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Sample records for seamless electro-mechanical vehicle

  1. Micro electro-mechanical heater

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Asif, Syed Amanulla Syed; Cyrankowski, Edward; Warren, Oden Lee

    2016-04-19

    A sub-micron scale property testing apparatus including a test subject holder and heating assembly. The assembly includes a holder base configured to couple with a sub-micron mechanical testing instrument and electro-mechanical transducer assembly. The assembly further includes a test subject stage coupled with the holder base. The test subject stage is thermally isolated from the holder base. The test subject stage includes a stage subject surface configured to receive a test subject, and a stage plate bracing the stage subject surface. The stage plate is under the stage subject surface. The test subject stage further includes a heating element adjacent to the stage subject surface, the heating element is configured to generate heat at the stage subject surface.

  2. A New Chaotic Electro-Mechanical Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Famoso, Carlo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia

    In this paper, a new electro-mechanical chaotic oscillator is presented. The system is based on the motion of the metal tip of a beam in a double-well potential generated by two magnets, and works thanks to the vibrations generated in the flexible mechanical structure by two rotating coils that produce noise-like signals. As the source of vibration is internal, the system may be considered an autonomous oscillator. Chaotic motion is experimentally observed and verified with a mathematical model of the phenomenon.

  3. Micro electro mechanical system optical switching

    DOEpatents

    Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

    2013-12-17

    The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

  4. 40 HP Electro-Mechanical Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulmer, Chris

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed on the 40 BP electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) system developed on NASA contract NAS3-25799 for the NASA National Launch System and Electrical Actuation (ELA) Technology Bridging Programs. The system was designed to demonstrate the capability of large, high power linear ELA's for applications such as Thrust Vector Control (TVC) on rocket engines. It consists of a motor controller, high frequency power source, drive electronics and a linear actuator. The power source is a 25kVA 20 kHz Mapham inverter. The drive electronics are based on the pulse population modulation concept and operate at a nominal frequency of 40 kHz. The induction motor is a specially designed high speed, low inertia motor capable of a 68 peak HP. The actuator was originally designed by MOOG Aerospace under an internal R & D program to meet Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) TVC requirements. The design was modified to meet this programs linear rate specification of 7.4 inches/second. The motor and driver were tested on a dynamometer at the Martin Marietta Space Systems facility. System frequency response and step response tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center facility. A complete description of the system and all test results can be found in the body of the report.

  5. A methodology for identification and control of electro-mechanical actuators

    PubMed Central

    Tutunji, Tarek A.; Saleem, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Mechatronic systems are fully-integrated engineering systems that are composed of mechanical, electronic, and computer control sub-systems. These integrated systems use electro-mechanical actuators to cause the required motion. Therefore, the design of appropriate controllers for these actuators are an essential step in mechatronic system design. In this paper, a three-stage methodology for real-time identification and control of electro-mechanical actuator plants is presented, tested, and validated. First, identification models are constructed from experimental data to approximate the plants’ response. Second, the identified model is used in a simulation environment for the purpose of designing a suitable controller. Finally, the designed controller is applied and tested on the real plant through Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) environment. The described three-stage methodology provides the following practical contributions: • Establishes an easy-to-follow methodology for controller design of electro-mechanical actuators. • Combines off-line and on-line controller design for practical performance. • Modifies the HIL concept by using physical plants with computer control (rather than virtual plants with physical controllers). Simulated and experimental results for two case studies, induction motor and vehicle drive system, are presented in order to validate the proposed methodology. These results showed that electromechanical actuators can be identified and controlled using an easy-to-duplicate and flexible procedure. PMID:26150992

  6. Analysis method and principle of dual-mode electro-mechanical variable transmission program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongcai; Yan, Qingdong; Xiang, Changle; Wang, Weida

    2012-05-01

    Automotive industry, as an important pillar of the national economy, has been rapidly developing in recent years. But proplems such as energy comsumption and environmental pollution are posed at the same time. Electro-mechanical variable transmission system is considered one of avilable workarounds. It is brought forward a kind of design methods of dual-mode electro-mechanical variable transmission system rotational speed characteristics and dual-mode drive diagrams. With the motor operating behavior of running in four quadrants and the speed characteristics of the simple internal and external meshing single planetary gear train, four kinds of dual-mode electro-mechanical transmission system scheme are designed. And the velocity, torque and power characteristics of one of the programs are analyzed. The magnitude of the electric split-flow power is an important factor which influences the system performance, so in the parameters matching design, it needs to reduce the power needs under the first mode of the motor. The motor, output rotational speed range and the position of the mode switching point have relationships with the characteristics design of the planetary gear set. The analysis method is to provide a reference for hybrid vehicles' design. As the involved rotational speed and torque relationships are the natural contact of every part of transmission system, a theory basis of system program and performance analysis is provided.

  7. A methodology for identification and control of electro-mechanical actuators.

    PubMed

    Tutunji, Tarek A; Saleem, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Mechatronic systems are fully-integrated engineering systems that are composed of mechanical, electronic, and computer control sub-systems. These integrated systems use electro-mechanical actuators to cause the required motion. Therefore, the design of appropriate controllers for these actuators are an essential step in mechatronic system design. In this paper, a three-stage methodology for real-time identification and control of electro-mechanical actuator plants is presented, tested, and validated. First, identification models are constructed from experimental data to approximate the plants' response. Second, the identified model is used in a simulation environment for the purpose of designing a suitable controller. Finally, the designed controller is applied and tested on the real plant through Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) environment. The described three-stage methodology provides the following practical contributions: •Establishes an easy-to-follow methodology for controller design of electro-mechanical actuators.•Combines off-line and on-line controller design for practical performance.•Modifies the HIL concept by using physical plants with computer control (rather than virtual plants with physical controllers). Simulated and experimental results for two case studies, induction motor and vehicle drive system, are presented in order to validate the proposed methodology. These results showed that electromechanical actuators can be identified and controlled using an easy-to-duplicate and flexible procedure.

  8. Integrated micro-electro-mechanical sensor development for inertial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Kinney, R.D.; Sarsfield, J.

    1998-04-01

    Electronic sensing circuitry and micro electro mechanical sense elements can be integrated to produce inertial instruments for applications unheard of a few years ago. This paper will describe the Sandia M3EMS fabrication process, inertial instruments that have been fabricated, and the results of initial characterization tests of micro-machined accelerometers.

  9. Artificial Cochlea Design Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in the design of an artificial cochlea is investigated in depth. Interdigitated finger (comb), cantilever... INTERDIGITATED FINGER (COMB) RESONATOR DESIGN .............................................. 3-9 3.2.1 Calculating Comb Resonance...frequency. 1.4.1.4 MEMS Description Cantilever, bridge, interdigitated finger (comb), and mirror type resonators are considered for the MEMS devices

  10. Electro-Mechanical Actuation of Carbon Nanotube Yarns, Sheets, Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail; Zhang, Mei; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray

    2011-03-01

    We report preparation of highly conductive carbon nanotube yarns and sheets. The materials aim at such applications as electronic textiles, electro-mechanical actuators, and conductive coatings. The electro-mechanical response of the specimens was measured using custom made force transducer operating in an isometric mode. The measurements were carried out at room temperature in aqueous and organic electrolytes; square-wave potential of variable amplitude was applied with a potentiostat. It was found that the maximum isometric stress generated by nanotube actuators could be as large as 12 MPa. This approaches the stress generation capability of commercial ferroelectrics and is significantly larger than that of natural muscles. A variety of applications of the materials is discussed.

  11. Portable electro-mechanically cooled high-resolution germanium detector

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, K.W.; Ruhter, W.D.

    1995-05-01

    We have integrated a small, highly-reliable, electro-mechanical cryo-cooler with a high-resolution germanium detector for portable/field applications. The system weighs 6.8 kg and requires 40 watts of power to operate once the detector is cooled to its operating temperature. the detector is a 500 mm{sup 2} by 20-mm thick low-energy configuration that gives a full-width at half maximum (FWHM) energy resolution of 523 eV at 122 keV, when cooled with liquid nitrogen. The energy resolution of the detector, when cooled with the electro-mechanical cooler, is 570 eV at 122 keV. We have field tested this system in measurements of plutonium and uranium for isotopic and enrichment information using the MGA and MGAU analysis programs without any noticeable effects on the results.

  12. A new electro-mechanical bioreactor for soft tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mantero, S; Sadr, N; Riboldi, S A; Lorenzoni, S; Montevecchi, F M

    2007-01-01

    By enabling the maintenance of controlled chemical and physical environmental conditions, bioreactors proved that electro-mechanical stimulation improves tissue development in vitro, especially in the case of tissues which are subjected to stimuli during embryogenesis and growth (i.e. skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue). However, most of the bioreactors developed in the last 20 yrs, designed to suit specific applications, lack versatility. With the aim to provide researchers with a yielding, versatile tool, we designed and realized in this study an electro-mechanical stimulator capable of dynamically culturing four biological constructs, delivering assignable stretching and electrical stimulation patterns. The device has been conceived to be easy to handle and customizable for different applications, while ensuring sterility along with stimuli delivery. The gripping equipment, modular and adaptable to scaffolds of different consistencies, is provided with dedicated tools for supporting sample insertion into the culture chamber performed under a laminar flow hood. As to performance, a wide range of electro-mechanical stimulation patterns and their relative occurrence can be accomplished, permitting the adjustment of the dynamic culture parameters both to the specific cell species and to the developmental phase of the cultured cells.

  13. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guangyuan; Liu, Weishu

    2015-12-01

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average.

  14. Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Pressure Sensor for Footwear

    DOEpatents

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Wheeler, Jason W.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Givler, Richard C.

    2008-09-23

    Footwear comprises a sole and a plurality of sealed cavities contained within the sole. The sealed cavities can be incorporated as deformable containers within an elastic medium, comprising the sole. A plurality of micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensors are respectively contained within the sealed cavity plurality, and can be adapted to measure static and dynamic pressure within each of the sealed cavities. The pressure measurements can provide information relating to the contact pressure distribution between the sole of the footwear and the wearer's environment.

  15. Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Lee, Chengkuo

    2014-05-19

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300 nm, the spectral shift of 0.7 μm in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1 μm. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

  16. Electro-Mechanical Systems for Extreme Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tyler, Tony R.; Abel, Phillip B.; Levanas, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond low earth orbit presents challenges for hardware that must operate in extreme environments. The current state of the art is to isolate and provide heating for sensitive hardware in order to survive. However, this protection results in penalties of weight and power for the spacecraft. This is particularly true for electro-mechanical based technology such as electronics, actuators and sensors. Especially when considering distributed electronics, many electro-mechanical systems need to be located in appendage type locations, making it much harder to protect from the extreme environments. The purpose of this paper to describe the advances made in the area of developing electro-mechanical technology to survive these environments with minimal protection. The Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), the Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Aeroflex, Inc. over the last few years have worked to develop and test electro-mechanical hardware that will meet the stringent environmental demands of the moon, and which can also be leveraged for other challenging space exploration missions. Prototype actuators and electronics have been built and tested. Brushless DC actuators designed by Aeroflex, Inc have been tested with interface temperatures as low as 14 degrees Kelvin. Testing of the Aeroflex design has shown that a brushless DC motor with a single stage planetary gearbox can operate in low temperature environments for at least 120 million cycles (measured at motor) if long life is considered as part of the design. A motor control distributed electronics concept developed by JPL was built and operated at temperatures as low as -160 C, with many components still operational down to -245 C. Testing identified the components not capable of meeting the low temperature goal of -230 C. This distributed controller is universal in design with the ability to control different types of motors and read many different types of sensors. The controller

  17. Electro-Mechanical Actuator. DC Resonant Link Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed on the 68 HP electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) system developed on NASA contract for the Electrical Actuation (ELA) Technology Bridging Program. The system was designed to demonstrate the capability of large, high power linear ELAs for applications such as Thrust Vector Control (TVC) on rocket engines. It consists of a motor controller, drive electronics and a linear actuator capable of up to 32,00 lbs loading at 7.4 inches/second. The drive electronics are based on the Resonant DC link concept and operate at a nominal frequency of 55 kHz. The induction motor is a specially designed high speed, low inertia motor capable of a 68 peak HP. The actuator was originally designed by MOOG Aerospace under an internal R & D program to meet Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) TVC requirements. The design was modified to meet this programs linear rate specification of 7.4 inches/second. The motor and driver were tested on a dynamometer at the Martin Marietta Space Systems facility. System frequency response, step response and force-velocity tests were conducted at the MOOG Aerospace facility. A complete description of the system and all test results can be found in the body of the report.

  18. Carbon-based nano-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, A. B.; Khan, A. R.; Megerian, K. G.; Epp, L.; LeDuc, H. G.; Bagge, L.; Jennings, A. T.; Jang, D.; Greer, J. R.

    2010-04-01

    We provide an overview of our work where carbon-based nanostructures have been applied to twodimensional (2D) planar and three-dimensional (3D) vertically-oriented nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) switches. In the first configuration, laterally oriented single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were implemented for forming bridge-type 2D NEMS switches, where switching voltages were on the order of a few volts. In the second configuration, vertically oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) synthesized using plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD have been explored for their potential application in 3D NEMS. We have performed nanomechanical measurements on such vertically oriented tubes using nanoindentation to determine the mechanical properties of the CNFs. Electrostatic switching was demonstrated in the CNFs synthesized on refractory metallic nitride substrates, where a nanoprobe was used as the actuating electrode inside a scanning-electron-microscope. The switching voltages were determined to be in the tens of volts range and van der Waals interactions at these length scales appeared significant, suggesting such structures are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. A finite element model was also developed to determine a theoretical pull-in voltage which was compared to experimental results.

  19. Carbon-Based Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, A. B.; Khan, A. R.; Megerian, K. G.; Epp, L.; LeDuc, G.; Bagge, L.; Jennings, A. T.; Jang, D.; Greer, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We provide an overview of our work where carbon-based nanostructures have been applied to two-dimensional (2D) planar and three-dimensional (3D) vertically-oriented nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) switches. In the first configuration, laterally oriented single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were implemented for forming bridge-type 2D NEMS switches, where switching voltages were on the order of a few volts. In the second configuration, vertically oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) synthesized using plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD have been explored for their potential application in 3D NEMS. We have performed nanomechanical measurements on such vertically oriented tubes using nanoindentation to determine the mechanical properties of the CNFs. Electrostatic switching was demonstrated in the CNFs synthesized on refractory metallic nitride substrates, where a nanoprobe was used as the actuating electrode inside a scanning-electron-microscope. The switching voltages were determined to be in the tens of volts range and van der Waals interactions at these length scales appeared significant, suggesting such structures are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. A finite element model was also developed to determine a theoretical pull-in voltage which was compared to experimental results.

  20. Packaging and characterization of micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saupe, Ray; Otto, Thomas; Stock, Volker; Fritzsch, Uwe; Gessner, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    Modern optical analytics require more and more compact and cost-effective modules for analysis of surfaces, solids, thin films, powders, pastes, gels, liquids and alike. Thereby a fast and non-invasive measurement is often necessary. Microsystem technology, more precisely Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical System (MOEMS) technology is suitable for the realization of such modules. Different miniaturized optical analyzers employing MOEMS have been developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration (IZM) in collaboration with the Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM) and the company COLOUR CONTROL Farbmesstechnik GmbH. These devices are based on the principle of spectral sensing in the infrared range. Due to the requirement of compact dimensions and short optical paths a high packaging accuracy is necessary. In the development process different setups with a continuous packaging improvement have been realized. The first packaging principle was based on particularly assembled laser-cut stainless steel sheets and optical standard components. The design requires exact positioning of the functional elements to attain a sufficient optical resolution. The reduction of the active components by means of monolithic combinations was one improvement. Further progress could be achieved by a package made of aluminum cast, whose models were provided using modern methods of rapid prototyping. Consequently adjustment tolerances will be minimized and the vibration stability will be increased. During the development process, simulations and characterization of the system are essential to obtain necessary improvements. Thereby an evaluation of the packaging accuracy regarding its influence on the defocus was made. According to precision and reproducibility, the optical and electrical performance are being tested.

  1. Using Neural Networks in Decision Making for a Reconfigurable Electro Mechanical Actuator (EMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latino, Carl D.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to demonstrate applicability and advantages of a neural network approach for evaluating the performance of an electro-mechanical actuator (EMA). The EMA in question was intended for the X-37 Advanced Technology Vehicle. It will have redundant components for safety and reliability. The neural networks for this application are to monitor the operation of the redundant electronics that control the actuator in real time and decide on the operating configuration. The system we proposed consists of the actuator, sensors, control circuitry and dedicated (embedded) processors. The main purpose of the study was to develop suitable hardware and neural network capable of allowing real time reconfiguration decisions to be made. This approach was to be compared to other methods such as fuzzy logic and knowledge based systems considered for the same application. Over the course of the project a more general objective was the identification of the other neural network applications and the education of interested NASA personnel on the topic of Neural Networks.

  2. Graphene NanoElectroMechanical Resonators and Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changyao

    Made of only one sheet of carbon atoms, graphene is the thinnest yet strongest material ever exist. Since its discovery in 2004, graphene has attracted tremendous research effort worldwide. Guaranteed by the superior electrical and excellent mechanical properties, graphene is the ideal building block for NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS). In the first parts of the thesis, I will discuss the fabrications and measurements of typical graphene NEMS resonators, including doubly clamped and fully clamped graphene mechanical resonators. I have developed a electrical readout technique by using graphene as frequency mixer, demonstrated resonant frequencies in range from 30 to 200 MHz. Furthermore, I developed the advanced fabrications to achieve local gate structure, which led to the real-time resonant frequency detection under resonant channel transistor (RCT) scheme. Such real-time detection improve the measurement speed by 2 orders of magnitude compared to frequency mixing technique, and is critical for practical applications. Finally, I employed active balanced bridge technique in order to reduce overall electrical parasitics, and demonstrated pure capacitive transduction of graphene NEMS resonators. Characterizations of graphene NEMS resonators properties are followed, including resonant frequency and quality factor (Q) tuning with tension, mass and temperatures. A simple continuum mechanics model was constructed to understand the frequency tuning behavior, and it agrees with experimental data extremely well. In the following parts of the thesis, I will discuss the behavior of graphene mechanical resonators in applied magnetic field, i.e. in Quantum Hall (QH) regime. The couplings between mechanical motion and electronic band structure turned out to be a direct probe for thermodynamic quantities, i.e., chemical potential and compressibility. For a clean graphene resonators, with quality factors of 1 x 104, it underwent resonant frequency oscillations as applied

  3. Electro-mechanical efficiency of plasma synthetic jet actuator driven by capacitive discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Haohua; Kotsonis, Marios

    2016-11-01

    A simplified model is established to estimate the jet exit density variation of a plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) driven by a capacitive arc discharge. This model, in conjunction with phase-locked planar particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements, enables the calculation of jet mechanical energy for different operating conditions. Discharge energy is directly calculated based on waveforms of applied voltage and discharge current. The ratio of jet mechanical energy to discharge energy provides the absolute electro-mechanical efficiency. Results indicate that PSJA is characterized by a rather low electro-mechanical efficiency in the order of 0.1%, while the maximum observed value under tested conditions is 0.22%. Electro-mechanical efficiency improves significantly with nondimensional energy deposition, and appears largely independent of jet exit diameter.

  4. Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMA's) for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, Didier; De Coster, Francois

    2013-09-01

    The scope of this paper is to present two concepts for electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for space applications:• The first concept implements external anti-rotation devices, as well as a blocking device in order to meet the specific Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) constraints.• The second concept is a new anti-rotation device based on DIN 32712-B P4C profile.

  5. Thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling of piezoelectric FG-CNTRC beams with geometric imperfections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Helong; Kitipornchai, Sritawat; Yang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling analysis of geometrically imperfect functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) hybrid beams that are integrated with surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators. The material properties of FG-CNTRCs are assumed to be temperature-dependent and graded in the thickness direction. By using a generic imperfection function, various possible imperfections with different shapes and locations in the beam are considered. The theoretical formulations are based on the first-order shear deformation beam theory with von-Kármán nonlinearity. A differential quadrature approximation based iteration process is employed to obtain the postbuckling equilibrium path of piezoelectric FG-CNTRC hybrid beams under thermo-electro-mechanical loading. Parametric studies are conducted to examine the effect of geometric imperfection, distribution pattern and volume fraction of carbon nanotubes, temperature rise, actuator voltage, beam geometry and boundary conditions on the thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling behaviour. The results show that the thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling is considerably affected by the imperfection mode, half-wave number, location and amplitude, as well as the temperature rise and boundary conditions. The effect of applied actuator voltage is much less pronounced but tends to be relatively more noticeable as the slenderness ratio increases.

  6. Modelling of shear lag effect for piezo-elstodynamic structure for electro-mechanical imedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharana, Sumedha; Bhalla, Suresh

    2015-03-01

    The impedance based structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have utilized the electro-mechanical coupling property of piezoelectric materials (piezo-impedance transducers), due to their self-sensing nature (ability to act both as actuators and sensors), and its diminutive in shape and size, cost effectiveness and ease of installation. The adhesive bond acts as an elastic medium which facilitates the transfer of stresses and strains developed due to piezo displacement and also couples the impedance of PZT patch with that of the host structure. The sensitivity of the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique can be enhanced by understanding shear mechanism phenomena of the adhesive layer. This paper reviews the existing shear lag models and discuss the recent advances in impedance based coupled piezo-structural model duly considering the shear lag effect with all responsible piezo-mechanical parameters.

  7. Electro-mechanical properties of hydrogel composites with micro- and nano-cellulose fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, Mohamed Shahid U.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Lakshmana Rao, C.

    2015-09-01

    Stimuli responsive cross-linked hydrogels are of great interest for applications in diverse fields such as sensors and biomaterials. In this study, we investigate polymer composites filled with cellulose fillers. The celluloses used in making the composites were a microcrystalline cellulose of commercial grade and cellulose nano-whiskers obtained through acid hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. The filler concentration was varied and corresponding physical, mechanical and electro-mechanical characterization was carried out. The electro-mechanical properties were determined using a quasi-static method. The fillers not only enhance the mechanical properties of the composite by providing better reinforcement but also provide a quantitative electric potential in the composite. The measurements reveal that the polymer composites prepared from two different cellulose fillers possess a quantitative electric potential which can be utilized in biomedical applications. It is argued that the mechanism behind the quantitative electric potential in the composites is due to streaming potentials arising due to electrical double layer formation.

  8. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Micro-Switches for Use in DC, RF, and Optical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kenichiro

    2002-06-01

    Micromachined micro-switches have stimulated the development of the core infrastructure technology for the next generation communication systems because of their superior performance. They are fabricated by similar silicon micromachined processes, but the switch structure and its characteristics depend on each application. Micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology has been applied to micro relays, RF switches, and optical switches; as a result, optical and mechanical performance has been improved.

