Sample records for sea water corrosion

  1. Corrosion Protection Of Mild Steel In Sea Water Using Chemical Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araoyinbo, Alaba O.; Salleh, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd; Zulerwan Jusof, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The effect of sodium nitrite as a corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in sea water (i.e ASTM standard prepared sea water and sea water obtained from a local river) was investigated, using the weight loss technique. Different amount of sodium nitrite were prepared (i.e 2 % to 10 %) in the inhibition of the mild steel corrosion in sea water exposed to irradiation condition from sunlight exposure. The cut samples of mild steel were exposed to these corrosive media and the corresponding weight loss subsequently obtained was recorded at intervals of 1 to 4 weeks. It was observed that corrosion rate increases with the time of exposure to the corrosive medium exposed to sunlight and that sodium nitrite that was used at the chemical inhibitor was able to retard the corrosion rate of mild steel if the appropriate concentration is applied. The results obtained from the weight loss analysis shows that the optimum percentage of sodium nitrate in sea water that gives the optimum corrosion inhibition of mild steel is 4 %.

  2. Synthetic sea water - An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in evaluating the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys by alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) water is excessive pitting corrosion. Several methods were examined to eliminate this problem and to find an improved accelerated test medium. These included the addition of chromate inhibitors, surface treatment of specimens, and immersion in synthetic sea water. The results indicate that alternate immersion in synthetic sea water is a very promising stress corrosion test medium. Neither chromate inhibitors nor surface treatment (anodize and alodine) of the aluminum specimens improved the performance of alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water sufficiently to be classified as an effective stress corrosion test method.

  3. Sea water Corrosion of Nickel based Plasma Spray Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, M.; Nanda, S. P.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Different types of erosion resistant coatings are applied/deposited on aero components, depending on the operating/working temperatures. Nickel based coating are applied on the air craft (compressor) components, which can sustain up to working temperature of 650°C. In the present investigation, to improve the compatibility between substrate (i.e. the machine component) and the top coat, application of bond coat is there. The application of Nickel based coating by thermal plasma spray technique has proven to be a satisfactory means of producing acceptable sealing surface with excellent abradability. Before the corrosion study, coated sample is subjected to hardness, thickness and porosity testing. Hence the result is being evaluated. The corrosion behavior of coating was studied by sea water immersion with a time period of 16 weeks. It is observed that, up to 9 weeks increase in weight of coating occurs in a sharp trend and then takes a decreasing trend. The weight gain of the samples has varied from 37.23% (with one week immersion in sea water) to a maximum of about 64.36% for six weeks immersion. Coating morphology and composition analysis of the coatings are studied using SEM and EDS. This behavior shows adsorption/deposition of the foreign particles with polygonal shape on the coating surface by sea water interaction. Foreign particles with polygonal shape deposited on the coating and with increase in immersion/treatment time, washing out of the deposited materials starts, which reflects the decreasing trend of weight gain of the specimen.

  4. Corrosion and Corrosion Control in Light Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Barry M.

    2013-08-01

    Serious corrosion problems have plagued the light water reactor (LWR) industry for decades. The complex corrosion mechanisms involved and the development of practical engineering solutions for their mitigation will be discussed in this article. After a brief overview of the basic designs of the boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR), emphasis will be placed on the general corrosion of LWR containments, flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon steel components, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in BWRs, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in PWRs, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in both systems. Finally, the corrosion future of both plants will be discussed as plants extend their period of operation for an additional 20 to 40 years.

  5. Corrosion behaviour and biocorrosion of galvanized steel water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, F; Tosar, F; Vitry, V

    2014-06-01

    Galvanized steel tubes are a popular mean for water distribution systems but suffer from corrosion despite their zinc or zinc alloy coatings. First, the quality of hot-dip galvanized (HDG) coatings was studied. Their microstructure, defects, and common types of corrosion were observed. It was shown that many manufactured tubes do not reach European standard (NBN EN 10240), which is the cause of several corrosion problems. The average thickness of zinc layer was found at 41μm against 55μm prescribed by the European standard. However, lack of quality, together with the usual corrosion types known for HDG steel tubes was not sufficient to explain the high corrosion rate (reaching 20μm per year versus 10μm/y for common corrosion types). Electrochemical tests were also performed to understand the corrosion behaviours occurring in galvanized steel tubes. Results have shown that the limiting step was oxygen diffusion, favouring the growth of anaerobic bacteria in steel tubes. EDS analysis was carried out on corroded coatings and has shown the presence of sulphur inside deposits, suggesting the likely bacterial activity. Therefore biocorrosion effects have been investigated. Actually sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) can reduce sulphate contained in water to hydrogen sulphide (H2S), causing the formation of metal sulphides. Although microbial corrosion is well-known in sea water, it is less investigated in supply water. Thus, an experimental water main was kept in operation for 6months. SRB were detected by BART tests in the test water main. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of corrosion rates of water distribution pipelines according to aggressive corrosive water in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, W S; Yu, M J; Lee, H D

    2004-01-01

    The drinking water network serving Korea has been used for almost 100 years. Therefore, pipelines have suffered various degrees of deterioration due to aggressive environments. The pipe breaks were caused by in-external corrosion, water hammer, surface loading, etc. In this paper, we focused on describing corrosion status in water distribution pipes in Korea and reviewing some methods to predict corrosion rates. Results indicate that corrosive water of lakes was more aggressive than river water and the winter was more aggressive compared to other seasons. The roughness growth rates of Dongbok lake showed 0.23 mm/year. The high variation of corrosion rates is controlled by the aging pipes and smaller diameter. Also the phenolphthalein test on a cementitious core of cement mortar lined ductile cast iron pipe indicated the pipes over 15 years old had lost 50-100% of their lime active cross sectional area.

  7. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was, G. S.; Ampornrat, P.; Gupta, G.; Teysseyre, S.; West, E. A.; Allen, T. R.; Sridharan, K.; Tan, L.; Chen, Y.; Ren, X.; Pister, C.

    2007-09-01

    Supercritical water (SCW) has attracted increasing attention since SCW boiler power plants were implemented to increase the efficiency of fossil-based power plants. The SCW reactor (SCWR) design has been selected as one of the Generation IV reactor concepts because of its higher thermal efficiency and plant simplification as compared to current light water reactors (LWRs). Reactor operating conditions call for a core coolant temperature between 280 °C and 620 °C at a pressure of 25 MPa and maximum expected neutron damage levels to any replaceable or permanent core component of 15 dpa (thermal reactor design) and 100 dpa (fast reactor design). Irradiation-induced changes in microstructure (swelling, radiation-induced segregation (RIS), hardening, phase stability) and mechanical properties (strength, thermal and irradiation-induced creep, fatigue) are also major concerns. Throughout the core, corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and the effect of irradiation on these degradation modes are critical issues. This paper reviews the current understanding of the response of candidate materials for SCWR systems, focusing on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking response, and highlights the design trade-offs associated with certain alloy systems. Ferritic-martensitic steels generally have the best resistance to stress corrosion cracking, but suffer from the worst oxidation. Austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys have better oxidation resistance but are more susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. The promise of grain boundary engineering and surface modification in addressing corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance is discussed.

  8. The Corrosion of Metals in Aqueous Film-Forming Foams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CORROSION), (*FIRE EXTINGUISHERS, STAINLESS STEEL), (*STAINLESS STEEL, (* FOAM , CORROSION), PH FACTOR, CHLORIDES, FLUORIDES, STEEL, NICKEL ALLOYS, COPPER ALLOYS, NAVAL EQUIPMENT, AIRCRAFT CARRIERS, SEA WATER, COMPATIBILITY.

  9. The corrosive nature of manganese in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Bastida, C; Martínez-Miranda, V; Vázquez-Mejía, G; Solache-Ríos, M; Fonseca-Montes de Oca, G; Trujillo-Flores, E

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion problems having to do with drinking water distribution systems are related to many processes and factors and two of them are ionic acidity and carbon dioxide, which were considered in this work. The corrosion character of water is determined by the corrosion indexes of Langelier, Ryznar, Larson, and Mojmir. The results show that pipes made of different materials, such as plastics or metals, are affected by corrosion, causing manganese to be deposited on materials and dissolved in water. The deterioration of the materials, the degree of corrosion, and the deposited corrosion products were determined by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. High levels of manganese and nitrate ions in water may cause serious damage to the health of consumers of water. Three wells were examined, one of them presented a high content of manganese; the others had high levels of nitrate ions, which increased the acidity of the water and, therefore, the amount of corrosion of the materials in the distribution systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of annual corrosion tests for aggressive water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubová, V.; Ilavský, J.; Barloková, D.

    2011-12-01

    Internal corrosion has a significant effect on the useful life of pipes, the hydraulic conditions of a distribution system and the quality of the water transported. All water is corrosive under some conditions, and the level of this corrosion depends on the physical and chemical properties of the water and properties of the pipe material. Galvanic treatment is an innovation for protecting against corrosion, and this method is also suitable for removal of water stone too. This method consists of the electrogalvanic principle, which is generated by the flowing of water between a zinc anode and the cupro-alloy cover of a column. This article presents experimental corrosion tests at water resource Pernek (This water resource-well marked as HL-1 is close to the Pernek of village), where the device is operating based on this principle.

  11. Leaching behavior of microtektite glass compositions in sea water and the effect of precipitation on glass leaching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The present study attempts to account for the slow corrosion rates of microtektite glass in nature by comparing the leach rates of synthetic microtektite glass samples in deionized water and in sea-water, respectively. In order to obtain systematic data about leachant composition effects, leach tests were also carried out with synthetic leachant compositions enriched with respect to silica or depleted with respect to certain major components of sea-water (Mg, Ca).

  12. Investigations on Microstructure and Corrosion behavior of Superalloy 686 weldments by Electrochemical Corrosion Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulmurugan, B.; Manikandan, M.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, microstructure and the corrosion behavior of Nickel based superalloy 686 and its weld joints has been investigated by synthetic sea water environment. The weldments were fabricated by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (PCGTAW) techniques with autogenous mode and three different filler wires (ERNiCrMo-4, ERNiCrMo-10 and ERNiCrMo-14). Microstructure and Scanning electron microscope examination was carried out to evaluate the structural changes in the fusion zones of different weldments. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was carried out to evaluate the microsegregation of alloying elements in the different weld joints. Potentiodynamic polarization study was experimented on the base metal and weld joints in the synthetic sea water environment to evaluate the corrosion rate. Tafel’s interpolation technique was used to obtain the corrosion rate. The microstructure examination revealed that the fine equiaxed dendrites were observed in the pulsed current mode. EDS analysis shows the absence of microsegregation in the current pulsing technique. The corrosion rates of weldments are compared with the base metal. The results show that the fine microstructure with the absence of microsegregation in the PCGTA weldments shows improved corrosion resistance compared to the GTAW. Autogenous PCGTAW shows higher corrosion resistance irrespective of all weldments employed in the present study.

  13. Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

  14. Munitions integrity and corrosion features observed during the HUMMA deep-sea munitions disposal site investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Jeff A. K.; Chock, Taylor

    2016-06-01

    An evaluation of the current condition of sea-disposed military munitions observed during the 2009 Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment Project investigation is presented. The 69 km2 study area is located south of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, and is positioned within a former deep-sea disposal area designated as Hawaii-05 or HI-05 by the United States Department of Defense. HI-05 is known to contain both conventional and chemical munitions that were sea-disposed between 1920 and 1951. Digital images and video reconnaissance logs collected during six remotely operated vehicle and 16 human-occupied vehicle surveys were used to classify the integrity and state of corrosion of the 1842 discarded military munitions (DMM) objects encountered. Of these, 5% (or 90 individual DMM objects) were found to exhibit a mild-moderate degree of corrosion. The majority (66% or 1222 DMM objects) were observed to be significantly corroded, but visually intact on the seafloor. The remaining 29% of DMM encountered were found to be severely corroded and breached, with their contents exposed. Chemical munitions were not identified during the 2009 investigation. In general, identified munitions known to have been constructed with thicker casings were better preserved. Unusual corrosion features were also observed, including what are termed here as 'corrosion skirts' that resembled the flow and cementation of corrosion products at and away from the base of many munitions, and 'corrosion pedestal' features resembling a combination of cemented corrosion products and seafloor sediments that were observed to be supporting munitions above the surface of the seafloor. The origin of these corrosion features could not be determined due to the lack of physical samples collected. However, a microbial-mediated formation hypothesis is presented, based on visual analysis, which can serve as a testable model for future field programs.

  15. Preparation of Some Eco-friendly Corrosion Inhibitors Having Antibacterial Activity from Sea Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohamed H M; El-Hady, Mohamed F; Shehata, Hassan A H; Hegazy, Mohammad A; Hefni, Hassan H H

    2013-03-01

    Chitosan is one of the important biopolymers and it is extracted from exoskeletons of crustaceans in sea food waste. It is a suitable eco-friendly carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in acid media; the deacetylation degree of prepared chitosan is more than 85.16 %, and the molecular weight average is 109 kDa. Chitosan was modified to 2-N,N-diethylbenzene ammonium chloride N-oxoethyl chitosan (compound I), and 12-ammonium chloride N-oxododecan chitosan (compound II) as soluble water derivatives. The corrosion inhibition efficiency for carbon steel of compound (I) in 1 M HCl at varying temperature is higher than for chitosan and compound (II). However, the antibacterial activity of chitosan for Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans is higher than for its derivatives, and the minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bacterial concentration of chitosan and its derivatives were carried out with the same strain.

  16. Solvent Effects of Model Polymeric Corrosion Control Coatings on Water Transport and Corrosion Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecki, Christina

    Industrial coating formulations are often made for volatile organic content compliance and ease of application, with little regard for the solvent impact on resultant performance characteristics. Our research objective was to understand the effect of both solvent retention and chemical structure on water transport through polymer films and resultant corrosion area growth of coated steel substrates. A clear, unpigmented Phenoxy(TM) thermoplastic polymer (PKHH) was formulated into resin solutions with three separate solvent blends selected by Hansen solubility parameter (HSP), boiling point, and ability to solubilize PKHH. Polymer films cast from MEK/PGME (methyl ethyl ketone/ propylene glycol methyl ether), dried under ambient conditions (AMB, > 6wt.% residual solvent) produced a porous morphology, which resulted in a corrosion area greater than 50%. We attributed this to the water-soluble solvent used in film preparation, which enabled residual PGME to be extracted by water. The resin solution prepared with CYCOH/DXL (Cyclohexanol/ 1,3 dioxolane) was selected because CYCOH is a solid at room temperature which acts as a pigment in the final film. Therefore, increasing the tortuosity of water transport, as well as a high hydrogen bonding character, which caused more interactions with water, slowing diffusion, producing a nodular morphology, and 37% less corrosion area than MEK/PGME AMB. The HSP of PKHH and EEP (ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate) are within 5% of each other, which produced a homogeneous morphology and resulted in comparable corrosion rates regardless of residual solvent content. We utilized electrochemical techniques and attenuated total reflectance- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to elucidate dynamic water absorption and solvent extraction in the exposed model formulations. We found that water absorption resulted in a loss of barrier properties, and increased corrosion due to the voids formed by solvent extraction. The polymer films were rejuvenated

  17. Assessment of severity and distribution of corrosive ground water in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, M.J.; Dugas, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Relations between corrosive ground water, water chemistry, and geology in Pennsylvania were evaluated by use of a modified version of the Langelier Saturation Index (LSIsn) and a geologic contact dataset in a Geographic Information System. Water-chemistry information for water samples collected from 4,839 combined private and public-supply wells from 1900 to 1993 was used to calculate the LSIsn. Thirty-eight lithologic subgroups within four major rock types-carbonate, siliciclastic, crystalline, and unconsolidated-in Pennsylvania were grouped together if the mean of ranked LSIsn values were not significantly different. A water is considered corrosive if the LSIsn value is negative, preventing the precipitation of calcium carbonate, therefore, allowing corrosive reactions with the interior of piping systems. Statistical tests of the LSIsn values show the least corrosive waters are in the carbonate lithologic subgroup, and the most corrosive waters are in the quartzite lithologic subgroup. Approximately 58 percent of the 4,839 LSIsn values were considered moderately to extremely corrosive. A map showing the location of 4,839 wells and associated corrosivity range within 11 lithologic subgroups will aid in identifying potential areas of corrosive ground water in Pennsylvania.

  18. Study of corrosion using long period fiber gratings coated with iron exposed to salty water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, L.; Santos, J. L.; Jorge, P. A. S.; de Almeida, J. M. M.

    2017-04-01

    A study of long period fiber gratings (LPFG) over coated with iron (Fe) and subjected to oxidation in water with different sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations is presented. The formation of iron oxides and hydroxides was monitored in real time by following the features of the LPFG attenuation band. Preliminary results show that Fe coated LPFGs can be used as sensors for early warning of corrosion in offshore and in coastal projects where metal structures made of iron alloys are in contact with sea or brackish water.

  19. Health and aesthetic impacts of copper corrosion on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, A M; Glindemann, D; Pizarro, F; Gidi, V; Olivares, M; Araya, M; Camper, A; Duncan, S; Dwyer, S; Whelton, A J; Younos, T; Subramanian, S; Burlingame, G A; Khiari, D; Edwards, M

    2004-01-01

    Traditional research has focused on the visible effects of corrosion--failures, leaks, and financial debits--and often overlooked the more hidden health and aesthetic aspects. Clearly, corrosion of copper pipe can lead to levels of copper in the drinking water that exceed health guidelines and cause bitter or metallic tasting water. Because water will continue to be conveyed to consumers worldwide through metal pipes, the water industry has to consider both the effects of water quality on corrosion and the effects of corrosion on water quality. Integrating four key factors--chemical/biological causes, economics, health and aesthetics--is critical for managing the distribution system to produce safe water that consumers will use with confidence. As technological developments improve copper pipes to minimize scaling and corrosion, it is essential to consider the health and aesthetic effects on an equal plane with chemical/biological causes and economics to produce water that is acceptable for public consumption.

  20. Welding Thermal Simulation and Corrosion Study of X-70 Deep Sea Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weipeng; Li, Zhuoran; Gao, Jixiang; Peng, Zhengwu

    2017-12-01

    Gleeble thermomechanical processing machine was used to simulate coarse grain heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of API X-70 thick wall pipeline steel used in deep sea. Microstructures and corresponding corrosion behavior of the simulated CGHAZs using different cooling rate were investigated and compared to the as-received material by scanning electron microscope and electrochemical experiments carried out in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. Results of this study show that the as-received samples exhibited a little bit higher corrosion resistance than the simulated CGHAZs. Among 3 sets of simulation experiments, the maximum corrosion tendency was exhibited at the t8/5 = 20 s with the most martensite-austensite (M-A) microstructure and highest corrosion potential was shown at the t8/5 = 60 s.

  1. Environmental factors affecting corrosion of munitions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bundy, K.; Bricka, M.; Morales, A.

    1995-12-31

    Spent small arms munitions have accumulated for years at outdoor firing ranges operated by the DoD and other groups. Used bullets are often subjected to moisture sources. There is increasing concern that accumulations of lead-based munitions represent potential sources of water and soil pollution. To understand both the severity of and solutions to this problem, it is necessary to measure how rapidly bullets corrode and to determine the soil variables affecting the process. In this study M16 bullets were buried in samples of soil taken from Louisiana army firing ranges. Four environmental conditions were simulated; rain water, acid rain, seamore » water, and 50% sea water/50% acid rain. The three electrode technique was used to measure the bullet corrosion. Graphite rods served as counter electrodes. A saturated calomel reference electrode was used along with a specially constructed salt bridge. Electrochemical measurements were conducted using a computer-controlled potentiostat to determine corrosion potential, soil resistance, and corrosion current. The rate of corrosion was found to markedly increase with decreasing soil pH and increasing chloride and moisture contents, with the chloride content being the most influential variable. High soil resistance and noble corrosion potential were found to be associated with low corrosion rates. This is important since both parameters can be readily measured in the field.« less

  2. Morphological and physicochemical characteristics of iron corrosion scales formed under different water source histories in a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Gu, Junnong; Wang, Dongsheng; Yang, Min

    2012-10-15

    The corrosion scales on iron pipes could have great impact on the water quality in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Unstable and less protective corrosion scale is one of the main factors causing "discolored water" issues when quality of water entering into distribution system changed significantly. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of corrosion scales formed under different source water histories in duration of about two decades were systematically investigated in this work. Thick corrosion scales or densely distributed corrosion tubercles were mostly found in pipes transporting surface water, but thin corrosion scales and hollow tubercles were mostly discovered in pipes transporting groundwater. Magnetite and goethite were main constituents of iron corrosion products, but the mass ratio of magnetite/goethite (M/G) was significantly different depending on the corrosion scale structure and water source conditions. Thick corrosion scales and hard shell of tubercles had much higher M/G ratio (>1.0), while the thin corrosion scales had no magnetite detected or with much lower M/G ratio. The M/G ratio could be used to identify the characteristics and evaluate the performances of corrosion scales formed under different water conditions. Compared with the pipes transporting ground water, the pipes transporting surface water were more seriously corroded and could be in a relatively more active corrosion status all the time, which was implicated by relatively higher siderite, green rust and total iron contents in their corrosion scales. Higher content of unstable ferric components such as γ-FeOOH, β-FeOOH and amorphous iron oxide existed in corrosion scales of pipes receiving groundwater which was less corroded. Corrosion scales on groundwater pipes with low magnetite content had higher surface area and thus possibly higher sorption capacity. The primary trace inorganic elements in corrosion products were Br and heavy metals. Corrosion

  3. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Minnoş, Bihter; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Çotuk, Ayşın; Güngör, Nihal Doğruöz; Cansever, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor was investigated over a 10-month period in a hotel. Planktonic and sessile numbers of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic bacteria were monitored. The corrosion rate was determined by the weight loss method. The corrosion products were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. A mineralized, heterogeneous biofilm was observed on the coupons. Although a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor were regularly added to the cooling water, the results showed that microorganisms, such as SRB in the mixed species biofilm, caused corrosion of galvanized steel. It was observed that Zn layers on the test coupons were completely depleted after 3 months. The Fe concentrations in the biofilm showed significant correlations with the weight loss and carbohydrate concentration (respectively, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01).

  4. Corrosion protection performance of corrosion inhibitors and epoxy-coated reinforcing steel in a simulated concrete pore water solution.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-06-01

    We used a simulated concrete pore water solution to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of concrete corrosion-inhibiting admixtures and epoxy-coated reinforcing bars (ECR). We evaluated three commercial corrosion inhibitors, ECR from three ...

  5. Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Dong; Hou, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    A combined process was developed to inhibit the corrosion both in the pipeline of reclaimed water supplies (PRWS) and in downstream recirculating cooling water systems (RCWS) using the reclaimed water as makeup. Hydroxyl carboxylate-based corrosion inhibitors (e.g., gluconate, citrate, tartrate) and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, which provided Zn(2+) as a synergistic corrosion inhibition additive, were added prior to the PRWS when the phosphate (which could be utilized as a corrosion inhibitor) content in the reclaimed water was below 1.7 mg/L, and no additional corrosion inhibitors were required for the downstream RCWS. Satisfactory corrosion inhibition was achieved even if the RCWS was operated under the condition of high numbers of concentration cycles. The corrosion inhibition requirement was also met by the appropriate combination of PO4(3-) and Zn(2+) when the phosphate content in the reclaimed water was more than 1.7 mg/L. The process integrated not only water reclamation and reuse, and the operation of a highly concentrated RCWS, but also the comprehensive utilization of phosphate in reclaimed water and the application of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors. The proposed process reduced the operating cost of the PRWS and the RCWS, and lowered the environmental hazard caused by the excessive discharge of phosphate. Furthermore, larger amounts of water resources could be conserved as a result. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. BOILING WATER REACTOR TECHNOLOGY STATUS OF THE ART REPORT. VOLUME II. WATER CHEMISTRY AND CORROSION

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Breden, C.R.

    1963-02-01

    Information concerning the corrosive effects of water in power reactor moderator-coolant systems is presented. The information is based on investigations reported in the unclassified literature believed to be fairly complete to 1959, but less complete since then. The material is presented in sections on water decomposition, water chemistry, materials corrosion, corrosion product deposits, and radioactivity. It is noted that the report is presented as a part of a continuing program in development of less expensive materials for use in reactors. (J.R.D.)

  7. IMPACT OF WATER CHEMISTRY ON LOCALIZED CORROSION OF COPPER PITTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will help identify what waters are problematic in causing the corrosion of copper pipes and improve understanding of how water distribution leads to corrosion. This project will also focus on the prevention of pinhole leaks and how to reverse them once they occur. ...

  8. Corrosiveness of ground water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Kish, G.R.; Velnich, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water from the unconfined part of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain typically is corrosive-- that is, it is acidic, soft, and has low concentrations of alkalinity. Corrosive ground water has the potential to leach trace elements and asbestos fibers from plumbing materials used in potable- water systems, thereby causing potentially harmful concentrations of these substances in drinking water. Corrosion indices were calculated from water-quality data for 370 wells in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Values of the Langelier Saturation Index are predominantly negative, indicating that the water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate, and, therefore, is potentially corrosive. Values of the Aggressive Index, a similar estimator of the corrosiveness of water, range from 3.9 (highly corrosive) to 11.9 (moderately corrosive). The median Aggressive Index value calculated for the 370 wells is 6.0, a value that indicates that the water is highly corrosive. Moderately corrosive ground water is found in some coastal areas. Isolated instances of moderately corrosive water are found in northern Ocean County, and in Burlington, Camden, and Salem Counties. In the vicinity of Ocean County corrosion-index values change little with depth, but in Atlantic, Burlington, and Salem Counties the corrosiveness of ground water generally appears to decrease with depth. Analyses of standing tap water from newly constructed homes in the Coastal Plain show concentrations of lead and other trace elements are significantly higher than those in ambient ground water. The elevated trace-element concentrations are attributed to the corrosion of plumbing materials by ground water. Results of the tap-water analyses substantiate the corrosiveness of Kirkwood-Cohansey ground water, as estimated by corrosion-index values.

  9. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment.

  10. Analysis of the Effects of Sea Disposal on a One-Ton Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wde C.; Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Kelley, John

    2007-01-01

    Excess and obsolete stocks of chemical warfare material (CWM) were sea disposed by the United States between 1919 and 1970. One-ton containers were used for bulk storage of CWM and were the largest containers sea disposed. Disposal depths ranged from 300 to 17,000 feet. Based on a Type D container assembly drawing, three independent analyses (one corrosion and two structural) were performed on the containers to address the corrosion resistance from prolonged exposure to sea water and the structural response during the descent. Corrosion predictions were made using information about corrosion rates and the disposal environment. The structural analyses employed two different finite element codes and were used to predict the buckling and material response of the container during sea disposal. The results of these investigations are summarized below. Detailed reports on each study are contained in the appendices.

  11. The corrosive well waters of Egypt's western desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Frank Eldridge

    1979-01-01

    The discovery that ground waters of Egypt's Western Desert are highly corrosive is lost in antiquity. Inhabitants of the oases have been aware of the troublesome property for many decades and early investigators mention it in their reports concerning the area. Introduction of modern well-drilling techniques and replacements of native wood casing with steel during the 20th century increased corrosion problems and, in what is called the New Valley Project, led to an intense search for causes and corrective treatments. This revealed that extreme corrosiveness results from combined effects of relatively acidic waters with significant concentrations of destructive sulfide ion; unfavorable ratios of sulfate and chloride to less aggressive ions; mineral equilibria and electrode potential which hinder formation of protective films; relative high chemical reaction rates because of abnormal temperatures, and high surface velocities related to well design. There is general agreement among investigators that conventional corrosion control methods such as coating metal surfaces, chemical treatment of the water, and electrolytic protection with impressed current and sacrificial electrodes are ineffective or impracticable for wells in the Western Desert's New Valley. Thus, control must be sought through the use of materials more resistant to corrosion than plain carbon steel wherever well screens and casings are necessary. Of the alternatives considered, stainless steel appears to. be the most promising where high strength and long-term services are required and the alloy's relatively high cost is acceptable. Epoxy resin-bonded fiberglass and wood appear to be practicable, relatively inexpensive alternatives for installations which do. not exceed their strength limitations. Other materials such as high strength aluminum and Monel Metal have shown sufficient promise to. merit their consideration in particular locations and uses. The limited experience with pumping in these desert

  12. Microbiological corrosion of ASTM SA105 carbon steel pipe for industrial fire water usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, S.; Ashok, K.; Karthik, V.; Venkatakrishnan, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    The large number of metallic systems developed for last few decades against both general uniform corrosion and localized corrosion. Among all microbiological induced corrosion (MIC) is attractive, multidisciplinary and complex in nature. Many chemical processing industries utilizes fresh water for fire service to nullify major/minor fire. One such fire water service line pipe attacked by micro-organisms leads to leakage which is industrially important from safety point of view. Also large numbers of leakage reported in similar fire water service of nearby food processing plant, paper & pulp plant, steel plant, electricity board etc…In present investigation one such industrial fire water service line failure analysis of carbon steel line pipe was analyzed to determine the cause of failure. The water sample subjected to various chemical and bacterial analyses. Turbidity, pH, calcium hardness, free chlorine, oxidation reduction potential, fungi, yeasts, sulphide reducing bacteria (SRB) and total bacteria (TB) were measured on water sample analysis. The corrosion rate was measured on steel samples and corrosion coupon measurements were installed in fire water for validating non flow assisted localized corrosion. The sulphide reducing bacteria (SRB) presents in fire water causes a localized micro biological corrosion attack of line pipe.

  13. Characteristics of iron corrosion scales and water quality variations in drinking water distribution systems of different pipe materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Manjie; Liu, Zhaowei; Chen, Yongcan; Hai, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze micromorphology and chemical composition of corrosion scales. In bench testing, water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), alkalinity, conductivity, turbidity, color, Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ and Zn 2+ , were determined. Scale analysis and bench-scale testing results demonstrated a significant effect of pipe materials on scale characteristics and thereby water quality variations in WDS. Characteristics of corrosion scales sampled from different pipe segments show obvious differences, both in physical and chemical aspects. Corrosion scales were found highly amorphous. Thanks to the protection of zinc coatings, GIP system was identified as the best water quality stability, in spite of high zinc release potential. It is deduced that the complicated composition of corrosion scales and structural break by the weld result in the diminished water quality stability in HP system. Measurement results showed that iron is released mainly in ferric particulate form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modification of artificial sea water for the mass production of (+)-terrein by Aspergillus terreus strain PF26 derived from marine sponge Phakellia fusca.

    PubMed

    Yin, Y; Ding, Y; Feng, G; Li, J; Xiao, L; Karuppiah, V; Sun, W; Zhang, F; Li, Z

    2015-12-01

    (+)-Terrein shows multiple bioactivities, however, its mass production is a big challenge. Aspergillus terreus strain PF26 derived from South China Sea sponge Phakellia fusca has been cultured to produce (+)-terrein successfully, but artificial sea water (ASW) of high salinity used in the fermentation medium may cause the corrosion risk of metal bioreactor, which limits the fermentation on a large scale. In this study, we modified the components of ASW by removing NaCl and CaCl2 from the original formula, which reduced about 80% salinity of ASW. As a result, 7·56 g l(-1) (+)-terrein production was achieved in shake flask, which was 78·72% higher than using the original ASW, and the cultivation time was decreased from 24 to 15 days. Then, the modified ASW was used for the fermentation of A. terreus strain PF26 in a 500 l stirred bioreactor, consequently 2·5 g l(-1) of (+)-terrein production was achieved. The fermentation of marine micro-organisms always needs to use sea water or artificial sea water (ASW), which limits the fermentation on a large scale, as the high-salinity medium may cause the corrosion risk of bioreactor. In this study, the ASW formula is simplified to reduce the sea water salinity and improve the yield of (+)-terrein, finally, the modified ASW was successfully used for the mass production of (+)-terrein by A. terreus strain PF26 in a 500 l bioreactor. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Tribological properties of glass fiber filled polytetrafluoroethylene sliding against stainless steel under dry and aqueous environments: enhanced tribological performance in sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebran Khan, Mohammad; Wani, M. F.; Gupta, Rajat

    2018-05-01

    The present study aims at investigating the tribological behavior of glass fiber filled PTFE on sliding against AISI 420 stainless steel in ambient air, distilled water and natural sea water. The friction and wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc configuration at room temperature on 25 wt% glass fiber filled PTFE at a normal load of 10 N. The glass fiber filled PTFE showed superior tribological performance in sea water compared to dry sliding and distilled water environment conditions. The lowest average coefficient of friction of 0.028 and lowest specific wear rate of 5.85 × 10‑6 mm3 Nm‑1 was observed under sea water environment. The worn surfaces were examined using Optical microscopy, SEM, EDS and Raman spectroscopy to reveal the wear mechanisms. It was revealed that the superior tribological performance of glass fiber filled PTFE in sea water is due to the formation of a lubricating film on the surface of glass fiber filled PTFE in sea water. The profilometric traces of the counterface after tribological tests were taken using an optical 3D surface profilometer to investigate the effect of indirect corrosive wear on the friction and wear of glass fiber filled PTFE under sea water environment.

  16. Corrosion in drinking water pipes: the importance of green rusts.

    PubMed

    Swietlik, Joanna; Raczyk-Stanisławiak, Urszula; Piszora, Paweł; Nawrocki, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Complex crystallographic composition of the corrosion products is studied by diffraction methods and results obtained after different pre-treatment of samples are compared. The green rusts are found to be much more abundant in corrosion scales than it has been assumed so far. The characteristic and crystallographic composition of corrosion scales and deposits suspended in steady waters were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The necessity of the examination of corrosion products in the wet conditions is indicated. The drying of the samples before analysis is shown to substantially change the crystallographic phases originally present in corrosion products. On sample drying the unstable green rusts is converted into more stable phases such as goethite and lepidocrocite, while the content of magnetite and siderite decreases. Three types of green rusts in wet materials sampled from tubercles are identified. Unexpectedly, in almost all corrosion scale samples significant amounts of the least stable green rust in chloride form was detected. Analysis of corrosion products suspended in steady water, which remained between tubercles and possibly in their interiors, revealed complex crystallographic composition of the sampled material. Goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite as well as low amounts of siderite and quartz were present in all samples. Six different forms of green rusts were identified in the deposits separated from steady waters and the most abundant was carbonate green rust GR(CO(3)(2-))(I). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Corrosion consequences of microfouling in water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Tim; Mitchell, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the potential fouling and corrosion problems associated with microbial film formation throughout the water reclamation system (WRS) designed for the Space Station Freedom. It is shown that the use of advanced metal sputtering techiques combined with image analysis and FTIR spectroscopy will present realistic solutions for investigating the formation and function of biofilm on different alloys, the subsequent corrosion, and the efficiency of different treatments. These techniques, used in combination with electrochemical measurements of corrosion, will provide a powerful approach to examinations of materials considered for use in the WRS.

  18. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    DOEpatents

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  19. Corrosion and scaling potential in drinking water distribution system of tabriz, northwestern iran.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Shakerkhatibi, Mohammad; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Belvasi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the corrosion and scaling potential of Tabriz drinking water distribution system in Northwest of Iran. Internal corrosion of piping is a serious problem in drinking water industry. Corrosive water can cause intrusion of heavy metals especially lead in to water, therefore effecting public health. The aim of this study was to determine corrosion and scaling potential in potable water distribution system of Tabriz during the spring and summer in 2011. This study was carried out using Langlier Saturation Index, Ryznar Stability Index, Puckorius Scaling Index, and Aggressiveness indices. Eighty samples were taken from all over the city within two seasons, spring, and summer. Related parameters including temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, calcium hardness, and total alkalinity in all samples were measured in laboratory according to standard method manual. For the statistical analysis of the results, SPSS software (version 11.5) was used The mean and standard deviation values of Langlier, Ryznar, Puckorius and Aggressiveness Indices were equal to -0.68 (±0.43), 8.43 (±0.55), 7.86 (±0.36) and 11.23 (±0.43), respectively. By survey of corrosion indices, it was found that Tabriz drinking water is corrosive. In order to corrosion control, it is suggested that laboratorial study with regard to the distribution system condition be carried out to adjust effective parameters such as pH.

  20. Observational analysis of air-sea fluxes and sea water temperature offshore South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, X.; Huang, J.; Gao, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the air-sea fluxes (momentum flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) from eddy covariance method based on data collected at an offshore observation tower in the South China Sea from January 2009 to December 2016 and sea water temperature (SWT) on six different levels based on data collected from November 2011 to June 2013. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m. This study presents the in-situ measurements of continuous air-sea fluxes and SWT at different depths. Seasonal and diurnal variations in air-sea fluxes and SWT on different depths are examined. Results show that air-sea fluxes and all SWT changed seasonally; sea-land breeze circulation appears all the year round. Unlike winters where SWT on different depths are fairly consistent, the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) and sea temperature at 10 m water depth fluctuates dramatically and the maximum value reaches 7 °C during summer.

  1. Corrosion studies of titanium in borated water for TPX

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wilson, D.F.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    Corrosion testing was performed to demonstrate the compatibility of the titanium vacuum vessel with borated water. Borated water is proposed to fill the annulus of the double wall vacuum vessel to provide effective radiation shielding. Borating the water with 110 grams of boric acid per liter is sufficient to reduce the nuclear heating in the Toroidal Field Coil set and limit the activation of components external to the vacuum vessel. Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) and electrochemical potentiodynamic tests were performed. Results of the CERT tests confirm that stress corrosion cracking is not significant for Ti-6Al4V or Ti-3AI-2.5V. Welded andmore » unwelded specimens were tested in air and in borated water at 150{degree}C. Strength, elongation, and time to failure were nearly identical for all test conditions, and all the samples exhibited ductile failure. Potentiodynamic tests on Ti-6A1-4V and Ti in borated water as a function of temperature showed low corrosion rates over a wide passive potential range. Further, this passivity appeared stable to anodic potentials substantially greater than those expected from MHD effects.« less

  2. Arctic intermediate water in the Norwegian sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blindheim, Johan

    1990-09-01

    At least two types of intermediate water propagate into the Norwegian Sea from the Iceland and Greenland seas. North Icelandic Winter Water flows along the slope of the Faroe-Iceland Ridge towards the Faroes. The distribution of this intermediate water is limited to the southern Norwegian Sea. The second type intrudes between the bottom water and the Atlantic Water, and can be traced as a slight salinity minimum of the entire area of the Norwegian Sea. There seems to be along-isopycnal advection of this water type along the Arctic Front from both the Iceland and Greenland Seas. Although the salinity minimum is less distinct along the slope of the continental shelf than in the western Norwegian Sea, this intermediate water separates the deep water and the Atlantic Water, and prohibits direct mixing of these two water masses.

  3. Low toxic corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in fresh water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    Combinations of chemical compounds that reportedly reduce the corrosion of aluminum in fresh water were evaluated. These included combinations of borates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, silicates, and mercaptobenzothiazole. Eight of fifty inhibitor combinations evaluated gave excellent corrosion protection and compared favorably with sodium chromate, which has generally been considered standard for many years.

  4. Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    To reveal corrosion behavior of stainless steel delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scale and corroded passive film. Corrosion scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless steel corrosion scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed corrosion scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, corrosion scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless steel passive film is damaged by localized corrosion. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless steel corrosion scale and the process of localized corrosion. The localized corrosion behavior of stainless steel is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sea water in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1964-01-01

    Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

  6. Electrochemical study of aluminum corrosion in boiling high purity water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draley, J. E.; Legault, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electrochemical study of aluminum corrosion in boiling high-purity water includes an equation relating current and electrochemical potential derived on the basis of a physical model of the corrosion process. The work involved an examination of the cathodic polarization behavior of 1100 aluminum during aqueous oxidation.

  7. Rebar corrosion monitoring in concrete structure under salt water enviroment using fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuheng; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; He, Pan; Yan, Jinlin

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring corrosion of steel reinforcing bars is critical for the durability and safety of reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion sensors based on fiber optic have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits compared with the conventional electric ones. In recent years, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) has been used as a new kind of sensing element in an attempt to directly monitor the corrosion in concrete structure due to its remarkable advantages. In this paper, we present a novel kind of FBG based rebar corrosion monitoring sensor. The rebar corrosion is detected by volume expansion of the corroded rebar by transferring it to the axial strain of FBG when concrete structure is soaked in salt water. An accelerated salt water corrosion test was performed. The experiment results showed the corrosion can be monitored effectively and the corrosion rate is obtained by volume loss rate of rebar.

  8. A Comprehensive Investigation of Copper Pitting Corrosion in a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper pipe pitting is a complicated corrosion process for which exact causes and solutions are uncertain. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive investigation of a cold water copper pitting corrosion problem in a drinking water distribution system, including a refi...

  9. Effects of microbial redox cycling of iron on cast iron pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial characteristics in corrosion products and their effect on the formation of dense corrosion scales on cast iron coupons were studied in drinking water, with sterile water acting as a reference. The corrosion process and corrosion scales were characterized by electrochemical and physico-chemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion was more rapidly inhibited and iron release was lower due to formation of more dense protective corrosion scales in drinking water than in sterile water. The microbial community and denitrifying functional genes were analyzed by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the bacteria in corrosion products played an important role in the corrosion process in drinking water. Nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga enhanced iron corrosion before 6 days. After 20 days, the dominant bacteria became NRB Dechloromonas (40.08%) with the protective corrosion layer formation. The Dechloromonas exhibited the stronger corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron, to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4. Subsequently, other minor bacteria appeared in the corrosion scales, including iron-respiring bacteria and Rhizobium which captured iron by the produced siderophores, having a weaker corrosion-inhibition effect. Therefore, the microbially-driven redox cycling of iron with associated microbial capture of iron caused more compact corrosion scales formation and lower iron release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of ferritic/martensitic steel in super critical pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, T.; Shiba, K.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.

    2007-08-01

    A water-cooled solid breeder (WCSB) blanket cooled by high temperature SCPW (super critical pressurized water) is a practical option of DEMO reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to check the compatibility of the steel with SCPW. In this work, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H has been tested through slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in 23.5 MPa SCPW. And weight change behavior was measured up to 1000 h. F82H did not demonstrated stress corrosion cracking and its weight simply increased with surface oxidation. The weight change of F82H was almost same as commercial 9%-Cr steels. According to a cross-sectional analysis and weight change behavior, corrosion rate of F82H in the 823 K SCPW is estimated to be 0.04 mm/yr.

  11. THE CORROSION CONTROL-WATER QUALITY SPIDER WEB

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of new research results and emerging research needs with respect to both corrosion control issues, (lead, copper, iron) and to issues of inorganic contaminants that can form or accumulate in distribution system, water, pipe scales and distri...

  12. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  13. Silicon Nitride for Direct Water-Splitting and Corrosion Mitigation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Head, J.; Turner, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Todays fossil fuels are becoming harder to obtain, creating pollution problems, and posing hazards to people’s health. One alternative to fossil fuels is hydrogen, capable of serving as a clean and efficient energy carrier. Certain semiconductors are able to harness the energy of photons and direct it into water electrolysis in a process known as photoelectrochemical water splitting. Triple junction devices integrate three semiconductors of different band gaps resulting in a monolithic material that absorbs over a broader spectrum. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is one such material that, when stacked in tandem, possesses water-splitting capabilities. Even though a-Si is capable ofmore » splitting water, it is an unstable material in solution and therefore requires a coating to protect the surface from corrosion. A stable, transparent material that has the potential for corrosion protection is silicon nitride. In this study, silicon nitride thin films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with varying amounts of argon and nitrogen added to the system. X-ray diffraction indicated amorphous silicon nitride films. Current as a function of potential was determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements. Mott-Schottky analysis showed n-type behavior with absorption and transmission measurements indicated variation in flatband potentials. Variation in band gap values ranging from 1.90 to 4.0 eV. Corrosion measurements reveal that the silicon nitride samples exhibit both p-type and n-type behavior. Photocurrent over a range of potentials was greater in samples that were submerged in acidic electrolyte. Silicon nitride shows good stability in acidic, neutral, and basic solutions, indicative of a good material for corrosion mitigation.« less

  14. Impact of chlorinated disinfection on copper corrosion in hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, J. Castillo; Hamdani, F.; Creus, J.; Touzain, S.; Correc, O.

    2014-09-01

    In France, hot water quality control inside buildings is occasionally ensured by disinfection treatments using temperature increases or addition of sodium hypochlorite (between 0.5 ppm and 1 ppm residual free chlorine). This disinfectant is a strong oxidiser and it could interact with metallic pipes usually used in hot water systems. This work deals with the study of the impact of these treatments on the durability of copper pipes. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of sodium hypochlorite concentration and temperature on the copper corrosion mechanism. Copper samples were tested under dynamic and static conditions of ageing with sodium hypochlorite solutions ranging from 0 to 100 ppm with temperature at 50 °C and 70 °C. The efficiency of a corrosion inhibitor was investigated in dynamic conditions. Visual observations and analytical analyses of the internal surface of samples was studied at different ageing duration. Corrosion products were characterised by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Temperature and disinfectant were found to considerably affect the copper corrosion mechanism. Surprisingly, the corrosiveness of the solution was higher at lower temperatures. The temperature influences the nature of corrosion products. The protection efficiency is then strongly depend on the nature of the corrosion products formed at the surface of copper samples exposed to the aggressive solutions containing different concentration of disinfectant.

  15. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Burleigh, Thomas D; Gierke, Casey G; Fredj, Narjes; Boston, Penelope J

    2014-06-05

    Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  16. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, Thomas D.; Gierke, Casey G.; Fredj, Narjes; Boston, Penelope J.

    2014-01-01

    Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water. PMID:28788679

  17. Chemical Composition of Sea Fog Water Along the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yanyu; Niu, Shengjie; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Feng

    2012-12-01

    The chemical and microphysical properties of sea fog were measured during a field experiment on Donghai Island, Zhanjiang of China from March 15 to April 18, 2010. The average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) value of the six sea fog cases during the experiment was 5.2 and 1,884 μS/cm. The observed total ion concentration of sea fog was four orders of magnitude higher than those in the North Pacific and other sea areas of China. The dominant anion and cation in all sea fog water samples were Cl- and Na+, respectively. From backward trajectory analysis and ion loading computation, it can be concluded that the ions in the samples were transported either from pollutants in distant industrial cities or from local ion deposition processes. The concentration of Ca2+ in the sea fog water samples in Case 2 suggested that a dust storm in the Inner Mongolia, a northern region of China several thousand kilometers away, could reach the South China Sea. The data also showed that the sea fog droplet spectrum over the South China Sea is unimodal. Through relationship analysis, it is illustrated that the evolution of microphysics (such as droplet concentration, diameter, and liquid water content) during fog process could affect the chemical properties of sea fog.

  18. SILICATES FOR CORROSION CONTROL IN BUILDING POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silicates have been used to control the corrosion of drinking water distribution system materials. Previous work has shown that they are particularly useful in reducing the release of zinc from galvanized materials in hot water systems. Negatively charged silicate species were re...

  19. Strontium Concentrations in Corrosion Products from Residential Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-22

    associated with iron corrosion products that, if disturbed, could increase Sr2+ concentrations above the 0.3 μg L -1 US EPA reporting threshold...water travels through and interacts with the DWDS infrastructure and associated corrosion products.7,8 Starting in 2013, reporting to the US EPA is...techniques, Sr2+ binding mechanisms within the corrosion products were examined using in situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge spectroscopy (μ- XANES

  20. Corrosion of carbon steel by bacteria from North Sea offshore seawater injection systems: laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Stipanicev, Marko; Turcu, Florin; Esnault, Loïc; Rosas, Omar; Basseguy, Régine; Sztyler, Magdalena; Beech, Iwona B

    2014-06-01

    Influence of sulfidogenic bacteria, from a North Sea seawater injection system, on the corrosion of S235JR carbon steel was studied in a flow bioreactor; operating anaerobically for 100days with either inoculated or filtrated seawater. Deposits formed on steel placed in reactors contained magnesium and calcium minerals plus iron sulfide. The dominant biofilm-forming organism was an anaerobic bacterium, genus Caminicella, known to produce hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. Open Circuit Potentials (OCP) of steel in the reactors was, for nearly the entire test duration, in the range -800corrosion rate, expressed as 1/(Rp/Ω), was lower in the inoculated seawater though they varied significantly on both reactors. Initial and final corrosion rates were virtually identical, namely initial 1/(Rp/Ω)=2×10(-6)±5×10(-7) and final 1/(Rp/Ω)=1.1×10(-5)±2.5×10(-6). Measured data, including electrochemical noise transients and statistical parameters (0.0545), suggested pitting on steel samples within the inoculated environment. However, the actual degree of corrosion could neither be directly correlated with the electrochemical data and nor with the steel corrosion in the filtrated seawater environment. Further laboratory tests are thought to clarify the noticed apparent discrepancies. © 2013.

  1. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  2. Effect of microstructure on the corrosion of CVD-SiC exposed to supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Allen, T. R.; Barringer, E.

    2009-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an important engineering material being studied for potential use in multiple nuclear energy systems including high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and water-cooled reactors. The corrosion behavior of SiC exposed to supercritical water (SCW) is critical for examining its applications in nuclear reactors. Although the hydrothermal corrosion of SiC has been the subject of many investigations, the study on the microstructural effects on the corrosion is limited. This paper presents the effect of residual strain, grain size, grain boundary types, and surface orientations on the corrosion of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) β-SiC exposed to SCW at 500 °C and 25 MPa. Weight loss occurred on all the samples due to localized corrosion. Residual strains associated with small grains showed the most significant effect on the corrosion compared to the other factors.

