the glow discharge current distribution for different ratios of the ionization mean free paths to the vessel dimensions seems to indicate sufficient toroidal and poloidal homogeneity in ITER.

  19. The north Sulu Sea productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

  20. Assessment of dry-stone terrace wall degradation with a 3D approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuma, Hakan; Camera, Corrado; Faka, Marina; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hermon, Sorin

    2016-04-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, terracing is a common element of agricultural lands. Terraces retained by dry-stone walls are used to conserve arable soil, delay erosion processes and retain rainfall runoff. Currently, agricultural land abandonment is widespread in the Mediterranean region leading to terrace wall failure due to lack of maintenance and consequently an increase in soil erosion. The objective of this study is to test the applicability of digital 3D documentation on mountainous agricultural areas for assessing changes in terrace wall geometry, including terrace wall failures and associated soil erosion. The study area is located at 800-1100 m above sea level, in the Ophiolite complex of the Troodos Mountains in Cyprus. Average annual precipitation is 750 mm. Two sites with dry-stone terraces were selected for this study. The first site had a sequence of three terrace walls that were surveyed. The uppermost terrace wall was collapsed at several locations; the middle at few locations; and the lowest was still intact. Three fieldwork campaigns were conducted at this site: during the dry season (initial conditions), the middle and end of the wet season. The second site had one terrace wall that was almost completely collapsed. This terrace was restored during a communal terrace rehabilitation event. Two fieldwork campaigns were conducted for this terrace: before and after the terrace wall restoration. Terrace walls were documented with a set of digital images, and transformed into a 3D point cloud (using web-based services and commercial software - Autodesk 123D catch and Menci Software uMap, respectively). A set of points, registered with the total station and geo-referenced with a GPS, enabled the scaling of the 3D model and aligning the terrace walls within the same reference system. The density (distance between each point) of the reconstructed point clouds is 0.005 m by Umap and 0.025 m by 123D Catch. On the first site, the model analysis identified wall

  1. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb.

  2. A Near-Wall Reynolds-Stress Closure Without Wall Normals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. P.; So, R. M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Turbulent wall-bounded complex flows are commonly encountered in engineering practice and are of considerable interest in a variety of industrial applications. The presence of a wall significantly affects turbulence characteristics. In addition to the wall effects, turbulent wall-bounded flows become more complicated by the presence of additional body forces (e.g. centrifugal force and Coriolis force) and complex geometry. Most near-wall Reynolds stress models are developed from a high-Reynolds-number model which assumes turbulence is homogenous (or quasi-homogenous). Near-wall modifications are proposed to include wall effects in near-wall regions. In this process, wall normals are introduced. Good predictions could be obtained by Reynolds stress models with wall normals. However, ambiguity arises when the models are applied in flows with multiple walls. Many models have been proposed to model turbulent flows. Among them, Reynolds stress models, in which turbulent stresses are obtained by solving the Reynolds stress transport equations, have been proved to be the most successful ones. To apply the Reynolds stress models to wall-bounded flows, near-wall corrections accounting for the wall effects are needed, and the resulting models are called near-wall Reynolds stress models. In most of the existing near-wall models, the near-wall corrections invoke wall normals. These wall-dependent near-wall models are difficult to implement for turbulent flows with complex geometry and may give inaccurate predictions due to the ambiguity of wall normals at corners connecting multiple walls. The objective of this study is to develop a more general and flexible near-wall Reynolds stress model without using any wall-dependent variable for wall-bounded turbulent flows. With the aid of near-wall asymptotic analysis and results of direct numerical simulation, a new near-wall Reynolds stress model (NNWRS) is formulated based on Speziale et al.'s high-Reynolds-stress model with wall

  3. Sensing the sea bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    William Wilcock and a team of scientists and engineers drilled holes in the sea floor, and inadvertently provided a breeding ground for octopuses, in their attempt to understand deep-ocean hydrothermal venting.

  4. Science at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mary Nied

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

  5. Sea Ice Minimum 2016

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover from its wintertime maximum extent, which was reached on Mar. 24, 2016, and was the lowest on record for the second year in a row, to ...

  6. Teacher at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighley, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the experiences of a teacher in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Teacher At Sea Program in which teachers are placed on NOAA vessels to work with professional scientists doing critical, real world research. (DDR)

  7. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  8. Dead Sea Scrolls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  9. Sea Raiders of Acadia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickason, Olive Patricia

    1976-01-01

    One of the French allies, the Micmac, waged much of the war against the English on the sea. This article discusses the determined stand by the Micmac seamen of the eastern coasts for their lands and way of life. (NQ)

  10. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  11. Sea ice ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  12. Sea level change

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  14. Actinomycosis involving the chest wall: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, W.R.; Sagel, S.S.

    1982-11-01

    Two cases of pulmonary actinomycosis with extension to involve the chest wall that were evaluated using computerized tomography are reported. In both cases, the relation of pulmonary and chest wall disease was best shown using CT. (KRM)

  15. Microwave background distortions from domain walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1990-01-01

    Domain walls arising in a cosmic phase transition after decoupling were recently proposed as seeds for the formation of large scale structure. The distortion induced in the microwave background radiation is calculated in dependence of the wall thickness, surface density, scalar field potential, cosmic redshift and the velocity of the wall. It was found that the maximal redshift distortion for both spherical and planar walls is of the order pi G sigma H(sup -1)(sub 0), where sigma is the surface energy density and H(sup -1)(sub 0) the Hubble parameter. It was also found that, for a wall thickness smaller than the horizon, walls can be treated as infinitely thin, i.e., the redshift distortion is independent of the wall thickness and the specific form of the scalar potential. For planar walls moving with a Lorentz-factor gamma the redshift distortion is enhanced by gamma cubed.

  16. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  17. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  18. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  19. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Ramia, J M; de la Plaza, R; Quiñones-Sampedro, J E; Ramiro, C; Veguillas, P; García-Parreño, J

    2012-05-01

    Acute severe pancreatitits may be complicated by the development of 'walled-off pancreatic necrosis' (WOPN), which is characterised by a mixture of solid components and fluids on imaging studies as a consequence of organised pancreatic tissue necrosis. We present here an overview of the definition, clinical features, and diagnostic and therapeutic management of this clinical condition, which is mostly based on consensus as adequate clinical trials are lacking. PMID:22641624

  20. Sea shell solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for the collection and concentration of solar radiant energy including a longitudinally extending structure having a wall for directing radiant energy. The wall is parabolic with its focus along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at one solstice and with its axis along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at the other solstice. An energy absorber is positioned to receive the solar energy thereby collected.

  1. Wall slip in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, L.; Hervet, H.; Massey, G.; Durliat, E.

    1997-09-01

    We present a review of the recent characterizations of the flow behaviour of high-molecular-weight polymer melts, with special emphasis on situations in which slip at the wall appears. These characterizations are based on direct measurements of the local velocity of the fluid, in the immediate vicinity of the solid wall, through near-field velocimetry techniques. The results demonstrate the importance of polymer molecules anchored on the solid surface, either by strong adsorption or by chemical grafting, and entangled with the bulk polymer, to produce a strong friction at low shear rates and to lead to a shear rate threshold above which strong slip at the wall and low friction develop. The evolution of the shear rate threshold and of the flow characteristics (the length of the extrapolation of the velocity profile to zero, the critical slip velocity for the onset of strong slip, ...) with the molecular parameters of the system (the molecular weights of the bulk and surface chains, and the surface density of anchored chains) is analysed and compared with the predictions of recent theoretical models.

  2. Through the wall solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, B.P.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes a solar appliance for extending from the interior of a kitchen through an exterior wall of the building and beyond a predetermined distance in a cantilever manner to receive and concentrate in the appliance outside of the building, solar radiation rays for cooking purposes comprising: a housing, the housing being mounted to extend from a kitchen through an external wall of a building and beyond in a cantilever manner and forming a closed oven, the oven comprising a bottom, glass top, a pair of sides and a first end positioned with access from within the kitchen and comprising an oven door, a first reflective panel member mounted above, juxtapositioned to one edge of the glass top for positioning against the outer surface of the external wall and extending laterally therefrom for receiving and directing solar rays impinging thereon through the glass top and into the oven, and a second double-sided reflective panel mounted above and juxtapositioned to the glass top and extending substantially perpendicular to the first reflective panel for receiving solar rays impinging on either side thereof, and directing the solar rays into the oven.

  3. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  4. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  5. How do plant cell walls extend?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes recent work that identifies the biophysical and biochemical processes that give rise to the extension of plant cell walls. I begin with the biophysical notion of stress relaxation of the wall and follow with recent studies of wall enzymes thought to catalyze wall extension and relaxation. Readers should refer to detailed reviews for more comprehensive discussion of earlier literature (Taiz, 1984; Carpita and Gibeaut, 1993; Cosgrove, 1993).

  6. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)

    PubMed Central

    YAMAZAKI, Mutsumi; KOUTAKA, Mitsuru; UNE, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for epithelium markers. Ductal growth, keratinocytes or signet ring cells were absent. The tumor was classified as an undifferentiated carcinoma using the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guide to international classification of tumors in domestic animals. This is the first report of a primary gastric carcinoma in a pinniped. PMID:27052463

  7. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Mutsumi; Koutaka, Mitsuru; Une, Yumi

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for epithelium markers. Ductal growth, keratinocytes or signet ring cells were absent. The tumor was classified as an undifferentiated carcinoma using the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide to international classification of tumors in domestic animals. This is the first report of a primary gastric carcinoma in a pinniped. PMID:27052463

  8. Gastric carcinoma in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Mutsumi; Koutaka, Mitsuru; Une, Yumi

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old captive male South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) developed an undifferentiated carcinoma originating in the cardiac region of the stomach. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Ultrasonography and endoscopy showed gastric wall thickness. At necropsy, the gastric wall had significant thickening around the cardiac region, and metastases were found in some organs. Histologically, samples from the stomach wall and metastases showed the same tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive for epithelium markers. Ductal growth, keratinocytes or signet ring cells were absent. The tumor was classified as an undifferentiated carcinoma using the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide to international classification of tumors in domestic animals. This is the first report of a primary gastric carcinoma in a pinniped.

  9. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  10. Analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature changes in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betul Avsar, Nevin; Jin, Shuanggen; Kutoglu, Hakan; Erol, Bihter

    2016-07-01

    The Black Sea is a nearly closed sea with limited interaction with the Mediterranean Sea through the Turkish Straits. Measurement of sea level change will provide constraints on the water mass balance and thermal expansion of seawaters in response to climate change. In this paper, sea level changes in the Black Sea are investigated between January 1993 and December 2014 using multi-mission satellite altimetry data and sea surface temperature (SST) data. Here, the daily Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) gridded with a 1/8°x1/8° spatial resolution from AVISO and the NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Anomaly data set are used. The annual cycles of sea level and sea surface temperature changes reach the maximum values in November and January, respectively. The trend is 3.16±0.77 mm/yr for sea level change and -0.06±0.01°C/yr for sea surface temperature during the same 22-year period. The observed sea level rise is highly correlated with sea surface warming for the same time periods. In addition, the geographical distribution of the rates of the Black Sea level and SST changes between January 1993 and December 2014 are further analyzed, showing a good agreement in the eastern Black Sea. The rates of sea level rise and sea surface warming are larger in the eastern part than in the western part except in the northwestern Black Sea. Finally, the temporal correlation between sea level and SST time series are presented based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis.

  11. Bottom hadrons from lattice QCD with domain wall and NRQCD fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Meinel, William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Matthew Wingate

    2009-07-01

    Dynamical 2+1 flavor lattice QCD is used to calculate the masses of bottom hadrons, including B mesons, singly and doubly bottom baryons, and for the first time also the triply-bottom baryon Omega{sub bbb}. The domain wall action is used for the up-, down-, and strange quarks (both valence and sea), while the bottom quark is implemented with non-relativistic QCD. A calculation of the bottomonium spectrum is also presented.

  12. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  13. Changes in extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Andersson, Helén; Nerheim, Signild; Jönsson, Anette

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed shallow water model for the Baltic Sea and North Sea is presented. The model is validated by means of a comparison with hindcast simulations with observational data sets. The aim of the development is to provide and apply a modelling tool to model extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The model approach will support the direct analysis of extreme sea level observations in the past and provide the possibility to extend the statistical data base by producing very long time series or very large ensembles of coastal sea levels. This effort is intended to contribute to an assessment of risks due to storm surges and coastal flooding in the 21st century along the coast of Sweden. By using different RCP climate scenarios downscaled with a regional, coupled climate model atmospheric forcing is available to project possible changes in extreme sea levels into the future. Projected sea level rise, changes in dynamical sea level in the North East Atlantic and tidal forcing in the northern North Sea are applied as boundary condition which allows to investigate their impact on the dynamics of regional sea level variability. Initial experiments focus on the impact of model resolution, resolution in the atmospheric forcing and the amount of details necessary in the bathymetry to faithfully model coastal sea level in the Baltic Sea and North Sea.

  14. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  15. Skyrmions from Instantons inside Domain Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Tong, David

    2005-12-01

    Some years ago, Atiyah and Manton described a method to construct approximate Skyrmion solutions from Yang-Mills instantons. Here we present a dynamical realization of this construction using domain walls in a five-dimensional gauge theory. The non-Abelian gauge symmetry is broken in each vacuum but restored in the core of the domain wall, allowing instantons to nestle inside the wall. We show that the world volume dynamics of the wall is given by the Skyrme model, including the four-derivative term, and the instantons appear as domain wall Skyrmions.

  16. Asymmetric counter propagation of domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2016-07-01

    Far from equilibrium systems show different states and domain walls between them. These walls, depending on the type of connected equilibria, exhibit a rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we investigate the asymmetrical counter propagation of domain walls in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the shape and speed of the domain walls. Based on the molecular orientation, we infer that the counter propagative walls have different elastic deformations. These deformations are responsible of the asymmetric counter propagating fronts. Theoretically, based on symmetry arguments, we propose a simple bistable model under the influence of a nonlinear gradient, which qualitatively describes the observed dynamics.

  17. Gas enrichment at liquid-wall interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dammer, Stephan M; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-05-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones systems are performed to study the effects of dissolved gas on liquid-wall and liquid-gas interfaces. Gas enrichment at walls, which for hydrophobic walls can exceed more than 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the gas density in the bulk liquid, is observed. As a consequence, the liquid structure close to the wall is considerably modified, leading to an enhanced wall slip. At liquid-gas interfaces gas enrichment which reduces the surface tension is found.

  18. Major chest wall reconstruction after chest wall irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.L.; McMurtrey, M.J.; Howe, H.J.; Irish, C.E.

    1982-03-15

    In the last year, 12 patients have undergone extensive chest wall resection. Eight patients had recurrent cancer after prior resection and irradiation with an average defect of 160 square centimeters, usually including ribs and a portion of the sternum; four had radionecrosis of soft tissue and/or bone. Methods of reconstruction included latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous (MC) flap (five patients), pectoralis major MC flap (seven patients), and omental flap and skin graft (one patient). The donor site was usually closed primarily. All flaps survived providing good wound coverage. The only complication was partial loss of a latissimus dorsi MC flap related to an infected wound; this reconstruction was salvaged with a pectoralis major MC flap. The hospital stay ranged from 10-25 days with a median stay of 11 days. Use of the MC flap is a valuable tool which can be used to significantly decrease morbidity, hospital stay, and patient discomfort related to the difficult problem of chest wall reconstruction after radiation therapy.

  19. Generalized Wall Function for Complex Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    2000-01-01

    A generalized wall function was proposed by Shih et al., (1999). It accounts the effect of pressure gradients on the flow near the wall. Theory shows that the effect of pressure gradients on the flow in the inertial sublayer is very significant and the standard wall function should be replaced by a generalized wall function. Since the theory is also valid for boundary layer flows toward separation, the generalized wall function may be applied to complex turbulent flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation and recirculation. This paper is to verify the generalized wall function with numerical simulations for boundary layer flows with various adverse and favorable pressure gradients, including flows about to separate. Furthermore, a general procedure of implementation of the generalized wall function for National Combustion Code (NCC) is described, it can be applied to both structured and unstructured CFD codes.

  20. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  1. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2013-09-17

    A serpentine coolant flow path (54A-54G) formed by inner walls (50, 52) in a cavity (49) between pressure and suction side walls (22, 24) of a turbine airfoil (20A). A coolant flow (58) enters (56) an end of the airfoil, flows into a span-wise channel (54A), then flows forward (54B) over the inner surface of the pressure side wall, then turns behind the leading edge (26), and flows back along a forward part of the suction side wall, then follows a loop (54E) forward and back around an inner wall (52), then flows along an intermediate part of the suction side wall, then flows into an aft channel (54G) between the pressure and suction side walls, then exits the trailing edge (28). This provides cooling matched to the heating topography of the airfoil, minimizes differential thermal expansion, revives the coolant, and minimizes the flow volume needed.

  2. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  3. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber.

  4. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  5. Late Miocene evolution of the Black Sea: insights from palynology and strontium isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothe, Arjen; van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Stoica, Marius; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    During the late Miocene, the connection(s) between the Mediterranean Basin and the Atlantic Ocean deteriorated, which ultimately culminated in thick evaporite deposits and a water level drop in the Mediterranean Basin during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97 - 5.33 Ma). It has been claimed that Black Sea, in response to the MSC, also desiccated but these claims have been proven incorrectly. Here we present palynological (dinoflagellate cysts and pollen) and strontium isotope ratios from two Black Sea records: the Zheleznyi Rog outcrop section and Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 380A. Organic walled cyst-producing dinoflagellates are highly sensitive to even small changes in surface waters and strontium isotope ratios are excellent recorders of changing connectivity. Our records provide therefore more insights in the sensitivity of the Black Sea to Messinian Salinity Crisis and the general evolution of the late Miocene Black Sea.

  6. The Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop

  7. Tevatron Resistive Wall Current Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    Resistive Wall Current Monitors (RWCM) were designed and built for the Fermilab Tevatron (Tev) project. These devices measure longitudinal beam current from 3 KHz to 6 GHz with 1.34 ohm gap impedance. There are two RWCM's installed a few feet apart in the Tevatron, upstream RWCM is used for general purpose use, downstream RWCM is dedicated for longitudinal parameters of coalesced beam bunches and bunch intensities. The design provides a calibration or test port for injecting test signals. Microwave absorber material is used to reduce interference from spurious electromagnetic waves traveling inside the beam pipe. This paper will do an overview how the RWCM was designed and its test results.

  8. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  9. Moving walls and geometric phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Garnero, Giancarlo; Marmo, Giuseppe; Samuel, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We unveil the existence of a non-trivial Berry phase associated to the dynamics of a quantum particle in a one dimensional box with moving walls. It is shown that a suitable choice of boundary conditions has to be made in order to preserve unitarity. For these boundary conditions we compute explicitly the geometric phase two-form on the parameter space. The unboundedness of the Hamiltonian describing the system leads to a natural prescription of renormalization for divergent contributions arising from the boundary.

  10. Chemical composition of the giant red sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus, commercially harvested in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Peter J; Oliveira, Alexandra CM; Demir, Necla; Smiley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Giant red sea cucumbers, Parastichopus californicus, are commercially harvested in the U.S. Pacific Northwest; however, the nutritional and chemical properties of its edible muscle bands and body wall have not been fully elucidated. In particular are the fatty acid profiles of P. californicus tissues, which have not been documented. Sea cucumbers were delivered live and muscle bands and body wall freeze dried, vacuum packed, and stored at –30°C until analyzed. Proximate composition of freeze-dried tissues varied greatly with muscle bands being composed of 68% protein, 12% ash, 9% carbohydrate, and 5% lipids, while the body wall was composed of 47% protein, 26% ash, 15% carbohydrate, and 8% lipids. The hydroxyproline, proline, and glycine contents of the body wall were much higher than those in muscle bands, consistent with the larger amount of connective tissue. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, and iron contents were higher in the body wall than those in muscle bands, whereas the opposite was observed for zinc content. Total long-chain n-3 fatty acid contents were 19% and 32% of total fatty acids in body wall and muscle bands, respectively. Muscle bands had higher content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) than body wall at 22.6% and 12.3%, respectively. High content of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was recorded in both body wall (7.1%) and muscle bands (9.9%). Overall, the fatty acid profiles of body wall and muscle bands of P. californicus resemble those described for other species; however, the distribution and occurrence of certain fatty acids is unique to P. californicus, being representative of the fatty acid composition of temperate-polar marine organisms. The chemical characterization of freeze-dried edible tissues from P. californicus demonstrated that these products have valuable nutritional properties. The body wall, a food product of lower market value than muscle bands, could be better utilized for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID

  11. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called “wall preference”. This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian “wall-preference” behavior only appears to be a “preference” behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then

  12. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then moving along it

  13. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  14. Geology of Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

    1984-09-01

    The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

  15. Investigating the Great Lakes Environment, Unit One: The Sea Lamprey Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Leslie; And Others

    Presented are 11 middle school activities dealing with the sea lamprey and its impact upon the Great Lakes. Included are background information, lesson outlines, references, masters for student worksheets, a wall map, game boards, and two filmstrip-tape units. Using these materials students can learn ecological concepts and some Great Lakes…

  16. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  17. Tube wall temperature monitoring technique

    SciTech Connect

    Granton, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    In 1977, Monsanto and Conoco undertook the construction of a new, modern technology ethylene plant at Chocolate Bayou, near Alvin, Texas. This plant included high severity cracking furnaces with potential tube wall temperatures considerably higher than any we had previously experienced. Furnace on-stream time between decokes, a factor in the economics of plant operation, was limited by tube wall temperature, thus requiring its accurate knowledge. Earlier work with other ethylene furnaces had also demonstrated our lack of knowledge concerning high temperature measurements in a furnace firebox environment. This had to change. An outside consultant was called upon to provide a threeday workshop on radiant tube temperature sensing. The workshop consisted of two days of formal training in the theory and practice of temperature measurement and one day of field training. This workshop was conducted at a site away from the plant. Approximately 20 engineers (manufacturing and technical groups) attended. The major topics covered by this workshop are as follows: radiant tube temperature sensing, radiation situation of radiant tubes, g.a. method: sample calculations, noncontact sensors: methods of specifying and purchasing, thermal imager strategies, calibration of noncontact sensors, avoiding problems with noncontact sensors, optical aids to radiant tube viewing, tube temperature management and its environmental implications, and contact temperature sensors.

  18. Speech About the Great Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Of all the sights that I saw during that trip, the one that provoked the most thought on my part was the Great Wall. The Great Wall defies imagination. It is simple and strong. It winds gracefully up and down. It scales slowly but steadily the distant hill, to disappear down into the valley beyond, only to climb again, inexorably, to surmount the next mountain in its path. As one examines the individual stones with which it was built, one realizes how much sweat and blood there must have been in its complex history. As one looks at the overall structure, at its strength and elegance, its real significance begins to emerge. It is long. It is tenacious. It is flexible in every turn, but is persistent and persisting in the long range development. Its overall unity of purpose is what gives it strength and character. And its overall unity of purpose is what makes it one of the man-made structures on the surface of the earth to become first visible to a visitor approaching our planet from outer space...

  19. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  20. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  1. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperms encode the same families of cell wall glycosyl transferases, yet, in many cases these families have diversified independently in each lineage. Our understanding of land plant evolution could be enhanced by more complete knowledge of the relationships among glycosyl transferase functional diversification, cell wall structural and biochemical specialization, and the roles of cell walls in plant adaptation. As a foundation for these studies, we review the features of P. patens as an experimental system, analyses of cell wall composition in various moss species, recent studies that elucidate the structure and biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in P. patens, and phylogenetic analysis of P. patens genes potentially involved in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:22833752

  2. The State of the GeoWall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, P. J.; Leigh, J.; van Keken, P.; Johnson, A.

    2003-12-01

    The GeoWall stereo projection technology has been widely adopted within Earth Science. Over 20,000 undergraduate students per year use a GeoWall in classroom and lab settings at over 80 institutions around the world using over 200 GeoWalls. We believe that critical mass for this technology has been reached in the Earth Science. Many collaborations have been initiated. With Iris, GeoWall is exploring new ways to monitor seismic networks in real-time and to visualize extremely large, whole Earth seismic simulations. We are also working with a number of drilling organizations including JOI, DOSECC and LacCore to bring modern visualization technology to core interpretation and drill site selection. Also, over 15 museums now have or are building GeoWalls for informal education. Much of the science that is being performed on the GeoWall is finding its way directly into the classroom and science museum. One of the success stories has been the GeoWall Consortium's interaction with industry. The basic hardware for the GeoWall has been spun off to companies that now sell variations of the hardware. In addition, many software companies including ESRI and Dynamic Graphics have added support for the GeoWall in their products. The future of GeoWall is four fold. Curriculum development will bring more material to all GeoWall users. Assessment of the curriculum and educational psychology will give us GeoWall best practices. In technology development, the GeoWall 2 is a 20+ million pixel, tiled display which brings more resolution to the Earth Sciences than ever. To support research the consortium is developing a volume rendering application to visualize extremely large datasets.