  9. Nanomechanical and Electro-mechanical Characterization of Materials for Flexible Electrodes Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng

    Flexible electronics attract research and commercial interests in last 2 decades for its flexibility, low cost, light weight and etc. To develop and improve the electro-mechanical properties of flexible electrodes is the most critical and important step. In this work, we have performed nanomechanical and electromechanical characterization of materials for flexible electrode applications, including metallic nanowires (NWs), indium tin oxide (ITO)-based and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electrodes. First, we designed and developed four different testing platforms for nanomechanical and electro-mechanical characterization purpose. For the nano/sub-micro size samples, the micro mechanical devices can be used for uniaxial and bi-axial loading tests. For the macro size samples, the micro tester will be used for in situ monotonic tensile test, while the fatigue tester can be used for in situ cyclic tensile or bending testing purpose. Secondly, we have investigated mechanical behaviors of single crystalline Ni nanowires and single crystalline Cu nanowires under uni-axial tensile loading inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber. We demonstrated both size and strain-rate dependence on yield stress of single-crystalline Ni NWs with varying diameters (from 100 nm to 300 nm), and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation helped to confirm and understand the experimental phenomena. Also, two different fracture modes, namely ductile and brittle-like fractures, were found in the same batch of Cu nanowire samples. Finally, we studied the electro-mechanical behaviors of flexible electrodes in macro scale. We reported a coherent study integrating in situ electro-mechanical experiments and mechanics modeling to decipher the failure mechanics of ITO-based and CNTbased electrodes under tension. It is believed that our combined experimental and simulation results provide some further insights into the important yet complicated deformation mechanisms for nanoscale metals and

  10. 41. View of electro/mechanical fiber optic system panel in transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. View of electro/mechanical fiber optic system panel in transmitter building no. 102. Images projected to screen (panel at upper left) are projected to back side of screen located in MWOC to display changing information. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  11. Simultaneous MEMS-based electro-mechanical phenotyping of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Chen, Wenjin; Chekmareva, Marina A.; Foran, David J.; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinomas are the most commonly diagnosed cancers originating in the skin, lungs, breasts, pancreas, and other organs and glands. In most of the cases, the microenvironment within the tissue changes with the progression of disease. A key challenge is to develop a device capable of providing quantitative indicators in diagnosing cancer by measuring alteration in electrical and mechanical property of the tissues from the onset of malignancy. We demonstrate micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) based flexible polymer microsensor array capable of simultaneously measuring electro-mechanical properties of the breast tissues cores (1mm in diameter and 10μm in thickness) from onset through progression of the cancer. The electrical and mechanical signatures obtained from the tissue cores shows the capability of the device to clearly demarcate the specific stages of cancer in epithelial and stromal regions providing quantitative indicators facilitating the diagnosis of breast cancer. The present study shows that electro-mechanical properties of the breast tissue core at the micro-level are different than those at the macro-level. PMID:26224116

  12. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  13. The Korean research & development program on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) in medical applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Song; Kim, Sung June; Chung, Bong Hyun; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Seon Hee

    2007-01-01

    Non or minimally invasive approaches for medical applications are very important for the alleviation of patient complaints. The miniaturization of medical devices using micro & nano technologies might be one of the possible solutions. Several national research and development (R&D) programs have been launched by the Korean government to further the development of biological & medical micro/nano devices in this country. This paper gives an overview of the current status of national R&D programs which are related to the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)/Nano technology in biological and medical applications and discusses the main activities of each program.

  14. Micro-electro-mechanical systems projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, J.A.

    1995-08-04

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) MicroTechnology Center has developed a wide variety of special capabilities used to design, build, and test MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems). Our customers are both the LLNL Programs and a variety of external customers. Typical applications include: custom microstructures for scientific experiments; physical sensors; photonics; miniature tools for catheter-based surgery; and microinstruments for chemical analysis for biomedicine, environments and treaty verification. The majority of our prototype MEMS devices are fabricated with bulk silicon micromachining, but we also utilize surface micromachining capabilities.

  15. A process for the agile product realization of electro-mechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed and demonstrated at Sandia by the A-PRIMED (Agile Product Realization for Innovative Electro MEchanical Devices) project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` into a complete, design-to-production process. Evidence indicates that the process has reduced the product realization cycle and assured product quality. Products included discriminators for a robotic quick change adapter and for an electronic defense system. These discriminators, built using A-PRIMED, met random vibration requirements and had life cycles that far surpass the performance obtained from earlier efforts.

  16. A Diagnostic Approach for Electro-Mechanical Actuators in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, Edward; Saxena, Abhinav; Bansal, Prasun; Goebel, Kai Frank; Stoelting, Paul; Curran, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Electro-mechanical actuators (EMA) are finding increasing use in aerospace applications, especially with the trend towards all all-electric aircraft and spacecraft designs. However, electro-mechanical actuators still lack the knowledge base accumulated for other fielded actuator types, particularly with regard to fault detection and characterization. This paper presents a thorough analysis of some of the critical failure modes documented for EMAs and describes experiments conducted on detecting and isolating a subset of them. The list of failures has been prepared through an extensive Failure Modes and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) reference, literature review, and accessible industry experience. Methods for data acquisition and validation of algorithms on EMA test stands are described. A variety of condition indicators were developed that enabled detection, identification, and isolation among the various fault modes. A diagnostic algorithm based on an artificial neural network is shown to operate successfully using these condition indicators and furthermore, robustness of these diagnostic routines to sensor faults is demonstrated by showing their ability to distinguish between them and component failures. The paper concludes with a roadmap leading from this effort towards developing successful prognostic algorithms for electromechanical actuators.

  17. Nano-electro-mechanical pump: Giant pumping of water in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2016-05-01

    A fully controllable nano-electro-mechanical device that can pump fluids at nanoscale is proposed. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an applied electric field to an ion@C60 inside a water-filled carbon nanotube can pump water with excellent efficiency. The key physical mechanism governing the fluid pumping is the conversion of electrical energy into hydrodynamic flow with efficiencies as high as 64%. Our results show that water can be compressed up to 7% higher than its bulk value by applying electric fields. High flux of water (up to 13,000 molecules/ns) is obtained by the electro-mechanical, piston-cylinder-like moving mechanism of the ion@C60 in the CNT. This large flux results from the piston-like mechanism, compressibility of water (increase in density of water due to molecular ordering), orienting dipole along the electric field and efficient electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Our findings can pave the way towards efficient energy conversion, pumping of fluids at nanoscale, and drug delivery.

  18. Nano-electro-mechanical pump: Giant pumping of water in carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2016-01-01

    A fully controllable nano-electro-mechanical device that can pump fluids at nanoscale is proposed. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an applied electric field to an ion@C60 inside a water-filled carbon nanotube can pump water with excellent efficiency. The key physical mechanism governing the fluid pumping is the conversion of electrical energy into hydrodynamic flow with efficiencies as high as 64%. Our results show that water can be compressed up to 7% higher than its bulk value by applying electric fields. High flux of water (up to 13,000 molecules/ns) is obtained by the electro-mechanical, piston-cylinder-like moving mechanism of the ion@C60 in the CNT. This large flux results from the piston-like mechanism, compressibility of water (increase in density of water due to molecular ordering), orienting dipole along the electric field and efficient electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Our findings can pave the way towards efficient energy conversion, pumping of fluids at nanoscale, and drug delivery. PMID:27193507

  19. Nano-electro-mechanical pump: Giant pumping of water in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Aluru, Narayana R

    2016-05-19

    A fully controllable nano-electro-mechanical device that can pump fluids at nanoscale is proposed. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an applied electric field to an ion@C60 inside a water-filled carbon nanotube can pump water with excellent efficiency. The key physical mechanism governing the fluid pumping is the conversion of electrical energy into hydrodynamic flow with efficiencies as high as 64%. Our results show that water can be compressed up to 7% higher than its bulk value by applying electric fields. High flux of water (up to 13,000 molecules/ns) is obtained by the electro-mechanical, piston-cylinder-like moving mechanism of the ion@C60 in the CNT. This large flux results from the piston-like mechanism, compressibility of water (increase in density of water due to molecular ordering), orienting dipole along the electric field and efficient electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Our findings can pave the way towards efficient energy conversion, pumping of fluids at nanoscale, and drug delivery.

  20. Vibration Damping Materials and Their Applications in Nano/Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems: A Review.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nitin; Kaur, Davinder

    2015-03-01

    The present review explores an overall view of the vibration damping materials ranging from traditionally used viscoelastic materials for macroscale damping to hybrid thin film heterostructures for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Vibration damping materials like rubbers, polymers, metals, metal-matrix composites and smart materials are reviewed in terms of damping capacity, stiffness, mechanical strength and figure of merit. Nanoscale shape memory alloys, piezoelectric materials, carbon nanotubes, their composites and thin films are promising materials for future nanoscale damping devices. The main focus of this article is on our development of new vibration damping approach for MEMS structures comprising of ferroelastic/ferroelastic thin film heterostructures. For the first time, nanoindentation has been explored as an alternative tool to evaluate the damping capability of actual components (e.g., thin films for MEMS) where production of dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) test samples is not feasible. A comprehensive insight on the existing vibration damping materials and our new approach would definitely trigger some important applications in nano- and micro-electro-mechanical systems.

  1. Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Panos G. Datskos; Michael J. Sepaniak; Nickolay Lavrik; Pampa Dutta; Mustafa Culha

    2005-12-28

    The main objective of this research program is to develop robust and reliable micro-electro-mechanical sensing systems, based on microcantilevers (MCs), that can operate in liquid environments with high levels of sensitivity and selectivity. The chemical responses of MCs result from analyte-induced differential stress at the cantilever surfaces. We aim to employ various surface nanostructuring strategies that enhance these stresses and hence the degree of static bending of the cantilevers. Receptor phases as self assembled monolayers (SAMs) and thin films are being synthesized and tested to provide selectivity. Selectivity is chemically enhanced by using different phases on individual MCs in arrays and by adding a spectroscopic component, surface enhanced Raman spectrometry (SERS), in hybrid approaches to sensing. Significant progress was made in tasks that were listed in the work plan for DOE EMSP project ''Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste''. Several project areas are listed below and discussed and referenced to our literature on the topics.

  2. Simplifications in modelling of dynamical response of coupled electro-mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    The choice of a most suitable model of an electro-mechanical system depends on many variables, such as a scale of the system, type and frequency range of its operation, or power requirements. The article focuses on the model of the electromagnetic element used in passive regime (no feedback loops are assumed) and a general lumped parameter model (a conventional mass-spring-damper system coupled to an electric circuit consisting of a resistance, an inductance and a capacitance) is compared with its simplified version, where the full RLC circuit is replaced with its RL simplification, i.e. the capacitance of the electric system is neglected and just its inductance and the resistance are considered. From the comparison of dynamical responses of these systems, the range of applicability of a simplified model is assessed for free as well as forced vibration.

  3. Tuning of the electro-mechanical behavior of the cellular carbon nanotube structures with nanoparticle dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Gowda, Prarthana; Misra, Abha; Ramamurty, Upadrasta

    2014-03-10

    The mechanical and electrical characteristics of cellular network of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) impregnated with metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles were examined simultaneously by employing the nanoindentation technique. Experimental results show that the nanoparticle dispersion not only enhances the mechanical strength of the cellular CNT by two orders of magnitude but also imparts variable nonlinear electrical characteristics; the latter depends on the contact resistance between nanoparticles and CNT, which is shown to depend on the applied load while indentation. Impregnation with silver nanoparticles enhances the electrical conductance, the dispersion with copper oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces the conductance of CNT network. In all cases, a power law behavior with suppression in the differential conductivity at zero bias was noted, indicating electron tunneling through the channels formed at the CNT-nanoparticle interfaces. These results open avenues for designing cellular CNT foams with desired electro-mechanical properties and coupling.

  4. Thin broadband noise absorption through acoustic reactance control by electro-mechanical coupling without sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumin; Chan, Yum-Ji; Huang, Lixi

    2014-05-01

    Broadband noise with profound low-frequency profile is prevalent and difficult to be controlled mechanically. This study demonstrates effective broadband sound absorption by reducing the mechanical reactance of a loudspeaker using a shunt circuit through electro-mechanical coupling, which induces reactance with different signs from that of loudspeaker. An RLC shunt circuit is connected to the moving coil to provide an electrically induced mechanical impedance which counters the cavity stiffness at low frequencies and reduces the system inertia above the resonance frequency. A sound absorption coefficient well above 0.5 is demonstrated across frequencies between 150 and 1200 Hz. The performance of the proposed device is superior to existing passive absorbers of the same depth (60 mm), which has lower frequency limits of around 300 Hz. A passive noise absorber is further proposed by paralleling a micro-perforated panel with shunted loudspeaker which shows potentials in absorbing band-limit impulse noise.

  5. Multiple internal seal ring micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum packaging method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum packaging method that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  6. Demonstration of Vibrational Braille Code Display Using Large Displacement Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Arouette, Xavier; Matsumoto, Yasuaki; Miki, Norihisa

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a vibrational Braille code display with large-displacement micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) actuator arrays. Tactile receptors are more sensitive to vibrational stimuli than to static ones. Therefore, when each cell of the Braille code vibrates at optimal frequencies, subjects can recognize the codes more efficiently. We fabricated a vibrational Braille code display that used actuators consisting of piezoelectric actuators and a hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM) as cells. The HDAM that encapsulated incompressible liquids in microchambers with two flexible polymer membranes could amplify the displacement of the MEMS actuator. We investigated the voltage required for subjects to recognize Braille codes when each cell, i.e., the large-displacement MEMS actuator, vibrated at various frequencies. Lower voltages were required at vibration frequencies higher than 50 Hz than at vibration frequencies lower than 50 Hz, which verified that the proposed vibrational Braille code display is efficient by successfully exploiting the characteristics of human tactile receptors.

  7. Effect of materials for micro-electro-mechanical systems on PCR yield.

    PubMed

    Potrich, Cristina; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Forti, Stefania; Vozzi, Diego; Pasquardini, Laura; Vanzetti, Lia; Panciatichi, Cristina; Anderle, Mariano; Pederzolli, Cecilia

    2010-05-01

    In this study we analyzed the surface properties of different silicon-based materials used for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) production, such as thermally grown silicon oxide, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)-treated silicon oxide, reactive-ion etch (RIE)-treated silicon oxide, and Pyrex. Substrates were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to define the surface chemical and morphological properties, and by fluorescence microscopy to directly assess the absorption of the different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) components. By using microchips fabricated with the same materials we investigated their compatibility with PCR reactions, exploiting the use of different enzymes and reagents or proper surface treatments. We established the best conditions for DNA amplification in silicon/Pyrex microdevices depending on the type of device and fabrication method used and the quality of reagents, rather than on the passivation treatment or increment in standard Taq polymerase concentration.

  8. Recent trends in reinforcement corrosion assessment using piezo sensors via electro mechanical impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visalakshi, Talakokula; Bhalla, Suresh; Gupta, Ashok; Bhattacharjee, Bishwajit

    2014-03-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) is an economical, versatile and successful construction material as it can be moulded into a variety of shapes and finishes. In most cases, it is durable and strong, performing well throughout its service life. However, in some cases, it does not perform adequately due to various reasons, one of which is the corrosion of the embedded steel bars used as reinforcement. . Although the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique is well established for damage detection and quantification of civil, mechanical and aerospace structures, only limited studies have been reported of its application for rebar corrosion detection in RC structures. This paper presents the recent trends in corrosion assessment based on the model derived from the equivalent structural parameters extracted from the impedance spectrum of concrete-rebar system using the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors via EMI technique.

  9. Multiple internal seal right micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum package that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  10. Diffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide for a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Lean Direct Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Kiser, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Robust approaches for joining silicon carbide (SiC) to silicon carbide sub-elements have been developed for a micro-electro-mechanical systems lean direct injector (MEMS LDI) application. The objective is to join SiC sub-elements to form a leak-free injector that has complex internal passages for the flow and mixing of fuel and air. Previous bonding technology relied upon silicate glass interlayers that were not uniform or leak free. In a newly developed joining approach, titanium foils and physically vapor deposited titanium coatings were used to form diffusion bonds between SiC materials during hot pressing. Microscopy results show the formation of well adhered diffusion bonds. Initial tests show that the bond strength is much higher than required for the component system. Benefits of the joining technology are fabrication of leak free joints with high temperature and mechanical capability.

  11. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

  12. Designing power system simulators for the smart grid: combining controls, communications, and electro-mechanical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2011-01-01

    Open source software has a leading role in research on simulation technology for electrical power systems. Research simulators demonstrate new features for which there is nascent but growing demand not yet provided for by commercial simulators. Of particular interest is the inclusion of models of software-intensive and communication-intensive controls in simulations of power system transients. This paper describes two features of the ORNL power system simulator that help it meet this need. First is its use of discrete event simulation for all aspects of the model: control, communication, and electro-mechanical dynamics. Second is an interoperability interface that enables the ORNL power system simulator to be integrated with existing, discrete event simulators of digital communication systems. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how these aspects of the ORNL power system simulator might be inserted into production-grade simulation tools.

  13. Design and application research of implantable wireless power transmission micro electro mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longbin; Shao, Xiaotao; Wu, Fan; Huo, Xingying; Li, Weiyuan; Mo, Ling

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid development of medical technology currently, the types of medical micro system which can be embedded to human body and satisfied with different purposes of treatment and diagnosis are in increasing numbers, and how to provide long-term, stable and effective electric energy is a key problem. The research illustrates the design and realization of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) planar inductor; method of design and manufacture of planar and circular spiral inductor of printed board with high quality factor is introduced; a set of MEMS which is suitable for implantable wireless power transmission is developed in order to realize the conversion from magnetic energy to electric energy. With theoretical analysis and experimental data, the scheme is confirmed to be suitable for the wireless power transmission to the implantable micro parts, which provides important reference value for the research of implantable wireless power transmission in the future.

  14. Fast Simulating High Order Models Application to Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yacine, Z.; Benfdila, A.; Djennoune, S.

    2009-03-05

    The approximation of high order systems by low order models is one of the important problems in system theory. The use of a reduced order model makes it easier to implement analysis, simulations and control system designs. Numerous methods are available in the literature for order reduction of linear continuous systems in time domain as well as in frequency domain. But, this is not the case for non linear systems. The well known Trajectory Piece-Wise Linear approach (TPWL) elaborated to nonlinear model order reduction guarantees a simplification and an accurate representation of the behaviour of strongly non linear systems handling local and global approximation. The present attempt is towards evolving an improvement for the TPWL order reduction technique, which ensures a good quality of approximation combining the advantages of the Krylov subspaces method and the local linearization. We illustrate the technique on a MEMS circuit (Micro Electro-Mechanical System)

  15. Design and application research of implantable wireless power transmission micro electro mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longbin; Shao, Xiaotao; Wu, Fan; Huo, Xingying; Li, Weiyuan; Mo, Ling

    2010-12-01

    With the rapid development of medical technology currently, the types of medical micro system which can be embedded to human body and satisfied with different purposes of treatment and diagnosis are in increasing numbers, and how to provide long-term, stable and effective electric energy is a key problem. The research illustrates the design and realization of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) planar inductor; method of design and manufacture of planar and circular spiral inductor of printed board with high quality factor is introduced; a set of MEMS which is suitable for implantable wireless power transmission is developed in order to realize the conversion from magnetic energy to electric energy. With theoretical analysis and experimental data, the scheme is confirmed to be suitable for the wireless power transmission to the implantable micro parts, which provides important reference value for the research of implantable wireless power transmission in the future.

  16. An experimental evaluation of the fully coupled hysteretic electro-mechanical behaviour of piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Mark; Davino, Daniele; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectrics are the most commonly used of the multifunctional smart materials in industrial applications, because of their relatively low cost and ease of use in electric and electronic oriented applications. Nevertheless, while datasheets usually give just small signal quasi-static parameters, their full potential can only be exploited only if a full characterization is available because the maximum stroke or the higher piezo coupling coefficients are available at different electro-mechanical biases, where often small signal analysis is not valid. In this paper a method to get the quasi-static fully coupled characterization is presented. The method is tested on a commercial piezo actuator but can be extended to similar devices.

  17. Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Chengkuo; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Huang, Chia-Yi

    2014-04-14

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optical performance by increasing the number of movable cantilevers in the symmetrical split ring resonator metamaterial unit cell. Simulations were carried out to understand the interaction of the incident terahertz radiation with out-of-plane deforming metamaterial resonator. In order to improve the overall device performance, the number of released cantilever in a unit cell was increased from one to two, and it was seen that the tunable range was doubled and the switching contrast improved by a factor of around five at 0.7 THz. This simple design approach can be adopted for a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches to enable future photonic circuit applications.

  18. Effect of Microstructure on the Electro-Mechanical Behaviour of Cu Films on Polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J.; Glushko, O.; Marx, V. M.; Kirchlechner, C.; Cordill, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    Metal films on polymer substrates are commonly used in flexible electronic devices and may be exposed to large deformations during application. For flexible electronics, the main requirement is to remain conductive while stretching and compressing. Therefore, the electro-mechanical behaviour of 200-nm-thick Cu films on polyimide with two different microstructures (as-deposited and annealed) were studied by executing in situ fragmentation experiments with x-ray diffraction, under an atomic force microscope, and with 4-point probe resistance measurements in order to correlate the plastic deformation with the electrical behaviour. The three in situ techniques clearly demonstrate different behaviours controlled by the microstructure. Interestingly, the as-deposited film with a bi-modal microstructure is more suited for flexible electronic applications than an annealed film with homogenous 1- µm-sized grains. The as-deposited film reaches a higher yield stress, with unchanged electrical conductivity, and does not show extensive surface deformation during straining.

  19. Tuning of the electro-mechanical behavior of the cellular carbon nanotube structures with nanoparticle dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Prarthana; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Misra, Abha

    2014-03-01

    The mechanical and electrical characteristics of cellular network of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) impregnated with metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles were examined simultaneously by employing the nanoindentation technique. Experimental results show that the nanoparticle dispersion not only enhances the mechanical strength of the cellular CNT by two orders of magnitude but also imparts variable nonlinear electrical characteristics; the latter depends on the contact resistance between nanoparticles and CNT, which is shown to depend on the applied load while indentation. Impregnation with silver nanoparticles enhances the electrical conductance, the dispersion with copper oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces the conductance of CNT network. In all cases, a power law behavior with suppression in the differential conductivity at zero bias was noted, indicating electron tunneling through the channels formed at the CNT-nanoparticle interfaces. These results open avenues for designing cellular CNT foams with desired electro-mechanical properties and coupling.

  20. Fast Simulating High Order Models Application to Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacine, Z.; Djennoune, S.; Benfdila, A.

    2009-03-01

    The approximation of high order systems by low order models is one of the important problems in system theory. The use of a reduced order model makes it easier to implement analysis, simulations and control system designs. Numerous methods are available in the literature for order reduction of linear continuous systems in time domain as well as in frequency domain. But, this is not the case for non linear systems. The well known Trajectory Piece-Wise Linear approach (TPWL) elaborated to nonlinear model order reduction guarantees a simplification and an accurate representation of the behaviour of strongly non linear systems handling local and global approximation. The present attempt is towards evolving an improvement for the TPWL order reduction technique, which ensures a good quality of approximation combining the advantages of the Krylov subspaces method and the local linearization. We illustrate the technique on a MEMS circuit (Micro Electro-Mechanical System).