  3. Assessment of tap water quality and corrosion scales from the selected distribution systems in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Baig, Shams Ali; Lou, Zimo; Baig, Muzaffar Ali; Qasim, Muhammad; Shams, Dilawar Farhan; Mahmood, Qaisar; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-04-01

    Corrosion deposits formed within drinking water distribution systems deteriorate drinking water quality and resultantly cause public health consequences. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate the concurrent conditions of corrosion scales and the drinking water quality in selected water supply schemes (WSS) in districts Chitral, Peshawar, and Abbottabad, northern Pakistan. Characterization analyses of the corrosion by-products revealed the presence of α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, Fe 3 O 4 , and SiO 2 as major constituents with different proportions. The constituents of all the representative XRD peaks of Peshawar WSS were found insignificant as compared to other WSS, and the reason could be the variation of source water quality. Well-crystallized particles in SEM images indicated the formation of dense oxide layer on corrosion by-products. A wider asymmetric vibration peak of SiO 2 appeared only in Chitral and Abbottabad WSS, which demonstrated higher siltation in the water source. One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant variations in pH, turbidity, TDS, K, Mg, PO 4 , Cl, and SO 4 values, which revealed that these parameters differently contributed to the source water quality. Findings from this study suggested the implementation of proper corrosion prevention measures and the establishment of international collaboration for best corrosion practices, expertise, and developing standards.

  4. The Application of Electrochemical and Surface Analysis Approaches to Studying Copper Corrosion in Water: Fundamentals, Limitations, and Examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion control is a concern for many drinking water utilities. The Lead and Copper Rule established a regulatory need to maintain a corrosion control program. Other corrosion-related issues such as “red” water resulting from excessive iron corrosion and copper pinhole leaks ...

  5. Study for determination of industrial water corrosivity in Kashan Fajre Sepahan Galvanizing Mills during 2005-2006 Iran.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, D; Miranzadeh, M B; Motlagh, A Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in Kashan Fajre Sepahan Galvanizing mills (KFSGM) for evaluation of water corrosivity during 2005-2006. A total of 18 samples were taken from various points of the water supply system for testing the specific parameters and calculation Langelier Index (LI), Ryznar Index (RI) and Pukorious Index (PI). This research showed that in raw water (sand filter effluent) LI were positive as well as RI and PI were lower than 7 which means that mentioned water is not corrosive. Also LI in treated water by reverse osmosis process was negative and RI and PI were higher than 7, so, this water has corrosive properties. Finally, calculated indexes indicate that according to LI, conditioned water is not corrosive but based on RI and P. this water tend to corrosivity which this findings is compatible with literature review statement. So it is recommended that, for water conditioning addition of preservative chemicals to be continued but at the same time another alternatives such as pH adjustment, air stripping and deoxygenating, control of carbonate concentration and split flow treatment should be studied.

  6. Enhancement of corrosion resistance of carbon steel by Dioscorea Hispida starch in NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhusni, M. D. M.; Othman, N. K.; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Starch is a one of the most abundant natural product in the world and has the potential as corrosion inhibitor replacing harmful synthetic chemical based corrosion inhibitor. This research was aimed to examines the potential of starch extracted from local Malaysian wild yam (Dioscorea hispida), as corrosion inhibitor to carbon steel in NaCl media replicating sea water. By using gravimetric test and analysis, in which the carbon steel specimens were immersed in NaCl media for 24, 48 and 60 hours with the starch as corrosion inhibitor. the corrosion rate (mmpy) and inhibition efficiencies (%) was calculated. The results obtained showed decrease in corrosion rate as higher concentration of starch was employed. The inhibition efficiencies also shows an increasing manner up to 95.97 % as the concentration of the inhibitor increased.

  7. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  8. Stainless steel corrosion scale formed in reclaimed water: Characteristics, model for scale growth and metal element release.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Hu, Hongying; Tang, Fusheng; Li, Yuhong; Yu, Kanghua

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steels generally have extremely good corrosion resistance, but are still susceptible to pitting corrosion. As a result, corrosion scales can form on the surface of stainless steel after extended exposure to aggressive aqueous environments. Corrosion scales play an important role in affecting water quality. These research results showed that interior regions of stainless steel corrosion scales have a high percentage of chromium phases. We reveal the morphology, micro-structure and physicochemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scales. Stainless steel corrosion scale is identified as a podiform chromite deposit according to these characteristics, which is unlike deposit formed during iron corrosion. A conceptual model to explain the formation and growth of stainless steel corrosion scale is proposed based on its composition and structure. The scale growth process involves pitting corrosion on the stainless steel surface and the consecutive generation and homogeneous deposition of corrosion products, which is governed by a series of chemical and electrochemical reactions. This model shows the role of corrosion scales in the mechanism of iron and chromium release from pitting corroded stainless steel materials. The formation of corrosion scale is strongly related to water quality parameters. The presence of HClO results in higher ferric content inside the scales. Cl - and SO 4 2- ions in reclaimed water play an important role in corrosion pitting of stainless steel and promote the formation of scales. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y).

  10. General corrosion properties of modified PNC1520 austenitic stainless steel in supercritical water as a fuel cladding candidate material for supercritical water reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazono, Y.; Iwai, T.; Abe, H.

    2010-03-01

    The Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) has been designed and investigated because of its high thermal efficiency and plant simplification. There are some advantages including the use of a single phase coolant with high enthalpy but there are numerous potential problems, particularly with materials. As the operating temperature of supercritical water reactor will be between 280°C and 620°C with a pressure of 25MPa, the selection of materials is difficult and important. Austenitic stainless steels were selected for possible use in supercritical water systems because of their corrosion resistance and radiation resistance. The PNC1520 austenitic stainless steel developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a nuclear fuel cladding material for a Na-cooled fast breeder reactor. The corrosion data of PNC1520 in supercritical water (SCW) is required but does not exist. The purpose of the present study is to research the corrosion properties for PNC1520 austenitic stainless steel in supercritical water. The supercritical water corrosion test was performed for the standard PNC1520 (1520S) and the Ti-additional type of PNC1520 (1520Ti) by using a supercritical water autoclave. Corrosion tests on the austenitic 1520S and 1520Ti steels in supercritical water were performed at 400, 500 and 600°C with exposures up to 1000h. The amount of weight gain, weight loss and weight of scale were evaluated after the corrosion test in supercritical water for both austenitic steels. After 1000h corrosion test performed, the weight gains of both austenitic stainless steels were less than 2 g/m2 at 400°C and 500°C . But both weight gain and weight loss of 1520Ti were larger than those of 1520S at 600°C . By increasing the temperature to 600°C, the surface of 1520Ti was covered with magnetite formed in supercritical water and dissolution of the steel alloying elements has been observed. In view of corrosion, 1520S may have larger possibility than 1520Ti to adopt a

  11. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  12. Strontium concentrations in corrosion products from residential drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Luxton, Todd P; Scheckel, Kirk G; Maynard, J Barry

    2013-05-21

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) will require some U.S. drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) to monitor nonradioactive strontium (Sr(2+)) in drinking water in 2013. Iron corrosion products from four DWDS were examined to assess the potential for Sr(2+) binding and release. Average Sr(2+) concentrations in the outermost layer of the corrosion products ranged from 3 to 54 mg kg(-1) and the Sr(2+) drinking water concentrations were all ≤0.3 mg L(-1). Micro-X-ray adsorption near edge structure spectroscopy and linear combination fitting determined that Sr(2+) was principally associated with CaCO3. Sr(2+) was also detected as a surface complex associated with α-FeOOH. Iron particulates deposited on a filter inside a home had an average Sr(2+) concentration of 40.3 mg kg(-1) and the associated drinking water at a tap was 210 μg L(-1). The data suggest that elevated Sr(2+) concentrations may be associated with iron corrosion products that, if disturbed, could increase Sr(2+) concentrations above the 0.3 μg L(-1) US EPA reporting threshold. Disassociation of very small particulates could result in drinking water Sr(2+) concentrations that exceed the US EPA health reference limit (4.20 mg kg(-1) body weight).

  13. Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Stout, Janet E; Yu, Victor L; Vidic, Radisav

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that temperature and total organic carbon in drinking water would cause chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) loss in a water distribution system and affect the efficiency of ClO(2) for Legionella control. However, among the various causes of ClO(2) loss in a drinking water distribution system, the loss of disinfectant due to the reaction with corrosion scales has not been studied in detail. In this study, the corrosion scales from a galvanized iron pipe and a copper pipe that have been in service for more than 10 years were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The impact of these corrosion scale materials on ClO(2) decay was investigated in de-ionized water at 25 and 45 degrees C in a batch reactor with floating glass cover. ClO(2) decay was also investigated in a specially designed reactor made from the iron and copper pipes to obtain more realistic reaction rate data. Goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) were identified as the main components of iron corrosion scale. Cuprite (Cu(2)O) was identified as the major component of copper corrosion scale. The reaction rate of ClO(2) with both iron and copper oxides followed a first-order kinetics. First-order decay rate constants for ClO(2) reactions with iron corrosion scales obtained from the used service pipe and in the iron pipe reactor itself ranged from 0.025 to 0.083 min(-1). The decay rate constant for ClO(2) with Cu(2)O powder and in the copper pipe reactor was much smaller and it ranged from 0.0052 to 0.0062 min(-1). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the corrosion scale will cause much more significant ClO(2) loss in corroded iron pipes of the distribution system than the total organic carbon that may be present in finished water.

  14. The resistance of high frequency inductive welded pipe to grooving corrosion in salt water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Duran, C.; Triess, E.; Herbsleb, G.

    1986-09-01

    When exposed to neutral, salt-containing waters, electric resistant welded pipe in carbon and low alloy steels with increased sulfur contents may suffer preferential corrosion attack in the weld area. Because of its appearance, this type of corrosion is called grooving corrosion. The susceptibility to grooving corrosion may be determined and quantitatively described by means of an accelerated potentiostatic exposure test. The importance of type, concentration, and temperature of the electrolytic solution; potential; test duration; and the sulfur content of the steel in the accelerated corrosion test and the susceptibility of steels to grooving corrosion are described. Line pipe in highmore » frequency inductive (HFI) welded carbon and low alloy steels are resistant to grooving corrosion particularly because of their low sulfur content.« less

  15. Investigation of corrosion caused by constituents of refinery wastewater effluent used as circulating cooling water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Song, Shaofu; Huang, Jie; Ji, Lin; Wu, Fangyun

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion rate of steel plate using single-factor, multifactor, and complex water systems was investigated via refinery wastewater effluents used as circulating cooling water. The results show that the primary corrosion factors of steel depend on the characteristics of the ions, the formation of the oxidized coating, the diffusion of dissolved oxygen, and other complex factors, although ions such as chloride, calcium, and carbonate play an important role. The corrosion rate of carbon steel exhibits two trends: The corrosion rate is high at low conductivity, increases to a maximum, and then decreases and becomes stable with increasing conductivity, as is the case with chloride, sulfate, nitrate and calcium ions. On the other hand, the corrosion rate is highest at low conductivity and then decreases and becomes stable with increasing conductivity, as is the case with carbonate, silicate, and sodium nitrate ions. Research results indicate that the anticorrosive ability is minimal at low conductivity; but is excellent at high conductivity. Pretreatment of low-conductivity water using air flotation and clarification to decrease the concentrations of chloride, calcium, and carbonate ions to a suitable level to satisfy the anticorrosion requirements is required. However, it is not necessary to significantly reduce the salt concentration or conductivity of the water by osmosis or ion exchange to obtain an anticorrosion effect when reusing wastewater effluents as circulating cooling water.

  16. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  17. Re-initiation of bottom water formation in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seung-Tae; Chang, Kyung-Il; Nam, SungHyun; Rho, TaeKeun; Kang, Dong-Jin; Lee, Tongsup; Park, Kyung-Ae; Lobanov, Vyacheslav; Kaplunenko, Dmitry; Tishchenko, Pavel; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2018-01-25

    The East Sea (Japan Sea), a small marginal sea in the northwestern Pacific, is ventilated deeply down to the bottom and sensitive to changing surface conditions. Addressing the response of this marginal sea to the hydrological cycle and atmospheric forcing would be helpful for better understanding present and future environmental changes in oceans at the global and regional scales. Here, we present an analysis of observations revealing a slowdown of the long-term deepening in water boundaries associated with changes of water formation rate. Our results indicate that bottom (central) water formation has been enhanced (reduced) with more (less) oxygen supply to the bottom (central) layer since the 2000s. This paper presents a new projection that allows a three-layered deep structure, which retains bottom water, at least until 2040, contrasting previous results. This projection considers recent increase of slope convections mainly due to the salt supply via air-sea freshwater exchange and sea ice formation and decrease of open-ocean convections evidenced by reduced mixed layer depth in the northern East Sea, resulting in more bottom water and less central water formations. Such vigorous changes in water formation and ventilation provide certain implications on future climate changes.

  18. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. β-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB

  19. Safe corrosion inhibitor for treating cooling water on heat power engineering plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Khasanova, D. I.; Mukhutdinova, E. R.; Safin, D. Kh.; Sharifullin, I. G.

    2017-08-01

    Heat power engineering (HPE) consumes significant volumes of water. There are, therefore, problems associated with corrosion, biological fouling, salt deposits, and sludge formation on functional surfaces of heat power equipment. One of the effective ways to solve these problems is the use of inhibitory protection. The development of new Russian import-substituting environmentally friendly inhibitors is very relevant. This work describes experimental results on the OPC-800 inhibitor (TU 2415-092-00206 457-2013), which was produced at Karpov Chemical Plant and designed to remove mineral deposits, scale, and biological fouling from the surfaces of water-rotation node systems on HPE objects. This reagent is successfully used as an effective corrosion inhibitor in the water recycling systems of Tatarstan petrochemical enterprises. To save fresh make-up water, the circulating system is operated in a no-blow mode, which is characterized by high evaporation and salt content coefficients. It was experimentally found that corrosion rate upon treatment of recycled water with the OPC-800 inhibitor is 0.08-0.10 mm/year. HPE mainly uses inhibitors based on oxyethylidene diphosphonic (OEDPA) and nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (NTMPA) acids. The comparative characteristic of inhibition efficiency for OPC-800 and OEDF-Zn-U2 is given. The results obtained indicate that OPC-800 can be used as an inhibitor for treatment of cooling water in HPE plants. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the features of water rotation of a thermal power plant.

  20. Ballast Water Treatment Corrosion Scoping Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    measurements can only be indicative and are seldom conclusive. For the maritime industry , corrosion and corrosion protection is a considerable cost element...8  Table 4. Corrosion rates of several alloys in natural and chlorinated seawater...10  Table 5. Corrosion rates of selected marine alloys in untreated seawater and seawater with 0, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.50 mg L-1 residual

  1. Control of corrosive bacterial community by bronopol in industrial water system.

    PubMed

    Narenkumar, Jayaraman; Ramesh, Nachimuthu; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2018-01-01

    Ten aerobic corrosive bacterial strains were isolated from a cooling tower water system (CWS) which were identified based on the biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Out of them, dominant corrosion-causing bacteria, namely, Bacillus thuringiensis EN2, Terribacillus aidingensis EN3, and Bacillus oleronius EN9, were selected for biocorrosion studies on mild steel 1010 (MS) in a CWS. The biocorrosion behaviour of EN2, EN3, and EN9 strains was studied using immersion test (weight loss method), electrochemical analysis, and surface analysis. To address the corrosion problems, an anti-corrosive study using a biocide, bronopol was also demonstrated. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses of the MS coupons with biofilm developed after exposure to CWS confirmed the accumulation of extracellular polymeric substances and revealed that biofilms was formed as microcolonies, which subsequently cause pitting corrosion. In contrast, the biocide system, no pitting type of corrosion, was observed and weight loss was reduced about 32 ± 2 mg over biotic system (286 ± 2 mg). FTIR results confirmed the adsorption of bronopol on the MS metal surface as protective layer (co-ordination of NH 2 -Fe 3+ ) to prevent the biofilm formation and inhibit the corrosive chemical compounds and thus led to reduction of corrosion rate (10 ± 1 mm/year). Overall, the results from WL, EIS, SEM, XRD, and FTIR concluded that bronopol was identified as effective biocide and corrosion inhibitor which controls the both chemical and biocorrosion of MS in CWS.

  2. Increasing chloride in rivers of the conterminous U.S. and linkages to potential corrosivity and lead action level exceedances in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stets, E G; Lee, C J; Lytle, D A; Schock, M R

    2018-02-01

    Corrosion in water-distribution systems is a costly problem and controlling corrosion is a primary focus of efforts to reduce lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in tap water. High chloride concentrations can increase the tendency of water to cause corrosion in distribution systems. The effects of chloride are also expressed in several indices commonly used to describe the potential corrosivity of water, the chloride-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) and the Larson Ratio (LR). Elevated CSMR has been linked to the galvanic corrosion of Pb whereas LR is indicative of the corrosivity of water to iron and steel. Despite the known importance of chloride, CSMR, and LR to the potential corrosivity of water, monitoring of seasonal and interannual changes in these parameters is not common among water purveyors. We analyzed long-term trends (1992-2012) and the current status (2010-2015) of chloride, CSMR, and LR in order to investigate the short and long-term temporal variability in potential corrosivity of US streams and rivers. Among all sites in the trend analyses, chloride, CSMR, and LR increased slightly, with median changes of 0.9mgL -1 , 0.08, and 0.01, respectively. However, urban-dominated sites had much larger increases, 46.9mgL -1 , 2.50, and 0.53, respectively. Median CSMR and LR in urban streams (4.01 and 1.34, respectively) greatly exceeded thresholds found to cause corrosion in water distribution systems (0.5 and 0.3, respectively). Urbanization was strongly correlated with elevated chloride, CSMR, and LR, especially in the most snow-affected areas in the study, which are most likely to use road salt. The probability of Pb action-level exceedances (ALEs) in drinking water facilities increased along with raw surface water CSMR, indicating a statistical connection between surface water chemistry and corrosion in drinking water facilities. Optimal corrosion control will require monitoring of critical constituents reflecting the potential corrosivity in surface waters. Published by

  3. Flint Water Crisis Caused By Interrupted Corrosion Control: Investigating "Ground Zero" Home.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Kelsey J; Tang, Min; Edwards, Marc A

    2017-02-21

    Flint, Michigan switched to the Flint River as a temporary drinking water source without implementing corrosion control in April 2014. Ten months later, water samples collected from a Flint residence revealed progressively rising water lead levels (104, 397, and 707 μg/L) coinciding with increasing water discoloration. An intensive follow-up monitoring event at this home investigated patterns of lead release by flow rate-all water samples contained lead above 15 μg/L and several exceeded hazardous waste levels (>5000 μg/L). Forensic evaluation of exhumed service line pipes compared to water contamination "fingerprint" analysis of trace elements, revealed that the immediate cause of the high water lead levels was the destabilization of lead-bearing corrosion rust layers that accumulated over decades on a galvanized iron pipe downstream of a lead pipe. After analysis of blood lead data revealed spiking lead in blood of Flint children in September 2015, a state of emergency was declared and public health interventions (distribution of filters and bottled water) likely averted an even worse exposure event due to rising water lead levels.

  4. Pitting Corrosion of Copper in Waters with High pH and Low Alkalinity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

  5. Characterization of biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system with UV/Cl2 disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Chun; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-09-01

    The effect of UV/Cl2 disinfection on the biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). Passivation occurred more rapidly in the AR with UV/Cl2 than in the one with Cl2 alone, decreasing iron release for higher corrosivity of water. Based on functional gene, pyrosequencing assays and principal component analysis, UV disinfection not only reduced the required initial chlorine dose, but also enhanced denitrifying functional bacteria advantage in the biofilm of corrosion scales. The nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Dechloromonas exhibited the greatest corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4 in the AR with UV/Cl2, while the rhizobia Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium, and the NRB Sphingomonas, Brucella producing siderophores had weaker corrosion-inhibition effect by capturing iron in the AR with Cl2. These results indicated that the microbial redox cycling of iron was possibly responsible for higher corrosion inhibition and lower effect of water Larson-Skold Index (LI) changes on corrosion. This finding could be applied toward the control of water quality in drinking water distribution systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation and Release Behavior of Iron Corrosion Products under the Influence of Bacterial Communities in a Simulated Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the effects of biofilm on the iron corrosion, iron release and associated corrosion by-products is critical for maintaining the water quality and the integrity of drinking water distribution system (DWDS). In this work, iron corrosion experiments under sterilized a...

  7. The Effect of Oxidant and Redox Potential on Metal Corrosion in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Future drinking water regulatory action may require some water utilities to consider additional and/or alternative oxidation and disinfection practices. There is little known about the effect of oxidant changes on the corrosion of drinking water distribution system materials and ...

  8. Lifespan estimation of seal welded super stainless steels for water condenser of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Sik; Park, Sujin; Chang, Hyun Young

    2014-01-01

    When sea water was used as cooling water for water condenser of nuclear power plants, commercial stainless steels can not be applied because chloride concentration exceeds 20,000 ppm. There are many opinions for the materials selection of tube and tube sheets of a condenser. This work reviewed the application guide line of stainless steels for sea-water facilities and the estimation equations of lifespan were proposed from the analyses of both field data for sea water condenser and experimental results of corrosion. Empirical equations for lifespan estimation were derived from the pit initiation time and re-tubing time of stainless steel tubing in sea water condenser of nuclear power plants. The lifespan of seal-welded super austenitic stainless steel tube/tube sheet was calculated from these equations. Critical pitting temperature of seal-welded PRE 50 grade super stainless steel was evaluated as 60 °C. Using the proposed equation in engineering aspect, tube pitting corrosion time of seal-welded tube/tube sheet was calculated as 69.8 years and re-tubing time was estimated as 82.0 years.

  9. Arctic Intermediate Water in the Nordic Seas, 1991-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeansson, Emil; Olsen, Are; Jutterström, Sara

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of the different types of Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) in the Nordic Seas is evaluated and compared utilising hydro-chemical data from 1991 to 2009. It has been suggested that these waters are important components of the Norwegian Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (NSAIW), and of the dense overflows to the North Atlantic. Thus, it is important to understand how their properties and distribution vary with time. The AIWs from the Greenland and Iceland Seas, show different degrees of variability during the studied period; however, only the Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (GSAIW) shows an increasing temperature and salinity throughout the 2000s, which considerably changed the properties of this water mass. Optimum multiparameter (OMP) analysis was conducted to assess the sources of the NSAIW. The analysis shows that the Iceland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (ISAIW) and the GSAIW both contribute to NSAIW, at different densities corresponding to their respective density range. This illustrates that they flow largely isopycnally from their source regions to the Norwegian Sea. The main source of the NSAIW, however, is the upper Polar Deep Water, which explains the lower concentrations of oxygen and chlorofluorocarbons, and higher salinity and nutrient concentrations of the NSAIW layer compared with the ISAIW and GSAIW. This shows how vital it is to include chemical tracers in any water mass analysis to correctly assess the sources of the water mass being studied.

  10. Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

  11. Superhydrophobic meshes that can repel hot water and strong corrosive liquids used for efficient gravity-driven oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Kang, Ruimei; Tang, Xiaohua; She, Houde; Yang, Yaoxia; Zha, Fei

    2016-04-14

    Oil-polluted water has become a worldwide problem due to increasing industrial oily wastewater as well as frequent oil-spill pollution. Compared with underwater superoleophobic (water-removing) filtration membranes, superhydrophobic/superoleophilic (oil-removing) materials have advantages as they can be used for the filtration of heavy oil or the absorption of floating oil from water/oil mixtures. However, most of the superhydrophobic materials used for oil/water separation lose their superhydrophobicity when exposed to hot (e.g. >50 °C) water and strong corrosive liquids. Herein, we demonstrate superhydrophobic overlapped candle soot (CS) and silica coated meshes that can repel hot water (about 92 °C) and strong corrosive liquids, and were used for the gravity driven separation of oil-water mixtures in hot water and strong acidic, alkaline, and salty environments. To the best of our knowledge, we are unaware of any previously reported studies on the use of superhydrophobic materials for the separation of oil from hot water and corrosive aqueous media. In addition, the as-prepared robust superhydrophobic CS and silica coated meshes can separate a series of oils and organic solvents like kerosene, toluene, petroleum ether, heptane and chloroform from water with a separation efficiency larger than 99.0%. Moreover, the as-prepared coated mesh still maintained a separation efficiency above 98.5% and stable recyclability after 55 cycles of separation. The robust superhydrophobic meshes developed in this work can therefore be practically used as a highly efficient filtration membrane for the separation of oil from harsh water conditions, benefiting the environment and human health.

  12. Data on corrosive water in the sources and distribution network of drinking water in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Alimoradi, Javad; Naghipour, Dariush; Kamani, Hossein; Asgari, Ghorban; Naimi-Joubani, Mohammad; Ashrafi, Seyed Davoud

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the parameters of scaling and corrosion potential of drinking water in sources and distribution networks of water supply in two cities of north of Iran. The results of Amlash water sampels analysis in winter revealed that the average values of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggressive, Pockorius, and Larson- skold indices was -1.31, 9.73, 11.5, 9.74 and 0.24, respectively, but, in summer they were -1.51, 10.71, 11.36, 10.72 and 0.25, respectively. For Rudsar, the results of water sampels analysis in winter illustrated that the average values of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggressive, Pockorius, and Larson was -1.12, 9.69, 11.33, 9.19 and 0.16, respectively, while, in summer they were -1.05, 10.04, 11.92, 10.18 and 0.19, respectively. The beneficial of this data is showing the clear image of drinking water quality and can be useful for preventing the economical and safety problems relating to corrosion and scaling of drinking water.

  13. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or storage tank made of metals which dissolve some T evolved by water corrosion. In order to understand behaviors of hydrogen uptake and permeation in pure α-iron (αFe) during water corrosion around room temperature, hydrogen permeation experiments for an αFe membrane have been conducted by means of tritium tracer techniques. The present study suggests that hydrogen produced by water corrosion of αFe is trapped in product oxide layers to delay hydrogen uptakemore » in αFe for a moment. However, the oxide layers do not work as a sufficient barrier for hydrogen uptake. Some of hydrogen dissolved in αFe normally diffuses and permeates through the bulk in the early stage of permeation. In a later stage, hydrogen permeation could be apparently stopped by the disappearance of concentration difference of tritium. Hydrogen partial pressure at the water/αFe interface could be ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 kPa around room temperature.« less

  14. Bonding capacity of the GFRP-S on strengthened RC beams after sea water immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Mufti Amir; Djamaluddin, Rudy

    2017-11-01

    Construction of concrete structures that located in extreme environments are such as coastal areas will result in decreased strength or even the damage of the structures. As well know, chloride contained in sea water is responsible for strength reduction or structure fail were hence maintenance and repairs on concrete structure urgently needed. One popular method of structural improvements which under investigation is to use the material Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer which has one of the advantages such as corrosion resistance. This research will be conducted experimental studies to investigate the bonding capacity behavior of reinforced concrete beams with reinforcement GFRP-S immersed in sea water using immersion time of one month, three months, six months and twelve months. Test specimen consists of 12 pieces of reinforced concrete beams with dimensions (150x200x3000) mm that had been reinforced with GFRP-S in the area of bending, the beam without immersion (B0), immersion one month (B1), three months (B3), six months (B6) and twelve months (B12). Test specimen were cured for 28 days before the application of the GFRP sheet. Test specimen B1, B3, B6 and B12 that have been immersed in sea water pool with a immersion time each 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. The test specimen without immersion test by providing a static load until it reaches the failure, to record data during the test strain gauge mounted on the surface of the specimen and the GFRP to collect the strain value. From the research it obvious that there is a decrease bonding capacity on specimens immersed for one month, three months, six months and twelve months against the test object without immersion of 8.85%; 8.89%; 9.33% and 11.04%.

  15. Galvanic Corrosion of Lead by Iron (Oxyhydr)Oxides: Potential Impacts on Drinking Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Sweet, Gregory A; Harding, Matthew D; Estabrook, Hayden; Bishop, D Paul; Gagnon, Graham A

    2017-06-20

    Lead exposure via drinking water remains a significant public health risk; this study explored the potential effects of upstream iron corrosion on lead mobility in water distribution systems. Specifically, galvanic corrosion of lead by iron (oxyhydr)oxides was investigated. Coupling an iron mineral cathode with metallic lead in a galvanic cell increased lead release by 531 μg L -1 on average-a 9-fold increase over uniform corrosion in the absence of iron. Cathodes were composed of spark plasma sintered Fe 3 O 4 or α-Fe 2 O 3 or field-extracted Fe 3 O 4 and α-FeOOH. Orthophosphate immobilized oxidized lead as insoluble hydroxypyromorphite, while humic acid enhanced lead mobility. Addition of a humic isolate increased lead release due to uniform corrosion by 81 μg L -1 and-upon coupling lead to a mineral cathode-release due to galvanic corrosion by 990 μg L -1 . Elevated lead in the presence of humic acid appeared to be driven by complexation, with 208 Pb and UV 254 size-exclusion chromatograms exhibiting strong correlation under these conditions (R 2 average = 0.87). A significant iron corrosion effect was consistent with field data: lead levels after lead service line replacement were greater by factors of 2.3-4.7 at sites supplied by unlined cast iron distribution mains compared with the alternative, lined ductile iron.

  16. Corrosion control and disinfection studies in spacecraft water systems. [considering Saturn 5 orbital workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    Disinfection and corrosion control in the water systems of the Saturn 5 Orbital Workshop Program are considered. Within this framework, the problem areas of concern are classified into four general areas: disinfection; corrosion; membrane-associated problems of disinfectant uptake and diffusion; and taste and odor problems arising from membrane-disinfectant interaction.

  17. Effect of Host Media on Microbial Influenced Corrosion due to Desulfotomaculum nigrificans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lata, Suman; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, Ajay K.

    2013-04-01

    This article reports about the tests carried to investigate microbial-induced corrosion on stainless steels due to sulfate-reducing bacteria sp. Desulfotomaculum nigrificans in different host media. Stainless steel 304L, 316L, and 2205 were selected for the test. Modified Baar's media (BM), sodium chloride solution, and artificial sea water (SW) were used as test solutions in anaerobic conditions. Electrochemical polarization and immersion test were performed to estimate the extent of corrosion rate and pitting on stainless steels. SEM/EDS were used to study the details inside/outside pits formed on the corroded samples. Biofilm formed on corroded coupons was analyzed for its components by UV/Visible spectroscopy. Corrosion attack on the test samples was observed maximum in case of exposure to SW followed by NaCl solution, both having sulfide and chloride whereas stainless steel exposed to BM, having sulfide, showed minimum attack. Tendency of extracellular polymeric substances to bind metal ions is observed to be responsible for governing the extent of corrosion attack.

  18. Separating decadal global water cycle variability from sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Hamlington, B D; Reager, J T; Lo, M-H; Karnauskas, K B; Leben, R R

    2017-04-20

    Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level. The internal variability of the global water cycle, therefore, confounds both the detection and attribution of sea level rise. Here, we use a suite of observations to quantify and map the contribution of TWS variability to sea level variability on decadal timescales. In particular, we find that decadal sea level variability centered in the Pacific Ocean is closely tied to low frequency variability of TWS in key areas across the globe. The unambiguous identification and clean separation of this component of variability is the missing step in uncovering the anthropogenic trend in sea level and understanding the potential for low-frequency modulation of future TWS impacts including flooding and drought.

  19. Corrosion rate of API 5L Gr. X60 multipurpose steel pipeline under combined effect of water and crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jian; Wang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Multipurpose pipeline is often seriously corroded during its service life, and the phenomenon is more prominent once the transportation medium is changed. Electrochemical polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy of the API 5L Gr. X60 steel pipeline's corrosion process in sedimentary water with different ion types and their concentrations have been studied in this work. The results showed that the corrosion rates were found to be 0.00418 and 0.00232 mm/a for pure water and crude oil, respectively. However, for the mixtures of water and crude oil (with water content increased from 0.2 vol% to 10 vol%), the corrosion rate increased consistently and reached a maximum value of 0.15557 mm/a for 10 vol% water in crude oil. The effect of the concentration of various ions, namely, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate in (oil/water) mixtures on the corrosion rate was characterized by weight-loss method. The results showed that with increasing the ions' concentrations, the corresponding exchange current density increased significantly. The results were further supported by the observations of corrosion morphology using scanning electron microscopy and are helpful in devising guidelines which would help in reducing corrosion in multipurpose transport pipelines involving a change of transported medium during their service life.

  20. Corrosion Performance of High Damping Alloys in 3.5% Sodium Chloride Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Electrochemical Technique, Sea Exposure, Scanning Electron Microscopy. 9 .,5MAZT (Continue on rvre of necessary ad 4*er.#y by boock numbver# -The... electrochemical nature of corrosion provides a means of determining an almost instantaneous corrosion rate. Corrosion rate and the nature of corrosion attack were... electrochemical nature of corrosion provides a means of determining an almost instantaneous corrosion rate. Corrosion rate and the nature of

  1. Corrosion-Prevention Capabilities of a Water-Borne, Silicone-Based, Primerless Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.; Vinje, Rubie D.

    2005-01-01

    Comparative tests have been performed to evaluate the corrosion-prevention capabilities of an experimental paint of the type described in Water-Borne, Silicone-Based, Primerless Paints, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 30. To recapitulate: these paints contain relatively small amounts of volatile organic solvents and were developed as substitutes for traditional anticorrosion paints that contain large amounts of such solvents. An additional desirable feature of these paints is that they can be applied without need for prior application of primers to ensure adhesion. The test specimens included panels of cold-rolled steel, stainless steel 316, and aluminum 2024-T3. Some panels of each of these alloys were left bare and some were coated with the experimental water-borne, silicone-based, primerless paint. In addition, some panels of aluminum 2024-T3 and some panels of a fourth alloy (stainless steel 304) were coated with a commercial solvent-borne paint containing aluminum and zinc flakes in a nitrile rubber matrix. In the tests, the specimens were immersed in an aerated 3.5-weight-percent aqueous solution of NaCl for 168 hours. At intervals of 24 hours, the specimens were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and measurements of corrosion potentials. The specimens were also observed visually. As indicated by photographs of specimens taken after the 168-hour immersion (see figure), the experimental primerless silicone paint was effective in preventing corrosion of stainless steel 316, but failed to protect aluminum 2024-T3 and cold-rolled steel. The degree of failure was greater in the case of the cold-rolled steel. On the basis of visual observations, EIS, and corrosion- potential measurements, it was concluded that the commercial aluminum and zinc-filled nitrile rubber coating affords superior corrosion protection to aluminum 2024-T3 and is somewhat less effective in protecting stainless steel 304.

  2. Microelectrodes Based investigation of the Impacts of Water Chemistry on Copper and Iron Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of bulk drinking water quality on copper and iron pipe corrosion has been extensively studied. Despite past research, many have argued that bulk water quality does not necessarily reflect water quality near the water-metal interface and that such knowledge is necessary...

  3. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugisidi, Dan; Heriyani, Okatrina

    2018-02-01

    Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3), chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4). In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  4. Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

    2011-01-01

    On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

  5. A study of the effects of phosphates on copper corrosion in drinking water: Copper release, electrochemical, and surface analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Young C.

    The following work is the study to evaluate the impact of corrosion inhibitors on the copper metal in drinking water and to investigate the corrosion mechanism in the presence and absence of inhibitors. Electrochemical experiments were conducted to understand the effect of specific corrosion inhibitors in synthetic drinking water which was prepared with controlled specific water quality parameters. Water chemistry was studied by Inductively Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP--AES) to investigate the copper leaching rate with time. Surface morphology, crystallinity of corrosion products, copper oxidation status, and surface composition were characterized by various solid surface analysis methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy--Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS), Grazing-Incidence-angle X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The purpose of the first set of experiments was to test various electrochemical techniques for copper corrosion for short term before studying a long term loop system. Surface analysis techniques were carried out to identify and study the corrosion products that form on the fresh copper metal surface when copper coupons were exposed to test solutions for 2 days of experiments time. The second phase of experiments was conducted with a copper pipe loop system in a synthetic tap water over an extended period of time, i.e., 4 months. Copper release and electrochemically measured corrosion activity profiles were monitored carefully with and without corrosion inhibitor, polyphosphate. A correlation between the copper released into the solution and the electrochemically measured corrosion activities was also attempted. To investigate corrosion products on the copper pipe samples, various surface analysis techniques were applied in this study. Especially, static mass spectra acquisition and element distribution mapping were carried out

  6. Corrosion science, corrosion engineering, and advanced technologies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Latanision, R.M.

    1995-04-01

    Professor R.M. Latanision was the 1994 recipient of the Willis Rodney Whitney Award sponsored by NACE International. The present work is taken from his award lecture at CORROSION/94 held in March 1994 in Baltimore, MD. Latanision discussed the interplay between corrosion science and corrosion engineering in advancing technology. His lecture focused on supercritical water oxidation and other technologies that have been under study in the H.H. Uhlig Corrosion Laboratory and in which the chemical properties of new materials and traditional materials have proven integral to the development of contemporary or advanced engineering systems.

  7. The Influence of the In-Situ Clad Staining on the Corrosion of Zircaloy in PWR Water Environment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kammenzind, B.F., Eklund, K.L. and Bajaj, R.

    Zircaloy cladding tubes strain in-situ during service life in the corrosive environment of a Pressurized Water Reactor for a variety of reasons. First, the tube undergoes stress free growth due to the preferential alignment of irradiation induced vacancy loops on basal planes. Positive strains develop in the textured tubes along prism orientations while negative strains develop along basal orientations (Reference (a)). Second, early in life, free standing tubes will often shrink by creep in the diametrical direction under the external pressure of the water environment, but potentially grow later in life in the diametrical direction once the expanding fuel pelletmore » contacts the cladding inner wall (Reference (b)). Finally, the Zircaloy cladding absorbs hydrogen as a by product of the corrosion reaction (Reference (c)). Once above the solubility limit in Zircaloy, the hydride precipitates as zirconium hydride (References (c) through (j)). Both hydrogen in solid solution and precipitated as Zirconium hydride cause a volume expansion of the Zircaloy metal (Reference (k)). Few studies are reported on that have investigated the influence that in-situ clad straining has on corrosion of Zircaloy. If Zircaloy corrosion rates are governed by diffusion of anions through a thin passivating boundary layer at the oxide-to-metal interface (References (l) through (n)), in-situ straining of the cladding could accelerate the corrosion process by prematurely breaking that passivating oxide boundary layer. References (o) through (q) investigated the influence that an applied tensile stress has on the corrosion resistance of Zircaloy. Knights and Perkins, Reference (o), reported that the applied tensile stress increased corrosion rates above a critical stress level in 400 C and 475 C steam, but not at lower temperatures nor in dry oxygen environments. This latter observation suggested that hydrogen either in the oxide or at the oxide-to-metal interface is involved in the observed

  8. In-situ, time resolved monitoring of uranium in BFS:OPC grout. Part 2: Corrosion in water.

    PubMed

    Stitt, C A; Paraskevoulakos, C; Banos, A; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; Pullin, H; Davenport, A; Street, S; Scott, T B

    2018-06-18

    To reflect potential conditions in a geological disposal facility, uranium was encapsulated in grout and submersed in de-ionised water for time periods between 2-47 weeks. Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction and X-ray Tomography were used to identify the dominant corrosion products and measure their dimensions. Uranium dioxide was observed as the dominant corrosion product and time dependent thickness measurements were used to calculate oxidation rates. The effectiveness of physical and chemical grout properties to uranium corrosion and mobilisation is discussed and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was used to measure 238 U (aq) content in the residual water of several samples.

  9. Anodic activation of iron corrosion in clay media under water-saturated conditions at 90 degrees C: characterization of the corrosion interface.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Michel L; Bataillon, Christian; Blanc, Cécile; Prêt, Dimitri; Foy, Eddy

    2010-02-15

    To understand the process governing iron corrosion in clay over centuries, the chemical and mineralogical properties of solids formed by free or anodically activated corrosion of iron in water-saturated clay at 90 degrees C over 4 months were probed using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Free corrosion led to the formation of an internal discontinuous thin (<3 microm thick) magnetite layer, an external layer of Fe-rich phyllosilicate, and a clay transformation layer containing Ca-doped siderite (Ca(0.2)Fe(0.8)CO(3)). The thickness of corroded iron equaled approximately 5-7 microm, consistent with previous studies. Anodic polarization resulted in unequally distributed corrosion, with some areas corrosion-free and others heavily corroded. Activated corrosion led to the formation of an inner magnetite layer, an intermediate Fe(2)CO(3)(OH)(2) (chukanovite) layer, an outer layer of Fe-rich 7 A-phyllosilicate, and a transformed matrix layer containing siderite (FeCO(3)). The corroded thickness was estimated to 85 microm, less than 30% of the value expected from the supplied anodic charge. The difference was accounted for by reoxidation at the anodically polarized surface of cathodically produced H(2)(g). Thus, free or anodically activated corroding conditions led to structurally similar interfaces, indicating that anodic polarization can be used to probe the long-term corrosion of iron in clay. Finally, corrosion products retained only half of Fe oxidized by anodic activation. Missing Fe probably migrated in the clay, where it could interact with radionuclides released by alteration of nuclear glass.

  10. A tracer study of the deep water renewal in the European polar seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Ch.; Schlosser, P.; Koltermann, K. P.; Meincke, J.

    1990-09-01

    A study of the deep water renewal in the European polar seas (Norwegian Sea, Greenland Sea and Eurasian Basin) based on the distribution of tritium ( 3H), 3He, chlorofluoromethane (F-11 = CCL 3F), salinity and potential temperature is presented. Four different versions of a kinematic box model calibrated with the tracer data yield production rates and turnover times due to deep convection for Greenland Sea Deep Water (0.47-0.59 Sv, 27-34 y) and Eurasian Basin Deep Water (0.97-1.07 Sv, 83-92 y). Model calculations with different deep advective flow patterns (exchange at equal rates between each of the deep water masses or an internal circuit Eurasian Basin-Greenland Sea-Norwegian Sea-Eurasian Basin) give estimates of the deep horizontal transports, resulting in a turnover time of 13-16 years for Norwegian Sea Deep Water. The total turnover times (convection and deep advection) of the Greenland Sea and the Eurasian Basin are estimated to about 10 and 50 years, respectively. Mean hydrographic characteristics of the source water for Greenland Sea Deep Water and Eurasian Basin Deep Water are estimated from minimization of the deviations between modelled and observed hydrographic deep water values. The fractions of surface waters and intermediate waters making up the deep water of the Greenland Sea are estimated to about 80 and 20%, respectively.

  11. The Last Interglacial Labrador Sea: A Pervasive Millennial Oscillation In Surface Water Conditions Without Labrador Sea Water Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.

    A multi-proxy approach was developed to document secular to millenial changes of potential density in surface, mesopelagic, and bottom waters of the Labrador Sea, thus allowing to reconstruct situations when winter convection with intermediate or deep water formation occurred in the basin. This approach relies on dinocyst-transfer functions providing estimates of sea-surface temperature and salinity that are used to calibrate past-relationships between oxygen 18 contents in calcite and potential density gradients. The oxygen isotope compositions of epipelagic (Globigerina bul- loides), deeper-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, left coiling), and benthic (Uvigerina peregrina and Cibicides wuellerstorfi) foraminifera, then allow to extrap- olate density gradients between the corresponding water layers. This approach has been tested in surface sediments in reference to modern hydrographic conditions at several sites from the NW North Atlantic, then used to reconstruct past conditions from high resolution studies of cores raised from the southern Greenland Rise (off Cape Farewell). Results indicate that the modern-like regime established during the early Holocene and full developed after 7 ka only. It is marked by weak density gradi- ents between the surface and intermediate water masses, allowing winter convection down to a lower pycnocline between intermediate and deep-water masses, thus the formation of intermediate Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Contrasting with the middle to late Holocene situation, since the last interglacial and throughout the last climatic cycle, a single and dense water mass seems to have occupied the water column below a generally low-density surface water layer, thus preventing deep convection. There- fore, the production of LSW seems to be feature specific to the present interglacial interval that could soon cease to exist, due to global warming, as suggested by recent ocean model experiments and by the fact that it never occurred during the

  12. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys. PMID:26615896

  13. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-11-30

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  14. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  15. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel Coated with Octadecylamine in the Secondary Circuit of a Pressurized Water Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäppinen, Essi; Ikäläinen, Tiina; Järvimäki, Sari; Saario, Timo; Sipilä, Konsta; Bojinov, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion and particle deposition in the secondary circuits of pressurized water reactors can be mitigated by alternative water chemistries featuring film-forming amines. In the present work, the corrosion of carbon steel in secondary side water with or without octadecylamine (ODA) is studied by in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, combined with weight loss/gain measurements, scanning electron microscopy and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The impedance spectra are interpreted using the mixed-conduction model to extract kinetic parameters of oxide growth and metal dissolution through it. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that ODA addition reduces the corrosion rate of both fresh and pre-oxidized carbon steel in secondary circuit significantly by slowing down both interfacial reactions and transport through the oxide layer.

  16. A Poor Relationship Between Sea Level and Deep-Water Sand Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Ashley D.; Baumgardner, Sarah E.; Sun, Tao; Granjeon, Didier

    2018-08-01

    The most commonly cited control on delivery of sand to deep water is the rate of relative sea-level fall. The rapid rate of accommodation loss on the shelf causes sedimentation to shift basinward. Field and experimental numerical modeling studies have shown that deep-water sand delivery can occur during any stage of relative sea level position and across a large range of values of rate of relative sea-level change. However, these studies did not investigate the impact of sediment transport efficiency on the relationship between rate of relative sea-level change and deep-water sand delivery rate. We explore this relationship using a deterministic nonlinear diffusion-based numerical stratigraphic forward model. We vary across three orders of magnitude the diffusion coefficient value for marine settings, which controls sediment transport efficiency. We find that the rate of relative sea-level change can explain no more than 1% of the variability in deep-water sand delivery rates, regardless of sediment transport efficiency. Model results show a better correlation with relative sea level, with up to 55% of the variability in deep water sand delivery rates explained. The results presented here are consistent with studies of natural settings which suggest stochastic processes such as avulsion and slope failure, and interactions among such processes, may explain the remaining variance. Relative sea level is a better predictor of deep-water sand delivery than rate of relative sea-level change because it is the sea-level fall itself which promotes sand delivery, not the rate of the fall. We conclude that the poor relationship between sea level and sand delivery is not an artifact of the modeling parameters but is instead due to the inadequacy of relative sea level and the rate of relative sea-level change to fully describe the dimensional space in which depositional systems reside. Subsequently, sea level itself is unable to account for the interaction of multiple processes

  17. Effect of impurities on the corrosion behavior of CO2 transmission pipeline steel in supercritical CO2-water environments.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-Seok; Nesic, Srdjan; Young, David

    2010-12-01

    The corrosion property of carbon steel was evaluated using an autoclave under CO(2)-saturated water phase and water-saturated CO(2) phase with impurities (O(2) and SO(2)) at 80 bar CO(2) and 50 °C to simulate the condition of CO(2) transmission pipeline in the carbon capture and storage (CCS) applications. The results showed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel in CO(2)-saturated water was very high and it increased with adding O(2) in the system due to the inhibition effect of O(2) on the formation of protective FeCO(3). It is noteworthy that corrosion took place in the water-saturated CO(2) phase under supercritical condition when no free water is present. The addition of O(2) increased the corrosion rates of carbon steel in water-saturated CO(2) phase. The addition of 0.8 bar SO(2) (1%) in the gas phase dramatically increased the corrosion rate of carbon steel from 0.38 to 5.6 mm/y. This then increased to more than 7 mm/y with addition of both O(2) and SO(2). SO(2) can promote the formation of iron sulfite hydrate (FeSO(3)·3H(2)O) on the steel surface which is less protective than iron carbonate (FeCO(3)), and it is further oxidized to become FeSO(4) and FeOOH when O(2) is present with SO(2) in the CO(2)-rich phase. The corrosion rates of 13Cr steel were very low compared with carbon steel in CO(2)-saturated water environments with O(2), whereas it was as high as carbon steel in a water-saturated CO(2) phase with O(2) and SO(2).

  18. Freshwater lake to salt-water sea causing widespread hydrate dissociation in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Riboulot, Vincent; Ker, Stephan; Sultan, Nabil; Thomas, Yannick; Marsset, Bruno; Scalabrin, Carla; Ruffine, Livio; Boulart, Cédric; Ion, Gabriel

    2018-01-09

    Gas hydrates, a solid established by water and gas molecules, are widespread along the continental margins of the world. Their dynamics have mainly been regarded through the lens of temperature-pressure conditions. A fluctuation in one of these parameters may cause destabilization of gas hydrate-bearing sediments below the seafloor with implications in ocean acidification and eventually in global warming. Here we show throughout an example of the Black Sea, the world's most isolated sea, evidence that extensive gas hydrate dissociation may occur in the future due to recent salinity changes of the sea water. Recent and forthcoming salt diffusion within the sediment will destabilize gas hydrates by reducing the extension and thickness of their thermodynamic stability zone in a region covering at least 2800 square kilometers which focus seepages at the observed sites. We suspect this process to occur in other world regions (e.g., Caspian Sea, Sea of Marmara).

  19. Boric Acid Corrosion of Concrete Rebar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabalan, R. T.; Yang, L.; Chiang, K.–T.