  3. Architecture of dermatophyte cell Walls: Electron microscopic and biochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozawa, Y.; Kitajima, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A review with 83 references on the cell wall structure of dermatophytes is presented. Topics discussed include separation and preparation of cell walls; microstructure of cell walls by electron microscopy; chemical composition of cell walls; structural model of cell walls; and morphological structure of cell walls.

  4. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  5. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  6. Wall Interference Study of the NTF Slotted Tunnel Using Bodies of Revolution Wall Signature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Venkit; Kuhl, David D.; Walker, Eric L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a description of the analysis of blockage corrections for bodies of revolution for the slotted-wall configuration of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). A wall correction method based on the measured wall signature is used. Test data from three different-sized blockage bodies and four wall ventilation settings were analyzed at various Mach numbers and unit Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that with the proper selection of the boundary condition parameters, the wall correction method can predict blockage corrections consistent with the wall measurements for Mach numbers as high as 0.95.

  7. Secondary cell walls: biosynthesis and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Campbell, Liam; Turner, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cell walls (SCWs) are produced by specialized plant cell types, and are particularly important in those cells providing mechanical support or involved in water transport. As the main constituent of plant biomass, secondary cell walls are central to attempts to generate second-generation biofuels. Partly as a consequence of this renewed economic importance, excellent progress has been made in understanding how cell wall components are synthesized. SCWs are largely composed of three main polymers: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. In this review, we will attempt to highlight the most recent progress in understanding the biosynthetic pathways for secondary cell wall components, how these pathways are regulated, and how this knowledge may be exploited to improve cell wall properties that facilitate breakdown without compromising plant growth and productivity. While knowledge of individual components in the pathway has improved dramatically, how they function together to make the final polymers and how these individual polymers are incorporated into the wall remain less well understood.

  8. Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.

  9. Polyamines in cell walls of chlorococcalean microalgae.

    PubMed

    Burczyk, Jan; Zych, Maria; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae represents a very attractive alternative as a source of energy and substances of high value when compared with plant cultivation. Cell walls of green microalgae have an extraordinary chemical and mechanical resistance and may impede some steps in the biotechnological/industrial exploitation of algae. The aim of the present contribution was to check the presence of polyamines in the cell walls of chlorococcalean green microalgae. Polyamines are nitrogenous compounds synthesized normally in cells and may affect the properties of the cell wall. Our work included strains either forming or not forming the polymer algaenan, allowing us to conclude that algaenan is not a prerequisite for the presence of polyamines in the cell walls. Polyamines were detected in isolated cell walls of Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella fusca, Chlorella saccharophila, and Chlorella vulgaris. Their concentration in isolated cell walls ranged between 0.4 and 8.4 nmol/mg dry weight. PMID:24772826

  10. Seismic behavior of geogrid reinforced slag wall

    SciTech Connect

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Gokhan; Saygili, Altug

    2008-07-08

    Flexible retaining structures are known with their high performance under earthquake loads. In geogrid reinforced walls the performance of the fill material and the interface of the fill and geogrid controls the performance. Geosynthetic reinforced walls in seismic regions must be safe against not only static forces but also seismic forces. The objective of this study is to determine the behavior of a geogrid reinforced slag wall during earthquake by using shaking table experiments. This study is composed of three stages. In the first stage the physical properties of the material to be used were determined. In the second part, a case history involving the use of slag from steel industry in the construction of geogrid reinforced wall is presented. In the third stage, the results of shaking table tests conducted using model geogrid wall with slag are given. From the results, it is seen that slag can be used as fill material for geogrid reinforced walls subjected to earthquake loads.

  11. Solomon's Sea and [Pi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

  12. Modern sea power

    SciTech Connect

    Till, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides discussions of political, technical and military aspects of nuclear power. The contents include naval warfare in the nuclear age; politics, money, law and technology; a technological change; implications of technology; sea control; strategic deterrents; amphibious operations, maritime interdiction; inshore operations, naval diplomacy and conclusion.

  13. Solar Sea Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  14. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  15. Egyptian Sea Cave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

  16. Autophagy at sea.

    PubMed

    Martens, Sascha; Rusten, Tor Erik; Kraft, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    The 3rd EMBO Conference on, "Autophagy: Molecular mechanism, physiology and pathology" organized by Anne Simonsen and Sharon Tooze, was held in May 2013 on a sea cruise along the Norwegian coastline from Bergen to Tromsø. Researchers from all corners of the world presented work covering autophagosome biogenesis, physiological regulation of autophagy, selective autophagy and disease.

  17. The Cosmonaut Sea Wedge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solli, K.; Kuvaas, B.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Guseva, J.; Gandyukhin, V.

    2007-01-01

    A set of multi-channel seismic profiles (~15000 km) acquired by Russia, Norway and Australia has been used to investigate the depositional evolution of the Cosmonaut Sea margin of East Antarctica. We recognize a regional sediment wedge below the upper part of the continental rise. The wedge, herein termed the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge, is positioned stratigraphically underneath the inferred glaciomarine section and extends for at least 1200 km along the continental margin and from 80 to about 250 km seaward or to the north. Lateral variations in the growth pattern of the wedge indicate several overlapping depocentres, which at their distal northern end are flanked by elongated mounded drifts and contourite sheets. The internal stratification of the mounded drift deposits suggests that westward flowing bottom currents reworked the marginal deposits. The action of these currents together with sea-level changes is considered to have controlled the growth of the wedge. We interpret the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge as a composite feature comprising several bottom current reworked fan systems.

  18. S.E.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Richard H.

    1976-01-01

    Sea Semester combines a six-week apprenticeship on a sailing ship with an intensive shore preparation component. Through Boston University, students learn marine and nautical sciences before putting some of this information to practice. Students, having completed the shore and sailing components, can enroll in more advanced shore component…

  19. The Provident Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, David H.

    1988-09-01

    The Provident Sea describes the history of fish stock management (including whales and seals). The book traces, on the basis of the original scientific material, the history of the management of "the provident sea" up to recent times when problems of over-exploitation have had dramatic effects upon stocks. The need for management arose mainly from the increasing industrialization of capture. Hence the preindustrial fisheries are covered, in particular the old cod fishery on the Grand Bank and the herring fishery in the North Sea, as an essential background to current problems. The origins of fisheries and whaling science are described, as is the development up to 1965 of the science and institution in fisheries, whaling, and sealing. In the sixties and seventies, certain major fishing nations took a heavy harvest of fish stocks using sophisticated and efficient gathering methods. This in turn led to conflict and one consequence was the "Law of the Sea" conference set up to try and resolve these issues.

  20. Sea-urchin envenomation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ling; Chou, Shang-Lin; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Deng, Jou-Fang

    2003-12-01

    Sea-urchin stings may produce injurious and venomous wounds. Although numerous writers refer to the danger of pedicellarial stings, there is little worth-while clinical data. We report a case of sea-urchin injury with severe local reaction and acute hepatitis. A 47-y-o Taiwanese woman accidentally stepped on a sea urchin while scuba diving on a beach in Palau Islands. The puncture wounds were numerous and she felt faintness, and immediate and intense pain. Initial management included partial spine removal, betadine immersion, intravenous fluid and analgesics. She developed fever, chills, nausea, and persistent serous discharge and tenderness from the sites of stings in the following days. She was admitted due to right foot cellulitis, sea-urchin injuries of both soles and suspected toxic hepatitis on the 7th day after envenomation. Serum alanine transaminase was 810 U/L and aspartate transaminase 320 U/L; she received i.v. antibiotics and wound debridement for removal of residual stings. She recovered gradually and was discharged 2 w later. Travel related marine animal injury has an increasing tendency throughout the world. This case had the unusual presentation of severe local reaction and hepatitis; immediate and more aggressive spine removal might have lessened the degree of injury.

  1. Classroom of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupper, Mary Laporta; Monte, Denise; Scheifele, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Sea Program in which participant students were deaf and collaborated with a bioacoustician. Studies the underwater noise levels of the Gulf of Maine and the possible impacts on marine life. Explains implementing this project in the science curriculum. (YDS)

  2. Ships to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

  3. Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Schwantes, R. H.; McVay, R. C.; Lignell, H.; Coggon, M. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2015-04-01

    Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be underestimated, owing to deposition of SOA-forming vapors to the chamber wall. We present here an experimental protocol and a model framework to constrain the vapor-wall interactions in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecane in two chambers that had been extensively used and in two new unused chambers. We found that the extent of prior use of the chamber did not significantly affect the sorption behavior of the Teflon films. Among the 25 compounds studied, the maximum wall deposition rate is exhibited by the most highly oxygenated and least volatile compounds. By optimizing the model output to the observed vapor decay profiles, we identified that the dominant parameter governing the extent of wall deposition of a compound is its wall accommodation coefficient (αwi), which can be correlated through its volatility with the number of carbons and oxygens in the molecule. By doing so, the wall-induced deposition rate of intermediate/semi-volatile organic vapors can be reasonably predicted based on their molecular constituency. The extent to which vapor wall deposition impacts measured SOA yields depends on the competition between uptake of organic vapors by suspended particles and the chamber wall. The timescale associated with vapor wall deposition can vary from minutes to hours depending on the value of αw,i. For volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (small αw,i), gas-particle partitioning will dominate wall deposition for typical particle number concentrations in chamber experiments. For compounds characterized by relatively large αw,i, vapor transport to particles is suppressed by competition with the chamber wall even with perfect particle accommodation.

  4. Textural break foundation wall construction modules

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    Below-grade, textural-break foundation wall structures are provided for inhibiting diffusion and advection of liquids and gases into and out from a surrounding hydrogeologic environment. The foundation wall structure includes a foundation wall having an interior and exterior surface and a porous medium disposed around a portion of the exterior surface. The structure further includes a modular barrier disposed around a portion of the porous medium. The modular barrier is substantially removable from the hydrogeologic environment.

  5. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOEpatents

    Greenside, Henry S.; Budny, Robert V.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.

    1988-01-01

    Depolarization mechanisms arising from the recycling of the polarized fuel at the limiter and the first-wall of a fusion reactor are greater than those mechanisms in the plasma. Rapid depolarization of the plasma is prevented by providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec.sup.-1.

  6. [FUNCTIONAL PLASTIC OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Parfentyeva, N D; Parfentyev, R S

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve the treatment efficacy of postoperative anterior abdominal wall hernias the method of plastic with restoration of anatomical and physiological properties of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall was used. After the intervention by the improved method, regardless of the location of the hernia defect yielded promising results for the conservation of anterior abdominal wall muscle function in 75% of cases completely restored functional ability of muscles recti abdomini. PMID:26591212

  7. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    DOEpatents

    Kosny, Jan; Gaskin, Sally

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  8. Sea floor magnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

    2003-04-01

    The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on

  9. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Bowman, Michael J; Braker, Jay D; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Lee, Charles C; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Wagschal, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes second generation bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation and separation. Ultimately, it is desirable to combine as many of the biochemical steps as possible in a single organism to achieve CBP (consolidated bioprocessing). A commercially ready CBP organism is currently unreported. Production of second generation bioethanol is hindered by economics, particularly in the cost of pretreatment (including waste management and solvent recovery), the cost of saccharification enzymes (particularly exocellulases and endocellulases displaying kcat ~1 s-1 on crystalline cellulose), and the inefficiency of co-fermentation of 5- and 6-carbon monosaccharides (owing in part to redox cofactor imbalances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PMID:22329798

  10. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  11. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  12. Creating universes with thick walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a “thick wall”, which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the “Farhi-Guth-Guven” (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

  13. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  14. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Bowman, Michael J; Braker, Jay D; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Lee, Charles C; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Wagschal, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes second generation bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation and separation. Ultimately, it is desirable to combine as many of the biochemical steps as possible in a single organism to achieve CBP (consolidated bioprocessing). A commercially ready CBP organism is currently unreported. Production of second generation bioethanol is hindered by economics, particularly in the cost of pretreatment (including waste management and solvent recovery), the cost of saccharification enzymes (particularly exocellulases and endocellulases displaying kcat ~1 s-1 on crystalline cellulose), and the inefficiency of co-fermentation of 5- and 6-carbon monosaccharides (owing in part to redox cofactor imbalances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

  15. Structure of Plant Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Larry; Albersheim, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Wild type Bacillus subtilis, when grown on beet araban, secretes into its culture medium an endo-arabanase and two arabinosidases. An alternate procedure to one previously described (Kaji A, T Saheki 1975 Biochim Biophys Acta 410: 354-360) has been developed for the purification of the endo-arabanase. The purified endo-arabanase is shown to be homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea disc gel electrophoresis (molecular weight ≃ 32,000) and by isoelectric focusing (pI = 9.3). The endo-arabanase, acting on a branched araban substrate, has maximal activity at pH 6.0 and preferentially cleaves 5-linked arabinosyl residues. One of the arabinosidases (molecular weight ≃ 65,000, pI = 5.3) has been purified to the point that it contains only one quantitatively minor contaminant, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea disc gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The purified arabinosidase, acting on p-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside, has maximal activity at pH 6.5, and, when acting on a branched araban substrate, preferentially attacks nonreducing terminal arabinosyl residues linked to the 2 or 3 position of other arabinosyl residues. Neither of the two purified enzymes is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of carbohydrate substrates which lack arabinosidic linkages. The purified endo-arabinase is shown to be capable of releasing arabinosyl oligomers from the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells, thereby suggesting its usefulness as a probe in studying the structure of the araban component of primary cell walls. PMID:16660741

  16. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  17. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  18. Pollen wall development in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Stephen; Wortley, Alexandra H; Skvarla, John J; Rowley, John R

    2007-01-01

    The outer pollen wall, or exine, is more structurally complex than any other plant cell wall, comprising several distinct layers, each with its own organizational pattern. Since elucidation of the basic events of pollen wall ontogeny using electron microscopy in the 1970s, knowledge of their developmental genetics has increased enormously. However, self-assembly processes that are not under direct genetic control also play an important role in pollen wall patterning. This review integrates ultrastructural and developmental findings with recent models for self-assembly in an attempt to understand the origins of the morphological complexity and diversity that underpin the science of palynology.

  19. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, D J

    1998-05-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized. PMID:11540640

  20. Chest wall angiolipoma complicating von Recklinghausen disease.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Teruya; Takahashi, Koji; Fujinaga, Takuji

    2013-09-01

    We present the case of an 18-year-old man with chest wall angiolipoma and a medical history of von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. The chest wall tumor was originally detected during an evaluation for chest pain. For diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection was performed, and the tumor was histopathologically confirmed to be an angiolipoma. Chest wall angiolipoma is exceptionally rare. Only two cases have been reported in the English literature, with no reports regarding chest wall angiolipoma in a patient with von Recklinghausen disease.

  1. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOEpatents

    Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

    1985-01-29

    A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

  2. Large-eddy simulations with wall models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabot, W.

    1995-01-01

    The near-wall viscous and buffer regions of wall-bounded flows generally require a large expenditure of computational resources to be resolved adequately, even in large-eddy simulation (LES). Often as much as 50% of the grid points in a computational domain are devoted to these regions. The dense grids that this implies also generally require small time steps for numerical stability and/or accuracy. It is commonly assumed that the inner wall layers are near equilibrium, so that the standard logarithmic law can be applied as the boundary condition for the wall stress well away from the wall, for example, in the logarithmic region, obviating the need to expend large amounts of grid points and computational time in this region. This approach is commonly employed in LES of planetary boundary layers, and it has also been used for some simple engineering flows. In order to calculate accurately a wall-bounded flow with coarse wall resolution, one requires the wall stress as a boundary condition. The goal of this work is to determine the extent to which equilibrium and boundary layer assumptions are valid in the near-wall regions, to develop models for the inner layer based on such assumptions, and to test these modeling ideas in some relatively simple flows with different pressure gradients, such as channel flow and flow over a backward-facing step. Ultimately, models that perform adequately in these situations will be applied to more complex flow configurations, such as an airfoil.

  3. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R. ); Hashimoto, P.S. ); Reed, J.W. and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA )

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs.

  4. A Near-Wall Reynolds-Stress Closure without Wall Normals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. P.; So, R. M. C.

    1997-01-01

    With the aid of near-wall asymptotic analysis and results of direct numerical simulation, a new near-wall Reynolds stress model (NNWRS) is formulated based on the SSG high-Reynolds-stress model with wall-independent near-wall corrections. Only one damping function is used for flows with a wide range of Reynolds numbers to ensure that the near-wall modifications diminish away from the walls. The model is able to reproduce complicated flow phenomena induced by complex geometry, such as flow recirculation, reattachment and boundary-layer redevelopment in backward-facing step flow and secondary flow in three-dimensional square duct flow. In simple flows, including fully developed channel/pipe flow, Couette flow and boundary-layer flow, the wall effects are dominant, and the NNWRS model predicts less degree of turbulent anisotropy in the near-wall region compared with a wall-dependent near-wall Reynolds Stress model (NWRS) developed by So and colleagues. The comparison of the predictions given by the two models rectifies the misconception that the overshooting of skin friction coefficient in backward-facing step flow prevalent in those near-wall, models with wall normal is caused by he use of wall normal.

  5. Sea-Level Projections from the SeaRISE Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) is a community organized modeling effort, whose goal is to inform the fifth IPCC of the potential sea-level contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the 21st and 22nd century. SeaRISE seeks to determine the most likely ice sheet response to imposed climatic forcing by initializing an ensemble of models with common datasets and applying the same forcing to each model. Sensitivity experiments were designed to quantify the sea-level rise associated with a change in: 1) surface mass balance, 2) basal lubrication, and 3) ocean induced basal melt. The range of responses, resulting from the multi-model approach, is interpreted as a proxy of uncertainty in our sea-level projections. http://websrv.cs .umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

  6. Corrections to the thin wall approximation in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkle, David; Gregory, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    The question is considered whether the thin wall formalism of Israel applies to the gravitating domain walls of a lambda phi(exp 4) theory. The coupled Einstein-scalar equations that describe the thick gravitating wall are expanded in powers of the thickness of the wall. The solutions of the zeroth order equations reproduce the results of the usual Israel thin wall approximation for domain walls. The solutions of the first order equations provide corrections to the expressions for the stress-energy of the wall and to the Israel thin wall equations. The modified thin wall equations are then used to treat the motion of spherical and planar domain walls.

  7. 5. 'Stones for Wing Walls, Tunnel Walls, BeltCourse and Coping,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 'Stones for Wing Walls, Tunnel Walls, Belt-Course and Coping,' Southern Pacific Standard Plan Tunnels, ca. 1909. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. 8. NORTHWEST WALL OF AR8, ALSO SHOWING THE SOUTHWEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHWEST WALL OF AR-8, ALSO SHOWING THE SOUTHWEST WALL AND THE CREW SHELTER AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Calculation of wall effects of flow on a perforated wall with a code of surface singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piat, J. F.

    1994-07-01

    Simplifying assumptions are inherent in the analytic method previously used for the determination of wall interferences on a model in a wind tunnel. To eliminate these assumptions, a new code based on the vortex lattice method was developed. It is suitable for processing any shape of test sections with limited areas of porous wall, the characteristic of which can be nonlinear. Calculation of wall effects in S3MA wind tunnel, whose test section is rectangular 0.78 m x 0.56 m, and fitted with two or four perforated walls, have been performed. Wall porosity factors have been adjusted to obtain the best fit between measured and computed pressure distributions on the test section walls. The code was checked by measuring nearly equal drag coefficients for a model tested in S3MA wind tunnel (after wall corrections) and in S2MA wind tunnel whose test section is seven times larger (negligible wall corrections).

  10. Interconnections between cell wall polymers, wall mechanics, and cortical microtubules: Teasing out causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T

    2016-09-01

    In plants, cell wall components including cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins interact with each other to form complex extracellular network structures that control cell growth and maintain cell shape. However, it is still not clear exactly how different wall polymers interact, how the conformations and interactions of cell wall polymers relate to wall mechanics, and how these factors impinge on intracellular structures such as the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, based on studies of Arabidopsis thaliana xxt1 xxt2 mutants, which lack detectable xyloglucan in their walls and display aberrant wall mechanics, altered cellulose patterning and biosynthesis, and reduced cortical microtubule stability, we discuss the potential relationships between cell wall biosynthesis, wall mechanics, and cytoskeletal dynamics in an effort to better understand their roles in controlling plant growth and morphogenesis. PMID:27611066

  11. Interconnections between cell wall polymers, wall mechanics, and cortical microtubules: Teasing out causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T

    2016-09-01

    In plants, cell wall components including cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins interact with each other to form complex extracellular network structures that control cell growth and maintain cell shape. However, it is still not clear exactly how different wall polymers interact, how the conformations and interactions of cell wall polymers relate to wall mechanics, and how these factors impinge on intracellular structures such as the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, based on studies of Arabidopsis thaliana xxt1 xxt2 mutants, which lack detectable xyloglucan in their walls and display aberrant wall mechanics, altered cellulose patterning and biosynthesis, and reduced cortical microtubule stability, we discuss the potential relationships between cell wall biosynthesis, wall mechanics, and cytoskeletal dynamics in an effort to better understand their roles in controlling plant growth and morphogenesis.

  12. A wall interference assessment/correction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1993-01-01

    A Wall Signature method originally developed by Hackett was selected to be adapted for the Ames 12-ft Wind Tunnel Wall Interference Assessment/Correction (WIAC) System in the project. This method uses limited measurements of the static pressure at the wall, in conjunction with the solid wall boundary condition, to determine the strength and distribution of singularities representing the test article. The singularities are used in turn for estimating wall interference at the model location. The lifting interference will be treated separately by representing in a horseshoe vortex system for the model's lifting effects. The development and implementation of a working prototype will be completed, delivered, and documented with a software manual. The WIAC code will be validated by conducting numerically simulated experiments rather than actual wind tunnel experiments. The simulations will be used to generate both free-air and confined wind-tunnel flow fields for each of the test articles over a range of test configurations. Specifically, the pressure signature at the test section wall will be computed for the tunnel case to provide the simulated 'measured' data. These data will serve as the input for the WIAC method - Wall Signature method. The performance of the WIAC method then may be evaluated by comparing the corrected parameters with those for the free-air simulation. The following two additional tasks are included in the supplement No. 1 to the basic Grant. On-line wall interference calculation: The developed wall signature method (modified Hackett's method) for Ames 12-ft Tunnel will be the pre-computed coefficients which facilitate the on-line calculation of wall interference; and support system effects estimation: The effects on the wall pressure measurements due to the presence of the model support systems will be evaluated.

  13. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  14. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  15. Indirect localization of a magnetic domain wall mediated by quasi walls

    PubMed Central

    Lacour, D.; Montaigne, F.; Rougemaille, N.; Belkhou, R.; Raabe, J.; Hehn, M.

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of magnetic domain walls in thin films and nanostructures opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied research. But controlling reliably the position of a moving domain wall still remains challenging. So far, most of the studies aimed at understanding the physics of pinning and depinning processes in the magnetic layer in which the wall moves (active layer). In these studies, the role of other magnetic layers in the stack has been often ignored. Here, we report an indirect localization process of 180° domain walls that occurs in magnetic tunnel junctions, commonly used in spintronics. Combining Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, magnetic configurations in both layers are resolved. When nucleating a 180° domain wall in the active layer, a quasi wall is created in the reference layer, atop the wall. The wall and its quasi wall must then be moved or positioned together, as a unique object. As a mutual effect, a localized change of the magnetic properties in the reference layer induces a localized quasi wall in the active layer. The two types of quasi walls are shown to be responsible for an indirect localization process of the 180° domain wall in the active layer. PMID:26011004

  16. 7. NORTH WALL AND NORTHWEST WALL OF AR8, ALSO SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH WALL AND NORTHWEST WALL OF AR-8, ALSO SHOWING THE EAST END OF THE SOUTH WALL IN THE DISTANCE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Bioaccumulation and effects of PCBs and heavy metals in sea stars (Asterias rubens, L.) from the North Sea: a small scale perspective.