  1. A SUGGESTED CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR ELECTRO-MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY ORIENTED SPECIFICALLY TO THE COMPUTER AND BUSINESS MACHINE FIELDS. INTERIM REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESCARBEAU, ROLAND F.; AND OTHERS

    A SUGGESTED POST-SECONDARY CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR ELECTRO-MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY ORIENTED SPECIFICALLY TO THE COMPUTER AND BUSINESS MACHINE FIELDS WAS DEVELOPED BY A GROUP OF COOPERATING INSTITUTIONS, NOW INCORPORATED AS TECHNICAL EDUCATION CONSORTIUM, INCORPORATED. SPECIFIC NEEDS OF THE COMPUTER AND BUSINESS MACHINE INDUSTRY WERE DETERMINED FROM…

  2. Revision of Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program to Include CAD/D (Computer-Aided Drafting/Design). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Nancy V.

    North Seattle Community College decided to integrate computer-aided design/drafting (CAD/D) into its Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program. This choice necessitated a redefinition of the program through new curriculum and course development. To initiate the project, a new industrial advisory council was formed. Major electronic and recruiting firms…

  3. Piezoelectric polymer gated OFET: Cutting-edge electro-mechanical transducer for organic MEMS-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuau, Damien; Abbas, Mamatimin; Wantz, Guillaume; Hirsch, Lionel; Dufour, Isabelle; Ayela, Cédric

    2016-12-01

    The growth of micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based sensors on the electronic market is forecast to be invigorated soon by the development of a new branch of MEMS-based sensors made of organic materials. Organic MEMS have the potential to revolutionize sensor products due to their light weight, low-cost and mechanical flexibility. However, their sensitivity and stability in comparison to inorganic MEMS-based sensors have been the major concerns. In the present work, an organic MEMS sensor with a cutting-edge electro-mechanical transducer based on an active organic field effect transistor (OFET) has been demonstrated. Using poly(vinylidenefluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) piezoelectric polymer as active gate dielectric in the transistor mounted on a polymeric micro-cantilever, unique electro-mechanical properties were observed. Such an advanced scheme enables highly efficient integrated electro-mechanical transduction for physical and chemical sensing applications. Record relative sensitivity over 600 in the low strain regime (<0.3%) was demonstrated, which represents a key-step for the development of highly sensitive all organic MEMS-based sensors.

  4. Piezoelectric polymer gated OFET: Cutting-edge electro-mechanical transducer for organic MEMS-based sensors

    PubMed Central

    Thuau, Damien; Abbas, Mamatimin; Wantz, Guillaume; Hirsch, Lionel; Dufour, Isabelle; Ayela, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    The growth of micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based sensors on the electronic market is forecast to be invigorated soon by the development of a new branch of MEMS-based sensors made of organic materials. Organic MEMS have the potential to revolutionize sensor products due to their light weight, low-cost and mechanical flexibility. However, their sensitivity and stability in comparison to inorganic MEMS-based sensors have been the major concerns. In the present work, an organic MEMS sensor with a cutting-edge electro-mechanical transducer based on an active organic field effect transistor (OFET) has been demonstrated. Using poly(vinylidenefluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) piezoelectric polymer as active gate dielectric in the transistor mounted on a polymeric micro-cantilever, unique electro-mechanical properties were observed. Such an advanced scheme enables highly efficient integrated electro-mechanical transduction for physical and chemical sensing applications. Record relative sensitivity over 600 in the low strain regime (<0.3%) was demonstrated, which represents a key-step for the development of highly sensitive all organic MEMS-based sensors. PMID:27924853

  5. Electro-mechanical dysfunction in long QT syndrome: Role for arrhythmogenic risk prediction and modulation by sex and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Lang, C N; Menza, M; Jochem, S; Franke, G; Perez Feliz, S; Brunner, M; Koren, G; Zehender, M; Bugger, H; Jung, B A; Foell, D; Bode, C; Odening, K E

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a congenital arrhythmogenic channelopathy characterized by impaired cardiac repolarization. Increasing evidence supports the notion that LQTS is not purely an "electrical" disease but rather an "electro-mechanical" disease with regionally heterogeneously impaired electrical and mechanical cardiac function. In the first part, this article reviews current knowledge on electro-mechanical (dys)function in LQTS, clinical consequences of the observed electro-mechanical dysfunction, and potential underlying mechanisms. Since several novel imaging techniques - Strain Echocardiography (SE) and Magnetic Resonance Tissue Phase Mapping (TPM) - are applied in clinical and experimental settings to assess the (regional) mechanical function, advantages of these non-invasive techniques and their feasibility in the clinical routine are particularly highlighted. The second part provides novel insights into sex differences and sex hormone effects on electro-mechanical cardiac function in a transgenic LQT2 rabbit model. Here we demonstrate that female LQT2 rabbits exhibit a prolonged time to diastolic peak - as marker for contraction duration and early relaxation - compared to males. Chronic estradiol-treatment enhances these differences in time to diastolic peak even more and additionally increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Importantly, time to diastolic peak is particularly prolonged in rabbits exhibiting ventricular arrhythmia - regardless of hormone treatment - contrasting with a lack of differences in QT duration between symptomatic and asymptomatic LQT2 rabbits. This indicates the potential added value of the assessment of mechanical dysfunction in future risk stratification of LQTS patients.

  6. Mechatronic Scanning System with Integrated Micro Electro Mechanical System Position Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrov, Vladimir; Chakarov, Dimitar; Shulev, Assen; Tsveov, Mihail

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a study of a mechatronic scanning system for application in the microbiology, microelectronics research, chemistry, etc. is presented. Integrated silicon micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) position sensor is used for monitoring the displacement of the scanning system. The utilized silicon MEMS sensors with sidewall embedded piezoresistors possess a number of key advantages such as high sensitivity, low noise and extremely low temperature dependence. Design of 2D scanning system with a travel range of 22 × 22 μm2 has been presented in present work. This system includes a Compliant Transmission Mechanism, (CTM) designed as a complex elastic mechanism, comprising four parallelograms. Computer aided desigh (CAD) model and finite element analysis (FEA) of the Compliant Transmission Mechanism mechanisms have been carried out. A prototype of the scanning system is fabricated, based on CAD model. An experimental set-up of an optical system and a correlation technique for digital image processing have been used for testing the scanning system prototype. Results of the experimental investigations of the prototyped scanning system are also presented.

  7. System and method of active vibration control for an electro-mechanically cooled device

    DOEpatents

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Mauger, Joseph; Anderson, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    A system and method of active vibration control of an electro-mechanically cooled device is disclosed. A cryogenic cooling system is located within an environment. The cooling system is characterized by a vibration transfer function, which requires vibration transfer function coefficients. A vibration controller generates the vibration transfer function coefficients in response to various triggering events. The environments may differ by mounting apparatus, by proximity to vibration generating devices, or by temperature. The triggering event may be powering on the cooling system, reaching an operating temperature, or a reset action. A counterbalance responds to a drive signal generated by the vibration controller, based on the vibration signal and the vibration transfer function, which adjusts vibrations. The method first places a cryogenic cooling system within a first environment and then generates a first set of vibration transfer function coefficients, for a vibration transfer function of the cooling system. Next, the cryogenic cooling system is placed within a second environment and a second set of vibration transfer function coefficients are generated. Then, a counterbalance is driven, based on the vibration transfer function, to reduce vibrations received by a vibration sensitive element.

  8. Genetic algorithm for the design of electro-mechanical sigma delta modulator MEMS sensors.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Reuben; Kraft, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel design methodology using non-linear models for complex closed loop electro-mechanical sigma-delta modulators (EMΣΔM) that is based on genetic algorithms and statistical variation analysis. The proposed methodology is capable of quickly and efficiently designing high performance, high order, closed loop, near-optimal systems that are robust to sensor fabrication tolerances and electronic component variation. The use of full non-linear system models allows significant higher order non-ideal effects to be taken into account, improving accuracy and confidence in the results. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach, two design examples are presented including a 5th order low-pass EMΣΔM for a MEMS accelerometer, and a 6th order band-pass EMΣΔM for the sense mode of a MEMS gyroscope. Each example was designed using the system in less than one day, with very little manual intervention. The strength of the approach is verified by SNR performances of 109.2 dB and 92.4 dB for the low-pass and band-pass system respectively, coupled with excellent immunities to fabrication tolerances and parameter mismatch.

  9. A servomechanism for a micro-electro-mechanical-system-based scanning-probe data storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazi, A.; Lantz, M. A.; Cherubini, G.; Pozidis, H.; Eleftheriou, E.

    2004-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS)-based scanning-probe data storage devices are emerging as potential ultra-high-density, low-access-time, and low-power alternatives to conventional data storage. One implementation of probe-based storage uses thermomechanical means to store and retrieve information in thin polymer films. One of the challenges in building such devices is the extreme accuracy and the short latency required in the navigation of the probes over the polymer medium. This paper focuses on the design and characterization of a servomechanism to achieve such accurate positioning in a probe-based storage prototype. In our device, the polymer medium is positioned on a MEMS scanner with x/y-motion capabilities of about 100 µm. The device also includes thermal position sensors that provide x/y-position information to the servo controller. Based on a discrete state-space model of the scanner dynamics, a controller is designed using the linear quadratic Gaussian approach with state estimation. The random seek performance of this approach is evaluated and compared with that of the conventional proportional, integrator, and derivative (PID) approach. The results demonstrate the superiority of the state-space approach, which achieves seek times of about 4 ms in a ± 50 µm range. Finally, the experimental results show that closed-loop track following using the thermal position-sensor signals is feasible and yields a position-error standard deviation of approximately 2 nm.

  10. Temperature and time dependence of the electro-mechanical properties of flexible active fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Atitallah, H.; Ounaies, Z.; Muliana, A.

    2016-04-01

    Active fiber composites (AFCs) are comprised of piezoelectric fibers embedded in a polymeric matrix. AFCs use interdigitated electrodes, which produce electric field lines parallel to the fiber direction, thus taking advantage of the larger d 33 piezoelectric coefficient. The polymer volume content of the AFCs is generally more than 50%; since polymers tend to have behaviors affected by their viscoelastic characteristics especially at elevated temperatures, it is necessary to understand the thermo-electro-mechanical behavior of AFCs at different loading rates. In this study, mechanical, electrical and electromechanical properties of AFCs were measured at different isothermal temperatures, namely 25 °C, 50 °C and 75 °C and at different loading rates. The measurements of all the properties of AFCs were done along the fiber direction. It was found that at higher temperatures, the modulus and tensile strength decreased for all strain rates and the strain at failure increased. The remnant polarization increased with decrease in frequency and increase in temperature; however, the coercive field decreased with temperature and was not affected by the frequency. Due to the viscoelastic behavior of the epoxy, the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 increased at higher temperature and lower frequency. It was also noted that this coefficient is dependent on the magnitude of the electric field.

  11. Design of acoustic wave biochemical sensors using micro-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Jane E.; Przybycien, Todd M.; Hauan, Steinar

    2007-03-01

    Acoustic wave biochemical sensors work by detecting the frequency shifts resulting from the binding of target molecules to a functionalized resonator. Resonator types currently in use or under development include macroscopic quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) as well as a number of different integrated Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) structures. Due to an increased resonator surface area to mass ratio, we believe that membrane-based MEMS systems are particularly promising with regard to sensitivity. Prototypes have been developed [S. Hauan et al., U.S. Patent Application (filed 6 Nov. 2003)] and preliminary calculations [M. J. Bartkovsky et al., paper 385e presented at the AIChE Annual Meeting, Nov. 2003; J. E. Valentine et al., paper 197h presented at the AICHE Annual Meeting, Nov. 2003] indicate significant improvements over other methods, both macroscopic and MEMS based. In this article we describe our work on a MEMS-based acoustic wave biochemical sensor using a membrane resonator. We demonstrate the effects of spatial distributions of mass on the membrane on sensitivity and show how to use this spatial sensitivity to detect multiple targets simultaneously. To do so we derive a function approximating the membrane response surface to spatial mass loadings under the applicable range of conditions. We verify the agreement using finite element methods, and present our initial sensitivity calculations demonstrating the advantages of variable mass loadings.

  12. Experimental Identification of Smartphones Using Fingerprints of Built-In Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Gianmarco; Steri, Gary; Dimc, Franc; Giuliani, Raimondo; Kamnik, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The correct identification of smartphones has various applications in the field of security or the fight against counterfeiting. As the level of sophistication in counterfeit electronics increases, detection procedures must become more accurate but also not destructive for the smartphone under testing. Some components of the smartphone are more likely to reveal their authenticity even without a physical inspection, since they are characterized by hardware fingerprints detectable by simply examining the data they provide. This is the case of MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) components like accelerometers and gyroscopes, where tiny differences and imprecisions in the manufacturing process determine unique patterns in the data output. In this paper, we present the experimental evaluation of the identification of smartphones through their built-in MEMS components. In our study, three different phones of the same model are subject to repeatable movements (composing a repeatable scenario) using an high precision robotic arm. The measurements from MEMS for each repeatable scenario are collected and analyzed. The identification algorithm is based on the extraction of the statistical features of the collected data for each scenario. The features are used in a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify the smartphone. The results of the evaluation are presented for different combinations of features and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) outputs, which show that detection accuracy of higher than 90% is achievable. PMID:27271630

  13. Comparative study of chemo-electro-mechanical transport models for an electrically stimulated hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshaer, S. E.; Moussa, W. A.

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to introduce a new expression for the hydrogel’s hydration for use within the Poisson Nernst-Planck chemo electro mechanical (PNP CEM) transport models. This new contribution to the models support large deformation by considering the higher order terms in the Green-Lagrangian strain tensor. A detailed discussion of the CEM transport models using Poisson Nernst-Planck (PNP) and Poisson logarithmic Nernst-Planck (PLNP) equations for chemically and electrically stimulated hydrogels will be presented. The assumptions made to simplify both CEM transport models for electric field application in the order of 0.833 kV m-1 and a highly diluted electrolyte solution (97% is water) will be explained. This PNP CEM model has been verified accurately against experimental and numerical results. In addition, different definitions for normalizing the parameters are used to derive the dimensionless forms of both the PNP and PLNP CEM. Four models, PNP CEM, PLNP CEM, dimensionless PNP CEM and dimensionless PNLP CEM transport models were employed on an axially symmetric cylindrical hydrogel problem with an aspect ratio (diameter to thickness) of 175:3. The displacement and osmotic pressure obtained for the four models are compared against the variation of the number of elements for finite element analysis, simulation duration and solution rate when using the direct numerical solver.

  14. Vapor Hydrofluoric Acid Sacrificial Release Technique for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Using Labware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Yamato; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    We have developed a novel technique of sacrificial layer etching for micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). Our technique uses vapor of hydrofluoric acid (HF) to etch sacrificial silicon oxide and to make freestanding silicon microstructures. The advantages of this technique are: (1) no subsequent water rinse is needed, (2) freestanding silicon microstructures can be successfully released without sticking to the substrate, (3) equipment for our vapor phase HF etching simply consists of Teflon beakers only. Conditions for the technique have been optimized by estimating etching rate with test patterns made of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers and by observing water droplets condensation on the sample surface with thermally oxidized silicon chips. By this technique we have successfully obtained freestanding microstructures of SOI wafers. Microcantilevers of as long as 5000 μm (a 5-μm-wide, 10-μm-thick, and 5000-μm-long cantilever over a 0.6-μm-gap) have been successfully released without adhering to the base substrate or contacting the neighboring cantilevers. We have also fabricated and actuated electrostatic comb-drive actuators of 60 and 200 comb pairs to demonstrate high processing yield of our nonstick releasing technique.

  15. The coupled bio-chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of glucose exposed arterial elastin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2017-04-01

    Elastin, the principle protein component of the elastic fiber, is a critical extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the arterial wall providing structural resilience and biological signaling essential in vascular morphogenesis and maintenance of mechanical homeostasis. Pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases have been associated with alterations of elastin. As a long-lived ECM protein that is deposited and organized before adulthood, elastic fibers can suffer from cumulative effects of biochemical exposure encountered during aging and/or disease, which greatly compromise their mechanical function. This review article covers findings from recent studies of the mechanical and structural contribution of elastin to vascular function, and the effects of biochemical degradation. Results from diverse experimental methods including tissue-level mechanical characterization, fiber-level nonlinear optical imaging, piezoelectric force microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance are reviewed. The intriguing coupled bio-chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of elastin calls for a multi-scale and multi-physical understanding of ECM mechanics and mechanobiology in vascular remodeling.

  16. A Noise Level Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  17. Laser-induced damage threshold of camera sensors and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Bastian; Ritt, Gunnar; Körber, Michael; Eberle, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The continuous development of laser systems towards more compact and efficient devices constitutes an increasing threat to electro-optical imaging sensors such as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) and charge-coupled devices (CCD). These types of electronic sensors are used in day-to-day life but also in military or civil security applications. In camera systems dedicated to specific tasks, also micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) like a digital micromirror device (DMD) are part of the optical setup. In such systems, the DMD can be located at an intermediate focal plane of the optics and it is also susceptible to laser damage. The goal of our work is to enhance the knowledge of damaging effects on such devices exposed to laser light. The experimental setup for the investigation of laser-induced damage is described in detail. As laser sources both pulsed lasers and continuous-wave (CW) lasers are used. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) is determined by the single-shot method by increasing the pulse energy from pulse to pulse or in the case of CW-lasers, by increasing the laser power. Furthermore, we investigate the morphology of laser-induced damage patterns and the dependence of the number of destructed device elements on the laser pulse energy or laser power. In addition to the destruction of single pixels, we observe aftereffects like persisting dead columns or rows of pixels in the sensor image.

  18. Experimental Identification of Smartphones Using Fingerprints of Built-In Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    PubMed

    Baldini, Gianmarco; Steri, Gary; Dimc, Franc; Giuliani, Raimondo; Kamnik, Roman

    2016-06-03

    The correct identification of smartphones has various applications in the field of security or the fight against counterfeiting. As the level of sophistication in counterfeit electronics increases, detection procedures must become more accurate but also not destructive for the smartphone under testing. Some components of the smartphone are more likely to reveal their authenticity even without a physical inspection, since they are characterized by hardware fingerprints detectable by simply examining the data they provide. This is the case of MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) components like accelerometers and gyroscopes, where tiny differences and imprecisions in the manufacturing process determine unique patterns in the data output. In this paper, we present the experimental evaluation of the identification of smartphones through their built-in MEMS components. In our study, three different phones of the same model are subject to repeatable movements (composing a repeatable scenario) using an high precision robotic arm. The measurements from MEMS for each repeatable scenario are collected and analyzed. The identification algorithm is based on the extraction of the statistical features of the collected data for each scenario. The features are used in a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify the smartphone. The results of the evaluation are presented for different combinations of features and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) outputs, which show that detection accuracy of higher than 90% is achievable.

  19. Electro-Mechanical Simulation of a Large Aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Barclay, Richard B.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Mott, D. Brent; Satyapal, Shobita; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We are developing a micro-machined electrostatically actuated Fabry-Perot tunable filter with a large clear aperture for application in high through-put wide-field imaging spectroscopy and lidar systems. In the first phase of this effort, we are developing key components based on coupled electro-mechanical simulations. In particular, the movable etalon plate design leverages high coating stresses to yield a flat surface in drum-head tension over a large diameter (12.5 mm). In this approach, the cylindrical silicon movable plate is back etched, resulting in an optically coated membrane that is suspended from a thick silicon support ring. Understanding the interaction between the support ring, suspended membrane, and coating is critical to developing surfaces that are flat to within stringent etalon requirements. In this work, we present the simulations used to develop the movable plate, spring suspension system, and electrostatic actuation mechanism. We also present results from tests of fabricated proof of concept components.

  20. Bond-slip detection of concrete-encased composite structure using electro-mechanical impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yabin; Li, Dongsheng; Parvasi, Seyed Mohammad; Kong, Qingzhao; Lim, Ing; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    Concrete-encased composite structure is a type of structure that takes the advantages of both steel and concrete materials, showing improved strength, ductility, and fire resistance compared to traditional reinforced concrete structures. The interface between concrete and steel profiles governs the interaction between these two materials under loading, however, debonding damage between these two materials may lead to severe degradation of the load transferring capacity which will affect the structural performance significantly. In this paper, the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique using piezoceramic transducers was experimentally investigated to detect the bond-slip occurrence of the concrete-encased composite structure. The root-mean-square deviation is used to quantify the variations of the impedance signatures due to the presence of the bond-slip damage. In order to verify the validity of the proposed method, finite element model analysis was performed to simulate the behavior of concrete-steel debonding based on a 3D finite element concrete-steel bond model. The computed impedance signatures from the numerical results are compared with the results obtained from the experimental study, and both the numerical and experimental studies verify the proposed EMI method to detect bond slip of a concrete-encased composite structure.

  1. Reliability study of wafer bonding for micro-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasri, Mahmoud; Altemus, Bruce; Gracias, Alison; Clow, Larry; Tokranova, Natalya; Castracane, James; Xu, Bai

    2003-12-01

    Wafer bonding has attracted significant attention in applications that require integration of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) with Integrated Circuits (IC). The integration of monolithic MEMS and electronic devices is difficult because of issues such as material compatibility, process compliance and thermal budget. It is important to establish a wafer bonding process which provides long-term protection for the MEMS devices yet does not affect their performance. The attentions for such integration are at the die level and wafer level. Recently, the trend is toward wafer-level integration as a cost effective solution to combine sensing, logic, actuation and communications on a single platform. This paper describes the development of low temperature bonding techniques for post-CMOS MEMS integration in system-on-chip (SOC) applications. The bonding methods discussed in this paper involve Benzocyclobutene polymer (BCB) as glue layer to joint two 200 mm wafers together. The bonding temperature is lower than 400°C. Four-point bending and stud-pull methods were used to investigate the mechanical properties of the bonding interfaces. These methods can provide critical information such as adhesion energy and bonding strength of the bonded interfaces. Initial test results at room temperature showed that the BCB bond stayed intact up to an average stress of 50 MPa. It was observed that the BCB bond strength decreased with increasing temperatures and the energy release rate decreased with decreasing BCB thickness.

  2. Reliability study of wafer bonding for micro-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasri, Mahmoud; Altemus, Bruce; Gracias, Alison; Clow, Larry; Tokranova, Natalya; Castracane, James; Xu, Bai

    2004-01-01

    Wafer bonding has attracted significant attention in applications that require integration of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) with Integrated Circuits (IC). The integration of monolithic MEMS and electronic devices is difficult because of issues such as material compatibility, process compliance and thermal budget. It is important to establish a wafer bonding process which provides long-term protection for the MEMS devices yet does not affect their performance. The attentions for such integration are at the die level and wafer level. Recently, the trend is toward wafer-level integration as a cost effective solution to combine sensing, logic, actuation and communications on a single platform. This paper describes the development of low temperature bonding techniques for post-CMOS MEMS integration in system-on-chip (SOC) applications. The bonding methods discussed in this paper involve Benzocyclobutene polymer (BCB) as glue layer to joint two 200 mm wafers together. The bonding temperature is lower than 400°C. Four-point bending and stud-pull methods were used to investigate the mechanical properties of the bonding interfaces. These methods can provide critical information such as adhesion energy and bonding strength of the bonded interfaces. Initial test results at room temperature showed that the BCB bond stayed intact up to an average stress of 50 MPa. It was observed that the BCB bond strength decreased with increasing temperatures and the energy release rate decreased with decreasing BCB thickness.