    2013-07-01

    Borated water leakage through spent fuel pools (SFPs) at pressurized water reactors is a concern because it could cause corrosion of reinforcement steel in the concrete structure and compromise the integrity of the structure. Because corrosion rate of carbon steel in concrete in the presence of boric acid is lacking in published literature and available data are equivocal on the effect of boric acid on rebar corrosion, corrosion rate measurements were conducted in this study using several test methods. Rebar corrosion rates were measured in (i) borated water flowing in a simulated concrete crack, (ii) borated water flowing over a concrete surface, (iii) borated water that has reacted with concrete, and (iv) 2,400 ppm boric acid solutions with pH adjusted to a range of 6.0 to 7.7. The corrosion rates were measured using coupled multielectrode array sensor (CMAS) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) probes, both made using carbon steel. The results indicate that rebar corrosion rates are low (~1 μm/yr or less)when the solution pH is ~7.1 or higher. Below pH ~7.1, the corrosion rate increases with decreasing pH and can reach ~100 μm/yr in solutions with pH less than ~6.7. The threshold pH for carbon steel corrosion in borated solution is between 6.8 and 7.3.

  20. Guided Inquiry Learning With Sea Water Battery Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashudi, A.

    2017-02-01

    Science learning process is expected to produce valuable product, innovative and real learning environment, and provide memorable learning experience. That orientation can be contained in Inquiry Based Learning. SMP N 4 Juwana is located close to the beach. That’s why, Sea Water Battery Project is very suitable to be applied in learning activity as an effort to fulfill the renewable energy based on local wisdom. This study aims to increase interest, activity and achievement of students. Learning implementation stage, namely : Constructing Sea Water Battery project, observation, group presentations, and feedback. Sea Water Battery is renewable energy battery from materials easily found around the learner. The materials used are copper plate as the anode, zinc plate as the cathode and sea water as the electrolyte. Average score of students Interest on the first cycle 76, while on the second cycle 85. Average score of students Activity on the first cycle 76 and on the second cycle 86. Average score of students achievement on the first cycle 75, while on the second cycle 84. This learning process gave nurturant effect for students to keep innovating and construct engineering technology for the future.

  1. Freshwater and Atlantic water in the Kara Sea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hanzlick, D.; Aagaard, K.

    1980-09-20

    Hydrographic data from the Kara Sea show significant storage of freshwater (approx.2.5 years of river input). This provides a buffer against large changes in ice and hydrographic conditions that might otherwise result from an anomalous year's runoff. The distribution of freshwater in the Kara Sea closely corresponds to bottom contours, indicating strong bathymetric influence on the spreading pattern. Observations also indicate areas within the Kara Sea in which the upward flux of sensible heat influences the thickness and the extent of ice coverage. Warm, saline Atlantic water which flows into the Kara Sea is particularly important in this regard. However,more » there is evidence that the flow of Atlantic water bifurcates in the northern reaches of the Kara Sea, so that one portion continues southward while the other curves back and exits with relatively little local heat loss.« less

  2. Screening and Quantification of Aliphatic Primary Alkyl Corrosion Inhibitor Amines in Water Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Damon, Deidre E; Barrett, Richard M; Syed, S U; Heeren, Ron M A; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-01-19

    Direct analysis and identification of long chain aliphatic primary diamine Duomeen O (n-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane), corrosion inhibitor in raw water samples taken from a large medium pressure water tube boiler plant water samples at low LODs (<0.1 pg) has been demonstrated for the first time, without any sample preparation using paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS). The presence of Duomeen O in water samples was confirmed via tandem mass spectrometry using collision-induced dissociation and supported by exact mass measurement and reactive paper spray experiments using an LTQ Orbitrap Exactive instrument. Data shown herein indicate that paper spray ambient ionization can be readily used as a rapid and robust method for in situ direct analysis of polymanine corrosion inhibitors in an industrial water boiler plant and other related samples in the water treatment industry. This approach was applied for the analysis of three complex water samples including feedwater, condensate water, and boiler water, all collected from large medium pressure (MP) water tube boiler plants, known to be dosed with varying amounts of polyamine and amine corrosion inhibitor components. Polyamine chemistry is widely used for example in large high pressure (HP) boilers operating in municipal waste and recycling facilities to prevent corrosion of metals. The samples used in this study are from such a facility in Coventry waste treatment facility, U.K., which has 3 × 40 tonne/hour boilers operating at 17.5 bar.

  3. Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the science of corrosion control and control of scaling in drinking water systems. Topics covered include: types of corrosion; physical, microbial and chemical factors influencing corrosion; corrosion of specific materials; direct ...

  4. Impacts of water quality on the corrosion of cast iron pipes for water distribution and proposed source water switch strategy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Dong, Huiyu; Xu, Qiang; Ling, Wencui; Qu, Jiuhui; Qiang, Zhimin

    2018-02-01

    Switch of source water may induce "red water" episodes. This study investigated the impacts of water quality on iron release, dissolved oxygen consumption (ΔDO), corrosion scale evolution and bacterial community succession in cast iron pipes used for drinking water distribution at pilot scale, and proposed a source water switch strategy accordingly. Three sets of old cast iron pipe section (named BP, SP and GP) were excavated on site and assembled in a test base, which had historically transported blended water, surface water and groundwater, respectively. Results indicate that an increasing Cl - or SO 4 2- concentration accelerated iron release, but alkalinity and calcium hardness exhibited an opposite tendency. Disinfectant shift from free chlorine to monochloramine slightly inhibited iron release, while the impact of peroxymonosulfate depended on the source water historically transported in the test pipes. The ΔDO was highly consistent with iron release in all three pipe systems. The mass ratio of magnetite to goethite in the corrosion scales of SP was higher than those of BP and GP and kept almost unchanged over the whole operation period. Siderite and calcite formation confirmed that an increasing alkalinity and hardness inhibited iron release. Iron-reducing bacteria decreased in the BP but increased in the SP and GP; meanwhile, sulfur-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing and iron oxidizing bacteria increased in all three pipe systems. To avoid the occurrence of "red water", a source water switch strategy was proposed based on the difference between local and foreign water qualities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Erosion-corrosion and cavitation-erosion measurements on copper alloys utilizing thin layer activation technique

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tsai, C.H.; Hsu, K.Y.; Kai, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    The surface layers of copper alloy specimens were made radioactive by bombarding with 5 MeV protons from a van de Graaff accelerator which converted Cu-65 into Zn-65 through (p,n) reaction. The amount of surface material loss could then be monitored by measuring the total remaining {gamma}-ray activity generated from Zn-65 decay. This technique, termed thin layer activation (TLA), has the advantage of in situ monitoring the rate of surface removal due to corrosion, erosion-corrosion, wearing, etc. In this work, the erosion-corrosion tests on aluminum brass and 90Cu-10Ni were conducted in circulating sea water and the erosion-corrosion rates measured using TLAmore » and conventional methods such as linear polarization resistance (LPR) method and weight loss coupons were compared. A vibrational cavitation-erosion test was also performed on aluminum bronze, in which the measurements by TLA were compared with those of weight loss measurements.« less

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCALIZED CORROSION OF COPPER PIPES USED IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized corrosion of copper, or "copper pitting" in water distribution tubing is a large problem at many utilities. Pitting can lead to pinhole leaks less than a year. Tubing affected by copper pitting will often fail in ultiple locations, resulting in a frustrating situation ...

  7. INTERNAL CORROSION AND DEPOSITION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion is one of the most important problems in the drinking water industry. It can affect public health, public acceptance of a water supply, and the cost of providing safe water. Deterioration of materials resulting from corrosion can necessitate huge yearly expenditures o...

  8. Corrosion behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wenhua; Guo, Xianglong; Shen, Zhao; Zhang, Lefu

    2017-04-01

    The corrosion resistance of three different Cr content oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels in supercritical water (SCW) and their passive films formed on the surface have been investigated. The results show that the dissolved oxygen (DO) and chemical composition have significant influence on the corrosion behavior of the ODS ferritic steels. In 2000 ppb DO SCW at 650 °C, the 14Cr-4Al ODS steel forms a tri-layer oxide film and the surface morphologies have experienced four structures. For the tri-layer oxide film, the middle layer is mainly Fe-Cr spinel and the Al is gradually enriched in the inner layer.

  9. Long-term corrosion evaluation of stainless steels in Space Shuttle iodinated resin and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, Douglas D.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of stainless steel exposure to iodinated water is a concern in developing the Integrated Water System (IWS) for Space Station Freedom. The IWS has a life requirement of 30 years, but the effects of general and localized corrosion over such a long period have not been determined for the candidate materials. In 1978, Umpqua Research Center immersed stainless steel 316L, 321, and 347 specimens in a solution of deionized water and the Space Shuttle microbial check valve resin. In April 1990, the solution was chemically analyzed to determine the level of corrosion formed, and the surface of each specimen was examined with scanning electron microscopy and metallography to determine the extent of general and pitting corrosion. This examination showed that the attack on the stainless steels was negligible and never penetrated past the first grain boundary layer. Of the three alloys, 316L performed the best; however, all three materials proved to be compatible with an aqueous iodine environment. In addition to the specimens exposed to aqueous iodine, a stainless steel specimen (unspecified alloy) was exposed to moist microbial check valve resin and air for a comparable period. This environment allowed contact of the metal to the resin as well as to the iodine vapor. Since the particular stainless steel alloy was not known, energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine that this alloy was stainless steel 301. The intergranular corrosion found on the specimen was limited to the first grain boundary layer.

  10. A SURVEY OF THE CORROSION OF MARTENSITIC AND FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS IN PRESSURIZED WATER

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.

    1963-07-16

    >The corrosion resistance of mantensitic and ferritic austenitic stainless steels and carbon steels in pressurized water at 500 to 600 deg F is compared. Included are specific out-of-pile data for austenitic stainless steels, AISI types types 410, 420, 431, and 440C; the ferritic AISI types 430, 442, and 446; the precipitation-hardening type 17-4PH; and carbon steels, ASTM 212 A and B. Available corrosion results obtained under irradiation at exposures in the range of 7 x 10/sup 16/ to 3 x 10/sup 19/ nvt are also included for types 304, types of martensitic and ferritic stainless steels which were evaluated domore » not contain nickel. For application where it is desirable to minimize Co/sup 58/ activity produced from nickel, selection of a martensitic or ferritic stainless steel may be more appropriate than choosing the more popular nickel-bearing austenitic stainless steel or a fuel-element cladding material. Interpretation of the data indicates that, on the average, martensitic and ferritic stainless steels corrode more rapidly than austenitic alloys but more slowly than carbon and low-alloy steels. Under selected controlled water conditions or under irradiation, the corrosion of the nickel-free stainless steels appears to differ little from the austenitics. The corrosion of martensitic and ferritic stainless steels in pressurized-water systems therefore does not appear of such magnitude as to rule out development of these materials as the cladding fuel elements for specific applications. (auth)« less

  11. Effect of Water Nutrient Pollution on Long-Term Corrosion of 90:10 Copper Nickel Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Melchers, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their good corrosion resistance, copper and copper alloys such as 90:10 Cu-Ni are used extensively in high-quality marine and industrial piping systems and also in marine, urban, and industrial environments. Their corrosion loss and pitting behaviour tends to follow a bi-modal trend rather than the classic power law. Field data for 90:10 copper nickel immersed in natural seawater are used to explore the effect of water pollution and in particular the availability of critical nutrients for microbiologically induced corrosion. It is shown, qualitatively, that increased dissolved inorganic nitrogen increases corrosion predominantly in the second, long-term, mode of the model. Other, less pronounced, influences are salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration. PMID:28793696

  12. Corrosion resistance of high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels in super-critical pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. S.; Kimura, A.

    2007-08-01

    The effects of alloying elements, such as Cr and Al, on corrosion resistance in super critical pressurized water (SCPW) have been investigated to develop corrosion resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels. Corrosion tests were performed in a SCPW (783 K, 25 MPa) environment. Weight gain was measured after exposure to the SCPW, and then oxide layers were analyzed by low angle X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy. The weight gains of all high-Cr ODS steels are smaller than an austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L). More uniform and thinner oxidation layers were observed on the ODS steels after corrosion compared to those on 9Cr martensitic steel and SUS316L.

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Active Screen Plasma Nitrided 38CrMoAl Steel under Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; He, Yongyong; Mao, JunYuan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    The 38CrMoAl steels were nitrided at different temperatures for 7 h using active screen plasma discharge. The analysis showed that the thick compound layer composed of ɛ-Fe2-3N and γ‧-Fe4N was formed on the surface. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by measuring the anodic polarization curves in natural sea water (similar 3.5% NaCl solution), and observation of corroded surface were conducted. The electromechanical measurements indicated that the corrosion potential of the nitrided specimens shifted to a nobler value compared to that of untreated specimens. Passive regions were also observed in the polarization curves for all the nitrided specimens. These results indicate that active screen plasma nitriding can enhance the corrosion resistance of the 38CrMoAl steel under marine environment.

  14. Water Mass Classification on a Highly Variable Arctic Shelf Region: Origin of Laptev Sea Water Masses and Implications for the Nutrient Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, D.; Cherniavskaia, E.

    2018-03-01

    Large gradients and inter annual variations on the Laptev Sea shelf prevent the use of uniform property ranges for a classification of major water masses. The central Laptev Sea is dominated by predominantly marine waters, locally formed polynya waters and riverine summer surface waters. Marine waters enter the central Laptev Sea from the northwestern Laptev Sea shelf and originate from the Kara Sea or the Arctic Ocean halocline. Local polynya waters are formed in the Laptev Sea coastal polynyas. Riverine summer surface waters are formed from Lena river discharge and local melt. We use a principal component analysis (PCA) in order to assess the distribution and importance of water masses within the Laptev Sea. This mathematical method is applied to hydro-chemical summer data sets from the Laptev Sea from five years and allows to define water types based on objective and statistically significant criteria. We argue that the PCA-derived water types are consistent with the Laptev Sea hydrography and indeed represent the major water masses on the central Laptev Sea shelf. Budgets estimated for the thus defined major Laptev Sea water masses indicate that freshwater inflow from the western Laptev Sea is about half or in the same order of magnitude as freshwater stored in locally formed polynya waters. Imported water dominates the nutrient budget in the central Laptev Sea; and only in years with enhanced local polynya activity is the nutrient budget of the locally formed water in the same order as imported nutrients.

  15. Chemical properties of ground water and their corrosion and encrustation effects on wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan; Clarke, Frank Eldridge

    1969-01-01

    Well waters in Egypt, Nigeria, and West Pakistan were studied for their chemical properties and corrosive or encrusting behavior. From the chemical composition of the waters, reaction states with reference to equilibrium were tested for 29 possible coexisting oxides, carbonates, sulfides, and elements. Of the 29 solids considered, only calcite, CaCO3, and ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)3, showed any correlation with the corrosiveness of the waters to mild steel (iron metal). All 39 of the waters tested were out of equilibrium with iron metal, but those waters in equilibrium or supersaturated with both calcite and ferric hydroxide were the least corrosive. Supersaturation with other solid phases apparently was unrelated to corrosion. A number of solids may form surface deposits in wells and lead to decreased yields by fouling well intakes (screens and gravel packs) or increasing friction losses in casings. Calcite, CaCO3; ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)3; magnetite, Fe3O4; siderite, FeCO3; hausmannite, Mn304 (tetragonal); manganese spinel, Mn3O4 (isometric); three iron sulfides mackinawite, FeS (tetragonal); greigite, Fe3S4 (isometric); and smythite, Fe3S4 (rhombohedral)-copper hydroxide, Co(OH)2; and manganese hydroxide, Mn(OH)2, were all at least tentatively identified in the deposits sampled. Of geochemical interest is the demonstration that simple stable equilibrium models fail in nearly every case to predict compositions of water yielded by the wells studied. Only one stable phase (calcite) was found to exhibit behavior approximately predictable from stable equilibrium considerations. No other stable phase was found to behave as would be predicted from equilibrium considerations. All the solids found to precipitate (except calcite) are metastable in that they are not the least soluble phases possible in the systems studied. In terms of metastable equilibrium, siderite and ferric hydroxide behave approximately as would be predicted from equilibrium considerations, but both

  16. Al2O3 and TiO2 atomic layer deposition on copper for water corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Abdulagatov, A I; Yan, Y; Cooper, J R; Zhang, Y; Gibbs, Z M; Cavanagh, A S; Yang, R G; Lee, Y C; George, S M

    2011-12-01

    Al(2)O(3) and TiO(2) atomic layer deposition (ALD) were employed to develop an ultrathin barrier film on copper to prevent water corrosion. The strategy was to utilize Al(2)O(3) ALD as a pinhole-free barrier and to protect the Al(2)O(3) ALD using TiO(2) ALD. An initial set of experiments was performed at 177 °C to establish that Al(2)O(3) ALD could nucleate on copper and produce a high-quality Al(2)O(3) film. In situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements verified that Al(2)O(3) ALD nucleated and grew efficiently on copper-plated quartz crystals at 177 °C using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as the reactants. An electroplating technique also established that the Al(2)O(3) ALD films had a low defect density. A second set of experiments was performed for ALD at 120 °C to study the ability of ALD films to prevent copper corrosion. These experiments revealed that an Al(2)O(3) ALD film alone was insufficient to prevent copper corrosion because of the dissolution of the Al(2)O(3) film in water. Subsequently, TiO(2) ALD was explored on copper at 120 °C using TiCl(4) and water as the reactants. The resulting TiO(2) films also did not prevent the water corrosion of copper. Fortunately, Al(2)O(3) films with a TiO(2) capping layer were much more resilient to dissolution in water and prevented the water corrosion of copper. Optical microscopy images revealed that TiO(2) capping layers as thin as 200 Å on Al(2)O(3) adhesion layers could prevent copper corrosion in water at 90 °C for ~80 days. In contrast, the copper corroded almost immediately in water at 90 °C for Al(2)O(3) and ZnO films by themselves on copper. Ellipsometer measurements revealed that Al(2)O(3) films with a thickness of ~200 Å and ZnO films with a thickness of ~250 Å dissolved in water at 90 °C in ~10 days. In contrast, the ellipsometer measurements confirmed that the TiO(2) capping layers with thicknesses of ~200 Å on the Al(2)O(3) adhesion layers protected the copper for ~80 days in

  17. Effect of polishing process on corrosion behavior of 308L stainless steel in high temperature water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng; Han, En-Hou; Peng, Qunjia; Ke, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Effect of change in surface composition and roughness by different polishing processes on corrosion of 308L stainless steel in high temperature water was investigated. The investigation was conducted by comparing the corrosion behavior of electropolished specimens with that of the 40 nm-colloidal silica slurry polished specimens. The result revealed that the electropolished specimens had a higher corrosion rate than the colloidal silica slurry polished specimens, which was attributed to formation of an amount of chromium hydroxide and higher roughness of the electropolished surface. Moreover, the ferrite in 308L stainless steel was found to have a higher resistance to corrosion than the austenite matrix.

  18. Management and control of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the oil and gas industry-Overview and a North Sea case study.

    PubMed

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Richard B; Rodrigues, Edgar

    2017-08-20

    the conflicting historic results obtained through serial dilution of culture media using the most probable number (MPN) method as compared to data obtained from corrosion monitoring and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. Results from qPCR application in the field case have changed the way MIC is monitored on the oil production facility in the North Sea. A number of high quality resources have been published as technical conference papers, books, educational videos and peer-reviewed scientific papers, and thus we end the review with an updated list of state-of-the-art resources for anyone desiring to become more familiar with the topic of MIC in the upstream oil and gas sector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  20. Effects of sulfate on heavy metal release from iron corrosion scales in drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-05-01

    Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated. Heavy metal releases of Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr and As could be rapidly triggered by sulfate addition but the releases slowly decreased over time. Heavy metal release was more severe in pipes transporting groundwater (GW) than in pipes transporting surface water (SW). There were strong positive correlations (R 2  > 0.8) between the releases of Fe and Mn, Fe and Ni, Fe and Cu, and Fe and Pb. When switching to higher sulfate water, iron corrosion scales in all pipe loops tended to be more stable (especially in pipes transporting GW), with a larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe 3 O 4 ) and fewer unstable compounds (β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, FeCO 3 and amorphous iron oxides). The main functional iron reducing bacteria (IRB) communities were favorable for the formation of Fe 3 O 4 . The transformation of corrosion scales and the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for the gradually reduced heavy metal release with time. The higher metal release in pipes transporting GW could be due to increased Fe 6 (OH) 12 CO 3 content under higher sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accelerated Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 in Hydrogenated Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Tyler; Was, Gary S.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 occurs by the same mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water. Tensile bars of Alloys 690 and 600 were strained in constant extension rate tensile experiments in hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water from 593 K to 723 K (320 °C to 450 °C), and the crack initiation behavior was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. Intergranular cracking was observed across the entire temperature range, and the morphology, structure, composition, and temperature dependence of initiated cracks in Alloy 690 were consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water. Crack initiation of Alloy 600 followed an Arrhenius relationship and did not exhibit a discontinuity or change in slope after crossing the critical temperature. The measured activation energy was 121 ± 13 kJ/mol. Stress corrosion crack initiation in Alloy 690 was fit with a single activation energy of 92 ± 12 kJ/mol across the entire temperature range. Cracks were observed to propagate along grain boundaries adjacent to chromium-depleted metal, with Cr2O3 observed ahead of crack tips. All measures of the SCC behavior indicate that the mechanism for stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 is consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water.

  2. Corrosion of low carbon steel by microorganisms from the 'pigging' operation debris in water injection pipelines.

    PubMed

    Cote, Claudia; Rosas, Omar; Sztyler, Magdalena; Doma, Jemimah; Beech, Iwona; Basseguy, Régine

    2014-06-01

    Present in all environments, microorganisms develop biofilms adjacent to the metallic structures creating corrosion conditions which may cause production failures that are of great economic impact to the industry. The most common practice in the oil and gas industry to annihilate these biofilms is the mechanical cleaning known as "pigging". In the present work, microorganisms from the "pigging" operation debris are tested biologically and electrochemically to analyse their effect on the corrosion of carbon steel. Results in the presence of bacteria display the formation of black corrosion products allegedly FeS and a sudden increase (more than 400mV) of the corrosion potential of electrode immersed in artificial seawater or in field water (produced water mixed with aquifer seawater). Impedance tests provided information about the mechanisms of the interface carbon steel/bacteria depending on the medium used: mass transfer limitation in artificial seawater was observed whereas that in field water was only charge transfer phenomenon. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results proved that bacterial diversity decreased when cultivating the debris in the media used and suggested that the bacteria involved in the whole set of results are mainly sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and some other bacteria that make part of the taxonomic order Clostridiales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In-situ ultrasonic inspection of submarine shaft seal housing for corrosion damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Narendra K.; Chaskelis, Henry H.; Mignogna, Richard B.

    1995-06-01

    The interior of the housings of primary and backup shaft seals of 637 class submarines are exposed to sea water during service and become corroded during service. Corrosion damage evaluation requires disassembly of the housing and visual inspection. In this paper, we present quantitative results of in situ nondestructive ultrasonic technique developed for the inspection of the seal housings. Due to vast variations in velocity in the seal material, the velocity was determined at suitable sites not subjected to corrosion and of known thickness from the blueprints. Using this normalized velocity and measured time-of-flight, we determined the thickness of the seal housing at various locations on the circumference. Subsequent mechanical thickness measurements, made when the housings were removed from service, agreed within the predicted uncertainty of 1.5% of ultrasonic measurements. This technique for the assessment of corrosion damage saves time and money, by preventing premature disassembly and downtime for the submarine.

  4. Estimating the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget: impact of RCM design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somot, S.; Elguindi, N.; Sanchez-Gomez, E.; Herrmann, M.; Déqué, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Sea can be considered as a thermodynamic machine that exchanges water and heat with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar and with the atmosphere through its surface. Considering the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget (MSWB) multi-year mean, the Mediterranean basin looses water at the surface due to an excess of evaporation over freshwater input (precipitation, river runoff, Black Sea input). Moreover the MSWB largely drives the Mediterranean Sea water mass formation and therefore a large part of its thermohaline circulation. This could even have an impact on the characteristics of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation through the Mediterranean Outflow Waters that flow into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 m. From a climate point of view, the MSWB acts as a water source for the Mediterranean countries and therefore plays an important role on the water resources of the region. The regional physical characteristics of the Mediterranean basin (complex orography, strong land-sea contrast, land-atmosphere coupling, air-sea coupling, river inflow, Gibraltar Strait constraint and complex ocean bathymetry) strongly influence the various components of the MSWB. Moreover extreme precipitation events over land and strong evaporation events over the sea due to local winds can play a non-negligible role on the mean MSWB despite their small spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, modelling the mean behaviour, the interannual variability and the trends of the MSWB is a challenging task of the Regional Climate Model community in the context of climate change. It is actually one of the highlighted issues of the HyMex project planned for the 2010-2020 period. We propose here to start investigating some key scientific issues of the regional modelling of the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget using a wide range of regional climate simulations performed at Météo-France or in the framework of FP6 European projects (ENSEMBLES, CIRCE). The addressed

  5. Sea water - basalt interactions and genesis of the coastal thermal waters of Maharashtra, India

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Muthuraman, K.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal waters close to the western coastal belt of India (in Maharashtra State) generally discharge Na-Ca-Cl and Ca-Na-Cl types of waters through the basic lava flows of late Cretaceous-early Tertiary age. Experimental work to study the reactions between the dilute sea water and basalt conducted in static autoclaves at selected elevated temperatures, indicates the possibility of producing chloride waters with relatively high calcium, similar to these thermal waters. In view of the increase in Ca in the resultant solutions during sea water-basalt reactions at elevated temperatures, the base temperatures computed by Na-K-Ca geothermometry would be far lower than themore » actual temperatures of the system. At lower temperatures (around 100/sup 0/C) absorption by K by basalt is possible and, hence, alkali geothermometry also may not be reliable for such systems. Anhydrite saturation temperature seems to be a reliable geothermometer for such coastal thermal water systems involving a sea water component. The results of the computer processing of the chemistry of some of these thermal waters using ''WATEQ'' are discussed. Two of these waters are oversaturated with diopside, tremolite, calcite and aragonite, indicating a rather low temperature of origin. In two other cases, interaction with ultramafic rocks is indicated, as these waters are oversaturated with diopside, tremolite, talc, chrysotile, sepiolite and its precipitate. There is no clear evidence to show that the thermal waters of the west coast of India emerge directly from either marine evaporites or oil field waters. It is proposed that the majority of these thermal waters should have originated through interaction of an admixture of sea water and meteoric water with the local basalt flows at some elevated temperatures.« less

  6. A Modeling Study of Deep Water Renewal in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, F.; Hoteit, I.

    2016-02-01

    Deep water renewal processes in the Red Sea are examined in this study using a 50-year numerical simulation from 1952-2001. The deep water in the Red Sea below the thermocline ( 200 m) exhibits a near-uniform vertical structure in temperature and salinity, but geochemical tracer distributions, such as 14C and 3He, and dissolved oxygen concentrations indicate that the deep water is renewed on time scales as short as 36 years. The renewal process is accomplished through a deep overturning cell that consists of a southward bottom current and a northward returning current at depths of 400-600 m. Three sources regions are proposed for the formation of the deep water, including two deep outflows from the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez and winter deep convections in the northern Red Sea. The MITgcm (MIT general circulation model), which has been used to simulate the shallow overturning circulations in the Red Sea, is configured in this study with increased resolutions in the deep water. During the 50 years of simulation, artificial passive tracers added in the model indicate that the deep water in the Red Sea was only episodically renewed during some anomalously cold years; two significant episodes of deep water renewal are reproduced in the winters of 1983 and 1992, in accordance with reported historical hydrographic observations. During these renewal events, deep convections reaching the bottom of the basin occurred, which further facilitated deep sinking of the outflows from the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. Ensuing spreading of the newly formed deep water along the bottom caused upward displacements of thermocline, which may have profound effects on the water exchanges in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and the functioning of the ecosystem in the Red Sea by changing the vertical distributions of nutrients.

  7. Effect of Minerals on Intestinal IgA Production Using Deep Sea Water Drinks.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Hisashi; Fujino, Maho; Shirakawa, Naoki; Ishida, Nanao; Funato, Hiroki; Hirata, Ayumu; Abe, Noriaki; Iizuka, Michiro; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Minerals are essential for life, as they are a vital part of protein constituents, enzyme cofactors, and other components in living organisms. Deep sea water is characterized by its cleanliness and stable low temperature, and its possible health- and medical benefits are being studied. However, no study has yet evaluated the physical properties of the numerous commercially available deep sea water products, which have varying water sources and production methods. We analyzed these products' mineral content and investigated their effect on living organism, focusing on immune functions, and investigated the relation between physiological immunoactivities and mineral intake. We qualitatively analyzed the mineral compositions of the deep sea water drinks and evaluated the drinks' physical properties using principal component analysis, a type of multivariate analysis, of their mineral content. We create an iron and copper-deficient rat model and administered deep sea water drinks for 8 weeks. We then measured their fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) to evaluate immune function. Principal component analysis suggested that physical properties of deep sea water drinks could be determined by their sources. Administration of deep sea water drinks increased fecal IgA, thus tending to stimulate immune function, but the extent of this effect varied by drink. Of the minerals contained in deep sea water, iron showed positive correlations with the fecal IgA. The principal component analysis used in this study is suitable for evaluating deep sea water containing many minerals, and our results form a useful basis for comparative evaluations of deep sea water's bioactivity.

  8. Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.

    Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most pollutedmore » regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.« less

  9. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2017-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  10. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  11. Microplastics in the Baltic Sea water: fibers everywhere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatmullina, Lilia; Bagaev, Andrey; Chubarenko, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Presence of thin synthetic fibres (microfibres, tens of micrometres in diameter) in the surface waters and sediments is documented in different studies; however, the data on their exact abundances in the marine environment are commonly not presented owing to the shortcomings of the sampling procedure and general absence of well-established methodology for microplastics data collection. Nevertheless, we made an attempt to qualitatively analyse the amounts of microplastic fibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea. Water samples acquired during 6 cruises over the Baltic Sea Proper in 2015-2016 were filtered using 174 μm filters, which were subsequently analysed by microscope. From the total of 95 examined filters, 63% contained fibres. They were identified by colour and the reaction to the mechanical action of a thin needle: justification of anthropogenic origin was considered to be enough; any questionable objects were discarded. Fibres comprise more than 90% of the whole microplastic particles found in the near-bottom layers in the coastal zone and around 24% of microplastics in the surface and intermediate waters, with mean concentrations of 0.71 and 0.07 fibres per litre, respectively. Although the methodology still requires a lot of enhancement, even the preliminary results indicate ubiquitous distribution of the microfibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea with surface and bottom layers revealing higher abundances of microfibres in comparison with intermediate layers, and open-sea waters being less contaminated than the coastal ones. Apart from enhancing the sampling technics, we consider that it is crucial to understand principal physical features of fibers behavior in the marine environment (e.g., settling, entrainment by currents), as it would provide an opportunity to parameterize their transport and further on to model distribution of fibers in the water column. The research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant number 15-17-10020.

  12. Surface Characterization on Corrosion By-products on Cu in Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper is widely used in house-hold plumbing due to its anti-corrosion property. However, as water travels within the distribution system into corroded copper pipes, copper may be released into consumer’s tap causing major problems. In an attempt to understand the mechanism and...

  13. Quantifying surface water runoff from Wadi Arogut towards the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Stefan; Khayat, Saed; Marei, Amer

    2015-04-01

    The surrounded area of the Dead Sea, especially the west side suffers from many hydrological problems. While the Dead Sea level drop considered a major problem that affect the quality of the surrounded freshwater resources, a lot of the surface water flood from the adjacent Wadi are lost through direct run off without any exploitation. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a type of balance between surface water exploitation through the Wadi and at the same time allow a sufficient amount of flow to the Dead Sea to ensure its sustainability. In this study, we choose one of the larger tributaries in the western side of the Dead Sea basin. The stream was modelled for runoff response to different rainfall amount and climate conditions (dry, normal, and wet seasons) which were chosen from the rainy seasons in the previous 30 years. Finally, the amount of surface water contribution from each of the three seasons of the Dead Sea was quantified. The outcome of the model shows the results from the normal rainy season, which is frequently reoccurs and common in the region. The model data show that such events normally contribute with about 18-22 MCM annually to the Dead Sea. The problem is with the recurrence of dry season such as 2005/2006, by which the amount of the surface water decrease and consequently has adverse effect on the Dead Sea. However, the presence of less frequent thunder storm season such as that one in 1991/1992 has also a positive effect on the Dead Sea level. In the rainy season 1991/1992 there was a higher amount of rainfall over the study area that reaches around 155 MCM. Despite the presence of this high amount most of the recharge lost to the ground as groundwater recharge. The high amount of rain increases the amount of inundated surface water out of the Wadi banks and covers more surfaces all over the study area, which in role promote more water loss to the ground. That is why the total loss (rather than surface runoff) was much higher (77

  14. Fabrication of durable copper plating superhydrophobic surface with improved corrosion resistance and oil-water separation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yichao; Xiao, Xinyan; Ye, Zhihao; Ji, Qiang; Xie, Wei

    2018-02-01

    A mechanical durable superhydrophobic copper-plated stainless steel mesh was successfully fabricated by an electrodeposition process and 1-octadecanethiol modification. The as-prepared superhydrophobic mesh displays water contact angle of 153° and shows excellent anti-corrosion and water-oil separation properties in the condition of 0.1 A/cm2 current density for 35 s. In comparison with bare stainless steel mesh, the corrosion current of the as-prepared superhydrophobic mesh is close to 1/6 of the former. Meanwhile, the as-prepared superhydrophobic mesh could continuously separate oil from oil-water mixtures. The separation efficiency of continuous separation is as high as 96% and shows less than 1% decrease after ten cycles.

  15. γ-radiation induced corrosion of copper in bentonite-water systems under anaerobic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karin Norrfors, K.; Björkbacka, Åsa; Kessler, Amanda; Wold, Susanna; Jonsson, Mats

    2018-03-01

    In this work we have experimentally studied the impact of bentonite clay on the process of radiation-induced copper corrosion in anoxic water. The motivation for this is to further develop our understanding of radiation-driven processes occurring in deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel where copper canisters containing the spent nuclear fuel will be embedded in compacted bentonite. Experiments on radiation-induced corrosion in the presence and absence of bentonite were performed along with experiments elucidating the impact irradiation on the Cu2+ adsorption capacity of bentonite. The experiments presented in this work show that the presence of bentonite clay has no or very little effect on the magnitude of radiation-induced corrosion of copper in anoxic aqueous systems. The absence of a protective effect similar to that observed for radiation-induced dissolution of UO2 is attributed to differences in the corrosion mechanism. This provides further support for the previously proposed mechanism where the hydroxyl radical is the key radiolytic oxidant responsible for the corrosion of copper. The radiation effect on the bentonite sorption capacity of Cu2+ (reduced capacity) is in line with what has previously been reported for other cations. The reduced cation sorption capacity is partly attributed to a loss of Al-OH sites upon irradiation.

  16. Projecting Future Sea Level Rise for Water Resources Planning in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Kao, K.; Chung, F.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level rise is one of the major concerns for the management of California's water resources. Higher water levels and salinity intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta could affect water supplies, water quality, levee stability, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna species and their habitat. Over the 20th century, sea levels near San Francisco Bay increased by over 0.6ft. Some tidal gauge and satellite data indicate that rates of sea level rise are accelerating. Sea levels are expected to continue to rise due to increasing air temperatures causing thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of land-based ice such as ice on Greenland and in southeastern Alaska. For water planners, two related questions are raised on the uncertainty of future sea levels. First, what is the expected sea level at a specific point in time in the future, e.g., what is the expected sea level in 2050? Second, what is the expected point of time in the future when sea levels will exceed a certain height, e.g., what is the expected range of time when the sea level rises by one foot? To address these two types of questions, two factors are considered: (1) long term sea level rise trend, and (2) local extreme sea level fluctuations. A two-step approach will be used to develop sea level rise projection guidelines for decision making that takes both of these factors into account. The first step is developing global sea level rise probability distributions for the long term trends. The second step will extend the approach to take into account the effects of local astronomical tides, changes in atmospheric pressure, wind stress, floods, and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. In this paper, the development of the first step approach is presented. To project the long term sea level rise trend, one option is to extend the current rate of sea level rise into the future. However, since recent data indicate rates of sea level rise are accelerating, methods for estimating sea level rise

  17. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  18. The Caspian Sea water dynamics based on satellite imagery and altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Lebedev, Sergey

    The Caspian Sea water dynamics is poorly known due to a lack of special hydrographic measurements. The known schemes of general circulation of the sea proposed by N.M. Knipovich in 1914-1915 and 1921, A.I. Mikhalevskiy (1931), G.N. Zaitsev (1935) and V.N. Zenin (1942) represent the basin-scale cyclonic gyres in the Middle and Southern Caspian, and no clear scheme for the shallow Northern Caspian. Later numerical models could move forward from these simple schemes of circulation to the more detailed seasonal or climatic schemes of currents, but different approaches and models give different results which significantly differ from each other (Trukhchev et al., 1995; Ibrayev et al., 2003, 2010; Popov, 2004, 2009; Knysh et al., 2008). Satellite monitoring of the Caspian Sea, we perform since 2000, is a useful tool for investigation of water dynamics in the Caspian Sea. To determine mesoscale water structure and dynamics, we used different kind of physical (SST and ice), chemical (suspended matter and water turbidity) and biological (chlorophyll concentration and algal bloom) tracers on satellite imagery. Satellite altimetry (sea level anomalies in combination with the mean dynamic level derived from numerical modeling) provides fields of currents in the whole Caspian Sea on a regular basis (every 10 days). Seasonal fields of currents derived from satellite altimetry also differ from those obtained in numerical models. Finally, we show the results of the first drifter experiment performed in the Caspian Sea in 2006-2008 in the framework of the MACE Project. Special attention is paid to the seasonal upwelling along the eastern coast of the sea, coastal currents, and a giant intrusion of warm water from the Southern to the Middle Caspian Sea.

  19. Structure of the shelf and slope waters of the Antarctic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonova, Ksenia; Antipov, Nikolay; Gangnus, Ivan; Maslennikov, Vyacheslav

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of present work is to consider characteristics of shelf and slope waters in the Commonwealth, Ross, Amundson and Bellingshausen Seas. Data of Russian surveys led during the Antarctic summer of 2006 - 2014 on RV "Academic Fedorov"and "Academic Treshnikov"was analyzed. Distribution of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, silicate, phosphates and nitrates in the water masses of the Commonwealth and Amundsen seas was shown. Significant differences in the structures of the shelf and slope waters of the seas were observed. A water structure at the oceanological sections of the Commonwealth Sea was constituted by the Antarctic Surface Water (AASW) with enough high concentration of silicate, nitrate nitrogen and phosphates compare with other areas of the World Ocean; the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) characterized by a minimum of the oxygen content, and a maximum of nutrient concentrations; The Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) primary characterized by a salinity maximum and a minimum of nutritive salts as well; and the Antarctic Bottom water (AABW). It was shown that the local cold, salt and dense Antarctic Shelf water (ASW) formed in the shelf area of the Commonwealth Sea. The characteristics of ASW were defined. The ASW mixed with the CDW and their mixture (The Bottom Water of the Prydz Bay (BWPB)) moved down along the slope, and reached the bottom.The characteristics of the BWPB were analyzed. The BWPB was defined by higher content of dissolved oxygen (more 5.5 ml/l) and lower contents of biogenic elements (silicon - low 120 µМ, phosphates - low 2.35 µМ and nitrates - low 29 µМ) in the bottom layer at the slope compared with the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) characteristics. Interannual variability of characteristics of the water masses was observed on the repeated oceanological section along 70° E in the Commonwealth Sea. It was shown that characteristics and structure of the BWPB undergo appreciable changes year by year. The

  20. Investigation of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Ultrahigh-Purity Water and Steam Systems by Surface Analytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xia; Iacocca, Ronald G.; Bustard, Bethany L.; Kemp, Craig A. J.

    2010-02-01

    Stainless steel pipes with different degrees of rouging and a Teflon®-coated rupture disc with severe corrosion were thoroughly investigated by combining multiple surface analytical techniques. The surface roughness and iron oxide layer thickness increase with increasing rouge severity, and the chromium oxide layer coexists with the iron oxide layer in samples with various degrees of rouging. Unlike the rouging observed for stainless steel pipes, the fast degradation of the rupture disc was caused by a crevice corrosion environment created by perforations in the protective Teflon coating. This failure analysis clearly shows the highly corrosive nature of ultrapure water used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, and demonstrates some of the unexpected corrosion mechanisms that can be encountered in these environments.

  1. Multidecadal variations in the early Holocene outflow of Red Sea Water into the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S. J. A.; Ganssen, G. M.; Davies, G. R.

    2001-12-01

    We present Holocene stable oxygen isotope data from the deep Arabian Sea off Somalia at a decadal time resolution as a proxy for the history of intermediate/upper deep water. These data show an overall δ18O reduction by 0.5‰ between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. superimposed upon short-term δ18O variations at a decadal-centennial timescale. The amplitude of the decadal variations is 0.3‰ prior, and up to 0.6‰ subsequent, to ˜8.1 kyr B.P. We conclude from modeling experiments that the short-term δ18O variations between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. most likely document changes in the evaporation-precipitation balance in the central Red Sea. Changes in water temperature and salinity cause the outflowing Red Sea Water to settle roughly 800 m deeper than today.

  2. Localized corrosion of 316L stainless steel in tritiated water containing aggressive radiolytic and decomposition products at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellanger, G.

    2008-02-01

    Tritium is one of the more important radionuclides used in nuclear industry as plutonium and uranium. The tritium in tritiated water always causes difficulties in nuclear installations, including equipment corrosion. Moreover, with tritiated water there are, in addition, the radiolytic and decomposition products such as hydrogen peroxide formed during decay, chloride ions produced by degradation of organic seals and oils used for tightness and pumping, and acid pH produced by excitation of nitrogen in air by the β - particle. Highly concentrated tritiated water releases energy and its temperature is about 80 °C, moreover heating is necessary in the tritium processes. These conditions highly facilitate the corrosion of stainless steels by pitting and crevice attack. Corrosion tests were performed by electrochemical analysis methods and by visual inspection of the surface of stainless steel.

  3. Demonstration of a Model-Based Technology for Monitoring Water Quality and Corrosion in Water-Distribution systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Kamojjala, 2014, “Real-Time M0deling of Water Distribution Systems: A Case Study ,” Journal AWWA, Vol. 106, No. 9 (September 2014.) Feinauer, Lynn R...Quality and Corrosion in Water-Distribution Systems Final Report on Project F07-AR05 Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to...Final Report on Project F07-AR05 Vicki L. Van Blaricum Construction Engineering Research Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center

  4. Mixing regime of the residual water basins of the Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhitskiy, Alexander; Zavialov, Peter; Kirillin, Georgiy

    2017-04-01

    The Aral Sea, a terminal salt lake in western Central Asia situated at the border between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, was ranked as the fourth largest inland water body in the mid-20th century. However, in the early 1960s, the lake's volume started to decrease rapidly due to severe changes in the Aral's water balance. Thus, the present-day Aral Sea can be considered as a system of separate water bodies with a common origin but very different physical, chemical and biological features. Our previous studies showed that the Large Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas transformed into hyperhaline water bodies, while the Small Aral Sea was a brackish basin with rather similar to the pre-desiccation environment. On the other hand, the Small Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas exhibited a mixed vertical structure, whereas the Western Large Aral Sea (especially the Chernyshev Bay) was strongly stratified. The presented study is focused on the seasonal mixing regimes of the residual basins. Isolation of deep waters from the atmosphere together with low rates of photosynthesis produce deep anoxia observed in the Chernyshev Bay and in the Large Aral. The high amount of organic matter provides a rich source of nutrients for anoxic microorganisms favoring methanogenesis in the bottom layer of the basins. In the Small Aral, the water column remains well-oxygenated down to the bottom throughout most of the year and development of anoxia is unlikely. The mixing regimes of the recently formed residual lakes of the former Aral Sea will provide manifold effect on the ongoing development of the aquatic system in the following decades. The study is based on a field data collected during two surveys of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology to the Aral Sea, which took place in October, 2015 and June, 2016. In situ measurements including CTD profiling and water sampling were carried out in the northern extremity of the western Large Aral (the Chernyshev Bay), in Lake Tshchebas, and in the Small Aral Sea

  5. Evaluation of biological stability and corrosion potential in drinking water distribution systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Chien, C C; Kao, C M; Chen, C W; Dong, C D; Chien, H Y

    2009-06-01

    The appearance of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), microbial regrowth, disinfection by-products (DBPs), and pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems are among those major safe drinking water issues in many countries. The water distribution system of Cheng-Ching Lake Water Treatment Plant (CCLWTP) was selected in this study to evaluate the: (1) fate and transport of AOC, DBPs [e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs)], and other organic carbon indicators in the selected distribution system, (2) correlations between AOC (or DBPs) and major water quality parameters [e.g. dissolved oxygen (DO), free residual chlorine, and bacteria, and (3) causes and significance of corrosion problems of the water pipes in this system. In this study, seasonal water samples were collected from 13 representative locations in the distribution system for analyses of AOC, DBPs, and other water quality indicators. Results indicate that residual free chlorine concentrations in the distribution system met the drinking water standards (0.2 to 1 mg l(-1)) established by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA). Results show that AOC measurements correlated positively with total organic carbon (TOC) and UV-254 (an organic indicator) values in this system. Moreover, AOC concentrations at some locations were higher than the 50 microg acetate-C l(-1) standard established by Taiwan Water Company. This indicates that the microbial regrowth might be a potential water quality problem in this system. Higher DO measurements (>5.7 mg l(-1)) might cause the aerobic biodegradation of THMs and HAAs in the system, and thus, low THMs (<0.035 mg l(-1)) and HAAs (<0.019 mg l(-1)) concentrations were observed at all sampling locations. Results from the observed negative Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values, higher Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) values, and high Fe3+ concentrations at some pipe-end locations indicate that highly oxidative and corrosive conditions occurred

  6. Sea ice and surface water circulation, Alaskan continental shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F. (Principal Investigator); Sharma, G. D.; Burns, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sediments contributed by the Copper River in the Gulf of Alaska are carried westward along the shore as a distinct plume. Oceanic water relatively poor in suspended material appears to intrude near Montague Island, and turbid water between Middleton Island and Kayak Island is the result of Ekman between transport. An anticlockwise surface water circulation is observed in this region. Ground truth data indicate striking similarity with ERTS-1 imagery obtained on October 12, 1972. Observations of ERTS-1 imagery reveal that various characteristics and distribution of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean can be easily studied. Formation of different types of sea ice and their movement is quite discrenible. Sea ice moves parallel to the cost in near shore areas and to the northerly direction away from the coast.

  7. Carbon isotope dynamics in the water column and surface sediments of marginal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, Marko; Liu, Bo; Schmiedinger, Iris; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2017-04-01

    The microbial mineralization of organic matter in marine sediments leads to the accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other metabolites into the interstitial waters. Pore water profiles sensitively reflect the zones of dominant biogeochemical processes, net trans-formation rates, and diffusive and advective transport of dissolved species across the sediment-water interface. They are controlled by different factors like sedimentology, bottom water currents and redox conditions, microbial activity, and the availability of electron acceptors/donors. The biogeochemical processes create steep gradients in DIC and its carbon isotope composition. One boundary condition for transport processes in the sediment is defined by the composition of the water column, which is under impact by physical mixing processes (e.g., salinity gradient; sediment-water exchange), biological activity and carbon dioxide exchange at the water-atmosphere interface. We present here the results of detailed biogeochemical investigations of vertical water column and pore water profiles from two brackish marginal seas: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. The water column on a transect between the North Sea and the southern Baltic Sea as well within the Black Sea were investigated on three cruises with RV MS Merian (MSM33, MSM50, MSM51). In addition, biogeochemical processes and associated element fluxes across the sediment-water interface were studied in key regions of Baltic Sea and Black Sea using pore water and sediment samples retrieved from sediment cores that were collected with a multi-coring device. Water samples were analyzed for metals, nutrients, and metabolites concentrations as well as stable carbon isotope composition of DIC to allow a modeling of steady-state transformation, volumetric transformation rates and element fluxes. The isotope composition of the dissolved inorganic carbon system shows a gradient between the North and the Baltic Sea, following the salinity during

  8. Surface water mass composition changes captured by cores of Arctic land-fast sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. J.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Gough, A. J.; Fukamachi, Y.; Jones, J.

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic, land-fast sea ice growth can be influenced by fresher water from rivers and residual summer melt. This paper examines a method to reconstruct changes in water masses using oxygen isotope measurements of sea ice cores. To determine changes in sea water isotope composition over the course of the ice growth period, the output of a sea ice thermodynamic model (driven with reanalysis data, observations of snow depth, and freeze-up dates) is used along with sea ice oxygen isotope measurements and an isotopic fractionation model. Direct measurements of sea ice growth rates are used to validate the output of the sea ice growth model. It is shown that for sea ice formed during the 2011/2012 ice growth season at Barrow, Alaska, large changes in isotopic composition of the ocean waters were captured by the sea ice isotopic composition. Salinity anomalies in the ocean were also tracked by moored instruments. These data indicate episodic advection of meteoric water, having both lower salinity and lower oxygen isotopic composition, during the winter sea ice growth season. Such advection of meteoric water during winter is surprising, as no surface meltwater and no local river discharge should be occurring at this time of year in that area. How accurately changes in water masses as indicated by oxygen isotope composition can be reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of sea ice cores is addressed, along with methods/strategies that could be used to further optimize the results. The method described will be useful for winter detection of meteoric water presence in Arctic fast ice regions, which is important for climate studies in a rapidly changing Arctic. Land-fast sea ice effective fractionation coefficients were derived, with a range of +1.82‰ to +2.52‰. Those derived effective fractionation coefficients will be useful for future water mass component proportion calculations. In particular, the equations given can be used to inform choices made when

  9. Characterization and corrosion behavior of F6NM stainless steel treated in high temperature water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng-yang; Cai, Zhen-bing; Yang, Wen-jin; Shen, Xiao-yao; Xue, Guo-hong; Zhu, Min-hao

    2018-03-01

    F6NM martensitic stainless steel was exposed to 350 °C water condition for 500, 1500, and 2500 h to simulate pressurized water reactor (PWR) condition. The characterization and corrosion behavior of the oxide film were investigated. Results indicate that the exposed steel surface formed a double-layer oxide film. The outer oxide film is Fe-rich and contains two type oxide particles. However, the inner oxide film is Cr-rich, and two oxide films, whose thicknesses increase with increasing exposure time. The oxide film reduces the corrosion behavior because the outer oxide film has many crack and pores. Finally, the mechanism and factors affecting the formation of the oxide film were investigated.