    PubMed

    Danis, B; Wantier, P; Flammang, R; Pernet, Ph; Chambost-Manciet, Y; Coteur, G; Warnau, M; Dubois, Ph

    2006-03-01

    Sea stars (Asterias rubens L.) were collected in different stations distributed in the Southern Bight of the North Sea. Concentrations of four heavy metals and six PCB congeners were measured in two body compartments (body wall and pyloric caeca). In order to assess the potential harm of these contaminants, two biochemical parameters were measured in sea stars, viz. reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by amoebocytes and cytochrome P450 immunopositive protein (CYP1A IPP) induction in pyloric caeca. Sea stars from stations located in the plume of the Scheldt river showed the highest contamination levels. Other stations, similarly located, displayed lower levels. No simple relationship could be established between ROS production by sea star amoebocytes and contaminant levels measured in sea star tissues. CYP1A IPP induction displayed more contrasted responses, and highly significant regressions were found between PCB concentrations measured in pyloric caeca and CYP1A IPP. Both biological parameters were found to vary significantly over the study area. On the whole, data indicated that contamination levels and subsequent effects in sea stars were comparable to those described in previous large-scale studies, but that working at a smaller scale highlighted the existence of patterns of contamination which can blur general trends due to major contamination sources like contaminated rivers.

  18. Beaufort Sea Mesoscale Meteorology Modeling Study: Sea Breeze Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Beaufort Sea and its adjacent continental areas are prominent geographical features which are largely covered by sea ice on a seasonal basis over the ocean and bounded by the Brooks Range in the south on land. This complex geographical environment offers unique challenges for mesoscale meteorology modeling. Further oil development in this area requires improved understanding of the surface wind field, a crucial parameter for assessing and predicting dispersal and movement of oil spills. As thus a study has been established to investigate the mesoscale features of the surface wind field throughout this region, specifically in relation to the sea breeze and topographic effects. In this study, we focus on the sea breeze effect. Based on the analysis of observed surface winds at the weather stations along the Beaufort coast, as well as model simulations with the weather research and forecast model (WRF), we found that the sea breeze along the Beaufort Sea coast is of different from the temperate latitude. Due to the stable Arctic boundary layer (inversion), which is unfavorable for the vertical convection, the offshore flow aloft occurs at relatively low level. In addition, due to continuous solar radiation, the sea breeze along the Beaufort coast is not followed by the land breeze. However the sea breeze’s strength and horizontal extent demonstrate a diurnal variation. The wind direction shows clockwise turning from 12:00 AKST to 00:00 AKST. Sea breeze could be a dominant factor causing the wind variation along the Beaufort Sea coast.

  19. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to

  20. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  1. Moduli of monopole walls and amoebas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkis, Sergey A.; Ward, Richard S.

    2012-05-01

    We study doubly-periodic monopoles, also called monopole walls, determining their spectral data and computing the dimensions of their moduli spaces. Using spectral data we identify the moduli, and compare our results with a perturbative analysis. We also identify an SL(2, {Z}) action on monopole walls, in which the S transformation corresponds to the Nahm transform.

  2. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Domain Walls in Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretiakov, Oleg; Goussev, Arseni; Robbins, J. M.; Slastikov, Valeriy

    2015-03-01

    We study domain walls in thin ferromagnetic nanotubes with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Dramatic effects arise from the interplay of space curvature and spin-orbit induced DMI on the domain wall structure in these systems. The domain walls become narrower in systems with DMI and curvature. Moreover, the domain walls created in such nanotubes can propagate without Walker breakdown for arbitrary applied currents, thus allowing for a robust and controlled domain-wall motion. The domain-wall velocity is directly proportional to the non-adiabatic spin transfer torque current term and is insensitive to the adiabatic current term. Application of an external magnetic field along the nanotube axis triggers rich dynamical response of the curved domain wall. In particular, we show that the propagation velocity is a non-linear function of both the applied field and DMI, and strongly depends on the orientation and chirality of the wall. We acknowledge support by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 25800184 and No. 25247056) from the MEXT, Japan and SpinNet.

  3. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-10-28

    A serpentine coolant flow path is formed by inner walls in a cavity between pressure and suction side walls of a turbine airfoil, the cavity partitioned by one or more transverse partitions into a plurality of continuous serpentine cooling flow streams each having a respective coolant inlet.

  4. Artificial Climbing Wall Design and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinnamon, Jerry

    Climbing walls can be designed to satisfy the needs of both untrained and experienced climbers offering these people a place to learn their craft as well as a place for them to keep their skills honed during off seasons. Users of the artificial wall can be classified into special groups, such as "Youth at Risk," who are engaged in challenge/growth…

  5. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B.; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Kehrer, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  6. Do plant cell walls have a code?

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-12-01

    A code is a set of rules that establish correspondence between two worlds, signs (consisting of encrypted information) and meaning (of the decrypted message). A third element, the adaptor, connects both worlds, assigning meaning to a code. We propose that a Glycomic Code exists in plant cell walls where signs are represented by monosaccharides and phenylpropanoids and meaning is cell wall architecture with its highly complex association of polymers. Cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms, structure, architecture and properties are addressed according to Code Biology perspective, focusing on how they oppose to cell wall deconstruction. Cell wall hydrolysis is mainly focused as a mechanism of decryption of the Glycomic Code. Evidence for encoded information in cell wall polymers fine structure is highlighted and the implications of the existence of the Glycomic Code are discussed. Aspects related to fine structure are responsible for polysaccharide packing and polymer-polymer interactions, affecting the final cell wall architecture. The question whether polymers assembly within a wall display similar properties as other biological macromolecules (i.e. proteins, DNA, histones) is addressed, i.e. do they display a code?

  7. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  8. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  9. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  10. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  11. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  12. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  13. Revisiting the Ladder on a Wall Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salu, Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning on a wall has been a staple of introductory physics for years. It is discussed in numerous physics textbooks and in journals. Now, it even has an Internet presence. Postings from students seek help for "ladder on a wall" problems. A quick review of those postings would show that they all deal with frictionless…

  14. Differential scanning calorimetry of plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Liangshiou; Varner, J.E. ); Yuen, H.K. )

    1991-03-15

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry has been used to study the phase transition of cell wall preparations of the elongating and mature regions of soybean hypocotyls and of celery epidermis and collenchyma strands. A step-like transition believed to be glass transition was observed in walls isolated from the elongating region of soybean hypocotyls at 52.9C. Addition of 1 mM CaCl{sub 2} to the cell wall preparation increased the transition temperature to 60.8C and greatly reduced the transition magnitude. In walls from the mature region, the transition was small and occurred at a higher temperature (60.1C). Addition of calcium to the mature region cell wall had little effect on the transition. Based on the known interactions between calcium and pectin, the authors propose that calcium affects the glass transition by binding to the polygalacturonate backbone of wall pectin, resulting in a more rigid wall with a smaller transition at a higher temperature. The mature region either has more calcium in the wall or has more methyl-esterified pectin, making it less responsive to added calcium.

  15. Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

  16. Drag reduction at a plane wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective is to determine by analytical means how drag on a plane wall may be modified favorably using a minimal amount of flow information - preferably only information at the wall. What quantities should be measured? How should that information be assimilated in order to arrive at effective control? As a prototypical problem, incompressible, viscous flow, governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, past a plane wall at which the no-slip condition was modified was considered. The streamwise and spanwise velocity components are required to be zero, but the normal component is to be specified according to some control law. The challenge is to choose the wall-normal velocity component based on flow conditions at the wall so that the mean drag is as small as possible. There can be no net mass flux through the wall, and the total available control energy is constrained. A turbulent flow is highly unsteady and has detailed spatial structure. The mean drag on the wall is the integral over the wall of the local shear forces exerted by the fluid, which is then averaged in time; it is a 'macroscopic' property of the flow. It is not obvious how unsteady boundary control is to be applied in order to modify the mean flow most effectively, especially in view of the non- self-adjoint nature of the governing equations. An approximate analytical solution to the suboptimal scheme is pursued.

  17. Reduced order modeling of wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Parviz

    2015-11-01

    Modeling turbulent flow near a wall is a pacing item in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace applications and geophysical flows. Gradual progress has been made in statistical modeling of near wall turbulence using the Reynolds averaged equations of motion, an area of research where John Lumley has made numerous seminal contributions. More recently, Lumley and co-workers pioneered dynamical systems modeling of near wall turbulence, and demonstrated that the experimentally observed turbulence dynamics can be predicted using low dimensional dynamical systems. The discovery of minimal flow unit provides further evidence that the near wall turbulence is amenable to reduced order modeling. The underlying rationale for potential success in using low dimensional dynamical systems theory is based on the fact that the Reynolds number is low in close proximity to the wall. Presumably for the same reason, low dimensional models are expected to be successful in modeling of the laminar/turbulence transition region. This has been shown recently using dynamic mode decomposition. Furthermore, it is shown that the near wall flow structure and statistics in the late and non-linear transition region is strikingly similar to that in higher Reynolds number fully developed turbulence. In this presentation, I will argue that the accumulated evidence suggests that wall modeling for LES using low dimensional dynamical systems is a profitable avenue to pursue. The main challenge would be the numerical integration of such wall models in LES methodology.

  18. Revisiting the Ladder on a Wall Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salu, Yehuda

    2011-05-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning on a wall has been a staple of introductory physics for years. It is discussed in numerous physics textbooks and in journals.1-4 Now, it even has an Internet presence. Postings from students seek help for "ladder on a wall" problems. A quick review of those postings would show that they all deal with frictionless walls. This is also how the situation is presented in most textbooks. One may get the impression that the friction between a ladder and a wall is always negligible, or that dealing with it is so difficult that it should be left out of the realm of introductory physics. The truth of the matter is that the magnitude of the friction coefficient between a ladder and a wall is not much different from that with the floor, and that friction with the wall is an important part of the conditions for having a static ladder. This paper derives a simple relationship between the friction coefficients of the ladder with the floor (μ1) and with the wall (μ2), when the ladder is in static equilibrium. Figure 1 shows the forces that act on a ladder that leans on a wall.

  19. Through-the-wall polarimetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.

    2008-04-01

    Through-the-Wall Imaging is emerging as an affordable sensor technology supporting a variety of applications, such as surveillance and reconnaissance, emergency rescue, and firefighting. Motivated by the desire to understand the underlying phenomenology and performance bounds associated with imaging targets behind walls, several through-the-wall imaging experiments were conducted at the Center for Advanced Communications (CAC), Villanova University. These experiments aimed at supporting resolution, polarization, and localization of indoor targets and objects behind walls, and provided valuable dual-polarized synthetic aperture data measurements of indoor scenes of different complexity and population. In this paper, we present full-polarization imaging results, for a setting of calibrated reflectors behind a typical exterior grade wall. These imaging results provide polarimetric scene characterization and are shown to be in good agreement with the ground truth.

  20. Natural Paradigms of Plant Cell Wall Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H.; Xu, Q.; Taylor, L. E.; Baker, J. O.; Tucker, M. P.; Ding, S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Natural processes of recycling carbon from plant cell walls are slow but very efficient, generally involving microbial communities and their secreted enzymes. Efficient combinations of microbial communities and enzymes act in a sequential and synergistic manner to degrade plant cell walls. Recent understanding of plant cell wall ultra-structure, as well as the carbon metabolism, ATP production, and ecology of participating microbial communities, and the biochemical properties of their cellulolytic enzymes have led to new perspectives on saccharification of biomass. Microbial communities are dynamic functions of the chemical and structural compositions of plant cell wall components. The primitive 'multicellularity' exhibited by certain cellulolytic microorganisms may play a role in facilitating cell-cell communication and cell-plant cell wall-substrate interaction.

  1. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  2. An NPARC Turbulence Module with Wall Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T.-H.

    1997-01-01

    The turbulence module recently developed for the NPARC code has been extended to include wall functions. The Van Driest transformation is used so that the wall functions can be applied to both incompressible and compressible flows. The module is equipped with three two-equation K-epsilon turbulence models: Chien, Shih-Lumley and CMOTR models. Details of the wall functions as well as their numerical implementation are reported. It is shown that the inappropriate artificial viscosity in the near-wall region has a big influence on the solution of the wall function approach. A simple way to eliminate this influence is proposed, which gives satisfactory results during the code validation. The module can be easily linked to the NPARC code for practical applications.

  3. Metal stud wall systems -- Thermal disaster, or modern wall systems with highly efficient thermal insulation?

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1997-11-01

    Because steel has higher thermal conductivity than wood and intense heat transfer occurs through the metal wall components, thermal performances of a metal stud wall are significantly lower than for similar wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. That is why metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar made of wood. However, properly designed metal stud walls can be as thermally effective as wood stud walls. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is widely used as a remedy for a weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of the promising metal stud wall configurations is analyzed using results of finite difference computer modeling and guarded hotbox tests. Some of these walls were designed and tested in the ORNL Building Technology Center, some were tested in other laboratories, and some walls were developed and forgotten long time ago. Also, a novel concept of combined foam-metal studs is considered. The main aim of the present paper is to prove that it is possible to build metal stud walls which perform as well as wood stud walls. The key lies in designing; metal stud wall systems have to be treated in a special way with particular consideration to the high thermal conduction of metal components. In the discussed collection of the efficient metal stud wall configurations, reductions of the in-cavity R-value caused by metal studs are between 10 and 20%.

  4. Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

  5. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Schwantes, R. H.; McVay, R. C.; Lignell, H.; Coggon, M. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-10-01

    Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be substantially underestimated owing to deposition of SOA-forming compounds to chamber walls. We present here an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of wall deposition of organic vapors in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecane in two chambers that had been extensively used and in two new unused chambers. We found that the extent of prior use of the chamber did not significantly affect the sorption behavior of the Teflon films. The dominant parameter governing the extent of wall deposition of a compound is its wall accommodation coefficient (αw,i), which can be correlated through its volatility (Ci*) with the number of carbons (nC) and oxygens (nO) in the molecule. Among the 25 compounds studied, the maximum wall deposition rate is approached by the most highly oxygenated and least volatile compounds. The extent to which vapor wall deposition impacts measured SOA yields depends on the competition between uptake of organic vapors by suspended particles and chamber walls. Gas-particle equilibrium partitioning is established relatively rapidly in the presence of perfect accommodation of organic vapors onto particles or when a sufficiently large concentration of suspended particles is present. The timescale associated with vapor wall deposition can vary from minutes to hours depending on the value of αw,i. For volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (small αw,i), gas-particle partitioning will be dominant for typical particle number concentrations in chamber experiments. For large αw,i, vapor transport to particles is suppressed by competition with the chamber walls even with perfect particle accommodation.

  7. Wall induced turbulence distortions of optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Ove K. S.; Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars

    2009-09-01

    Optical measurements and tests of optical instruments are often performed through an opened window or from the roof of an elevated building. This can also be a common situation for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems. Wind friction in combination with solar heating of the wall and the ground will create increased turbulence in a boundary layer close to the wall. For an outgoing laser beam this thin region of strong turbulence causes beam wander, beam broadening and beam break-up. For imaging and detection systems angle of arrival fluctuations and image blurring may result. In an attempt to estimate the strength of the atmospheric turbulence in the layer at the wall the refractive index structure constant (Cn2) was measured with an ultra sonic anemometer as a function of distance from the wall. The measurements were performed at the lower part of a window that was open just enough to give space for the anemometer. The window was placed 10 m above ground in a 12 m high building, with brick wall below the window and wooden panel above the window. Measurements of the turbulence as a function of distance from the wall were performed during different times of the day to study the influence of sun heating of the wall. The measured average Cn2 shows an exponentially decreasing function of distance from the wall. The exponential decay of Cn2 depends on the time of the day. The highest measured value of Cn2 was approximately 3x10-11 m-2/3 near the wall. The influence of wall turbulence is discussed with respect to its influence on laser beam propagation.

  8. Final Report for "Stabilization of resistive wall modes using moving metal walls"

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, Cary B.

    2014-02-05

    The UW experiment used a linear pinch experiment to study the stabilization of MHD by moving metal walls. The methodology of the experiment had three steps. (1) Identify and understand the no-wall MHD instability limits and character, (2) identify and understand the thin-wall MHD instabilities (re- sistive wall mode), and then (3) add the spinning wall and understand its impact on stability properties. During the duration of the grant we accomplished all 3 of these goals, discovered new physics, and completed the experiment as proposed.

  9. Flow Characteristics of Plane Wall Jet with Side Walls on Both Sides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imao, Shigeki; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Kozato, Yasuaki; Hayashi, Takayasu

    Flow characteristics of a two-dimensional jet with side walls have been studied experimentally. Three kinds of cylindrical walls and a flat wall were provided as the side walls, and they were combined and attached to a nozzle. Nine types of side wall conditions were investigated. Velocity was measured by a hot-wire probe and the separation point was measured by a Pitot tube. Mean velocity profiles, the growth of the jet half-width, the decay of jet maximum velocity, and the attachment distance were clarified. When cylindrical walls with different radii are installed, the flow pattern changes markedly depending on the velocity of the jet. A striking increase in the jet half-width is related to the separation of flow from the smaller cylindrical wall just behind the nozzle.

  10. Cell wall of Fusarium sulphureum; I. Chemical composition of the hyphal wall.

    PubMed

    Barran, L R; Schneider, E F; Wood, P J; Madhosingh, C; Miller, R W

    1975-05-01

    The hyphae wall of Fusarium sulphureum Schlect. (Isolate 1) was isolated and purified. Electron microscopy studies showed that the isolated cell wall consisted of two distinct layers, an outer electron dense layer and a broader electron transparent inner layer. Chemical analysis revealed that the cell wall contained 66% carbohydrate, 7.3% protein, 5.5% lipid and 1.8% ash. The major cell wall component N-acetylglucosamine (39%) was shown by X-ray diffraction analysis to be present as chitin. Glucose constituted 14% of the cell wall, while mannose, galactose, and glucuronic acid, accounted for 15% of the cell wall. Glucuronic acid appears to be predominantly linked to galactose in the intact wall.

  11. High resolution archives from the Black Sea and Caspian Sea as records of hydrological changes during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marret, F.; Mudie, P.; Leroy, S.; Aksu, A.; Hiscott, R.

    2009-04-01

    the occurrence of major changes in the Black Sea surface conditions. The dinocyst data have also been integrated in a multiple-proxy study carried out on this record, including carbon and sulphur isotopes, ostracodes and pollen studies. The record, starting at around 9.3 ka BP documents a mild, humid climate and brackish water environment, with the dominance of the quasi-endemic association Spiniferites cruciformis-Pyxidinopsis psilata. A few occurrences of Mediterranean species and recent ecological information from Caspian Sea dinocysts indicate that salinity was not below 7. This brackish association lasted until 6.0 ka BP when it was completely replaced by euryhaline species. However, a significant presence of euryhaline species at 8.5 ka BP indicates that marine conditions were being established, i.e. that the Black Sea was even then connected to the Marmara Sea via the Bosphorus Strait. The period between the first significant increase of euryhaline taxa and the disappearance of the brackish species is characterised by the occurrence of specimens with strong morphological variability. This implies that changes in the sea surface conditions were probably gradual, and that the Black Sea reached its present conditions in about 1500 years. We will also present changes in salinity in the Caspian Sea for the last 5500 years based on dinocyst records. References 1- Marret F., Mudie P.J., Aksu A. and Hiscott R.N. (2007) Holocene dinocyst record of a two-step transformation of the Neoeuxinian brackish water lake into the Black Sea. Quaternary International. 2- Marret F., Leroy S., Chalié F. and Gasse F. (2004) New organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from recent sediments of Central Asian Seas. . Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 129, 1-20. 3- Leroy S A G, Marret F, Gibert E, Chalie F, Reyss J L and Arpe K (2007) River inflow and salinity changes in the Caspian Sea during the last 5500 years. Quaternary Science Reviews vol 26 issue 25-28 pp 3359-3383

  12. Optic flow and sea-land orientation in the sandhopper Talitrus saltator.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Alberto

    2014-06-15

    The problem sandhoppers face when they find themselves on the dry sand is to reach as quickly as possible the belt of moist sand near the water. In the present study, I ask whether, alongside many other orienting factors, sandhoppers use the optic flow they experience to maintain their bearing relative to the sea-land axis. Adult individuals of Talitrus saltator were released in a transparent Plexiglas bowl, horizontally placed between four walls with a pattern of vertical black and white stripes. The orientation of one pair of opposite walls was south-north, orthogonal to the sea-land axis of the home beach, whilst the second pair of walls was oriented east-west. The black and white striped pattern of opposite walls could be moved in pairs and in the same direction (speed=4.8 cm s(-1)). The results demonstrate that the optic flow sandhoppers experience when moving on the sea-land axis of their home beach influences their direction of travel and could help sandhoppers in maintaining a straight path to reach favourable ground by the shortest route.

  13. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-01

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain. PMID:8181009

  14. Eddy Covariance Measurements of the Sea-Spray Aerosol Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.; Yelland, M. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Prytherch, J.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, almost all estimates of the sea-spray aerosol source flux have been inferred through various indirect methods. Direct estimates via eddy covariance have been attempted by only a handful of studies, most of which measured only the total number flux, or achieved rather coarse size segregation. Applying eddy covariance to the measurement of sea-spray fluxes is challenging: most instrumentation must be located in a laboratory space requiring long sample lines to an inlet collocated with a sonic anemometer; however, larger particles are easily lost to the walls of the sample line. Marine particle concentrations are generally low, requiring a high sample volume to achieve adequate statistics. The highly hygroscopic nature of sea salt means particles change size rapidly with fluctuations in relative humidity; this introduces an apparent bias in flux measurements if particles are sized at ambient humidity. The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) was developed specifically to make high rate measurements of aerosol size distributions for use in eddy covariance measurements, and the instrument and data processing and analysis techniques have been refined over the course of several projects. Here we will review some of the issues and limitations related to making eddy covariance measurements of the sea spray source flux over the open ocean, summarise some key results from the last decade, and present new results from a 3-year long ship-based measurement campaign as part of the WAGES project. Finally we will consider requirements for future progress.

  15. Consistently inconsistent, the posterior vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Hale, Douglass S; Fenner, Dee

    2016-03-01

    Posterior vaginal wall prolapse is one of the most common prolapses encountered by gynecological surgeons. What appears to be a straightforward condition to diagnose and treat surgically for physicians has proven to be frustratingly unpredictable with regard to symptom relief for patients. Functional disorders such as dyssynergic defecation and constipation are often attributed to posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Little scientific evidence supports this assumption, emphasizing that structure and function are not synonymous when treating posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Rectoceles, enteroceles, sigmoidoceles, peritoneoceles, rectal and intraanal intussusception, rectal prolapse, and descending perineal syndrome are all conditions that have an impact on the posterior vaginal wall. All too often these different anatomic conditions are treated with the same surgical approach, addressing a posterior vaginal wall bulge with a traditional posterior colporrhaphy. Studies that examine the correlation between stage of posterior wall prolapse and patient symptoms have failed to reliably do so. Surgical outcomes measured by prolapse staging appear successful, yet patient expectations are often not met. As increasing attention is being placed on patient satisfaction outcomes concerning surgical treatments, this fact will need to be addressed. Surgeons will have to clearly communicate what can and what cannot be expected with surgical repair of posterior vaginal wall prolapse.

  16. Dynamic response of cantilever retaining walls

    SciTech Connect

    Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

    1996-10-01

    A critical evaluation is made of the response to horizontal ground shaking of flexible cantilever retaining walls that are elastically constrained against rotation at their base. The retained medium is idealized as a uniform, linear, viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and semi-infinite extent in the horizontal direction. The parameters varied include the flexibilities of the wall and its base, the properties of the retained medium, and the characteristics of the ground motion. In addition to long-period, effectively static excitations, both harmonic base motions and an actual earthquake record are considered. The response quantities examined include the displacements of the wall relative to the moving base, the wall pressures, and the associated shears and bending moments. The method of analysis employed is described only briefly, emphasis being placed on the presentation and interpretation of the comprehensive numerical solutions. It is shown that, for realistic wall flexibilities, the maximum wall forces are significantly lower than those obtained for fixed-based rigid walls and potentially of the same order of magnitude as those computed by the Mononobe-Okabe method.

  17. Domain Wall structures in wide permalloy strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez, Virginia; Laurson, Lasse

    2015-03-01

    We analyze numerically the equilibrium micromagnetic domain wall structures encountered in Permalloy strips of a wide range of thicknesses and widths, with strip widths up to several micrometers. By performing an extensive set of micromagnetic simulations, we show that the equilibrium phase diagram of the domain wall structures exhibits in addition to the previously found structures (symmetric and asymmetric transverse wall and vortex wall) also a double-vortex domain wall for large enough strip widths and thicknesses. In general, shape anisotropy is less important for wider strips, and thus energy minima with more complex spin structures closing the flux more efficiently than those found before for narrow strips may appear. Also several metastable domain wall structures are found, such as structures with three or four vortices or two vortices and an antivortex. We discuss the details of the relaxation process, including the effect of varying the magnitude of the Gilbert damping constant, and the role of using different initial conditions. Finally, we also consider the field-driven dynamics of the double-vortex domain wall.