  3. Calculating frequency at loads in simulations of electro-mechanical transients

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J; Protopopescu, Vladimir A

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for calculating frequency at an electrical load in simulations of electro-mechanical transients. The method is designed for simulation studies that require accurate models of sensors such as phasor measurement units and F-Net devices, which measure frequency at locations away from generating plants. These sensors are poised to become critical components in the control systems of electrical power grids, and therefore simulation tools that incorporate accurate models of these devices are essential. The method proposed here corrects two drawbacks of using numerically computed phase angle derivatives to approximate frequency. First, it eliminates spurious spikes in frequencies calculated at loads. Second, it eliminates instabilities induced by the simulator in studies of frequency responsive loads. The proposed method is derived from a simplified model of the generators and loads in an electrical system, but in the final analysis does not depend critically on these simplifications and is therefore applicable to more sophisticated models. The method is demonstrated with the simplified model applied to the IEEE 14 and 300 bus systems.

  4. The potential of micro-electro-mechanical accelerometers in human vibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarabini, Marco; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Moschioni, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the advantages and the drawbacks deriving from the use of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) accelerometers for hand-arm and whole-body vibration measurements. Metrological performances of different transducers were assessed through the identification of their frequency response function, linearity, floor noise and sensitivity to thermal and electromagnetic disturbances. Experimental results highlighted a standard instrumental uncertainty (including the nonlinearity) lower than 5% with the single frequency calibration procedure, such a value was reduced to 2%. The temperature effect was negligible and the electromagnetic disturbances sensitivity was comparable to that of the piezoelectric accelerometers. The compatibility of measurements obtained with MEMS accelerometers with those of piezoelectric-based measurement chains was verified for two specific applications. An example of direct transducer fixation on the skin for vibration transmissibility measurements is also presented. Thanks to the MEMS peculiarities - mainly small sizes and low cost - since novel approaches in the vibration monitoring could be pursued. For instance, it is possible to include by design MEMS accelerometers in any hand-held tool at the operator interface, or inside the seats structures of cars, tractors and trucks. This could be a viable solution to easily obtain repeatable exposure measurements and could also provide diagnostic signals for the tools or seats of functional monitoring.

  5. Vibration characteristics of piezoelectric fiber composites under thermo-electro-mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Sik

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, vibration characteristics of piezoelectric fiber composite beams are presented. An asymptotic method based on virtual work principle is introduced first. The primary variables in thermo-electro-mechanical problems are asymptotically expanded in terms of the small parameter, which is done by taking the geometric slenderness of the beams. This subsequently renders a set of recursive virtual works at each order, in which the virtual works are separated into two parts: 2D microscopic problems and 1D macroscopic problems. These microscopic and macroscopic problems are systematically associated with each other, and thus the boundary conditions are affected by both of them. Cantilever beams under multiphysics environment are taken as a test-bed in order to illustrate the significance of edge effects and asymptotical correctness to the vibration characteristics of the beams. For the displacement prescribed boundary such as the clamped boundary, the stress weighted average conditions are applied to obtain the accurate prediction, which are known to be a good approximation (possibly the best candidate up to date).

  6. Vibration characteristics of piezoelectric fiber composites under thermo-electro-mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Sik

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, vibration characteristics of piezoelectric fiber composite beams are presented. An asymptotic method based on virtual work principle is introduced first. The primary variables in thermo-electro-mechanical problems are asymptotically expanded in terms of the small parameter, which is done by taking the geometric slenderness of the beams. This subsequently renders a set of recursive virtual works at each order, in which the virtual works are separated into two parts: 2D microscopic problems and 1D macroscopic problems. These microscopic and macroscopic problems are systematically associated with each other, and thus the boundary conditions are affected by both of them. Cantilever beams under multiphysics environment are taken as a test-bed in order to illustrate the significance of edge effects and asymptotical correctness to the vibration characteristics of the beams. For the displacement prescribed boundary such as the clamped boundary, the stress weighted average conditions are applied to obtain the accurate prediction, which are known to be a good approximation (possibly the best candidate up to date).

  7. The electro-mechanical integration of the NA62 GigaTracker time tagging pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, M.; Kluge, A.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Daguin, J.; Fiorini, M.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Riedler, P.

    2010-12-01

    The NA62 GigaTracker is a low mass time tagging hybrid pixel detector operating in a beam with a particle rate of 750 MHz. It consists of three stations with a sensor size of 60 × 27mm2 containing 18000 pixels, each 300 × 300μm2. The active area is connected to a matrix of 2 × 5 pixel ASICs, which time tag the arrival of the particles with a binning of 100 ps. The detector operates in vacuum at -20 to 0°C and the material budget per station must be below 0.5% X0. Due to the high radiation environment of 2 × 1014 1 MeV neutron equivalent cm-2/yr-1 it is planned to exchange the detector modules regularly. The low material budget, cooling requirements and the request for easy module access has driven the electro-mechanical integration of the GigaTracker, which is presented in this paper.

  8. Ensuring seamlessness in mobility services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotti, Timo; Tavi, Jari

    2001-10-01

    The infrastructure required for wireless and mobility services is becoming increasingly complex involving a multitude of different nodes such as smart terminals, base stations, access gateways and application servers and up to tens of millions of concurrent users. For true mobility services, the need to provide seamless access to data - independent of location or device - becomes apparent. But how do you ensure that this data and the corresponding mobile applications are distributed to those network nodes where the data is needed? Whether it's managing subscriber provisioning data of a large farm of access gateways, replicating application servers to allow for system scalability or distributing application software to smart terminals, seamlessness in mobility services requires a distributed data management functionality coupled with advanced multi-user, multi-device synchronization.

  9. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  10. Superharmonic resonances in a two-dimensional non-linear photonic-crystal nano-electro-mechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, A.; Yeo, I.; Tsvirkun, V.; Raineri, F.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Raj, R.; Robert-Philip, I.; Braive, R.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the non-linear mechanical dynamics of a nano-optomechanical mirror formed by a suspended membrane pierced by a photonic crystal. By applying to the mirror a periodic electrostatic force induced by interdigitated electrodes integrated below the membrane, we evidence superharmonic resonances of our nano-electro-mechanical system; the constant phase shift of the oscillator across the resonance tongues is observed on the onset of principal harmonic and subharmonic excitation regimes.

  11. Maximising electro-mechanical response by minimising grain-scale strain heterogeneity in phase-change actuator ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddershede, Jette; Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir; Daniels, John E.

    2016-08-01

    Phase-change actuator ceramics directly couple electrical and mechanical energies through an electric-field-induced phase transformation. These materials are promising for the replacement of the most common electro-mechanical ceramic, lead zirconate titanate, which has environmental concerns. Here, we show that by compositional modification, we reduce the grain-scale heterogeneity of the electro-mechanical response by 40%. In the materials investigated, this leads to an increase in the achievable electric-field-induced strain of the bulk ceramic of 45%. Compositions of (100-x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-(x)BaTiO3, which initially possess a pseudo-cubic symmetry, can be tuned to undergo phase transformations to combined lower symmetry phases, thus decreasing the anisotropy of the transformation strain. Further, modelling of transformation strains of individual grains shows that minimum grain-scale strain heterogeneity can be achieved by precise control of the lattice distortions and orientation distributions of the induced phases. The current results can be used to guide the design of next generation high-strain electro-mechanical ceramic actuator materials.

  12. Robust design optimization with an uncertain model of a nonlinear vibro-impact electro-mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Roberta; Soize, Christian; Sampaio, Rubens

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the robust design with an uncertain model of a vibro-impact electro-mechanical system is done. The electro-mechanical system is composed of a cart, whose motion is excited by a DC motor (motor with continuous current), and an embarked hammer into this cart. The hammer is connected to the cart by a nonlinear spring component and by a linear damper, so that a relative motion exists between them. A linear flexible barrier, placed outside of the cart, constrains the hammer movements. Due to the relative movement between the hammer and the barrier, impacts can occur between these two elements. The developed model of the system takes into account the influence of the DC motor in the dynamic behavior of the system. Some system parameters are uncertain, such as the stiffness and the damping coefficients of the flexible barrier. The objective of the paper is to perform an optimization of this electro-mechanical system with respect to design parameters (spring component, and barrier g) in order to maximize the impact power under the constraint that the electric power consumed by the DC motor is lower than a maximum value. This optimization is formulated in the framework of robust design due to the presence of uncertainties in the model. The set of nonlinear equations are presented, and an adapted time domain solver is developed. The stochastic nonlinear constrained design optimization problem is solved for different levels of uncertainties, and also for the deterministic case.

  13. Bioenzymatic detection of troponin C using micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeetender, Amritsar; Stiharu, Ion G.; Muthukumaran, Packirisamy

    2006-03-01

    Diagnosis and monitoring of critical diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) require a quantitative analysis of biological molecules. A high-throughput identification of these biological molecules can be generated by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) structures like simple cantilever beams, which respond to the intermolecular forces resulting from binding these molecules. Biochemical markers like troponin C are considered the primary markers for myocardial injury and have generated considerable interest. A 26-residue lytic membrane protein of bee venom melittin (ME) is chosen to interact with rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C (TnC) on the surface of the cantilever beams. An optical beam deflection method is employed to identify the enzymatic reaction on the surface of the cantilever due to these proteins. Identification of these proteins is also done using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) to compliment the optical monitored deflection method. A second set of proteins like horse raddish peroxide (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are applied to atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever beams to study their behavior under the enzymatic reactions of proteins. Identification of these proteins is done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). An analytical model of the cantilever beam is developed, and its mode shapes are studied by employing orthogonal polynomials in the classic Rayleigh-Ritz method. The surface stress caused by the enzymatic reaction of the proteins that leads to pure bending on the top surface of the cantilever is evaluated. The information provided by the experimental and analytical modeling reported in this work will be useful in the development of a portable biosensor for the detection of AMI.

  14. Bioenzymatic detection of troponin C using micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Amritsar, Jeetender; Stiharu, Ion; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis and monitoring of critical diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) require a quantitative analysis of biological molecules. A high-throughput identification of these biological molecules can be generated by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) structures like simple cantilever beams, which respond to the intermolecular forces resulting from binding these molecules. Biochemical markers like troponin C are considered the primary markers for myocardial injury and have generated considerable interest. A 26-residue lytic membrane protein of bee venom melittin (ME) is chosen to interact with rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C (TnC) on the surface of the cantilever beams. An optical beam deflection method is employed to identify the enzymatic reaction on the surface of the cantilever due to these proteins. Identification of these proteins is also done using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) to compliment the optical monitored deflection method. A second set of proteins like horse radish peroxide (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are applied to atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever beams to study their behavior under the enzymatic reactions of proteins. Identification of these proteins is done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). An analytical model of the cantilever beam is developed, and its mode shapes are studied by employing orthogonal polynomials in the classic Rayleigh-Ritz method. The surface stress caused by the enzymatic reaction of the proteins that leads to pure bending on the top surface of the cantilever is evaluated. The information provided by the experimental and analytical modeling reported in this work will be useful in the development of a portable biosensor for the detection of AMI.

  15. MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) for Automotive and Consumer Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Jiri; Gómez, Udo-Martin

    MEMS sensors gained over the last two decades an impressive width of applications: (a) ESP: A car is skidding and stabilizes itself without driver intervention (b) Free-fall detection: A laptop falls to the floor and protects the hard drive by parking the read/write drive head automatically before impact. (c) Airbag: An airbag fires before the driver/occupant involved in an impending automotive crash impacts the steering wheel, thereby significantly reducing physical injury risk. MEMS sensors are sensing the environmental conditions and are giving input to electronic control systems. These crucial MEMS sensors are making system reactions to human needs more intelligent, precise, and at much faster reaction rates than humanly possible. Important prerequisites for the success of sensors are their size, functionality, power consumption, and costs. This technical progress in sensor development is realized by micro-machining. The development of these processes was the breakthrough to industrial mass-production for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Besides leading-edge micromechanical processes, innovative and robust ASIC designs, thorough simulations of the electrical and mechanical behaviour, a deep understanding of the interactions (mainly over temperature and lifetime) of the package and the mechanical structures are needed. This was achieved over the last 20 years by intense and successful development activities combined with the experience of volume production of billions of sensors. This chapter gives an overview of current MEMS technology, its applications and the market share. The MEMS processes are described, and the challenges of MEMS, compared to standard IC fabrication, are discussed. The evolution of MEMS requirements is presented, and a short survey of MEMS applications is shown. Concepts of newest inertial sensors for ESP-systems are given with an emphasis on the design concepts of the sensing element and the evaluation circuit for achieving

  16. Seamless Resource-Adaptive Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Tim; Stahl, Christoph; Baus, Jörg; Wahlster, Wolfgang

    Research in the project RENA (REsource-Adapative NAvigation) together with DFKI GmbH, BMW Research and Technology AG, and Eyeled GmbH has been concerned with the conceptual and methodological foundations and the design of a resource-adaptive platform for seamless outdoor and indoor navigation that can serve as a basis for product development by the companies in the RENA consortium. Future in-car assistance systems will have a user interface, which adapts to the driveŕs current exposure caused by the actual traffic situation.

  17. Seamless multiresolution isosurfaces using wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Udeshi, T.; Hudson, R.; Papka, M. E.

    2000-04-11

    Data sets that are being produced by today's simulations, such as the ones generated by DOE's ASCI program, are too large for real-time exploration and visualization. Therefore, new methods of visualizing these data sets need to be investigated. The authors present a method that combines isosurface representations of different resolutions into a seamless solution, virtually free of cracks and overlaps. The solution combines existing isosurface generation algorithms and wavelet theory to produce a real-time solution to multiple-resolution isosurfaces.

  18. Development of Electro-Mechanical Spinning for Controlled Deposition of Carbon Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canton, Giulia

    In the past few decades the fields of nanotechnology and miniaturized devices had an exponentially growth of interest in academic and research environment, leading to breakthroughs discoveries that are envisioned to have a profound impact on our economy and society in the near future. Recently, the focus is moving toward the development of technologies that enable the production of micro- /nano-devices on a larger scale and at lower costs. Among the different micro- /nano-devices manufacturing challenges, in this dissertation the aim is to reliably fabricate suspend carbon micro- /nano-fibers between two carbon electrode walls in a way that can be mass produced at relatively low cost. The first part of this thesis provides an in depth overview of current methods used for the fabrication of carbon based micro devices (C-MEMS) and of electrospinning, a manufacturing technology that emerges as a simple and inexpensive approach to produce nanofibers. Electro-Mechanical Spinning (EMS) has been developed from electrospinning and optimized for the production of suspended carbon nanofibers, aiming to achieve greater deposition control at the single nanofiber level, while maintaining the low cost of electrospinning. After the successful development of EMS, the so fabricated carbon micro- /nano-fibers have been characterized, first from the electrical point of view, then from the mechanical one. The electrical characterization involves conductivity measurements of fibers with respect of different and controllable manufacturing processes steps. Variations of those manufacturing parameters have been proven to be capable of tailoring the carbon structure and, therefore, the conductivity of the fibers within a desired range. Further investigation regarding the electrical properties was also conducted to prevent (or control) current induced fiber breakdown. Finally, the Young's modulus of those fibers was investigated and observed to be dependent on the fibers thickness

  19. Parametric resonance voltage response of electrostatically actuated Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems cantilever resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruntu, Dumitru I.; Martinez, Israel; W. Knecht, Martin

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the parametric resonance voltage response of nonlinear parametrically actuated Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) cantilever resonators. A soft AC voltage of frequency near natural frequency is applied between the resonator and a parallel ground plate. This produces an electrostatic force that leads the structure into parametric resonance. The model consists of an Euler-Bernoulli thin cantilever under the actuation of electrostatic force to include fringe effect, and damping force. Two methods of investigation are used, namely the Method of Multiple Scales (MMS) and Reduced Order Model (ROM) method. ROM convergence of the voltage response and the limitation of MMS to small to moderate amplitudes with respect to the gap (gap-amplitudes) are reported. MMS predicts accurately both Hopf supercritical and supercritical bifurcation voltages. However, MMS overestimates the large gap-amplitudes of the resonator, and. misses completely or overestimates the saddle-node bifurcation occurring at large gap-amplitudes. ROM produces valid results for small and/or large gap-amplitudes for a sufficient number of terms (vibration modes). As the voltage is swept up at constant frequency, the resonator maintains zero amplitude until reaches the subcritical Hopf bifurcation voltage where it loses stability and jumps up to large gap-amplitudes, next the gap-amplitude decreases until it reaches the supercritical Hopf bifurcation point, and after that the gap-amplitude remains zero, for the voltage range considered in this work. As the voltage is swept down at constant frequency, the zero gap-amplitude of the resonator starts increasing continuously after reaching the supercritical Hopf bifurcation voltage until it reaches the saddle-node bifurcation voltage when a sudden jump to zero gap-amplitude occurs. Effects of frequency, damping and fringe parameters on the voltage response show that (1) the supercritical Hopf bifurcation is shifted to lower voltage

  20. Development of high resolution eddy current imaging using an electro-mechanical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, M. R.; Sathish, S.; Welter, J.; Reibel, R.; Blodgett, M. P.

    2012-05-01

    Typical eddy current probes are based on measuring the impedance change of a coil excited by an AC current when the coil is placed above a conductive sample. These types of probes are limited in spatial resolution to the dimensions of the coil, and coil diameter is limited by operating frequency. Because of this, the highest resolution available with these probes is on the order of 100 um. While detecting the impedance change of the probe has limited special resolution, various methods of detecting the change in magnetic field in and around the coil have been shown to improve the resolution of a standard coil. These methods have improved the resolution in eddy current imaging to 25 nm. To date, the resolutions achievable by modern eddy current technology have failed to encompass the 100nm - 100 um range, which would be ideal for microstructure characterization of conductive materials. In this paper, a new probe, called the electro-mechanical eddy current sensor (EMECS), is presented that is based on the electromechanical design to fill this resolution gap. The new probe is designed and developed with a sharpened magnetic tip attached to the membrane of an electret microphone. The magnet is actuated by an external coil with a low current AC voltage. The motion of the magnet produces eddy currents in a conductive sample, which then result in a damping force on the magnet. The results of the experimental measurements demonstrate that this probe has spatial resolution that is much higher compared with the measurements using the external excitation coil only. The role of competing eddy currents produced by the motion of the magnet and the excitation coil in the material are examined with numerical analysis and the effects of the eddy currents from the excitation coil are shown to be negligible. A governing equation for the probe is presented that treats the magnet as a magnetic dipole and uses the eddy current forces as a damping term in the equation of motion for the

  1. Small wind turbine performance evaluation using field test data and a coupled aero-electro-mechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Brian D.

    A series of field tests and theoretical analyses were performed on various wind turbine rotor designs at two Penn State residential-scale wind-electric facilities. This work involved the prediction and experimental measurement of the electrical and aerodynamic performance of three wind turbines; a 3 kW rated Whisper 175, 2.4 kW rated Skystream 3.7, and the Penn State designed Carolus wind turbine. Both the Skystream and Whisper 175 wind turbines are OEM blades which were originally installed at the facilities. The Carolus rotor is a carbon-fiber composite 2-bladed machine, designed and assembled at Penn State, with the intent of replacing the Whisper 175 rotor at the off-grid system. Rotor aerodynamic performance is modeled using WT_Perf, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed Blade Element Momentum theory based performance prediction code. Steady-state power curves are predicted by coupling experimentally determined electrical characteristics with the aerodynamic performance of the rotor simulated with WT_Perf. A dynamometer test stand is used to establish the electromechanical efficiencies of the wind-electric system generator. Through the coupling of WT_Perf and dynamometer test results, an aero-electro-mechanical analysis procedure is developed and provides accurate predictions of wind system performance. The analysis of three different wind turbines gives a comprehensive assessment of the capability of the field test facilities and the accuracy of aero-electro-mechanical analysis procedures. Results from this study show that the Carolus and Whisper 175 rotors are running at higher tip-speed ratios than are optimum for power production. The aero-electro-mechanical analysis predicted the high operating tip-speed ratios of the rotors and was accurate at predicting output power for the systems. It is shown that the wind turbines operate at high tip-speeds because of a miss-match between the aerodynamic drive torque and the operating torque of the wind

  2. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electro-mechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-07-01

    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based devices provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as the characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on the design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis of the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for the mechanical characterization of tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0 μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make them conducting. The electro-mechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers a 180 μm  ×  180 μm area and the size of the complete device is 20 mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1 mm and the thickness was 8 μm. The region of interest was 200 μm  ×  200 μm. A microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancers breast tissue specimens.

  3. Micro-optical design of a three-dimensional microlens scanner for vertically integrated micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Maciej; Bargiel, Sylwester; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Jia, Chenping; Frömel, Jörg; Wiemer, Maik

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the optical design of a miniature 3D scanning system, which is fully compatible with the vertical integration technology of micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The constraints related to this integration strategy are considered, resulting in a simple three-element micro-optical setup based on an afocal scanning microlens doublet and a focusing microlens, which is tolerant to axial position inaccuracy. The 3D scanning is achieved by axial and lateral displacement of microlenses of the scanning doublet, realized by micro-electro-mechanical systems microactuators (the transmission scanning approach). Optical scanning performance of the system is determined analytically by use of the extended ray transfer matrix method, leading to two different optical configurations, relying either on a ball lens or plano-convex microlenses. The presented system is aimed to be a core component of miniature MOEMS-based optical devices, which require a 3D optical scanning function, e.g., miniature imaging systems (confocal or optical coherence microscopes) or optical tweezers.

  4. Chaos control of the micro-electro-mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shaohua; Sun, Quanping; Cheng, Wei

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses chaos control of the micro-electro- mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer. To reveal the mechanism of the micro- electro-mechanical resonator, the phase diagrams and corresponding time histories are given to research the nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior, and Homoclinic and heteroclinic chaos which relate closely with the appearance of chaos are presented based on the potential function. To eliminate the effect of chaos, an adaptive dynamic surface control scheme with extended state observer is designed to convert random motion into regular motion without precise system model parameters and measured variables. Putting tracking differentiator into chaos controller solves the `explosion of complexity' of backstepping and poor precision of the first-order filters. Meanwhile, to obtain high performance, a neural network with adaptive law is employed to approximate unknown nonlinear function in the process of controller design. The boundedness of all the signals of the closed-loop system is proved in theoretical analysis. Finally, numerical simulations are executed and extensive results illustrate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  5. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budianto, A.; Tawi, K. B.; Hussein, M.; Supriyo, B.; Ariyono, S.; Che Kob, M. S.; Ezlamy Zulkifli, Mohd; K, Khairuldean A.; Daraoh, Aishah

    2012-09-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  6. Subcritical crack growth in SiNx thin-film barriers studied by electro-mechanical two-point bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Qingling; Laven, Jozua; Bouten, Piet C. P.; de With, Gijsbertus

    2013-06-01

    Mechanical failure resulting from subcritical crack growth in the SiNx inorganic barrier layer applied on a flexible multilayer structure was studied by an electro-mechanical two-point bending method. A 10 nm conducting tin-doped indium oxide layer was sputtered as an electrical probe to monitor the subcritical crack growth in the 150 nm dielectric SiNx layer carried by a polyethylene naphthalate substrate. In the electro-mechanical two-point bending test, dynamic and static loads were applied to investigate the crack propagation in the barrier layer. As consequence of using two loading modes, the characteristic failure strain and failure time could be determined. The failure probability distribution of strain and lifetime under each loading condition was described by Weibull statistics. In this study, results from the tests in dynamic and static loading modes were linked by a power law description to determine the critical failure over a range of conditions. The fatigue parameter n from the power law reduces greatly from 70 to 31 upon correcting for internal strain. The testing method and analysis tool as described in the paper can be used to understand the limit of thin-film barriers in terms of their mechanical properties.