  10. Duralumin and Its Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, WM

    1927-01-01

    The types of corrosion and factors of corrosion of duralumin are investigated. Salt water is the most common of the corroding media with which designers have to contend in using duralumin in aircraft and ships.

  11. Spectral analysis of optical emission of microplasma in sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaleev, Vladislav; Morita, Hayato; Oh, Jun-Seok; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of optical emission spectra from microplasma in three types of liquid, namely artificial sea water composed of 10 typical agents (10ASW), reference solutions each containing a single agent (NaCl, MgCl2 + H2O, Na2SO4, CaCl2, KCl, NaHCO3, KBr, NaHCO3, H3BO3, SrCl2 + H2O, NaF) and naturally sampled deep sea water (DSW). Microplasma was operated using a needle(Pd)-to-plate(Pt) electrode system sunk into each liquid in a quartz cuvette. The radius of the tip of the needle was 50 μm and the gap between the electrodes was set at 20 μm. An inpulse generator circuit, consisting of a MOSFET switch, a capacitor, an inductor and the resistance of the liquid between the electrodes, was used as a pulse current source for operation of discharges. In the spectra, the emission peaks for the main components of sea water and contaminants from the electrodes were detected. Spectra for reference solutions were examined to enable the identification of unassigned peaks in the spectra for sea water. Analysis of the Stark broadening of H α peak was carried out to estimate the electron density of the plasma under various conditions. The characteristics of microplasma discharge in sea water and the analysis of the optical emission spectra will be presented. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26600129.

  12. Characterization of Copper Corrosion Products in Drinking Water by Combining Electrochemical and Surface Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study focuses on the application of electrochemical approaches to drinking water copper corrosion problems. Applying electrochemical approaches combined with copper solubility measurements, and solid surface analysis approaches were discussed. Tafel extrapolation and Electro...

  13. Sea water rope batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, M.

    1984-05-01

    This research demonstrated the feasibility of supplying approximately 1 watt of electrical power for one year on the sea bed with a novel battery, the rope battery. The proposed battery would look very much like a small diameter wire rope, possibly hundreds of feet long. This unusual shape permits the rope battery to take full advantage of the vastness of the ocean floor and permits at great pressure the steady diffusion of reaction products away from the battery itself. A sea water battery is described consisting of an inner bundle of coated wires which slowly corrode and an outer layer of fine wires which simultaneously provides strength, armor and surface area for slow hydrogen evolution. Two variations are examined. The fuse utilizes magnesium wires and burns slowly from the end. The rope utilizes lithium-zinc alloys and is slowly consumed along its entire length.

  14. Real-World Water System Lead and Copper Corrosion Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides specific background on lead and copper corrosion control chemistry and strategies, and integrates it with other important distribution system corrosion control objectives. Topics covered include: driving force for corrosion (oxidants); impacts of oxida...

  15. The Effect of Some Key Changes in the Chemistry of Water in Relation to Copper and Brass Corrosion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorovei, M. C.; Benea, L.

    2018-06-01

    Corrosion means the degradation of the metals or their alloys, under the action of chemical or electrochemical agents from the environment. The complex corrosion phenomenon has a destructive action, generating undesirable economic consequences: metals and labor losses, appreciable reduction in the lifetime of various metal constructions, insecurity in the operation of industrial machinery. Under the current conditions of accelerated growth in the production of material goods, one of the most important issues is the economy of raw materials and materials, energy and labor force. Copper, having a purity of over 99%, is used in the manufacture of gas and water pipes, roofing materials, utensils and ornamental objects. Brass is used in the manufacture of flexible tubes, pipes, coils, cartridges, various electrochemical parts, jewelry, etc. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of copper and brass in various solutions: with different chloride ions as 35 g/L NaCl, waste water and tap water. The corrosion behavior of copper and brass was analyzed by electrochemical methods, such as: open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Pure copper exhibits more noble potential values than its alloy (brass), according to the evolution of free potential in all tested solutions. After performing the electrochemical assays, ex-situ investigations, by optical microscopy, were made and the results confirm that the chloride ions affect the corrosion behavior of copper and brass. Corrosion of materials is a very important process to consider when choosing a material that has to operate in a specific environment.

  16. Review of Corrosion Fatigue.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-16

    other is not always well defined. 3.0 CORROSIM FATIGUE VARIABLES AND THEIR EFFECTS Corrosion fatigue behavior is pverned, y Ir of variables- environmental...on near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior is primarily a function of environmental reaction in this steel . 3.2 Mechanical Effects Among the...Gallagher""’ and Pao studied the corrosion fatigue behavior of 4340 steel at various * Ifrequencies in distilled water and water vapor, respectively

  17. Proceedings of the 1980 Tri-Service Conference on Corrosion, 5-7 November 1980, US Air Force Academy, Colorado. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    McCourry Warner Robins ALC/MMETC R obins AFB, Georgia Overview -.4Corrosion of Naval, Sea Systems) 41 George A. Wacker, Head Metals Divisioný David...Materials and Structure / Naval Sea Systems Command ( Sea 05R15) Washington, D. C. 20362 Vincent D. Schafer Materials Engineer David Taylor Naval Ship R&D...IL(USAF) -) 1969 Society Activities/Offices: Air Force Association 40 .- - - - ---i/ AFWAL-TR-81-4019 I! CORROSION OF NAVAL SEA SYSTEMS AN OVERVIEW

  18. Evaluation of corrosion and scaling tendency indices in a drinking water distribution system: a case study of Bandar Abbas city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Vali; Dindarloo, Kavoos; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Rezaei, Leila

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion and scaling is a major problem in water distribution systems, thus evaluation of water corrosivity properties is a routine test in water networks. To evaluate water stability in the Bandar Abbas water distribution system, the network was divided into 15 clusters and 45 samples were taken. Langelier, Ryznar, Puckorius, Larson-Skold (LS) and Aggressive indices were determined and compared to the marble test. The mean parameters included were pH (7.8 ± 0.1), electrical conductivity (1,083.9 ± 108.7 μS/cm), total dissolved solids (595.7 ± 54.7 mg/L), Cl (203.5 ± 18.7 mg/L), SO₄(174.7 ± 16.0 mg/L), alkalinity (134.5 ± 9.7 mg/L), total hardness (156.5 ± 9.3 mg/L), HCO₃(137.4 ± 13.0 mg/L) and calcium hardness (71.8 ± 4.3 mg/L). According to the Ryznar, Puckorius and Aggressive Indices, all samples were stable; based on the Langelier Index, 73% of samples were slightly corrosive and the rest were scale forming; according to the LS index, all samples were corrosive. Marble test results showed tested water of all 15 clusters tended to scale formation. Water in Bandar Abbas is slightly scale forming. The most appropriate indices for the network conditions are the Aggressive, Puckorius and Ryznar indices that were consistent with the marble test.

  19. Corrosion protection of reusable surgical instruments.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sadiq; Bernardo, Mildred

    2002-01-01

    To understand the corrosion properties of surgical scissors, 416 stainless steel disks and custom electrodes were used as simulated surfaces under various conditions. These simulated surfaces were exposed to tap water and 400-ppm synthetic hard water as Ca2CO3 under different conditions. The samples were evaluated by various techniques for corrosion potential and the impact of environmental conditions on the integrity of the passive film. The electrodes were used to monitor the corrosion behavior by potentiodynamic polarization technique in water both in the presence and absence of a cleaning product. The surface topography of the 416 stainless steel disks was characterized by visual observations and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface chemistry of the passive film on the surface of the scissors was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggest that surgical instruments made from 416 stainless steel are not susceptible to uniform corrosion; however, they do undergo localized corrosion. The use of suitable cleaning products can offer protection against localized corrosion during the cleaning step. More importantly, the use of potentiodynamic polarization techniques allowed for a quick and convenient approach to evaluate the corrosion properties of surgical instruments under a variety of simulated-use environmental conditions.

  20. Super-Hydrophobic Green Corrosion Inhibitor On Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, H.; Ismail, A.; Ahmad, S.; Soon, C. F.

    2017-06-01

    There are many examples of organic coatings used for corrosion protection. In particular, hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic coatings are shown to give good protection because of their enhanced ability to slow down transport of water and ions through the coating. The purpose of this research is to develop water repellent coating to avoid direct contact between metal and environment corrosive and mitigate corrosion attack at pipeline system. This water repellent characteristic on super-hydrophobic coating was coated by electrodeposition method. Wettability of carbon steel with super-hydrophobic coating (cerium chloride and myristic acid) and oxidized surface was investigated through contact angle and inhibitor performance test. The inhibitor performance was studied in 25% tannin acid corrosion test at 30°C and 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl). The water contact angle test was determined by placing a 4-μL water droplet of distilled water. It shows that the wettability of contact angle super-hydrophobic with an angle of 151.60° at zero minute can be classified as super-hydrophobic characteristic. By added tannin acid as inhibitor the corrosion protection on carbon steel becomes more consistent. This reveals that the ability of the coating to withstand with the corrosion attack in the seawater at different period of immersions. The results elucidate that the weight loss increased as the time of exposure increased. However, the corrosion rates for uncoated carbon steel is high compared to coated carbon steel. As a conclusion, from both samples it can be seen that the coated carbon steel has less corrosion rated compared to uncoated carbon steel and addition of inhibitor to the seawater provides more protection to resist corrosion attack on carbon steel.

  1. Flowing recirculated-water system for inducing laboratory spawning of sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, Kim T.; Seelye, James G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a water-recirculating system for inducing spawning of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) held under laboratory conditions. Water temperature in the system was gradually increased to and maintained at 18 +/- 2 degrees C, the optimal temperature for spawning. About 10% freshwater was added daily to prevent buildup of waste products. Sea lampreys were provided substrate (approximately 3-6 cm in diameter) to build nests, and a water velocity of 0.2-0.3 m/s was maintained with an electric trolling motor. Sea lampreys held in this system exhibited characteristic spawning behavior. Prolarvae produced from artificial fertilization of gametes developed according to the standard timeline.

  2. Hot corrosion of four superalloys - HA-188, S-57, IN-617, and TD-NiCrAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    Cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion tests of two cobalt-base and two nickel-base alloys are reported. The alloys were exposed to maximum temperatures of 900 and 1000 C in a Mach 0.3 burner rig whose flame was doped with various concentrations of sea salt and sodium sulfate for hot corrosion tests. The test data were subjected to a regression analysis for the development of model equations relating corrosion to temperature and for the effects of salt concentration and composition on corrosion. The corrosion resistance varied with temperature, sea salt concentration, and salt composition, concluding that the S-57 cobalt-base alloy was the most hot corrosion-resistant alloy, and the TD-NiCrAl nickel-base alloy was the least resistant. However, under straight oxidation conditions, the TD-NiCrAl was most resistant, while S-57 was the least resistant alloy.

  3. THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF COPPER DRINKING WATER PIPES EXPERIENCING LOCALIZED CORROSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing can eventually lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. A large water system in Florida has been addressing a widespread pinhole...

  4. Improvement of corrosion resistance of low-alloy steels by resurfacing using multifunction cavitation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijiri, Masataka; Yoshimura, Toshihiko

    2018-02-01

    Low-alloy steels are based on carbon steel in combination with several percent or less (in many cases, 1 mass%) alloying elements, and they offer improved resistance to corrosion at a cost slightly higher than that of carbon steel. However, these materials do not exhibit the same corrosion resistance as stainless steel. The authors have previously developed a novel multifunction cavitation (MFC) technique, which combines ultrasonic cavitation with water jet cavitation. In this study, MFC was used to modify the surface of Cr-Mo steel (SCM435) and Ni-Cr-Mo steel (SNCM630). MFC was found to improve the residual stress value of the material as the result of surface modification while also imparting high strength and superior corrosion resistance.

  5. CORROSION EXPERIENCE WITH ALUMINUM POWDER PRODUCTS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Draley, J.E.; Ruther, W.E.; Greenberg, S.

    1963-11-01

    Extrusions of aluminum alloy powder products were obtained from several sources and evaluated for corrosion resistance to high-temperature (260-- 350 deg C) water. Several types of tubing impact-extruded by ALCOA were tested. The stronger tabing (M655) failed very rapidly. The weaker tubing suffered extensive localized surface attack and penetration of the corrosion attack along the extrusion direction after prolonged ( approximates 3 months) exposure to 290 deg C water. A precorrosion heat treatment was effective in reducing both types of attack on the weaker tubing. Armour Research Foundation supplied several types of tubing extraded through a bridge die. All tubesmore » failed on prolonged ( approximates 8 months) corrosion in 290 deg C water at the longitudinal bond lines. These lines were formed by the rejoining of the metal streams passing over the mandrel supports in the die during extrusion. Directly extruded tubing supplied by the Torrance Brass Company also failed on extended exposure to 290 deg C water. Many experimental rod extrusions (from Armour Research Foundation and Trefimetaux) exhibited corrosion resistance to static 290 deg C water equivalent to that of wrought alloys. The Trefimetaux specimens were also tested in rapidly flowing water at 315 deg C. Under these conditions a corrosion rate significantly faster than for the wrought alloy was measured. (auth)« less

  6. Some Thoughts About Water Analysis in Shipboard Steam Propulsion Systems for Marine Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    Information is presented about the problems involved in using sea water in the steam propulsion systems of large, modern ships. Discussions supply background chemical information concerning the problems of corrosion, scale buildup, and sludge production. Suggestions are given for ways to maintain a good water treatment program to effectively deal…

  7. Corrosion Inhibition of Cold-rolled Low Carbon Steel with Pulse Fiber Laser Ablation in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze Ney; Wong, Wai Yin; Walvekar, Rashmi; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Khalid, Mohammad; Lim, Kean Long

    2018-04-01

    This study aims at the use of a fiber laser for modifying the surface properties of cold-rolled low carbon steel via a pulse laser ablation technique in water. The effect on the corrosion behavior of the fiber laser-treated metal surface was investigated in NaCl and HCl environments. Electrochemical tests showed significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of the laser-treated sample in NaCl, with an increase in open-circuit potential (OCP) from - 0.65 to - 0.60 V and an inhibition efficiency of 89.22% as obtained from the impedance study. Such improvement was less significant in an acidic environment. Lower corrosion rates of 20.9 mpy and 5.819 × 103 mpy were obtained for the laser-treated samples in neutral and acidic electrolytes, respectively, than the corrosion rates obtained for the as-received samples (33.2 mpy and 11.98 × 103 mpy). Morphological analysis indicated a passive film built by spherical grains of regular size on the metal surface after laser treatment. The corrosion inhibition effects in NaCl were evident by the nonexistence of the common corrosion products of lepidocrocite and crystalline structures that were seen on as-received samples; only polyhedral crystals with micrograins grown on them were seen covering the laser-treated surface. Therefore, the laser treatment using a fiber laser source improved the corrosion resistance of cold-rolled low carbon steel.

  8. The corrosion behavior of Alloy 52 weld metal in cyclic hydrogenated and oxygenated water chemistry in high temperature aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2015-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of Alloy 52 weld metal in cyclic hydrogenated and oxygenated water chemistry in high temperature water is studied by in situ monitoring corrosion potential (Ecorr), contact electric resistance (CER) and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS), and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The Ecorr and film resistance show large change when the environment is changed from hydrogenated water to oxygenated water and changeable with changing environment while the morphology and composition only show obvious distinction in the first cycle. The main factor controlling the electric/electrochemical properties of the oxide film is Ecorr.

  9. Air-sea heat flux control on the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass intensity and implications for its prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junying; Shi, Jie; Guo, Xinyu; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2018-01-01

    The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM), which occurs during summer in the central Yellow Sea, plays an important role in the hydrodynamic field, nutrient cycle and biological species. Based on water temperature observations during the summer from 1978 to 1998 in the western Yellow Sea, five specific YSCWM years were identified, including two strong years (1984 and 1985), two weak years (1989 and 1995) and one normal year (1992). Using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the YSCWM formation processes in these five years were simulated and compared with observations. In general, the YSCWM began forming in spring, matured in summer and gradually disappeared in autumn of every year. The 8 °C isotherm was used to indicate the YSCWM boundary. The modelled YSCWM areas in the two strong years were approximately two times larger than those in the two weak years. Based on the simulations in the weak year of 1995, ten numerical experiments were performed to quantify the key factors influencing the YSCWM intensity by changing the initial water condition in the previous autumn, air-sea heat flux, wind, evaporation, precipitation and sea level pressure to those in the strong year of 1984, respectively. The results showed that the air-sea heat flux was the dominant factor influencing the YSCWM intensity, which contributed about 80% of the differences of the YSCWM average water temperature at a depth of 50 m. In addition, the air-sea heat flux in the previous winter had a determining effect, contributing more than 50% of the differences between the strong and weak YSCWM years. Finally, a simple formula for predicting the YSCWM intensity was established by using the key influencing factors, i.e., the sea surface temperature before the cooling season and the air-sea heat flux during the cooling season from the previous December to the current February. With this formula, instead of a complicated numerical model, we were able to roughly predict the YSCWM intensity for the

  10. Evaluation of shuttle solid rocket booster case materials. Corrosion and stress corrosion susceptibility of several high temperature materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pionke, L. J.; Garland, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    Candidate alloys for the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) case were tested under simulated service conditions to define subcritical flaw growth behavior under both sustained and cyclic loading conditions. The materials evaluated were D6AC and 18 Ni maraging steel, both heat treated to a nominal yield strength of 1380 MN/sq m (200 ksi). The sustained load tests were conducted by exposing precracked, stressed specimens of both alloys to alternate immersion in synthetic sea water. It was found that the corrosion and stress corrosion resistance of the 18 Ni maraging steel were superior to that of the D6AC steel under these test conditions. It was also found that austenitizing temperature had little influence on the threshold stress intensity of the D6AC. The cyclic tests were conducted by subjecting precracked surface-flawed specimens of both alloys to repeated load/thermal/environmental profiles which were selected to simulate the SRB missions. It was found that linear removal operations that involve heating to 589 K (600 F) cause a decrease in cyclic life of D6AC steel relative to those tests conducted with no thermal cycling.

  11. Corrosion and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water Dispersed with Carboxylate Additives and Multi Walled Carbon Nano Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, Chellapilla V. K. N. S. N.; Srinivas, Vadapalli

    2016-10-01

    This paper summarizes a recent work on anti-corrosive properties and enhanced heat transfer properties of carboxylated water based nanofluids. Water mixed with sebacic acid as carboxylate additive found to be resistant to corrosion and suitable for automotive environment. The carboxylated water is dispersed with very low mass concentration of carbon nano tubes at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 %. The stability of nanofluids in terms of zeta potential is found to be good with carboxylated water compared to normal water. The heat transfer performance of nanofluids is carried out on an air cooled heat exchanger similar to an automotive radiator with incoming air velocities across radiator at 5, 10 and 15 m/s. The flow Reynolds number of water is in the range of 2500-6000 indicating developing flow regime. The corrosion resistance of nanofluids is found to be good indicating its suitability to automotive environment. There is a slight increase in viscosity and marginal decrease in the specific heat of nanofluids with addition of carboxylate as well as CNTs. Significant improvement is observed in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids dispersed with CNTs. During heat transfer experimentation, the inside heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient has also improved markedly. It is also found that the velocity of air and flow rate of coolant plays an important role in enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient.

  12. Coccolithophore assemblage response to Black Sea Water inflow into the North Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsolis, B.-Th.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Dimiza, M. D.; Malinverno, E.; Lagaria, A.; Mara, P.; Archontikis, O.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to presents the species composition of living coccolithophore communities in the NE Aegean Sea, investigating their spatial and temporal variations along a north-south transect in the area receiving the inflowing surface Black Sea Water (BSW) over the deeper Levantine Water (LW) layer. Coccolithophores in the area were relatively diverse and a total of 95 species over 3 sampling periods studied were recognized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished two coccolithophore Groups (I, IIa, IIb, IIc) with different ecological preferences. Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant species of Group I, whereas Syracosphaera spp., Rhabdosphaera spp. and holococcolithophores were prevailing in the highly diversified Group II assemblages. Biometric analysis conducted on E. huxleyi coccoliths from Aegean water column and Black Sea sediment trap samples, indicated that during autumn, NE Aegean specimens in samples under BSW influence were featured by unimodal distribution concerning the coccolith relative tube width, with values similar to those provided by the Black Sea specimens. In early spring, coccoliths in the stations with increased BSW influx displayed a bimodal pattern of relative tube width with smaller values found mostly in the surface layers, while the distribution became again unimodal and dominated by larger values within the deeper LW layers. In the summer period, the typical LW holococcolithophore species (Group II) presented low cell numbers in the surface layer (<20 m), which is their usual ecological niche in the Aegean Sea, compared to greater depths, therefore marking LW mass flowing beneath the less saline BSW surface lid. In contrast to Black Sea early summer bloom conditions, E. huxleyi was almost absent in the NE Aegean during the summer sampling period.

  13. Corrosion and Protection of Metal in the Seawater Desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiangyu; Gao, Lili; Cui, Zhendong; Yin, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Seawater desalination develops rapid for it can solve water scarcity efficiently. However, corrosion problem in the seawater desalination system is more serious than that in normal water. So, it is important to pay attention to the corrosion and protection of metal in seawater desalination. The corrosion characteristics and corrosion types of metal in the seawater desalination system are introduced in this paper; In addition, corrosion protect methods and main influencing factors are stated, the latest new technologies about anti-corrosion with quantum energy assisted and magnetic inhibitor are presented.

  14. Interaction of sea water and lava during submarine eruptions at mid-ocean ridges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perfit, M.R.; Cann, J.R.; Fornari, D.J.; Engels, J.; Smith, D.K.; Ridley, W.I.; Edwards, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Lava erupts into cold sea water on the ocean floor at mid-ocean ridges (at depths of 2,500 m and greater), and the resulting flows make up the upper part of the global oceanic crust. Interactions between heated sea water and molten basaltic lava could exert significant control on the dynamics of lava flows and on their chemistry. But it has been thought that heating sea water at pressures of several hundred bars cannot produce significant amounts of vapour and that a thick crust of chilled glass on the exterior of lava flows minimizes the interaction of lava with sea water. Here we present evidence to the contrary, and show that bubbles of vaporized sea water often rise through the base of lava flows and collect beneath the chilled upper crust. These bubbles of steam at magmatic temperatures may interact both chemically and physically with flowing lava, which could influence our understanding of deep-sea volcanic processes and oceanic crustal construction more generally. We infer that vapour formation plays an important role in creating the collapse features that characterize much of the upper oceanic crust and may accordingly contribute to the measured low seismic velocities in this layer.

  15. Optimizaton of corrosion control for lead in drinking water using computational modeling techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational modeling techniques have been used to very good effect in the UK in the optimization of corrosion control for lead in drinking water. A “proof-of-concept” project with three US/CA case studies sought to demonstrate that such techniques could work equally well in the...

  16. Corrosion behavior of alloy 800H (Fe-21Cr-32Ni) in supercritical water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tan, Lizhen; Allen, Todd R.; Yang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The effect of testing conditions (temperature, time, and oxygen content) and material's microstructure (the as-received and the grain boundary engineered conditions) on the corrosion behavior of alloy 800H in high-temperature pressurized water was studied using a variety of characterization techniques. Oxidation was observed as the primary corrosion behavior on the samples. Oxide exfoliation was significantly mitigated on the grain boundary engineered samples compared to the as-received ones. The oxide formation, including some 'mushroom-shaped oxidation', is predicted via a combination of thermodynamics and kinetics influenced by the preferential diffusion of specific species using short-cut diffusion paths.

  17. Formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy S.; Smethie, William M.; Pratt, Larry J.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrographic data, chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements collected in March 2010 and September-October 2011 in the Red Sea, as well as an idealized numerical experiment are used to study the formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) in the Red Sea. Analysis of inert tracers, potential vorticity distributions, and model results confirm that RSOW is formed through mixed-layer deepening caused by sea surface buoyancy loss in winter in the northern Red Sea and reveal more details on RSOW spreading rates, pathways, and vertical structure. The southward spreading of RSOW after its formation is identified as a layer with minimum potential vorticity and maximum CFC-12 and SF6. Ventilation ages of seawater within the RSOW layer, calculated from the partial pressure of SF6 (pSF6), range from 2 years in the northern Red Sea to 15 years at 17°N. The distribution of the tracer ages is in agreement with the model circulation field which shows a rapid transport of RSOW from its formation region to the southern Red Sea where there are longer circulation pathways and hence longer residence time due to basin wide eddies. The mean residence time of RSOW within the Red Sea estimated from the pSF6 age is 4.7 years. This time scale is very close to the mean transit time (4.8 years) for particles from the RSOW formation region to reach the exit at the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the numerical experiment.

  18. Characterization of Copper Corrosion Products Formed in Drinking Water by Combining Electrochemical and Surface Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study focuses on the application of electrochemical approaches to drinking water copper corrosion problems. Applying electrochemical approaches combined with copper solubility measurements, and solid surface analysis approaches were discussed. Tafel extrapolation and Electro...

  19. Treatment with activated water by GlidArc technology of bacteria producing Biofouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Ghita, S.; Sabau, A.; Hnatiuc, M.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Wartel, M.

    2015-02-01

    Corrosion in marine environment is an actual problem, being a complex dynamic process influenced mainly by physical, chemical, microbiological and mechanical parameters. Around 70% of the maintenance costs of a ship are associated with the corrosion protection. Times for maintenance related to this phenomenon are greater than 80% of the total repair. Reducing this cost would be a significant saving, and an effective treatment can reduce times related to ships repairing. Biofouling is a main cause of corrosion and for its reduction different methods could be applied, especially in the first part of its production. The atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas have been gaining an ever increasing interest for different biodecontamination applications and present potential utilisation in the control of biofouling and biodeterioration. They have a high efficiency of the antimicrobial treatment, including capacity to eradicate microbial biofilms. The adhesion microbial biofilm is mainly influenced by presence of bacteria from the liquid environment. That is why this work concerns the study of annihilation of maximum amount of bacteria from sea water, by using GlidArc technology that produces non-thermal plasma. Bacteria suspended in sea water are placed in contact with activated water. This water is activated by using GlidArc working in humid air. Experimental results refer to the number of different activated and inactivated marine organisms and their evolution, present in solution at certain time intervals after mixing different amounts of seawater with plasma activated water.

  20. Speciation And Distribution Of Vanadium In Drinking Water Iron Pipe Corrosion By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (> 15 µg L-1) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb5(V5+

  1. An effective and novel pore sealing agent to enhance the corrosion resistance performance of Al coating in artificial ocean water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han-Seung; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Ismail, Mohamed A.

    2017-02-01

    A new technique was accepted to fill the porosity of Al coating applied by arc thermal spray process to enhance corrosion resistance performance in artificial ocean water. The porosity is the inherent property of arc thermal spray coating process. In this study, applied coating was treated with different concentrations of ammonium phosphate mono basic (NH4H2PO4: AP) solution thereafter dried at room temperature and kept in humidity chamber for 7d to deposit uniform film. The corrosion resistance of Al coating and treated samples have been evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic techniques with exposure periods in artificial ocean water. Electrochemical techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicated that phosphate ion would have been retarding corrosion of Al coating effectively. The formation of AHP (Ammonium Aluminum Hydrogen Phosphate Hydrate: NH4)3Al5H6(PO4)8.18H2O) on Al coating surface after treatment with AP is nano sized, crystalline and uniformly deposited but after exposure them in artificial ocean water, they form AHPH (Aluminum hydroxide phosphate hydrate Al3(PO4)2(OH)3(H2O)5) that is very protective, adherent, uniform and plate like morphology of corrosion products. The AHPH is sparingly soluble and adherent to surface and imparted improved corrosion resistance.

  2. Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors on In Situ Leak Repair by Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in Potable Water Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Devine, Christina L; Edwards, Marc A

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion inhibitors can affect calcium carbonate precipitation and associated in situ and in-service water distribution pipeline leak repair via clogging. Clogging of 150 μm diameter leak holes represented by glass capillary tubes, in recirculating solutions that are supersaturated with calcite (Ω calcite = 13), demonstrated that Zn, orthophosphate, tripolyphosphate, and hexametaphosphate corrosion/scaling inhibitors hinder clogging but natural organic matter (NOM) has relatively little impact. Critical concentrations of phosphates that could inhibit leak repair over the short-term in one water tested were: tripolyphophate (0.05 mg/L as P) < hexametaphosphate (0.1 mg/L) < orthophosphate (0.3 mg/L). Inhibitor blends (Zn+orthophosphate and Zn+NOM+orthophosphate) had stronger inhibitory effects compared to each inhibitor (Zn, orthophosphate or NOM) alone, whereas Zn+NOM showed a lesser inhibitory effect than its individual component (NOM) alone due to formation of smaller CaCO 3 particles with a much more negative zeta-potential. Overall, increased dosing of corrosion inhibitors is probably reducing the likelihood of scaling and in-service leak repair via clogging with calcium carbonate solids in potable water systems.

  3. From Offshore to Onshore: Multiple Origins of Shallow-Water Corals from Deep-Sea Ancestors

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Alberto; Cairns, Stephen D.; Cunningham, Clifford W.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow-water tropical reefs and the deep sea represent the two most diverse marine environments. Understanding the origin and diversification of this biodiversity is a major quest in ecology and evolution. The most prominent and well-supported explanation, articulated since the first explorations of the deep sea, holds that benthic marine fauna originated in shallow, onshore environments, and diversified into deeper waters. In contrast, evidence that groups of marine organisms originated in the deep sea is limited, and the possibility that deep-water taxa have contributed to the formation of shallow-water communities remains untested with phylogenetic methods. Here we show that stylasterid corals (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae)—the second most diverse group of hard corals—originated and diversified extensively in the deep sea, and subsequently invaded shallow waters. Our phylogenetic results show that deep-water stylasterid corals have invaded the shallow-water tropics three times, with one additional invasion of the shallow-water temperate zone. Our results also show that anti-predatory innovations arose in the deep sea, but were not involved in the shallow-water invasions. These findings are the first robust evidence that an important group of tropical shallow-water marine animals evolved from deep-water ancestors. PMID:18560569

  4. Current NRC Perspectives Concerning Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, David; Dunn, Darrell

    Materials currently used in nuclear power plants are reliable and are generally resistant to environmental degradation. However, occurrences of environmental degradation have been observed as the current fleet of reactors ages. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is of particular interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper provides a historical assessment of operating experience associated with PWSCC and welding issues associated with PWSCC resistant materials. The paper also considers the regulatory issues associated with PWSCC, especially those associated with gaps in the understanding of the behavior of PWSCC resistant material under actual reactor conditions.

  5. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  6. Corrosion inhibitors for concrete bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-12-01

    Deicing salts and salt-water spray can cause serious corrosion problems for reinforced concrete bridge structures. : These problems can lead to costly and labor-intensive repair and even replacement of the structure. Surface applied : corrosion inhib...

  7. Importance of the Gulf of Aqaba for the formation of bottom water in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plähn, Olaf; Baschek, Burkard; Badewien, Thomas H.; Walter, Maren; Rhein, Monika

    2002-08-01

    Conductivity-temperature-depth tracer and direct current measurements collected in the northern Red Sea in February and March 1999 are used to study the formation of deep and bottom water in that region. Historical data showed that open ocean convection in the Red Sea can contribute to the renewal of intermediate or deep water but cannot ventilate the bottom water. The observations in 1999 showed no evidence for open ocean convection in the Red Sea during the winter 1998/1999. The overflow water from the Gulf of Aqaba was found to be the densest water mass in the northern Red Sea. An anomaly of the chlorofluorocarbon component CFC-12 observed in the Gulf of Aqaba and at the bottom of the Red Sea suggests a strong contribution of this water mass to the renewal of bottom water in the Red Sea. The CFC data obtained during this cruise are the first available for this region. Because of the new signal, it is possible for the first time to subdivide the deep water column into deep and bottom water in the northern Red Sea. The available data set also shows that the outflow water from the Gulf of Suez is not dense enough to reach down to the bottom of the Red Sea but was found about 250 m above the bottom.

  8. A linked hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung, E.G.; Schladow, S.G.; Perez-Losada, J.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2008-01-01

    A linked hydrodynamic and water quality model was developed and applied to the Salton Sea. The hydrodynamic component is based on the one-dimensional numerical model, DLM. The water quality model is based on a new conceptual model for nutrient cycling in the Sea, and simulates temperature, total suspended sediment concentration, nutrient concentrations, including PO4-3, NO3-1 and NH4+1, DO concentration and chlorophyll a concentration as functions of depth and time. Existing water temperature data from 1997 were used to verify that the model could accurately represent the onset and breakup of thermal stratification. 1999 is the only year with a near-complete dataset for water quality variables for the Salton Sea. The linked hydrodynamic and water quality model was run for 1999, and by adjustment of rate coefficients and other water quality parameters, a good match with the data was obtained. In this article, the model is fully described and the model results for reductions in external phosphorus load on chlorophyll a distribution are presented. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 600 in PWR primary water

    DOE PAGES

    Zhai, Ziqing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; ...

    2017-04-27

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation of three mill-annealed alloy 600 heats in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water has been investigated using constant load tests equipped with in-situ direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurement capabilities. SCC initiation times were greatly reduced by a small amount of cold work. Shallow intergranular attack and/or cracks were found on most high-energy grain boundaries intersecting the surface with only a small fraction evolving into larger cracks and intergranular SCC growth. Crack depth profiles were measured and related to DCPD-detected initiation response. Lastly, we discuss processes controlling the SCC initiation in mill-annealed alloy 600.

  10. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 600 in PWR primary water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation of three mill-annealed alloy 600 heats in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water has been investigated using constant load tests equipped with in-situ direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurement capabilities. SCC initiation times were greatly reduced by a small amount of cold work. Shallow intergranular attack and/or cracks were found on most high-energy grain boundaries intersecting the surface with only a small fraction evolving into larger cracks and intergranular SCC growth. Crack depth profiles were measured and related to DCPD-detected initiation response. Lastly, we discuss processes controlling the SCC initiation in mill-annealed alloy 600.

  11. The formation of Greenland Sea Deep Water: double diffusion or deep convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. Allyn; Swift, James H.; Reid, Joseph L.; Koltermann, K. Peter

    1990-09-01

    An examination of the extensive hydrographic data sets collected by C.S.S. Hudson and F.S. Meteor in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas during February-June 1982 reveals property distributions and circulation patterns broadly similar to those seen in earlier data sets. These data sets, however, reveal the even stronger role played by topography, with evidence of separate circulation patterns and separate water masses in each of the deep basins. The high precision temperature, salinity and oxygen data obtained reveals significant differences in the deep and bottom waters found in the various basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. A comparison of the 1982 data set with earlier sets shows that the renewal of Greenland Sea Deep Water must have taken place sometime over the last decade; however there is no evidence that deep convective renewal of any of the deep and bottom waters in this region was taking place at the time of the observations. The large-scale density fields, however, do suggest that deep convection to the bottom is most likely to occure in the Greenland Basin due to its deep cyclonic circulation. The hypothesis that Greenland Sea Deep Water (GSDW) is formed through dipycnal mixing processes acting on the warm salty core of Atlantic Water entering the Greenland Sea is examined. θ-S correlations and oxygen concentrations suggest that the salinity maxima in the Greenland Sea are the product of at least two separate mixing processes, not the hypothesized single mixing process leading to GSDW. A simple one-dimensional mixed layer model with ice growth and decay demonstrates that convective renewal of GSDW would have occurred within the Greenland Sea had the winter been a little more severe. The new GSDW produced would have only 0.003 less salt and less than 0.04 ml 1 -1 greater oxygen concentration than that already in the basin. Consequently, detection of whether new deep water has been produced following a winter cooling season could be difficult even

  12. Electrical guidance efficiency of downstream-migrating juvenile Sea Lamprey decreases with increasing water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a vertically oriented field of pulsed direct current (VEPDC) created by an array of vertical electrodes for guiding downstream-moving juvenile Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus to a bypass channel in an artificial flume at water velocities of 10–50 cm/s. Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel than in other sections of the flume regardless of electric field status (on or off) or water velocity. Additionally, Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active; however, an interaction between the effects of VEPDC and water velocity was observed, as the likelihood of capture decreased with increases in water velocity. The distribution of Sea Lampreys shifted from right to left across the width of the flume toward the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active at water velocities less than 25 cm/s. The VEPDC appeared to have no effect on Sea Lamprey distribution in the flume at water velocities greater than 25 cm/s. We also conducted separate tests to determine the threshold at which Sea Lampreys would become paralyzed. Individuals were paralyzed at a mean power density of 37.0 µW/cm3. Future research should investigate the ability of juvenile Sea Lampreys to detect electric fields and their specific behavioral responses to electric field characteristics so as to optimize the use of this technology as a nonphysical guidance tool across variable water velocities.

  13. Electrochemical Interpretation of a Stress Corrosion Cracking of Thermally Treated Ni base Alloys in a Lead Contaminated Water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2007-08-20

    Since the PbSCC(Lead stress corrosion cracking) of alloy 600 tubing materials was reported by Copson and Dean in 1965, the effect of lead on a corrosion film and cracking morphology have been continually debated. An electrochemical interaction of lead with the alloying elements of SG tubings was studied and the corrosion products were analyzed. It was found that lead enhanced the anodic dissolution of alloy 600 and alloy 690 in the electrochemical test. The lead preferentially dissolved the Cr from the corrosion film of alloy 600 and alloy 690 in alkaline water. The lead ion seemed to penetrate into themore » TG crack tip and react with the corrosion film. A selective Cr depletion was observed to weaken the stability of the passive film on the alloys. Whereas passivity of Ni became stable in lead containing solution, Cr and Fe passivity became unstable.« less

  14. Water input requirements of the rapidly shrinking Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Hartmann, Jens; Jansen, Nils; Kempe, Stephan

    2009-05-01

    The deepest point on Earth, the Dead Sea level, has been dropping alarmingly since 1978 by 0.7 m/a on average due to the accelerating water consumption in the Jordan catchment and stood in 2008 at 420 m below sea level. In this study, a terrain model of the surface area and water volume of the Dead Sea was developed from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data using ArcGIS. The model shows that the lake shrinks on average by 4 km2/a in area and by 0.47 km3/a in volume, amounting to a cumulative loss of 14 km3 in the last 30 years. The receding level leaves almost annually erosional terraces, recorded here for the first time by Differential Global Positioning System field surveys. The terrace altitudes were correlated among the different profiles and dated to specific years of the lake level regression, illustrating the tight correlation between the morphology of the terrace sequence and the receding lake level. Our volume-level model described here and previous work on groundwater inflow suggest that the projected Dead Sea-Red Sea channel or the Mediterranean-Dead Sea channel must have a carrying capacity of >0.9 km3/a in order to slowly re-fill the lake to its former level and to create a sustainable system of electricity generation and freshwater production by desalinization. Moreover, such a channel will maintain tourism and potash industry on both sides of the Dead Sea and reduce the natural hazard caused by the recession.

  15. Fatigue 󈨛. Volume 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Corrosion and Cathodic Protection 1169 on Crack Growth in Offshore Platform Steels in Sea Water - EINAR BARDAL The Influence of Crack Conditions on...PROTECTION ON CRACK GROWTH IN OFFSHORE PLATFORM STEELS IN SEA WATER: EINAR BARDAL* Corrosion fatigue of steel for offshore platforms has been studied at...surfaces (6). When results from experiments with natural sea water are compared with corresponding results obtained in synthetic sea water, no significant

  16. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    PubMed

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  17. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.

    PubMed

    Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2004-04-01

    Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel.

  18. Shallow water bathymetry correction using sea bottom classification with multispectral satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yoriko; Yamamoto, Tomonori

    2017-10-01

    Bathymetry at shallow water especially shallower than 15m is an important area for environmental monitoring and national defense. Because the depth of shallow water is changeable by the sediment deposition and the ocean waves, the periodic monitoring at shoe area is needed. Utilization of satellite images are well matched for widely and repeatedly monitoring at sea area. Sea bottom terrain model using by remote sensing data have been developed and these methods based on the radiative transfer model of the sun irradiance which is affected by the atmosphere, water, and sea bottom. We adopted that general method of the sea depth extraction to the satellite imagery, WorldView-2; which has very fine spatial resolution (50cm/pix) and eight bands at visible to near-infrared wavelengths. From high-spatial resolution satellite images, there is possibility to know the coral reefs and the rock area's detail terrain model which offers important information for the amphibious landing. In addition, the WorldView-2 satellite sensor has the band at near the ultraviolet wavelength that is transmitted through the water. On the other hand, the previous study showed that the estimation error by the satellite imagery was related to the sea bottom materials such as sand, coral reef, sea alga, and rocks. Therefore, in this study, we focused on sea bottom materials, and tried to improve the depth estimation accuracy. First, we classified the sea bottom materials by the SVM method, which used the depth data acquired by multi-beam sonar as supervised data. Then correction values in the depth estimation equation were calculated applying the classification results. As a result, the classification accuracy of sea bottom materials was 93%, and the depth estimation error using the correction by the classification result was within 1.2m.

  19. Stormy Waters: Technology, Sea Control and Regional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    AD-A283 945 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA "DTIC TI ELECTETHESIS • S Sop()z 994 v G STOwM NATERS "T"CDOLOGY, SEA CNTROL AND REGIONAL... S . FUNDING NUMBERS Stormy Waters: Technology, Sea Control and Regional Warfare 6. AUTHOR( S ) David A. Schnell 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND...ADDRESSRES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School REPORT NUMBER Monterey, CA 93943-5000 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND

  20. Sulfate-reducing bacteria inhabiting natural corrosion deposits from marine steel structures.

    PubMed

    Païssé, Sandrine; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Marty, Florence; Abbas, Ben; Gueuné, Hervé; Amaya, José Maria Sanchez; Muyzer, Gerard; Quillet, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, investigations were conducted on natural corrosion deposits to better understand the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the accelerated corrosion process of carbon steel sheet piles in port environments. We describe the abundance and diversity of total and metabolically active SRB within five natural corrosion deposits located within tidal or low water zone and showing either normal or accelerated corrosion. By using molecular techniques, such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis, and sequence cloning based on 16S rRNA, dsrB genes, and their transcripts, we demonstrated a clear distinction between SRB population structure inhabiting normal or accelerated low-water corrosion deposits. Although SRB were present in both normal and accelerated low-water corrosion deposits, they dominated and were exclusively active in the inner and intermediate layers of accelerated corrosion deposits. We also highlighted that some of these SRB populations are specific to the accelerated low-water corrosion deposit environment in which they probably play a dominant role in the sulfured corrosion product enrichment.

  1. Effect of low sea water temperature on water balance in the Atlantic salmon, (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Lega, Y V; Chernitsky, A G; Belkovsky, N M

    1992-08-01

    The water balance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) overwintering in sea water (34 ‰) was investigated. With a decrease of temperature from 5.6 to 1.0°C the drinking rate decreased from 13.9 to 5.7 ml/kg/day, and the absolute amount of water absorbed decreased from 8.9 to 5.0 ml/kg/day. A decrease in temperature led, however, to an increase in the proportion of water absorbed in the intestines from 60 to 96%. Blood serum osmolarity increased from 320 to 440 mosm/1 with decreasing temperature and there was a reduction in tissue water content from 75 to 69% The disturbance of water balance at low temperature may be one of the factors responsible for mortality of salmon overwintering in sea water.

  2. Biocide-mediated corrosion of coiled tubing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohita; An, Dongshan; Liu, Tao; Pinnock, Tijan; Cheng, Frank; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Coiled tubing corrosion was investigated for 16 field water samples (S5 to S20) from a Canadian shale gas field. Weight loss corrosion rates of carbon steel beads incubated with these field water samples averaged 0.2 mm/yr, but injection water sample S19 had 1.25±0.07 mm/yr. S19 had a most probable number of zero acid-producing bacteria and incubation of S19 with carbon steel beads or coupons did not lead to big changes in microbial community composition. In contrast other field water samples had most probable numbers of APB of 102/mL to 107/mL and incubation of these field water samples with carbon steel beads or coupons often gave large changes in microbial community composition. HPLC analysis indicated that all field water samples had elevated concentrations of bromide (average 1.6 mM), which may be derived from bronopol, which was used as a biocide. S19 had the highest bromide concentration (4.2 mM) and was the only water sample with a high concentration of active bronopol (13.8 mM, 2760 ppm). Corrosion rates increased linearly with bronopol concentration, as determined by weight loss of carbon steel beads, for experiments with S19, with filtered S19 and with bronopol dissolved in defined medium. This indicated that the high corrosion rate found for S19 was due to its high bronopol concentration. The corrosion rate of coiled tubing coupons also increased linearly with bronopol concentration as determined by electrochemical methods. Profilometry measurements also showed formation of multiple pits on the surface of coiled tubing coupon with an average pit depth of 60 μm after 1 week of incubation with 1 mM bronopol. At the recommended dosage of 100 ppm the corrosiveness of bronopol towards carbon steel beads was modest (0.011 mm/yr). Higher concentrations, resulting if biocide is added repeatedly as commonly done in shale gas operations, are more corrosive and should be avoided. Overdosing may be avoided by assaying the presence of residual biocide by HPLC

  3. Biocide-mediated corrosion of coiled tubing

    PubMed Central

    An, Dongshan; Liu, Tao; Pinnock, Tijan; Cheng, Frank; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Coiled tubing corrosion was investigated for 16 field water samples (S5 to S20) from a Canadian shale gas field. Weight loss corrosion rates of carbon steel beads incubated with these field water samples averaged 0.2 mm/yr, but injection water sample S19 had 1.25±0.07 mm/yr. S19 had a most probable number of zero acid-producing bacteria and incubation of S19 with carbon steel beads or coupons did not lead to big changes in microbial community composition. In contrast other field water samples had most probable numbers of APB of 102/mL to 107/mL and incubation of these field water samples with carbon steel beads or coupons often gave large changes in microbial community composition. HPLC analysis indicated that all field water samples had elevated concentrations of bromide (average 1.6 mM), which may be derived from bronopol, which was used as a biocide. S19 had the highest bromide concentration (4.2 mM) and was the only water sample with a high concentration of active bronopol (13.8 mM, 2760 ppm). Corrosion rates increased linearly with bronopol concentration, as determined by weight loss of carbon steel beads, for experiments with S19, with filtered S19 and with bronopol dissolved in defined medium. This indicated that the high corrosion rate found for S19 was due to its high bronopol concentration. The corrosion rate of coiled tubing coupons also increased linearly with bronopol concentration as determined by electrochemical methods. Profilometry measurements also showed formation of multiple pits on the surface of coiled tubing coupon with an average pit depth of 60 μm after 1 week of incubation with 1 mM bronopol. At the recommended dosage of 100 ppm the corrosiveness of bronopol towards carbon steel beads was modest (0.011 mm/yr). Higher concentrations, resulting if biocide is added repeatedly as commonly done in shale gas operations, are more corrosive and should be avoided. Overdosing may be avoided by assaying the presence of residual biocide by HPLC

  4. Kinetics of Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Media by Water-Soluble Natural Polymeric Pectates as Anionic Polyelectrolyte Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Refat M; Zaafarany, Ishaq A

    2013-06-17

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyeletrolyte pectates (PEC) as a water-soluble natural polymer polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of PEC on Al metal surface was found to obey the Freundlich isotherm. Factors such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and temperature affecting the corrosion rates were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed in the paper.

  5. An effective and novel pore sealing agent to enhance the corrosion resistance performance of Al coating in artificial ocean water

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han-Seung; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Ismail, Mohamed A.

    2017-01-01

    A new technique was accepted to fill the porosity of Al coating applied by arc thermal spray process to enhance corrosion resistance performance in artificial ocean water. The porosity is the inherent property of arc thermal spray coating process. In this study, applied coating was treated with different concentrations of ammonium phosphate mono basic (NH4H2PO4: AP) solution thereafter dried at room temperature and kept in humidity chamber for 7d to deposit uniform film. The corrosion resistance of Al coating and treated samples have been evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic techniques with exposure periods in artificial ocean water. Electrochemical techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicated that phosphate ion would have been retarding corrosion of Al coating effectively. The formation of AHP (Ammonium Aluminum Hydrogen Phosphate Hydrate: NH4)3Al5H6(PO4)8.18H2O) on Al coating surface after treatment with AP is nano sized, crystalline and uniformly deposited but after exposure them in artificial ocean water, they form AHPH (Aluminum hydroxide phosphate hydrate Al3(PO4)2(OH)3(H2O)5) that is very protective, adherent, uniform and plate like morphology of corrosion products. The AHPH is sparingly soluble and adherent to surface and imparted improved corrosion resistance. PMID:28157233

  6. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T. A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. It has also been known that subsurface waters that upwell onto the shelf are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical Water and the SCS Intermediate Water which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front has been found to separate the tropical and intermediate waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. Here historical hydrographic data between Mar. 1950 and Dec. 2011 in the Okinawa Trough and its neighborhood are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years across the World Ocean Circulation Repeated Lines PR 18 and 19 as well as at the PN cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. The front at the Smax level (sigma theta=24.6-24.9) shows large seasonal and interannual variations. In winter during normal and La Niña periods the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn during normal periods and in spring during La Nina periods. Yet during El Niño periods the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent in spring and it becomes the weakest in winter. As for intermediate waters (Smin at sigma theta= 26.7-26.9) the WPS Intermediate Water and SCS Intermediate Water show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although during normal periods in winter the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times. During El Niño periods the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest but in spring it is much strengthened. On the other hand, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest in spring, and the largest in winter during La Niña periods.