  18. Rotary press utilizing a flexible die wall.

    PubMed

    Amidon, G E; Smith, D P; Hiestand, E N

    1981-06-01

    A die with a flexible wall was constructed and evaluated on a specially modified instrumented rotary tablet press. The design permits an inward deflection of the die wall by a side punch, which rolls past a side compression roll during compression-decompression. The side compression roll is instrumented to monitor the applied side compression roll forces. On decompression, return of the die wall to its original position permits release of residual die wall pressure. The decreased residual die wall pressure can decrease fracture and capping of tablets for problem formulations. The performance was tested on three experimental formulations. For these formulations, tablets made in a conventional die exhibited severe capping problems. However, most tablets compressed in the special die were superior. With proper adjustment of punch and die wall compression forces, excellent tablets could be manufactured. The merits of the special die and modified tablet machine are substantiated, although this initial design did not provide adequate die wall pressure for all formulations. Further engineering efforts could result in practical production equipment.

  19. Domain wall geometry controls conduction in ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, R K; Morozovska, A N; Eliseev, E A; Britson, J; Yang, J-C; Chu, Y-H; Maksymovych, P; Chen, L Q; Nagarajan, V; Kalinin, S V

    2012-11-14

    A new paradigm of domain wall nanoelectronics has emerged recently, in which the domain wall in a ferroic is itself an active device element. The ability to spatially modulate the ferroic order parameter within a single domain wall allows the physical properties to be tailored at will and hence opens vastly unexplored device possibilities. Here, we demonstrate via ambient and ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements in bismuth ferrite that the conductivity of the domain walls can be modulated by up to 500% in the spatial dimension as a function of domain wall curvature. Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire calculations reveal the conduction is a result of carriers or vacancies migrating to neutralize the charge at the formed interface. Phase-field modeling indicates that anisotropic potential distributions can occur even for initially uncharged walls, from polarization dynamics mediated by elastic effects. These results are the first proof of concept for modulation of charge as a function of domain wall geometry by a proximal probe, thereby expanding potential applications for oxide ferroics in future nanoscale electronics. PMID:22994244

  20. Polyphosphorylated fungal cell wall glycopeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Bonetti, S.J.; Black, B.; Gander, J.E.

    1987-05-01

    Penicillium charlesii secretes a 65 kDa peptidophosphogalactomannan (pPGM) containing 10 phosphodiester residues and 10 galactofuranosyl-containing galactin chains attached to a linear mannan; the polysaccharides is attached to a 3 kDa seryl- and threonyl-rich peptide. The authors have now isolated and partially characterized a form of pPGM released from mycelia of P. charlesii treated at 50/sup 0/C for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min. Two- to 3-fold more pPGM was released by heat treatment than is secreted. Crude pPGM, released by heat, was fractionated on DE-52 and was fractionated into two major fractions on the basis of its difference in negative charge. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy of these two fractions provided spectra very similar to that of secreted pPGM previously reported from this laboratory. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 31/P NMR showed major signals at 1.47, and 0.22 ppm and minor signals at 1.32, 1.15, 1.00, 0.91 and 0.76 ppm. These signals are upfield from phosphomonoesters and are in the region observed for (6-O-phosphorylcholine)- and (6-O-phosphorylethanolamine)-..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosyl residues which are 0.22 and 0.90 ppm, respectively. These polymers contain 30 phosphodiester residues per molecule of 70 kDa mass compared with 10 phosphodiesters in secreted pPGM. Acid phosphatase and alkaline protease were the only lytic enzymes released by heat treatment. The evidence suggests that much of the pPGM is derived from cell walls; and that the polysaccharide is highly phosphorylated.

  1. Low-cost sustainable wall construction system

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Houses with no wall cavities, such as those made of adobe, stone, brick, or block, have poor thermal properties but are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing wall insulation. A simple, low-cost technique using loose-fill indigenous materials has been demonstrated for the construction of highly insulated walls or the retrofit of existing walls in such buildings. Locally available pumice, in sandbags stacked along the exterior wall of an adobe house in New Mexico, added a thermal resistance (R) of 16 F{sm{underscore}bullet}ft{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}h/Btu (2.8 m{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}K/W). The total cost of the sandbag insulation wall retrofit was $3.76 per square foot ($40.50/m{sup 2}). Computer simulations of the adobe house using DOE 2.1E show savings of $275 per year, corresponding to 50% reduction in heating energy consumption. The savings-to-investment ratio ranges from 1.1 to 3.2, so the cost of conserved energy is lower than the price of propane, natural gas and electric heat, making the system cost-effective. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, which was folded between corner posts as it was filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The inexpensive technique solves the problem of insulating solid-wall hours and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for people in many countries. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has filed patent applications on this technology, which is part of a DOE initiative on sustainable building envelope materials and systems.

  2. Refractive index of plant cell walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.; Escobar, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Air was replaced with media of higher refractive indices by vacuum infiltration in leaves of cucumber, blackeye pea, tomato, and string bean plants, and reflectance of noninfiltrated and infiltrated leaves was spectrophotometrically measured. Infiltrated leaves reflected less light than noninfiltrated leaves over the 500-2500-nm wavelength interval because cell wall-air interfaces were partly eliminated. Minimal reflectance should occur when the average refractive index of plant cell walls was matched by the infiltrating fluid. Although refractive indices that resulted in minimal reflectance differed among the four plant genera, an average value of 1.425 approximates the refractive index of plant cell walls for the four plant genera.

  3. Heterogeneity of Left Ventricular Wall Thickening Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Allen; Nguyen, Tom C.; Malinowski, Marcin; Daughters, George T.; Miller, D. Craig; Ingels, Neil B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Myocardial fibers are grouped into lamina (or sheets) 3-4 cells thick. Fiber shortening produces systolic LV wall thickening primarily by laminar extension, thickening and shear, but the regional variability and transmural distribution of these three mechanisms are incompletely understood. Methods and Results: Nine sheep had transmural radiopaque markers inserted into the anterior basal and lateral equatorial LV. 4D marker dynamics were studied with biplane videofluoroscopy to measure circumferential, longitudinal, and radial systolic strains in the epicardium, midwall, and endocardium. Fiber and sheet angles from quantitative histology allowed transformation of these strains into transmural contributions of sheet extension, thickening, and shear to systolic wall thickening. At all depths, systolic wall thickening in the anterior basal region was 1.6-1.9 times that in the lateral equatorial region. Interestingly, however, systolic fiber shortening was identical at each transmural depth in these regions. Endocardial anterior basal sheet thickening were >2x greater than in the lateral equatorial region (epicardium: 0.16±0.15 vs. 0.03±0.06; endocardium: 0.45±0.40 vs. 0.17±0.09). Midwall sheet extension was >2x that in the lateral wall (0.22±0.12 vs. 0.09±0.06). Epicardial and midwall sheet shears in the anterior wall were ∼2x higher than in the lateral wall (epicardium: 0.14±0.07 vs. 0.05±0.03; midwall: 0.21±0.12 vs. 0.12±0.06). Conclusions: These data demonstrate fundamentally different regional contributions of laminar mechanisms for amplifying fiber shortening to systolic wall thickening. Systolic fiber shortening was identical at each transmural depth in both the anterior and lateral LV sites. However, systolic wall thickening of the anterior site was much greater than that of the lateral site. Fiber shortening drives systolic wall thickening, but sheet dynamics and orientations are of great importance to systolic wall thickening. LV wall

  4. The USGS Salton Sea Science Office

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, Harvey Lee; Barnum, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Salton Sea Science Office (SSSO) provides scientific information and evaluations to decisionmakers who are engaged in restoration planning and actions associated with the Salton Sea. The primary focus is the natural resources of the Salton Sea, including the sea?s ability to sustain biological resources and associated social and economic values.

  5. Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

    This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

  6. Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

    2012-12-01

    The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

  7. Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieliński, Tymon

    2013-04-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  8. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  9. 15. MASONRY DETAIL NO. 1, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MASONRY DETAIL NO. 1, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING DOWN UPON THE WALL SURFACE FROM THE ADJACENT RIPRAP. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 26. NORTH TRAINING WALL, CLOSE UP VIEW OF EAST SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. NORTH TRAINING WALL, CLOSE UP VIEW OF EAST SECTION SIDE WALL, LOW TIDE. (Panoramic view 2 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 14. INTERIOR VIEW OF FIREPLACE AND SURROUNDING WALL IN FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW OF FIREPLACE AND SURROUNDING WALL IN FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST PARLOR, NORTH WALL, WITH SCALE (NOTE WALL STENCILING) - George W. Eckhart House, 810 Main Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  12. Sea Urchin Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    McClay, David R

    2016-01-01

    In the sea urchin morphogenesis follows extensive molecular specification. The specification controls the many morphogenetic events and these, in turn, precede patterning steps that establish the larval body plan. To understand how the embryo is built it was necessary to understand those series of molecular steps. Here an example of the historical sequence of those discoveries is presented as it unfolded over the last 50 years, the years during which major progress in understanding development of many animals and plants was documented by CTDB. In sea urchin development a rich series of experimental studies first established many of the phenomenological components of skeletal morphogenesis and patterning without knowledge of the molecular components. The many discoveries of transcription factors, signals, and structural proteins that contribute to the shape of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin larva then followed as molecular tools became available. A number of transcription factors and signals were discovered that were necessary for specification, morphogenesis, and patterning. Perturbation of the transcription factors and signals provided the means for assembling models of the gene regulatory networks used for specification and controlled the subsequent morphogenetic events. The earlier experimental information informed perturbation experiments that asked how patterning worked. As a consequence it was learned that ectoderm provides a series of patterning signals to the skeletogenic cells and as a consequence the skeletogenic cells secrete a highly patterned skeleton based on their ability to genotypically decode the localized reception of several signals. We still do not understand the complexity of the signals received by the skeletogenic cells, nor do we understand in detail how the genotypic information shapes the secreted skeletal biomineral, but the current knowledge at least outlines the sequence of events and provides a useful template for future

  13. Sea Urchin Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    McClay, David R

    2016-01-01

    In the sea urchin morphogenesis follows extensive molecular specification. The specification controls the many morphogenetic events and these, in turn, precede patterning steps that establish the larval body plan. To understand how the embryo is built it was necessary to understand those series of molecular steps. Here an example of the historical sequence of those discoveries is presented as it unfolded over the last 50 years, the years during which major progress in understanding development of many animals and plants was documented by CTDB. In sea urchin development a rich series of experimental studies first established many of the phenomenological components of skeletal morphogenesis and patterning without knowledge of the molecular components. The many discoveries of transcription factors, signals, and structural proteins that contribute to the shape of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin larva then followed as molecular tools became available. A number of transcription factors and signals were discovered that were necessary for specification, morphogenesis, and patterning. Perturbation of the transcription factors and signals provided the means for assembling models of the gene regulatory networks used for specification and controlled the subsequent morphogenetic events. The earlier experimental information informed perturbation experiments that asked how patterning worked. As a consequence it was learned that ectoderm provides a series of patterning signals to the skeletogenic cells and as a consequence the skeletogenic cells secrete a highly patterned skeleton based on their ability to genotypically decode the localized reception of several signals. We still do not understand the complexity of the signals received by the skeletogenic cells, nor do we understand in detail how the genotypic information shapes the secreted skeletal biomineral, but the current knowledge at least outlines the sequence of events and provides a useful template for future

  14. Wall shear stress manifolds and near wall flow topology in aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Gambaruto, Alberto M.; Chen, Guoning; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2015-11-01

    Transport of atherogenic and thrombogenic chemicals near the vessel wall highly influences atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The high Schmidt number of these species leads to a thin concentration boundary layer near the wall. The wall shear stress (WSS) vector field can be scaled to obtain the near wall velocity in this region, thus providing first order approximation to near wall transport. In this study, the complex blood flow in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms was considered. Lagrangian tracking of surface-bound tracers representing near wall species was employed to identify Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) for the WSS surface vector field. The WSS LCS matched the stable and unstable manifolds of saddle type fixed points of the time-average WSS vector field, due to the quasi-steady nature of these near wall transport processes. A WSS exposure time measure is introduced to quantify the concentration of near wall species. The effect of diffusion and normal flow on these structures is investigated. The WSS LCS highly influence the concentration of near wall species, and provide a template for near-wall transport.

  15. Combined Visualization of Wall Thickness and Wall Shear Stress for the Evaluation of Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Glaßer, Sylvia; Lawonn, Kai; Hoffmann, Thomas; Skalej, Martin; Preim, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    For an individual rupture risk assessment of aneurysms, the aneurysm's wall morphology and hemodynamics provide valuable information. Hemodynamic information is usually extracted via computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation on a previously extracted 3D aneurysm surface mesh or directly measured with 4D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast, a noninvasive imaging technique that depicts the aneurysm wall in vivo is still not available. Our approach comprises an experiment, where intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is employed to probe a dissected saccular aneurysm phantom, which we modeled from a porcine kidney artery. Then, we extracted a 3D surface mesh to gain the vessel wall thickness and hemodynamic information from a CFD simulation. Building on this, we developed a framework that depicts the inner and outer aneurysm wall with dedicated information about local thickness via distance ribbons. For both walls, a shading is adapted such that the inner wall as well as its distance to the outer wall is always perceivable. The exploration of the wall is further improved by combining it with hemodynamic information from the CFD simulation. Hence, the visual analysis comprises a brushing and linking concept for individual highlighting of pathologic areas. Also, a surface clustering is integrated to provide an automatic division of different aneurysm parts combined with a risk score depending on wall thickness and hemodynamic information. In general, our approach can be employed for vessel visualization purposes where an inner and outer wall has to be adequately represented. PMID:26356964

  16. The Sea Around Us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Rachel L.

    1991-12-01

    Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list for more than a year and a half and ultimately sold well over a million copies, has been translated into 28 languages, inspired an Academy Award-winning documentary, and won both the 1952 National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. This classic work remains as fresh today as when it first appeared. Carson's writing teems with stunning, memorable images--the newly formed Earth cooling beneath an endlessly overcast sky; the centuries of nonstop rain that created the oceans; giant squids battling sperm whales hundreds of fathoms below the surface; and incredibly powerful tides moving 100 billion tons of water daily in the Bay of Fundy. Quite simply, she captures the mystery and allure of the ocean with a compelling blend of imagination and expertise. Reintroducing a classic work to a whole new generation of readers, this Special Edition features a new chapter written by Jeffrey Levinton, a leading expert in marine ecology, that brings the scientific side of The Sea Around Us completely up to date. Levinton incorporates the most recent thinking on continental drift, coral reefs, the spread of the ocean floor, the deterioration of the oceans, mass extinction of sea life, and many other topics. In addition, acclaimed nature writer Ann Zwinger has contributed a brief foreword. Today, with the oceans endangered by the dumping of medical waste and ecological disasters such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, this illuminating volume provides a timely reminder of both the fragility and the importance of the ocean and the life that abounds within it. Anyone who loves the sea, or who is concerned about our

  17. Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma constrained by new subducted slab reconstruction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jonny; Suppe, John; Lu, Renqi; Kanda, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    We reconstructed Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma from 28 slabs mapped in 3-D from global tomography, with a subducted area of ~25% of present-day global oceanic lithosphere. Slab constraints include subducted parts of existing Pacific, Indian, and Philippine Sea oceans, plus wholly subducted proto-South China Sea and newly discovered "East Asian Sea." Mapped slabs were unfolded and restored to the Earth surface using three methodologies and input to globally consistent plate reconstructions. Important constraints include the following: (1) the Ryukyu slab is ~1000 km N-S, too short to account for ~20° Philippine Sea northward motion from paleolatitudes; (2) the Marianas-Pacific subduction zone was at its present location (±200 km) since 48 ± 10 Ma based on a >1000 km deep slab wall; (3) the 8000 × 2500 km East Asian Sea existed between the Pacific and Indian Oceans at 52 Ma based on lower mantle flat slabs; (4) the Caroline back-arc basin moved with the Pacific, based on the overlapping, coeval Caroline hot spot track. These new constraints allow two classes of Philippine Sea plate models, which we compared to paleomagnetic and geologic data. Our preferred model involves Philippine Sea nucleation above the Manus plume (0°/150°E) near the Pacific-East Asian Sea plate boundary. Large Philippine Sea westward motion and post-40 Ma maximum 80° clockwise rotation accompanied late Eocene-Oligocene collision with the Caroline/Pacific plate. The Philippine Sea moved northward post-25 Ma over the northern East Asian Sea, forming a northern Philippine Sea arc that collided with the SW Japan-Ryukyu margin in the Miocene (~20-14 Ma).

  18. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage....

  19. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage....

  20. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage....

  1. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .../observer, also must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, summer.../observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, bluefish, spiny dogfish..., including whole marine mammals, sea turtles, and sea birds, are stored/handled properly and transported...

  2. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage....

  3. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage....

  4. On the selective adsorption of cations in the cell wall of the green alga Valonia utricularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesseler, H.

    1980-06-01

    The selective adsorption of the cations Na+, K+, Mg++ and Ca++ by the cell wall of the Mediterranean alga Valonia utricularis (Siphonocladales, Chlorophyceae) from sea water of 40 %. S was investigated by extraction of cell-wall preparations, eluted before in 1.1 mol methanol (adjusted to pH 8) with 0.1 n formic acid in a Soxhlet apparatus. Na+ and K+ were determined by flame photometry, Mg++ and Ca++ by complexometric titration with EDTA. From calculation of the dry weight:fresh weight ratios and the chloride determinations in the eluates, the Donnan free-space fraction of the total cell-wall volume was calculated to about 35 %, and the analytical results of the cation concentrations in the extracts expressed as μVal cm-3 DFS. This calculation is based on the assumption that the acidic groups of the noncellulosic matrix material, carrying negative charges by dissociation at the reaction of sea water (ph about 8) are responsible for the adsorption of cations by exhibition of a Donnan effect. The results obtained show clearly that besides the divalent cations Mg++ and Ca++, which according to the physico-chemical laws of the Donnan distribution must be relatively accumulated to the second power of the monovalent ones, potassium is also enriched by selective adsorption, and the K+:Na+ ratio increased significantly compared with that in sea water. This seems to indicate that the strength of attraction between the cations and the negative sites is dependent on the radii of the ions and the state of hydration and/or polarisation of the ions and binding sites.

  5. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE...

  6. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens

  7. Stichopin-containing nerves and secretory cells specific to connective tissues of the sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Masaki; Saha, Apurba Kumar; Matsuno, Akira; Noskor, Sukumar Chandra; Koizumi, Osamu; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka; Nakajima, Yoko; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2007-09-22

    Stichopin, a 17-amino acid peptide isolated from a sea cucumber, affects the stiffness change of the body-wall catch connective tissues and the contraction of the body-wall muscles. The localization of stichopin in sea cucumbers was studied by indirect immunohistochemistry using antiserum against stichopin. Double staining was performed with both stichopin antiserum and 1E11, the monoclonal antibody specific to echinoderm nerves. A stichopin-like immunoreactivity (stichopin-LI) was exclusively found in the connective tissues of various organs. Many fibres and cells with processes were stained by both the anti-stichopin antibody and 1E11. They were found in the body-wall dermis and the connective tissue layer of the cloacae and were suggested to be connective tissue-specific nerves. Oval cells with stichopin-LI (OCS) without processes were found in the body-wall dermis, the connective tissue sheath of the longitudinal body-wall muscles, the connective tissue layer of the tube feet and tentacles, and the connective tissue in the radial nerves separating the ectoneural part from the hyponeural part. Electron microscopic observations of the OCSs in the radial nerves showed that they were secretory cells. The OCSs were located either near the well-defined neural structures or near the water-filled cavities, such as the epineural sinus and the canals of the tube feet. The location near the water-filled cavities might suggest that stichopin was secreted into these cavities to function as a hormone.

  8. Domain walls as probes of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gabadadze, Gregory; Pujolas, Oriol; Rahman, Rakibur

    2007-06-15

    We show that domain walls are probes that enable one to distinguish large-distance modified gravity from general relativity (GR) at short distances. For example, low-tension domain walls are stealth in modified gravity, while they do produce global gravitational effects in GR. We demonstrate this by finding exact solutions for various domain walls in the DGP model. A wall with tension lower than the fundamental Planck scale does not inflate and has no gravitational effects on a 4D observer, since its 4D tension is completely screened by gravity itself. We argue that this feature remains valid in a generic class of models of infrared modified gravity. As a byproduct, we obtain exact solutions for supermassive codimension-2 branes.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  10. Wall System Saves Initial HVAC Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The superior insulating characteristics of an exterior wall system has enabled a Massachusetts school district to realize a savings on electric heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. (Author/MLF)

  11. Cell wall remodeling under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Plants exposed to abiotic stress respond to unfavorable conditions on multiple levels. One challenge under drought stress is to reduce shoot growth while maintaining root growth, a process requiring differential cell wall synthesis and remodeling. Key players in this process are the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidases, which initially cross-link phenolic compounds and glycoproteins of the cell walls causing stiffening. The function of ROS shifts after having converted all the peroxidase substrates in the cell wall. If ROS-levels remain high during prolonged stress, OH°-radicals are formed which lead to polymer cleavage. In concert with xyloglucan modifying enzymes and expansins, the resulting cell wall loosening allows further growth of stressed organs. PMID:25709610

  12. On thick domain walls in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1989-01-01

    Planar scalar field configurations in general relativity differ considerably from those in flat space. It is shown that static domain walls of finite thickness in curved space-time do not possess a reflection symmetry. At infinity, the space-time tends to the Taub vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Minkowski vacuum (Rindler space-time) on the other. Massive test particles are always accelerated towards the Minkowski side, i.e., domain walls are attractive on the Taub side, but repulsive on the Minkowski side (Taub-vacuum cleaner). It is also proved that the pressure in all directions is always negative. Finally, a brief comment is made concerning the possibility of infinite, i.e., bigger than horizon size, domain walls in our universe. All of the results are independent of the form of the potential V(phi) greater than or equal to 0 of the scalar field phi.

  13. Intercostal hemangioma of the chest wall

    PubMed Central

    Hamzík, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a 36-year-old patient who had six months’ pain of the thoracic spine and left chest. A soft slowly growing resistance was present on the dorso-lateral side of the left chest wall, in the range of the seventh to ninth rib. According to the medical history, the patient did not have any prior trauma and malignancy. A well-defined tumor of the left chest wall with calcifications, which grew to the seventh and eighth intercostal space, was present on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans. The patient underwent resection of the tumor with the chest wall and reconstruction with polypropylene mesh. Histologically, it was a venous hemangioma, one of very rare tumors of the chest wall. PMID:27212983

  14. Axions from cosmic string and wall decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, Chris

    2010-08-30

    If inflation occurred with a reheat temperature > T{sub PQ}, axions from the decay of global axion strings and domain walls would make an important contribution to the cosmological energy density, comparable to that from vacuum misalignment. Several groups have numerically studied the evolution of axion strings and walls in the past, however substantial uncertainties remain in their contribution to the present density {Omega}{sub a,string+wall{approx}}1-100(f{sub a}/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 7/6}, where f{sub a} is the axion decay constant. I will describe the numerical methods used in our simulations and show results for several string and wall configurations.

  15. Axions from cosmic string and wall decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C A

    2010-03-10

    If inflation occurred with a reheat temperature > T{sub PQ}, axions from the decay of global axion strings and domain walls would make an important contribution to the cosmological energy density, comparable to that from vacuum misalignment. Several groups have numerically studied the evolution of axion strings and walls in the past, however substantial uncertainties remain in their contribution to the present density {Omega}{sub a,string+wall} {approx} 1-100 (f{sub a}/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 7/6}, where f{sub a} is the axion decay constant. I will describe the numerical methods used in our simulations and show results for several string and wall configurations.

  16. Global learning communities: Science classrooms without walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlin, Steven C.