  7. A Seamless Ubiquitous Telehealthcare Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lin, Bor-Shing; Yu, Chu; Hu, Shun-Hsiang; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields. PMID:23917812

  8. A seamless ubiquitous telehealthcare tunnel.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lin, Bor-Shing; Yu, Chu; Hu, Shun-Hsiang; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2013-08-02

    Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields.

  9. An Investigation into the Response of a Micro Electro Mechanical Compound Pivot Mirror Using Finite Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    GASS, FAWN R.; DOHNER, JEFFREY L.

    2002-01-01

    This report is a presentation of modeling and simulation work for analyzing three designs of Micro Electro Mechanical (MEM) Compound Pivot Mirrors (CPM). These CPMs were made at Sandia National Laboratories using the SUMMiT{trademark} process. At 75 volts and above, initial experimental analysis of fabricated mirrors showed tilt angles of up to 7.5 degrees for one design, and 5 degrees for the other two. Nevertheless, geometric design models predicted higher tilt angles. Therefore, a detailed study was conducted to explain why lower tilt angles occurred and if design modifications could be made to produce higher tilt angles at lower voltages. This study showed that the spring stiffnesses of the CPMs were too great to allow for desired levels of rotation at lower levels of voltage. To produce these lower stiffnesses, a redesign is needed.

  10. An integrated electro-mechanical model of motor-gear units—Applications to tooth fault detection by electric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feki, N.; Clerc, G.; Velex, Ph.

    2012-05-01

    Fault diagnosis in geared transmissions is traditionally based on vibration monitoring but, in a number of cases, sensor implementation and signal transfer from rotary to stationary parts can cause problems. This paper presents an original integrated electro-mechanical model aimed at testing the possibility and the interest of tooth fault detection based on electric measurements on the motor stator. The motor is simulated using Kron's transformation while the mechanical transmission is accounted for by a lumped parameter model. Tooth defects are assimilated to distributions of initial separations between the mating flanks whose positions and shapes are controlled. A unique non-linear parametrically excited differential system is obtained, which provides direct access to both the electrical and mechanical variables. A number of results are presented, which illustrate the possibility of tooth fault detection by stator current measurements with regard to the position and dimensions of the defect.

  11. Evaluation of performance of portable respiratory monitoring system based on micro-electro-mechanical-system for respiratory gated radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Sun Young; Sung, Jiwon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Chung, Mijoo; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-08-01

    In respiratory-gated radiotherapy of patients with lung or liver cancer, the patient's respiratory pattern and repeatability are important factors affecting therapy accuracy; it has been reported that these factors can be controlled if patients undergo respiration training. As such, this study evaluates the feasibility of micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) in radiotherapy by investigating the effect of radiation on a miniature portable respiratory monitoring system based on the MEMS system, which is currently under development. Using a patient respiration simulation phantom, the time-acceleration graph measured by a normal sensor according to the phantom's respiratory movement before irradiation and the change in this graph with accumulated dose were compared using the baseline slope and the change in amplitude and period of the sine wave. The results showed that with a 400Gy accumulated dose in the sensor, a baseline shift occurred and both the amplitude and period changed. As a result, if the MEMS is applied in respiratory-gated radiotherapy, the sensor should be replaced after use with roughly 6-10 patients so as to ensure continued therapy accuracy, based on the characteristics of the sensor itself. In the future, a more diverse range of sensors should be similarly evaluated.

  12. An Adaptive Compensation Algorithm for Temperature Drift of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Gyroscopes Using a Strong Tracking Kalman Filter

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yibo; Li, Xisheng; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model and changing but appropriate model parameters to implement this algorithm. The model of MEMS gyroscope temperature drift is constructed mostly on the basis of the temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. As the state variables of a strong tracking Kalman filter (STKF), the parameters of the temperature drift model can be calculated to adapt to the environment under the support of the compass. These parameters change intelligently with the environment to maintain the precision of the MEMS gyroscope in the changing temperature. The heading error is less than 0.6° in the static temperature experiment, and also is kept in the range from 5° to −2° in the dynamic outdoor experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed algorithm exhibits strong adaptability to a changing temperature, and performs significantly better than KF and MLR to compensate the temperature drift of a gyroscope and eliminate the influence of temperature variation. PMID:25985165

  13. An adaptive compensation algorithm for temperature drift of micro-electro-mechanical systems gyroscopes using a strong tracking Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yibo; Li, Xisheng; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-05-13

    We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model and changing but appropriate model parameters to implement this algorithm. The model of MEMS gyroscope temperature drift is constructed mostly on the basis of the temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. As the state variables of a strong tracking Kalman filter (STKF), the parameters of the temperature drift model can be calculated to adapt to the environment under the support of the compass. These parameters change intelligently with the environment to maintain the precision of the MEMS gyroscope in the changing temperature. The heading error is less than 0.6° in the static temperature experiment, and also is kept in the range from 5° to -2° in the dynamic outdoor experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed algorithm exhibits strong adaptability to a changing temperature, and performs significantly better than KF and MLR to compensate the temperature drift of a gyroscope and eliminate the influence of temperature variation.

  14. Development of High Precision Metal Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems Column for Portable Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Chromatograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaya, Takamitsu; Akao, Shingo; Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Nakaso, Noritaka; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2012-07-01

    In the field of environmental measurement and security, a portable gas chromatograph (GC) is required for the on-site analysis of multiple hazardous gases. Although the gas separation column has been downsized using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology, an MEMS column made of silicon and glass still does not have sufficient robustness and a sufficiently low fabrication cost for a portable GC. In this study, we fabricated a robust and inexpensive high-precision metal MEMS column by combining diffusion-bonded etched stainless-steel plates with alignment evaluation using acoustic microscopy. The separation performance was evaluated using a desktop GC with a flame ionization detector and we achieved the high separation performance comparable to the best silicon MEMS column fabricated using a dynamic coating method. As an application, we fabricated a palm-size surface acoustic wave (SAW) GC combining this column with a ball SAW sensor and succeeded in separating and detecting a mixture of volatile organic compounds.

  15. Mobile Seamless Technology Enhanced CSL Oral Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating how mobile seamless technology can be used to enhance the pragmatic competence of learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL). 34 overseas CSL learners participated in this study. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the classroom group, executing language tasks in fake contexts in a traditional…

  16. Damage Detection Based on Power Dissipation Measured with PZT Sensors through the Combination of Electro-Mechanical Impedances and Guided Waves

    PubMed Central

    Sevillano, Enrique; Sun, Rui; Perera, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric ceramic transducers (such as Lead-Zirconate-Titanate—PZT) has become more and more widespread for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. Among all the techniques that are based on this smart sensing solution, guided waves and electro-mechanical impedance techniques have found wider acceptance, and so more studies and experimental works can be found containing these applications. However, even though these two techniques can be considered as complementary to each other, little work can be found focused on the combination of them in order to define a new and integrated damage detection procedure. In this work, this combination of techniques has been studied by proposing a new integrated damage indicator based on Electro-Mechanical Power Dissipation (EMPD). The applicability of this proposed technique has been tested through different experimental tests, with both lab-scale and real-scale structures. PMID:27164104

  17. Load monitoring of aerospace structures utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems for static and quasi-static loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Rocha, B.; Li, M.; Shi, G.; Beltempo, A.; Rutledge, R.; Yanishevsky, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Research Council Canada (NRC) has worked on the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) test platforms for assessing the performance of sensor systems for load monitoring applications. The first SHM platform consists of a 5.5 m cantilever aluminum beam that provides an optimal scenario for evaluating the ability of a load monitoring system to measure bending, torsion and shear loads. The second SHM platform contains an added level of structural complexity, by consisting of aluminum skins with bonded/riveted stringers, typical of an aircraft lower wing structure. These two load monitoring platforms are well characterized and documented, providing loading conditions similar to those encountered during service. In this study, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for acquiring data from triads of gyroscopes, accelerometers and magnetometers is described. The system was used to compute changes in angles at discrete stations along the platforms. The angles obtained from the MEMS were used to compute a second, third or fourth order degree polynomial surface from which displacements at every point could be computed. The use of a new Kalman filter was evaluated for angle estimation, from which displacements in the structure were computed. The outputs of the newly developed algorithms were then compared to the displacements obtained from the linear variable displacement transducers connected to the platforms. The displacement curves were subsequently post-processed either analytically, or with the help of a finite element model of the structure, to estimate strains and loads. The estimated strains were compared with baseline strain gauge instrumentation installed on the platforms. This new approach for load monitoring was able to provide accurate estimates of applied strains and shear loads.

  18. On-Chip Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Fourier Transform Infrared (MEMS FT-IR) Spectrometer-Based Gas Sensing.

    PubMed

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M; Sakr, Mohammad; Mortada, Bassem; Medhat, Mostafa; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we study the detection of acetylene (C2H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) gases in the near-infrared (NIR) range using an on-chip silicon micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer in the wavelength range 1300-2500 nm (4000-7692 cm(-1)). The spectrometer core engine is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using a deep-etching technology producing self-aligned components. The light is free-space propagating in-plane with respect to the silicon chip substrate. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator corresponding to about 30 cm(-1) resolution. Multi-mode optical fibers are used to connect light between the wideband light source, the interferometer, the 10 cm gas cell, and the optical detector. A wide dynamic range of gas concentration down to 2000 parts per million (ppm) in only 10 cm length gas cell is demonstrated. Extending the wavelength range to the mid-infrared (MIR) range up to 4200 nm (2380 cm(-1)) is also experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, using a bulk micro-machined on-chip MEMS FT-IR spectrometer. The obtained results open the door for an on-chip optical gas sensor for many applications including environmental sensing and industrial process control in the NIR/MIR spectral ranges.

  19. High temperature measurement set-up for the electro-mechanical characterization of robust thin film systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, S.; Friedberger, A.; Seidel, H.; Schmid, U.

    2014-01-01

    Due to economic and environmental requirements there is a strong need both to increase the efficiency and to monitor the actual status of gas turbines, rocket engines and deep drilling systems. For these applications, micromachined pressure sensors based on a robust substrate material (e.g. sapphire) as well as strain gauges made of platinum for long-term stable operation are regarded as most promising to withstand harsh environments such as high temperature levels, aggressive media and/or high pressure loads. For pre-evaluation purposes, a novel, custom-built measurement set-up is presented allowing the determination of electro-mechanical thin film properties up to 850 °C. Key components of the measurement set-up are the one-sided clamped beam made of Al2O3 ceramics which is deflected by a quartz rod and a high precision encoder-controlled dc motor to drive the quartz rod. The specific arrangement of the infrared halogen heaters in combination with the gold coated quartz half shells ensures a high degree of temperature homogeneity along the beam axis. When exposed to tensile as well as compressive load conditions, the corresponding gauge factor values of 1 µm thick platinum thin films show a good comparison at room temperature and in the temperature range from 600 up to 850 °C where the effects originating from grain boundaries or from the film surfaces are negligible. Between 150 and 600 °C, however, a strong deviation in the gauge factor determination depending on the mechanical load condition is observed, which is attributed to the gliding of adjacent grains.

  20. Vibro-Acoustic Analysis of Computer Disk Drive Components with Emphasis on Electro-Mechanical Noise Sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Ran

    Vibro-acoustic characteristics of compact electro -mechanical devices are not well understood. This study examines fundamental research issues in this area through the example case of a 3.5" personal computer hard disk drive. In particular, a narrow band mathematical model of the drive has been developed to predict prominent pure tones over the high frequency range (1-6.5 KHz). Through detailed analytical studies, it has been found that the motor torque pulsation of the brushless d.c. motor is the source for this noise problem. Accordingly, a simplified disk drive model consisting of motor driving a single disk is used to investigate key components, with emphasis on the development of new mathematical models to describe the source, path and radiator characteristics. Two different mathematical models have been developed for brushless d.c. motor to predict the torque spectrum associated with invertor switching logic, pulse width modulation control scheme, eccentricity, and magnetic saturation. Frequency contents of predicted variables are identified and matched with measured sound data. Additionally, the Galerkin's method (or modified harmonic balance) is also employed successfully to develop an efficient computational scheme which predicts the Fourier coefficients of torque pulsations directly including various effects associated with inductance harmonics and the fluctuation of rotor angular velocity. For the radiator (annular disk), modal base formulations of sound radiation have been developed by approximating disk eigen-functions. Specifically, the effects of modal coupling and source rotation on radiated sound are investigated. Analytical predictions match well with numerical results obtained by using a boundary element program. New mobility transfer functions (path) are derived to couple the source and radiator formulations in order to construct an overall vibro-acoustic model. Potential areas of further research including experimental validation are discussed.

  1. Electro-Mechanical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This electromechanical technician curriculum covers the following general areas: (1) basic soldering; (2) reading diagrams and following schematics; and (3) repairing circuitry and mechanics common to major appliances, vending machines, amusement equipment, and small office machines. The manual includes the following sections: (1) course…

  2. 49 CFR 180.212 - Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification... Qualification, Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.212 Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles. (a) General requirements for repair of DOT...

  3. 49 CFR 180.212 - Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification..., Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.212 Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles. (a) General requirements for repair of DOT 3-series cylinders and...

  4. 49 CFR 180.212 - Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification..., Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.212 Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles. (a) General requirements for repair of DOT 3-series cylinders and...

  5. 49 CFR 180.212 - Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification..., Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.212 Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles. (a) General requirements for repair of DOT 3-series cylinders and...

  6. Developing seamless shaped woven medical products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K; Seyam, A M

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the cutting and sewing process is utilized to produce medical products with tailored shape, which leads to a number of adverse consequences due to seams. These drawbacks have prompted us to undertake research to develop new methods by which seamless tubular woven products with inherent shape could be produced. The methods could potentially lead to the design and production of seamless shaped textiles that might be used in a wide variety of medical applications. Three variables were tested, specifically yarn shrinkage, weave designs, and thread density. A variety of samples were woven using different combinations of these variables to create structures with different shrinkage properties. Upon finishing in a solution containing a surfactant and soda ash, the structures experience different degrees of shrinkage resulting in desired shapes. Length and width dimensions of each sample were taken before and after finishing. The change in sample shape due to differential shrinkage in terms of yarn shrinkage, weave, and thread density is reported.

  7. Automated Hydroforming of Seamless Superconducting RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Tomohiko; Shinozawa, Seiichi; Abe, Noriyuki; Nagakubo, Junki; Murakami, Hirohiko; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Yamanaka, Masashi; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-07-31

    We are studying the possibility of automated hydroforming process for seamless superconducting RF cavities. Preliminary hydroforming tests of three-cell cavities from seamless tubes made of C1020 copper have been performed. The key point of an automated forming is to monitor and strictly control some parameters such as operation time, internal pressure and material displacements. Especially, it is necessary for our studies to be able to control axial and radial deformation independently. We plan to perform the forming in two stages to increase the reliability of successful forming. In the first stage hydroforming by using intermediate constraint dies, three-cell cavities were successfully formed in less than 1 minute. In parallel, we did elongation tests on cavity-quality niobium and confirmed that it is possible to achieve an elongation of >64% in 2 stages that is required for our forming of 1.3 GHz cavities.

  8. QUENCH STUDIES AND PREHEATING ANALYSIS OF SEAMLESS

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli; Eremeev, Grigory

    2013-09-01

    One of the alternative manufacturing technologies for SRF cavities is hydroforming from seamless tubes. Although this technology has produced cavities with gradient and Q-values comparable to standard EBW/EP cavities, a few questions remain. One of these questions is whether the quench mechanism in hydroformed cavities is the same as in standard electron beam welded cavities. Towards this effort Jefferson Lab performed quench studies on 2 9 cell seamless hydroformed cavities. These cavities include DESY's - Z163 and Z164 nine-cell cavities hydroformed at DESY. Initial Rf test results Z163 were published in SRF2011. In this report we will present post JLAB surface re-treatment quench studies for each cavity. The data will include OST and T-mapping quench localization as well as quench location preheating analysis comparing them to the observations in standard electron beam welded cavities.

  9. Network transcoder with seamless switching function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Naoki; Hata, Toshihiko; Nozawa, Toshiharu; Vetro, Anthony

    2004-10-01

    In a surveillance system with a huge number of cameras, the number of videos to be transmitted and displayed is usually restricted by network bandwidth and the resource of display terminal. Given that the source video is captured at high quality, a network transcoder is used to send video with lower data rate as the default for ordinary scenes, while only extraordinary or unusual scenes are sent with higher quality. With such a scenario, it is necessary to switch from a low quality version of the video to a higher quality video with low latency and in a seamless manner. This paper presents a network transcoder that is able to change the content and the quality of videos seamlessly and with low latency. The novelty of the proposed scheme is possible to change the quality and camera in the same session. Moreover, this paper describes an RTSP enhancement that enables this dynamic transcoding function. Finally, an evaluation of the results is provided.

  10. A nanoscale composite material for enhanced damage tolerance in micro and nano-electro-mechanical systems and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjpye, Alok

    A laminar composite material with alternating layers of residual compressive and tensile stresses has previously been shown to offer enhanced tolerance to fracture in macroscale ceramic components. In this work, a similarly damage-tolerant composite material with micro and nano-scale laminae has been developed as an alternative to monolithic silicon for the fabrication of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). The motivation for this work arises out of the repeated mechanical failure of prototype MEMS-based microscale surgical tools when subject to shock or impact loads, in spite of rigorous design features for minimizing such failures. This behavior can be attributed to the low fracture toughness of silicon and is a general characteristic of brittle materials, particular ceramics. Fittingly, the solution proposed here is inspired by earlier research in the ceramics community. Structures of a Silicon and Silicon Oxide laminar composite were fabricated with micrometer range laminae widths. This represents a model, scalable material system due to the covalent bonded interface between the laminae materials. Tests performed on these cantilevers to measure their fracture properties, showed higher minimum fracture stresses displayed by composite cantilevers in comparison with identical monolithic silicon structures. Moreover, these minima match well with the "threshold" stress, a lower bound on the fracture stress of this composite predicted from theoretical considerations. A more complete model for the fracture properties of this material was also developed, removing an important assumption of the existing theory, which limits its application to some material systems. The updated theory models the effect of the laminar structure of the composite as an effective anisotropy in its properties with regard to stress fields around any cracks in the material. The predictions from this model are shown to better replicate results from finite element simulations of laminate

  11. Effects of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation-Induced Electrical Remodeling on Atrial Electro-Mechanics – Insights from a 3D Model of the Human Atria

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, David H.; Garratt, Clifford J.; Ye, Jianqiao; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Aims Atrial stunning, a loss of atrial mechanical contraction, can occur following a successful cardioversion. It is hypothesized that persistent atrial fibrillation-induced electrical remodeling (AFER) on atrial electrophysiology may be responsible for such impaired atrial mechanics. This simulation study aimed to investigate the effects of AFER on atrial electro-mechanics. Methods and Results A 3D electromechanical model of the human atria was developed to investigate the effects of AFER on atrial electro-mechanics. Simulations were carried out in 3 conditions for 4 states: (i) the control condition, representing the normal tissue (state 1) and the tissue 2–3 months after cardioversion (state 2) when the atrial tissue recovers its electrophysiological properties after completion of reverse electrophysiological remodelling; (ii) AFER-SR condition for AF-remodeled tissue with normal sinus rhythm (SR) (state 3); and (iii) AFER-AF condition for AF-remodeled tissue with re-entrant excitation waves (state 4). Our results indicate that at the cellular level, AFER (states 3 & 4) abbreviated action potentials and reduced the Ca2+ content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, resulting in a reduced amplitude of the intracellular Ca2+ transient leading to decreased cell active force and cell shortening as compared to the control condition (states 1 & 2). Consequently at the whole organ level, atrial contraction in AFER-SR condition (state 3) was dramatically reduced. In the AFER-AF condition (state 4) atrial contraction was almost abolished. Conclusions This study provides novel insights into understanding atrial electro-mechanics illustrating that AFER impairs atrial contraction due to reduced intracellular Ca2+ transients. PMID:26606047

  12. Seamless wireless networking for video surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, D.; Chiew, T.-K.; Ferre, P.; Bull, David R.; Nix, A. R.; Doufexi, A.; Chung-How, J.; Nicholson, Didier

    2005-03-01

    The EU FP6 WCAM (Wireless Cameras and Audio-Visual Seamless Networking) project aims to study, develop and validate a wireless, seamless and secured end-to-end networked audio-visual system for video surveillance and multimedia distribution applications. This paper describes the video transmission aspects of the project, with contributions in the areas of H.264 video delivery over wireless LANs. The planned demonstrations under WCAM include the transmission of H.264 coded material over 802.11b/g networks with TCP/IP and UDP/IP being employed as the transport and network layers over unicast and multicast links. UDP based unicast and multicast transmissions pose the problem of packet erasures while TCP based transmission is associated with long delays and the need for a large jitter buffer. This paper presents measurement data that have been collected at the WCAM trial site along with analysis of the data, including characterisation of the channel conditions as well as recommendations on the optimal operating parameters for each of the above transmission scenarios (e.g. jitter buffer sizes, packet error rates, etc.). Recommendations for error resilient coding algorithms and packetisation strategies are made in order to moderate the effect of the observed packet erasures on the quality of the transmitted video. Advanced error concealment methods for masking the effects of packet erasures at the receiver/decoder are also described.

  13. Performance of 3-cell Seamless Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, Peter K.; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Jelezov, I.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.

    2009-11-01

    In the last several months we have surface treated and cryogenically tested three TESLA-type 3-cell cavities, which had been manufactured at DESY as seamless assemblies by hydroforming. The cavities were completed at JLab with beam tube/flange assemblies. All three cavities performed very well after they had been post-purified with titanium at 1250C for 3 hrs. The cavities, two of which consisted of an end cell and 2 center cells and one was a center cell assembly, achieved gradients of Eacc = 32 MV/m, 34 MV/m and 35 MV/m without quenches. The performance was limited by the appearance of the “Q-drop” in the absence of field emission. This contribution reports about the various measurements undertaken with these cavities.