  7. Influence of sea ice cover and icebergs on circulation and water mass formation in a numerical circulation model of the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinniman, Michael S.; Klinck, John M.; Smith, Walker O.

    2007-11-01

    Satellite imagery shows that there was substantial variability in the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea during 2001-2003. Much of this variability is thought to be due to several large icebergs that moved through the area during that period. The effects of these changes in sea ice on circulation and water mass distributions are investigated with a numerical general circulation model. It would be difficult to simulate the highly variable sea ice from 2001 to 2003 with a dynamic sea ice model since much of the variability was due to the floating icebergs. Here, sea ice concentration is specified from satellite observations. To examine the effects of changes in sea ice due to iceberg C-19, simulations were performed using either climatological ice concentrations or the observed ice for that period. The heat balance around the Ross Sea Polynya (RSP) shows that the dominant term in the surface heat budget is the net exchange with the atmosphere, but advection of oceanic warm water is also important. The area average annual basal melt rate beneath the Ross Ice Shelf is reduced by 12% in the observed sea ice simulation. The observed sea ice simulation also creates more High-Salinity Shelf Water. Another simulation was performed with observed sea ice and a fixed iceberg representing B-15A. There is reduced advection of warm surface water during summer from the RSP into McMurdo Sound due to B-15A, but a much stronger reduction is due to the late opening of the RSP in early 2003 because of C-19.

  8. Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Moscoso, Luciano; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma Nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; Păvălaş, Gabriela E; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J M; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G F; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

  9. Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L.; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C.; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q.; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J.; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; Păvălaş, Gabriela E.; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G.; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J. M.; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G. F.; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as “open-sea convection”. It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts. PMID:23874425

  10. Experiments and models of general corrosion and flow-assisted corrosion of materials in nuclear reactor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, William Gordon

    Corrosion and material degradation issues are of concern to all industries. However, the nuclear power industry must conform to more stringent construction, fabrication and operational guidelines due to the perceived additional risk of operating with radioactive components. Thus corrosion and material integrity are of considerable concern for the operators of nuclear power plants and the bodies that govern their operations. In order to keep corrosion low and maintain adequate material integrity, knowledge of the processes that govern the material's breakdown and failure in a given environment are essential. The work presented here details the current understanding of the general corrosion of stainless steel and carbon steel in nuclear reactor primary heat transport systems (PHTS) and examines the mechanisms and possible mitigation techniques for flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) in CANDU outlet feeder pipes. Mechanistic models have been developed based on first principles and a 'solution-pores' mechanism of metal corrosion. The models predict corrosion rates and material transport in the PHTS of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the influence of electrochemistry on the corrosion and flow-assisted corrosion of carbon steel in the CANDU outlet feeders. In-situ probes, based on an electrical resistance technique, were developed to measure the real-time corrosion rate of reactor materials in high-temperature water. The probes were used to evaluate the effects of coolant pH and flow on FAC of carbon steel as well as demonstrate of the use of titanium dioxide as a coolant additive to mitigated FAC in CANDU outlet feeder pipes.

  11. The corrosivity and performance evaluation of antifouling paint exposed in seawater Muara Baru Port, Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraini, L.; Prifiharni, S.; Priyotomo, G.; Sundjono

    2017-04-01

    Antifouling paints were applied on a wide range of the under seawater structures in order to protect them from the growth of fouling organisms. The performance investigation of two commercial anticorrosion and antifouling paints was conducted in Muara Baru port, Jakarta. The specimens were coated by anticorrosion and/or antifouling paint. Blank specimen (without exposed) were also prepared as a control. On the other hand, bare mild steel was prepared for measure the corrosion rate through weight loss method. The test panels containing specimens were exposed up to 3 months for immersion depths of 0, 1, 2, 3 meters from sea level. Sea water parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO) were also measured. The evaluation of coating performance was carried out such as thickness, glossy, hardness and adhesion strength. The results showed that both surfaces of anticorrosion paint and bare mild steel specimen covered by fouling organisms, whereas no fouling took place on the surface of antifouling paint. The corrosion rate of bare mild steel in the depths of 0, 1, 2, 3 meters were 12.5; 11.6; 8.3; 10.4 mpy, respectively.

  12. Controlling corrosion in drinking water distribution systems: a grand challenge for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M

    2004-01-01

    It is argued that the water distribution system will be a key public health battlefield of the 21st century. Corrosion in private plumbing is deserving of special attention, since the health and economic impacts are probably of equal or greater magnitude compared to public systems, and there has not been an advocate working on behalf of the consumer to solve these problems. To better serve society in this endeavour we will need educational programs, aggressive research to minimize the unsustainable costs of corrosion, and to consider our legacy to future generations when making decisions on materials use.

  13. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

  14. Effect of temperature on crack growth rates of stress corrosion cracks in metal alloys exposed to water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vogt, H.; Speidel, M.O.

    1996-12-01

    The effect of temperature on stress corrosion crack growth rates was studied using four commercial alloys: an Al-Mg-Zn alloy (7000-Series), an Al-Cu alloy (2000-Series), a Mg-rare earth alloy and a Zr 2.5% Nb alloy. Stress Corrosion crack growth rate data were obtained using fracture mechanic specimens which were tested in high purity water in the temperature range of {minus}10 C to 320 C, depending on the alloy. Attention was directed towards region 2 behavior, where the crack propagation rate is independent of stress intensity but sensitive to test temperature. The experimental activation energies of the different alloys were compared withmore » literature on rate-controlling steps in order to identify the possible stress corrosion cracking mechanisms. The results were also compared with the activation energies obtained from general corrosion and hydrogen diffusion experiments.« less

  15. Investigation of different coastal processes in Indonesian waters using SeaWiFS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendiarti, Nani; Siegel, Herbert; Ohde, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    SeaWiFS data were applied to investigate coastal processes in Indonesian waters around the most populated island of Java. Coastal processes due to wind forcing were studied the first time using SeaWiFS-derived chlorophyll and TSM concentrations in combination with AVHRR-derived SST in the period from September 1997 to December 2001. Upwelling events were studied along the southern coast of Java during the southeast monsoon (June to September). Satellite-derived chlorophyll concentrations higher than 0.8 mg/ m3 and sea-surface temperatures lower than 28°C are indications of upwelling. Upwelling events influence the distribution and growth of phytoplankton and provide by that good feeding condition for zooplankton, larvae, juvenile and adult of pelagic fish. Coastal discharge into the western Java Sea contains organic and inorganic materials originating from different sources. Diffuse impacts, particularly from fish farms and aquaculture, as well as coastal erosion influence large coastal areas during the rainy season (December to March), and to a lesser extent during the dry season. Strong Citarum river discharge was observed during the transition phase from the rainy to the dry season (March and April), when the maximum amount of transported material reaches the sea. The river plume is evident from chlorophyll concentrations higher than 2.5 mg/ m3, and suspended particulate matter concentrations of more than 8 mg/dm3. The Sunda Strait is seasonally influenced by water transport from the Java Sea and from the Indian Ocean. The satellite data show that water transport from the Java Sea occurs during the pre-dominantly easterly winds period (June to September). This is characterized by warm water (SST higher than 29.5°C) and chlorophyll concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/ m3. This water transport influences the fish abundance in the Sunda Strait. High fish catches coincide with the presence of Java Sea water, while the surface currents lead to the migration of

  16. Potential corrosivity of untreated groundwater in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-07-12

    Corrosive groundwater, if untreated, can dissolve lead and other metals from pipes and other components in water distribution systems. Two indicators of potential corrosivity—the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and the Potential to Promote Galvanic Corrosion (PPGC)—were used to identify which areas in the United States might be more susceptible to elevated concentrations of metals in household drinking water and which areas might be less susceptible. On the basis of the LSI, about one-third of the samples collected from about 21,000 groundwater sites are classified as potentially corrosive. On the basis of the PPGC, about two-thirds of the samples collected from about 27,000 groundwater sites are classified as moderate PPGC, and about one-tenth as high PPGC. Potentially corrosive groundwater occurs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.National maps have been prepared to identify the occurrence of potentially corrosive groundwater in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Eleven states and the District of Columbia were classified as having a very high prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater, 14 states as having a high prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater, 19 states as having a moderate prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater, and 6 states as having a low prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater. These findings have the greatest implication for people dependent on untreated groundwater for drinking water, such as the 44 million people that are self-supplied and depend on domestic wells or springs for their water supply.

  17. Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Hu, Xuexiang; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

    2012-03-15

    The effects of disinfection and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipe in a model reclaimed water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). The corrosion scales formed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the bacterial characteristics of biofilm on the surface were determined using several molecular methods. The corrosion scales from the ARs with chlorine included predominantly α-FeOOH and Fe2O3, while CaPO3(OH)·2H2O and α-FeOOH were the predominant phases after chloramines replaced chlorine. Studies of the consumption of chlorine and iron release indicated that the formation of dense oxide layers and biofilm inhibited iron corrosion, causing stable lower chlorine decay. It was verified that iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) such as Sediminibacterium sp., and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) such as Shewanella sp., synergistically interacted with the corrosion product to prevent further corrosion. For the ARs without disinfection, α-FeOOH was the predominant phase at the primary stage, while CaCO3 and α-FeOOH were predominant with increasing time. The mixed corrosion-inducing bacteria, including the IRB Shewanella sp., the IOB Sediminibacterium sp., and the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Limnobacter thioxidans strain, promoted iron corrosion by synergistic interactions in the primary period, while anaerobic IRB became the predominant corrosion bacteria, preventing further corrosion via the formation of protective layers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical calculation of a sea water heta exchanger using Simulink softwear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preda, A.; Popescu, L. L.; Popescu, R. S.

    2017-08-01

    To highlight the heat exchange taking place between seawater as primary agent and the working fluid (water, glycol or Freon) as secondary agent, I have used the Simulink softwear in order to creat a new sequence for numerical calculation of heat exchanging. For optimum heat transfer we opted for a counter movement. The model developed to view the dynamic behavior of the exchanger consists of four interconnected levelsess. In the simulations was found that a finer mesh of the whole exchanger lead to results much closer to reality. There have been various models meshing, starting from a single cell and then advancing noticed an improvement in resultsSimulations were made in both the summer and the winter, using as a secondary agent process water and glycol solution. Studying heat transfer that occurs in the primary exchanger of a heat pump, having the primary fluid sea water with this program, we get the data plausible and worthy of consideration. Inserting into the program, the seasonal water temperatures of Black Sea water layers, we get a encouraging picture about storage capacity and heat transfer of sea water.

  19. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ALTEROMONAS-LIKE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE BLACK SEA WATER].

    PubMed

    Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii strains isolated from the Black sea water were similar in their fatty acids composition with the type strain of this species. Analysis of lipid composition of 10 A. macleodii strains isolated from the deep and surface water layers in different World ocean regions including the Black sea water has shown that the deep and surface isolates of this species formed two groups different in their fatty acids profiles. The Black sea isolates of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. citrea, P. flavipulchra conformed to these species type strains in their fatty acids composition. On the basis of the fatty acids spectra similarity of three Pseudoalteromonas species strains with Plipolytica described in 2010 has been established. Presence of three isomers C16:1ψ7, C 16:1ψ9 and C16:1ψ6--components of hexadecenic acid in the Black sea isolates of Shewanella baltica has been shown.

  20. Electrochemical Measurement of Atmospheric Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeArmond, Anna H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion of Shuttle thruster components in atmospheres containing high concentrations of nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and water is an important issue in ground operations of bipropellant systems in humid locations. Measurements of the corrosivities of NTO-containing atmospheres and the responses of different materials to these atmospheres have been accomplished using an electrochemical sensor. The sensor is composed of alternating aluminum/titanium strips separated by thin insulating layers. Under high humidity conditions a thin film of water covers the surface of the sensor. Added NTO vapor reacts with the water film to form a conductive medium and establishes a galvanic cell. The current from this cell can be integrated with respect to time and related to the corrosion activity. The surface layer formed from humid air/NTO reacts in the same way as an aqueous solution of nitric acid. Nitric acid is generally considered an important agent in NTO corrosion situations. The aluminum/titanium sensor is unresponsive to dry air, responds slightly to humid air (> 75% RH), and responds strongly to the combination of humid air and NTO. The sensor response is a power function (n = 2) of the NTO concentration. The sensor does not respond to NTO in dry air. The response of other materials in this type of sensor is related to position of the material in a galvanic series in aqueous nitric acid. The concept and operation of this electrochemical corrosion measurement is being applied to other corrosive atmospheric contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide, and acidic aerosols.

  1. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 600 in PWR primary water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation of three mill-annealed (MA) alloy 600 heats in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water has been investigated using constant load tests equipped with in-situ direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurement capabilities. SCC initiation times were greatly reduced by a small amount of cold work. Shallow intergranular (IG) attack and/or cracks were found on most high-energy grain boundaries intersecting the surface with only a small fraction evolving into larger cracks and IGSCC growth. Crack depth profiles were measured and related to DCPD-detected initiation response. Processes controlling the SCC initiation in MA alloy 600 are discussed. INmore » PRESS, CORRECTED PROOF, 05/02/2017 - mfl« less

  2. Characteristics of lead corrosion scales formed during drinking water distribution and their potential influence on the release of lead and other contaminants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Herrera, Jose E

    2010-08-15

    Destabilization of the corrosion scale present in lead pipes used in drinking water distribution systems is currently considered a major problem for municipalities serviced in part by lead pipes. Although several lead corrosion strategies have been deployed with success, a clear understanding of the chemistry of corrosion products present in the scale is needed for an effective lead control. This contribution focuses on a comprehensive characterization of the layers present in the corrosion scale formed on the inner surfaces of lead pipes used in the drinking water distribution system of the City on London, ON, Canada. Solid corrosion products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Toxic elements accumulated in the corrosion scale were also identified using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry after acid digestion. Based on the XRD results, hydrocerussite was identified as the major lead crystalline corrosion phase in most of the pipes sampled, while cerussite was observed as the main crystalline component only in a few cases. Lead oxides including PbO(2) and Pb(3)O(4) were also observed in the inner layers of the corrosion scale. The presence of these highly oxidized lead species is rationalized in terms of the lead(II) carbonate phase transforming into lead(IV) oxide through an intermediate Pb(3)O(4) (2Pb(II)O x Pb(IV)O(2)) phase. In addition to lead corrosion products, an amorphous aluminosilicate phase was also identified in the corrosion scale. Its concentration is particularly high at the outer surface layers. Accumulation of toxic contaminants such as As, V, Sb, Cu, and Cr was observed in the corrosion scales, together with a strong correlation between arsenic accumulation and aluminum concentration.

  3. Kinetics of Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Media by Water-Soluble Natural Polymeric Pectates as Anionic Polyelectrolyte Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Refat M.; Zaafarany, Ishaq A.

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyeletrolyte pectates (PEC) as a water-soluble natural polymer polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of PEC on Al metal surface was found to obey the Freundlich isotherm. Factors such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and temperature affecting the corrosion rates were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed in the paper. PMID:28809282

  4. Grain boundary selective oxidation and intergranular stress corrosion crack growth of high-purity nickel binary alloys in high-temperature hydrogenated water

    DOE PAGES

    Bruemmer, S. M.; Olszta, M. J.; Toloczko, M. B.; ...

    2017-11-26

    The effects of alloying elements in Ni-5at%X binary alloys on intergranular (IG) corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been assessed in 300–360 °C hydrogenated water at the Ni/NiO stability line. Alloys with Cr or Al additions exhibited grain boundary oxidation and IGSCC, while localized degradation was not observed for pure Ni, Ni-Cu or Ni-Fe alloys. Environment-enhanced crack growth was determined by comparing the response in water and N 2 gas. Lastly, results demonstrate that selective grain boundary oxidation of Cr and Al promoted IGSCC of these Ni alloys in hydrogenated water.

  5. Grain boundary selective oxidation and intergranular stress corrosion crack growth of high-purity nickel binary alloys in high-temperature hydrogenated water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bruemmer, S. M.; Olszta, M. J.; Toloczko, M. B.

    The effects of alloying elements in Ni-5at%X binary alloys on intergranular (IG) corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been assessed in 300–360 °C hydrogenated water at the Ni/NiO stability line. Alloys with Cr or Al additions exhibited grain boundary oxidation and IGSCC, while localized degradation was not observed for pure Ni, Ni-Cu or Ni-Fe alloys. Environment-enhanced crack growth was determined by comparing the response in water and N 2 gas. Lastly, results demonstrate that selective grain boundary oxidation of Cr and Al promoted IGSCC of these Ni alloys in hydrogenated water.

  6. Grain boundary selective oxidation and intergranular stress corrosion crack growth of high-purity nickel binary alloys in high-temperature hydrogenated water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bruemmer, S. M.; Olszta, M. J.; Toloczko, M. B.

    The effects of alloying elements in Ni-5at%X binary alloys on intergranular (IG) corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been assessed in 300-360°C hydrogenated water at the Ni/NiO stability line. Alloys with Cr or Al additions exhibited grain boundary oxidation and IGSCC, while localized degradation was not observed for pure Ni, Ni-Cu or Ni-Fe alloys. Environment-enhanced crack growth was determined by comparing the response in water and N2 gas. Results demonstrate that selective grain boundary oxidation of Cr and Al promoted IGSCC of these Ni alloys in hydrogenated water.

  7. Characterization of bacterial community and iron corrosion in drinking water distribution systems with O3-biological activated carbon treatment.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xueci; Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Liu, Lizhong

    2018-07-01

    Bacterial community structure and iron corrosion were investigated for simulated drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) composed of annular reactors incorporating three different treatments: ozone, biologically activated carbon and chlorination (O 3 -BAC-Cl 2 ); ozone and chlorination (O 3 -Cl 2 ); or chlorination alone (Cl 2 ). The lowest corrosion rate and iron release, along with more Fe 3 O 4 formation, occurred in DWDSs with O 3 -BAC-Cl 2 compared to those without a BAC filter. It was verified that O 3 -BAC influenced the bacterial community greatly to promote the relative advantage of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) in DWDSs. Moreover, the advantaged NRB induced active Fe(III) reduction coupled to Fe(II) oxidation, enhancing Fe 3 O 4 formation and inhibiting corrosion. In addition, O 3 -BAC pretreatment could reduce high-molecular-weight fractions of dissolved organic carbon effectively to promote iron particle aggregation and inhibit further iron release. Our findings indicated that the O 3 -BAC treatment, besides removing organic pollutants in water, was also a good approach for controlling cast iron corrosion and iron release in DWDSs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Radium Isotope Ratios as Tracers for Estimating the Influence of Changjiang Outflow Water to the Adjacent Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, S.

    2006-12-01

    In order to understand the influence of Changjiang (Yangtze River) outflow water to the adjacent seas during rainy and draught seasons, we studied the origin and mixing of surface water masses in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea. We used Ra-228/Ra-226 activity ratio and salinity as two conservative tracers in three end-members: Changjiang water (CW); Yellow Sea water (YSW); and Kuroshio water (KW). Radium isotopes in each 300-liter of surface water samples were extracted by passing through manganese-fiber cartridges, dissolved in hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution, coprecipitated as barium sulfate, dried and measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Results show that surface water of the East China Sea includes all three end-member waters during the rainy season, in the order of KW (50-80%), YSW (20-50%) and CW (5-15%). Surface water of the South Sea of Korea, however, includes a little fraction of, or almost no, CW in drought season. These are the preliminary results from an ongoing 6-year project ending in 2009 which aims to predict the influence of heavily polluted Changjiang outflow water to the adjacent seas after the completion of the gigantic Three Gorges (Sanxia) Dam.

  9. Microstructure Instability of Candidate Fuel Cladding Alloys: Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yinan; Zheng, Wenyue; Guzonas, David; Kish, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses some of the overarching aspects of microstructure instability expected from both high temperature and radiation exposure that could affect the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of the candidate austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys being considered for the fuel cladding of the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) concept. An overview of the microstructure instability expected by both exposures is presented prior to turning the focus onto the implications of such instability on the corrosion and SCC resistance. Results from testing conducted using pre-treated (thermally-aged) Type 310S stainless steel to shed some light on this important issue are included to help identify the outstanding corrosion resistance assessment needs.

  10. On the relationship between water vapor over the oceans and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1990-01-01

    Monthly mean precipitable water data obtained from passive microwave radiometry were correlated with the National Meteorological Center (NMC) blended sea surface temperature data. It is shown that the monthly mean water vapor content of the atmosphere above the oceans can generally be prescribed from the sea surface temperature with a standard deviation of 0.36 g/sq cm. The form of the relationship between precipitable water and sea surface temperature in the range T (sub s) greater than 18 C also resembles that predicted from simple arguments based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. The annual cycle of the globally integrated mass of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) water vapor is shown to differ from analyses of other water vapor data in both phase and amplitude and these differences point to a significant influence of the continents on water vapor. Regional scale analyses of water vapor demonstrate that monthly averaged water vapor data, when contrasted with the bulk sea surface temperature relationship developed in this study, reflect various known characteristics of the time mean large-scale circulation over the oceans. A water vapor parameter is introduced to highlight the effects of large-scale motion on atmospheric water vapor. Based on the magnitude of this parameter, it is shown that the effects of large-scale flow on precipitable water vapor are regionally dependent, but for the most part, the influence of circulation is generally less than about + or - 20 percent of the seasonal mean.

  11. On the relationship between water vapor over the oceans and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1989-01-01

    Monthly mean precipitable water data obtained from passive microwave radiometry were correlated with the National Meteorological Center (NMC) blended sea surface temperature data. It is shown that the monthly mean water vapor content of the atmosphere above the oceans can generally be prescribed from the sea surface temperature with a standard deviation of 0.36 g/sq cm. The form of the relationship between precipitable water and sea surface temperature in the range T(sub s) greater than 18 C also resembles that predicted from simple arguments based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. The annual cycle of the globally integrated mass of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) water vapor is shown to differ from analyses of other water vapor data in both phase and amplitude and these differences point to a significant influence of the continents on water vapor. Regional scale analyses of water vapor demonstrate that monthly averaged water vapor data, when contrasted with the bulk sea surface temperature relationship developed in this study, reflect various known characteristics of the time mean large-scale circulation over the oceans. A water vapor parameter is introduced to highlight the effects of large-scale motion on atmospheric water vapor. Based on the magnitude of this parameter, it is shown that the effects of large-scale flow on precipitable water vapor are regionally dependent, but for the most part, the influence of circulation is generally less than about + or - 20 percent of the seasonal mean.

  12. Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y.; Lott, Christian; Häusler, Stefan; Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rödiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; de Beer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water’s chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea−Dead Sea water conduit. PMID:22679498

  13. Site-Specific Research Conducted in Support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project - FY 1982 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Marsh, H. E.; Roschke, E. J.; Wu, Y. C.

    1984-01-01

    The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

  14. Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline K; Stone, Kendall R; Dudi, Abhijeet; Edwards, Marc A

    2010-09-15

    As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH < 2.5 and chloride concentrations at least 11 times higher than bulk water levels. Waters with relatively high chloride tend to sustain high galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies. The total mass of lead corroded was consistent with predictions based on the galvanic current, and lead leaching to water was correlated with galvanic current. If the concentration of sulfate in the water increased relative to chloride, galvanic currents and associated lead contamination could be greatly reduced, and solder surfaces were readily passivated.

  15. The effect of fabrication on corrosion in aluminum 2195: Environmental and microstructural considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing lithium are particularly attractive to the aerospace structural designer. Lithium's density is only 0.53 g/cc, thus an addition of one weight percent lithium not only increases yield strength, but decreases the density by almost three percent while increasing the modulus by over six percent. The fact that lithium improves these physical properties simultaneously has led to intense study and development of the alloy system. Heretofore, problems in large scale alloy production have retarded commercial development. During the last fifteen years, advances in production technology have rekindled interest in Al-Li alloys, and aluminum suppliers have developed many candidate aerospace materials. However, if these alloys are to be employed successfully, a more complete understanding of their nonequilibrium metallurgy is required. Peel and Starke have each pointed out that an understanding of the weldability of these alloys is a critical step in their implementation. This study addresses the critical lack of information on the environmental compatibility of welded Al 2195 components. Corrosion data for these systems is incomplete, particularly for welded materials exposed to sea water or sea water condensate.

  16. Mediterranean sea water budget long-term trend inferred from salinity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skliris, N.; Zika, J. D.; Herold, L.; Josey, S. A.; Marsh, R.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in the Mediterranean water cycle since 1950 are investigated using salinity and reanalysis based air-sea freshwater flux datasets. Salinity observations indicate a strong basin-scale multi-decadal salinification, particularly in the intermediate and deep layers. Evaporation, precipitation and river runoff variations are all shown to contribute to a very strong increase in net evaporation of order 20-30%. While large temporal uncertainties and discrepancies are found between E-P multi-decadal trend patterns in the reanalysis datasets, a more robust and spatially coherent structure of multi-decadal change is obtained for the salinity field. Salinity change implies an increase in net evaporation of 8 to 12% over 1950-2010, which is considerably lower than that suggested by air-sea freshwater flux products, but still largely exceeding estimates of global water cycle amplification. A new method based on water mass transformation theory is used to link changes in net evaporation over the Mediterranean Sea with changes in the volumetric distribution of salinity. The water mass transformation distribution in salinity coordinates suggests that the Mediterranean basin salinification is driven by changes in the regional water cycle rather than changes in salt transports at the straits.

  17. Water corrosion of F82H-modified in simulated irradiation conditions by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeña, J.; Blázquez, F.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents results of testing carried out on F82H in water at 260°C with 2 ppm H 2 and the addition of 0.27 ppm Li in the form of LiOH. Uniform corrosion tests have been carried out on as-received material and on specimens from welded material [TIG and electron beam (EB)]. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests have been carried out in as-received material and in material heat treated to simulate neutron irradiation hardening (1075°C/30' a.c. and 1040°C/30' + 625°C/1 h a.c.) with hardness values of 405 and 270 HV30, respectively. Results for uniform corrosion after 2573 h of testing have shown weight losses of about 60 mg/dm 2. Compact tension (CT) specimens from the as-received material tested under constant load have not experienced crack growth. However, in the simulated irradiation conditions for a stress intensity factor between 40 and 80 MPa√m, crack growth rates of about 7×10 -8 m/s have been measured.

  18. Rapid, sensitive and direct analysis of exopolysaccharides from biofilm on aluminum surfaces exposed to sea water using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nazim; Gopal, Judy; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2011-11-01

    Biofilm studies have extensive significance since their results can provide insights into the behavior of bacteria on material surfaces when exposed to natural water. This is the first attempt of using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for detecting the polysaccharides formed in a complex biofilm consisting of a mixed consortium of marine microbes. MALDI-MS has been applied to directly analyze exopolysaccharides (EPS) in the biofilm formed on aluminum surfaces exposed to seawater. The optimal conditions for MALDI-MS applied to EPS analysis of biofilm have been described. In addition, microbiologically influenced corrosion of aluminum exposed to sea water by a marine fungus was also observed and the fungus identity established using MALDI-MS analysis of EPS. Rapid, sensitive and direct MALDI-MS analysis on biofilm would dramatically speed up and provide new insights into biofilm studies due to its excellent advantages such as simplicity, high sensitivity, high selectivity and high speed. This study introduces a novel, fast, sensitive and selective platform for biofilm study from natural water without the need of tedious culturing steps or complicated sample pretreatment procedures. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Performance of Control System Using Microcontroller for Sea Water Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriani, A.; Witanto, Y.; Pratama, A. S.; Supriyadi; Hendra; Tanjung, A.

    2018-02-01

    Now a day control system is very important rule for any process. Control system have been used in the automatic system. Automatic system can be seen in the industrial filed, mechanical field, electrical field and etc. In industrial and mechanical field, control system are used for control of motion component such as motor, conveyor, machine, control of process made of product, control of system and soon. In electrical field, control system can met for control of electrical system as equipment or part electrical like fan, rice cooker, refrigerator, air conditioner and etc. Control system are used for control of temperature and circulation gas, air and water. Control system of temperature and circulation of water also can be used for fisher community. Control system can be create by using microcontroller, PLC and other automatic program [1][2]. In this paper we will focus on the close loop system by using microcontroller Arduino Mega to control of temperature and circulation of sea water for fisher community. Performance control system is influenced by control equipment, sensor sensitivity, test condition, environment and others. The temperature sensor is measured using the DS18S20 and the sea water clarity sensor for circulation indicator with turbidity sensor. From the test results indicated that this control system can circulate sea water and maintain the temperature and clarity of seawater in a short time.

  20. Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Ward E; Doughten, Michael W; Coplen, Tyler B; Hunt, Andrew G; Bullen, Thomas D

    2013-11-14

    High-salinity groundwater more than 1,000 metres deep in the Atlantic coastal plain of the USA has been documented in several locations, most recently within the 35-million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution, osmosis and evaporation from heating associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic (ECNA) sea water. We find that the sea water is probably 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of modern sea water and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and palaeontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient sea water in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA sea water persist in deep sediments at many locations along the Atlantic margin.

  1. The Effects of Orthophosphate in Drinking Water on the Initial Copper Corrosion Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corroding of copper piping used in household drinking water plumbing may potentially impacts consumer’s health and economics. Copper corrosion studies conducted on newly corroding material with atomic force microscopy (AFM) may be particularly useful in understanding the impact ...

  2. The exchange of Kuroshio and East China Sea shelf water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Ching-Sheng; Wang, Joe; Wang, Dong-Ping

    1990-09-01

    A detailed hydrographic study of the East China Sea shelf edge north of Taiwan revealed an intense cold eddy on the shelf break and a large low-salinity filament at the slope. The cold eddy which is induced by the upwelling of the subsurface Kuroshio water has been repeatedly documented in previous studies. The filament which is made of the mixed shelf and subsurface Kuroshio water, on the other hand, has not been recognized before. The shelf edge upwelling appears to be associated with the sharp bending of the Kuroshio north of Taiwan, while the outpouring of shelf water appears to be associated with the northeasterly storms. Both the eddy and the filament consist of large fractions of the subsurface Kuroshio water, and they may be important to the salt and nutrient budget on the East China Sea shelf.

  3. Assessment of sea water inundation along Daboo creek area in Indus Delta Region, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Ibrahim; Zafar, Hina; Shahzad, Muhammad I.; Meraj, Mohsin; Kazmi, Jamil H.

    2017-12-01

    Indus Deltaic Region (IDR) in Pakistan is an erosion vulnerable coast due to the high deep water wave energy. Livelihood of millions of people depends on the fisheries and mangrove forests in IDR. IDR consists of many creeks where Daboo is a major creek located at southeast of the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi. Unfortunately, there has been no detailed study to analyze the damages of sea water intrusion at a large temporal and spatial scale. Therefore, this study is designed to estimate the effects of sea water inundation based on changing sea water surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Sea surface salinity and SST data from two different surveys in Daboo creek during 1986 and 2010 are analyzed to estimate the damages and extent of sea water intrusion. Mean salinity has increased 33.33% whereas mean SST decreased 13.79% from 1987 to 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of creek area using LANDSAT 5 Thematic mapper (TM) data for the years 1987 and 2010 shows significant amount of erosion at macro scale. Creek area has increased approximately 9.93% (260.86 m2 per year) which is roughly equal to 60 extensive sized shrimp farms. Further Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analyses for years 2001 and 2014 using LANDSAT 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has indicated 42.3% decrease in cultivated land. Wet mud flats have spread out at the inner mouth of creek with enormous increase of 123.3%. Significant sea water intrusion has increased the area of barren land by 37.9%. This also resulted in overall decrease of 6.7% in area covered by mangroves. Therefore, this study recorded a significant evidence of sea water intrusion in IDR that has caused serious damages to community living in the area, economical losses. Additionally, it has also changed the environment by reducing creek biological productivity as reported by earlier studies over other regions of the world.

  4. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed.

  5. The long-term variability of chemical structure of deep-water basins of the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrennikova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    The Caspian Sea is a unique water object: the biggest lake on Earth, so large that it actually functions as a sea, but totally isolated from the World Ocean and extremely responsive to the climatic changes. The Caspian Sea is characterized by periodical large-scale sea level oscillations - it is one of the manifestations of multidecadal climatic fluctuations on East European Plain. In order to monitor the environmental conditions staff of the Laboratory of Hydrochemistry of Russian Federal Research Institution of Fisheries and Oceanography (FSBSI "VNIRO") in collaboration with other russian scientific institutions conducts annual research cruises to the Caspian Sea. For the last 40 years natural and anthropogenic climatic changes caused a stable stratification of the water column in both Caspian basins and the nourishment depletion of the photic layer, created and annually aggravated by the biological pump. The data, collected in annual expeditions since 1995, shows the progressing hypoxia below the depth of 400 meters and the formation of hydrogen sulfidic contamination in bottom waters. The cumulative effect of natural variability and extremely intensive anthropogenic stress creates a very depressing environment for all the aquatics, from phytoplankton to unique commercial species. In the last 20 years the level of the Caspian Sea has lowered for 2,5 meters. This is a result of changes in the water balance of the Caspian Sea, that includes the decrease of freshwater income. In long-term perspective this leads to an increase in surface water density and in winter convection depth. However up until 2016 the stratification of the water column stayed stable, so the deep waters were isolated form the atmosphere. Annual monitoring since 1995 has shown gradual oxygen depletion and intensive accumulation of biogenic elements. In 2016 concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were the highest ever registered for the Caspian Sea. The analysis of the research conducted in

  6. The effect of O2 content on the corrosion behaviour of X65 and 5Cr in water-containing supercritical CO2 environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yong; Barker, Richard; Neville, Anne

    2015-11-01

    The general and localized corrosion behaviour of X65 carbon steel and 5Cr low alloy steel were evaluated in a water-saturated supercritical CO2 environment in the presence of varying concentrations of O2. Experiments were performed at a temperature of 35 °C and a pressure of 80 bar to simulate the conditions encountered during CO2 transport and injection. Results indicated that increasing O2 concentration from 0 to 1000 ppm caused a progressive reduction in the general corrosion rate, but served to increase the extent of localized corrosion observed on both materials. Pitting (or localized attack) rates for X65 ranged between 0.9 and 1.7 mm/year, while for 5Cr rose from 0.3 to 1.4 mm/year as O2 concentration was increased from 0 to 1000 ppm. General corrosion rates were over an order of magnitude lower than the pitting rates measured. Increasing O2 content in the presence of X65 and 5Cr suppressed the growth of iron carbonate (FeCO3) on the steel surface and resulted in the formation of a corrosion product consisting mainly of iron oxide (Fe2O3). 5Cr was shown to offer more resistance to pitting corrosion in comparison to X65 steel over the conditions tested. At concentrations of O2 above 500 ppm 5Cr produced general corrosion rates less than 0.04 mm/year, which were half that recorded for X65. The improved corrosion resistance of 5Cr was believed to be at least partially attributed to the formation of a Cr-rich film on the steel surface which was shown using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to contain chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and chromium hydroxide (Cr(OH)3). A final series of tests conducted with the addition of 1000 ppm O2 in under-saturated conditions (water content below solubility limit) revealed that no corrosion was observed when the water content was below 1200 ppm for both materials.

  7. Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange from North Sea coastal waters and the Atlantic Meridional Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, R.

    2016-02-01

    Suppression of gas transfer velocity (kw) by surfactants are well established, both in laboratory wind flumes and purposeful oceanic releases. However, the effects on kw of time and space varying concentrations of natural surfactant are inadequately studied. We have developed an automated gas exchange tank for simultaneous high precision measurement of kw in unmodified seawater samples. Here we present data from two studies along a coastal North Sea transect during 2012-2013 and the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) 24 from September to November 2014. Measurements of surfactant activity (SA), CDOM absorbance and chlorophyll-a have enabled us to characterize the effects of variable amounts of natural surfactant on kw. North Sea coastal waters range in k660 (kw normalized to the value for CO2 in freshwater at 20oC) was 6.8-24.5 cm hr-1 (n=20), with the ranges of SA, total CDOM absorbance (200-450 nm) and chlorophyll-a measured in the surface microlayer (SML) of our seawater samples were 0.08-0.38 mg l-1 T-X-100, 0.13-4.7 and 0.09-1.54 µg l-1, respectively. The AMT k660 ranged from 7.0-23.9 cm hr-1 (n=22), with SA measured in the SML and subsurface water (SSW) of our seawater samples ranging from 0.15-1.08 mg l-1 T-X-100 and 0.07-0.43 mg l-1 T-X-100, respectively. Importantly, we found 12-45% (North Sea) and 1-43% (AMT) k660 suppression relative to Milli-Q water that relate to seasonal and spatial differences in SA. The North Sea demonstrated notable seasonal influences on k660 suppression that were related to CDOM absorbance and chlorophyll-a. The degree of k660 suppression was highest in summer consistent with k660 control by natural surfactant. The degree of k660 suppression decreased with distance offshore in the North Sea and displayed a strong relationship with SA (r2 = 0.51-0.64, p = 0.02, n = 20). The AMT demonstrated notable differences in k660 suppression between hemispheres and across the Longhurst Provinces but the overall relationship between k660

  8. Management-focused approach to investigating coastal water-quality drivers and impacts in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigouroux, G.; Destouni, G.; Chen, Y.; Bring, A.; Jönsson, A.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal areas link human-driven conditions on land with open sea conditions, and include crucial and vulnerable ecosystems that provide a variety of ecosystem services. Eutrophication is a common problem that is not least observed in the Baltic Sea, where coastal water quality is influenced both by land-based nutrient loading and by partly eutrophic open sea conditions. Robust and adaptive management of coastal systems is essential and necessitates integration of large scale catchment-coastal-marine systems as well as consideration of anthropogenic drivers and impacts, and climate change. To address this coastal challenge, relevant methodological approaches are required for characterization of coupled land, local coastal, and open sea conditions under an adaptive management framework for water quality. In this paper we present a new general and scalable dynamic characterization approach, developed for and applied to the Baltic Sea and its coastal areas. A simple carbon-based water quality model is implemented, dividing the Baltic Sea into main management basins that are linked to corresponding hydrological catchments on land, as well as to each other though aggregated three-dimensional marine hydrodynamics. Relevant hydrodynamic variables and associated water quality results have been validated on the Baltic Sea scale and show good accordance with available observation data and other modelling approaches. Based on its scalability, this methodology is further used on coastal zone scale to investigate the effects of hydrodynamic, hydro-climatic and nutrient load drivers on water quality and management implications for coastal areas in the Baltic Sea.

  9. Water Masses in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: An Analysis of Measured Isotopic Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruggiero, Paola; Zanchettin, Davide; Bensi, Manuel; Hainbucher, Dagmar; Stenni, Barbara; Pierini, Stefano; Rubino, Angelo

    2018-04-01

    We investigate aspects of the water mass structure of the Adriatic and Ionian basins (Eastern Mediterranean Sea) and their interdecadal variability through statistical analyses focused on δ18Ο measurements carried out in 1985, 1990, and 2011. In particular, the more recent δ18Ο measurements extend throughout the entire water column and constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the largest synoptic dataset encompassing different sub-basins of the Mediterranean Sea. We study the statistical linkages between temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and δ18Ο. We find that δ18Ο is largely independent from the other parameters, and it can be used to trace major water masses that are typically found in the basins, including the Adriatic Dense Water, the Levantine Intermediate Water, and the Cretan Intermediate and Dense Waters. Finally, we explore the possibility of using δ18Ο concentration as a proxy for dominant modes of large-scale oceanic variability in the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

  11. The path of the Levantine intermediate water to the Alboran sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Jordi

    1987-10-01

    The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) traditionally has been assumed to reach the Alboran Sea as a counter-current along the North African coast. Here data are presented that confirm the LIW flow through the sill that separates the Balearic Islands from the mainland, after contouring cyclonically the western Mediterranean along the continental slope. This seems to be a seasonal phenomenon related to the process of deep water formation in the northwestern Mediterranean and to fluctuations in the Ligurian Current. In winter the LIW can circulate across the Catalan Sea without remarkable dilution, while in summer the intermediate outflow has almost lost the LIW water mass characteristics.

  12. Isolation of a sulfide-producing bacterial consortium from cooling-tower water: Evaluation of corrosive effects on galvanized steel.

    PubMed

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Ozuolmez, Derya; Çotuk, Ayşın; Cansever, Nurhan; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-02-01

    Sulfidogenic Clostridia and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) often cohabit in nature. The presence of these microorganisms can cause microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of materials in different ways. To investigate this aspect, bacteria were isolated from cooling tower water and used in corrosion tests of galvanized steel. The identity of the isolates was determined by comparative sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments, separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This analysis showed that, in spite of the isolation process, colonies were not pure and consisted of a mixture of bacteria affiliated with Desulfosporosinus meridiei and Clostridium sp. To evaluate the corrosive effect, galvanized steel coupons were incubated with a mixed culture for 4, 8, 24, 72, 96, 168, 360 and 744 h, along with a control set in sterile culture medium only. The corrosion rate was determined by weight loss, and biofilm formation and corroded surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the sulfide-producing bacterial consortium led to a slight increase in the corrosion of galvanized steel coupons, when compared to the previous studies it can be said that Clostridium sp. can reduce the corrosive effect of the Desulfosporosinus sp. strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anthropogenic CO2 in a dense water formation area of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Bensi, Manuel; Cardin, Vanessa; Giani, Michele

    2017-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the on-going ocean acidification of the Mediterranean Sea could be favoured by its active overturning circulation. The areas of dense water formation are, indeed, preferential sites for atmospheric carbon dioxide absorption and through them the ocean acidification process can quickly propagate into the deep layers. In this study we estimated the concentration of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) in the dense water formation areas of the middle and southern Adriatic Sea. Using the composite tracer TrOCA (Tracer combining Oxygen, inorganic Carbon, and total Alkalinity) and carbonate chemistry data collected throughout March 2013, our results revealed that a massive amount of Cant has invaded all the identified water masses. High Cant concentration was detected at the bottom layer of the Pomo Pit (middle Adriatic, 96.8±9.7 μmol kg-1) and Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP, 85.2±9.4 μmol kg-1), associated respectively with the presence of North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) and Adriatic Dense Water (AdDW). This anthropogenic contamination was clearly linked to the dense water formation events, which govern strong CO2 flux from the atmosphere to the sea and the sinking of dense, CO2-rich surface waters to the deep sea. However, a very high Cant level (94.5±12.5 μmol kg-1) was also estimated at the intermediate layer, as a consequence of a recent vertical mixing that determined the physical and biogeochemical modification of the water of Levantine origin (i.e. Modified Levantine Intermediate Water, MLIW) and favoured the atmospheric CO2 intrusion. The penetration of Cant in the Adriatic Sea determined a significant pH reduction since the pre-industrial era (- 0.139±0.019 pH units on average). This estimation was very similar to the global Mediterranean Sea acidification, but it was again more pronounced at the bottom of the Pomo Pit, within the layer occupied by NAdDW (- 0.157±0.018 pH units), and at the intermediate layer of the recently formed MLIW

  14. Fog water collection under sea breeze conditions in the Western Mediterranean basin (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Corell, D.; Estrela, M. J.; Valiente, J. A.

    2010-07-01

    Orographic fog occurrences associated with sea breezes determine water collection potential over the mountain ranges near the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous works have confirmed that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. The primary impact of sea breeze flows corresponds to low stratiform clouds (Stratus, St, and Stratocumulus, Sc) formed in the convective internal boundary layer due to the inflow of moist sea air at lower levels. The formation of Sc clouds is caused by the rising and cooling of turbulent moist sea air over the highest slopes of the mountains at the end of the day. In the most Sc formation, we also observed dense fog banks of Stratus nebulosus (St neb) and dew during the early next morning, covering the inland topographical depressions. The aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on fog water collection in the convective internal boundary layer. The study area is located in the eastern of the Iberian Peninsula (Valencia region, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 7-yr study period (2003-2009). This research is based upon a small network of eight passive fog water collectors distributed over 6 coastal- and 2 inland-mountain areas. A cylindrical fog water instrument (i.e. omnidirectional collection efficiency) based on the ASRC (Atmospheric Science Research Centre, State University of New York) string collector is used to sample fog water volumes on a daily basis. These stations also sampled temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction and precipitation measurements. The current study used these meteorological measurements to apply an automated and manual selection methodologies for identifying past sea breeze episodes. The dataset created by means of these selection techniques allows for the study of fog water volumes associated with sea breeze situations. A detailed statistical characterization of the

  15. Corrosion Control 101: A Journey in Rediscovery | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The presentation covers the general water chemistry of lead and copper, how contamination originates from home plumbing systems, what treatments are appropriate for controlling lead and copper to meet the Lead and Copper Rule, and what water quality and treatment factors directly impact the success and failure of corrosion control treatment. This talk re-introduces the overriding principles of corrosion control treatment to a water industry audience

  16. Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Nuclear Waste Container Evaluated in Simulated Ground Water at 90?C

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Haslam, J J; Farmer, J C

    2004-03-31

    Ceramic materials have been considered as corrosion resistant coatings for nuclear waste containers. Their suitability can be derived from the fully oxidized state for selected metal oxides. Several types of ceramic coatings applied to plain carbon steel substrates by thermal spray techniques have been exposed to 90 C simulated ground water for nearly 6 years. In some cases no apparent macroscopic damage such as coating spallation was observed in coatings. Thermal spray processes examined in this work included plasma spray, High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF), and Detonation Gun. Some thermal spray coatings have demonstrated superior corrosion protection for the plainmore » carbon steel substrate. In particular the HVOF and Detonation Gun thermal spray processes produced coatings with low connected porosity, which limited the growth rate of corrosion products. It was also demonstrated that these coatings resisted spallation of the coating even when an intentional flaw (which allowed for corrosion of the carbon steel substrate underneath the ceramic coating) was placed in the coating. A model for prediction of the corrosion protection provided by ceramic coatings is presented. The model includes the effect of the morphology and amount of the porosity within the thermal spray coating and provides a prediction of the exposure time needed to produce a crack in the ceramic coating.« less

  17. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  18. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size system...

  19. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size system...

  20. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size system...

  1. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size system...

  2. Optimizing desalinated sea water blending with other sources to meet magnesium requirements for potable and irrigation waters.

    PubMed

    Avni, Noa; Eben-Chaime, Moshe; Oron, Gideon

    2013-05-01

    Sea water desalination provides fresh water that typically lacks minerals essential to human health and to agricultural productivity. Thus the rising proportion of desalinated sea water consumed by both the domestic and agricultural sectors constitutes a public health risk. Research on low-magnesium water irrigation showed that crops developed magnesium deficiency symptoms that could lead to plant death, and tomato yields were reduced by 10-15%. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported on a relationship between sudden cardiac death rates and magnesium intake deficits. An optimization model, developed and tested to provide recommendations for Water Distribution System (WDS) quality control in terms of meeting optimal water quality requirements, was run in computational experiments based on an actual regional WDS. The expected magnesium deficit due to the operation of a large Sea Water Desalination Plant (SWDP) was simulated, and an optimal operation policy, in which remineralization at the SWDP was combined with blending desalinated and natural water to achieve the required quality, was generated. The effects of remineralization costs and WDS physical layout on the optimal policy were examined by sensitivity analysis. As part of the sensitivity blending natural and desalinated water near the treatment plants will be feasible up to 16.2 US cents/m(3), considering all expenses. Additional chemical injection was used to meet quality criteria when blending was not feasible. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exchange of Laptev Sea and Arctic Ocean halocline waters in response to atmospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, D.; Dmitrenko, I. A.; Wegner, C.; HöLemann, J.; Kirillov, S. A.; Timokhov, L. A.; Kassens, H.

    2009-05-01

    Combined δ18O/salinity data reveal a distinctive water mass generated during winter sea ice formation which is found predominantly in the coastal polynya region of the southern Laptev Sea. Export of the brine-enriched bottom water shows interannual variability in correlation with atmospheric conditions. Summer anticyclonic circulation is favoring an offshore transport of river water at the surface as well as a pronounced signal of brine-enriched waters at about 50 m water depth at the shelf break. Summer cyclonic atmospheric circulation favors onshore or an eastward, alongshore water transport, and at the shelf break the river water fraction is reduced and the pronounced brine signal is missing, while on the middle Laptev Sea shelf, brine-enriched waters are found in high proportions. Residence times of bottom and subsurface waters on the shelf may thereby vary considerably: an export of shelf waters to the Arctic Ocean halocline might be shut down or strongly reduced during "onshore" cyclonic atmospheric circulation, while with "offshore" anticyclonic atmospheric circulation, brine waters are exported and residence times may be as short as 1 year only.

  4. Corrosion behavior of pre-oxidized HR-224 superalloy in supercritical water environment at 700 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Shih-Ming; Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Kai, Ji-Jung

    2018-07-01

    Corrosion of cladding materials in supercritical water (SCW) environment is a key reliability issue for the safety of nuclear power plant. In this study, we propose to use the pre-oxidized treatment to provide better corrosion resistance of cladding materials in the SCW environment. The nickel-based superalloy HR-224 was first pre-oxidized in flowing air at 982 °C for 100 h to establish a continuous and dense scales and then exposed in the SCW environment with high oxygen content (8.3 ppm) at 700 °C and 24.8 MPa for cyclic oxidation testing up to 1300 h. The pre-oxidized samples exhibit better corrosion resistance than as-received samples in the SCW environment. After pre-oxidizing process, triple scales, Ni(Cr, Fe)2O4 spinel/Cr2O3/α-Al2O3 were observed, and the growth of inner α-Al2O3 layer is predominant in the SCW environment. The α-Al2O3 layer in pre-oxidized samples was found to effectively decrease outward migration of metal ions in Alloy HR-224 and thus provides better corrosion resistance than as-received samples in SCW environment.