    The physical walls of a classroom have typically acted as the boundary of school science learning communities. The participants in these learning communities are the students and the teacher in individual classrooms. These participants contribute to scientific discourse about a specific content area under study. Scientific learning communities, on the other hand, long ago moved beyond the confines of a laboratory, meeting room or any one physical location. Scientists engage in ongoing discourse with many members of the scientific community in different locations all over the world. These same technological advances can now be used by science teachers and students to venture out of their classroom and become involved in a global learning community (GLC). The context of this study, From Local to Extreme Environments (FLEXE), is a science curriculum that attempts to expand the boundaries of the science classroom and involve students in a GLC. FLEXE participants are not limited to conversations with students and a teacher in one classroom. Students and teachers in many classrooms in multiple countries, deep-sea scientists, and university education researchers are involved in the FLEXE community. This study was framed by theories of sociocultural learning, discourse and learning communities. These theoretical research perspectives acted as lenses for the examination of communication of student participants in a GLC. Student views of their collaboration and their scientific writing were studied within a principle contrast of U.S. students in domestic or international class partnerships. A mixed methods approach was used to study the GLC established in the FLEXE program. Statistical analyses were used with "quick questions" (QQs) that follow each online session, in order to characterize students' views of the online global learning environment. Argumentation analysis was used to examine and compare how students supported their scientific claims with a number of different

  17. Localization and chiral symmetry in 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Antonio; Kenneth C. Bowler; Peter A. Boyle; Norman H. Christ; Michael A. Clark; Saul D. Cohen; Chris Dawson; Alistair Hart; Balint Joó; Chulwoo Jung; Richard D. Kenway; Shu Li; Meifeng Lin; Robert D. Mawhinney; Christopher M. Maynard; Shigemi Ohta; Robert J. Tweedie; Azusa Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    We present results for the dependence of the residual mass of domain wall fermions (DWF) on the size of the fifth dimension and its relation to the density and localization properties of low-lying eigenvectors of the corresponding hermitian Wilson Dirac operator relevant to simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD. Using the DBW2 and Iwasaki gauge actions, we generate ensembles of configurations with a $16^3\\times 32$ space-time volume and an extent of 8 in the fifth dimension for the sea quarks. We demonstrate the existence of a regime where the degree of locality, the size of chiral symmetry breaking and the rate of topology change can be acceptable for inverse lattice spacings $a^{-1} \\ge 1.6$ GeV.

  18. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  19. K(13) FORM FACTOR WITH TWO FLAVORS OF DYNAMICAL DOMAIN WALL QUARKS.

    SciTech Connect

    SONI, A.; DAWSON, T.; IZUBUCHI, T.; KANEKO, T.; SASAKI, S.

    2005-07-25

    We report on our calculation of K {yields} {pi} vector form factor by numerical simulations of two-flavor QCD on a 16{sup 3} x 32 x 12 lattice at a {approx_equal} 0.12 fm using domain-wall quarks and DBW2 glue. Our preliminary result at a single sea quark mass corresponding to m{sub PS}/m{sub V} {approx_equal} 0.53 shows a good agreement with previous estimate in quenched QCD and that from a phenomenological model.

  20. A Silurian sea spider.

    PubMed

    Siveter, Derek J; Sutton, Mark D; Briggs, Derek E G; Siveter, David J

    2004-10-21

    Pycnogonids (sea spiders) are marine arthropods numbering some 1,160 extant species. They are globally distributed in depths of up to 6,000 metres, and locally abundant; however, their typically delicate form and non-biomineralized cuticle has resulted in an extremely sparse fossil record that is not accepted universally. There are two opposing views of their phylogenetic position: either within Chelicerata as sister group to the euchelicerates, or as a sister taxon to all other euarthropods. The Silurian Herefordshire Konservat-Lagerstatte in England (approximately 425 million years (Myr) bp) yields exceptionally preserved three-dimensional fossils that provide unrivalled insights into the palaeobiology of a variety of invertebrates. The fossils are preserved as calcitic void in-fills in carbonate concretions within a volcaniclastic horizon, and are reconstructed digitally. Here we describe a new pycnogonid from this deposit, which is the oldest adult sea spider by approximately 35 Myr and the most completely known fossil species. The large chelate first appendage is consistent with a chelicerate affinity for the pycnogonids. Cladistic analyses place the new species near the base of the pycnogonid crown group, implying that the latter had arisen by the Silurian period.

  1. Sea modeling and rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  2. Greenland Sea observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmandsen, P.; Mortensen, H.B.; Pedersen, L.T.; Skriver, H.; Minnett, P.

    1992-12-31

    ERS-1 SAR data have been acquired over the Greenland Sea and Fram Strait during two periods, the Ice Phase of three-day repeat cycle from January to March 1992 and a one-month period in the 35-day repeat cycle from 16 July to 15 August 1992. Most data became available by way of the Broadband Data Dissemination System, i.e. with a spatial resolution of about 100 m. With these data various algorithms have been tested to derive sea ice parameters such as ice extent, ice concentration and ice displacement. In the latter period data were collected to support the activities of a research vessel in the area mainly related to the large polynyas that form east and north of Greenland. The formation of polynyas could clearly be outlined but also other phenomena were observed related to the influence of wind streets and gravity waves associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. The data will have to be studied further including full-resolution data to substantiate the conclusions arrived at.

  3. Changes in wall shear stresses in abdominal aortic aneurysms with increasing wall stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Fernandez, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    During the growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms, local changes occur in the composition and structure of the diseased wall, resulting in its stiffening. A numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions is performed in idealized models of aneurysms using a finite element method. A full coupling of the equations governing the pulsatile blood flow and the deformation of the compliant wall is undertaken. The effect of the progressive stiffening of the wall is analyzed at various stages in the growth of the aneurysm. Increasing the wall stiffness alters the distribution of wall shear stresses and leads to an increase in their magnitude. The wall compliance is shown to have a more pronounced effect on non-axisymmetric aneurysms, which sustain large displacements. The overall movement of the aneurysm models increases the three-dimensionality of the flow.

  4. Role of cell wall deconstructing enzymes in the proanthocyanidin-cell wall adsorption-desorption phenomena.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, Liliana del Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Ortega-Regules, Ana; Lozada, Daniel; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2016-04-01

    The transference of proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine is quite low. This could be due, among other causes, to proanthocyanidins being bound to grape cell wall polysaccharides, which are present in high concentrations in the must. Therefore, the effective extraction of proanthocyanidins from grapes will depend on the ability to disrupt these associations, and, in this respect, enzymes that degrade these polysaccharides could play an important role. The main objective of this work was to test the behavior of proanthocyanidin-cell wall interactions when commercial maceration enzymes are present in the solution. The results showed that cell wall polysaccharides adsorbed a high amount of proanthocyanidins and only a limited quantity of proanthocyanidins could be desorbed from the cell walls after washing with a model solution. The presence of enzymes in the solution reduced the proanthocyanidin-cell wall interaction, probably through the elimination of pectins from the cell wall network.

  5. Ice in Caspian Sea and Aral Sea, Kazakhstan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this MODIS image from December 3, 2001, winter sea ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) Seas. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian Sea averages only 17 ft in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the Sea is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the sea bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral Sea is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral Sea 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The Sea is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18o F, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral Sea continue to be diverted for agriculture, the Sea becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. SeaMARC II mapping of transform faults in the Cayman Trough, Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosencrantz, Eric; Mann, Paul

    1992-01-01

    SeaMARC II maps of the southern wall of the Cayman Trough between Honduras and Jamaica show zones of continuous, well-defined fault lineaments adjacent and parallel to the wall, both to the east and west of the Cayman spreading axis. These lineaments mark the present, active traces of transform faults which intersect the southern end of the spreading axis at a triple junction. The Swan Islands transform fault to the west is dominated by two major lineaments that overlap with right-stepping sense across a large push-up ridge beneath the Swan Islands. The fault zone to the east of the axis, named the Walton fault, is more complex, containing multiple fault strands and a large pull-apart structure. The Walton fault links the spreading axis to Jamaican and Hispaniolan strike-slip faults, and it defines the southern boundary of a microplate composed of the eastern Cayman Trough and western Hispaniola. The presence of this microplate raises questions about the veracity of Caribbean plate velocities based primarily on Cayman Trough opening rates.

  7. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Wolfgang D.; Talmadge, Kenneth W.; Keegstra, Kenneth; Albersheim, Peter

    1973-01-01

    The molecular structure, chemical properties, and biological function of the xyloglucan polysaccharide isolated from cell walls of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells are described. The sycamore wall xyloglucan is compared to the extracellular xyloglucan secreted by suspension-cultured sycamore cells into their culture medium and is also compared to the seed “amyloid” xyloglucans. Xyloglucan—or fragments of xyloglucan—and acidic fragments of the pectic polysaccharides are released from endopolygalacturonase-pretreated sycamore walls by treatment of these walls with 8 m urea, endoglucanase, or 0.5 n NaOH. Some of the xyloglucan thus released is found to cochromatograph with the acidic pectic fragments on diethylaminoethyl Sephadex. The chemical or enzymic treatments required for the release of xyloglucan from the walls and the cochromatography of xyloglucan with the acidic pectic fragments indicate that xyloglucan is covalently linked to the pectic polysaccharides and is noncovalently bound to the cellulose fibrils of the sycamore cell wall. The molecular structure of sycamore xyloglucan was characterized by methylation analysis of the oligosaccharides obtained by endoglucanase treatment of the polymer. The structure of the polymer is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of 4 residues of β-1-4-linked glucose and 3 residues of terminal xylose. A single xylose residue is glycosidically linked to carbon 6 of 3 of the glucosyl residues. PMID:16658281

  8. Experiments on rapidly-sheared wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, Sourabh; Morrison, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    The use of linear theories in wall turbulence dates back to Townsend (1976, Cambridge University Press) who extensively used Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) for understanding the structure of near-wall turbulence. Various other linear tools have been used in more recent investigations. The present study is an attempt to further explore this aspect and is in part motivated by the recent numerical work of Sharma et al. (Phys. Fluids 23, 2011) that highlighted the possible role of linear mechanisms in wall turbulence. Our experimental arrangement involves passing a grid-generated turbulent flow over a flat plate mounted downstream of the grid in a wind tunnel. The grid turbulence is subjected to large rates of shear strain by the wall layer close to the leading edge of the plate and as a result, over a certain region in its vicinity, the approximations of the RDT can be expected to be approximately satisfied. We present detailed single-point and planar velocity measurements, and pressure measurements using surface-mounted pressure transducers, the aim being to establish a turbulent wall layer in which linear processes are dominant. Such a flow can be used to evaluate the ideas relating to linear theories of Townsend and Landahl, among others. We also present the structural changes that take place as the rapidly-sheared wall layer evolves towards a more conventional boundary layer further downstream. We acknowledge financial support from EPSRC under Grant No. EP/I037938.

  9. Tuberculous abscess on the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Aylk, S; Qakan, A; Aslankara, N; Ozsöz, A

    2009-03-01

    A 58-year old patient on dialysis for four years due to chronic renal failure presented with complaints of painless, continuously growing swelling on the left of his back and coughing, symptoms evolving over a period of approximately 3 months. Physical examination revealed a soft fixed mass of 10 x 10 x 4 cm on the left infrascapular area on the chest wall. The sample taken from the inflammation on the chest wall was analyzed with PCR method which resulted positive for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB), tissue biopsy showed dermatitis with granulomata and sputum was positive for AFB. Thoracic MR, performed for the purpose of detecting the relationship between the lesion on the lung and the one on the chest wall, detected changes in the inflammatory soft tissues and multiple small abscess formations on the chest wall. There was no pathological signal in the bone structures of the chest wall. This case underlines the necessity to include "Empyema necessitatis" in the preliminary diagnosis when there is a soft tissue swelling on the chest wall without inflammatory signs in patients with reduced immune defences.

  10. A Wall of Funnels Concentrates Swimming Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Galajda, Peter; Keymer, Juan; Chaikin, Paul; Austin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Randomly moving but self-propelled agents, such as Escherichia coli bacteria, are expected to fill a volume homogeneously. However, we show that when a population of bacteria is exposed to a microfabricated wall of funnel-shaped openings, the random motion of bacteria through the openings is rectified by tracking (trapping) of the swimming bacteria along the funnel wall. This leads to a buildup of the concentration of swimming cells on the narrow opening side of the funnel wall but no concentration of nonswimming cells. Similarly, we show that a series of such funnel walls functions as a multistage pump and can increase the concentration of motile bacteria exponentially with the number of walls. The funnel wall can be arranged along arbitrary shapes and cause the bacteria to form well-defined patterns. The funnel effect may also have implications on the transport and distribution of motile microorganisms in irregular confined environments, such as porous media, wet soil, or biological tissue, or act as a selection pressure in evolution experiments. PMID:17890308

  11. Structure of Plant Cell Walls 1

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Tadashi; Thomas, Jerry; Darvill, Alan; Albersheim, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Considerable information has been obtained about the primary structures of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell-wall pectic polysaccharides, i.e. rhamnogalacturonan I, rhamnogalacturonan II, and homogalacturonan. However, these polysaccharides, which are solubilized from the walls by endo-α-1,4-polygalacturonase, account for only about half of the pectic polysaccharides known to be present in sycamore cell walls. We now report that, after exhaustive treatment with endo-α-1,4-polygalacturonase, additional pectic polysaccharides were extracted from sycamore cell walls by treatment with Na2CO3 at 1 and 22°C. These previously uncharacterized polysaccharides accounted for ∼4% of the cell wall. Based on the glycosyl and glycosyl-linkage compositions and the nature of the products obtained by treating the quantitatively predominant NaCO3-extracted polysaccharides with lithium metal dissolved in ethylenediamine, the polysaccharides were found to strongly resemble rhamnogalacturonan I. However, unlike rhamnogalacturonan I that characteristically had equal amounts of 2- and 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues in its backbone, the polysaccharides extracted in Na2CO3 at 1°C had markedly disparate ratios of 2- to 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues. We concluded that polysaccharides similar to rhamnogalacturonan I but with different degrees of branching are present in the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. PMID:16666559

  12. From soft walls to infrared branes

    SciTech Connect

    Gersdorff, Gero von

    2010-10-15

    Five-dimensional warped spaces with soft walls are generalizations of the standard Randall-Sundrum compactifications, where instead of an infrared brane one has a curvature singularity (with vanishing warp factor) at finite proper distance in the bulk. We project the physics near the singularity onto a hypersurface located a small distance away from it in the bulk. This results in a completely equivalent description of the soft wall in terms of an effective infrared brane, hiding any singular point. We perform explicitly this calculation for two classes of soft wall backgrounds used in the literature. The procedure has several advantages. It separates in a clean way the physics of the soft wall from the physics of the five-dimensional bulk, facilitating a more direct comparison with standard two-brane warped compactifications. Moreover, consistent soft walls show a sort of universal behavior near the singularity which is reflected in the effective brane Lagrangian. Thirdly, for many purposes, a good approximation is obtained by assuming the bulk background away from the singularity to be the usual Randall-Sundrum metric, thus making the soft wall backgrounds better analytically tractable. We check the validity of this procedure by calculating the spectrum of bulk fields and comparing it to the exact result, finding very good agreement.

  13. Modelling of Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douai, D.; Wauters, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Marchuk, O.; Wünderlich, D.; Brémond, S.; Lombard, G.; Mollard, P.; Pegourié, B.; Van Oost, G.

    2011-12-01

    Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) is envisioned in ITER to clean the wall from impurities, to control the wall isotopic ratio and the hydrogen recycling in the presence of the toroidal magnetic field. Various experiments and modelling are advancing to consolidate this technique. In this contribution the modeling of ICWC is presented, which can be divided in two parts: plasma description and plasma wall interaction. Firstly a 0D plasma model, based on a set of energy and particle balance equations for Maxwellian Hydrogen and Helium species, is presented. The model takes into account elementary collision processes, coupled RF power, particle confinement, wall recycling, and active gas injection and pumping. The RF plasma production process is based mainly on electron collisional ionization. The dependency of the plasma parameters, the Hydrogen and Helium partial pressures and neutral or ionic fluxes on pressure and RF power are quantitatively in good agreement with those obtained experimentally on TORE SUPRA. Secondly an extension of the 0D model including the description of the wall interaction is presented and compared to TORE SUPRA multi-pulse ICWC discharges.

  14. Petrology and mineral chemistry of sedimentary rocks from the Western Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, Keith A. W.

    1986-12-01

    Sedimentary rocks from the northern margin of the Trobriand Platform, the north wall of the New Britain Trench, and the floor of the Solomon Sea Basin are volcaniclastics, mudrocks, and neritic and bathyal limestones. Arc-volcanic debris from calc-alkaline or high-K magmatic sources is present at each locality. A minor metamorphic component occurs at one site on the Trobriand Platform which yielded Early Eocene to Middle Miocene material, and at the New Britain Trench site, which yielded Miocene or older and post-Miocene samples. Solomon Sea Basin samples are mudrocks which are apparently no older than Late Pliocene.

  15. Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.

    2013-12-01

    similar evolution as the Horn Graben with high sediment thicknesses deposited during the Triassic. This indicates that initiation of rifting started in the central German North Sea already during the Early Triassic and subsequently migrated to the west into the Central Graben. Before the Triassic thick layers of Permian rock salt (Upper Rotliegend and Zechstein) were deposited in the Central European Basin System, which spans from the UK across the Netherlands, southern Denmark, Germany, and into Poland. Salt movements resulted in the formation of salt diapirs, salt pillows, salt walls and intrusions into faults. Analyses of rim-synclines of salt diapirs reveals that most of the salt structures inside the German Central Graben had a main phase of growth during the Late Jurassic while the salt structures situated toward the southeast had their main phase of growth during the Triassic. The final products of the project are accessible at www.geopotenzial-nordsee.de/.

  16. Microwave Properties of Quiet Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Microwave fluxes from three quiet seas documented for five microwave frequencies. Measurements taken by satellite in Earth orbit with mechanically scanned antenna. 10-channel receiver used to record simultaneously signal intensities in both horizontal and vertical polarizations at each frequency. Comparisons of flux measurements of three quiet seas drawn, and results discussed and analyzed.

  17. Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  18. The Law of the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  19. Neutrino sea scope takes shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2016-03-01

    A consortium of European physicists building a vast neutrino detector on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea has unveiled the science it will carry out. The Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT) will use strings of radiation detectors arranged in a 3D network to measure the light emitted when neutrinos very occasionally interact with the surrounding sea water.

  20. Adaptive wall technology for minimization of wall interferences in transonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1988-01-01

    Modern experimental techniques to improve free air simulations in transonic wind tunnels by use of adaptive wall technology are reviewed. Considered are the significant advantages of adaptive wall testing techniques with respect to wall interferences, Reynolds number, tunnel drive power, and flow quality. The application of these testing techniques relies on making the test section boundaries adjustable and using a rapid wall adjustment procedure. A historical overview shows how the disjointed development of these testing techniques, since 1938, is closely linked to available computer support. An overview of Adaptive Wall Test Section (AWTS) designs shows a preference for use of relatively simple designs with solid adaptive walls in 2- and 3-D testing. Operational aspects of AWTS's are discussed with regard to production type operation where adaptive wall adjustments need to be quick. Both 2- and 3-D data are presented to illustrate the quality of AWTS data over the transonic speed range. Adaptive wall technology is available for general use in 2-D testing, even in cryogenic wind tunnels. In 3-D testing, more refinement of the adaptive wall testing techniques is required before more widespread use can be planned.

  1. Wave Clouds over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Like a massive, ethereal bird gliding into the Persian Gulf, a large cluster of wave clouds spans the Arabian Sea from Oman to India. This cloud formation is likely an undular bore, which is created in the interaction between the cool, dry air in a low-pressure system with a stable layer of warm, moist air. In this case, a low-pressure system probably sits over the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Oman, and Iran and Pakistan. The strong winds generated by the low-pressure system are kicking up clouds of dust from Iran and Pakistan, and, to a lesser degree, Oman. The low-pressure system is also pushing air south-southeast, and this south-moving wave of displaced air pushes ahead of the low-pressure system like a mound of water moving ahead of a boat in calm water. The wave of cool, dry air pushes forward until it meets the wall of warm, moist air that blankets the Arabian Sea. When the two air masses clash, the cool air pushes the warm air up. The warm air rises, cools at the peak of the wave, falls again, and then rises to a slightly lower peak, and so forth, until the wave dissipates. Clouds form at the high-altitude peaks of the waves, with the most defined cloud at the front of the group, where the initial wave formed, followed by increasingly less-defined lines of cloud. The air that moves in front of the low-pressure system does not push forward in a uniform wall; instead it pushes forward in a ragged band, with one part racing ahead of another, like a line of crew racers on a river. Because the air is not uniform, there are small, interacting arcs of waves within the larger band of clouds. Undular bores are rare and hard to predict. This particular undular bore formed over the Arabian Sea on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image. Typical undular bore patterns might display one or two rows of clouds. With more than thirty waves of clouds, this cloud pattern is unusually

  2. Polar Climate: Arctic sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, R.S.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, G.I.; Drobot, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent decreases in snow and sea ice cover in the high northern latitudes are among the most notable indicators of climate change. Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent for the year as a whole was the third lowest on record dating back to 1973, behind 1995 (lowest) and 1990 (second lowest; Hadley Center–NCEP). September sea ice extent, which is at the end of the summer melt season and is typically the month with the lowest sea ice extent of the year, has decreased by about 19% since the late 1970s (Fig. 5.2), with a record minimum observed in 2002 (Serreze et al. 2003). A record low extent also occurred in spring (Chapman 2005, personal communication), and 2004 marked the third consecutive year of anomalously extreme sea ice retreat in the Arctic (Stroeve et al. 2005). Some model simulations indicate that ice-free summers will occur in the Arctic by the year 2070 (ACIA 2004).

  3. Double-walled carbon nanotube processing.

    PubMed

    Moore, Katherine E; Tune, Daniel D; Flavel, Benjamin S

    2015-05-27

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been the focus of intense research, and the body of literature continues to grow exponentially, despite more than two decades having passed since the first reports. As well as extensive studies of the fundamental properties, this has seen SWCNTs used in a plethora of applications as far ranging as microelectronics, energy storage, solar cells, and sensors, to cancer treatment, drug delivery, and neuronal interfaces. On the other hand, the properties and applications of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) have remained relatively under-explored. This is despite DWCNTs not only sharing many of the same unique characteristics of their single-walled counterparts, but also possessing an additional suite of potentially advantageous properties arising due to the presence of the second wall and the often complex inter-wall interactions that arise. For example, it is envisaged that the outer wall can be selectively functionalized whilst still leaving the inner wall in its pristine state and available for signal transduction. A similar situation arises in DWCNT field effect transistors (FETs), where the outer wall can provide a convenient degree of chemical shielding of the inner wall from the external environment, allowing the excellent transconductance properties of the pristine nanotubes to be more fully exploited. Additionally, DWCNTs should also offer unique opportunities to further the fundamental understanding of the inter-wall interactions within and between carbon nanotubes. However, the realization of these goals has so far been limited by the same challenge experienced by the SWCNT field until recent years, namely, the inherent heterogeneity of raw, as-produced DWCNT material. As such, there is now an emerging field of research regarding DWCNT processing that focuses on the preparation of material of defined length, diameter and electronic type, and which is rapidly building upon the experience gained by the broader

  4. Desalination of Walls and Façades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedekind, W.; Jáuregui Arreola, K.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    For large monumental objects like walls and façades, the common technique of applying poultices for desalination often are not effective. This practice is neither cost effective nor does it lead to the desired result of desalination. To manage the conservation and desalination of these kinds of objects, several sprinkling techniques are known and have been applied on historical objects. For example, in the wooden warship Vasa, which was excavated from the sea bottom in Stockholm/Sweden, a sprinkling method was applied in 1961 for conservation and desalination. A sprinkling method to desalinate porous mineral materials will be presented using three different case studies: the rock cut monument no. 825 in Petra/Jordan, the medieval monastary church of the former Franziscan convent in Zeitz/Germany and the baroque monastary church Santa Monica in Guadalajara/Mexico. Before to start with practical conservation, the material- and petropysical properties, focoussed on water transport properties, like porosity, pore size distribution, water uptake and drying rate were investigadet. Diagnostic investigations on the objects included the mapping of deterioration, moister content measurements and salt accumulation determined by borehole cuts samples at depth. In the sprinkling method water is sprayed onto the wall surface through nozzels arranged in a modular grid. Depending on the sprinkling duration, a small or a large amount of water seeps into the porous materials, whereby the depth penetration can be adjusted accordingly. The water not absorbed by the stone runs off the facade and can be collected in liter amounts and tested by electrical conductivity with respect to the dissolved substances. After the drying of the wall's surface and the accumulation of salt at the material's surface, the procedure is repeated. For each subsequent washing a lower content of salt should be brought to the surface. Step by step the salt concentration will eventually decrease to almost

  5. Structural domain walls in polar hexagonal manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The domain structure in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites is currently intensely investigated, motivated by the observation of intriguing sixfold topological defects at their meeting points [Choi, T. et al,. Nature Mater. 9, 253 (2010).] and nanoscale electrical conductivity at the domain walls [Wu, W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 077203 (2012).; Meier, D. et al., Nature Mater. 11, 284 (2012).], as well as reports of coupling between ferroelectricity, magnetism and structural antiphase domains [Geng, Y. et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6055 (2012).]. The detailed structure of the domain walls, as well as the origin of such couplings, however, was previously not fully understood. In the present study, we have used first-principles density functional theory to calculate the structure and properties of the low-energy structural domain walls in the hexagonal manganites [Kumagai, Y. and Spaldin, N. A., Nature Commun. 4, 1540 (2013).]. We find that the lowest energy domain walls are atomically sharp, with {210}orientation, explaining the orientation of recently observed stripe domains and suggesting their topological protection [Chae, S. C. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167603 (2012).]. We also explain why ferroelectric domain walls are always simultaneously antiphase walls, propose a mechanism for ferroelectric switching through domain-wall motion, and suggest an atomistic structure for the cores of the sixfold topological defects. This work was supported by ETH Zurich, the European Research Council FP7 Advanced Grants program me (grant number 291151), the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad, and the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center TIES.