  14. Seamless presentation capture, indexing, and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, David M.; Cooper, Matthew; Denoue, Laurent; Adcock, John; Billsus, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    Technology abounds for capturing presentations. However, no simple solution exists that is completely automatic. ProjectorBox is a "zero user interaction" appliance that automatically captures, indexes, and manages presentation multimedia. It operates continuously to record the RGB information sent from presentation devices, such as a presenter's laptop, to display devices, such as a projector. It seamlessly captures high-resolution slide images, text and audio. It requires no operator, specialized software, or changes to current presentation practice. Automatic media analysis is used to detect presentation content and segment presentations. The analysis substantially enhances the web-based user interface for browsing, searching, and exporting captured presentations. ProjectorBox has been in use for over a year in our corporate conference room, and has been deployed in two universities. Our goal is to develop automatic capture services that address both corporate and educational needs.

  15. Seamless view synthesis through texture optimization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenxiu; Au, Oscar C; Xu, Lingfeng; Li, Yujun; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel view synthesis method named Visto, which uses a reference input view to generate synthesized views in nearby viewpoints. We formulate the problem as a joint optimization of inter-view texture and depth map similarity, a framework that is significantly different from other traditional approaches. As such, Visto tends to implicitly inherit the image characteristics from the reference view without the explicit use of image priors or texture modeling. Visto assumes that each patch is available in both the synthesized and reference views and thus can be applied to the common area between the two views but not the out-of-region area at the border of the synthesized view. Visto uses a Gauss–Seidel-like iterative approach to minimize the energy function. Simulation results suggest that Visto can generate seamless virtual views and outperform other state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Seamless elastic boundaries for atomistic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastewka, Lars; Sharp, Tristan A.; Robbins, Mark O.

    2012-08-01

    Modeling interfacial phenomena often requires both a detailed atomistic description of surface interactions and accurate calculations of long-range deformations in the substrate. The latter can be efficiently obtained using an elastic Green's function if substrate deformations are small. We present a general formulation for rapidly computing the Green's function for a planar surface given the interatomic interactions, and then coupling the Green's function to explicit atoms. The approach is fast, avoids ghost forces, and is not limited to nearest-neighbor interactions. The full system comprising explicit interfacial atoms and an elastic substrate is described by a single Hamiltonian and interactions in the substrate are treated exactly up to harmonic order. This concurrent multiscale coupling provides simple, seamless elastic boundary conditions for atomistic simulations where near-surface deformations occur, such as nanoindentation, contact, friction, or fracture. Applications to surface relaxation and contact are used to test and illustrate the approach.

  17. Time to make the doughnuts: Building and shaping seamless tubes.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Meera V; Cohen, Jennifer D

    2016-05-10

    A seamless tube is a very narrow-bore tube that is composed of a single cell with an intracellular lumen and no adherens or tight junctions along its length. Many capillaries in the vertebrate vascular system are seamless tubes. Seamless tubes also are found in invertebrate organs, including the Drosophila trachea and the Caenorhabditis elegans excretory system. Seamless tube cells can be less than a micron in diameter, and they can adopt very simple "doughnut-like" shapes or very complex, branched shapes comparable to those of neurons. The unusual topology and varied shapes of seamless tubes raise many basic cell biological questions about how cells form and maintain such structures. The prevalence of seamless tubes in the vascular system means that answering such questions has significant relevance to human health. In this review, we describe selected examples of seamless tubes in animals and discuss current models for how seamless tubes develop and are shaped, focusing particularly on insights that have come from recent studies in Drosophila and C. elegans.

  18. Electro-Mechanical Manipulator for Use in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Site - 12454

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, Bill; Dixon, Joe; Neuville, John R.

    2012-07-01

    One of the legacies of the cold war is millions of liters of radioactive waste. One of the locations where this waste is stored is at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A major effort to clean up this waste is on-going at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) at SRS. A piece of this effort is decontamination of the equipment used in the DWPF to process the waste. The remote equipment decontamination cell (REDC) in the DWPF uses electro-mechanical manipulators (EMM) arms manufactured and supplied by PaR Systems to decontaminate DWPF process equipment. The decontamination fluid creates a highly corrosive environment. After 25 years of operational use the original EMM arms are aging and need replacement. To support continued operation of the DWPF, two direct replacement EMM arms were delivered to the REDC in the summer of 2011. (authors)

  19. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based fiber optic sensor and sensor network for improving weapon stabilization and fire control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sean Z.; Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie S.; Testa, Robert C.; Mattice, Michael S.

    2000-08-01

    A MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based fiber optic sensor and sensor network for improving weapon stabilization and fire control have been developed. Fabrication involves overwriting two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) onto a polarization-preserving optical fiber core. A MEMS diaphragm is fabricated and integrated with the overlaid FBGs to enhance the performance and reliability of the sensor. A simulation model for the MEMS fiber optic sensor and sensor network has been derived, and simulation results concerning load, angle, strain, and temperature have been obtained. The fabricated MEMS diaphragm and the overlaid FBGs have been packaged together on the basis of simulation results and mounted on a specially designed cantilever system. The combined multifunctional MEMS fiber optic sensor and sensor network is cost-effective, fast, rugged enough to operate in harsh environmental conditions, compact, and highly sensitive.

  20. Electro-mechanical properties of REBCO coated conductors from various industrial manufacturers at 77 K, self-field and 4.2 K, 19 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, C.; Mondonico, G.; Senatore, C.

    2015-04-01

    Rare-Earth-barium-copper-oxide tapes are now available from several industrial manufacturers and are very promising conductors in high field applications. Due to diverging materials and deposition processes, these manufacturers’ tapes can be expected to differ in their electro-mechanical and mechanical properties. For magnets designers, these are together with the conductors’ in-field critical current performance of the highest importance in choosing a suitable conductor. In this work, the strain and stress dependence of the current carrying capabilities as well as the stress and strain correlation are investigated for commercial coated conductors from Bruker HTS, Fujikura, SuNAM, SuperOx and SuperPower at 77 K, self-field and 4.2 K, 19 T.

  1. In situ electro-mechanical experiments and mechanics modeling of tensile cracking in indium tin oxide thin films on polyimide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Jia, Zheng; Bianculli, Dan; Li, Teng; Lou, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films supported by polymer substrates have been widely used as transparent electrodes/interconnects in flexible electronics. Understanding the electro-mechanical behaviors of such material system is crucial for reliable operation of flexible devices under large deformation. In this paper, we performed in situ mechanical and electrical tests of ITO thin films with two different thicknesses (200 and 80 nm) deposited on polyimide substrates inside a scanning electron microscope. The crack initiation and propagation, crack density evolution and the corresponding electrical resistance variation were systematically investigated. It was found that cracks initiated at a higher tensile strain level and saturated with a higher density in thinner ITO films. Integrated with a coherently formulated mechanics model, the cohesive toughness and fracture strength of ITO thin films and the ITO/polyimide interfacial toughness were quantitatively determined. The experimentally observed thickness dependence of the saturated crack density in ITO thin films was also quantitatively verified by the model.

  2. A multiscale chemo-electro-mechanical skeletal muscle model to analyze muscle contraction and force generation for different muscle fiber arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Heidlauf, Thomas; Röhrle, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The presented chemo-electro-mechanical skeletal muscle model relies on a continuum-mechanical formulation describing the muscle's deformation and force generation on the macroscopic muscle level. Unlike other three-dimensional models, the description of the activation-induced behavior of the mechanical model is entirely based on chemo-electro-mechanical principles on the microscopic sarcomere level. Yet, the multiscale model reproduces key characteristics of skeletal muscles such as experimental force-length and force-velocity data on the macroscopic whole muscle level. The paper presents the methodological approaches required to obtain such a multiscale model, and demonstrates the feasibility of using such a model to analyze differences in the mechanical behavior of parallel-fibered muscles, in which the muscle fibers either span the entire length of the fascicles or terminate intrafascicularly. The presented results reveal that muscles, in which the fibers span the entire length of the fascicles, show lower peak forces, more dispersed twitches and fusion of twitches at lower stimulation frequencies. In detail, the model predicted twitch rise times of 38.2 and 17.2 ms for a 12 cm long muscle, in which the fibers span the entire length of the fascicles and with twelve fiber compartments in series, respectively. Further, the twelve-compartment model predicted peak twitch forces that were 19% higher than in the single-compartment model. The analysis of sarcomere lengths during fixed-end single twitch contractions at optimal length predicts rather small sarcomere length changes. The observed lengths range from 75 to 111% of the optimal sarcomere length, which corresponds to a region with maximum filament overlap. This result suggests that stability issues resulting from activation-induced stretches of non-activated sarcomeres are unlikely in muscles with passive forces appearing at short muscle length. PMID:25566094

  3. Seamless cross-scale modeling with SCHISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Ye, Fei; Stanev, Emil V.; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    We present a new 3D unstructured-grid model (SCHISM) which is an upgrade from an existing model (SELFE). The new advection scheme for the momentum equation includes an iterative smoother to reduce excess mass produced by higher-order kriging method, and a new viscosity formulation is shown to work robustly for generic unstructured grids and effectively filter out spurious modes without introducing excessive dissipation. A new higher-order implicit advection scheme for transport (TVD2) is proposed to effectively handle a wide range of Courant numbers as commonly found in typical cross-scale applications. The addition of quadrangular elements into the model, together with a recently proposed, highly flexible vertical grid system (Zhang et al., A new vertical coordinate system for a 3D unstructured-grid model. Ocean Model. 85, 2015), leads to model polymorphism that unifies 1D/2DH/2DV/3D cells in a single model grid. Results from several test cases demonstrate the model's good performance in the eddying regime, which presents greater challenges for unstructured-grid models and represents the last missing link for our cross-scale model. The model can thus be used to simulate cross-scale processes in a seamless fashion (i.e. from deep ocean into shallow depths).

  4. THE PREPARATION OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATION OF THE CLUSTER CONCEPT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. VOLUME IV, INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS FOR THE ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CLUSTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALEY, DONALD

    DESIGNED FOR USE WITH 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR THE OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTER IN ELECTRO-MECHANICAL INSTALLATION AND REPAIR WAS DEVELOPED BY PARTICIPATING TEACHERS FROM RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I (VT 004 162). THE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS, NEED FOR THE COURSE, COURSE OBJECTIVES, PROCEDURES, AND…

  5. Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking north. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  7. Seamless Handovers in Cobra Teardrop Satellite Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draim, John E.; Cefola, Paul J.; Ernandes, Kenneth J.

    2007-06-01

    Satellite systems provide the most efficient and possibly the only means of achieving two-way global communications with mobile systems (ships, aircraft, and vehicular traffic). To date, such systems have used only circular orbits, either GEO or LEO. Medium altitude elliptical constellations, on the other hand, can provide an efficient and affordable alternative to these architectures. Users also benefit from their very high average and minimum elevation angles, resulting in minimum signal attenuation. Cobra Teardrop is unique in that it employs time synchronized 8-h left- and right-leaning elliptical orbits giving mid-latitude observers the illusion of viewing a single satellite continuously orbiting almost directly overhead! In reality, observers see six different satellites per day, for 4 h each (while in their active duty cycles). By design, Teardrop satellites are physically in very close proximity at the handover points. This favorable geometry can be utilized to achieve a seamless handover from one satellite to the other (not requiring any electronic buffering). Handover is accomplished at the precise instant that the total path lengths from the transmitting station through both satellites to the receiving station are exactly equal. In these improved Cobra Teardrop arrays, an order of magnitude increase in global communications capacity (equivalent GEO slots) can be realized over earlier Basic Cobra systems. For decades into the future, these new orbital systems could satisfy a widely expanding range of commercial, government, and military high data rate communication requirements. These would include, but not be limited to, satellite cellular, air traffic control, meteorological, and combat net radio systems. With these arrays, a much larger number of system operators could be supported, without mutual electronic interference, than would ever be possible with circular orbits.

  8. Design of a microelectronic circuit to amplify and modulate the signal of a micro-electro-mechanical systems arterial pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela-Peóa, E.; Quiñones-Urióstegui, I.; Martínez-Piñon, F.; Álvarez-Chávez, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    In the article, the design and stimulation is presented of an integrated circuit for the amplification and modulation of an electrical signal proceeding from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) arterial pressure sensor. The signal consists of voltage ranking from 0-10 mV, 1 mA and frequency of 50- 500 Hz. This simple but effective design consists of an operational amplifier (op-amp) configured as a differential amplifier, which amplifies the signal (up to 1V and 10 mA), originating from a Wheatstone bridge in the MEMS sensor, and then this signal is modulated by Pulse width modulation (PWM). The technology employed in this circuit is MOSIS AMIS 1.5 um. The circuit was designed with a two-state op-amp, which is utilized in diverse stages of the system. The use of a differential amplifier, the op-amp, and PWM simplifies the design and renders this compact due to the employment of few components (40 transistors). The use of the PWM facilitates the signaling process at later stages. Results comprise the design of the circuit and the simulation. This consists of a schematic diagram of the layers of all the rules specified in the MOSIS AMIS 1.5 um. Electric and LTSpice software was employed for the design and simulation of the circuit. We present a complete description of the design philosophy, design criteria, figures, and final results.

  9. Functional Micro-Dispensers based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) integrated with fabrics as functional materials to protect humans from mosquito feeding.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Ulrich R; Gurman, Pablo; Clark, Gary G; Elman, Noel

    2015-12-28

    Functional Micro-Dispensers (FMDs) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) were designed to deliver spatial repellents that reduce the ability of mosquitoes to feed on humans. FMDs were integrated with fabrics as functional materials for protection against mosquito bites. The use of MEMS devices provides an unprecedented control over the release kinetics by means of integration with electronics for selective and timely activation of each device to perform controlled release of pesticides in air. In addition, because MEMS manufacturing techniques evolved from the microelectronic industry, FMDs can be mass produced at very low cost. Trials using FMDs that contained transfluthrin improved protection against mosquito feeding in human subjects above that of permethrin-treated uniform fabric worn on the arm of the volunteer. The overall reduction in feeding was approximately 90% compared to the untreated fabric control, and about 50% reduction compared to the permethrin-treated fabric control. The devices were efficacious over course of 32 days. FMDs have the potential for a simple and cost-effective implementation for mass adoption as wearable devices integrated in fabrics as active functional materials.

  10. Inverted electro-mechanical behaviour induced by the irreversible domain configuration transformation in (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Yu; Wang, Xiaohui; Koruza, Jurij; Wang, Ke; Webber, Kyle G.; Hao, Yanan; Li, Longtu

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturization of domains to the nanometer scale has been previously reported in many piezoelectrics with two-phase coexistence. Despite the observation of nanoscale domain configuration near the polymorphic phase transition (PPT) regionin virgin (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) based ceramics, it remains unclear how this domain state responds to external loads and influences the macroscopic electro-mechanical properties. To this end, the electric-field-induced and stress-induced strain curves of KNN-based ceramics over a wide compositional range across PPT were characterized. It was found that the coercive field of the virgin samples was highest in PPT region, which was related to the inhibited domain wall motion due to the presence of nanodomains. However, the coercive field was found to be the lowest in the PPT region after electrical poling. This was related to the irreversible transformation of the nanodomains into micron-sized domains during the poling process. With the similar micron-sized domain configuration for all poled ceramics, the domains in the PPT region move more easily due to the additional polarization vectors. The results demonstrate that the poling process can give rise to the irreversible domain configuration transformation and then account for the inverted macroscopic piezoelectricity in the PPT region of KNN-based ceramics. PMID:26915972

  11. Inverted electro-mechanical behaviour induced by the irreversible domain configuration transformation in (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Yu; Wang, Xiaohui; Koruza, Jurij; Wang, Ke; Webber, Kyle G.; Hao, Yanan; Li, Longtu

    2016-02-01

    Miniaturization of domains to the nanometer scale has been previously reported in many piezoelectrics with two-phase coexistence. Despite the observation of nanoscale domain configuration near the polymorphic phase transition (PPT) regionin virgin (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) based ceramics, it remains unclear how this domain state responds to external loads and influences the macroscopic electro-mechanical properties. To this end, the electric-field-induced and stress-induced strain curves of KNN-based ceramics over a wide compositional range across PPT were characterized. It was found that the coercive field of the virgin samples was highest in PPT region, which was related to the inhibited domain wall motion due to the presence of nanodomains. However, the coercive field was found to be the lowest in the PPT region after electrical poling. This was related to the irreversible transformation of the nanodomains into micron-sized domains during the poling process. With the similar micron-sized domain configuration for all poled ceramics, the domains in the PPT region move more easily due to the additional polarization vectors. The results demonstrate that the poling process can give rise to the irreversible domain configuration transformation and then account for the inverted macroscopic piezoelectricity in the PPT region of KNN-based ceramics.

  12. Study on the micro-heater geometry in In,2O3 micro electro mechanical systems gas sensor platforms and effects on NO2 gas detecting performances.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Seok; Kim, Bum-Joon; Lee, Hoi-Jung; Choi, Jung-Woon; Kim, Si-Dong; Min, Nam-Ki

    2012-02-01

    Micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) platforms for gas sensing devices with the co-planar type micro-heaters were designed, fabricated and its effects on the In2O3 gas sensors were investigated. Micro-heaters in MEMS gas sensor platforms were designed in the four-type heater patterns with different geometries. Electro-thermal characterizations showed that the designed platforms had highly thermal efficiency because the micro hot-plate structures were formed in the diaphragm and the thermal efficiencies were analyzed for all of 16 models and compared with each other, respectively. The designed micro-platforms were fabricated by MEMS process, and Indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel process and dropped on the MEMS platforms for detecting the noxious oxide gas (NO2) Fabricated micro-platforms had a very low power consumption in the fabricated 16-type models, especially, the minimum power consumption was 41 mW at the operating temperature of 250 degrees C. After experiments on gas sensing characteristics to NO2 gases, fabricated In2O3 gas sensors had almost the same gas sensitivity (Rs) at the operation temperature of 250 degrees C. It is concluded that the micro-heater geometries, pattern shapes and sizes, can be influential on the power consumption of the devices and its gas sensing characteristics.

  13. Method for seamless unlock function for mobile applications.

    PubMed

    Vasyltsov, Ihor; Bak, Changgyu; Vasyltsov, Ihor; Changgyu Bak; Bak, Changgyu; Vasyltsov, Ihor

    2016-08-01

    In this paper there is proposed an approach for seamless unlock security function for mobile application. The method combines the biomedical signals measured from human body and motion signals acquired from the devices. For this purpose a wearable device and a mobile device can be securely synchronized. It is shown that entropy extracted from biomedical ECG signal is comparable to the strength of the PIN-code security, the same time giving the easiness, flexibility, and seamlessness of the usage to the user. Also, it is shown that motion sensors can provide enough precision for the correct detection of the appropriate timing to unlock device.

  14. 75 FR 69050 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless... seamless pipe from the PRC. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  15. A chemo-electro-mechanical model for simulation of responsive deformation of glucose-sensitive hydrogels with the effect of enzyme catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Luo, Rongmo; Birgersson, Erik; Lam, Khin Yong

    2009-02-01

    A multi-effect-coupling glucose-stimulus (MECglu) model is developed and solved numerically for the swelling behavior of soft smart hydrogels responding to changes in the environmental glucose concentration. The model considers the effect of the glucose oxidation reaction catalyzed by enzymes including glucose oxidase and catalase. It is composed of the Nernst-Planck equation for the mobile species in the solvent, the Poisson equation for the electric potential, and a nonlinear mechanical equation for the large deformations of the hydrogel that arise due to the conversion of chemical energy to mechanical. Based on the theory of the chemo-electro-mechanical-coupled fields, the formulation of the fixed charge groups bound onto the cross-linked polymer network is associated with the change of the ambient solution pH. The MECglu model is validated by comparison between the steady-state computation and experimental equilibrium swelling curves, and good agreement is obtained. A parameter study is then conducted by steady-state simulations to ascertain the impact of various solvent parameters on the responsive swelling behavior of the hydrogel. One key parameter is the glucose concentration, which is varied within the range of practical physiological glucose concentrations from 0 to 16.5 mM (300 mg/ml) to support the design and optimization of an insulin delivery system based on a glucose-sensitive hydrogel with immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase. The influence of oxygen and glucose concentrations in the solvent is then further studied for the distributive profiles of reacting and diffusive species concentrations, the electric potential, the displacement, as well as the swelling ratio of the glucose-sensitive hydrogel.

  16. Micro-patterning of NdFeB and SmCo magnet films for integration into micro-electro-mechanical-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, A.; Marcoux, C.; Desloges, B.; Grechishkin, R.; Givord, D.; Dempsey, N. M.

    2009-03-01

    The integration of high-performance RE-TM (NdFeB and SmCo) hard magnetic films into micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) requires their patterning at the micron scale. In this paper we report on the applicability of standard micro-fabrication steps (film deposition onto topographically patterned substrates, wet etching and planarization) to the patterning of 5-8 μm thick RE-TM films. While NdFeB comprehensively fills micron-scaled trenches in patterned substrates, SmCo deposits are characterized by poor filling of the trench corners, which poses a problem for further processing by planarization. The magnetic hysteresis loops of both the NdFeB and SmCo patterned films are comparable to those of non-patterned films prepared under the same deposition/annealing conditions. A micron-scaled multipole magnetic field pattern is directly produced by the unidirectional magnetization of the patterned films. NdFeB and SmCo show similar behavior when wet etched in an amorphous state: etch rates of approximately 1.25 μm/min and vertical side walls which may be attributed to a large lateral over-etch of typically 20 μm. Chemical-mechanical-planarization (CMP) produced material removal rates of 0.5-3 μm/min for amorphous NdFeB. Ar ion etching of such films followed by the deposition of a Ta layer prior to film crystallization prevented degradation in magnetic properties compared to non-patterned films.

  17. Seamless measurement technology of transient signals based on approximate entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Tian, Shulin; Guo, Lianping; Huang, Wuhuang

    2016-10-01

    The acquisition of waveforms and the analysis of transient characteristics of signals are the fundamental tasks for time-domain measurement, while the reduction of the measuring gap till seamless measurement is extremely important to the acquisition, measurement, and analysis of transient signals. This paper, aimed at the seamless time-domain measurement of non-stationary transient signals, proposes an approximate entropy-based characteristic signal extraction algorithm on the basis of information entropy theories. The algorithm quantitatively describes the complexity (amount of information) of sampled signals using the approximate entropy value, self-adaptively captures characteristic signals under the control of the approximate entropy in real time, extracts the critical or useful information, and removes redundant or useless information so as to reduce the time consumption of processing data and displaying waveforms and realize the seamless time-domain measurement of transient signals finally. Experimental results show that the study could provide a new method for the design of electronic measuring instrument with seamless measurement capability.

  18. Taylorwilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Taylor-wilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line in bay 12 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking south. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  20. Undergraduate Certificate in Leadership Studies: An Opportunity for Seamless Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Kathy L.; Bovio, Becka

    2014-01-01

    In working to develop undergraduate student leadership capacity, Florida State University created the Undergraduate Certificate in Leadership Studies. This program, grounded in leadership theory and framed by a seamless learning model, has been influential in development of student leadership perceptions and capacity. This article addresses the…

  1. Electro-Mechanical Coaxial Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Paul R (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Coaxial valves usually contain only one moving part. It has not been easy, then, to provide for electric motor actuation. Many actuators being proposed involve designs which lead to bulky packages. The key facing those improving coaxial valves is the provision of suitable linear actuation. The valve herein indudes a valve housing with a flow channel there-through. Arranged in the flow channel is a closing body. In alignment with the closing body is a ball screw actuator which includes a ball nut and a cylindrical screw. The ball nut sounds a threaded portion of the cylindrical screw. The cylindrical screw is provided with a passageway there-through through which fluid flows. The cylindrical screw is disposed in the flow channel to become a control tube adapted to move toward and away from the valve seat. To rotate the ball nut an actuating drive is employed driven by a stepper motor.