  5. Dense water plumes modulate richness and productivity of deep sea microbes.

    PubMed

    Luna, Gian Marco; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Quero, Grazia Marina; Schroeder, Katrin; Bongiorni, Lucia; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Galand, Pierre E

    2016-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that dense water formation and flow over the continental shelf is a globally relevant oceanographic process, potentially affecting microbial assemblages down to the deep ocean. However, the extent and consequences of this influence have yet to be investigated. Here it is shown that dense water propagation to the deep ocean increases the abundance of prokaryotic plankton, and stimulates carbon production and organic matter degradation rates. Dense waters spilling off the shelf modifies community composition of deep sea microbial assemblages, leading to the increased relevance of taxa likely originating from the sea surface and the seafloor. This phenomenon can be explained by a combination of factors that interplay during the dense waters propagation, such as the transport of surface microbes to the ocean floor (delivering in our site 0.1 megatons of C), the stimulation of microbial metabolism due to increased ventilation and nutrients availability, the sediment re-suspension, and the mixing with ambient waters along the path. Thus, these results highlight a hitherto unidentified role for dense currents flowing over continental shelves in influencing deep sea microbes. In light of climate projections, this process will affect significantly the microbial functioning and biogeochemical cycling of large sectors of the ocean interior. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Shallow water sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the northwestern coast of the Sea of Japan, north of Peter the Great Bay, Russia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The coast of northern Primorye region, north of Peter the Great Bay has been sparsely studied in regards to its molluscan fauna, with just a few works reviewing the distribution of local mollusks. This work presents a survey of the shallow water heterobranch sea slugs currently occurring around Kievka Bay to Oprichnik Bay, Russia. Thirty-nine species of sea slugs were found in this study and the new species Cadlina olgae sp. nov., described herein. Most (24) of the species occurring in the area have widespread ranges in the northern Pacific Ocean. The eight species are endemic for the Sea of Japan and adjacent part of the Sea of Okhotsk. Seven other occur also in northern Atlantic and Arctic waters. Thirteen found species are not known from Peter the Great Bay but known from adjacent northern Pacific waters. The finding of a previously undescribed species emphasizes the need of further surveys, particularly in subtidal and deeper waters, in order to improve the knowledge on this neglected fauna in Primorye. PMID:27957399

  7. Concrete Infrastructure Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Vorster, S. W.

    2003-06-01

    It is well known that many reinforced concrete structures are at risk of deterioration due to chloride ion contamination of the concrete or atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolving in water to form carbonic acid, which reacts with the concrete and the reinforcing steel. The environment within the concrete will determine the corrosion product layers, which might, inter alia, contain the oxides and/or hydroxides of iron. Tensile forces resulting from volume changes during their formation lead to the cracking and delamination of the concrete. In the present investigation the handrail of an outside staircase suffered rebar corrosion during 30 year's service, leading to severe delamination damage to the concrete structure. The railings had been sealed into the concrete staircase using a polysulphide sealant, Thiokol®. The corrosion products were identified by means of Mössbauer and SEM analyses, which indicated that the corrosion product composition varied from the original steel surface to the outer layers, the former being mainly iron oxides and the latter iron oxyhydroxide.

  8. On the dense water spreading off the Ross Sea shelf (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budillon, G.; Gremes Cordero, S.; Salusti, E.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, current meter and hydrological data obtained during the X Italian Expedition in the Ross Sea (CLIMA Project) are analyzed. Our data show a nice agreement with previous data referring to the water masses present in this area and their dynamics. Here, they are used to further analyze the mixing and deepening processes of Deep Ice Shelf Water (DISW) over the northern shelf break of the Ross Sea. In more detail, our work is focused on the elementary mechanisms that are the most efficient in removing dense water from the shelf: either classical mixing effects or density currents that interact with some topographic irregularity in order to drop to deeper levels, or also the variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) which, in its meandering, can push the dense water off the shelf, thus interrupting its geostrophic flow. We also discuss in detail the (partial) evidence of dramatic interactions of the dense water with bottom particulate, of geological or biological origin, thus generating impulsive or quasi-steady density-turbidity currents. This complex interaction allows one to consider bottom particular and dense water as a unique self-interacting system. In synthesis, this is a first tentative analysis of the effect of bottom particulate on the dense water dynamics in the Ross Sea.

  9. Note On The Ross Sea Shelf Water Downflow Processes (antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, A.; Defendi, V.; Spezie, G.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.

    In the framework of the CLIMA Project of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica, three different experimental data sets were acquired along the continental shelf break; two of them (in 1997 and 2001) close to Cape Adare, the 1998 one in the middle of the Ross Sea (i.e. 75 S, 177 W). The investigations were chosen in order to explore the downslope flow of the bottom waters produced in the Ross Sea, namely the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, the densest water mass of the southern ocean coming from its formation site in the polynya region in Terra Nova bay), and the Ice Shelf Water (ISW, originated below the Ross Ice Shelf and outflowing northward). Both bottom waters spill over the shelf edge and mix with the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) contributing to the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW). Interpreting temperature, salinity and density maps in terms of cascading processes, both HSSW and ISW overflows are evidenced during, respectively, 1997 and 1998. During the 2001 acquisition there is no presence of HSSW along the shelf break, nevertheless distribution captures the evidence of a downslope flow process.

  10. Rapid changes in surface water carbonate chemistry during Antarctic sea ice melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Venables, Hugh J.; Whitehouse, Michael J.; Korb, Rebecca E.; Watson, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of sea ice melt on the carbonate chemistry of surface waters in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean, was investigated during January 2008. Contrasting concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) were observed in and around the receding sea ice edge. The precipitation of carbonate minerals such as ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) in sea ice brine has the net effect of decreasing DIC and TA and increasing the fCO2 in the brine. Deficits in DIC up to 12 +/- 3 μmol kg-1 in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) were consistent with the release of DIC-poor brines to surface waters during sea ice melt. Biological utilization of carbon was the dominant processes and accounted for 41 +/- 1 μmol kg-1 of the summer DIC deficit. The data suggest that the combined effects of biological carbon uptake and the precipitation of carbonates created substantial undersaturation in fCO2 of 95 μatm in the MIZ during summer sea ice melt. Further work is required to improve the understanding of ikaite chemistry in Antarctic sea ice and its importance for the sea ice carbon pump.

  11. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour.

    PubMed

    Martin, T L; Coe, C; Bagot, P A J; Morrall, P; Smith, G D W; Scott, T; Moody, M P

    2016-07-12

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour.

  12. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T. L.; Coe, C.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Morrall, P.; Smith, G. D. W.; Scott, T.; Moody, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour.

  13. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T. L.; Coe, C.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Morrall, P.; Smith, G. D. W; Scott, T.; Moody, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour. PMID:27403638

  14. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  15. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively. PMID:23369617

  16. Materials and Coatings for Extreme Performances: Investigations, Applications, Ecologically Safe Technologies for Their Production and Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-16

    1) E170 CORROSION RESICTANCE OF Ti AND ITS ALLOYS IN SEA WATER Vyazovikina N.V., Kus’menko H.H., Kulak L.D., Vyazovikin I.V.(1) E45 TECHNOLOGICAL...INFLUENCE OF CORROSION IN SEA WATER ENVIRONMENT ON PHYSICO – MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GREEN BODIES FABRICATED FROM A COPPER BASED HETEROGENEOUS MATERIAL...high chemical stability (tolerance towards gasoline, sea water, acids and alkali), reduced flammability, low adhesion to dirtying substances. In

  17. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, C.; Vandieken, V.; Thamdrup, B.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-04-01

    Marine oxygen deficient areas are sites of important microbially mediated transformations within the nitrogen cycle. In the Baltic Sea, suboxic waters (oxygen below 5 μmol L-1) are considered to be a major nitrification zone within the water column. Recent evidence indicates that Archaea and not Bacteria are here the major ammonium oxidizers. In a Baltic Sea pelagic redoxcline, the crenarchaeotal subcluster GD2 which is related to the first cultivated ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus occurs in high abundance. However, little is known about its function and importance for the nitrogen and carbon cycles in oxygen minimum zones of the Baltic Sea. To approach this question, we sampled pelagic redoxclines in the Baltic Sea and determined the rates of nitrification and light-independent, inorganic carbon fixation via 15N and 14C isotope incubations, and quantified the abundance of putative ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Nitrification was detectable throughout the suboxic zone with maxima of 122-131 nmol L-1 d-1 in layers with 1.8-7.1 μmol oxygen L-1 and ammonium below 0.2 μmol L-1. However, a nitrification potential was detected even in the upper anoxic, sulfidic zone. Crenarchaeotal abundance correlated strongly with nitrification rates and accounted for up to 24% of total prokaryotic cells. In contrast, the CO2 fixation in the suboxic zone was with 1.6-19.6 nmol L-1 d-1 rather low when compared to the subjacent anoxic, sulfidic waters. Our study indicates that ammonia oxidation in the suboxic zone of the Baltic Sea is mainly driven by Crenarchaeota. Their occurrence also in the anoxic, sulfidic water masses and the maintained nitrification potential point to special adaptations in this habitat with a potentially reduced sensitivity against hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Impact of pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, and polyphosphates for the initial stages of water corrosion of copper surfaces investigated by AFM and NEXAFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoscale studies at the early stages of the exposure of copper surfaces after systematic treatments in synthesized water solutions can provide useful information about corrosion processes. The corrosion and passivation of copper surfaces as influenced by pH, dissolved inorganic ...

  19. Bering Sea Nd isotope records of North Pacific Intermediate Water circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbat, C.; Knudson, K. P.; Goldstein, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) is the primary water mass associated with Pacific meridional overturning circulation. While the relationship between Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and climate has been extensively studied, a lack of suitable sediment cores has limited past investigations of North Pacific climate and NPIW variability. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1342 (818 m water depth) on Bower's Ridge in the Bering Sea is located at a sensitive depth for detecting changes in NPIW, and it is the only available sub-arctic North Pacific site that offers long, continuous core recovery, relatively high sedimentation rates, excellent foraminifera preservation, and a well-constrained age model over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Previous work at Site U1342 from Knudson and Ravelo (2015), using non-quantitative circulation proxies, provides evidence for enhanced NPIW formation during extreme glacials associated with the closure of the Bering Strait and suggest that NPIW was formed locally within the Bering Sea. Our work builds on the potential importance of these results and applies more robust and potentially quantitative circulation proxies to constrain NPIW variability. Here, we present new records of NPIW circulation from Site U1342 based on Nd isotope analyses on fish debris and Fe-Mn encrusted foraminifera, which serve as semi-quantitative "water mass tracers." Weak Bering Sea NPIW formation and ventilation are reflected by relatively lower eNd values indicative of open subarctic North Pacific waters, which are presently predominant, whereas enhanced Bering Sea NPIW formation and ventilation are be reflected by relatively higher eNd values due to the input of Nd from regional volcanic rocks.

  20. Improving the Predictability of Severe Water Levels along the Coasts of Marginal Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, N. N.; de Vries, H.; van den Brink, H.; De Vries, H.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme water levels can lead to catastrophic consequences with severe societal and economic repercussions. Particularly vulnerable are countries that are largely situated below sea level. To support and optimize forecast models, as well as future adaptation efforts, this study assesses the modeled contribution of storm surges and astronomical tides to total water levels under different air-sea momentum transfer parameterizations in a numerical surge model (WAQUA/DCSMv5) of the North Sea. It particularly focuses on the implications for the representation of extreme and rapidly recurring severe water levels over the past decades based on the example of the Netherlands. For this, WAQUA/DCSMv5, which is currently used to forecast coastal water levels in the Netherlands, is forced with ERA Interim reanalysis data. Model results are obtained from two different methodologies to parameterize air-sea momentum transfer. The first calculates the governing wind stress forcing using a drag coefficient derived from the conventional approach of wind speed dependent Charnock constants. The other uses instantaneous wind stress from the parameterization of the quasi-linear theory applied within the ECMWF wave model which is expected to deliver a more realistic forcing. The performance of both methods is tested by validating the model output with observations, paying particular attention to their ability to reproduce rapidly succeeding high water levels and extreme events. In a second step, the common features of and connections between these events are analyzed. The results of this study will allow recommendations for the improvement of water level forecasts within marginal seas and support decisions by policy makers. Furthermore, they will strengthen the general understanding of severe and extreme water levels as a whole and help to extend the currently limited knowledge about clustering events.

  1. The synergy of corrosion and fretting wear process on Inconel 690 in the high temperature high pressure water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zihao; Xu, Jian; Li, Jie; Xin, Long; Lu, Yonghao; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi; Otsuka, Yuichi; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2018-04-01

    The synergistic effect of corrosion and fretting process of the steam generator (SG) tube was investigated by using a self-designed high temperature test rig in this paper. The experiments were performed at 100°C , 200°C and 288°C , respectively. The fretting corrosion damage was studied by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Raman spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results demonstrated that the corrosion process in high temperature high pressure (HTHP) water environment had a distinct interaction with the fretting process of Inconel 690. With the increment of temperature, the damage mechanism changed from a simple mechanical process to a mechanochemical process.

  2. Combining urbanization and hydrodynamics data to evaluate sea level rise impacts on coastal water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. R.; Martin, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Assessments of the potential for salt water intrusion due to sea level rise require consideration of both coastal hydrodynamic and human activity thresholds. In siliciclastic systems, sea level rise may cause salt intrusion to coastal aquifers at annual or decadal scales, whereas in karst systems salt intrudes at the tidal scalse. In both cases, human activity impacts the freshwater portion of the system by altering the water demand on the aquifer. We combine physicochemical and human activity data to evaluate impact of sea level rise on salt intrusion to siliclastic (Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA) and karst (Puerto Morelos, Yucatan, Mexico) systems under different sea level rise rate scenarios. Two hydrodynamic modeling scenarios are considered; flux controlled and head controlled. Under a flux controlled system hydraulic head gradients remain constant during sea level rise while under a head controlled system hydraulic graidents diminish, allowing saltwater intrusion. Our model contains three key terms; aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity were calculated based on high frequency (karst system) and decadal (siliciclastic system) field measurements. Aquifer recharge is defined as precipitation less evapotranspiration and water demand was evaluated based on urban planning data that provided the regional water demand. Water demand includes agricultural area, toursim, traffic patterns, garbage collection and total population. Water demand was initially estimated using a partial leaset squares regression based on these variables. Our model indicates that water demand depends most on agricultural area, which has changed significantly over the last 30 years. In both systems, additional water demand creates a head controlled scenario, thus increaseing the protential fo salt intrusion with projected sea level rise.

  3. Corrosion behavior in high-temperature pressurized water of Zircaloy-4 joints brazed with Zr-Cu-based amorphous filler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung Gu; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Jin-Ju; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-05-01

    The compositional effects of ternary Zr-Cu-X (X: Al, Fe) amorphous filler alloys on galvanic corrosion susceptibility in high-temperature pressurized water were investigated for Zircaloy-4 brazed joints. Through an Al-induced microgalvanic reaction that deteriorated the overall nobility of the joint, application of the Zr-Cu-Al filler alloy caused galvanic coupling to develop readily between the Al-bearing joint and the Al-free base metal, finally leading to massive localized corrosion of the joint. Contrastingly, joints prepared with a Zr-Cu-Fe filler alloy showed excellent corrosion resistance comparable to that of the Zircaloy-4 base metal, since the Cu and Fe elements forming fine intermetallic particles with Zr did not influence the electrochemical stability of the resultant joints. The present results demonstrate that Fe is a more suitable alloying element than Al for brazing filler alloys subjected to high-temperature corrosive environments.

  4. Effects of crack tip plastic zone on corrosion fatigue cracking of alloy 690(TT) in pressurized water reactor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, J.; Qiu, S. Y.; Chen, Y.; Fu, Z. H.; Lin, Z. X.; Xu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Alloy 690(TT) is widely used for steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR), where it is susceptible to corrosion fatigue. In this study, the corrosion fatigue behavior of Alloy 690(TT) in simulated PWR environments was investigated. The microstructure of the plastic zone near the crack tip was investigated and labyrinth structures were observed. The relationship between the crack tip plastic zone and fatigue crack growth rates and the environment factor Fen was illuminated.

  5. Relevance of Regional Hydro-Climatic Projection Data for Hydrodynamics and Water Quality Modelling of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, R.; Vigouroux, G.; Chen, Y.; Bring, A.; Kalantari, Z.; Prieto, C.; Destouni, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Baltic Sea, located in Northern Europe, is one of the world's largest body of brackish water, enclosed and surrounded by nine different countries. The magnitude of climate change may be particularly large in northern regions, and identifying its impacts on vulnerable inland waters and their runoff and nutrient loading to the Baltic Sea is an important and complex task. Exploration of such hydro-climatic impacts is needed to understand potential future changes in physical, ecological and water quality conditions in the regional coastal and marine waters. In this study, we investigate hydro-climatic changes and impacts on the Baltic Sea by synthesizing multi-model climate projection data from the CORDEX regional downscaling initiative (EURO- and Arctic- CORDEX domains, http://www.cordex.org/). We identify key hydro-climatic variable outputs of these models and assess model performance with regard to their projected temporal and spatial change behavior and impacts on different scales and coastal-marine parts, up to the whole Baltic Sea. Model spreading, robustness and impact implications for the Baltic Sea system are investigated for and through further use in simulations of coastal-marine hydrodynamics and water quality based on these key output variables and their change projections. Climate model robustness in this context is assessed by inter-model spreading analysis and observation data comparisons, while projected change implications are assessed by forcing of linked hydrodynamic and water quality modeling of the Baltic Sea based on relevant hydro-climatic outputs for inland water runoff and waterborne nutrient loading to the Baltic sea, as well as for conditions in the sea itself. This focused synthesis and analysis of hydro-climatically relevant output data of regional climate models facilitates assessment of reliability and uncertainty in projections of driver-impact changes of key importance for Baltic Sea physical, water quality and ecological

  6. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea. PMID:27410682

  7. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports.

    PubMed

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea.

  8. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.

    2011-06-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found there between 600 and 1000 m depths. The Red Sea Water is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, and fragments of this water mass can be advected offshore across the gulf or towards its northern coast by the regional gyres. The Red Sea Water outflow is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the SSH measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are more often related to the anomalous water masses that they encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW are found in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, in particular during summer.

  9. Effects of sea water on elongated duration of ground motion as well as variation in its amplitude for offshore earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Masaru; Furumura, Takashi; Maeda, Takuto

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of sea water on the propagation of seismic waves using a 3-D finite-difference-method simulation of seismic wave propagation following offshore earthquakes. When using a 1-D layered structure, the simulation results showed strong S- to P-wave conversion at the sea bottom; accordingly, S-wave energy was dramatically decreased by the sea water layer. This sea water de-amplification effect had strong frequency dependence, therefore resembling a low-pass filter in which the cut-off frequency and damping coefficients were defined by the thickness of the sea water layer. The sea water also acted to elongate the duration of Rayleigh wave packet. The importance of the sea water layer in modelling offshore earthquakes was further demonstrated by a simulation using a realistic 3-D velocity structure model with and without sea water for a shallow (h = 14 km) outer-rise Nankai Trough event, the 2004 SE Off Kii Peninsula earthquake (Mw = 7.2). Synthetic seismograms generated by the model when sea water was included were in accordance with observed seismograms for long-term longer period motions, particularly those in the shape of Rayleigh waves.

  10. Surface chemistry and corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical, and ultrasupercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, David; Merwin, Augustus; Karmiol, Zachary; Chidambaram, Dev

    2017-05-01

    Corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical and ultrasupercritical water was studied as a function of temperature and time. The change in the chemistry of the as-received surface film on Inconel 625 and 718 after exposure to subcritical water at 325 °C and supercritical water at 425 °C and 527.5 °C for 2 h was studied. After exposure to 325 °C subcritical water, the CrO42- based film formed; however minor quantities of NiFexCr2-xO4 spinel compounds were observed. The oxide film formed on both alloys when exposed to supercritical water at 425 °C consisted of NiFexCr2-xO4 spinel. The surface films on both alloys were identified as NiFe2O4 when exposed to supercritical water at 527.5 °C. To characterize the fully developed oxide layer, studies were conducted at test solution temperatures of 527.5 and 600 °C. Samples were exposed to these temperatures for 24, 96, and 200 h. Surface chemistry was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Inconel 718 exhibited greater mass gain than Inconel 625 for all temperatures and exposure times. The differences in corrosion behavior of the two alloys are attributed to the lower content of chromium and increased iron content of Inconel 718 as compared to Inconel 625.

  11. PREDICTING LEAD DISSOLUTION IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ADDITIVES ON LEAD SOLUBILITY AND CORROSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many water systems have encountered difficulties in meeting the action levels established by the Lead and Copper Rule. Several chemical parameters contribute to the corrosion of lead plumbing and may influence the nature of the passivating films formed on distribution materials....

  12. Controlled-Release Microcapsules for Smart Coatings for Corrosion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion is a serious problem that has enormous costs and serious safety implications. Localized corrosion, such as pitting, is very dangerous and can cause catastrophic failures. The NASA Corrosion Technology Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center is developing a smart coating based on pH-sensitive microcapsules for corrosion applications. These versatile microcapsules are designed to be incorporated into a smart coating and deliver their core content when corrosion starts. Corrosion indication was the first function incorporated into the microcapsules. Current efforts are focused on incorporating the corrosion inhibition function through the encapsulation of corrosion inhibitors into water core and oil core microcapsules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of encapsulated corrosion inhibitors are shown.

  13. Effects of brining on the corrosion of ZVI and its subsequent As(III/V) and Se(IV/VI) removal from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Xu, Hui; Shan, Chao; Jiang, Zhao; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-03-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) has been extensively applied in water remediation, and most of the ZVI materials employed in practical applications are iron scraps, which have usually been corroded to certain extent under different conditions. In this study, the effects of brining with six solutions (NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , NaHCO 3 , Na 2 SiO 3 , NH 4 Cl, and NaH 2 PO 4 ) on the corrosion of ZVI and its performance in the removal of As(III/V)/Se(IV/VI) were systematically investigated. All the studied solutions enhanced the corrosion of ZVI except for Na 2 SiO 3 , and the degrees of corrosion followed the order of NH 4 Cl > NaH 2 PO 4  > Na 2 SO 4  > NaCl > NaHCO 3  > H 2 O > Na 2 SiO 3 . The corrosion products derived from ZVI were identified by SEM and XRD, and the dominant corrosion products varied with the type of brine solution. The positive correlation between the degree of ZVI corrosion and As(III/V)/Se(IV/VI) removal by the pre-corroded ZVI (pcZVI) was verified. In addition, As and Se removal by pcZVI was realized via a comprehensive process including adsorption and reduction, as further supported by the XPS analysis. We believe this study will shed new light upon the selection of iron materials pre-corroded under different saline conditions for practical water remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of chemical etching and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide resulting from manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Shabalovskaya, S; Rondelli, G; Anderegg, J; Simpson, B; Budko, S

    2003-07-15

    The effect of chemical etching in a HF/HNO(3) acid solution and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide has been evaluated with the use of potentiodynamic, modified potentiostatic ASTM F746, and scratch tests. Scanning-electron microscopy, elemental XPS, and Auger analysis were employed to characterize surface alterations induced by surface treatment and corrosion testing. The effect of aging in boiling water on the temperatures of martensitic transformations and shape recovery was evaluated by means of measuring the wire electroresistance. After corrosion tests, as-received wires revealed uniformly cracked surfaces reminiscent of the stress-corrosion-cracking phenomenon. These wires exhibited negative breakdown potentials in potentiostatic tests and variable breakdown potentials in potentiodynamic tests (- 100 mV to + 400 mV versus SCE). Wires with treated surfaces did not reveal cracking or other traces of corrosion attacks in potentiodynamic tests up to + 900-1400-mV potentials and no pitting after stimulation at + 800 mV in potentiostatic tests. They exhibited corrosion behavior satisfactory for medical applications. Significant improvement of corrosion parameters was observed on the reverse scans in potentiodynamic tests after exposure of treated wires to potentials > 1000 mV. In scratch tests, the prepared surfaces repassivated only at low potentials, comparable to that of stainless steel. Tremendous improvement of the corrosion behavior of treated Nitinol wires is associated with the removal of defect surface material and the growth of stable TiO(2) oxide. The role of precipitates in the corrosion resistance of Nitinol-scratch repassivation capacity in particular-is emphasized in the discussion. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 66B: 331-340, 2003

  15. Bench-scale evaluation of ferrous iron oxidation kinetics in drinking water: effect of corrosion control and dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Safiur; Gagnon, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion control strategies are important for many utilities in maintaining water quality from the water treatment plant to the customers' tap. In drinking water with low alkalinity, water quality can become significantly degraded in iron-based pipes if water utilities are not diligent in maintaining proper corrosion control. This article reports on experiments conducted in bicarbonate buffered (5 mg-C/L) synthetic water to determine the effects of corrosion control (pH and phosphate) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the rate constants of the Fe(II) oxidation process. A factorial design approach elucidated that pH (P = 0.007, contribution: 42.5%) and phosphate (P = 0.025, contribution: 22.7%) were the statistically significant factors in the Fe(II) oxidation process at a 95% confidence level. The comprehensive study revealed a significant dependency relationship between the Fe(II) oxidation rate constants (k) and phosphate-to- Fe(II) mole ratio. At pH 6.5, the optimum mole ratio was found to be 0.3 to reduce the k values. Conversely, the k values were observed to increase for the phosphate-to- Fe(II) mole ratio > 1. The factorial design approach revealed that chlorine and DOM for the designated dosages did not cause a statistically significant (α = 0.05, P > 0.05)change in rate constants. However, an increment of the chlorine to ferrous iron mole ratio by a factor of ∼ 2.5 resulted in an increase k values by a factor of ∼ 10. This study conclusively demonstrated that the lowest Fe(II) oxidation rate constant was obtained under low pH conditions (pH ≤ 6.5), with chlorine doses less than 2.2 mg/L and with a phosphate-to-Fe(II) mole ratio ≈ 0.3 in the iron water systems.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of 18 Ni maraging steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of 18Ni maraging steel (grades 200, 250, 300, and 350) was determined in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) solution, synthetic sea water, high humidity, and outside MSFC atmosphere. All grades of the maraging steel were found to be susceptible to SCC in varying degrees according to their strengths, with the lowest strength steel (grade 200) being the least susceptible and the highest strength steel (grade 350), the most susceptible to SCC. The SCC resistance of 250 grade maraging steel was also evaluated in salt and salt-chromate solutions using fracture mechanics techniques. The threshold value, K sub SCC, was found to be approximately 44 MN/sq m square root m, (40 ksi square root in.) or 40 percent of the K sub Q value.

  17. Sedimentary noise and sea levels linked to land-ocean water exchange and obliquity forcing.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingsong; Hinnov, Linda A; Huang, Chunju; Ogg, James G

    2018-03-08

    In ancient hothouses lacking ice sheets, the origins of large, million-year (myr)-scale sea-level oscillations remain a mystery, challenging current models of sea-level change. To address this mystery, we develop a sedimentary noise model for sea-level changes that simultaneously estimates geologic time and sea level from astronomically forced marginal marine stratigraphy. The noise model involves two complementary approaches: dynamic noise after orbital tuning (DYNOT) and lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient (ρ 1 ). Noise modeling of Lower Triassic marine slope stratigraphy in South China reveal evidence for global sea-level variations in the Early Triassic hothouse that are anti-phased with continental water storage variations in the Germanic Basin. This supports the hypothesis that long-period (1-2 myr) astronomically forced water mass exchange between land and ocean reservoirs is a missing link for reconciling geological records and models for sea-level change during non-glacial periods.

  18. The Nature of Surface Oxides on Corrosion-Resistant Nickel Alloy Covered by Alkaline Water

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A nickel alloy with high chrome and molybdenum content was found to form a highly resistive and passive oxide layer. The donor density and mobility of ions in the oxide layer has been determined as a function of the electrical potential when alkaline water layers are on the alloy surface in order to account for the relative inertness of the nickel alloy in corrosive environments. PMID:20672134

  19. Biofouling and microbial corrosion problem in the thermo-fluid heat exchanger and cooling water system of a nuclear test reactor.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S; Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Chandramohan, P; Panigrahi, B S; Narasimhan, S V

    2009-10-01

    This article discusses aspects of biofouling and corrosion in the thermo-fluid heat exchanger (TFHX) and in the cooling water system of a nuclear test reactor. During inspection, it was observed that >90% of the TFHX tube bundle was clogged with thick fouling deposits. Both X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer analyses of the fouling deposit demonstrated iron corrosion products. The exterior of the tubercle showed the presence of a calcium and magnesium carbonate mixture along with iron oxides. Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of calcium carbonate scale in the calcite phase. The interior of the tubercle contained significant iron sulphide, magnetite and iron-oxy-hydroxide. A microbiological assay showed a considerable population of iron oxidizing bacteria and sulphate reducing bacteria (10(5) to 10(6) cfu g(-1) of deposit). As the temperature of the TFHX is in the range of 45-50 degrees C, the microbiota isolated/assayed from the fouling deposit are designated as thermo-tolerant bacteria. The mean corrosion rate of the CS coupons exposed online was approximately 2.0 mpy and the microbial counts of various corrosion causing bacteria were in the range 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1) in the cooling water and 10(6) to 10(8) cfu ml(-1) in the biofilm.

  20. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  1. An interview-based approach to assess sea turtle bycatch in Italian waters.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Alessandro; Vasapollo, Claudio; Virgili, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta , Linnaeus, 1758) is the most abundant sea turtle species in the Mediterranean Sea, where commercial fishing appears to be the main driver of mortality. So far, information on sea turtle bycatch in Italy is limited both in space and time due to logistical problems in data collected through onboard observations and on a limited number of vessels involved. In the present study, sea turtle bycatch in Italian waters was examined by collecting fishermen's information on turtle bycatch through an interview-based approach. Their replies enabled the identification of bycatch hotspots in relation to area, season and to the main gear types. The most harmful fishing gears resulted to be trawl nets, showing the highest probabilities of turtle bycatch with a hotspot in the Adriatic Sea, followed by longlines in the Ionian Sea and in the Sicily Channel. Estimates obtained by the present results showed that more than 52,000 capture events and 10,000 deaths occurred in Italian waters in 2014, highlighting a more alarming scenario than earlier studies. The work shows that in case of poor data from other sources, direct questioning of fishermen and stakeholders could represent a useful and cost-effective approach capable of providing sufficient data to estimate annual bycatch rates and identify high-risk gear/location/season combinations.

  2. An interview-based approach to assess sea turtle bycatch in Italian waters

    PubMed Central

    Vasapollo, Claudio; Virgili, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta, Linnaeus, 1758) is the most abundant sea turtle species in the Mediterranean Sea, where commercial fishing appears to be the main driver of mortality. So far, information on sea turtle bycatch in Italy is limited both in space and time due to logistical problems in data collected through onboard observations and on a limited number of vessels involved. In the present study, sea turtle bycatch in Italian waters was examined by collecting fishermen’s information on turtle bycatch through an interview-based approach. Their replies enabled the identification of bycatch hotspots in relation to area, season and to the main gear types. The most harmful fishing gears resulted to be trawl nets, showing the highest probabilities of turtle bycatch with a hotspot in the Adriatic Sea, followed by longlines in the Ionian Sea and in the Sicily Channel. Estimates obtained by the present results showed that more than 52,000 capture events and 10,000 deaths occurred in Italian waters in 2014, highlighting a more alarming scenario than earlier studies. The work shows that in case of poor data from other sources, direct questioning of fishermen and stakeholders could represent a useful and cost-effective approach capable of providing sufficient data to estimate annual bycatch rates and identify high-risk gear/location/season combinations. PMID:28462017

  3. Modelling aqueous corrosion of nuclear waste phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluektov, Pavel P.; Schmidt, Olga V.; Kascheev, Vladimir A.; Ojovan, Michael I.

    2017-02-01

    A model is presented on nuclear sodium alumina phosphate (NAP) glass aqueous corrosion accounting for dissolution of radioactive glass and formation of corrosion products surface layer on the glass contacting ground water of a disposal environment. Modelling is used to process available experimental data demonstrating the generic inhibiting role of corrosion products on the NAP glass surface.

  4. An Excel Macro to Plot the HFE-Diagram to Identify Sea Water Intrusion Phases.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Sánchez San Román, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    A hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D) is a multirectangular diagram, which is a useful tool in the interpretation of sea water intrusion processes. This method note describes a simple method for generating an HFE-D plot using the spreadsheet software package, Microsoft Excel. The code was applied to groundwater from the alluvial coastal plain of Grosseto (Tuscany, Italy), which is characterized by a complex salinization process in which sea water mixes with sulfate or bicarbonate recharge water. © 2014, National GroundWater Association.

  5. Experimental evaluation of theoretical sea surface reflectance factors relevant to above-water radiometry.

    PubMed

    Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-21

    Determination of the water-leaving radiance LW through above-water radiometry requires knowledge of accurate reflectance factors ρ of the sea surface. Publicly available ρ relevant to above-water radiometry include theoretical data sets generated: i. by assuming a sky radiance distribution accounting for aerosols and multiple scattering, but neglecting polarization, and quantifying sea surface effects through Cox-Munk wave slope statistics; or differently ii. accounting for polarization, but assuming an ideal Rayleigh sky radiance distribution, and quantifying sea surface effects through modeled wave elevation and slope variance spectra. The impact on above-water data products of differences between those factors ρ was quantified through comparison of LW from the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) with collocated LW from in-water radiometry. Results from the analysis of radiance measurements from the sea performed with 40 degrees viewing angle and 90 degrees azimuth offset with respect to the sun plane, indicated a slightly better agreement between above- and in-water LW determined for wind speeds tentatively lower than 4 m s-1 with ρ computed accounting for aerosols, multiple scattering and Cox-Munk surfaces. Nevertheless, analyses performed by partitioning the investigated data set also indicated that actual ρ values would exhibit dependence on sun zenith comprised between those characterizing the two sets of reflectance factors.

  6. COPPER PITTING CORROSION: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

  7. Ennoblement, corrosion, and biofouling in brackish seawater: Comparison between six stainless steel grades.

    PubMed

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E; Rajala, P; Marja-Aho, M; Maukonen, J; Sohlberg, E; Carpén, L

    2018-04-01

    In this work, six common stainless steel grades were compared with respect to ennoblement characteristics, corrosion performance and tendency to biofouling in brackish sea water in a pilot-scale cooling water circuit. Two tests were performed, each employing three test materials, until differences between the materials were detected. Open circuit potential (OCP) was measured continuously in situ. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were conducted before and after the tests. Exposed specimens were further subjected to examinations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and the biofouling was studied using epifluorescence microscopy, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing (HTP sequencing). The results revealed dissimilarities between the stainless steel grades in corrosion behaviour and biofouling tendency. The test material that differed from the most of the other studied alloys was grade EN 1.4162. It experienced fastest and most efficient ennoblement of OCP, its passive area shrank to the greatest extent and the cathodic reaction was accelerated to a significant degree by the development of biofilm. Furthermore, microbiological analyses revealed that bacterial community on EN 1.4162 was dominated by Actinobacteria, whereas on the other five test materials Proteobacteria was the main bacterial phylum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beryllium fluoride film protects beryllium against corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O donnell, P. M.; Odonnell, P. M.

    1967-01-01

    Film of beryllium fluoride protects beryllium against corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in water containing chloride ion concentrations. The film is formed by exposing the beryllium to fluorine gas at 535 degrees C or higher and makes beryllium suitable for space applications.

  9. Corrosion behavior of ceramic-coated ZIRLO™ exposed to supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandapaka, Kiran K.; Cahyadi, Rico S.; Yalisove, Steven; Kuang, Wenjun; Sickafus, K.; Patel, Maulik K.; Was, Gary S.

    2018-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of ceramic coated ZIRLO™ tubing was evaluated in a supercritical water (SCW) environment to determine its behavior in high temperature water. Two coating architectures were analyzed; a 4 bi-layer TiAlN/TiN coating with Ti bond coat, and a TiN monolithic coating with Ti bond layer on ZIRLO™ tubes using cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) technique. Femtosecond laser ablation was used to introduce reproducible defects in some of the coated tubes. On exposure to deaerated supercritical water at 542 °C for 48 h, coated tubes exhibited significantly higher weight gain compared to uncoated ZIRLO™. Examination revealed formation of a uniform ZrO2 layer beneath the coating of a thickness similar to that on the uncoated tube inner surface. The defects generated during the coating process acted as preferential paths for diffusion of oxygen resulting in the oxidation of substrate ZIRLO™. However, there was no delamination of the coating. There were insignificant differences in the oxidation weight gain between laser ablated and non-ablated tubes and the laser induced defects did not spread beyond their original size.

  10. Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels in Biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Alejandra S.; Méndez, Claudia M.; Ares, Alicia E.

    The aim of this work was to study the corrosion behavior of stainless steels in biodiesel of vegetal origin, at room temperature, evaluating its properties according to the differences in the structures (austenitic, ferritic and austenitic — ferritic) and compositions of the materials. The biodiesel employed was obtained by industrially manufactured based on soybean oil as main raw material. The stainless steels used as samples for the tests were: AISI 304L, Sea Cure and Duplex 2205. For obtaining the desired data potentiodynamic polarization and weight loss trials were carried out. These studies were complemented by observations using an optical microscope. The weight loss study allowed the identification of low corrosion rates to the three stainless steels studied.

  11. Air-sea heat exchange, an element of the water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and variation of water vapor, clouds and precipitation are examined. Principal driving forces for these distributions are energy exchange and evaporation at the air-sea interface, which are also important elements of air-sea interaction studies. The overall aim of air-sea interaction studies is to quantitatively determine mass, momentum and energy fluxes, with the goal of understanding the mechanisms controlling them. The results of general circulation simulations indicate that the atmosphere in mid-latitudes responds to changes in the oceanic surface conditions in the tropics. This correlation reflects the strong interaction between tropical and mid-latitude conditions caused by the transport of heat and momentum from the tropics. Studies of air-sea exchanges involve a large number of physica, chemical and dynamical processes including heat flux, radiation, sea-surface temperature, precipitation, winds and ocean currents. The fluxes of latent heat are studied and the potential use of satellite data in determining them evaluated. Alternative ways of inferring heat fluxes will be considered.

  12. Personal Reflection: Rough Seas to Calmer Waters: The Journey of an Early Career Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Mellissa L.

    2012-01-01

    As an early career academic I have had the opportunity to reflect on my early experiences in academia. This paper is a reflection on my journey through rough seas to calmer waters. This paper describes an uneasy voyage of experience, from confident practitioner to uncertain academic. Helping to steer me through uncharted waters on the high seas of…

  13. Redox gradients in distribution systems influence water quality, corrosion, and microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Wang, Hong; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Simulated distribution systems (SDSs) defined the interplay between disinfectant type (free chlorine and chloramines), water age (1-10.2 days), and pipe material (PVC, iron and cement surfaces) on water chemistry, redox zones and infrastructure degradation. Redox gradients developed as a function of water age and pipe material affected the quality of water consumers would receive. Free chlorine was most stable in the presence of PVC while chloramine was most stable in the presence of cement. At a 3.6 day water age the residual in the chlorinated PVC SDS was more than 3.5 times higher than in the chlorinated iron or cement systems. In contrast, the residual in the chloraminated cement SDS was more than 10 times greater than in the chloraminated iron or PVC systems. Near the point of entry to the SDSs where disinfectant residuals were present, free chlorine tended to cause as much as 4 times more iron corrosion when compared to chloramines. Facultative denitrifying bacteria were ubiquitous, and caused complete loss of nitrogen at distal points in systems with iron, and these bacteria co-occurred with very severe pitting attack (1.6-1.9 mm/year) at high water age.

  14. The Change in Black Sea Water Composition and Hydrology during Deglaciation from Multiproxy Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanchilina, A.; Ryan, W. B. F.; McManus, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of changes in the water column from the last glacial into the early Holocene using stable isotope, 87Sr/86Sr, 14C, and trace element ratios from mollusks from the shelf area and ostracods from the basin of the Black Sea. The stable isotope record is compared to a thoroughly U/Th dated terrestrial stable isotope record of a nearby cave, Sofular cave in northwestern Turkey. The combination of deep, surface, and terrestrial signals gives valuable insight towards the behavior of the lake water during the deglaciation in multiple dimensions, specifically the water column stratification and hydrological dynamics. The comparison of the stable isotope records of two independent proxies allows to make inferences on the changes in the 14C reservoir of the Black Sea-Lake. Results show that during the glacial period, water from the Black Sea-Lake was outflowing to the Sea of Marmara but the ventilation of the water column was weak as old 14C was not removed and allowed to accumulate giving the lake a large 14C reservoir age. A deglacial pulse of meltwater released from the Eurasian Fennoscandian pro-glacial lakes increased ventilation of the water column. This is seen in lighter δ18O and a spike in radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr in both deep and shallow parts of the water column. The dynamic ventilation and outflow of water into the Sea of Marmara continued until the onset of the Bolling/Allerod as the radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr was almost completely flushed out in a couple hundred years time. During the Bolling/Allerod and Preboreal warming, δ18O got heavier whereas the 87Sr/86Sr stayed constant and the 14C again accumulated and contributed to an older reservoir age. The Younger Dryas period, sandwiched in between the two warming periods, shows a return to glacial conditions in the δ13C and that the water outflowed to the Sea of Marmara as the δ18O only showed a slight change towards a more heavy value.

  15. Sea water quality assessment of Prince Islands' beaches in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Ilter Turkdogan Aydinol, F; Kanat, Gurdal; Bayhan, Hurrem

    2012-01-01

    In this study, seawater samples were subjected to microbiological and physicochemical analysis (water temperature, pH, Secchi disc depth and ammonia) in the Prince Islands which are located in Marmara Sea, being one of the most popular swimming areas in Istanbul. The monitoring program of the study has been carried out in the summer for 6 weeks at eight stations around the Prince Islands. Measured total coliform values were between 5 ± 2 and 26 ± 55 and faecal coliform values were between 4 ± 2 and 24 ± 50 in the monitoring stations. A statistical study has been conducted to find the relationship between total and faecal coliform concentrations, and t tests were applied. There was no significant difference in each location of the Islands, except one location. The results were evaluated by comparing with national and EU bathing water standards. Results of the study show that deep sea discharges and sea currents contribute dilution of coliform concentration in a positive way, and locations near coastal zones of the islands have acceptable values which are required by the regulations.

  16. Inter-relationships between corrosion and mineral-scale deposition in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Hodgkiess, T

    2004-01-01

    The processes of corrosion and scale deposition in natural and process waters are often linked and this paper considers a number of instances of interactions between the two phenomena. In some circumstances a scale layer (e.g. calcium carbonate) can be advantageously utilised as a corrosion-protection coating on components and this feature has been exploited for many decades in the conditioning of water to induce spontaneous precipitation of a scale layer upon the surfaces of engineering equipment. The electrochemical mechanisms associated with some corrosion and corrosion-control processes can promote alkaline-scale deposition directly upon component surfaces. This is a feature that can be exploited in the operation of cathodic protection (CP) of structures and components submerged in certain types of water (e.g. seawater). Similar phenomena can occur during bi-metallic corrosion and a case study, involving carbon steel/stainless steel couples in seawater, is presented. Additional complexities pertain during cyclic loading of submerged reinforced concrete members in which scale deposition may reduce the severity of fatigue stresses but can be associated with severe corrosion damage to embedded reinforcing steel. Also considered are scale-control/corrosion interactions in thermal desalination plant and an indirect consequence of the scale-control strategy on vapourside corrosion is discussed.

  17. Determination of the amount of Cs-137 in the sea water obtained from the Dardanelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataseven, D.; Şen, S.

    2017-02-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, high concentrations of Cs-137 radioisotope reached the Black Sea through dry and wet fallout. Therefore, a number of studies were performed to determine the current activity of Cs-137 near this region in the sea water and in marine organisms. Cs-137 activity was determined in the Dardanelles sea water taken from three separate locations and two different depths for each location. The old data base obtained in our previous studies was updated.

  18. Bacterial activity in sea ice and open water of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: A microautoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, S

    1994-07-01

    Metabolic activity of bacteria was investigated in open water, newly forming sea ice, and successive stages of pack ice in the Weddell Sea. Microautoradiography, using [(3)H]leucine as substrate, was compared with incorporation rates of [(3)H]leucine into proteins. Relation of [(3)H]leucine incorporation to the biomass of active bacteria provides information about changes of specific metabolic activity of cells. During a phytoplankton bloom in an ice-free, stratified water column, total numbers of bacteria in the euphotic zone averaged 2.3 × 10(5) ml(-1), but only about 13% showed activity via leucine uptake. Growth rate of the active bacteria was estimated as 0.3-0.4 days(-1). Total cell concentration of bacteria in 400 m depth was 6.6 × 10(4) ml(-1). Nearly 50% of these cells were active, although biomass production and specific growth rate were only about one-tenth that of the surface populations. When sea ice was forming in high concentrations of phytoplankton, bacterial biomass in the newly formed ice was 49.1 ng C ml(-1), exceeding that in open water by about one order of magnitude. Attachment of large bacteria to algal cells seems to cause their enrichment in the new ice, since specific bacterial activity was reduced during ice formation, and enrichment of bacteria was not observed when ice formed at low algal concentration. During growth of pack ice, biomass of bacteria increased within the brine channel system. Specific activity was still reduced at these later stages of ice development, and percentages of active cells were as low as 3-5%. In old, thick pack ice, bacterial activity was high and about 30% of cells were active. However, biomass-specific activity of bacteria remained significantly lower than that in open water. It is concluded that bacterial assemblages different to those of open water developed within the ice and were dominated by bacteria with lower average metabolic activity than those of ice-free water.

  19. Characterization of microstructure, local deformation and microchemistry in Alloy 690 heat-affected zone and stress corrosion cracking in high temperature water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi; Yamazaki, Seiya

    2015-10-01

    With increasing the distance from the weld fusion line in an Alloy 690 heat-affected zone, micro-hardness decreases, kernel average misorientation decreases and the fraction of Σ3 boundaries increases. Chromium depletion at grain boundaries in the Alloy 690 heat-affected zone is less significant than that in an Alloy 600 heat-affected zone. Alloy 690 heat-affected zone exhibits much higher IGSCC resistance than Alloy 600 heat-affected zone in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water. Heavily cold worked Alloy 690 exhibits localized intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The effects of metallurgical and mechanical properties on stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 690 are discussed.

  20. Modeling the Spreading of Glacial Melt Water from the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Y.; Timmermann, R.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Schröder, M.; Hellmer, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    The ice shelves and glaciers of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) are rapidly thinning, especially in the Amundsen Sea (AS) and Bellingshausen Sea (BS). The high basal melting of these small ice shelves is caused by relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) that, based on observations, mainly intrudes via two submarine glacial troughs located at the eastern and central AS continental shelf break. When CDW reaches the grounding line of the fringing glaciers, it melts the glaciers and forms buoyant melt water plumes. As the glacial melt becomes part of the AS shelf circulation, it may cause a freshening of the shelf water locally as well as remotely in the Ross Sea (RS). To test whether the observed freshening of the RS is a consequence of the enhanced basal melting of AS ice shelves, we use Finite-Element Sea-ice/ice-shelf/Ocean Model (FESOM) with a horizontal resolution of 2-10 km on the AS and BS continental shelves. The model is forced with 6-hourly atmospheric data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP-CFSR) for the period 1979-1988. The model results show bottom temperatures in the AS and BS close to observations, and basal melt rates of AS and BS ice shelves consistent with other observation-based estimates. Using several independent virtual passive tracers to identify pathways of the glacial melt, we find that the melt water from the ice shelves in the AS flows towards the Ross Ice Shelf front. After 10 years of simulation, about half of the melt water in the Ross Sea originates from the Getz Ice Shelf. Further, we investigate the sensitivity of the melt water transport into the RS associated with the strength of the basal melt water flux. When this flux is increased by 30%, the transport of glacial melt into the RS more than doubles, supporting the idea that the basal melting of AS and BS ice shelves is one of the main reasons for the freshening of the RS continental shelf.

  1. Effect of climate change on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, Mohsen M.; Singh, Vijay P.

    1999-06-01

    There is increasing debate these days on climate change and its possible consequences. Much of this debate has focused in the context of surface water systems. In many arid areas of the world, rainfall is scarce and so is surface runoff. These areas rely heavily on groundwater. The consequences of climate change on groundwater are long term and can be far reaching. One of the more apparent consequences is the increased migration of salt water inland in coastal aquifers. Using two coastal aquifers, one in Egypt and the other in India, this study investigates the effect of likely climate change on sea water intrusion. Three realistic scenarios mimicking climate change are considered. Under these scenarios, the Nile Delta aquifer is found to be more vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise.