  6. Moving Towards Domain Wall Devices in Ferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Marty

    Domain walls in ferroelectric, ferroelastic and multiferroic oxides are distinct functional materials in their own right. They can be conducting, or even superconducting, when surrounding domains are insulating; they can demonstrate magnetism when the surrounding bulk is non-magnetic and they can contain ordered electrical dipoles when the matrix containing them is non-polar. Since domain walls can also be created, destroyed, and controllably moved from place to place, there is an amazing opportunity for us to design new forms of devices in which functionality is actively and dynamically deployed (now you see it; now you don't). This is the essence of the emerging field known as ``domain wall nanoelectronics''. In time, this arena of research could change the way we think of nanoscale functional devices, moving increasingly towards agile circuitry and neuromorphic device architectures. While the control of domain wall injection, movement and annihilation has been developed rather well in the nanomagnetics community (in race-track and domain wall logic research), similar research has not been widely performed in nanoscale ferroelectrics, ferroelastics and multiferroics. This talk will discuss progress that has been made to date and the way in which nanomagnetics research can be used as a source of inspiration. Site-specific domain wall injection and motion control in both proper and improper ferroelectrics using inhomogeneous electric and elastic fields, as well as dielectric patterning in uniaxial ferroelectrics, will be specifically considered. As will be shown, sufficient control has been developed to allow the creation of a diode for domain wall motion in ferroelectrics, for example. The author acknowledges support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

  7. Arctic Sea Ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover have increased the demand for Arctic sea ice predictions by a range of stakeholders, including local communities, resource managers, industry and the public. The science of sea-ice prediction has been challenged to keep up with these developments. Efforts such as the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook (SIO; http://www.arcus.org/sipn/sea-ice-outlook) and the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook have provided a forum for the international sea-ice prediction and observing community to explore and compare different approaches. The SIO, originally organized by the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH), is now managed by the new Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), which is building a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to improve arctic sea ice prediction. The SIO synthesizes predictions from a variety of methods, including heuristic and from a statistical and/or dynamical model. In a recent study, SIO data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The analysis revealed that in some years the predictions were very successful, in other years they were not. Years that were anomalous compared to the long-term trend have proven more difficult to predict, regardless of which method was employed. This year, in response to feedback from users and contributors to the SIO, several enhancements have been made to the SIO reports. One is to encourage contributors to provide spatial probability maps of sea ice cover in September and the first day each location becomes ice-free; these are an example of subseasonal to seasonal, local-scale predictions. Another enhancement is a separate analysis of the modeling contributions. In the June 2014 SIO report, 10 of 28 outlooks were produced from models that explicitly simulate sea ice from dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models. Half of the models included fully-coupled (atmosphere, ice, and ocean) models that additionally employ data assimilation. Both of these subsets (models and coupled models with data

  8. Fire in the Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Walter L.

    2000-05-01

    The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has captivated the human imagination for centuries. Did this city actually exist, and, if so, what happened to it? Was it destroyed in the greatest cataclysmic event of the Bronze Age? While the truth behind the legend of Atlantis may never be known, Fire in the Sea tells the story of one of the largest and most devastating natural disasters of classical history that may also hold vital clues to the possible existence and fate of the lost city. In vivid prose, author Walter L. Friedrich describes the eruption of the Greek island of Santorini, or Thera, sometime in the 17th or 16th century BC. This eruption, perhaps one of the largest explosions ever witnessed by humankind, sent a giant cloud of volcanic ash into the air that eventually covered settlements on the island. Friedrich relates how this event forever altered the course of civilization in the region, and inspired a mystery that has fired humanity's imagination ever since. More than 160 elegant, full-color photographs and vivid prose capture the beauty, the geology, archaeology, history, peoples and environmental setting of Santorini. Fire in the Sea will readily appeal to the general reader interested in natural catastrophies as well as the beauty of the region. It will also enchant anyone who has ever dreamt about uncovering the mystery of the legend of Atlantis. Walter Friedrich is currently an associate professor at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, Denmark. He has visited Santorini at least 35 times since 1975 and has published numerous scientific articles in such international journals as Nature, Lethaia, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, and other publications.

  9. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Massive and stockwork Fe-Cu-Zn (Cyprus type) sulphide deposits in the upper parts of ophiolite complexes represent hydrothermal mineralization at ancient accretionary plate boundaries. These deposits are probable metallogenic analogues of the polymetallic sulphide deposits recently discovered along modern oceanic spreading centres. Genetic models for these deposits suggest that mineralization results from large-scale circulation of sea-water through basaltic basement along the tectonically active axis of spreading, a zone of high heat flow. The high geothermal gradient above 1 to 2 km deep magma chambers emplaced below the ridge axis drives the convective circulation cell. Cold oxidizing sea-water penetrating the crust on the ridge flanks becomes heated and evolves into a highly reduced somewhat acidic hydrothermal solvent during interaction with basaltic wall-rock. Depending on the temperature and water/rock ratio, this fluid is capable of leaching and transporting iron, manganese, and base metals; dissolved sea-water sulphate is reduced to sulphide. At the ridge axis, the buoyant hydrothermal fluid rises through permeable wall-rocks, and fluid flow may be focussed along deep-seated fractures related to extensional tectonic processes. Metal sulphides are precipitated along channelways as the ascending fluid undergoes adiabatic expansion and then further cooling during mixing with ambient sub-sea-floor water. Vigorous fluid flow results in venting of reduced fluid at the sea-floor/sea-water interface and deposition of massive sulphide. A comparison of sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ancient and modern spreading centre environments supports this genetic concept. Massive sulphide deposits in ophiolites generally occur in clusters of closely spaced (< 1-5 km) deposits. Individual deposits are a composite of syngenetic massive sulphide and underlying epigenetic stockwork-vein mineralization. The massive sulphide occurs as concordant tabular

  10. Contrasts in Arctic shelf sea-ice regimes and some implications: Beaufort Sea versus Laptev Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Dethleff, D.; Nurnberg, D.

    1994-01-01

    The winter ice-regime of the 500 km) from the mainland than in the Beaufort Sea. As a result, the annual freeze-up does not incorporate old, deep-draft ice, and with a lack of compression, such deep-draft ice is not generated in situ, as on the Beaufort Sea shelf. The Laptev Sea has as much as 1000 km of fetch at the end of summer, when freezing storms move in and large (6 m) waves can form. Also, for the first three winter months, the polynya lies inshore at a water depth of only 10 m. Turbulence and freezing are excellent conditions for sediment entrainment by frazil and anchor ice, when compared to conditions in the short-fetched Beaufort Sea. We expect entrainment to occur yearly. Different from the intensely ice-gouged Beaufort Sea shelf, hydraulic bedforms probably dominate in the Laptev Sea. Corresponding with the large volume of ice produced, more dense water is generated in the Laptev Sea, possibly accompanied by downslope sediment transport. Thermohaline convection at the midshelf polynya, together with the reduced rate of bottom disruption by ice keels, may enhance benthic productivity and permit establishment of open-shelf benthic communities which in the Beaufort Sea can thrive only in the protection of barrier islands. Indirect evidence for high benthic productivity is found in the presence of walrus, who also require year-round open water. By contrast, lack of a suitable environment restricts walrus from the Beaufort Sea, although over 700 km farther to the south. We could speculate on other consequences of the different ice regimes in the Beaufort and Laptev Seas, but these few examples serve to point out the dangers of exptrapolating from knowledge gained in the North American Arctic to other shallow Arctic shelf settings. ?? 1994.

  11. Identification of Novel Cell Wall Components

    SciTech Connect

    Michelle Momany

    2009-10-26

    Our DOE Biosciences-funded work focused on the fungal cell wall and morphogenesis. We are especially interested in how new cell wall material is targeted to appropriate areas for polar (asymmetric) growth. Polar growth is the only way that filamentous fungi explore the environment to find suitable substrates to degrade. Work funded by this grant has resulted in a total of twenty peer-reviewed publications. In work funded by this grant, we identified nine Aspergillus nidulans temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants that fail to send out a germ tube and show a swollen cell phenotype at restrictive temperature, the swo mutants. In other organisms, a swollen cell phenotype is often associated with misdirected growth or weakened cell walls. Our work shows that several of the A. nidulans swo mutants have defects in the establishment and maintenance of polarity. Cloning of several swo genes by complementation also showed that secondary modification of proteins seems is important in polarity. We also investigated cell wall biosynthesis and branching based on leads in literature from other organisms and found that branching and nuclear division are tied and that the cell wall reorganizes during development. In our most recent work we have focused on gene expression during the shift from isotropic to polar growth. Surprisingly we found that genes previously thought to be involved only in spore formation are important in early vegetative growth as well.

  12. Modes of deformation of walled cells.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    The bewildering morphological diversity found in cells is one of the starkest illustrations of life's ability to self-organize. Yet the morphogenetic mechanisms that produce the multifarious shapes of cells are still poorly understood. The shared similarities between the walled cells of prokaryotes, many protists, fungi, and plants make these groups particularly appealing to begin investigating how morphological diversity is generated at the cell level. In this review, I attempt a first classification of the different modes of surface deformation used by walled cells. Five modes of deformation were identified: inextensional bending, equi-area shear, elastic stretching, processive intussusception, and chemorheological growth. The two most restrictive modes-inextensional and equi-area deformations-are embodied in the exine of pollen grains and the wall-like pellicle of euglenoids, respectively. For these modes, it is possible to express the deformed geometry of the cell explicitly in terms of the undeformed geometry and other easily observable geometrical parameters. The greatest morphogenetic power is reached with the processive intussusception and chemorheological growth mechanisms that underlie the expansive growth of walled cells. A comparison of these two growth mechanisms suggests a possible way to tackle the complexity behind wall growth.

  13. Interactions between domain walls and spin currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaui, M.; Laufenberg, M.; Backes, D.; Buhrer, W.; Rudiger, U.; Vila, L.; Vouille, C.; Faini, G.

    2006-03-01

    A promising novel approach for switching magnetic nanostructures is current-induced domain wall propagation (CIDP), where due to a spin torque effect, electrons transfer angular momentum to a head-to-head domain wall and thereby push it in the direction of the electron flow without any externally applied fields. This effect has been observed with a variety of techniques including MFM [1] and spin polarized scanning electron microscopy [2] to directly observe current-induced domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanostructures and magnetoresistance measurements to systematically probe the critical current densities as a function of the geometry [3]. The observed wall velocities and critical current densities, where wall motion sets in at room temperature, do not agree well with theoretical 0K calculations [4]. We have therefore measured the critical current densities as a function of the sample temperature. We find that the spin torque effect becomes more efficient at low temperatures, which could account for some of the observed discrepancies between the 300K experiment and the 0K simulation. [1] A. Yamaguchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 77205 (2004); [2] M. Klaui et al., PRL 95, 26601 (2005); [3] M. Klaui et al., PRL 94, 106601 (2005); [4] A. Thiaville et al., EPL 69, 990 (2005); G. Tatara et al., APL 86, 252509 (2005);

  14. New technologies for subsurface barrier wall construction

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Ash, R.E. IV; Caputi, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    New technologies for subsurface barrier wall construction are entering the marketplace at an unprecedented pace. Much of this innovation centers around construction of geomembrane barrier walls but also includes advancements in self-hardening slurries and in permeation grouts, involving such diverse materials as colloidal silica gel and montan wax emulsions. These advancements come at a time when subsurface barrier walls are cautiously emerging out of the technological closet. During much of the 1980s, barrier walls of any type were regarded in some quarters as crude and antiquated. It was correspondingly predicted that remediation would be dominated by emerging treatment technologies such as bioremediation, air sparging, and surfactant flushing. Notwithstanding the considerable successes of these emerging technologies, particularly bioremediation, the fact remains that a significant percentage of Superfund, RCRA-corrective action and other waste disposal sites present hydrogeologic, chemical, and waste matrix complexities that far exceed the capabilities of current treatment-based remedial technologies. Consequently, containment-based technologies such as subsurface barrier walls and caps are being recognized once again as irreplaceable components of practical remediation programs at many complex sites.

  15. High accuracy wall thickness loss monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacsi, Attila; Cegla, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of wall thickness in pipes is a standard technique applied widely in the petrochemical industry. The potential precision of repeat measurements with permanently installed ultrasonic sensors however significantly surpasses that of handheld sensors as uncertainties associated with coupling fluids and positional offsets are eliminated. With permanently installed sensors the precise evaluation of very small wall loss rates becomes feasible in a matter of hours. The improved accuracy and speed of wall loss rate measurements can be used to evaluate and develop more effective mitigation strategies. This paper presents an overview of factors causing variability in the ultrasonic measurements which are then systematically addressed and an experimental setup with the best achievable stability based on these considerations is presented. In the experimental setup galvanic corrosion is used to induce predictable and very small wall thickness loss. Furthermore, it is shown that the experimental measurements can be used to assess the effect of reduced wall loss that is produced by the injection of corrosion inhibitor. The measurements show an estimated standard deviation of about 20nm, which in turn allows us to evaluate the effect and behaviour of corrosion inhibitors within less than an hour.

  16. 17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST CORNER, THIRD BAY Showing insulated exterior wall at right; asphalt felt on interior separation wall at left; sill beam, stud, and concrete foundation detailing of interior wall. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  17. Bindin from a sea star.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Susana; Aagaard, Jan E; MacCoss, Michael J; Swanson, Willie J; Hart, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis for the evolution of development includes genes that encode proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs. Previous studies of the sperm acrosomal protein bindin have helped to characterize the adaptive evolution of gamete compatibility and speciation in sea urchins. The absence of evidence for bindin expression in taxa other than the Echinoidea has limited such studies to sea urchins, and led to the suggestion that bindin might be a sea urchin-specific molecule. Here we characterize the gene that encodes bindin in a broadcast-spawning asterinid sea star (Patiria miniata). We describe the sequence and domain structure of a full-length bindin cDNA and its single intron. In comparison with sea urchins, P. miniata bindin is larger but the two molecules share several general features of their domain structure and some sequence features of two domains. Our results extend the known evolutionary history of bindin from the Mesozoic (among the crown group sea urchins) into the early Paleozoic (and the common ancestor of eleutherozoans), and present new opportunities for understanding the role of bindin molecular evolution in sexual selection, life history evolution, and speciation among sea stars.

  18. The role of wall calcium in the extension of cell walls of soybean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virk, S. S.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium crosslinks are load-bearing bonds in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) hypocotyl cell walls, but they are not the same load-bearing bonds that are broken during acid-mediated cell elongation. This conclusion is reached by studying the relationship between wall calcium, pH and the facilitated creep of frozen-thawed soybean hypocotyl sections. Supporting data include the following observations: 1) 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin 2) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) caused only limited facilitated creep as compared with acid, despite removal of comparable or larger amounts of wall calcium; 2) the pH-response curves for calcium removal and acid-facilitated creep were different; 3) reversible acid-extension occurred even after removal of almost all wall calcium with Quin 2; and 4) growth of abraded sections did not involve a proportional loss of wall calcium. Removal of wall calcium, however, increased the capacity of the walls to undergo acid-facilitated creep. These data indicate that breakage of calcium crosslinks is not a major mechanism of cell-wall loosening in soybean hypocotyl tissues.

  19. Thick-wall effects in the theory of resistive wall modes

    SciTech Connect

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2012-06-15

    Magnetic interaction of the plasma perturbations with the nearby resistive wall is considered as a resistive wall mode (RWM) problem, but with two essential differences from the traditional thin-wall approach. First, the wall is treated as magnetically thick, which means that the skin depth is not assumed larger than the wall thickness. Second, the plasma is allowed to enter the region where the RWM must be deeply unstable without rotation. The latter corresponds to the plasma operation above the no-wall stability limit demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak [E. J. Strait et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2505 (2004)]. It is shown that the rotational stabilization observed in these experiments can be reproduced in this model if the mode is forced to rotate with a frequency above a critical level. The analytical estimates show that this effect (absent in the model based on the thin-wall approximation) is strong at realistic parameters. The model also predicts that the locking of the rotationally stabilized mode gives rise to instability with a growth rate much larger than its thin-wall estimate.

  20. Enhanced cold wall CVD reactor growth of horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Kwak, Eun-Hye; Chen, Bingan; Huang, Shirong; Edwards, Michael; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Teo, Kenneth; Jeong, Goo-Hwan; Liu, Johan

    2016-05-01

    HASynthesis of horizontally-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-SWCNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) directly on quartz seems very promising for the fabrication of future nanoelectronic devices. In comparison to hot-wall CVD, synthesis of HA-SWCNTs in a cold-wall CVD chamber not only means shorter heating, cooling and growth periods, but also prevents contamination of the chamber. However, since most synthesis of HA-SWCNTs is performed in hot-wall reactors, adapting this well-established process to a cold-wall chamber becomes extremely crucial. Here, in order to transfer the CVD growth technology from a hot-wall to a cold-wall chamber, a systematic investigation has been conducted to determine the influence of process parameters on the HA-SWCNT's growth. For two reasons, the cold-wall CVD chamber was upgraded with a top heater to complement the bottom substrate heater; the first reason to maintain a more uniform temperature profile during HA-SWCNTs growth, and the second reason to preheat the precursor gas flow before projecting it onto the catalyst. Our results show that the addition of a top heater had a significant effect on the synthesis. Characterization of the CNTs shows that the average density of HA-SWCNTs is around 1 - 2 tubes/ μm with high growth quality as shown by Raman analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  2. Brain springs: fast physics for large crowds in WAll*E.

    PubMed

    Kanyuk, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge of making WALL*E was creating believable physics for human and robot crowds. To do this, Pixar technical directors combined a custom spring-physics system in the Massive software platform with traditional simulation methods. The performance was fast enough to scale for large crowds and maintain interactivity for previews. PMID:19798859

  3. Comparison of Turbulent Heat-Transfer Results for Uniform Wall Heat Flux and Uniform Wall Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Sparrow, E. M.

    1960-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to examine in a more precise way how the Nusselt numbers for turbulent heat transfer in both the fully developed and thermal entrance regions of a circular tube are affected by two different wall boundary conditions. The comparisons are made for: (a) Uniform wall temperature (UWT); and (b) uniform wall heat flux (UHF). Several papers which have been concerned with the turbulent thermal entrance region problem are given. 1 Although these analyses have all utilized an eigenvalue formulation for the thermal entrance region there were differences in the choices of eddy diffusivity expressions, velocity distributions, and methods for carrying out the numerical solutions. These differences were also found in the fully developed analyses. Hence when making a comparison of the analytical results for uniform wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux, it was not known if differences in the Nusselt numbers could be wholly attributed to the difference in wall boundary conditions, since all the analytical results were not obtained in a consistent way. To have results which could be directly compared, computations were carried out for the uniform wall temperature case, using the same eddy diffusivity, velocity distribution, and digital computer program employed for uniform wall heat flux. In addition, the previous work was extended to a lower Reynolds number range so that comparisons could be made over a wide range of both Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.

  4. 32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD231. BEHIND WALL FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD-2-31. BEHIND WALL FRAMING IS SAMPLING ROOM WITH WOOD SAMPLING ELEVATOR. CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ON LEFT (SOUTH). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. Wall ablation, gas dynamics, and the history of wall stresses in ICF target chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D. )

    1989-09-30

    We calculate the history of wall stresses for spherical aluminum LMF-type ICF target chambers 10 cm thick with 1400-MJ pellets using a simple computer program called CHAMBER that incorporates the physics of first-wall ablation and chamber gas dynamics, including dissociation, ionization, and gas reverberations. By considering the time dependence of the wall stresses, we calculate peak stresses that are higher or lower than previous estimates based on the dynamic formula {sigma}{sub dyn} {approx}Pr/{Delta}R, depending on the radius of the chamber. Here P is the interior pressure, R is the chamber radius, and {Delta}R is the wall thickness. In particular, the previous estimates are too small for chambers with radii R > 4 m or R < 0.5 m, because the ablation impulse dominates the stress for R > 4 m, and the post-ablation pressure impulse dominates for R < 0.5 cm. CHAMER also shows that considerably more wall mass can be ablated after the x-ray-vaporized mass fills the chamber if the thermalized vapor radiates more energy to the wall than the wall can conduct away by heat condition, as in small chambers. Venting of a chamber can reduce the wall stress only to that caused by the ablation impulse, and only for vents with radii comparable to the radius of the chamber. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. Plant cell wall dynamics and wall-related susceptibility in plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Bellincampi, Daniela; Cervone, Felice; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall is a dynamic structure that often determines the outcome of the interactions between plants and pathogens. It is a barrier that pathogens need to breach to colonize the plant tissue. While fungal necrotrophs extensively destroy the integrity of the cell wall through the combined action of degrading enzymes, biotrophic fungi require a more localized and controlled degradation of the cell wall in order to keep the host cells alive and utilize their feeding structures. Also bacteria and nematodes need to degrade the plant cell wall at a certain stage of their infection process, to obtain nutrients for their growth. Plants have developed a system for sensing pathogens and monitoring the cell wall integrity, upon which they activate defense responses that lead to a dynamic cell wall remodeling required to prevent the disease. Pathogens, on the other hand, may exploit the host cell wall metabolism to support the infection. We review here the strategies utilized by both plants and pathogens to prevail in the cell wall battleground.

  7. Plant cell wall dynamics and wall-related susceptibility in plant–pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bellincampi, Daniela; Cervone, Felice; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall is a dynamic structure that often determines the outcome of the interactions between plants and pathogens. It is a barrier that pathogens need to breach to colonize the plant tissue. While fungal necrotrophs extensively destroy the integrity of the cell wall through the combined action of degrading enzymes, biotrophic fungi require a more localized and controlled degradation of the cell wall in order to keep the host cells alive and utilize their feeding structures. Also bacteria and nematodes need to degrade the plant cell wall at a certain stage of their infection process, to obtain nutrients for their growth. Plants have developed a system for sensing pathogens and monitoring the cell wall integrity, upon which they activate defense responses that lead to a dynamic cell wall remodeling required to prevent the disease. Pathogens, on the other hand, may exploit the host cell wall metabolism to support the infection. We review here the strategies utilized by both plants and pathogens to prevail in the cell wall battleground. PMID:24904623

  8. 1. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT WALL AND FAN HOUSE FOUNDATION WALL FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT WALL AND FAN HOUSE FOUNDATION WALL FROM NORTHWEST. AEROVANE FAN AT UPPER LEFT, SCAFFOLD AND LEPLEY VENTILATOR AT UPPER RIGHT. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Air-Manway Shaft, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

  9. Stability of resistive wall modes with plasma rotation and thick wall in ITER scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Chu, M.; Chance, M.; Turnbull, A.

    2004-11-01

    The rotation effect on resistive wall modes (RWMs) is examined for realistically shaped, high-beta tokamak equilibria, including reactor relevant cases with low mach number M and realistic thick walls. For low M, Stabilization of RWMs arises from unusually thin inertial layers. The investigation employs the newly developed adaptive eigenvalue code (AEGIS: Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution), which describes both low and high n modes and is in good agreement with GATO in the benchmark studies. AEGIS is unique in using adaptive methods to resolve such inertial layers with low mach number rotation. This feature is even more desirable for transport barrier cases. Additionally, ITER and reactors have thick conducting walls ( ˜.5-1 m) which are not well modeled as a thin shell. Such thick walls are considered here, including semi-analytical approximations to account for the toroidally segmented nature of real walls.