  2. Electro-mechanical vibratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, Mario

    1988-01-01

    The problem of predicting the phase angle of two self-synchronized rotors starting from rest is presented. It is shown that with insufficient power the rotors may not reach the final operating speed of the motors and stay locked at one of the lower natural frequencies of the vibrating system, thus producing large amplitude and failure of the equipment.

  3. "Seamlessly" Learning Chinese: Contextual Meaning Making and Vocabulary Growth in a Seamless Chinese as a Second Language Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.; Chai, Ching Sing; Liu, May

    2016-01-01

    Second language learners are typically hampered by the lack of a natural environment to use the target language for authentic communication purpose (as a means for "learning by applying"). Thus, we propose MyCLOUD, a mobile-assisted seamless language learning approach that aims to nurture a second language social network that bridges…

  4. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  5. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  6. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  7. 76 FR 18251 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania... antidumping duty orders on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and...

  8. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  9. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  10. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  11. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  12. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  13. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  14. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  15. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  16. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  17. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  18. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  19. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  20. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  1. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.37 Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  2. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  3. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  4. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  5. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.37 Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  6. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  7. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  8. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  9. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  10. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  11. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  12. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  13. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  14. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.37 Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  15. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  16. 75 FR 29990 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Correction to Notice of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Correction to Notice of... Department'') published in the Federal Register the following notice: Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube... included in the Initiation Notice. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic...

  17. 78 FR 35244 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico: Final Results of... antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper tube and pipe from Mexico.\\1\\ This review covers two... normal value. \\1\\ See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results...

  18. Effects of alloying and local order in AuNi contacts for Ohmic radio frequency micro electro mechanical systems switches via multi-scale simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddy, Benjamin E.; Kingon, Angus I.; Irving, Douglas L.

    2013-05-01

    Ohmic RF-MEMS switches hold much promise for low power wireless communication, but long-term degradation currently plagues their reliable use. Failure in these devices occurs at the contact and is complicated by the fact that the same asperities that bear the mechanical load are also important to the flow of electrical current needed for signal processing. Materials selection holds the key to overcoming the barriers that prevent widespread use. Current efforts in materials selection have been based on the material's (or alloy's) ability to resist oxidation as well as its room-temperature properties, such as hardness and electrical conductivity. No ideal solution has yet been found via this route. This may be due, in part, to the fact that the in-use changes to the local environment of the asperity are not included in the selection criteria. For example, Joule heating would be expected to raise the local temperature of the asperity and impose a non-equilibrium thermal gradient in the same region expected to respond to mechanical actuation. We propose that these conditions should be considered in the selection process, as they would be expected to alter mechanical, electrical, and chemical mechanisms in the vicinity of the surface. To this end, we simulate the actuation of an Ohmic radio frequency micro electro mechanical systems switch by using a multi-scale method to model a current-carrying asperity in contact with a polycrystalline substrate. Our method couples continuum solutions of electrical and thermal transport equations to an underlying molecular dynamics simulation. We present simulations of gold-nickel asperities and substrates in order to evaluate the influence of alloying and local order on the early stages of contact actuation. The room temperature response of these materials is compared to the response of the material when a voltage is applied. Au-Ni interactions are accounted for through modification of the existing Zhou embedded atom method

  19. Conformally encapsulated multi-electrode arrays with seamless insulation

    DOEpatents

    Tabada, Phillipe J.; Shah, Kedar G.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Pannu, Satinderall S.; Tooker, Angela; Delima, Terri; Sheth, Heeral; Felix, Sarah

    2016-11-22

    Thin-film multi-electrode arrays (MEA) having one or more electrically conductive beams conformally encapsulated in a seamless block of electrically insulating material, and methods of fabricating such MEAs using reproducible, microfabrication processes. One or more electrically conductive traces are formed on scaffold material that is subsequently removed to suspend the traces over a substrate by support portions of the trace beam in contact with the substrate. By encapsulating the suspended traces, either individually or together, with a single continuous layer of an electrically insulating material, a seamless block of electrically insulating material is formed that conforms to the shape of the trace beam structure, including any trace backings which provide suspension support. Electrical contacts, electrodes, or leads of the traces are exposed from the encapsulated trace beam structure by removing the substrate.

  20. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies.

  1. A seamless ubiquitous emergency medical service for crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing

    2016-04-01

    In crisis situations, a seamless ubiquitous communication is necessary to provide emergency medical service to save people's lives. An excellent prehospital emergency medicine provides immediate medical care to increase the survival rate of patients. On their way to the hospital, ambulance personnel must transmit real-time and uninterrupted patient information to the hospital to apprise the physician of the situation and provide options to the ambulance personnel. In emergency and crisis situations, many communication channels can be unserviceable because of damage to equipment or loss of power. Thus, data transmission over wireless communication to achieve uninterrupted network services is a major obstacle. This study proposes a mobile middleware for cognitive radio (CR) for improving the wireless communication link. CRs can sense their operating environment and optimize the spectrum usage so that the mobile middleware can integrate the existing wireless communication systems with a seamless communication service in heterogeneous network environments. Eventually, the proposed seamless mobile communication middleware was ported into an embedded system, which is compatible with the actual network environment without the need for changing the original system architecture.

  2. Private Graphs - Access Rights on Graphs for Seamless Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, W.; Hau, F.; Pagany, R.

    2016-06-01

    After the success of GNSS (Global Navigational Satellite Systems) and navigation services for public streets, indoor seems to be the next big development in navigational services, relying on RTLS - Real Time Locating Services (e.g. WIFI) and allowing seamless navigation. In contrast to navigation and routing services on public streets, seamless navigation will cause an additional challenge: how to make routing data accessible to defined users or restrict access rights for defined areas or only to parts of the graph to a defined user group? The paper will present case studies and data from literature, where seamless and especially indoor navigation solutions are presented (hospitals, industrial complexes, building sites), but the problem of restricted access rights was only touched from a real world, but not a technical perspective. The analysis of case studies will show, that the objective of navigation and the different target groups for navigation solutions will demand well defined access rights and require solutions, how to make only parts of a graph to a user or application available to solve a navigational task. The paper will therefore introduce the concept of private graphs, which is defined as a graph for navigational purposes covering the street, road or floor network of an area behind a public street and suggest different approaches how to make graph data for navigational purposes available considering access rights and data protection, privacy and security issues as well.

  3. Design, fabrication and characterization of high-stroke high-aspect ratio micro electro mechanical systems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Rocha, Bautista

    Adaptive optic (AO) systems for next generation of extremely large telescopes (30--50 meter diameter primary mirrors) require high-stroke (10 microns), high-order (100x100) deformable mirrors at lower-cost than current technology. The required specifications are achievable with Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices fabricated with high-aspect ratio processing techniques. This dissertation will review simulation results compared with displacement measurements of actuators utilizing a white-light interferometer. It will also review different actuator designs, materials and post-processing procedures fabricated in three different high-aspect ratio processes, Microfabrica's Electrochemical Fabrication (EFAB(TM)), HT-Micro's Precision Fabrication Technology (HTPF(TM)), and Innovative Micro Technologies (IMT) fabrication process. These manufacturing processes allow high-precision multilayer fabrication and their sacrificial layer thicknesses can be specified by the designer, rather than by constraints of the fabrication process. Various types of high-stroke gold actuators for AO consisting of folded springs with rectangular and circular membranes as well as X-beam actuators supported diagonally by beams were designed, simulated, fabricated, and tested individually and as part of a continuous facesheet DM system. The design, modeling and simulation of these actuators are compared to experimental measurements of their pull-in voltages, which characterizes their stiffness and maximum stroke. Vertical parallel plate ganged actuators fabricated with the EFAB(TM) process have a calculated pull-in voltage of 95V for a 600mum size device. In contrast, the pull-in voltages for the comb-drive actuators ranged from 55V for the large actuator, to 203V for the smallest actuator. Simulations and interferometer scans of actuator designs fabricated with HT-Micro's Precision Fabrication (HTPF(TM)) two wafer bonded process with different spring supports have shown the ability of

  4. Resonant mode controllers for launch vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, Ken E.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) systems are currently being investigated for the National Launch System (NLS) as a replacement for hydraulic actuators due to the large amount of manpower and support hardware required to maintain the hydraulic systems. EMA systems in weight sensitive applications, such as launch vehicles, have been limited to around 5 hp due to system size, controller efficiency, thermal management, and battery size. Presented here are design and test data for an EMA system that competes favorably in weight and is superior in maintainability to the hydraulic system. An EMA system uses dc power provided by a high energy density bipolar lithium thionyl chloride battery, with power conversion performed by low loss resonant topologies, and a high efficiency induction motor controlled with a high performance field oriented controller to drive a linear actuator.

  5. Resonant mode controllers for launch vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Ken E.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) systems are currently being investigated for the National Launch System (NLS) as a replacement for hydraulic actuators due to the large amount of manpower and support hardware required to maintain the hydraulic systems. EMA systems in weight sensitive applications, such as launch vehicles, have been limited to around 5 hp due to system size, controller efficiency, thermal management, and battery size. Presented here are design and test data for an EMA system that competes favorably in weight and is superior in maintainability to the hydraulic system. An EMA system uses dc power provided by a high energy density bipolar lithium thionyl chloride battery, with power conversion performed by low loss resonant topologies, and a high efficiency induction motor controlled with a high performance field oriented controller to drive a linear actuator.

  6. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Moyer, W. R.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The following tasks related to the design, construction, and evaluation of a mobile planetary vehicle for unmanned exploration of Mars are discussed: (1) design and construction of a 0.5 scale dynamic vehicle; (2) mathematical modeling of vehicle dynamics; (3) experimental 0.4 scale vehicle dynamics measurements and interpretation; (4) vehicle electro-mechanical control systems; (5) remote control systems; (6) collapsibility and deployment concepts and hardware; (7) design, construction and evaluation of a wheel with increased lateral stiffness, (8) system design optimization; (9) design of an on-board computer; (10) design and construction of a laser range finder; (11) measurement of reflectivity of terrain surfaces; (12) obstacle perception by edge detection; (13) terrain modeling based on gradients; (14) laser scan systems; (15) path selection system simulation and evaluation; (16) gas chromatograph system concepts; (17) experimental chromatograph separation measurements and chromatograph model improvement and evaluation.

  7. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  8. An electromechanical actuation system for an expendable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary E.

    A major effort at NASA-Lewis in recent years has been to develop electro-mechanical actuators (EMA's) to replace the hydraulic systems used for thrust vector control (TVC) on launch vehicles. This is an attempt to overcome the inherent inefficiencies and costs associated with the existing hydraulic structures. General Dynamics Space Systems Division, under contract to NASA Lewis, is developing 18.6 kW (25 hp), 29.8 kW (40 hp), and 52.2 kW (70 hp) peak EMA systems to meet the power demands for TVC on a family of vehicles developed for the National Launch System. These systems utilize a pulse population modulated converter and field-oriented control scheme to obtain independent control of both the voltage and frequency. These techniques allow an induction motor to be operated at its maximum torque at all times.

  9. An electromechanical actuation system for an expendable launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary E.

    1992-01-01

    A major effort at NASA-Lewis in recent years has been to develop electro-mechanical actuators (EMA's) to replace the hydraulic systems used for thrust vector control (TVC) on launch vehicles. This is an attempt to overcome the inherent inefficiencies and costs associated with the existing hydraulic structures. General Dynamics Space Systems Division, under contract to NASA Lewis, is developing 18.6 kW (25 hp), 29.8 kW (40 hp), and 52.2 kW (70 hp) peak EMA systems to meet the power demands for TVC on a family of vehicles developed for the National Launch System. These systems utilize a pulse population modulated converter and field-oriented control scheme to obtain independent control of both the voltage and frequency. These techniques allow an induction motor to be operated at its maximum torque at all times.

  10. A New Seamless Transfer Control Strategy of the Microgrid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoyun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A microgrid may operate under two typical modes; the seamless transfer control of the microgrid is very important. The mode conversion controller is installed in microgrid and the control logic of master power is optimized for microgrid mode conversion. In the proposed scheme, master power is very important. The master-power is under the PQ control when microgrid is under grid-connected. And it is under V/F control when the microgrid is under islanding. The microgrid mode controller is used to solve the planned conversion. Three types of conversion are simulated in this paper. The simulation results show the correctness and validity of the mode control scheme. Finally, the implementation and application of the operation and control device are described. PMID:24967431

  11. A new seamless transfer control strategy of the microgrid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A microgrid may operate under two typical modes; the seamless transfer control of the microgrid is very important. The mode conversion controller is installed in microgrid and the control logic of master power is optimized for microgrid mode conversion. In the proposed scheme, master power is very important. The master-power is under the PQ control when microgrid is under grid-connected. And it is under V/F control when the microgrid is under islanding. The microgrid mode controller is used to solve the planned conversion. Three types of conversion are simulated in this paper. The simulation results show the correctness and validity of the mode control scheme. Finally, the implementation and application of the operation and control device are described.

  12. Supporting seamless mobility for P2P live streaming.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  13. Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme. PMID:24977171

  14. Developing a Seamless Science Education Program (K-Graduate School)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Truell; Smith, Bernard; Matthews, Lorin; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge

    The production of STEM personnel has declined precipitously over the past several decades. This is threatening not only the international economy but also the world's access to space. It is imperative that scientists within the current space physics community develop programs at the K-12 level able to spark an interest in science while providing an understanding that a career in science can be rewarding both professionally and financially. Ideally such programs should mesh seamlessly with current university undergraduate and graduate programs, easing the student's transition from one to the other. This goal is the primary driver behind CASPER's current outreach program. CASPER programs supporting this paradigm will be discussed along with related funding opportunities such as the Department of Education GearUp Program and the NSF REU and RET programs.

  15. A new seamless, smooth, interior, absorptive finishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government architecture typically employs classic forms of vaults, domes and other focusing or reflective shapes, usually created with hard materials like concrete and plaster. The use of conventional porous absorption is typically rejected as an acoustical surface material for aesthetic reasons. Hence, many of these new and existing facilities have compromised speech intelligibility and music quality. Acousticians have sought a field-applied, absorptive finishing system that resembles a smooth plaster or painted drywall surface, since the dawn of architectural acoustics. Some success has been achieved using sprayed cellulose or cementitious materials, but surface smoothness has been a challenge. A new approach utilizing a thin microporous layer of mineral particles applied over a mineral wool panel will be described. This material can be applied to almost any shape surface, internally pigmented to match almost any color and renovated. Because of these unique characteristics the new seamless, absorptive, finishing system is being specified for many new and renovated spaces. Application examples will be presented.

  16. Method and apparatus for providing a seamless tiled display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael J. (Inventor); Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A display for producing a seamless composite image from at least two discrete images. The display includes one or more projectors for projecting each of the discrete images separately onto a screen such that at least one of the discrete images overlaps at least one other of the discrete images by more than 25 percent. The amount of overlap that is required to reduce the seams of the composite image to an acceptable level over a predetermined viewing angle depends on a number of factors including the field-of-view and aperture size of the projectors, the screen gain profile, etc. For rear-projection screens and some front projection screens, an overlap of more than 25 percent is acceptable.

  17. Toward seamless weather-climate and environmental prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Gilbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade or so, predicting the weather, climate and atmospheric composition has emerged as one of the most important areas of scientific endeavor. This is partly because the remarkable increase in skill of current weather forecasts has made society more and more dependent on them day to day for a whole range of decision making. And it is partly because climate change is now widely accepted and the realization is growing rapidly that it will affect every person in the world profoundly, either directly or indirectly. One of the important endeavors of our societies is to remain at the cutting-edge of modelling and predicting the evolution of the fully coupled environmental system: atmosphere (weather and composition), oceans, land surface (physical and biological), and cryosphere. This effort will provide an increasingly accurate and reliable service across all the socio-economic sectors that are vulnerable to the effects of adverse weather and climatic conditions, whether now or in the future. This emerging challenge was at the center of the World Weather Open Science Conference (Montreal, 2014).The outcomes of the conference are described in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) book: Seamless Prediction of the Earth System: from Minutes to Months, (G. Brunet, S. Jones, P. Ruti Eds., WMO-No. 1156, 2015). It is freely available on line at the WMO website. We will discuss some of the outcomes of the conference for the WMO World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) and Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) long term goals and provide examples of seamless modelling and prediction across a range of timescales at convective and sub-kilometer scales for regional coupled forecasting applications at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).

  18. A seamless-pitched graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Nasiri, Saeed; Kazem Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad; Faez, Rahim

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor (GNRFET) consisting of pitched semiconducting GNRs as the channels that are connected to the metallic graphene source/drain in a seamless fashion. We obtained the diagrams for frequency bandwidths, step time responses, and Nyquist stability for the seamless pitched GNRFET (SP-GNRFET) with a channel having 100 pitched GNRs at 10 nm pitch in the common source configuration with various dimensions of the GNRs. The aforementioned diagrams were also obtained for the pitched carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) with a channel having 100 pitched CNTs at 10 nm pitch in the common source configuration with various dimensions of the CNTs. In order to compare the SP-GNRFET and the pitched CNTFET, physical parameters of the GNRs/CNTs were assumed to be the same in both devices. The results show that when the dimensions of GNRs in the SP-GNRFET increase, the frequency bandwidth decreases, but relaxation time and Nyquist stability increase. Moreover, with an increase in the dimensions of CNTs, similar behavior is observed for the pitched CNTFET. The results also show that the frequency bandwidth of SP-GNRFET is in the range of 10 THz and is more than that of the pitched CNTFET by two orders of magnitude. This is achieved by eliminating the Schottky barrier between the channels and source/drain contacts in the SP-GNRFET. Nevertheless, step time responses for the SP-GNRFET show multi-harmonic oscillations like those for the pitched CNTFET. This shows the importance of stability analysis as a challenge to the SP-GNRFET. Nyquist diagrams predict lower stability for SP-GNRFETs than for pitched CNTFETs. This is because elimination of the Schottky barrier results in a reduction in the overall impedance of the SP-GNRFET, which in turn leads to the frequency of the fluctuations in the SP-GNRFET being more than that in the pitched CNTFET.

  19. Seamless Learning Environments in Higher Education with Mobile Devices and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Jääskelä, Päivikki; Häkkinen, Päivi; Juntunen, Merja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Vesisenaho, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The use of seamless learning environments that have the potential to support lifelong learning anytime and anywhere has become a reality. In this sense, many educational institutions have started to consider introducing seamless learning environments into their programs. The aim of this study is to analyze how various educational university…

  20. Web-Based Seamless Migration for Task-Oriented Mobile Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Degan; Li, Yuan-chao; Zhang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Xinshang; Zeng, Guangping

    2006-01-01

    As a new kind of computing paradigm, pervasive computing will meet the requirements of human being that anybody maybe obtain services in anywhere and at anytime, task-oriented seamless migration is one of its applications. Apparently, the function of seamless mobility is suitable for mobile services, such as mobile Web-based learning. In this…

  1. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7304..., and Pressure Pipe from China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-469 and 731-TA-1168 (Final). \\4\\ On...

  2. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation or... 2012), entitled Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from...

  3. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China AGENCY...-fair-value imports from China of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure... than stainless steel) standard, line, and pressure pipes produced to the ASTM A-53, ASTM A-106, ASTM...

  4. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations... standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or... the determination regarding small- diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and...

  5. 77 FR 19711 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of..., ] and pressure pipe and tube not more than 4.5 inches in outside diameter, and including redraw...

  6. 75 FR 33330 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico AGENCY: International Trade Commission... imports from China and Mexico of seamless refined copper pipe and tube, provided for in subheadings 7411... circular refined copper pipe and tubes, including redraw hollows, greater than or equal to 6 inches...

  7. 75 FR 71146 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the... seamless refined copper pipe and tube (``SRC pipe and tube'') from China and Mexico provided for in... the domestic SRC pipe and tube industry is materially injured by reason of imports of the...

  8. 78 FR 77651 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of... refined copper pipe and tube from Mexico.\\1\\ The review covers two producers/ exporters of the subject... are invited to comment on these preliminary results. \\1\\ See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and...

  9. 77 FR 73422 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube from Mexico. The... refined copper pipe and tube. The product is currently classified under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...

  10. Whacked and Rab35 polarize dynein motor complex-dependent seamless tube growth

    PubMed Central

    Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi; Ghabrial, Amin S.

    2012-01-01

    Seamless tubes form intracellularly without cell-cell or autocellular junctions. Such tubes have been described across phyla, but remain mysterious despite their simple architecture. In Drosophila, seamless tubes are found within tracheal terminal cells, which have dozens of branched protrusions extending hundreds of microns. We find that mutations in multiple components of the dynein motor complex block seamless tube growth, raising the possibility that the lumenal membrane forms through minus-end directed transport of apical membrane components along microtubules. Growth of seamless tube is polarized along the proximodistal axis by Rab35 and its apical membrane-localized GAP, Whacked. Strikingly, loss of whacked (or constitutive activation of Rab35) leads to tube overgrowth at terminal cell branch tips, while over-expression of whacked (or dominant negative Rab35) causes formation of ectopic tubes surrounding the terminal cell nucleus. Thus, vesicle trafficking plays key roles in making and shaping seamless tubes. PMID:22407366

  11. Method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain to a hybrid powertrain system

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    2001-12-25

    A method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain including a manual transmission to a hybrid powertrain system with an automated powertrain transmission. The first step in the method of attaching a gear train housing to a housing of said manual transmission, said gear train housing receiving as end of drive shaft of said transmission and rotatably supporting a gear train assembly. Secondly, mounting an electric motor/generator to said gear train housing and attaching a motor/generator drive shaft of said electric motor/generator to said gear train assembly. Lastly, connecting an electro-mechanical clutch actuator to a friction clutch mechanism of said manual transmission.

  12. 77 FR 13079 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from Japan during the period... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and...

  13. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. See Certain...

  14. 75 FR 18153 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1, 2008... the record. See Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe...

  15. 76 FR 66688 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4 \\1/2\\ inches) from Japan. The review covers four... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from Japan for...

  16. 75 FR 38781 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan: Rescission of... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan. The review covers four... order on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/ 2\\ inches) from...

  17. 78 FR 25253 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People... seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe ] (``seamless pipe'') from the...

  18. 76 FR 62762 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan; Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From... alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (``large diameter pipe'') from Japan and certain...

  19. 78 FR 64475 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from... duty order on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe...

  20. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... antidumping duty order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe... small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania.\\1\\ We...

  1. 75 FR 29972 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... antidumping duty investigation of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe... in this proceeding. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  2. 76 FR 47555 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan; Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (``large diameter pipe'') from Japan...

  3. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China... determination. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the...