  2. Corrosion of Pipeline and Wellbore Steel by Liquid CO2 Containing Trace Amounts of Water and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrail, P.; Schaef, H. T.; Owen, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage in deep saline formations is currently considered the most attractive option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with continued use of fossil fuels for energy production. Transporting captured CO2 and injection into suitable formations for storage will necessarily involve pipeline systems and wellbores constructed of carbon steels. Industry standards currently require nearly complete dehydration of liquid CO2 to reduce corrosion in the pipeline transport system. However, it may be possible to establish a corrosion threshold based on H2O content in the CO2 that could allow for minor amounts of H2O to remain in the liquid CO2 and thereby eliminate a costly dehydration step. Similarly, trace amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds common in flue gas streams are currently removed through expensive desulfurization and catalytic reduction processes. Provided these contaminants could be safely and permanently transported and stored in the geologic reservoir, retrofits of existing fossil-fuel plants could address comprehensive emissions reductions, including CO2 at perhaps nearly the same capital and operating cost. Because CO2-SO2 mixtures have never been commercially transported or injected, both experimental and theoretical work is needed to understand corrosion mechanisms of various steels in these gas mixtures containing varying amounts of water. Experiments were conducted with common tool steel (AISI-01) and pipeline steel (X65) immersed in liquid CO2 at room temperature containing ~1% SO2 and varying amounts of H2O (0 to 2500 ppmw). A threshold concentration of H2O in the liquid CO2-SO2 mixture was established based on the absence of visible surface corrosion. For example, experiments exposing steel to liquid CO2-SO2 containing ~300 ppmw H2O showed a delay in onset of visible corrosion products and minimal surface corrosion was visible after five days of testing. However increasing the water content to 760 ppmw produced extensive

  3. Global view of sea-ice production in polynyas and its linkage to dense/bottom water formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Kay I.; Nihashi, Sohey; Iwamoto, Katsushi

    2016-12-01

    Global overturning circulation is driven by density differences. Saline water rejected during sea-ice formation in polynyas is the main source of dense water, and thus sea-ice production is a key factor in the overturning circulation. Due to difficulties associated with in situ observation, sea-ice production and its interannual variability have not been well understood until recently. Methods to estimate sea-ice production on large scales have been developed using heat flux calculations based on satellite microwave radiometer data. Using these methods, we present the mapping of sea-ice production with the same definition and scale globally, and review the polynya ice production and its relationship with dense/bottom water. The mapping demonstrates that ice production rate is high in Antarctic coastal polynyas, in contrast to Arctic coastal polynyas. This is consistent with the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), the densest water mass which occupies the abyssal layer of the global ocean. The Ross Ice Shelf polynya has by far the highest ice production in the Southern Hemisphere. The Cape Darnley polynya (65°E-69°E) is found to be the second highest production area and recent observations revealed that this is the missing (fourth) source of AABW. In the region off the Mertz Glacier Tongue (MGT), the third source of AABW, sea-ice production decreased by as much as 40 %, due to the MGT calving in early 2010, resulting in a significant decrease in AABW production. The Okhotsk Northwestern polynya exhibits the highest ice production in the Northern Hemisphere, and the resultant dense water formation leads to overturning in the North Pacific, extending to the intermediate layer. Estimates of its ice production show a significant decrease over the past 30-50 years, likely causing the weakening of the North Pacific overturning. These regions demonstrate the strong linkage between variabilities of sea-ice production and bottom/intermediate water formation. The

  4. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on ¹²⁹I.

    PubMed

    Yi, P; Chen, X G; Bao, D X; Qian, R Z; Aldahan, A; Tian, F Y; Possnert, G; Bryhn, A C; Gu, T F; Hou, X L; He, P; Yu, Z B; Wang, B

    2013-12-01

    The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing ¹²⁹I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230-450 km³/y with best fit value around 330 km³/y from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980-1999. Despite limited time series data on ¹²⁹I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Flowing-recirculated water system for inducing spawning phase sea lampreys to spawn in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, Kim T.; Seelye, James G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a water-recirculating system for inducing spawning of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) held under laboratory conditions. Water temperature in the system was gradually increased to and maintained at 18 ± 2°C, the optimal temperature for spawning. About 10% freshwater was added daily to prevent buildup of waste products. Sea lampreys were provided substrate (approximately 3–6 cm in diameter) to build nests, and a water velocity of 0.2–0.3 m!s was maintained with an electric trolling motor. Sea lampreys held in this system exhibited characteristic spawning behavior. Prolarvae produced from artificial fertilization of gametes developed according to the standard timeline.

  6. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-05

    high in water content, are less corrosive owing to their elevated viscosity and resulting low conductivity (᝺-7 S/cm) [30]. Asphaltenes and resins...wet surface to a water-wet surface. Sludge deposits are combinations of hydrocarbons, sand, clay , corTosion prod- ucts, and biomass that can reach 50...fine clay sun·ounded by a film of water. Under low flow conditions, these particles precipitate and form a sludge deposit. 27.4 TESTING 27 .4.1 A

  7. Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Nitinol 60 for the International Space Station Water Recycling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation of Nitinol 60 was performed because this alloy is considered a candidate bearing material for the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), specifically in the Urine Processing Assembly of the International Space Station. An SCC evaluation that preceded this one during the 2013-2014 timeframe included various alloys: Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, titanium (Ti) commercially pure (CP), Ti 6Al-4V, extra-low interstitial (ELI) Ti 6Al-4V, and Cronidur 30. In that evaluation, most specimens were exposed for a year. The results of that evaluation were published in NASA/TM-2015-218206, entitled "Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Various Metallic Materials for the International Space Station Water Recycling System,"1 available at the NASA Scientific and Technical Information program web page: http://www.sti.nasa.gov. Nitinol 60 was added to the test program in 2014.

  8. Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

    2004-01-01

    Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus.

  9. Nanoscale Investigation of the Impact of pH and Orthophosphate on the Corrosion of Copper Surfaces in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advanced surface characterization techniques were used to systematically investigate the passivation of copper during corrosion in water as impacted by pH and orthophosphate. Atomic force microscopy, depth profiling with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray d...

  10. Effects of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise.

  11. Corrosion of low alloy steel containing 0.5% chromium in supercritical CO2-saturated brine and water-saturated supercritical CO2 environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei; Li, Qian

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of P110 low-Cr alloy steel in supercritical CO2-saturated brine (aqueous phase) and water-saturated supercritical CO2 (SC CO2 phase) was investigated. The results show that P110 steel primarily suffered general corrosion in the aqueous phase, while severe localized corrosion occurred in the SC CO2 phase. The formation of corrosion product scale on P110 steel in the aqueous phase divided into three stages: formation of the initial corrosion layer containing amorphous Cr(OH)3, FeCO3 and a small amount of Fe3C; transformation of initial corrosion layer to mixed layer, which consisted of FeCO3 and a small amount of Cr(OH)3 and Fe3C; growth and dissolution of the mixed layer. Finally, only a single mixed layer covered on the steel in the aqueous phase. However, the scale formed in SC CO2 phase consisted of two layers: the inner mixed layer and the dense outer FeCO3 crystalline layer.

  12. Effect of thermal treatment on the corrosion resistance of Type 316L stainless steel exposed in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Y.; Zheng, W.; Guzonas, D. A.; Cook, W. G.; Kish, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    There are still unknown aspects about the growth mechanism of oxide scales formed on candidate stainless steel fuel cladding materials during exposure in supercritical water (SCW) under the conditions relevant to the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). The tendency for intermetallic precipitates to form within the grains and on grain boundaries during prolonged exposure at high temperatures represents an unknown factor to corrosion resistance, since they tend to bind alloyed Cr. The objective of this study was to better understand the extent to which intermetallic precipitates affects the mode and extent of corrosion in SCW. Type 316L stainless steel, used as a model Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy, was exposed to 25 MPa SCW at 550 °C for 500 h in a static autoclave for this purpose. Mechanically-abraded samples were tested in the mill-annealed (MA) and a thermally-treated (TT) condition. The thermal treatment was conducted at 815 °C for 1000 h to precipitate the carbide (M23C6), chi (χ), laves (η) and sigma (σ) phases. It was found that although relatively large intermetallic precipitates formed at the scale/alloy interface locally affected the oxide scale formation, their discontinuous formation did not affect the short-term overall apparent corrosion resistance.

  13. Deep and intermediate mediterranean water in the western Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrilla, Gregorio; Kinder, Thomas H.; Preller, Ruth H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrographic and current meter data, obtained during June to October 1982, and numerical model experiments are used to study the distribution and flow of Mediterranean waters in the western Alboran Sea. The Intermediate Water is more pronounced in the northern three-fourths of the sea, but its distribution is patchy as manifested by variability of the temperature and salinity maxima at scales ≤10 km. Current meters in the lower Intermediate Water showed mean flow toward the Strait at 2 cm s -1. A reversal of this flow lasted about 2 weeks. A rough estimate of the mean westward Intermediate Water transport was 0.4 × 10 6 m 3 s -1, about one-third of the total outflow, so that the best estimates of the contributions of traditionally defined Intermediate Water and Deep Water account for only about one-half of the total outflow. The Deep Water was uplifted against the southern continental slope from Alboran Island (3°W) to the Strait. There was also a similar but much weaker banking against the Spanish slope, but a deep current record showed that the eastward recirculation implied by this banking is probably intermittent. Two-layer numerical model experiments simulated the Intermediate Water flow with a flat bottom and the Deep Water with realistic bottom topography. Both experiments replicated the major circulation features, and the Intermediate Water flow was concentrated in the north because of rotation and the Deep Water flow in the south because of topographic control.

  14. Preparations and properties of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This short review describes various types of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups; silicone compounds, carboxylic acids and dibasic acids, esters, Diels-Alder adducts, various polymers, nitrogen compounds, phosphoric esters, phosphonic acids, and others. Testing methods for water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials are described for a practical application in a laboratory.

  15. Civil Engineering Corrosion Control. Volume 1. Corrosion Control - General

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    is generated in the boiler by the decomposition of carbonates and bicar- bonates of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. (c) The pH Range. Natural waters...and products of decomposition Acting as either anodic or cathodic depolarizers. 4.4.1 Forms of Microorganisms. In almost any soil or water, there are... 1945 . Based on field tests of the Iron and Steel Institute Corrosion Committee reported by J.C. Hudson (J. Iron Steel Inst., 11, 209, 1943), with

  16. ALKALINITY, PH, AND COPPER CORROSION BY-PRODUCT RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contrary to expectations, higher bicarbonate concentrations exacerbate copper corrosion rates and by-product release. In fact, as illustrated by monitoring experiences of large utilities and by laboratory data, the concentration of copper corrosion by-products in drinking water i...

  17. Effects of blending of desalinated and conventionally treated surface water on iron corrosion and its release from corroding surfaces and pre-existing scales.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haizhou; Schonberger, Kenneth D; Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Desormeaux, Erik; Meyerhofer, Paul; Luckenbach, Heidi; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-07-01

    This study examined effects of blending desalinated water with conventionally treated surface water on iron corrosion and release from corroding metal surfaces and pre-existing scales exposed to waters having varying fractions of desalinated water, alkalinities, pH values and orthophosphate levels. The presence of desalinated water resulted in markedly decreased 0.45 μm-filtered soluble iron concentrations. However, higher fractions of desalinated water in the blends were also associated with more fragile corroding surfaces, lower retention of iron oxidation products and release of larger iron particles in the bulk water. SEM, XRD and XANES data showed that in surface water, a dense layer of amorphous ferrihydrite phase predominated in the corrosion products. More crystalline surface phases developed in the presence of desalinated water. These solid phases transformed from goethite to lepidocrocite with increased fraction of desalinated water. These effects are likely to result from a combination of chemical parameters, notably variations of the concentrations of natural organic matter, calcium, chloride and sulfate when desalinated and conventionally treated waters are blended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissolved and particulate trace metals in coastal waters of the Gulf and Western Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, S. W.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Fukai, R.

    Concentrations of chemical species of selected heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) were determined in surface waters from a series of coastal sites in Bahrain, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the Sultanate of Oman. Analyses were carried out on bulk sea water samples as well as on suspended particulates by anodic stripping voltammetry. Heavy metal concentrations were relatively low with the exception of some "hot spots" which occurred in the vicinity of industrial and port activities. Average copper levels along the coast of UAE were generally higher than those measured in sea water from either Bahrain of Oman. Waters from the more populated and industrialised northwest coast of Oman were found to contain approximately 3 to 4-fold higher Cd and Zn (pH 4-4.5) concentrations than those from the southern coast, an undeveloped region adjacent to the more open waters of the Arabian Sea. Possible reasons for the observed regional variations in trace metal concentrations in Oman are discussed in terms of natural and anthropogenic input sources. Average concentrations in the Gulf (inside the Strait of Hormuz) were 510 ng 1 -1 (Cu), 340 ng 1 -1 (Zn), 20 ng 1 -1 (Cd), 16 ng 1 -1 (Hg) and 76 ng 1 -1 (Pb); in the western Arabian Sea along the coast of Oman concentrations averaged 290 ng 1 -1 (Cu), 180 ng 1 -1 (Zn), 37 ng 1 -1 (Cd), 11 ng 1 -1 (Hg) and 80 ng 1 -1 (Pb). Ranges of concentrations for these metals in Gulf and western Arabian Sea waters approach those which have been reported for open surface waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea indicating that, in general, the coastal waters of this region are not impacted by metal pollution and that the existing natural levels can be used as a point of reference for future pollutant studies.

  19. Sea/Lake Water Air Conditioning at Naval Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    ECONOMICS AT TWO FACILITIES ......... ................... 2 Facilities ........... .......................... 2 Computer Models...of an operational test at Naval Security Group Activity (NSGA) Winter Harbor, Me., and the economics of Navywide application. In FY76 an assessment of... economics of Navywide application of sea/lake water AC indicated that cost and energy savings at the sites of some Naval facilities are possible, depending

  20. Box model of radionuclide dispersion and radiation risk estimation for population in case of radioactivity release from nuclear submarine {number_sign}601 dumped in the Kara Sea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yefimov, E.I.; Pankratov, D.V.; Ignatiev, S.V.

    1997-12-31

    When ships with nuclear reactors or nuclear materials aboard suffer shipwreck or in the case of burial or dumping of radioactive wastes, atmospheric fallout, etc., radionuclides may be released and spread in the sea, contaminating the sea water and the sea bottom. When a nuclear submarine (NS) is dumped this spread of activity may occur due to gradual core destruction by corrosion over many years. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of radionuclide dispersion and to assess the population dose and radiation risk for radionuclide release from the NS No. 601, with Pb-Bi coolant thatmore » was dumped in the Kara Sea.« less

  1. Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) in the NE Aegean Sea frontal area: Seasonal dynamics under the influence of Black Sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Krasakopoulou, E.; Lagaria, A.; Giannakourou, A.; Karageorgis, A. P.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) was determined on a seasonal basis (autumn, spring and summer) along a north-south transect in the NE Aegean Sea and the vicinity of the Dardanelles Straits. Their distribution patterns were studied in respect to hydrographic conditions and water mass characteristics in the area, as well as particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, changes in standing stocks of chlorophyll-α and bacterial production. TEP concentrations ranged from 15.4 to 188 μg GX eq L-1. Their spatial distribution patterns within the euphotic zone displayed significant seasonal variability, which appears to closely reflect the temporal variation of the water column structure, resulting from the encounter and interplay of the Black Sea and Levantine Water masses, and the associated biogeochemical processes. Minimum TEP concentrations during autumn could be likely attributed to a minor quantity of TEP and/or its dissolved precursors exuded by phytoplankton and their enhanced degradation due to their long residence time in the water column. During spring, high TEP production was mediated by actively growing phytoplankton, while during summer a positive link to the intense stratification of the water column and the enhanced bacterial growth within the Black Sea Water layer was observed. The results reported in this study highlight the fact that TEP carbon represents a significant fraction of the POC pool. Moreover, TEP production is critical in promoting particle coagulation rates, playing an important role in carbon cycling/transportation out of the euphotic zone.

  2. Ice in Caspian Sea and Aral Sea, Kazakhstan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this MODIS image from December 3, 2001, winter sea ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) Seas. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian Sea averages only 17 ft in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the Sea is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the sea bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral Sea is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral Sea 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The Sea is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18o F, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral Sea continue to be diverted for agriculture, the Sea becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Ability of sea-water bacterial consortium to produce electricity and denitrify water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruvada, Nagasamrat V. V.; Tommasi, Tonia; Kaza, Kesava Rao; Ruggeri, Bernardo

    Sea is a store house for varied types of microbes with an ability to reduce and oxidize substances like iron, sulphur, carbon dioxide, etc. Most of these processes happen in the sea water environment, but can be applied for purification of wastewater. In the present paper, we discuss the use of a consortium of seawater bacteria in a fuel cell to produce electricity by oxidizing organic matter and reducing nitrates. We also discuss how the growth of the bacterial consortium can lead to an increased electricity production and decreased diffusional resistance in the cell. The analysis was done using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Here, we use bicarbonate buffered solution, which is the natural buffering agent found in sea. We show that the seawater bacterial consortium can be used in both the anode and cathode parts of the cell. The results confirm the adaptability of the seawater bacteria to different environments and can be used for various applications. Heritage, Erasmus Mundus Programme, European Commission.

  4. Mesozoic Compressional Folds of the Nansha Waters, Southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Liu, H.; Yao, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As an important part of the South China Sea, the southern margin of the South China Sea is fundamental to understand the interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific and Indian-Australian plates and the evolution of the South China Sea. Some multi-channel seismic profiles of the Nansha waters together with published drillings and dredge data were correlated for interpretation. The strata of the study region can be divided into the upper, middle and lower structural layers. The upper and middle structural layers with extensional tectonics are Cenozoic; the lower structural layer suffered compression is Mesozoic. Further structural restoration was done to remove the Cenozoic tectonic influence and to calculate the Mesozoic tectonic compression ratios. The results indicate that two diametrically opposite orientations of compressive stress, S(S)E towards N(N)W orientation and N(N)W towards S(S)E orientation respectively, once existed in the lower structural layer of the study area and shared the same variation trend. The compression ratio values gradually decrease both from the north to the south and from the west to the east in each stress orientation. The phenomena may be related to the opening of the proto-South China Sea (then located in south of the Nansha block) and the rate of the Nansha block drifted northward in Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, which had pushed the Nansha block drifted northward until it collided and sutured with the Southern China Margin. Thus the opening of the present-day South China Sea may be related to this suture zone, which was tectonically weakness zone.Key words: Mesozoic compression; structural restoration; proto-South China Sea; Nansha waters; Southern South China Sea; Acknowledgements: The work was granted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41476039, 91328205, 41576068 and 41606080).

  5. Distribution of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in Caspian Sea water and biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Froehlich, Klaus; Gastaud, Janine; Oregioni, Beniamino; Pagava, Samson V.; Pham, Mai K.; Rusetski, Vladimir

    2003-09-01

    Two sampling expeditions were carried out in the Caspian Sea in 1995 and 1996. The aim was to investigate oceanographic conditions, water dynamics of the Sea and to measure radionuclide concentrations using 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu as tracers in the water column. Of the three basins comprising the Caspian Sea, the two deep basins (the central and southern basins) appear to be rapidly ventilated on a time scale of about 30 years, as shown by the penetration of radionuclides to bottom waters. The main source of radionuclides in the Sea has been global fallout and subsequent river run-off from catchment areas. At the stations visited, there were no signs of radioactive waste dumping, although the 90Sr levels found were higher than expected from global fallout, which may be due to remobilization of 90Sr from soil and its transport by rivers to the Sea. Radionuclide concentrations in fish and caviar are within the expected ranges and are not of radiological importance for consumption of fish and caviar from the Caspian Sea.

  6. Adsorption and inhibitive properties of a Schiff base for the corrosion control of carbon steel in saline water.

    PubMed

    Samide, Adriana; Tutunaru, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    A Schiff base, namely N-(2-hydroxybenzylidene) thiosemicarbazide (HBTC), was investigated as inhibitor for carbon steel in saline water (SW) using electrochemical measurements such as: potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The morphology of the surfaces before and after corrosion was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The results showed that HBTC acts as corrosion inhibitor in SW by suppressing simultaneously the cathodic and anodic processes via adsorption on the surface which followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm; the polarization resistance (R(p)) and inhibition efficiency (IE) increased with each HBTC concentration increase. SEM/EDS analysis showed at this stage that the main product of corrosion is a non-stoichiometric amorphous Fe(3+) oxyhydroxide, consisting of a mixture of Fe(3+) oxyhydroxides, α-FeOOH and/or γ-FeOOH, α-FeOOH/γ-FeOOH and Fe(OH)(3).

  7. Sensitivity of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-09-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. Two sensitivity experiments are performed which modify the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting changes in the Arctic sea-ice concentration strongly affect the surface albedo, the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and the sea-ice production. The changes are further amplified through a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the Fram Strait sea ice import influences the freshwater budget in the North Atlantic Ocean. Anomalies in sea-ice transport lead to changes in sea surface properties of the North Atlantic and the strength of AMOC. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), owing to the interhemispheric bipolar seasaw linked to AMOC weakening. Another insight of this study lies on the improvement of our climate model. The ocean component FESOM is a newly developed ocean-sea ice model with an unstructured mesh and multi-resolution. We find that the subpolar sea-ice boundary in the Northern Hemisphere can be improved by tuning the process of open-water ice growth, which strongly influences the sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone, the North Atlantic circulation, salinity and Arctic sea ice volume. Since the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters and the knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude, it is a challenge to implement the processes realistically into models. Based on our sensitivity experiments, we conclude a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system sensitivity.

  8. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-06-29

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling.

  9. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E.; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33–2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling. PMID:26119338

  10. Study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of industrial boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyang; Huang, Song; Zhang, Wenpin; Feng, Qiang; Huang, Yong

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, industrial boilers are used as the research object, and Boilerentiodynamic polarization analysis of boiler steel is used to study the electrochemical corrosion behavior in the boiler water. The electrochemical corrosion nature and morphology of the samples were tested through experiments. The study shows: the corrosion resistance of the samples will decrease significantly with the increase of the operating time of boilers. Dissolved solids and Cl- in the boiler water will destroy the original protective film, of which the increase of its content is the main reason for the deterioration of the material properties.

  11. Water-based solutions are the best decontaminating fluids for dermal corrosive exposures: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Brent, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The intention is to assess whether the fundamental principle ("the solution to pollution is dilution") should be the guide for the initial medical management of corrosive dermal exposures. The US National Library of Medicine Pubmed database was searched utilizing all combinations of the search terms "decontamination", "corrosive", and "dermal". A separate search was done specifically related to hydrofluoric acid. These searches found 69 relevant papers. Only four controlled clinical studies comparing early and intensive water decontamination with no or less dilution treatment have been published on human corrosive dermal exposures. Although the authors' conclusion in the first study of 273 patients was that those that had more intensive water irrigation tended to have less time to skin grafting and shorter periods of hospitalization, the results were not statistically significant. In the second study of 51 patients, those who had "adequate" decontamination (immediate dilution or neutralization therapy) had shortened length of stay (7.2 vs. 16.2 days), lower mortality (9.5% vs. 21%), and fewer skin grafts (19% vs. 36%) despite having slightly greater burn surface area (19.7% vs. 17.2%). However, no statistical analysis was provided. The third and fourth studies were conducted in the same center. In the third study of 35 patients, those who had "immediate" water lavage (done within 10 min of exposure and continued for at least 15 min) had significantly fewer burns that progressed to full thickness (12.5% vs. 63%; p < 0.01) and significantly shorter mean hospital stays (7.7 days vs. 20.5 days; p < 0.01) than those who did not, despite the mean total burn surface area being twice as large in the adequate water decontamination group (12% vs. 6%; p < 0.05). In the fourth study of 83 patients (35 of whom had been reported in the previous study), those who had copious water lavage within 3 min of injury were less likely to progress to full thickness burns (13.5% vs. 60

  12. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Milly, P. C. D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981–1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981–1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993–1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system. PMID:14576277

  13. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

  14. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vapor Corrosion Cell and Method of Using Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a vapor corrosion cell for a real-time and quantitative measurement of corrosion of conductive materials in atmospheres containing chemically reactive gases and water vapor. Two prototypes are provided. Also provided are various applications of this apparatus in industry.

  16. Control of Legionella Contamination and Risk of Corrosion in Hospital Water Networks following Various Disinfection Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ferranti, Greta; Mansi, Antonella; Marcelloni, Anna M.; Proietto, Anna R.; Saini, Navneet; Borella, Paola; Bargellini, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Physical and chemical disinfection methods have been proposed with the aim of controlling Legionella water contamination. To date, the most effective procedures for reducing bacterial contamination have not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of various disinfection procedures in order to reduce both culturable and nonculturable (NC) legionellae in different hospital water networks treated with heat, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, and hydrogen peroxide. The temperature levels and biocide concentrations that proved to give reliable results were analyzed. In order to study the possible effects on the water pipes, we verified the extent of corrosion on experimental coupons after applying each method for 6 months. The percentage of positive points was at its lowest after treatment with monochloramine, followed by chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hyperthermia. Different selections of Legionella spp. were observed, as networks treated with chlorine-based disinfectants were contaminated mainly by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, hyperthermia was associated with serogroups 2 to 14, and hydrogen peroxide treatment was associated mainly with non-pneumophila species. NC cells were detected only in heat-treated waters, and also when the temperature was approximately 60°C. The corrosion rates of the coupons were within a satisfactory limit for water networks, but the morphologies differed. We confirm here that chemical disinfection controls Legionella colonization more effectively than hyperthermia does. Monochloramine was the most effective treatment, while hydrogen peroxide may be a promising alternative to chlorine-based disinfectants due to its ability to select for other, less virulent or nonpathogenic species. PMID:26969696

  17. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock

  18. Effect of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Christian D; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Corrosion fatigue of Inconel 718 and Incoloy 903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, D. B.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue tests were conducted on Inconel 718 and Incoloy 903 in distilled water, 500 ppm NaCl, and 3.5% NaCl. Results were compared to the endurance limit in air. For Inconel 718, the corrosion fatigue strength (CFS) IN 3.5% NaCl WAS 328 MPa or 75 percent of the endurance limit. For Incoloy 903, the CFS ranged from 234 MPa in distilled water (68 percent of the endurance limit) to 103 MPa in 3.5% NaCl (30 percent of the endurance limit). Results indicate that, for components which have limited fatigue life, an evaluation of the combined effects of fatigue and the corrosive atmosphere must be considered in projecting useful lifetimes.

  20. Investigating the Interannual Variability of the Circulation and Water Mass Formation in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofianos, S. S.; Papadopoulos, V. P.; Denaxa, D.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The interannual variability of the circulation and water mass formation in the Red Sea is investigated with the use of a numerical model and the combination of satellite and in-situ observations. The response of Red Sea to the large-scale variability of atmospheric forcing is studied through a 30-years simulation experiment, using MICOM model. The modeling results demonstrate significant trends and variability that are mainly located in the central and northern parts of the basin. On the other hand, the exchange pattern between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean at the strait of Bab el Mandeb presents very weak interannual variability. The results verify the regularity of the water mass formation processes in the northern Red Sea but also show significant variability of the circulation and thermohaline conditions in the areas of formation. Enhanced water mass formation conditions are observed during specific years of the simulation (approximately five years apart). Analysis of recent warm and cold events in the northernmost part of the basin, based on a combination of atmospheric reanalysis results and oceanic satellite and in-situ observations, shows the importance of the cyclonic gyre that is prevailing in this part of the basin. This gyre can effectively influence the sea surface temperature (SST) and intensify or mitigate the winter effect of the atmospheric forcing. Upwelling induced by persistent periods of the gyre functioning drops the SST over the northernmost part of the Red Sea and can produce colder than normal winter SST even without extreme atmospheric forcing. These mechanisms are crucial for the formation of intermediate and deep water masses in the Red Sea and the strength of the subsequent thermohaline cells.

  1. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Lipa, Belinda; Nyden, Bruce; Barrick, Don; Kohut, Josh

    2008-08-06

    HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information) far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities), the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements.

  2. Caspian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from December 3, 2001, winter sea ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) Seas. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian Sea averages only 17 feet in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the Sea is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the sea bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral Sea is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral Sea 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The Sea is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18oF, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral Sea continue to be diverted for agriculture, the Sea becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Artificial radionuclides in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in the fall of 1984

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kadzhene, G.I.; Kleiza, I.V.; Korotkov, V.P.

    1987-10-01

    The authors compare data from the literature with data taken in the fall of 1984 on the concentrations of cesium 137, strontium 90, cesium 144, and tritium in the waters of the Baltic and North seas. Sampling was conducted along the coastal regions as well as offshore and the consequent concentration and distribution profiles are mapped. They attempt to assess the weight of meteorological and water current as well as seasonal factors on the determined levels and also point to possible sources of the isotopes, including nuclear power plants situated along Baltic and North Sea shorelines and an atmospheric testmore » of a thermonuclear bomb carried out by China.« less

  4. Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Deramus, G. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Problems dealing with corrosion and corrosion protection of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. A test program was conducted to find suitable and effective corrosion inhibitors for systems employing either water or antifreeze solutions for heat transfer and storage. Aluminum-mild-steel-copper-stainless steel assemblies in electrical contact were used to simulate a multimetallic system which is the type most likely to be employed. Several inhibitors show promise for this application.

  5. A new perspective on origin of the East Sea Intermediate Water: Observations of Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, JongJin; Lim, Byunghwan

    2018-01-01

    The East Sea Intermediate Water (ESIW), defined as the salinity minimum in the East Sea (hereafter ES) (Sea of Japan), is examined with respect to its overall characteristics and its low salinity origin using historical Argo float data from 1999 to 2015. Our findings suggest that the ESIW is formed in the western Japan Basin (40-42°N, 130-133°E), especially west of the North Korean front in North Korean waters, where strong negative surface wind stress curl resides in wintertime. The core ESIW near the formation site has temperatures of 3-4 °C and less than 33.98 psu salinity, warmer and fresher than that in the southern part of the ES. In order to trace the origin of the warmer and fresher water at the sea surface in winter, we analyzed the data in three different ways: (1) spatial distribution of surface water properties using monthly climatology from the Argo float data, (2) seasonal variation of heat and salt contents at the formation site, and (3) backtracking of surface drifter trajectories. Based on these analyses, it is likely that the warmer and fresher surface water properties found in the ESIW formation site are attributed to the low-salinity surface water advected from the southern part of the ES in autumn.

  6. Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea and consequences on the water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, C.

    2003-04-01

    Atlantic Water (AW) flows into the Mediterranean Sea (about 10 super(6) m super(3)/s) to compensate for the deficit (about 10 super(5) m super(3)/s) created by evaporation larger than precipitation and river runoff there. Mainly due to the earth's rotation, the current is generally bent to the right, so that AW flows anticlockwise alongslope in both the western and the eastern basins. Meanwhile, it is continuously evaporated and thus made denser. In winter, dry and cold air masses transported by violent northerly winds induce large losses of latent and sensible heat. Hence, AW sinks in some specific regions located in the northern part of the various subbasins. The intermediate and deep waters that are formed in such a way then circulate, still bent to the right by the earth's rotation, before flowing through the various channels and, finally, out from the sea. The Mediterranean Sea is thus a machine that transforms surface oceanic water into saltier (by about 2 psu) cooler (by about 2 °C) and denser (by about 2 kg/m super(3)) waters that will flow and spread at intermediate depths (1000-1200 m) in most of the northern Atlantic. Due to the west-east elongated shape of both basins, and to the specific locations of their openings, AW first flows eastwards in the southern part of each basin. There, the current is markedly unstable and it generates, all year long and a few times per year, 100-200 km anticyclonic eddies that propagate downstream at a few km/day, extend possibly down to the bottom (about 3000 m), and have lifetimes up to 3 years at least. Especially in the eastern basin, similar eddies are induced in specific places by the Etesians, they can propagate then and survive for more than one year. All these eddies strongly interact, either with their parent current of with other eddies, and two eddies can merge. Natural barriers (islands and/or the bathymetry) prevent these eddies from reaching the eastern parts of the basins so that AW there flows northward

  7. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Jialin; Li, Nan; Li, Fuchao; Zou, Tao; Yu, Shuxian; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones) and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  8. Dense Winter Water Mass Formation In The Northwestern Pacific Marginal Seas:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, L.; Lobanov, V.; Tishchenko, P.; Shcherbina, A.; Rudnick, D.; Salyuk, A.; Sagalaev, S.; Ponomarev, V.; Zhabin, I.

    Two separate winter water mass formation experiments were carried out in the north- western Pacific. The Japan/East Sea (JES) is well-ventilated to the bottom (3500 m depth), and is much better ventilated than the adjacent North Pacific at the same depth and density. Winter data from 1999 and 2000 show that the JES is one of the few sites in the world with deep winter convection, and that convection in the JES has many similarities to convection in the Mediterranean. It was shown previously that deep oxygen in the JES has been declining over many decades, suggesting that ventilation was more vigorous early in the 20th century than in recent decades. Nevertheless, the presence of significant oxygen and chlorofluorocarbons to the JES bottom suggests ongoing ventilation. In winter, 1999, a first late-winter survey of the northern JES included one hydrographic station with evidence of open-ocean convection to about 1100 meters in the cold air outbreak region south of Vladivostok, and weak evidence of brine rejection under ice formation in Peter the Great Bay (shelf near Vladivos- tok). Topography and the presence of a semi-permanent anticyclonic eddy and the subpolar front delineate the convection region, which is in the path of strong northerly winter winds. Persistently colder conditions in winter 2000, including Vladivostok air temperatures colder than any other year since 1976 and SST -2C below normal in the northern Japan Sea, showed widespread convection. Significant bottom water was created through brine rejection in Peter the Great Bay and was found the base of the continental slope south of Vladivostok. Ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Water occurs in the Okhotsk Sea, through brine rejection during sea ice formation, in polynyas on the northwest shelf. Moored observations on the shelf during winter 1999-2000 showed the creation of dense shelf water at 26.95 sigma_theta and clear evidence of brine rejection through the winter. The 1999 deployment

  9. Evaluation of the effect of sulfate, alkalinity and disinfector on iron release of iron pipe and iron corrosion scale characteristics under water quality changing condition using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Zhang, Weiyu; Guo, Jianbo; Wu, Nana; Liu, Xinyuan

    2018-02-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM), particularly Box-Behnken design model, was used in this study to evaluate the sulfate, alkalinity and free chlorine on iron release of pipe with groundwater supply history and its iron corrosion scale characteristics under water quality changing experiment. The RSM results together with response surface contour plots indicated that the iron release of pipe section reactors was positively related with Larson Ratio and free chlorine. The thin Corrosion scales with groundwater supply history upon collection site contained Fe3O4 (18%), α-FeOOH (64%), FeCO3 (9%), β-FeOOH (8%) and γ-FeOOH (5%), besides their averaged amorphous iron oxide content was 13.6%. After the RSM water quality changing experiment, Fe3O4, amorphous iron oxide and intermediate iron products (FeCO3, Green Rust (GR)) content on scale of Cl2Rs increased, while their α-FeOOH contents decreased and β-FeOOH disappeared. The high iron released Cl2Rs receiving higher LR water (1.40-2.04) contained highest FeCO3 (20%) and amorphous iron oxide (42%), while the low iron release Cl2Rs receiving lower LR water (0.52-0.73) had higher GR(6.5%) and the amorphous iron oxide (23.7%). In high LR water (>0.73), the thin and non-protective corrosion scale containing higher amorphous iron oxide, Fe(II) derived from new produced Fe3O4 or FeCO3 or GR was easy for oxidants and sulfate ions penetration, and had higher iron release. However the same unstable corrosion scale didn’t have much iron release in low LR water (≤0.73). RSM experiment indicated that iron release of these unstable corrosion scales had close relationship with water quality (Larson Ratio and disinfectant). Optimizing the water quality of new source water and using reasonable water purification measures can help to eliminate the red water case.

  10. Oxygen Saturation Surrounding Deep Water Formation Events in the Labrador Sea From Argo-O2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Mitchell K.; Hamme, Roberta C.; Gilbert, Denis; Yashayaev, Igor; Thierry, Virginie

    2018-04-01

    Deep water formation supplies oxygen-rich water to the deep sea, spreading throughout the ocean by means of the global thermohaline circulation. Models suggest that dissolved gases in newly formed deep water do not come to equilibrium with the atmosphere. However, direct measurements during wintertime convection are scarce, and the controls over the extent of these disequilibria are poorly quantified. Here we show that, when convection reached deeper than 800 m, oxygen in the Labrador Sea was consistently undersaturated at -6.1% to -7.6% at the end of convection. Deeper convection resulted in greater undersaturation, while convection ending later in the year resulted in values closer to equilibrium, from which we produce a predictive relationship. We use dissolved oxygen data from six profiling Argo floats in the Labrador Sea between 2003 and 2016, allowing direct observations of wintertime convection. Three of the six optode oxygen sensors displayed substantial average in situ drift of -3.03 μmol O2 kg-1 yr-1 (-0.94% O2 yr-1), which we corrected to stable deepwater oxygen values from repeat ship surveys. Observations of low oxygen intrusions during restratification and a simple mixing calculation demonstrate that lateral processes act to lower the oxygen inventory of the central Labrador Sea. This suggests that the Labrador Sea is a net sink for atmospheric oxygen, but uncertainties in parameterizing gas exchange limit our ability to quantify the net uptake. Our results constrain the oxygen concentration of newly formed Labrador Sea Water and allow more precise estimates of oxygen utilization and nutrient regeneration in this water mass.

  11. Bonding-Compatible Corrosion Inhibitor for Rinsing Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, C. R.; Wurth, L. A.; Radar, A.

    2005-01-01

    A corrosion-inhibiting mixture of compounds has been developed for addition to the water used to rinse metal parts that have been cleaned with aqueous solutions in preparation for adhesive bonding of the metals to rubber and rubber-like materials. Prior to the development of this corrosion inhibitor, the parts (made, variously, of D6AC steel and 7075-T73 aluminum) were rinsed by deionized water, which caused corrosion in some places on the steel parts especially in such occluded places as sealing surfaces and threaded blind holes. An integral part of the particular cleaning process is the deposition of a thin layer of silicates and silane primers that increase the strength of the adhesive bond. The corrosion inhibitor is formulated, not only to inhibit corrosion of both D6AC steel and 7075- T73 aluminum, but also to either increase or at least not reduce the strength of the adhesive bond to be formed subsequently. The corrosion inhibitor is a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium tetraborate. The sodium silicate functions as both a corrosion inhibitor and a bond-strength promoter in association with the silane primers. The sodium tetraborate buffers the rinse solution at the optimum pH and functions as a secondary corrosion inhibitor for the steel. For a given application, the concentrations of sodium silicate and sodium tetraborate must be chosen in a compromise among the needs to inhibit corrosion of steel, inhibit corrosion of aluminum, and minimize cosmetic staining of both steel and aluminum. Concentrations of sodium silicate in excess of 150 parts of silicon per million parts of solution (ppm Si) have been determined to enhance inhibition of corrosion; unfortunately, because of the alkalinity of sodium silicate, even a small concentration can raise the pH of the rinse solution to such a level that aluminum becomes corroded despite the inhibiting effect. The pH of a solution that contains a high concentration of sodium silicate can be decreased by adding

  12. Effect of chlorides on solution corrosivity of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rooney, P.C.; Bacon, T.R.; DuPart, M.S.

    1997-08-01

    Solution corrosivity of MDEA/water solutions containing added HCl or NaCl have been measured by weight loss coupons at 250 F and by linear polarization resistance (LPR) at 208 F using carbon steel, 304SS, 316SS and 410SS. General corrosion as well as pitting or crevice corrosion tendencies were recorded for each species. Based on these results, recommendations are made for chlorides in MDEA that minimizes corrosion in gas treating operations.

  13. Fate of water pumped from underground and contributions to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-08-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model simulation, we show that only 80% of GWD ends up in the ocean. An increase in runoff to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/-0.004) mm yr-1 in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/-0.04) mm yr-1 in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 (+/-0.04) mm yr-1, suggesting that the net terrestrial water contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  14. Marine Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Jenifer; Fuente, Daniel de la; Chico, Belén; Simancas, Joaquín; Díaz, Iván; Morcillo, Manuel

    2017-04-13

    The atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel is an extensive topic that has been studied over the years by many researchers. However, until relatively recently, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the action of marine chlorides. Corrosion in coastal regions is a particularly relevant issue due the latter's great importance to human society. About half of the world's population lives in coastal regions and the industrialisation of developing countries tends to concentrate production plants close to the sea. Until the start of the 21st century, research on the basic mechanisms of rust formation in Cl - -rich atmospheres was limited to just a small number of studies. However, in recent years, scientific understanding of marine atmospheric corrosion has advanced greatly, and in the authors' opinion a sufficient body of knowledge has been built up in published scientific papers to warrant an up-to-date review of the current state-of-the-art and to assess what issues still need to be addressed. That is the purpose of the present review. After a preliminary section devoted to basic concepts on atmospheric corrosion, the marine atmosphere, and experimentation on marine atmospheric corrosion, the paper addresses key aspects such as the most significant corrosion products, the characteristics of the rust layers formed, and the mechanisms of steel corrosion in marine atmospheres. Special attention is then paid to important matters such as coastal-industrial atmospheres and long-term behaviour of carbon steel exposed to marine atmospheres. The work ends with a section dedicated to issues pending, noting a series of questions in relation with which greater research efforts would seem to be necessary.

  15. Marine Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Jenifer; de la Fuente, Daniel; Chico, Belén; Simancas, Joaquín; Díaz, Iván; Morcillo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel is an extensive topic that has been studied over the years by many researchers. However, until relatively recently, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the action of marine chlorides. Corrosion in coastal regions is a particularly relevant issue due the latter’s great importance to human society. About half of the world’s population lives in coastal regions and the industrialisation of developing countries tends to concentrate production plants close to the sea. Until the start of the 21st century, research on the basic mechanisms of rust formation in Cl−-rich atmospheres was limited to just a small number of studies. However, in recent years, scientific understanding of marine atmospheric corrosion has advanced greatly, and in the authors’ opinion a sufficient body of knowledge has been built up in published scientific papers to warrant an up-to-date review of the current state-of-the-art and to assess what issues still need to be addressed. That is the purpose of the present review. After a preliminary section devoted to basic concepts on atmospheric corrosion, the marine atmosphere, and experimentation on marine atmospheric corrosion, the paper addresses key aspects such as the most significant corrosion products, the characteristics of the rust layers formed, and the mechanisms of steel corrosion in marine atmospheres. Special attention is then paid to important matters such as coastal-industrial atmospheres and long-term behaviour of carbon steel exposed to marine atmospheres. The work ends with a section dedicated to issues pending, noting a series of questions in relation with which greater research efforts would seem to be necessary. PMID:28772766

  16. Developments in Earth observation for the assessment and monitoring of inland, transitional, coastal and shelf-sea waters.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Andrew N; Hunter, Peter D; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Groom, Steve; Constantinescu, Adriana Maria; Kitchen, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's surface waters are a fundamental resource and encompass a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling and food and energy production. Despite this, the Earth's surface waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Here we explore the opportunities that Earth observation (EO) has to offer to basin-scale monitoring of water quality over the surface water continuum comprising inland, transition and coastal water bodies, with a particular focus on the Danube and Black Sea region. This review summarises the technological advances in EO and the opportunities that the next generation satellites offer for water quality monitoring. We provide an overview of algorithms for the retrieval of water quality parameters and demonstrate how such models have been used for the assessment and monitoring of inland, transitional, coastal and shelf-sea systems. Further, we argue that very few studies have investigated the connectivity between these systems especially in large river-sea systems such as the Danube-Black Sea. Subsequently, we describe current capability in operational processing of archive and near real-time satellite data. We conclude that while the operational use of satellites for the assessment and monitoring of surface waters is still developing for inland and coastal waters and more work is required on the development and validation of remote sensing algorithms for these optically complex waters, the potential that these data streams offer for developing an improved, potentially paradigm-shifting understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes

  17. A multi-disciplinary approach for sea water quality monitoring: the IOSMOS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, Teodosio; Ciancia, Emanuele; Coviello, Irina; Daraio, Maria; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Tramutoli, Valerio; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2013-04-01

    Coastal zones are complex and dynamic ecosystems which represent one of the most productive areas of the marine environment. They are an important economic resource for human populations: they provide food, energy as well as a lot of commerce and recreation activities. The strong anthropization, the irrational exploitation of resources and the climate changes are causing a strong modification of the coastal areas, representing a continuous threat to the biodiversity of these areas. This is why coastal zones deserve the developing and implementing of a monitoring system able to guarantee their consistent and reliable control as well as to timely identify any sign of degradation. Water quality is an important indicator of the health of coastal ecosystem. Remote sensing data can give relevant information in this framework, offering the capability to provide the spatial distribution of water constituents over large spatial areas with high temporal rates and relatively low costs. In particular Ocean Color (OC) satellite instruments furnish information both on sea surface optical variables (e.g. upwelling normalized water-leaving radiances) and on bio-optical parameters such as chlorophyll-a (as a proxy of phytoplankton), suspended materials and dissolved organic matter. A study of these parameters and of their evolution in the space-time domain may provide useful information on the overall quality of the sea water for a specific area, offering, in addition the reference behaviors necessary for identifying significant changes (possibly induced by anthropogenic pressure) in the coastal environment. In this context main aim of IOSMOS (IOnian Sea water quality MOnitoring by Satellite data) - a Project for European Transnational Cooperation co financed by the Operational Programme ERDF Basilicata 2007-2013 - is the development of advanced and exportable satellite products for measuring the above mentioned coastal water parameters as well as to timely identify short

  18. STIMULATION OF FUNDULUS BY HYDROCHLORIC AND FATTY ACIDS IN FRESH WATER, AND BY FATTY ACIDS, MINERAL ACIDS, AND THE SODIUM SALTS OF MINERAL ACIDS IN SEA WATER

    PubMed Central

    Allison, J. B.; Cole, William H.

    1934-01-01

    1. Fundulus heteroclitus was found to be a reliable experimental animal for studies on chemical stimulation in either fresh or sea water. 2. The response of Fundulus to hydrochloric, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, and caproic acids was determined in fresh water, while the same acids plus sulfuric and nitric, as well as the sodium salts of the mineral acids, were tested in sea water. 3. Stimulation of Fundulus by hydrochloric acid in fresh water is correlated with the effective hydrogen ion concentration. Stimulation by the n-aliphatic acids in the same environment is correlated with two factors, the effective hydrogen ion concentration and the potential of the non-polar group in the molecule. However, as the number of CH2 groups increases the stimulating effect increases by smaller and smaller amounts, approaching a maximum value. 4. Stimulation of Fundulus by hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids in sea water is correlated with the forces of primary valence which in turn are correlated with the change in hydrogen ion concentration of the sea water. The n-aliphatic acids increase in stimulating efficiency in sea water as the length of the carbon chain increases, but a limiting value is not reached as soon as in fresh water. 5. Only a slight difference in stimulation by hydrochloric acid is found in sea water and in fresh water. However, there is a significant difference in stimulation by the fatty acids in fresh and in sea water, which is partly explained by the different buffering capacities of the two media. It is to be noted that in the same environment two different fish, Fundulus and Eupomotis, give different results, while the same fish (Fundulus) in two different environments responds similarly to mineral acids but differently to fatty acids. These results illustrate that stimulation is a function of the interaction between environment and receptors, and that each is important in determining the response. 6. Stimulation by sodium chloride, nitrate

  19. Widespread Miocene deep-sea hiatuses: coincidence with periods of global cooling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, J.A.; Keller, G.

    1982-01-01

    High-resolution biostratigraphic analyses of Miocene deep-sea cores reveal eight intervals of widespread hiatuses in the world ocean. In complete sections these hiatuses correspond to intervals of cool faunal and floral assemblages, rapid enrichment of delta 18O, and sea-level regressions. These factors suggest that Miocene deep-sea hiatuses result from an increased intensity of circulation and corrosiveness of bottom currents during periods of increased polar refrigeration.-Authors

  20. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    PubMed Central

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  1. Effect of the Crevice Former on the Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel in Chloride-Containing Synthetic Tap Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Gu; Kim, Woo-Cheol

    2018-05-01

    To restrain the failure of the plate heat exchanger (PHE) in customer boiler working fluid, the effect of crevice former type on the corrosion behavior of the 316L stainless steel plate was investigated using electrochemical methods and surface analyses in chloride-containing synthetic tap water (60 °C). The localized corrosion under metal-metal crevice condition was initiated more easily than that under the metal-gasket crevice condition due to the restricted mass transport at the gasket crevice mouth. However, the anodic current under the metal-metal crevice condition was lower than that under metal-gasket crevice condition at a higher anodic potential, indicating that that the metal dissolution under EPDM crevice would be higher than that under metal crevice under the accelerated corrosion condition. Because narrow crevice gap that was formed under gasket accelerated the anodic dissolution at the crevice mouth, the perforation tendency under metal-gasket crevice condition is much higher than that under metal-metal crevice condition. As a result, the crevice geometry, especially the crevice gap, mainly affected the corrosion behavior of PHE material.

  2. Effect of the Crevice Former on the Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel in Chloride-Containing Synthetic Tap Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Gu; Kim, Woo-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    To restrain the failure of the plate heat exchanger (PHE) in customer boiler working fluid, the effect of crevice former type on the corrosion behavior of the 316L stainless steel plate was investigated using electrochemical methods and surface analyses in chloride-containing synthetic tap water (60 °C). The localized corrosion under metal-metal crevice condition was initiated more easily than that under the metal-gasket crevice condition due to the restricted mass transport at the gasket crevice mouth. However, the anodic current under the metal-metal crevice condition was lower than that under metal-gasket crevice condition at a higher anodic potential, indicating that that the metal dissolution under EPDM crevice would be higher than that under metal crevice under the accelerated corrosion condition. Because narrow crevice gap that was formed under gasket accelerated the anodic dissolution at the crevice mouth, the perforation tendency under metal-gasket crevice condition is much higher than that under metal-metal crevice condition. As a result, the crevice geometry, especially the crevice gap, mainly affected the corrosion behavior of PHE material.