  10. Radial Corrugations of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Driven by Inter-Wall Nonbonding Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We perform large-scale quasi-continuum simulations to determine the stable cross-sectional configurations of free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We show that at an inter-wall spacing larger than the equilibrium distance set by the inter-wall van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the initial circular cross-sections of the MWCNTs are transformed into symmetric polygonal shapes or asymmetric water-drop-like shapes. Our simulations also show that removing several innermost walls causes even more drastic cross-sectional polygonization of the MWCNTs. The predicted cross-sectional configurations agree with prior experimental observations. We attribute the radial corrugations to the compressive stresses induced by the excessive inter-wall vdW energy release of the MWCNTs. The stable cross-sectional configurations provide fundamental guidance to the design of single MWCNT-based devices and shed lights on the mechanical control of electrical properties. PMID:27502675

  11. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

    1987-10-06

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  12. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Bergren, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  13. Sequential buckling of an elastic wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bico, Jose; Bense, Hadrien; Keiser, Ludovic; Roman, Benoit; Melo, Francisco; Abkarian, Manouk

    A beam under quasistatic compression classically buckles beyond a critical threshold. In the case of a free beam, the lowest buckling mode is selected. We investigate the case of a long ``wall'' grounded of a compliant base and compressed in the axial compression. In the case of a wall of slender rectangular cross section, the selected buckling mode adopts a nearly fixed wavelength proportional to the height of the wall. Higher compressive loads only increase the amplitude of the buckle. However if the cross section has a sharp shape (such as an Eiffel tower profile), we observe successive buckling modes of increasing wavelength. We interpret this unusual evolution in terms of scaling arguments. At small scales, this variable periodicity might be used to develop tunable optical devices. We thank ECOS C12E07, CNRS-CONICYT, and Fondecyt Grant No. N1130922 for partially funding this work.

  14. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  15. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  16. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ran; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α. The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine.

  17. Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

  18. Untethered photonic sensor for wall pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Maurizio; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2015-05-15

    In this Letter, we study a novel untethered photonic wall pressure sensor that uses as sensing element a dome-shaped micro-scale laser. Since the sensor does not require any optical or electrical cabling, it allows measurements where cabling tends to be problematic. The micro-laser is made by a mixture of Trimethylolpropane Tri(3-mercaptopropionate), commercial name THIOCURE and Polyethylene (glycol) Diacrylate (PEGDA) mixed with a solution of rhodamine 6G. Two different volume ratios between the THIOCURE and the PEGDA are studied, since different ratios lead to different mechanical properties. In addition, two different sensor configurations are presented: (i) sensor coupled to a membrane, that allows differential wall pressure measurement and (ii) sensor without membrane that allows absolute wall pressure measurement. The sensitivity plots are presented in the paper for both sensor configurations and polymer ratios.

  19. Analysis of a dusty wall jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hock-Bin; Roberts, Leonard

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is given for the entrainment of dust into a turbulent radial wall jet. Equations are solved based on incompressible flow of a radial wall jet into which dust is entrained from the wall and transported by turbulent diffusion and convection throughout the flow. It is shown that the resulting concentration of dust particles in the flow depends on the difference between the applied shear stress at the surface and the maximum level of shear stress that the surface can withstand (varies as rho(sub d)a(sub g)D) i.e., the pressure due to the weight of a single layer of dust. The analysis is expected to have application to the downflow that results from helicopter and VTOL aircraft.

  20. Planctomycetes do possess a peptidoglycan cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Jeske, Olga; Schüler, Margarete; Schumann, Peter; Schneider, Alexander; Boedeker, Christian; Jogler, Mareike; Bollschweiler, Daniel; Rohde, Manfred; Mayer, Christoph; Engelhardt, Harald; Spring, Stefan; Jogler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most bacteria contain a peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall, which is critical for maintenance of shape and important for cell division. In contrast, Planctomycetes have been proposed to produce a proteinaceous cell wall devoid of PG. The apparent absence of PG has been used as an argument for the putative planctomycetal ancestry of all bacterial lineages. Here we show, employing multiple bioinformatic methods, that planctomycetal genomes encode proteins required for PG synthesis. Furthermore, we biochemically demonstrate the presence of the sugar and the peptide components of PG in Planctomycetes. In addition, light and electron microscopic experiments reveal planctomycetal PG sacculi that are susceptible to lysozyme treatment. Finally, cryo-electron tomography demonstrates that Planctomycetes possess a typical PG cell wall and that their cellular architecture is thus more similar to that of other Gram-negative bacteria. Our findings shed new light on the cellular architecture and cell division of the maverick Planctomycetes. PMID:25964217

  1. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10277 - Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-10-40).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemical substance identified generically as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-10-40... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-10-40). 721.10277 Section 721.10277 Protection of Environment...

  3. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOEpatents

    Claunch, Scott D.; Farrington, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  4. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOEpatents

    Claunch, S.D.; Farrington, R.B.

    1997-02-04

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 17 figs.

  5. Acellular dermal matrix in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ronald P

    2011-09-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction is a complex and challenging surgical undertaking. While permanent prosthetic mesh is considered the gold standard for minimizing hernia recurrence, placement of synthetic mesh is sometimes imprudent due to contamination or risk of infection. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) offer an exciting biologic alternative. This article provides a historical perspective on the evolution of complex ventral hernia repair leading up to and including the placement of ADM, an explanation of the biology of ADM as it relates to ventral hernia repair, and a description of the current indications, techniques, benefits, and shortcomings of its use in the abdominal wall.

  6. Standing gravitational waves from domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Myrzakul, Shynaray; Singleton, Douglas

    2009-07-15

    We construct a plane symmetric, standing gravitational wave for a domain wall plus a massless scalar field. The scalar field can be associated with a fluid which has the properties of 'stiff' matter, i.e., matter in which the speed of sound equals the speed of light. Although domain walls are observationally ruled out in the present era, the solution has interesting features which might shed light on the character of exact nonlinear wave solutions to Einstein's equations. Additionally this solution may act as a template for higher dimensional 'brane-world' model standing waves.

  7. Wall reflection of a viscous vortex ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sa, J. Y.; Chang, K. S.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of a viscous axisymmetric vortex ring being reflected from a wall is investigated. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations formulated in terms of the vorticity function and vector potential are numerically integrated by implicit finite difference methods. To specify the vector potential at a far boundary from the wall, the existing integral method used so far only for an unbounded domain is modified by a kind of image method. The trajectory of the vortex ring calcualted as a result closely resembles that observable from the experiment.

  8. Sea salt CCN contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Jha, V.; Noble, S.

    2011-12-01

    Volatility measurements (Twomey 1971; Hudson and Da 1996) showed that most CCN over the ocean are not NaCl. However, other reports indicate NaCl as a major CCN component. Here we contrast cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectral volatility (thermal fractionation) measurements from three aircraft field projects to provide insight into the relative contribution of sea salt. The most remote location, PASE (mid-Pacific), had the highest average CCN concentrations (NCCN) probably because it was the least cloudy whereas the less remote, but more cloudy,RICO(Caribbean)had the lowest average NCCN (Hudson and Noble 2009). In RICO particle concentrations in all size ranges larger than 0.3 micrometers were well correlated with wind speed (R ~ 0.87) but uncorrelated with NCCN (Fig. 1A). Smaller particles in RICO were correlated with NCCN but uncorrelated with wind speed. In PASE only particles larger than 10 micrometers were correlated with wind speed and concentrations in these size ranges were uncorrelated with NCCN. Particles smaller than 10 micrometers in PASE were uncorrelated with wind speed but well correlated with NCCN. In both projects particle concentrations smaller than these respective sizes were highly correlated with NCCN, at all S in PASE but mainly with NCCN at high S in RICO. CCN volatility measurements showed high correlations between refractory NCCN and wind speed, especially for low supersaturation (S) NCCN, and no correlation of volatile NCCN at all S with wind speed. In PASE there was only a weak positive correlation between refractory NCCN and wind and also no correlation between volatile NCCN and wind. These results indicate that in clean maritime air the wind originated component of NCCN can be substantial (i.e., > 30% for wind > 14 m/s) but that in maritime air with higher NCCN the wind derived CCN component is probably less than 10%. The contrast in cloudiness between the two projects was responsible for many of the differences noted between them. A

  9. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Durachko, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  10. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../observer, also must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, summer.../observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, bluefish, spiny dogfish... observer service provider must ensure that biological samples, including whole marine mammals, sea...

  11. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  12. Arctic Sea Ice Minimum, 2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover from its wintertime maximum extent, which was reached on Feb. 25, 2015, and was the lowest on record, to its apparent yearly minimum, ...

  13. 2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

  14. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  15. Metals extraction from sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Chryssostomidis, C.; Larue, G.J.; Morgan, D.T.

    1981-10-06

    A method and system for continuously extracting metals from sea water by deploying adsorber sheets in a suitable current of sea water, recovering the adsorber sheets after they become loaded with metal and eluting the metal from the recovered sheets. The system involves the use of hollow, perforated bobbins on which the sheets are rolled as they are recovered and through which elutant is introduced.

  16. Sea Level Rise in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. C.; Ho, C. R.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Most people, especially for Pacific Islanders, are aware of the sea level change which may caused by many factors, but no of them has deeper sensation of flooding than Tuvaluan. Tuvalu, a coral country, consists of nine low-lying islands in the central Pacific between the latitudes of 5 and 10 degrees south, has the average elevation of 2 meters (South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project, SPSLCMP report, 2006) up to sea level. Meanwhile, the maximum sea level recorded was 3.44m on February 28th 2006 that damaged Tuvaluan's property badly. Local people called the flooding water oozes up out of the ground "King Tide", that happened almost once or twice a year, which destroyed the plant, polluted their fresh water, and forced them to colonize to some other countries. The predictable but uncontrollable king tide had been observed for a long time by SPSLCMP, but some of the uncertainties which intensify the sea level rise need to be analyzed furthermore. In this study, a span of 18 years of tide gauge data accessed from Sea Level Fine Resolution Acoustic Measuring Equipment (SEAFRAME) are compared with the satellite altimeter data accessed from Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Data in Oceanography (AVISO). All above are processed under the limitation of same time and spatial range. The outcome revealed a 9.26cm difference between both. After the tide gauge data shifted to the same base as altimeter data, the results showed the unknown residuals are always positive under the circumstances of the sea level rise above 3.2m. Apart from uncertainties in observing, the residual reflected unknown contributions. Among the total case number of sea level rise above 3.2m is 23 times, 22 of which were recorded with oceanic warm eddy happened simultaneously. The unknown residual seems precisely matched with oceanic warm eddies and illustrates a clear future approach for Tuvaluan to care for.

  17. Arctic Sea Ice Model Sensitivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, K. J.; Bochev, P.; Paskaleva, B.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000.

  18. An experimental study of near wall flow parameters in the blade end-wall corner region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhargava, Rakesh K.; Raj, Rishi S.

    1989-01-01

    The near wall flow parameters in the blade end-wall corner region is investigated. The blade end-wall corner region was simulated by mounting an airfoil section (NACA 65-015 base profile) symmetric blades on both sides of the flat plate with semi-circular leading edge. The initial 7 cm from the leading edge of the flat plate was roughened by gluing No. 4 floor sanding paper to artificially increase the boundary layer thickness on the flat plate. The initial flow conditions of the boundary layer upstream of the corner region are expected to dictate the behavior of flow inside the corner region. Therefore, an experimental investigation was extended to study the combined effect of initial roughness and increased level of free stream turbulence on the development of a 2-D turbulent boundary layer in the absence of the blade. The measurement techniques employed in the present investigation included, the conventional pitot and pitot-static probes, wall taps, the Preston tube, piezoresistive transducer and the normal sensor hot-wire probe. The pitot and pitot-static probes were used to obtain mean velocity profile measurements within the boundary layer. The measurements of mean surface static pressure were obtained with the surface static tube and the conventional wall tap method. The wall shear vector measurements were made with a specially constructed Preston tube. The flush mounted piezoresistive type pressure transducer were employed to measure the wall pressure fluctuation field. The velocity fluctuation measurements, used in obtaining the wall pressure-velocity correlation data, were made with normal single sensor hot-wire probe. At different streamwise stations, in the blade end-wall corner region, the mean values of surface static pressure varied more on the end-wall surface in the corner region were mainly caused by the changes in the curvature of the streamlines. The magnitude of the wall shear stress in the blade end-wall corner region increased significantly

  19. The history of the walls of the Acropolis of Athens and the natural history of secondary fracture healing process.

    PubMed

    Lyritis, G P

    2000-09-01

    During its long and adventurous history, the Acropolis of Athens has been a site of many dramatic events. It suffered its most disastrous destruction during the Persian wars. Under the command of King Xerxes, the Persians invaded Athens and ruined the Temple of the Parthenon and the walls of the Acropolis. After their victorious sea battle at Salamis, the Athenians, led by Themistocles, returned home and tried to repair the damage. Their priority still was to defend their city by restoring the walls of the Acropolis. Materials of all kinds were salvaged from the ruins of the Acropolis and used for an immediate reconstruction of the walls. Later, when the Athenians became the leaders of the Greek world, it was decided that the walls should be rebuilt in a proper artistic way. Themistocles suggested that a small section of the walls, which had formerly been a part of the urgent restoration, should remain in place so as to remind the citizens of this historical event. This is a characteristic example of the biological and mechanical adaptation of fracture callus to musculoskeletal function. After a period of urgency with the fixation of a fracture by means of a primitive secondary callus formation, the broken limb gradually returns to its usual function. Increased mechanical loading enhances the remodelling of the callus and the replacement of woven bone with lamellar bone. PMID:15758516

  20. The sea urchin's siren.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Thoru

    2006-12-01

    This issue of Developmental Biology features articles that constitute a new wave of insights into how a genome interacts with itself (as DNA) and with effectors-proteins and probably RNAs, collectively operating as a kind of "cis-trans" dualism. We learned a test for allelism in genetics class that bore that Latin name but now it comes as a new day for biological science-a welcome era in which a phenomenon as complex as development can be envisioned from principles of chemical binding energy and specificity. The buzzword (the term is just-as there is deserved buzz) is that the genome is hard-wired, in the sense that it has been shaped to both encode and react to a regulatory network, of which it is itself a part. I here review some of the milestones of embryology in which the sea urchin was the key player, segueing into the modern era in which this organism launched an entirely new intellectual construct of genome organization and gene expression during development. This essay also contains a number of personal perspectives as well as some views on the overall epistemological fabric of developmental biology. Like all of us, I am excited to see the S. purpuratus genome appear and heartily congratulate, by writing this essay, the trailblazers whose intellectual courage and persistence has brought us to this happy position. PMID:17113576

  1. Salton sea minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The long-held notion that precious metals, minerals, and other useful substances can be extracted from natural waters is starting to become realized at several locations of geothermal brines. In a recent study by A. Maimoni of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory it was determined that there is a high potential for minerals recovery from the hot brines of a 1000-MWe geothermal power station at the Salton Sea geothermal field in southern California. The study estimated that the revenue from the minerals could substantially exceed that from the power station (Geothermics, 11, 239-258, 1982).According to the study, ‘A 1000-MWe power plant could recover 14-31% of the U.S. demand for manganese.’ In the example of lithium production, such a geothermal plant could produce 5-10 times the annual world output of lithium. Large quantities of lead and zinc could be extracted, as well as significant amounts of gold, platinum, and silver. The chemical composition of the brines is incredibly complex, however, for reasons not currently understood.

  2. North Sea platforms revamped

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hare, J.

    1999-12-01

    Many of the early North Sea platforms are reaching their end-of-field life. Most are still equipped with their original drilling package. In a few cases the package has either been removed or decommissioned. The early installations were designed for much simpler and less demanding wells than the horizontal, extended-reach or designer wells common today. Extended-reach wells now can be drilled realistically from ageing platforms, without incurring massive capital expenditure. This can be achieved using the existing drilling package to the limit of its capabilities and supplementing where necessary with relatively minor upgrades or the use of temporary equipment. Drilling even a few more wells from existing platforms not only prolongs field life, it enables any surplus processing capacity to be made available to develop near-field potential with extended-reach drilling (ERD) or by tying back subsea satellite wells, or for processing third-party fluids. The paper describes well design, surface equipment, mud pumps, shakers and solids control equipment, drill cuttings disposal systems, derrick and hoisting system, top drive and drillstring, downhole equipment, well planning, casing wear, logistics, rig preparations, and ERD vs. subsea tie-backs.

  3. Early changes in wall motion and wall thickness during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in man.

    PubMed

    Serruys, P W; Jaski, B; Wijns, W; Piscione, F; ten Kate, F; de Feyter, P; van den Brand, M; Hugenholtz, P G

    1986-07-01

    Epicardial wall motion, myocardial wall thickness and segmental wall motion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, a situation which resembles the experimental abrupt occlusion of a major coronary artery in the animal laboratory, have been studied in patients undergoing the procedure. Epicardial wall motion was analyzed using biplane cineradiography with frame to frame measurements of distances between pairs of radiopaque epicardial markers, placed at the time of previous cardiac surgery in a patient with a stenosis of a coronary artery bypass graft. Bypass graft occlusion led to early onset of biphasic epicardial late systolic lengthening and early diastolic shortening similar to the regional wall motion abnormality preceding the procedure. Continuous M-mode echocardiogram throughout coronary luminal occlusion, showed a decreased systolic thickening in the septum with a concomitant, prominent notch in early diastole occurring after the seventh beat following occlusion. At the 28th beat, septal systolic motion was absent while only an early diastolic septal motion was observed. Contemporaneously the end-diastolic septal thickness results decreased. Segmental wall motion analysis during ischemia was carried out performing a left ventricular angiogram before, 20 and 50 seconds after the onset of balloon inflation, 5 minutes after completion of the procedure. During the early phase of ischemia, in the ischemic segments, a late systolic lengthening with an early diastolic shortening was observed. We refer to this biphasic motion as the "W" phenomenon which appears to be the early and characteristic change in wall motion and thickness during coronary angioplasty in man.

  4. Use of the SLW index to calculate growth function in the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus

    PubMed Central

    Poot-Salazar, Alicia; Hernández-Flores, Álvaro; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Age and growth analysis is essential to fisheries management. Indirect methods to calculate growth are widely used; however, length frequency data analysis in sea cucumbers is complicated by high data variability caused by body wall elasticity. Here we calculated Isostichopus badionotus parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function. In order to address bias produced by body wall elasticity, we compared the performance of four measurements and one compound index that combines different biometric parameters: the square root of the length-width product (SLW). Results showed that variability in length data due to body wall elasticity was controlled by using body length (Le) from the SLW compound index. Growth in I. badionotus follows a negative allometric tendency. Slow or zero growth periods were observed during October and November, when weather conditions were adverse. PMID:24909262

  5. The Red Sea analog for the early Gulf of Mexico: Salt basins on oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    New geophysical data from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Mexico support the concept that the early Gulf closely resembled the modern Red Sea. Oceanic crust like that now forming along the axis of the Red Sea basin may underlie much of the continental slope offshore Louisiana and Texas. Original depositional thicknesses greater than 4 km characterize both salt depocenters. The thickest salt overlies oceanic crust, probably for isostatic reasons. Deep crustal detachment faulting in a simple shear model with ductile flow below 15 km and narrow zones (up to 50 km) of severely extended crust on the hanging wall characterizes the early tectonic development. The landward edge of thick (> 2--4 km) salt generally follows the edge of oceanic crust, but the seaward edge is localized by depositional factors, modified by subsequent gravity spreading.

  6. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  7. Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Iavarone, M; Moore, S A; Fedor, J; Ciocys, S T; Karapetrov, G; Pearson, J; Novosad, V; Bader, S D

    2014-08-28

    In magnetically coupled, planar ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures, magnetic domain walls can be used to spatially confine the superconductivity. In contrast to a superconductor in a uniform applied magnetic field, the nucleation of the superconducting order parameter in F/S structures is governed by the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution. The interplay between the superconductivity localized at the domain walls and far from the walls leads to effects such as re-entrant superconductivity and reverse domain superconductivity with the critical temperature depending upon the location. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly image the nucleation of superconductivity at the domain wall in F/S structures realized with Co-Pd multilayers and Pb thin films. Our results demonstrate that such F/S structures are attractive model systems that offer the possibility to control the strength and the location of the superconducting nucleus by applying an external magnetic field, potentially useful to guide vortices for computing application.

  8. Tailoring wall permeabilities for enhanced filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herterich, J. G.; Vella, D.; Field, R. W.; Hankins, N. P.; Griffiths, I. M.

    2015-05-01

    The build-up of contaminants at the wall of cross-flow membrane filtration systems can be detrimental to the operation of such systems because of, amongst other things, the osmotic backflow it may induce. In this paper, we propose a strategy to avoid the negative effects of backflow due to osmosis by using 2D channels bounded by walls with a combination of permeable and impermeable segments. We show that preventing flow through the final portion of the channel can increase the efficiency of filtration and we determine the optimal fraction occupied by the permeable wall that maximizes efficiency. Our analysis uses a combination of numerical techniques and asymptotic analysis in the limit of low wall permeabilities. Finally, we consider how the energy cost of filtration depends on the Péclet number and show that the energy cost per unit of filtered water may be minimized by appropriately choosing both the Péclet number and the permeable-region fraction.

  9. New scaling for compressible wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Jie; Chen, Jun; Fazle, Hussain; She, ZhenSu

    2013-09-01

    Classical Mach-number (M) scaling in compressible wall turbulence was suggested by van Driest (Van Driest E R. Turbulent boundary layers in compressible fluids. J Aerodynamics Science, 1951, 18(3): 145-160) and Huang et al. (Huang P G, Coleman G N, Bradshaw P. Compressible turbulent channel flows: DNS results and modeling. J Fluid Mech, 1995, 305: 185-218). Using a concept of velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS), defined by high correlation regions in a field of two-point cross-correlation coefficient between a velocity and a vorticity component, we have discovered a limiting VVCS as the closest streamwise vortex structure to the wall, which provides a concrete Morkovin scaling summarizing all compressibility effects. Specifically, when the height and mean velocity of the limiting VVCS are used as the units for the length scale and the velocity, all geometrical measures in the spanwise and normal directions, as well as the mean velocity and fluctuation (r.m.s) profiles become M-independent. The results are validated by direct numerical simulations (DNS) of compressible channel flows with M up to 3. Furthermore, a quantitative model is found for the M-scaling in terms of the wall density, which is also validated by the DNS data. These findings yield a geometrical interpretation of the semi-local transformation (Huang et al., 1995), and a conclusion that the location and the thermodynamic properties associated with the limiting VVCS determine the M-effects on supersonic wall-bounded flows.

  10. Solitary fibrous tumour of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Mohtarrudin, N; Nor Hanipah, Z; Mohd Dusa, N

    2016-04-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare tumours characterized by patternless spindle cells with haemangiopericytoma-like vascular spaces. Previously the tumours have been classified as haemangiopericytoma, an entity that is now considered obsolete. We report a case of extrapleural SFT arising in the soft tissue of the chest wall. The patient was a 31-year-old Malay lady presenting with a mobile swelling of the right chest wall for more than five years. During excision the tumour was noted to be well-circumscribed and yellowish in colour, giving an impression of lipoma. Microscopically, the tumour had patternless architecture, characterized by hypocellular and hypercellular areas. It was composed of uniform, spindle-shaped cells displaying oval nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, pale cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. The mitotic count was 2 per 10 HPF. Branching, medium-sized thin-walled blood vessels in a haemangiopericytomatous growth pattern, some with hyalinised wall were identified. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to CD99 and CD34 and were non-immunoreactive to Desmin, Smooth Muscle Actin, S100 protein and EMA. We elucidate the challenges in diagnosing this tumour in this unusual location.