  3. Distribution and Diversity of Microbial Eukaryotes in Bathypelagic Waters of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dapeng; Jiao, Nianzhi; Ren, Rui; Warren, Alan

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the biodiversity of microbial eukaryotes in the South China Sea, especially in waters at bathyal depths. Here, we employed SSU rDNA gene sequencing to reveal the diversity and community structure across depth and distance gradients in the South China Sea. Vertically, the highest alpha diversity was found at 75-m depth. The communities of microbial eukaryotes were clustered into shallow-, middle-, and deep-water groups according to the depth from which they were collected, indicating a depth-related diversity and distribution pattern. Rhizaria sequences dominated the microeukaryote community and occurred in all samples except those from less than 50-m deep, being most abundant near the sea floor where they contributed ca. 64-97% and 40-74% of the total sequences and OTUs recovered, respectively. A large portion of rhizarian OTUs has neither a nearest named neighbor nor a nearest neighbor in the GenBank database which indicated the presence of new phylotypes in the South China Sea. Given their overwhelming abundance and richness, further phylogenetic analysis of rhizarians were performed and three new genetic clusters were revealed containing sequences retrieved from the deep waters of the South China Sea. Our results shed light on the diversity and community structure of microbial eukaryotes in this not yet fully explored area. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  4. On dense water formation in shelves of the Aegean Sea during the year 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salusti, Ettore; Bellacicco, Marco; Anagnostou, Christos; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Tripsanas, Efthymios

    2015-04-01

    We here investigate the role of the rather virgin year 1987, when some modern data are available but before the main EMT event. A combination of field, satellite and numerical model temperature and salinity data from PROTHEUS, as well as a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, are used to implement theoretical models. After its formation over a sloping shelf of some important points in the Aegean Sea, due to the strong cold winter winds, a dense water patch can either have a dramatic downflow or can start a slow geostrophic descent along shelves and then following isobaths, best described by streamtube models. The most important, among these shelves characterized by a strong air sea interaction, have been identified from satellite data. The Northernmost shelves are those north of the island of Samothrace and in the Northern Thermaikos Gulf. In agreement with the field measuraments of Georgopoulos et al. (1987) also the shallow shelf between Limnos and Goceada was a source of very dense water, as well as thr shelf between Lesbos and the Turkish coast. Most probably also the shelves around the Cycladic Plateau were affected by strong winds and contributed to the Aegean Sea deep water formation. In addition, other theoretical models of wind-induced coastal upwelling allow to infer temperature and salinity information of dense water dynamics along the shallow coasts and shelves of the Aegean Sea. All this allows a heuristic application of classical T/S diagrams to estimate Northern Aegean dense water evolution and spreading, that nicely supports the early ideas of Zervakis et al. (2000). A complex situation about the Cycladic Plateau dynamics is also analyzed in correlation with sediment locations. Indeed seismic-reflection profiles confirm the presence of a contourite location along the northeast Cyclades Plateau shelves. All this interestingly opens novel prospective about the dense water coastal formation shelves. In synthesis such field, numerical and satellite data

  5. Control of Legionella Contamination and Risk of Corrosion in Hospital Water Networks following Various Disinfection Procedures.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Isabella; Ferranti, Greta; Mansi, Antonella; Marcelloni, Anna M; Proietto, Anna R; Saini, Navneet; Borella, Paola; Bargellini, Annalisa

    2016-05-15

    Physical and chemical disinfection methods have been proposed with the aim of controlling Legionella water contamination. To date, the most effective procedures for reducing bacterial contamination have not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of various disinfection procedures in order to reduce both culturable and nonculturable (NC) legionellae in different hospital water networks treated with heat, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, and hydrogen peroxide. The temperature levels and biocide concentrations that proved to give reliable results were analyzed. In order to study the possible effects on the water pipes, we verified the extent of corrosion on experimental coupons after applying each method for 6 months. The percentage of positive points was at its lowest after treatment with monochloramine, followed by chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hyperthermia. Different selections of Legionella spp. were observed, as networks treated with chlorine-based disinfectants were contaminated mainly by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, hyperthermia was associated with serogroups 2 to 14, and hydrogen peroxide treatment was associated mainly with non-pneumophila species. NC cells were detected only in heat-treated waters, and also when the temperature was approximately 60°C. The corrosion rates of the coupons were within a satisfactory limit for water networks, but the morphologies differed. We confirm here that chemical disinfection controls Legionella colonization more effectively than hyperthermia does. Monochloramine was the most effective treatment, while hydrogen peroxide may be a promising alternative to chlorine-based disinfectants due to its ability to select for other, less virulent or nonpathogenic species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Sea Turtle Density and Abundance in the Southeast Florida Current and Surrounding Waters.

    PubMed

    Bovery, Caitlin M; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles' highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida's east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern for sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. This assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.

  7. Effect of crack openings on carbonation-induced corrosion

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ghantous, Rita Maria, E-mail: rita-maria.ghantous@yncrea.fr; LMDC, Université de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, Toulouse; Poyet, Stéphane

    Reinforced concrete is widely used in the construction of buildings, historical monuments, infrastructures and nuclear power plants. For a variety of reasons, many concrete structures are subject to unavoidable cracks that accelerate the diffusion of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the steel/concrete interface. Carbonation at the interface induces steel corrosion that could cause the development of new cracks in the structure, a determining factor for its durability. The aim of this article is to study the effect of existing cracks on the development of carbonation-induced corrosion. The results indicate that, after the initiation phase, the corrosion kinetics decreases with time andmore » the free corrosion potential increases independently of the crack opening. In addition, the corroded zone matches the carbonated one. The interpretation of these results allows the authors to conclude that, during the corrosion process, corrosion products seal the crack and act as a barrier to oxygen and water diffusion. Consequently, the influence of crack opening on corrosion development is masked and the corrosion development is limited.« less

  8. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water

    PubMed Central

    Lipa, Belinda; Nyden, Bruce; Barrick, Don; Kohut, Josh

    2008-01-01

    HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information) far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities), the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements. PMID:27873776

  9. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  10. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  11. Wind-driven export of Weddell Sea slope water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijers, A. J. S.; Meredith, M. P.; Abrahamsen, E. P.; Morales Maqueda, M. A.; Jones, D. C.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    The export of waters from the Weddell Gyre to lower latitudes is an integral component of the southern subpolar contribution to the three-dimensional oceanic circulation. Here we use more than 20 years of repeat hydrographic data on the continental slope on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and 5 years of bottom lander data on the slope at 1000 m to show the intermittent presence of a relatively cold, fresh, westward flowing current. This is often bottom-intensified between 600 and 2000 dbar with velocities of over 20 cm s-1, transporting an average of 1.5 ± 1.5 Sv. By comparison with hydrography on the continental slope within the Weddell Sea and modeled tracer release experiments we show that this slope current is an extension of the Antarctic Slope Current that has crossed the South Scotia Ridge west of Orkney Plateau. On monthly to interannual time scales the density of the slope current is negatively correlated (r > 0.6 with a significance of over 95%) with eastward wind stress over the northern Weddell Sea, but lagging it by 6-13 months. This relationship holds in both the high temporal resolution bottom lander time series and the 20+ year annual hydrographic occupations and agrees with Weddell Sea export variability observed further east. We compare several alternative hypotheses for this wind stress/export relationship and find that it is most consistent with wind-driven acceleration of the gyre boundary current, possibly modulated by eddy dynamics, and represents a mechanism by which climatic perturbations can be rapidly transmitted as fluctuations in the supply of intermediate-level waters to lower latitudes.

  12. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-03-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season. Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea), in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  13. Corrosion due to use of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report. SumX No. 78-003

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    DeBerry, D.W.; Clark, W.S.

    1979-09-01

    This study documents the specific effects of CO/sub 2/ on corrosion and identifies promising methods for controlling corrosion in fields using CO/sub 2/ injection. Information has been assembled on: CO/sub 2/ corrosion problems in general, surface and downhole corrosion problems specifically associated with CO/sub 2/ enhanced oil recovery, and methods to reduce corrosion problems in CO/sub 2/ environments. Corrosion mechanisms, kinetic behavior, and the effects of various parameters on corrosion by CO/sub 2/ are presented in this study. Engineering metals are not attacked by CO/sub 2/ under oil field environments unless liquid water is also present. Plain and low alloymore » steels are attacked by mixtures of CO/sub 2/ and liquid water. Attack on these bare metals may become serious at a CO/sub 2/ partial pressure as low as 4 psi and it increases with CO/sub 2/ partial pressure although not in direct proportion. Fluid flow rate is an important factor in CO/sub 2//water corrosion. Practically all stainless steels and similar resistant alloys are not particularly subject to corrosion by CO/sub 2//water mixtures alone, even at high CO/sub 2/ pressures. Elevated levels of CO/sub 2/ can aggravate the corrosive effects of other species such as hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, and chloride. Mixtures of CO/sub 2/, carbon monoxide (CO), and water can cause stress corrosion cracking of plain steels. Corrosion problems in CO/sub 2/ systems should be circumvented when possible by avoiding combination of the corrosive components. Although water cannot be excluded throughout the CO/sub 2/ injection-oil production-CO/sub 2/ and water reinjection chain, air in-leakage can be minimized and oxygen scavengers used to remove any residual. Exclusion of oxygen is important to the successful use of other corrosion control measures. A discussion is given of the main control methods including metal selection, protective coatings and nonmetallic materials, and chemical inhibition. (DLC)« less

  14. Removal of metals from aqueous solution and sea water by functionalized graphite nanoplatelets based electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Ramaprabhu, S

    2011-01-15

    In the present wok, we have demonstrated the simultaneous removal of sodium and arsenic (pentavalent and trivalent) from aqueous solution using functionalized graphite nanoplatelets (f-GNP) based electrodes. In addition, these electrodes based water filter was used for multiple metals removal from sea water. Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared by acid intercalation and thermal exfoliation. Functionalization of GNP was done by further acid treatment. Material was characterized by different characterization techniques. Performance of supercapacitor based water filter was analyzed for the removal of high concentration of arsenic (trivalent and pentavalent) and sodium as well as for desalination of sea water, using cyclic voltametry (CV) and inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques. Adsorption isotherms and kinetic characteristics were studied for the simultaneous removal of sodium and arsenic (both trivalent and pentavalent). Maximum adsorption capacities of 27, 29 and 32 mg/g for arsenate, arsenite and sodium were achieved in addition to good removal efficiency for sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium from sea water. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  16. Study on electrochemical corrosion mechanism of steel foot of insulators for HVDC lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weihua; Sun, Xiaoyu; Fan, Youping

    2017-09-01

    The main content of this paper is the mechanism of electrochemical corrosion of insulator steel foot in HVDC transmission line, and summarizes five commonly used artificial electrochemical corrosion accelerated test methods in the world. Various methods are analyzed and compared, and the simulation test of electrochemical corrosion of insulator steel feet is carried out by water jet method. The experimental results show that the experimental environment simulated by water jet method is close to the real environment. And the three suspension modes of insulators in the actual operation, the most serious corrosion of the V type suspension hardware, followed by the tension string suspension, and the linear string corrosion rate is the slowest.

  17. Magnetic Mineral diagenesis in changing water environments in the Black Sea since ˜41.6 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiabo; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Frank, Ute; Arz, Helge

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic mineral diagenesis plays a key role in the global iron cycle. To understand the authigenic magnetic mineral formation by diagenesis is also fundamentally important for the interpretation of environmental magnetic as well as paleomagnetic signals. Core MSM33-55-1, recovered from the SW Black Sea, was subjected to rock-magnetic and SEM studies. The results demonstrate that four different magnetic mineral assemblages associated to specific water conditions can be observed. Between ˜41.6 ka and ˜19 ka, magnetite and greigite are alternatively in dominance in the sediment. Due to low organic matter input during the late MIS 3 and the last glacial maximum (LGM), oxygenated bottom water in the Black Sea was favourable for preserving detrital magnetite. Greigite in this interval have irregular shapes and assemble in spots, which were formed in a micro environment with limited sulfate availability. Between ˜19 ka and ˜16.5 ka, black layers were deposited as a result of organic matter accumulation induced by productivity blooming and riverine discharge soaring after the LGM. Hence less oxygenated bottom water conditions developed, and more fine grained greigite was formed. After melt-water pulse (MWP) events (˜16.5 ka), both primary productivity and the sea level were continuously rising until ˜8.3 ka, leading to the depletion of oxygen in bottom water. In addition to greigite, pyrite was also formed and gradually in dominance as approaching the Holocene. The influx of salt water masses from the Mediterranean Sea after ˜8.3 ka contributed to the establishment of the anoxic Black Sea, which resulted in the formation of ubiquitous frambiods of pyrite. Additionally, bacterial magnetic minerals are likely present in the sediment younger than ˜8.3 ka as indicated by rock magnetic results. In this paper, four different magnetic mineral assemblages, reflecting gradual changes from an oxic to an anoix Black Sea, were identified, yielding insights into the relation

  18. A SIMPLE APPROACH TO ASSESSING COPPER PITTING CORROSION TENDENCIES AND DEVELOPING CONTROL STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized corrosion of copper premise plumbing in drinking water distribution systems can lead to pinhole leaks, which are a growing problem for many homeowners. Despite the fact that water quality is an important factor associated with localized copper corrosion, definitive appr...

  19. Corrosion and corrosion prevention in gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mom, A. J. A.; Kolkman, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions governing the corrosion behavior in gas turbines are surveyed. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, the presence of sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and fuel quality are discussed. Electromechanical corrosion at relatively low temperature in compressors; oxidation; and hot corrosion (sulfidation) at high temperature in turbines are considered. Corrosion prevention by washing and rinsing, fueld additives, and corrosion resistant materials and coatings are reviewed.

  20. Relative stress corrosion susceptibilities of alloys 690 and 600 in simulated boiling water reactor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, R. A.; McMinn, A.

    1986-05-01

    The relative susceptibilities of alloys 600 and 690 to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in pure water and a simulated resin intrusion environment at 288 °C were evaluated. A combination of creviced and noncreviced slow-strain-rate, and precracked fracture mechanics tests were employed in the evaluation. Susceptibility was determined as a function of dissolved oxygen content, degree of sensitization, and crevice condition. The results indicated that alloy 600 was susceptible to various degrees of IGSCC in oxygen containing pure water when creviced, and immune to IGSCC when uncreviced. Alloy 690 was immune to IGSCC under all pure water conditions examined. Alloy 600 and alloy 690 were both susceptible to cracking in the simulated resin intrusion environment. Alloy 690, however, exhibited the greatest resistance to SCC of the two alloys.

  1. Hydrothermal corrosion of silicon carbide joints without radiation

    DOE PAGES

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai; Terrani, Kurt A.; ...

    2016-09-28

    In this paper, hydrothermal corrosion of four types of the silicon carbide (SiC) to SiC plate joints were investigated under pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor relevant chemical conditions without irradiation. The joints were formed by metal diffusion bonding using molybdenum or titanium interlayer, reaction sintering using Ti—Si—C system, and SiC nanopowder sintering. Most of the joints withstood the corrosion tests for five weeks. The recession of the SiC substrates was limited. Based on the recession of the bonding layers, it was concluded that all the joints except for the molybdenum diffusion bond are promising under the reducing environmentsmore » without radiation. Finally, the SiC nanopowder sintered joint was the most corrosion tolerant under the oxidizing environment among the four joints.« less

  2. Effect of slightly acid pH with or without chloride in radioactive water on the corrosion of maraging steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellanger, G.; Rameau, J. J.

    1996-02-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the behavior of maraging steel used in the tanks of French plants for reprocessing radioactive water which may contain chloride ions at pH 3. The rest or corrosion potentials can be either in the transpassive or active regions due to the presence of radiolytic species. The corrosion current and potential depend on the pH and intermediates formed on the surface in the active region; therefore, maraging steel behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry without and with electrode rotation and different acid pH which provide an indication of mechanisms, modification of local pH and transient formation. In the passive -transpassive region, breakdown and porosity in the oxide appear with or without chloride, according to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In presence of chloride, the corrosion kinetics were obtained by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The anodic and cathodic areas of maraging steel corroded by pitting were shown using the Scanning Reference Electrode Technique.

  3. Methane excess in Arctic surface water-triggered by sea ice formation and melting.

    PubMed

    Damm, E; Rudels, B; Schauer, U; Mau, S; Dieckmann, G

    2015-11-10

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas.

  4. Evaluation of steam corrosion and water quenching behavior of zirconium-silicide coated LWR fuel claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Hwasung; Lockhart, Cody; Mariani, Robert; Xu, Peng; Corradini, Michael; Sridharan, Kumar

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates steam corrosion of bulk ZrSi2, pure Si, and zirconium-silicide coatings as well as water quenching behavior of ZrSi2 coatings to evaluate its feasibility as a potential accident-tolerant fuel cladding coating material in light water nuclear reactor. The ZrSi2 coating and Zr2Si-ZrSi2 coating were deposited on Zircaloy-4 flats, SiC flats, and cylindrical Zircaloy-4 rodlets using magnetron sputter deposition. Bulk ZrSi2 and pure Si samples showed weight loss after the corrosion test in pure steam at 400 °C and 10.3 MPa for 72 h. Silicon depletion on the ZrSi2 surface during the steam test was related to the surface recession observed in the silicon samples. ZrSi2 coating (∼3.9 μm) pre-oxidized in 700 °C air prevented substrate oxidation but thin porous ZrO2 formed on the coating. The only condition which achieved complete silicon immobilization in the oxide scale in aqueous environments was the formation of ZrSiO4 via ZrSi2 coating oxidation in 1400 °C air. In addition, ZrSi2 coatings were beneficial in enhancing quenching heat transfer - the minimum film boiling temperature increased by 6-8% in the three different environmental conditions tested. During repeated thermal cycles (water quenching from 700 °C to 85 °C for 20 s) performed as a part of quench tests, no spallation and cracking was observed and the coating prevented oxidation of the underlying Zircaloy-4 substrate.

  5. Marine Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-24

    cor- rosion resistant alloys such as molybdenum -containing stainless steels. For the latter the high degree of aeration in the splashing water...imposed by marine technology, such as elevated temperatures , tensile stresses, cyclic stresses, severe (tight) crevices, galvanic coupling and high ...corrosion in seawater in tight metal-to-non-metal crevices are titanium alloys 4, the high molybdenum nickel base alloys Hastelloy alloy C-276 and

  6. Benthic foraminifera as indicators of hydrologic and environmental conditions in the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, E.; Bertello, L.; Capotondi, L.; Bergami, C.; Giglio, F.; Ravaioli, M.; Rossi, C.; Ferretti, A.

    2012-04-01

    This study, present data on benthic foraminiferal assemblages from four box cores collected in different areas of the Ross Sea during the 2005 oceanographic cruise in the framework of the Italian Antarctic Research National Programme (PNRA). Based on magnetic susceptibility, biosiliceous content, and micropaleontological analysis, the sediment cores provide a record of glacial retreat and Holocene environmental changes in the Ross Sea during the last 11 kyr BP. Sediment lithologies range between diamicton to surficial diatomaceous mud, the intermediate levels being glacial-marine sediment. The sedimentary sections include diatomaceous glacial-marine deposit over transitional (proximal grounding zone) glacial-marine sediment. The study revealed that the Ross Sea contains typical Antarctic foraminifera fauna with the dominance of agglutinated taxa. Relatively elevated abundances, richness and diversity were common in the northernmost site, where the water column was characterized by relatively warmer intermediate waters and by the presence of the colder High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) occupying the deepest part of the basin. Here, the assemblage was dominated by Miliammina arenacea and the more abundant species were Trochammina quadricamerata and Lagenammina difflugiformis. In the southernmost site and in the eastern Ross Sea, richness and diversity were low and the most significant species were Trochammina sp., and Reophax sp. M. arenacea was ubiquitous in all the samples and sites, confirming its tolerance to cold corrosive bottom waters and salinity fluctuations as well as its uniquely high preservation potential. Moreover, elevated abundances, richness and diversity were common in the upper portion of the core which represents the youngest climatic phase characterized by the presence of some calcareous specimens too. This may indicate a deeper Carbonate Compensation Depth, probably due to relatively stable and warmer environmental conditions. Results document

  7. Observational evidence for volcanic impact on sea level and the global water cycle

    PubMed Central

    Grinsted, A.; Moore, J. C.; Jevrejeva, S.

    2007-01-01

    It has previously been noted that there are drops in global sea level (GSL) after some major volcanic eruptions. However, observational evidence has not been convincing because there is substantial variability in the global sea level record over periods similar to those at which we expect volcanoes to have an impact. To quantify the impact of volcanic eruptions we average monthly GSL data from 830 tide gauge records around five major volcanic eruptions. Surprisingly, we find that the initial response to a volcanic eruption is a significant rise in sea level of 9 ± 3 mm in the first year after the eruption. This rise is followed by a drop of 7 ± 3 mm in the period 2–3 years after the eruption relative to preeruption sea level. These results are statistically robust and no particular volcanic eruption or ocean region dominates the signature we find. Neither the drop nor especially the rise in GSL can be explained by models of lower oceanic heat content. We suggest that the mechanism is a transient disturbance of the water cycle with a delayed response of land river runoff relative to ocean evaporation and global precipitation that affects global sea level. The volcanic impact on the water cycle and sea levels is comparable in magnitude to that of a large El Niño–La Niña cycle, amounting to ≈5% of global land precipitation. PMID:18056644

  8. Observational evidence for volcanic impact on sea level and the global water cycle.

    PubMed

    Grinsted, A; Moore, J C; Jevrejeva, S

    2007-12-11

    It has previously been noted that there are drops in global sea level (GSL) after some major volcanic eruptions. However, observational evidence has not been convincing because there is substantial variability in the global sea level record over periods similar to those at which we expect volcanoes to have an impact. To quantify the impact of volcanic eruptions we average monthly GSL data from 830 tide gauge records around five major volcanic eruptions. Surprisingly, we find that the initial response to a volcanic eruption is a significant rise in sea level of 9 +/- 3 mm in the first year after the eruption. This rise is followed by a drop of 7 +/- 3 mm in the period 2-3 years after the eruption relative to preeruption sea level. These results are statistically robust and no particular volcanic eruption or ocean region dominates the signature we find. Neither the drop nor especially the rise in GSL can be explained by models of lower oceanic heat content. We suggest that the mechanism is a transient disturbance of the water cycle with a delayed response of land river runoff relative to ocean evaporation and global precipitation that affects global sea level. The volcanic impact on the water cycle and sea levels is comparable in magnitude to that of a large El Niño-La Niña cycle, amounting to approximately 5% of global land precipitation.

  9. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi Moghaddam, Kourosh

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight) and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length) captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula), invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor), various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.). Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05), no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics) have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05).

  10. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in sea water by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Fujishima, Hironori; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2012-01-04

    The chelating agent EDTA is widely used, and as a result is showing up widely in the aquatic environment. Here we describe a preconcentration procedure for measuring EDTA concentration in sea water samples by HPLC. The procedure consists of forming an Fe(III) complex followed by solid-phase extraction using an activated carbon cartridge. After the preconcentration, EDTA was quantified by HPLC with ultraviolet detection (260 nm). The enrichment permitted the determination of EDTA at concentrations as low as 1 nM. Good recoveries were obtained for both brackish and full-strength sea water with high repeatability (RSD<6%). The method was applied to sea water samples taken from near the mouth of the Oyabe River in Japan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Corrosion fatigue of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, V. C.

    1986-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue studies were conducted on bare, chemical conversion coated, and anodized 2219-T87 aluminum alloy. These tests were performed using a rotating beam machine running at a velocity of 2500 rpm. The corrosive environments tested were distilled water, 100 ppm NaCl, and 3.5 percent NaCl. Results were compared to the endurance limit in air. An evaluation of the effect of protective coatings on corrosion fatigue was made by comparing the fatigue properties of specimens with coatings to those without.

  12. Seasonal variation in sea turtle density and abundance in the southeast Florida current and surrounding waters

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles’ highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida’s east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern formore » sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. As a result, this assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.« less

  13. Seasonal variation in sea turtle density and abundance in the southeast Florida current and surrounding waters

    DOE PAGES

    Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2015-12-30

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles’ highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida’s east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern formore » sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. As a result, this assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.« less

  14. New Observations of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water Intrusion into the Red Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, A.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The three-layer exchange flow between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean during summer is characterized by a thick, northward intrusion of relatively cold, low-salinity and low in dissolved oxygen (< 0.5 ml/l); Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), sandwiched between two thin layers of outflow water. The flux of GAIW into the Red Sea is important in the heat, freshwater and nutrient budgets of the Red Sea, but the structure and pathways of the intrusion are not well-known due to a paucity of hydrographic and direct velocity observations. A research cruise was executed at the eastern side of the Red Sea during September-October 2011 to conduct the first large-scale survey of the intrusion. This mission is part of a series of expeditions in the Red Sea designed to investigate the seasonal Red Sea circulation. Surprisingly, the GAIW intrusion was observed to stretch nearly the entire length of the Red Sea (~1500 km) as a narrow eastern boundary current with subsurface velocity maximum of 0.1-0.3 m/s in the depth range 50-100 m. The intruding layer is weakly stratified compared to the background, possibly an indication of strong vertical mixing as it flows through the strait. Some GAIW was observed to enter deep channels in a coral reef bank (Farasan Banks) located in the southeastern Red Sea, and to enter the Red Sea interior, the latter possibly due to interactions between the boundary current and mesoscale eddies. The pathways and erosion of the GAIW intrusion will likely have major implications for the spatial distribution of biological productivity.

  15. Origin and pathways of Winter Intermediate Water in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea using observations and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juza, Mélanie; Renault, Lionel; Ruiz, Simon; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2013-12-01

    The study of water masses worldwide (their formation, spreading, mixing, and impact on general circulation) is essential for a better understanding of the ocean circulation and variability. In this paper, the formation and main pathways of Winter Intermediate Water (WIW) in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWMED) are investigated during the winter-spring 2011 using observations and numerical simulation. The main results show that the WIW, formed along the continental shelves of the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea, circulates southward following five preferential pathways depending on the WIW formation site location and the oceanic conditions. WIW joins the northeastern part of the Balearic Sea, or flows along the continental shelves until joining the Balearic Current (maximum of 0.33 Sv in early-April) or further south until the Ibiza Channel entrance. Two additional trajectories, contributing to water mass exchanges with the southern part of the Western Mediterranean Sea, bring the WIW through the Ibiza and Mallorca Channels (maxima of 0.26 Sv in late-March and 0.1 Sv in early-April, respectively). The circulation of WIW over the NWMED at 50-200 m depth, its mixing and spreading over the Western Mediterranean Sea (reaching the south of the Balearic Islands, the Algero-Provencal basin, the Ligurian and the Alboran Seas) suggest that the WIW may have an impact on the ocean circulation by eddy blocking effect, exchange of water masses between north and south subbasins of Western Mediterranean Sea through the Ibiza Channel or modification of the ocean stratification.

  16. Improvement of the linear polarization resistance method for testing steel corrosion inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faritov, A. T.; Rozhdestvenskii, Yu. G.; Yamshchikova, S. A.; Minnikhanova, E. R.; Tyusenkov, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    The linear polarization resistance method is used to improve the technique of corrosion control in liquid conducting according to GOST 9.514-99 (General Corrosion and Aging Protection System. Corrosion Inhibitors for Metals in Water Systems. Electrochemical Method of Determining the Protective Ability). Corrosion monitoring is shown to be performed by electronic devices with real-time data transfer to industrial controllers and SCADA systems.

  17. The corrosion protection of aluminum by various anodizing treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion protection to 6061-T6 aluminum, afforded by both teflon-impregnated anodized coats (Polylube and Tufram) and hard-anodized coats (water sealed and dichromate sealed), was studied at both pH 5.5 and pH 9.5, with an exposure period of 28 days in 3.5 percent NaCl solution (25 C) for each specimen. In general, corrosion protection for all specimens was better at pH 9.5 than at pH 5.5. Protection by a Tufram coat proved superior to that afforded by Polylube at each pH, with corrosion protection by the hard-anodized, water-sealed coat at pH 9.5 providing the best protection. Electrochemical work in each case was corroborated by microscopic examination of the coats after exposure. Corrosion protection by Tufram at pH 9.5 was most comparable to that of the hard-anodized samples, although pitting and some cracking of the coat did occur.

  18. A Powerful Method of Measuring Sea Wave Spectra and their Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, Christoph; Mai, Stephan; Wilhelmi, Jens; Zenz, Theodor; Barjenbruch, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Besides the need of precise measurements of water levels of the sea, there is an increasing demand for assessing waves in height and direction for different purposes like sea-wave modelling and coastal engineering. The design of coastal structures such as piles, breakwaters, and offshore structures like wind farms must take account of the direction of the impacting waves. To date, records of wave directions are scarce. The reason for this might be the high costs of purchasing and operating such measuring devices. These are usually buoys, which require regular maintenance. Against this background, the German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) developed a low-cost directional sea-wave monitoring system that is based on commercially available liquid-level radar sensors. These sensors have the advantage that they have no contact to the fluid, i.e. the corrosive sea water. The newly developed device was tested on two sites. One is the tide gauge 'Borkum Südstrand' that is located in the southern North Sea off the island of Borkum. The other one is the 'Research Platform FINO1' approximately 45 km north of the island of Borkum. The main focus of these tests is the comparison of the data measured by the radar-based system with those of a conventional Directional Wave Rider Buoy. The general conditions at the testing sites are good for the tests. At the tide gauge 'Borkum Südstrand' waves propagate in different directions, strongly influenced by the morphological conditions like shallow waters of the Wadden Seas and the coast of the island of Borkum. Whereas on the open sea, at the site FINO1, the full physical conditions of the sea state, like heavy storms etc. play an important role. To determine and measure the direction of waves, the device has to be able to assess the wave movements in two dimensions. Therefore, an array of several radar sensors is required. Radar sensors are widely used and well established in measuring water levels, e.g. in tanks and basins

  19. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2017-05-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of 0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the 0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  20. COPPER CORROSION RESEARCH UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...

  1. A comparative study of atmospheric corrosion in the Caribbean area

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Maldonado, L.; Castro, P.; Echeverria, M.

    1995-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion is a phenomenon of such a magnitude that has been cause of study in several countries for decades. Nevertheless, in Mexico, it became of recent interest due to new economic factors that have involved the Peninsula of Yucatan too. The Yucatan Peninsula is limited to the North and West by the Gulf of Mexico and to the East by the Caribbean Sea. This is a non industrialized region so that in the past very little importance was given to the atmospheric corrosion damage or to the quantification of the high corrosion rates, empirically observed. However, in recent timesmore » increased tourism, industrial growth and petroleum extraction have exhibited the need for a better understanding of the atmospheric corrosion processes, as well as a realistic correlation to parameters such as time-of-wetness, levels of pollution by airborne salinity, atmospheric S0{sub 2} and corrosivity categories for the metals. To evaluate these parameters, five tests sites were selected following ISO recommendations. Three sites are marines atmospheres, one urban and one rural. Corrosion rates for commercial laminated Cu and carbon steel, as well as deposition rates of pollutants, were determined after one year exposure in the test sites. Applying the standard practice ISO 9223 a categorization of the corrosivity and of the level of pollutants was carried out. The marine environments were classified as of atmospheric corrosivity C{sub 5}, while the urban and the rural could be classified as C{sub 3}, respectively. The pollution values showed that the exposure sites were essentially contaminated with chloride with classification S{sub 1} for the rural site and S{sub 3} for the marine atmosphere.« less

  2. Wind-driven Sea-Ice Changes Intensify Subsurface Warm Water Intrusion into the West Antarctic Land Ice Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Gille, S. T.; shang-Ping, X.; Xie, S. P.; Holland, D. M.; Holland, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    The climate change observed around Antarctica in recent decades is characterized by distinct zonally asymmetric patterns, with the strongest changes over West Antarctica. These changes are marked by strong land ice melting and sea ice redistribution around West Antarctica. This is associated with temperature and circulation anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere around the same area. In this study, we comprehensively examine the coherency between these changes using a combination of observations and numerical simulations. Results show that the atmospheric circulation changes distinctly drive the changes in ocean circulation and sea ice distribution. In addition, the atmospheric circulation induced sea ice changes play an important role in lifting the subsurface ocean temperature and salinity around the West Antarctica. During recent decades, the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) has deepened, especially in austral autumn and winter. This deepened ASL has intensified the offshore wind near the coastal regions of the Ross Sea. Driven by these atmospheric changes, more sea ice has formed near West Antarctica in winter. In contrast, more sea ice melts during the summer. This strengthened sea ice seasonality has been observed and successfully reproduced in the model simulation. The wind-driven sea ice changes causes a surface freshening over the Ross and Amundsen Seas, with a subsurface salinity increase over the Ross Sea. The additional fresh/salt water fluxes thus further change the vertical distribution of salinity and strengthen the stratification in the Ross and Amundsen Seas. As a result of the above ice-ocean process, the mixed-layer depth around the Ross and Amundsen Seas shallows. By weakening the vertical heat transport near the surface layer, and inducing an upward movement of the circumpolar deep water (CDW), this process freshened and cooled the surface layer, while the salinity and temperature in the sub-surface ocean are increased, extending from 150 meters to >700

  3. Assessing water quality of the Chesapeake Bay by the impact of sea level rise and warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Linker, L.; Wang, H.; Bhatt, G.; Yactayo, G.; Hinson, K.; Tian, R.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of sea level rise and warming on circulation and water quality of the Chesapeake Bay under projected climate conditions in 2050 were estimated by computer simulation. Four estuarine circulation scenarios in the estuary were run using the same watershed load in 1991-2000 period. They are, 1) the Base Scenario, which represents the current climate condition, 2) a Sea Level Rise Scenario, 3) a Warming Scenario, and 4) a combined Sea Level Rise and Warming Scenario. With a 1.6-1.9°C increase in monthly air temperatures in the Warming Scenario, water temperature in the Bay is estimated to increase by 0.8-1°C. Summer average anoxic volume is estimated to increase 1.4 percent compared to the Base Scenario, because of an increase in algal blooms in the spring and summer, promotion of oxygen consumptive processes, and an increase of stratification. However, a 0.5-meter Sea Level Rise Scenario results in a 12 percent reduction of anoxic volume. This is mainly due to increased estuarine circulation that promotes oxygen-rich sea water intrusion in lower layers. The combined Sea Level Rise and Warming Scenario results in a 10.8 percent reduction of anoxic volume. Global warming increases precipitation and consequently increases nutrient loads from the watershed by approximately 5-7 percent. A scenario that used a 10 percent increase in watershed loads and current estuarine circulation patterns yielded a 19 percent increase in summer anoxic volume, while a scenario that used a 10 percent increase in watershed loads and modified estuarine circulation patterns by the aforementioned sea level rise and warming yielded a 6 percent increase in summer anoxic volume. Impacts on phytoplankton, sediments, and water clarity were also analysed.

  4. A SIMPLE APPROACH TO ASSESSING COPPER PITTING CORROSION TENDENCIES AND DEVELOPING CONTROL STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized corrosion of copper plumbing in drinking water distribution systems can lead to pinhole leaks, which are a growing problem for many homeowners. Although water quality is one factor that can be responsible for localized copper corrosion, there is not a good approach to ...

  5. Effects of chitosan inhibitor on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Se-fei; Wen, Ying; Yi, Pan; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chao-fang

    2017-11-01

    The effects of chitosan inhibitor on the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel were studied by electrochemical measurements, immersion tests, and stereology microscopy. The influences of immersion time, temperature, and chitosan concentration on the corrosion inhibition performance of chitosan were investigated. The optimum parameters of water-soluble chitosan on the corrosion inhibition performance of 2205 duplex stainless steel were also determined. The water-soluble chitosan showed excellent corrosion inhibition performance on the 2205 duplex stainless steel. Polarization curves demonstrated that chitosan acted as a mixed-type inhibitor. When the stainless steel specimen was immersed in the 0.2 g/L chitosan solution for 4 h, a dense and uniform adsorption film covered the sample surface and the inhibition efficiency (IE) reached its maximum value. Moreover, temperature was found to strongly influence the corrosion inhibition of chitosan; the inhibition efficiency gradually decreased with increasing temperature. The 2205 duplex stainless steel specimen immersed in 0.4 g/L water-soluble chitosan at 30°C displayed the best corrosion inhibition among the investigated specimens. Moreover, chitosan decreased the corrosion rate of the 2205 duplex stainless steel in an FeCl3 solution.

  6. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  7. Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    Inhibitors which appeared promising in previous tests and additional inhibitors including several proprietary products were evaluated. Evaluation of the inhibitors was based on corrosion protection afforded an aluminum-mild steel-copper-stainless steel assembly in a hot corrosive water. Of the inhibitors tested two were found to be effective and show promise for protecting multimetallic solar heating systems.

  8. Pathways of Atlantic Waters in the Nordic seas: locally eddy-permitting ocean simulation in a global setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wekerle, C.; Wang, Q.; Danilov, S.; Jung, T.; Schourup-Kristensen, V.

    2016-02-01

    Atlantic Water (AW) passes through the Nordic Seas and enters the Arctic Ocean through the shallow Barents Sea and the deep Fram Strait. Since the 1990's, observations indicate a series of anomalously warm pulses of Atlantic Water that entered the Arctic Ocean. In fact, poleward oceanic heat transport may even increase in the future, which might have implications for the heat uptake in the Arctic Ocean as well as for the sea ice cover. The ability of models to faithfully simulate the pathway of the AW and accompanying dynamics is thus of high climate relevance. In this study, we explore the potential of a global multi-resolution sea ice-ocean model with a locally eddy-permitting resolution (around 4.5 km) in the Nordic seas region and Arctic Ocean in improving the representation of Atlantic Water inflow, and more broadly, the dynamics of the circulation in the Northern North Atlantic and Arctic. The simulation covers the time period 1969-2009. We find that locally increased resolution improves the localization and thickness of the Atlantic Water layer in the Nordic seas, compared with a 20 km resolution reference simulation. In particular, the inflow of Atlantic Waters through the Greenland Scotland Ridge and the narrow branches of the Norwegian Atlantic Current can be realistically represented. Lateral spreading due to simulated eddies essentially reduces the bias in the surface temperature. In addition, a qualitatively good agreement of the simulated eddy kinetic energy field with observations can be achieved. This study indicates that a substantial improvement in representing local ocean dynamics can be reached through the local refinement, which requires a rather moderate computational effort. The successful model assessment allows us to further investigate the variability and mechanisms behind Atlantic Water transport into the Arctic Ocean.

  9. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  10. Violent storms within the sea: Dense water formation episodes in the Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salat, J.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi enclosed basin which receives surface water from the Atlantic Ocean. Most of this water is returned into the Ocean with higher density, spreading at more than 1000 m depth (the rest is transported by the atmosphere and the rivers to the Ocean surface). In terms of water budget, the Mediterranean is considered an evaporation basin, but the loss of water is neither the only process that increases the water density nor it is a steady or uniform process. The factors affecting the water density, temperature and salinity, are driven by mass and heat exchanges with the atmosphere. Those exchanges may be by direct contact or mediated by the land. Therefore, changes in water density depend on the water circulation and local weather conditions, both with seasonal and geographical constraints. As the compressibility of water is very low, stratification is expected and horizontal motion is the predominant in the sea interior. Among the few processes that may introduce a vertical component in the water motion are surface heat loss or evaporation that increase the surface water density triggering convective cells. Such processes will be enhanced by surface cooling or by dry continental winds, and counterbalanced by rain, river runoff, solar heating and condensation. Therefore dense water formation are more likely to occur when sea surface temperature is higher than the surface air temperature. There are several scales of convective motions in the ocean, starting from the formation of the surface mixed layer during summer, by night cooling, breezes, and occasional wind storms. During autumn and winter, the vertical scale of the mixing is increasing by steps, through wind storms and progressive cooling, to easily reach the bottom over the continental shelves, typically not deeper than 150 m. However, as the Gibraltar sill is relatively shallow (~350 m) in relation to the average Mediterranean basin (2000-3000 m), the stratification of the deeper layers

  11. Distinct Interleaving of South China Sea Water and North Pacific Water During Impingements of Mesoscale Eddies on the Kuroshio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Jan, S.

    2017-12-01

    In order to examine the water masses exchanges in and around the Kuroshio, hundreds of high-resolution hydrographic profiles (temperature, salinity and density) from the sea surface down to 1000 m depth acquired by a Seaglider across the Kuroshio off the southeast coast of Taiwan were analyzed. Hydrographic samplings at three different sections of a triangle glider track were conducted during 8 December 2016 and 6 March 2017 and each section was sampled repeatedly two times. Results from the observations reveal vigorous layered intrusions of the South China Sea Water coming from the northern South China Sea through the Luzon Strait to the North Pacific Water transported by the Kuroshio, resulting in the interleaving of the two water masses. The Diapycnal Spiciness Curvature (DSC) was used to characterize the magnitude of interleaving. The results indicate that significant interleaving mostly occurred in the intermediate layer between 400 m and 800 m, and the vertical and horizontal length scales were on the order of 10 m and 10 km, respectively. The Turner angle, which is a useful parameter for evaluating salt fingering and double diffusive processes, suggests that double diffusive is a dominant process in the interleaving regions. The associate estimation of eddy diffusivity for density is relatively high with a magnitude of O(10-3 m2 s-1) at depths between 600 m and 1000 m.

  12. Corrosion protection with eco-friendly inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Corrosion occurs as a result of the interaction of a metal with its environment. The extent of corrosion depends on the type of metal, the existing conditions in the environment and the type of aggressive ions present in the medium. For example, CO3-2 and NO-3 produce an insoluble deposit on the surface of iron, resulting in the isolation of metal and consequent decrease of corrosion. On the other hand, halide ions are adsorbed selectively on the metal surface and prevent formation of the oxide phase on the metal surface, resulting in continuous corrosion. Iron, aluminum and their alloys are widely used, both domestically and industrially. Linear alkylbenzene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate are commonly used as detergents. They have also been found together in waste water. It is claimed that these chemicals act as inhibitors for stainless steel and aluminum. Release of toxic gases as a result of corrosion in pipelines may lead in certain cases to air pollution and possible health hazards. Therefore, there are two ways to look at the relationship between corrosion and pollution: (i) corrosion of metals and alloys due to environmental pollution and (ii) environmental pollution as a result of corrosion protection. This paper encompasses the two scenarios and possible remedies for various cases, using 'green' inhibitors obtained either from plant extracts or from pharmaceutical compounds. In the present study, the effect of piperacillin sodium as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel was investigated using a weight-loss method as well as a three-electrode dc electrochemical technique. It was found that the corrosion rate decreased as the concentration of the inhibitor increased up to 9×10-4 M 93% efficiency was exhibited at this concentration.

  13. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the water column of the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Bittoni, Lucilla; Russo, Aniello; Gambaro, Andrea; Lepri, Luciano

    2008-09-01

    In the framework of the Italian Research Programme in Antarctica (PNRA) an oceanographic cruise was carried out between December 2000 and February 2001 in the Western Ross Sea. n-Alkanes and PAHs concentrations were analysed in sea-water samples collected at different depths at four sites (D, B, CA2, and CA). Vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, salinity and fluorescence were also performed in order to distinguish the water masses present in the sampling areas. n-Alkanes concentrations were consistent with those found in the same area during previous expeditions and showed higher values in the particulate due to the low temperatures. n-Alkanes profiles exhibited different features in the dissolved and particulate phases. The dissolved phase was characterised by a bimodal distribution with two maxima at C16 and C24 and prevalent compounds in the range C15-C32 whereas particulate was strongly dominated by long chain n-alkanes C23-C34 with C24 (Site B, CA and CA2) or C32 (Site B) as Cmax. CPI values and Pr/Ph ratios suggested a prevalent biogenic origin for aliphatic hydrocarbons. n-Alkanes vertical distributions were affected by the dynamic of the pack-ice melting and phytoplankton activity as well by the chemical-physical properties of water masses. Higher n-alkanes values were found in the High Salinity Shelf Waters (HSSW), lower n-alkanes values were found in the Antarctic Surface Waters (AASW) and Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW). The low PAHs concentration levels confirmed the still pristine character of the Antarctic environment. Neither particular trend in total PAHs concentrations along the water column and nor correlations with the most characteristic water masses of the investigated area of the Ross Sea were observed, except that total PAH higher concentrations were generally observed in correspondence of HSSW.

  14. Deep-water zooplankton in the Mediterranean Sea: Results from a continuous, synchronous sampling over different regions using sediment traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danovaro, R.; Carugati, L.; Boldrin, A.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Fabres, J.; Finlay, K.; Heussner, S.; Miserocchi, S.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.

    2017-08-01

    Information on the dynamics of deep-sea biota is extremely scant particularly for long-term time series on deep-sea zooplankton. Here, we present the results of a deep-sea zooplankton investigation over one annual cycle based on samples from sediment trap moorings in three sub-basins along the Mediterranean Sea. Deep-sea zooplankton assemblages were dominated by copepods, as in shallow waters, only in the Adriatic Sea (>60% of total abundance), but not in the deep Ionian Sea, where ostracods represented >80%, neither in the deep Alboran Sea, where polychaetes were >70%. We found that deep-sea zooplankton assemblages: i) are subjected to changes in their abundance and structure over time, ii) are characterized by different dominant taxa in different basins, and iii) display clear taxonomic segregation between shallow and near-bottom waters. Zooplankton biodiversity decreases with increasing water depth, but the equitability increases. We suggest here that variations of zooplankton abundance and assemblage structure are likely influenced by the trophic condition characterizing the basins. Our findings provide new insights on this largely unknown component of the deep ocean, and suggest that changes in the export of organic matter from the photic zone, such as those expected as a consequence of global change, can significantly influence zooplankton assemblages in the largest biome on Earth.

  15. Thermal control system corrosion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert; Folsom, Rolfe A.; Mucha, Phillip E.

    1990-01-01

    During the development of an expert system for autonomous control of the Space Station Thermal Control System (TCS), the thermal performance of the Brassboard TCS began to gradually degrade. This degradation was due to filter clogging by metallic residue. A study was initiated to determine the source of the residue and the basic cause of the corrosion. The investigation focused on the TCS design, materials compatibility, Ames operating and maintenance procedures, and chemical analysis of the residue and of the anhydrous ammonia used as the principal refrigerant. It was concluded that the corrosion mechanisms involved two processes: the reaction of water alone with large, untreated aluminum parts in a high pH environment and the presence of chlorides and chloride salts. These salts will attack the aluminum oxide layer and may enable galvanic corrosion between the aluminum and the more noble stainless steel and other metallic elements present. Recommendations are made for modifications to the system design, the materials used, and the operating and maintenance procedures, which should largely prevent the recurrence of these corrosion mechanisms.

  16. Seacoast stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of high strength, wrought aluminum alloys in a seacoast atmosphere was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in laboratory tests. Round tensile specimens taken from the short transverse grain direction of aluminum plate and stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths were exposed to the seacoast and to alternate immersion in salt water and synthetic seawater. Maximum exposure periods of one year at the seacoast, 0.3 or 0.7 of a month for alternate immersion in salt water, and three months for synthetic seawater were indicated for aluminum alloys to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking failure resulting from pitting. Correlation of the results was very good among the three test media using the selected exposure periods. It is concluded that either of the laboratory test media is suitable for evaluating the stress corrosion cracking performance of aluminum alloys in seacoast atmosphere.

  17. Water mass dynamics shape Ross Sea protist communities in mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccarato, Luca; Pallavicini, Alberto; Cerino, Federica; Fonda Umani, Serena; Celussi, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Deep-sea environments host the largest pool of microbes and represent the last largely unexplored and poorly known ecosystems on Earth. The Ross Sea is characterized by unique oceanographic dynamics and harbors several water masses deeply involved in cooling and ventilation of deep oceans. In this study the V9 region of the 18S rDNA was targeted and sequenced with the Ion Torrent high-throughput sequencing technology to unveil differences in protist communities (>2 μm) correlated with biogeochemical properties of the water masses. The analyzed samples were significantly different in terms of environmental parameters and community composition outlining significant structuring effects of temperature and salinity. Overall, Alveolata (especially Dinophyta), Stramenopiles and Excavata groups dominated mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers, and protist communities were shaped according to the biogeochemistry of the water masses (advection effect and mixing events). Newly-formed High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) was characterized by high relative abundance of phototrophic organisms that bloom at the surface during the austral summer. Oxygen-depleted Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) showed higher abundance of Excavata, common bacterivores in deep water masses. At the shelf-break, Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), formed by the entrainment of shelf waters in CDW, maintained the eukaryotic genetic signature typical of both parental water masses.

  18. Possible criticality of marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Warden, J.M.; Mount, M.; Lynn, N.M.

    1997-05-01

    The largest inventory of radioactive materials dumped in the Kara Sea by the former Soviet Union comes from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of seven marine reactors. Using corrosion models derived for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP), the possibility of some of the SNF achieving criticality through structural and material changes has been investigated. Although remote, the possibility cannot at this stage be ruled out.

  19. Solving A Corrosion Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.

  20. Vernal distribution and turnover of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the surface water of the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xuan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Wang, Bao-Dong; Xu, Zong-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The spatial and interannual variations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and its precursors, dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), were discussed on the basis of field observations in the surface waters of the Yellow Sea during spring 2007. Maxima of dimethylated sulfur compounds and low chlorophyll a concentrations were found in the central southern Yellow Sea, whereas low concentrations of DMS and DMSP were detected at the boundary between the northern and southern parts of the Yellow Sea. This frontal region is infl