  11. Solitary fibrous tumour of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Mohtarrudin, N; Nor Hanipah, Z; Mohd Dusa, N

    2016-04-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare tumours characterized by patternless spindle cells with haemangiopericytoma-like vascular spaces. Previously the tumours have been classified as haemangiopericytoma, an entity that is now considered obsolete. We report a case of extrapleural SFT arising in the soft tissue of the chest wall. The patient was a 31-year-old Malay lady presenting with a mobile swelling of the right chest wall for more than five years. During excision the tumour was noted to be well-circumscribed and yellowish in colour, giving an impression of lipoma. Microscopically, the tumour had patternless architecture, characterized by hypocellular and hypercellular areas. It was composed of uniform, spindle-shaped cells displaying oval nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, pale cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. The mitotic count was 2 per 10 HPF. Branching, medium-sized thin-walled blood vessels in a haemangiopericytomatous growth pattern, some with hyalinised wall were identified. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to CD99 and CD34 and were non-immunoreactive to Desmin, Smooth Muscle Actin, S100 protein and EMA. We elucidate the challenges in diagnosing this tumour in this unusual location. PMID:27126667

  12. Tearing Down the Wall: Literature and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Warren B.; Spell, J. Everett

    1999-01-01

    Suggests English teachers might draw from authors such as Carl Sagan, Arthur C. Clarke, Mary Shelly and others: (1) to knock down the walls that separate science and literature; (2) to show their interrelationship; and (3) to instill enthusiasm for the study of both. (NH)

  13. Uniform-Temperature Walls for Cloud Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G.

    1985-01-01

    Flat heat pipes rapidly transfer heat to and from experimental volumes. Heat pipe vapor chamber carries heat to and from thermo electric modules. Critical surface acts as evaporator or condenser in cloud physics experiments. Used as walls of spaceborne atmospheric cloud chambers. On Earth, used as isothermal floors for environmental test chambers.

  14. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  15. Wall pressure fluctuations in rectangular partial enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliaroli, T.; Camussi, R.

    2015-04-01

    Wall pressure fluctuations generated within rectangular partial enclosures (RPEs) have been studied experimentally for a broad range of geometrical parameters. The geometry represents a simplified version of a new generation trapped vortex combustor and consisted of a rectangular cavity connected to a neck of smaller size. Wall pressure fluctuations have been measured through wall mounted microphones providing single and multi-variate pressure statistics both in the physical space and in the Fourier domain. In order to interpret the pressure signals, aerodynamic and acoustic investigations have been carried out as well for several cavity-neck ratios. The analysis of the acoustic response of the cavity has been conducted both numerically and experimentally and a simple theoretical model has been proposed to predict the frequency of the acoustic resonances. The aerodynamic study has been carried out through PIV measurements that provided characterization in terms of the geometrical parameters of both the large-scale vortex generated within the cavity and the recirculation zone formed upstream of the neck. The use of the POD decomposition permitted us to correlate the dynamics of the recirculation with the observed pressure statistics. The aerodynamic and acoustic investigations allowed us to interpret exhaustively the wall pressure cross-statistics and to separate contributions induced by hydrodynamic and purely acoustic pressure fluctuations.

  16. Moving wall, continuous flow electronphoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H. (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrophoresis devices and more particularly to a moving wall, continuous flow device in which an electrophoresis chamber is angularly positionable with respect to the direction of moving belt walls. A frame with an electrophoresis chamber is rotatably supported between two synchronously driven belt walls. This allows the chamber to be angularly positionable with respect to the direction of belt travel, which compensates for electroosmotic flow within the electrophoresis chamber. Injection of a buffer solution via an opening and a homogenous sample stream via another opening is performed at the end of a chamber, and collection of buffer and the fractionated species particles is done by a conventional collection array at an opposite end of the chamber. Belts are driven at a rate which exactly matches the flow of buffer and sample through the chamber, which entrains the buffer to behave as a rigid electrophoretic medium, eliminating flow distortions (Poiseuille effect). Additionally, belt material for each belt is stored at one end of the device and is taken up by drive wheels at an opposite end. The novelty of this invention particularly lies in the electrophoresis chamber being angularly positionable between two moving belt walls in order to compensate for electroosmotic flow. Additionally, new belt material is continuously exposed within the chamber, minimizing flow distortion due to contamination of the belt material by the sample.

  17. The dynamics of domain walls and strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Haws, David; Garfinkle, David

    1989-01-01

    The leading order finite-width corrections to the equation of motion describing the motion of a domain wall are derived. The regime in which this equation of motion is invalid is discussed. Spherically and cylindrically symmetric solutions to this equation of motion are found. A misconception that has arisen in recent years regarding the rigidity (or otherwise) of cosmic strings is also clarified.

  18. Quantum processes in resonators with moving walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimov, A. B.; Dodonov, V. V.

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of an electromagnetic field in an ideal cavity with an oscillating boundary is considered in the resonance long-time limit. The rates of photon creation from the vacuum and thermal states are evaluated. The squeezing coefficients for the field modes are found, as well as the backward reaction of the field on the vibrating wall.

  19. Where the Wall Will Fall First

    PubMed Central

    CARROLL, JOHN

    2007-01-01

    Most believe that ‘generic’ biologics are not a question of if, but when. Just when, though, and which therapies could face a threat in the marketplace, depend on the complexity of the product. Research is far along, indicating that some of today’s biggest markets could be exposed when the wall comes tumbling down. PMID:23319931

  20. Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity

    PubMed Central

    Iavarone, M.; Moore, S. A.; Fedor, J.; Ciocys, S. T.; Karapetrov, G.; Pearson, J.; Novosad, V.; Bader, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    In magnetically coupled, planar ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures, magnetic domain walls can be used to spatially confine the superconductivity. In contrast to a superconductor in a uniform applied magnetic field, the nucleation of the superconducting order parameter in F/S structures is governed by the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution. The interplay between the superconductivity localized at the domain walls and far from the walls leads to effects such as re-entrant superconductivity and reverse domain superconductivity with the critical temperature depending upon the location. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly image the nucleation of superconductivity at the domain wall in F/S structures realized with Co-Pd multilayers and Pb thin films. Our results demonstrate that such F/S structures are attractive model systems that offer the possibility to control the strength and the location of the superconducting nucleus by applying an external magnetic field, potentially useful to guide vortices for computing application. PMID:25164004

  1. Global Learning Communities: Science Classrooms without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerlin, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    The physical walls of a classroom have typically acted as the boundary of school science learning communities. The participants in these learning communities are the students and the teacher in individual classrooms. These participants contribute to scientific discourse about a specific content area under study. Scientific learning communities, on…

  2. Administering Safety: Challenge Courses and Climbing Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Will

    1996-01-01

    A camp that is establishing a challenge course or climbing wall must ensure program safety. Discusses financial planning, selecting a contractor, adhering to standards for construction, inspections, staff training, screening of participants, and the administrative challenge of implementing and documenting proper actions. Sidebar discusses a study…

  3. Gravitation toward Walls among Human Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.; Wheeler, Patricia A.

    1976-01-01

    In two studies, college students (N=34) in a classroom corridor who walked near the wall ("gravitators") were contrasted with those who walked near the center ("non-gravitators"). Gravitators were lower than non-gravitators on Autonomy and Defendence and appeared to be less responsive to other persons. (Author)

  4. Myxoid Liposarcoma in the Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhe; Tian, Xiao Feng; Tang, Shun Xiong; Zhang, Ying Yi; Pan, Ji Yong; Wang, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A liposarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, and most liposarcomas are malignant. The extremities are the most common site for liposarcomas. There are 5 histologic types of liposarcoma, as follows: well differentiated; myxoid; round cell; pleomorphic; and dedifferentiated. Myxoid liposarcomas (MLSs) represent a subgroup of liposarcomas. There has been no report of MLSs in the abdominal wall. We report a rare case of a MLS of a 43-year-old male who presented with tensile force on the abdominal wall. Computed tomography (CT) found a tumor in abdominal wall. There was no other abnormal symptom and the laboratory testing was also unusual. At last, the tumor was successfully excised, which was diagnosed MLSs in pathology. Following standard principles, after complete excision, the patient received radiotherapy. The patient was followed up for 8 month and no disease recurrence was identified. MLSs are rarely seen in the clinic, irrespective of the presenting signs, but also based on histologic features. The aim of this report was to present the differential diagnosis of an abdominal wall mass, and to remind us of MLSs. PMID:25526446

  5. Micro-grooved heat transfer combustor wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Steven D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A gas turbine engine hot section combustor liner is provided a non-film cooled portion of a heat transfer wall having a hot surface and a plurality of longitudinally extending micro-grooves disposed in the portion of the wall along the hot surface in a direction parallel to the direction of the hot gas flow. The depth of the micro-grooves is very small and on the order of magnitude of a predetermined laminar sublayer of a turbulent boundary layer. The micro-grooves are sized so as to inhibit heat transfer from the hot gas flow to the hot surface of the wall while reducing NOx emissions of the combustor relative to an otherwise similar combustor having a liner wall portion including film cooling apertures. In one embodiment the micro-grooves are about 0.001 inches deep and have a preferred depth range of from about 0.001 inches to 0.005 inches and which are square, rectangular, or triangular in cross-section and the micro-grooves are spaced about one width apart.

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae structural cell wall mannoprotein.

    PubMed

    Frevert, J; Ballou, C E

    1985-01-29

    A novel mannoprotein fraction with an average molecular weight of 180 000 has been isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn9 mutant cell wall that was solubilized by beta-glucanase digestion. The same material could be extracted from purified wall fragments with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. The protein component, 12% by weight, is rich in proline, whereas the carbohydrate, mainly mannose, is about evenly distributed between asparagine and hydroxyamino acids. Endoglucosaminidase H digestion of the isolated mannoprotein reduced its average molecular weight to 150 000, but the mannoprotein, while still embedded in the cell wall, was inaccessible to the enzyme. Biosynthesis and translocation of the mannoprotein were investigated by following incorporation of [3H]proline into this fraction. In the presence of tunicamycin, both mnn9 and wild-type X2180 cells made a mannoprotein fraction with an average molecular weight of 140 000, whereas in the absence of the glycosylation inhibitor, the mnn9 mutant made material with a molecular weight of 180 000 and the mannoprotein made by wild-type cells was too large to penetrate the polyacrylamide gel. Although the cell wall mannoprotein was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes, attempts to isolate the carbohydrate-free component failed to yield any characteristic peptide material. PMID:3888262

  7. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Dillon, Anne C.; Mahan, Archie H.; Alleman, Jeffrey L.

    2010-10-26

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  8. Wall relaxation and the driving forces for cell expansive growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    When water uptake by growing cells is prevented, the turgor pressure and the tensile stress in the cell wall are reduced by continued wall loosening. This process, termed in vivo stress relaxation, provides a new way to study the dynamics of wall loosening and to measure the wall yield threshold and the physiological wall extensibility. Stress relaxation experiments indicate that wall stress supplies the mechanical driving force for wall yielding. Cell expansion also requires water absorption. The driving force for water uptake during growth is created by wall relaxation, which lowers the water potential of the expanding cells. New techniques for measuring this driving force show that it is smaller than believed previously; in elongating stems it is only 0.3 to 0.5 bar. This means that the hydraulic resistance of the water transport pathway is small and that rate of cell expansion is controlled primarily by wall loosening and yielding.

  9. Measuring in vitro extensibility of growing plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the theory and practical aspects of measuring cell wall properties by four different extensometer techniques and how the results of these methods relate to the concept and ideal measurement of cell wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. These in vivo techniques are particularly useful for studies of the molecular basis of cell wall extension. Measurements of breaking strength, elastic compliance, and plastic compliance may be informative about changes in cell wall structure, whereas measurements of wall stress relaxation and creep are sensitive to both changes in wall structure and wall-loosening processes, such as those mediated by expansins and some lytic enzymes. A combination of methods is needed to obtain a broader view of cell wall behavior and properties connected with the concept of cell wall extensibility.

  10. Measuring in-vitro extensibility of growth plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the theory and practical aspects of measuring cell wall properties by four different extensometer techniques and how the results of these methods relate to the concept and ideal measurement of cell wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. These in vivo techniques are particularly useful for studies of the molecular basis of cell wall extension. Measurements of breaking strength, elastic compliance, and plastic compliance may be informative about changes in cell wall structure, whereas measurements of wall stress relaxation and creep are sensitive to both changes in wall structure and wall-loosening processes, such as those mediated by expansins and some lytic enzymes. A combination of methods is needed to obtain a broader view of cell wall behavior and properties connected with the concept of cell wall extensibility.

  11. Hydrodynamic interaction of micro-swimmers near a wall

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gao-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of an archetypal low-Reynolds number swimmer, called “squirmer”, near a wall has been numerically studied. For a single squirmer, depending on the swimming mechanism, three different modes are distinguished: (a) the squirmer escaping from the wall, (b) the squirmer swimming along the wall at a constant distance and orientation angle, and (c) the squirmer swimming near the wall in a periodic trajectory. The role of inertial effects on the near-wall motion of the squirmer is quantified. The dynamics of multiple squirmers swimming between two walls is found to be very different from a single squirmer. Near-wall accumulation of squirmers are observed. At a relatively small concentration c = 0.1, around 60 – 80% of the squirmers are accumulated near the walls and attraction of pushers and pullers towards the wall is stronger than neutral squirmers. Near-wall squirmers orient normal to the wall, while in the bulk region, the squirmers are mostly oriented parallel to the wall. At a high concentration, c = 0.4, the percentage of the near-wall squirmers is around 40%. The orientation angle of squirmers in the bulk region is more uniformly distributed at high concentrations. In the near-wall region, pullers repel each other, while pushers are attracted to each other and form clusters. PMID:25122372

  12. Cell Wall Loosening in the Fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.; Truong, Jason T.; Munoz, Cindy M.; Ramirez, David G.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been conducted to determine how cell walls are loosened to produce irreversible wall deformation and expansive growth in plant and algal cells. The same cannot be said about fungal cells. Almost nothing is known about how fungal cells loosen their walls to produce irreversible wall deformation and expansive growth. In this study, anoxia is used to chemically isolate the wall from the protoplasm of the sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. The experimental results provide direct evidence of the existence of chemistry within the fungal wall that is responsible for wall loosening, irreversible wall deformation and elongation growth. In addition, constant-tension extension experiments are conducted on frozen-thawed sporangiophore walls to obtain insight into the wall chemistry and wall loosening mechanism. It is found that a decrease in pH to 4.6 produces creep extension in the frozen-thawed sporangiophore wall that is similar, but not identical, to that found in frozen-thawed higher plant cell walls. Experimental results from frozen-thawed and boiled sporangiophore walls suggest that protein activity may be involved in the creep extension. PMID:27135318

  13. Soft-walled, monothalamous benthic foraminiferans in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans: aspects of biodiversity and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, Andrew J.; Hori, Saori; Todo, Yuko; Okamoto, Takuji; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Sabbatini, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Delicate foraminiferans with test walls that are either agglutinated (Order Astrorhizida, Families Saccamminidae and Psammosphaeridae) or composed of organic material (Order Allogromiida) are often an important element of deep-sea benthic assemblages. Many species have soft, flexible walls and, except for a few allogromiids, are monothalamous (single-chambered). We examined quantitative multicorer samples from abyssal (4263-5570 m) water depths in the North and western Equatorial Pacific and a qualitative sample from a hadal site (7800 m water depth) in the Atacama Trench, SE Pacific. Soft-walled foraminiferans made up 29-42% of all complete, 'live' (rose Bengal stained) foraminiferans in the >32 μm fractions (0-1 cm sediment layer) of the North Pacific samples and 63% in the western Equatorial Pacific sample. They included the following morphotypes: (i) organic-walled allogromiids with one or occasionally two apertures; (ii) Nodellum- and Resigella-like forms in which the organic wall is generally brownish in colour and the test sometimes divided into more or less well-defined chambers by constrictions or partitions; (iii) flask-like agglutinated saccamminids with one aperture; (iv) oval saccamminids with two apertures; (v) agglutinated spheres which lack obvious apertures (psammosphaerids). In addition, numerous isolated spherical chambers, believed to be fragments derived from much larger komokiacean foraminiferans, were present in some samples and easily confused with saccamminids. At each Pacific station, we recognised 26-55 morphologically distinct forms (morphospecies) in addition to numerous 'indeterminate' specimens that could not be categorised on the basis of morphological criteria. A comparison of the Pacific assemblages with existing data on monothalamous assemblages from abyssal and bathyal depths in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (>63 μm fraction) suggests that some morphospecies have wide geographical and bathymetric distributions. These wide

  14. Algorithm of chest wall keloid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xiao; Zhang, Mingzi; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Ru; Wang, Youbin; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Keloids are common in the Asian population. Multiple or huge keloids can appear on the chest wall because of its tendency to develop acne, sebaceous cyst, etc. It is difficult to find an ideal treatment for keloids in this area due to the limit of local soft tissues and higher recurrence rate. This study aims at establishing an individualized protocol that could be easily applied according to the size and number of chest wall keloids. A total of 445 patients received various methods (4 protocols) of treatment in our department from September 2006 to September 2012 according to the size and number of their chest wall keloids. All of the patients received adjuvant radiotherapy in our hospital. Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was used to assess the treatment effect by both doctors and patients. With mean follow-up time of 13 months (range: 6–18 months), 362 patients participated in the assessment of POSAS with doctors. Both the doctors and the patients themselves used POSAS to evaluate the treatment effect. The recurrence rate was 0.83%. There was an obvious significant difference (P < 0.001) between the before-surgery score and the after-surgery score from both doctors and patients, indicating that both doctors and patients were satisfied with the treatment effect. Our preliminary clinical result indicates that good clinical results could be achieved by choosing the proper method in this algorithm for Chinese patients with chest wall keloids. This algorithm could play a guiding role for surgeons when dealing with chest wall keloid treatment. PMID:27583896

  15. Algorithm of chest wall keloid treatment.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiao; Zhang, Mingzi; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Ru; Wang, Youbin; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-08-01

    Keloids are common in the Asian population. Multiple or huge keloids can appear on the chest wall because of its tendency to develop acne, sebaceous cyst, etc. It is difficult to find an ideal treatment for keloids in this area due to the limit of local soft tissues and higher recurrence rate. This study aims at establishing an individualized protocol that could be easily applied according to the size and number of chest wall keloids.A total of 445 patients received various methods (4 protocols) of treatment in our department from September 2006 to September 2012 according to the size and number of their chest wall keloids. All of the patients received adjuvant radiotherapy in our hospital. Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was used to assess the treatment effect by both doctors and patients. With mean follow-up time of 13 months (range: 6-18 months), 362 patients participated in the assessment of POSAS with doctors.Both the doctors and the patients themselves used POSAS to evaluate the treatment effect. The recurrence rate was 0.83%. There was an obvious significant difference (P < 0.001) between the before-surgery score and the after-surgery score from both doctors and patients, indicating that both doctors and patients were satisfied with the treatment effect.Our preliminary clinical result indicates that good clinical results could be achieved by choosing the proper method in this algorithm for Chinese patients with chest wall keloids. This algorithm could play a guiding role for surgeons when dealing with chest wall keloid treatment. PMID:27583896

  16. Characterization of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum cell wall proteome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longzhou; Free, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    We used a proteomic analysis to identify cell wall proteins released from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hyphal and sclerotial cell walls via a trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMS) digestion. Cell walls from hyphae grown in Vogel's glucose medium (a synthetic medium lacking plant materials), from hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth and from sclerotia produced on potato dextrose agar were used in the analysis. Under the conditions used, TFMS digests the glycosidic linkages in the cell walls to release intact cell wall proteins. The analysis identified 24 glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall proteins and 30 non-GPI-anchored cell wall proteins. We found that the cell walls contained an array of cell wall biosynthetic enzymes similar to those found in the cell walls of other fungi. When comparing the proteins in hyphal cell walls grown in potato dextrose broth with those in hyphal cell walls grown in the absence of plant material, it was found that a core group of cell wall biosynthetic proteins and some proteins associated with pathogenicity (secreted cellulases, pectin lyases, glucosidases and proteases) were expressed in both types of hyphae. The hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth contained a number of additional proteins (laccases, oxalate decarboxylase, peroxidase, polysaccharide deacetylase and several proteins unique to Sclerotinia and Botrytis) that might facilitate growth on a plant host. A comparison of the proteins in the sclerotial cell wall with the proteins in the hyphal cell wall demonstrated that sclerotia formation is not marked by a major shift in the composition of cell wall protein. We found that the S. sclerotiorum cell walls contained 11 cell wall proteins that were encoded only in Sclerotinia and Botrytis genomes.

  17. Characterization of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum cell wall proteome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longzhou; Free, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    We used a proteomic analysis to identify cell wall proteins released from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hyphal and sclerotial cell walls via a trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMS) digestion. Cell walls from hyphae grown in Vogel's glucose medium (a synthetic medium lacking plant materials), from hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth and from sclerotia produced on potato dextrose agar were used in the analysis. Under the conditions used, TFMS digests the glycosidic linkages in the cell walls to release intact cell wall proteins. The analysis identified 24 glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall proteins and 30 non-GPI-anchored cell wall proteins. We found that the cell walls contained an array of cell wall biosynthetic enzymes similar to those found in the cell walls of other fungi. When comparing the proteins in hyphal cell walls grown in potato dextrose broth with those in hyphal cell walls grown in the absence of plant material, it was found that a core group of cell wall biosynthetic proteins and some proteins associated with pathogenicity (secreted cellulases, pectin lyases, glucosidases and proteases) were expressed in both types of hyphae. The hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth contained a number of additional proteins (laccases, oxalate decarboxylase, peroxidase, polysaccharide deacetylase and several proteins unique to Sclerotinia and Botrytis) that might facilitate growth on a plant host. A comparison of the proteins in the sclerotial cell wall with the proteins in the hyphal cell wall demonstrated that sclerotia formation is not marked by a major shift in the composition of cell wall protein. We found that the S. sclerotiorum cell walls contained 11 cell wall proteins that were encoded only in Sclerotinia and Botrytis genomes. PMID:26661933

  18. Past and present Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC

  19. Variability In The Solomon Sea From Altimetric Sea Level Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melet, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Kessler, W.; Verron, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the southwest tropical Pacific, subtropical waters from the SEC flow in the Solomon Sea, mainly through the western boundary New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, and join the equatorial western Pacific by three narrow straits. The NGCU transports part of the spiciness anomalies generated in the South East Pacific and subducted in the thermocline. Because the NGCU is a primary source of the EUC, variations of its characteristics are expected to play a role in the equatorial thermocline features and more generally on decadal climate variability. Therefore, the study of the Solomon Sea is a key issue of the SPICE program. In this study, we focus on the variability of the Solomon Sea in term of sea level. The Solomon Sea is semi closed with a complex topography and numerous islands. Thus, the use of classical gridded altimetric products is inadequate. Consequently, this work is based on original along track Topex/Poseidon data. New data processing (CTOH/LEGOS) has been applied to recover proper data and to gain more information on the altimetric signal in this region. A track-by-track specific and customized post processing has been used to finalize the dataset. These new altimetric data have been assessed against tide gauge data. The analysis of the resulting sea level anomalies exhibits the highest variability observed in the tropical Pacific in an area centred near 8°S and expanding from each side of the Solomon Islands, outside of the WBC. Sea level variability presents a wide temporal spectrum, from intraseasonal to interannual ranges with the notable influence of the monsoon and of ENSO. In the Solomon Sea, three frequencies emerge : 60, 365 and 2000 days. The 60-days frequency seems particularly important in the Solomon Sea compared with the surrounding waters and an EOF analysis is used to understand its features. We also depict the signature of the New Guinea Coastal Current (NGCC), the western boundary current flowing north along the eastern coast of Papua

  20. Vibro-acoustic modelling of aircraft double-walls with structural links using Statistical Energy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campolina, Bruno L.

    The prediction of aircraft interior noise involves the vibroacoustic modelling of the fuselage with noise control treatments. This structure is composed of a stiffened metallic or composite panel, lined with a thermal and acoustic insulation layer (glass wool), and structurally connected via vibration isolators to a commercial lining panel (trim). The goal of this work aims at tailoring the noise control treatments taking design constraints such as weight and space optimization into account. For this purpose, a representative aircraft double-wall is modelled using the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method. Laboratory excitations such as diffuse acoustic field and point force are addressed and trends are derived for applications under in-flight conditions, considering turbulent boundary layer excitation. The effect of the porous layer compression is firstly addressed. In aeronautical applications, compression can result from the installation of equipment and cables. It is studied analytically and experimentally, using a single panel and a fibrous uniformly compressed over 100% of its surface. When compression increases, a degradation of the transmission loss up to 5 dB for a 50% compression of the porous thickness is observed mainly in the mid-frequency range (around 800 Hz). However, for realistic cases, the effect should be reduced since the compression rate is lower and compression occurs locally. Then the transmission through structural connections between panels is addressed using a four-pole approach that links the force-velocity pair at each side of the connection. The modelling integrates experimental dynamic stiffness of isolators, derived using an adapted test rig. The structural transmission is then experimentally validated and included in the double-wall SEA model as an equivalent coupling loss factor (CLF) between panels. The tested structures being flat, only axial transmission is addressed. Finally, the dominant sound transmission paths are