  4. What Seams Do We Remove in Mobile-Assisted Seamless Learning? A Critical Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2011-01-01

    Seamless learning refers to the seamless integration of the learning experiences across various dimensions including formal and informal learning contexts, individual and social learning, and physical world and cyberspace. Inspired by the exposition by Chan et al. (2006) on the seamless learning model supported by the setting of one or more mobile…

  5. 75 FR 8677 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China and Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China and... investigations of Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China and Mexico. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation...

  6. 78 FR 35251 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube (``copper pipe and tube'') from the People's... August 7, 2012, the Department published Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's...

  7. 75 FR 60723 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Determination of... imports of seamless refined copper pipe and tube (``copper pipe and tube'') from Mexico are being, or are... preliminary determination on copper pipe and tube from Mexico. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube...

  8. 76 FR 39850 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube (copper pipe and tube) from Mexico. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico and the People's Republic...

  9. The OASE project: Object-based Analysis and Seamless prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troemel, Silke; Wapler, Kathrin; Bick, Theresa; Diederich, Malte; Deneke, Hartwig; Horvath, Akos; Senf, Fabian; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    The research group on Object-based Analysis and SEamless prediction (OASE) is part of the Hans Ertel Centre for Weather Research (HErZ). The group consists of scientists at the Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, the Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research in Leipzig and the German Weather Service. OASE addresses seamless prediction of convective events from nowcasting to daily predictions by combining radar/satellite compositing and tracking with high-resolution model-based ensemble generation and prediction. While observation-based nowcasting provides good results for lead times between 0-1 hours, numerical weather prediction addresses lead times between 3-21 hours. Especially the discontinuity between 1-3 hours needs to be addressed. Therefore a central goal of the project is a near real-time high-resolved unprecedented data base. A radar and satellite remote sensing-driven 3D observation-microphysics composite covering Germany, currently under development, contains gridded observations and estimated microphysical quantities. Observations and microphysics are intertwined via forward operators and estimated inverse relations, which also provide uncertainties for model ensemble initialisations. The lifetime evolution of dynamics and microphysics in (severe) convective storms is analysed based on 3D scale-space tracking. An object-based analysis condenses the information contained in the dynamic 3D distributions of observables and related microphysics into descriptors, which will allow identifying governing processes leading to the formation and evolution of severe weather events. The object-based approach efficiently characterises and quantifies the process structure and life cycles of severe weather events, and facilitates nowcasting and the generation and initialisation of model prediction ensembles. Observation-based nowcasting will exploit the dual-composite based 3D feature detection and tracking to generate a set of predictions (observation

  10. Seamless particle-based modeling of blood clotting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Karniadakis, George

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new multiscale framework that seamlessly integrate four key components of blood clotting namely, blood rheology, cell mechanics, coagulation kinetics and transport of species and platelet adhesive dynamics. We use transport dissipative particle dynamics (tDPD) which is an extended form of original DPD as the base solver to model both blood flow and the reactive transport of chemical species in the coagulation cascade. Further, we use a coarse-grained representation of blood cell's membrane that accounts for its mechanics; both red blood cells and platelets are resolved at sub-cellular resolution, and stochastic bond formation/dissociation are included to account for platelet adhesive dynamics at the site of injury. Our results show good qualitative agreement with in vivo experiments. The numerical framework allows us to perform systematic analysis on different mechanisms of blood clotting. In addition, this new multiscale particle-based methodology can open new directions in addressing different biological processes from sub-cellular to macroscopic scales. NIH Grant No. U01HL116323.

  11. Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

  12. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  13. B Cell-Based Seamless Engineering of Antibody Fc Domains

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Akiho; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2016-01-01

    Engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) enables us to obtain mAbs with additional functions. In particular, modifications in antibody’s Fc (fragment, crystallizable) region can provide multiple benefits such as added toxicity by drug conjugation, higher affinity to Fc receptors on immunocytes, or the addition of functional modules. However, the generation of recombinant antibodies requires multiple laborious bioengineering steps. We previously developed a technology that enables rapid in vitro screening and isolation of specific mAb-expressing cells from the libraries constructed with chicken B-cell line DT40 (referred to as the ‘ADLib system’). To upgrade this ADLib system with the ability to generate customized mAbs, we developed a novel and rapid engineering technology that enables seamless exchanges of mAbs’ Fc domains after initial selections of mAb-producing clones by the ADLib system, using a gene-replacement unit for recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). In this system, Cre-recombinase recognition sites were inserted into the Fc region of the active DT40 IgM allele, allowing the replacement of the Fc domain by the sequences of interest upon co-transfection of a Cre recombinase and a donor DNA, enabling the rapid exchange of Fc regions. Combining this method with the ADLib system, we demonstrate rapid Fc engineering to generate fluorescent antibodies and to enhance affinity to Fc receptors. PMID:27907066

  14. Hatch: Moving towards seamless database protocols for ecological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremier, A. K.; Blair, C.; Smith, S.; Weigel, D.; Newsom, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Data collection and ecological processes do not occur at similar scales. Monitoring our environment, therefore, requires research approaches that integrate data across spatial and temporal scales. Despite the enormous amount of data being collected annually, many government agencies are only now beginning to build coordinated data management systems. With efficient data flows and coded analysis tools, researchers will be better prepared to quickly answer key ecological questions across datasets. In this project, we designed an online platform for seamless data management, called Hatch. Our aim is to improve database protocols and data access to allow timely analysis of existing data, across time and space. Hatch is being developed for ecological monitoring of stream ecosystems in the Methow River basin in Washington State; however, the platform is general enough for managing multiple forms of database types. Hatch currently applies both a schema and schema-less database structure to link data collection events. It applies data standards developed and accepted across the Columbia River Basin. Initial data capture is driven by data needs for a mechanism-based model of ecosystem processes (namely periphyton production). Input data files, both past and current flows, are validated and stored along with metadata. Data search tools are being designed in accordance with data sharing agreements with appropriate security. The goal of Hatch is to defragment the analysis workspace by integrating data capture, search and analysis. Hatch helps researchers capture, search and analyze data in an online, flexible platform while conforming to project a specific schema. With less fragmented database protocols, scientists will be better prepared to efficiently answer scientific questions at relevant ecological scales.

  15. Megacities, air quality and climate: Seamless prediction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. Highlights • Climate, air quality and megacities interactions: gaps in knowledge, research needs. • Urban hazards: pollution episodes, storm surge, flooding, heat waves, public health. • Global climate change affects megacities' climate, environment and comfort. • Growing urbanization requires integrated weather, environment and climate monitoring systems. • New generation of multi-scale models and seamless integrated urban services are needed. Reference Baklanov, A., L.T. Molina, M. Gauss (2016) Megacities, air quality and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 126: 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.059

  16. Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

  17. Method and apparatus for an optical function generator for seamless tiled displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael (Inventor); Chen, Chung-Jen (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Producing seamless tiled images from multiple displays includes measuring a luminance profile of each of the displays, computing a desired luminance profile for each of the displays, and determining a spatial gradient profile of each of the displays based on the measured luminance profile and the computed desired luminance profile. The determined spatial gradient profile is applied to a spatial filter to be inserted into each of the displays to produce the seamless tiled display image.

  18. Vehicle Rustproofing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion Areas - G.M.) 11. Vehicle Rustproofing Guide for Vehicle Maintenance Managers 12. Chart - Vehicle Buy Program FY 83-87 13. Vehicle ...on the Vehicle Buy Program. k. The impact of a total fleet rustproofing policy on industry. I. Potential problems in Quality Control and Warranty...FY83-87, the Air Force intends to buy $2.5 billion worth of vehicles (Atch 12); thus, a total fleet treatment program for that period could cost as

  19. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions

  20. Seamless Provenance Representation and Use in Collaborative Science Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missier, P.; Ludaescher, B.; Bowers, S.; Altintas, I.; Anand, M. K.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, A.; Shrestha, B.; Goble, C.

    2010-12-01

    The notion of sharing scientific data has only recently begun to gain ground in science, where data is still considered a private asset. There is growing evidence, however, that the benefits of scientific collaboration through early data sharing during the course of a science project may outgrow the risk of losing exclusive ownership of the data. As exemplar success stories are making the headlines[1], principles of effective information sharing have become the subject of e-science research. In particular, any piece of published data should be self-describing, to the extent necessary for consumers to determine its suitability for reuse in their own projects. This is accomplished by associating a body of formally specified and machine-processable metadata to the data. When data is produced and reused by independent groups, however, metadata interoperability issues emerge. This is the case for provenance, a form of metadata that describes the history of a data product, Y. Provenance is typically expressed as a graph-structured set of dependencies that account for the sequence of computational or interactive steps that led to Y, often starting from some primary, observational data. Traversing dependency graphs is one of the mechanisms used to answer questions on data reliability. In the context of the NSF DataONE project[2], we have been studying issues of provenance interoperability in scientific collaboration scenarios. Consider a first scientist, Alice, who publishes a data product X along with its provenance, and a second scientist who further transforms X into a new product Y, also along with its provenance. A third scientist, who is interested in Y, expects to be able to trace Y's history up to the inputs used by Alice. This is only possible, however, if provenance accumulates into a single, uniform graph that can be seamlessly traversed. This becomes problematic when provenance is captured using different tools and computational models (i.e. workflow systems

  1. Automatization Project for the Carl-Zeiss-Jena Coudè Telescope of the Simón Bolívar Planetarium I. The Electro-Mechanic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, A.; Maharaj, A.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2009-05-01

    The ``Complejo Científico, Cultural y Turístico Simón Bolívar'' (CCCTSB), located in Maracaibo, Venezuela, lodges the Simón Bolívar Planetarium and an 150 mm aperture, 2250 mm focal length Carl-Zeiss-Jena Coudè refractor telescope. In this work we discuss the schematics for the automatization project of this Telescope, the planned improvements, methodology, engines, micro-controllers, interfaces and the uptodate status of the project. This project is working on the first two levels of the automation pyramid, the sensor -- actuator level and the control or Plant floor level. The Process control level correspond to the software related section. This mean that this project work immediately with the electrical, electronic and mechanical stuffs, and with the assembler micro controller language. All the pc related stuff, like GUI (Graphic user interfaces), remote control, Grid database, and others, correspond to the next two automation pyramid levels. The idea is that little human intervention will be required to manipulate the telescope, only giving a pair of coordinates to ubicate and follow an object on the sky. A set of three servomotors, coupling it with the telescope with a gear box, are going to manipulate right ascension, declination and focus movement. For the dome rotation, a three phase induction motor will be used. For dome aperture/closure it is suggested a DC motor powered with solar panels. All those actuators are controlled by a 8 bits micro-controller, which receive the coordinate imput, the signal from the position sensors and have the PID control algorithm. This algorithm is tuned based on the mathematical model of the telescope electro-mechanical instrumentation.

  2. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  3. Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Tunable Filter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Turn on (button switches to ’off’): Gas (fast rise), Skip Purge , Helium (if necessary, click up/down arrow to converge), Pressure, Magnets (dummy...inconclusive, multi-layer stripe etch study results: 30-min citric-acid/tripotassium-citrate/ hydrogen -peroxide etch at 25 ◦C, stripe oriented parallel to ...tripotassium- citrate/ hydrogen -peroxide etch at 25 ◦C, deep and irregular anisotropic etching of the GaAs substrate was observed as indi- cated on left side

  4. Electro-mechanical characterization of structural supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, T.; LaMaster, D.; Ciocanel, C.; Browder, C.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents electrical and mechanical properties of structural supercapacitors and discusses limitations associated with the approach taken for the electrical properties evaluation. The structural supercapacitors characterized in this work had the electrodes made of carbon fiber weave, separator made of several cellulose based products, and the solid electrolyte made as PEGDGE based polymer blend. The reported electrical properties include capacitance and leakage resistance; the former was measured using cyclic voltammetry. Mechanical properties have been evaluated thorough tensile and three point bending tests performed on structural supercapacitor coupons. The results indicate that the separator material plays an important role on the electrical as well as mechanical properties of the structural capacitor, and that Celgard 3501 used as separator leads to most benefits for both mechanical and electrical properties. Specific capacitance and leakage resistance as high as 1.4kF/m3 and 380kΩ, respectively, were achieved. Two types of solid polymer electrolytes were used in fabrication, with one leading to higher and more consistent leakage resistance values at the expense of a slight decrease in specific capacitance when compared to the other SPE formulation. The ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the developed power storage composite were evaluated at 466MPa and 18.9MPa, respectively. These values are 58% and 69% of the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity values measured for a single layer composite material made with the same type of carbon fiber and with a West System 105 epoxy instead of solid polymer electrolyte.

  5. Electro-mechanical sine/cosine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagge, B. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    An electromechanical device for generating both sine and cosine functions is described. A motor rotates a cylinder about an axis parallel to and a slight distance from the central axis of the cylinder. Two noncontacting displacement sensing devices are placed ninety degrees apart, equal distances from the axis of rotation of the cylinder and short distances above the surface of cylinder. Each of these sensing devices produces an electrical signal proportional to the distance that it is away from the cylinder. Consequently, as the cylinder is rotated the outputs from the two sensing devices are the sine and cosine functions.

  6. An Open Platform for Seamless Sensor Support in Healthcare for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jorge; Cabral, Jorge; Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Fischer Pedersen, Christian; Ravelo, Blaise; Memon, Mukhtiar; Mathiesen, Morten

    2016-12-08

    Population aging and increasing pressure on health systems are two issues that demand solutions. Involving and empowering citizens as active managers of their health represents a desirable shift from the current culture mainly focused on treatment of disease, to one also focused on continuous health management and well-being. Current developments in technological areas such as the Internet of Things (IoT), lead to new technological solutions that can aid this shift in the healthcare sector. This study presents the design, development, implementation and evaluation of a platform called Common Recognition and Identification Platform (CRIP), a part of the CareStore project, which aims at supporting caregivers and citizens to manage health routines in a seamless way. Specifically, the CRIP offers sensor-based support for seamless identification of users and health devices. A set of initial requirements was defined with a focus on usability limitations and current sensor technologies. The CRIP was designed and implemented using several technologies that enable seamless integration and interaction of sensors and people, namely Near Field Communication and fingerprint biometrics for identification and authentication, Bluetooth for communication with health devices and web services for wider integration with other platforms. Two CRIP prototypes were implemented and evaluated in laboratory during a period of eight months. The evaluations consisted of identifying users and devices, as well as seamlessly configure and acquire vital data from the last. Also, the entire Carestore platform was deployed in a nursing home where its usability was evaluated with caregivers. The evaluations helped assess that seamless identification of users and seamless configuration and communication with health devices is feasible and can help enable the IoT on healthcare applications. Therefore, the CRIP and similar platforms could be transformed into a valuable enabling technology for secure and

  7. An Open Platform for Seamless Sensor Support in Healthcare for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Jorge; Cabral, Jorge; Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Fischer Pedersen, Christian; Ravelo, Blaise; Memon, Mukhtiar; Mathiesen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Population aging and increasing pressure on health systems are two issues that demand solutions. Involving and empowering citizens as active managers of their health represents a desirable shift from the current culture mainly focused on treatment of disease, to one also focused on continuous health management and well-being. Current developments in technological areas such as the Internet of Things (IoT), lead to new technological solutions that can aid this shift in the healthcare sector. This study presents the design, development, implementation and evaluation of a platform called Common Recognition and Identification Platform (CRIP), a part of the CareStore project, which aims at supporting caregivers and citizens to manage health routines in a seamless way. Specifically, the CRIP offers sensor-based support for seamless identification of users and health devices. A set of initial requirements was defined with a focus on usability limitations and current sensor technologies. The CRIP was designed and implemented using several technologies that enable seamless integration and interaction of sensors and people, namely Near Field Communication and fingerprint biometrics for identification and authentication, Bluetooth for communication with health devices and web services for wider integration with other platforms. Two CRIP prototypes were implemented and evaluated in laboratory during a period of eight months. The evaluations consisted of identifying users and devices, as well as seamlessly configure and acquire vital data from the last. Also, the entire Carestore platform was deployed in a nursing home where its usability was evaluated with caregivers. The evaluations helped assess that seamless identification of users and seamless configuration and communication with health devices is feasible and can help enable the IoT on healthcare applications. Therefore, the CRIP and similar platforms could be transformed into a valuable enabling technology for secure and

  8. Result of MHI 2-Cell Seamless Dumb-Bell Cavity Vertical Test

    SciTech Connect

    Okihira, K.; Hara, H.; Ikeda, N.; Inoue, F.; Sennyu, K.; Geng, Rongli; Rimmer, Robert A.; Kako, E.

    2014-12-01

    MHI have supplied several 9-cell cavities for STF (R&D of ILC project at KEK) and have been considering production method for stable quality and cost reduction, seamless dumb-bell cavity was one of them. We had fabricated a 2 cell seamless dumb-bell cavity for cost reduction and measured RF performance in collaboration with JLab, KEK and MHI. Surface treatment recipe for ILC was applied for MHI 2-cell cavity and vertical test was performed at JLab. The cavity reached Eacc=32.4MV/m after BCP and EP. Details of the result are reported.

  9. Virtual Combat Vehicle Experimentation for Duty Cycle Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Amethyst Leonid Loon Perseids ESS ESS RACK MC2 TMBS Rack SCRAMNet Interface SCRAMNet Figure 8. Computer and network architecture of the DCE3 simulator as...Inc. (RTI) [8]. It was used to seamlessly integrate the main processes on Emerald, Leonid, Amethyst , and Pyrite. Emerald, a quad-core Windows XP...SCRAMNet® interface. Amethyst ran the stealth viewer which gives a “parasail” view of the primary vehicle (using SimCreator’s IG). Pyrite runs sim

  10. 75 FR 13255 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe..., line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') with the... Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 74...

  11. 76 FR 7815 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\...

  12. 78 FR 41366 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 4 1/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... antidumping duty order on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe... Pressure Pipe (Over 4 \\1/2\\ Inches) from Japan,'' dated concurrently with this notice (Preliminary...

  13. 75 FR 69052 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe..., and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). In addition, the... and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic of China:...

  14. 78 FR 41369 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter... Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe from Romania,'' dated concurrently with this notice (Preliminary...

  15. 77 FR 21968 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of... countervailing duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the...

  16. 75 FR 11119 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1,...

  17. 75 FR 6183 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping... investigation on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

  18. 77 FR 27428 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure..., line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from Japan. The review covers four manufacturers/exporters... alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from Japan for the period June...

  19. 77 FR 46385 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... circular cross-section, not more than 114.3 mm (4.5 inches) in outside diameter, regardless of wall... applications. Pipes produced in non- standard wall thicknesses are commonly referred to as tubes. The seamless..., Characteristics and Uses: Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam,...

  20. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ..., not more than 114.3 mm (4.5 inches) in outside diameter, regardless of wall thickness, manufacturing... produced in non- standard wall thicknesses are commonly referred to as tubes. The seamless pipes subject to... Uses: Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam,...

  1. 76 FR 80333 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary Results of... review of the antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube from Mexico, covering the period November 22, 2010, to April 30, 2011. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From...

  2. 77 FR 59178 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results of... on seamless refined copper tube and pipe from Mexico.\\1\\ This review covers one producer and exporter... Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 77 FR...

  3. 77 FR 10476 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Partial... request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube... Products, LLC, Wieland Copper Products, LLC, Muller Copper Tube Products, Inc., and Mueller Copper...

  4. 78 FR 22515 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Rescission, in Part, of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Rescission, in Part, of... antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube from Mexico covering the period November 1... Copper Tube Products, Inc.; and Mueller Copper Tube Company, Inc.) for the following companies: 1)...

  5. Tuneable autonomy and human interfaces for free-flying servicing vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Alexander; Welsh, Teri; McInnes, Colin R.

    2001-02-01

    Future mission applications for on-orbit servicing vehicles include inspection and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) and future crewed deep space missions. The use of robotic servicing vehicles is seen as a key requirement to significantly reduce total human EVA hours for such applications. A necessary technology for these vehicles is the provision of automated mission and trajectory planning tools and suitable human-machine interfaces. This paper will explore new methods for such automation along with approaches to blend autonomy and human control in a seamless manner. These methods have been applied to a range of vehicles including the Daimler-Chrysler ISS Inspector. .

  6. Seamless Integration of Detection and Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    and shell structures that can be further engineered to have highly controlled and ‘tunable’ properties. These include paramagnetic nanoparticles , which...Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Naomi J. Halas, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Seamless Integration of Detection and Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. Seamless Integration of Detection and Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Naomi J. Halas, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Seamless Integration of Detection and Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles 5b. GRANT NUMBER... nanoparticles and studying the efficiency of nanoparticle attachment to cancer cells. We have demonstrated in mouse tumor models a number of diagnostic

  8. Improving Education through Collaboration: A Case Study of the Long Beach Seamless Education Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Natalie; McCarthy, Kirstin

    2009-01-01

    Business-Higher Education Forum's study of the Seamless Education Partnership began with a theory of action for cross-sector efforts to increase alignment from Pre-K through graduate school (P-20) and improve educational outcomes. BHEF's theory of action posits that community leaders coalesce around a shared vision that is shaped by local context…

  9. Surveying and Modeling Students' Motivation and Learning Strategies for Mobile-Assisted Seamless Chinese Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.

    2016-01-01

    Seamless language learning promises to be an effective learning approach that addresses the limitations of classroom-only language learning. It leverages mobile technologies to facilitate holistic and perpetual learning experiences that bridge different locations, times, technologies or social settings. Despite the emergence of studies on seamless…

  10. Creating More Seamless Connections between University-Based Coursework and School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    New accreditation standards for teacher preparation programs call for more seamless and effective connections between methods courses, clinical experiences, and school-based mentoring. Intentional clinical experiences and intermediate instructional strategies can foster collaboration between teacher preparation programs and teacher leaders in K-12…

  11. A Field Study of a Video Supported Seamless-Learning-Setting with Elementary Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fößl, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Schön, Sandra; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Seamless Learning shall initiate human learning processes that exceeds lesson and classroom limits. At the same time this approach fosters a self-regulated learning, by means of inspirational, open education settings. Advanced learning materials are easily accessible via mobile digital devices connected to the Internet. In this study it was…

  12. Enculturating Seamless Language Learning through Artifact Creation and Social Interaction Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh; King, Ronnel B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a design-based research (DBR) cycle of MyCLOUD (My Chinese ubiquitOUs learning Days). MyCLOUD is a seamless language learning model that addresses identified limitations of conventional Chinese language teaching, such as the decontextualized and unauthentic learning processes that usually hinder reflection and deep learning.…

  13. A Wiki Technology-Supported Seamless Learning Approach for Chinese Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Tay, Boon-Pei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an intervention study on Singapore primary five (fifth Grade) students' ICT (information and communication technology)-mediated Chinese idiom learning. We introduced "seamless learning" to the learning design, that is, the bridging of formal and informal learning, and individual and social learning, conforming to the…

  14. Utilization of Concurrent Buffers to Facilitate Seamless Data Transition in Tactical Cellular Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    CONCURRENT BUFFERS TO FACILITATE SEAMLESS DATA TRANSITION IN TACTICAL CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS by Darien M. Pitts September 2015 Thesis...searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments... DATA TRANSITION IN TACTICAL CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Pitts, Darien M. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  15. Reaching More Hungry Children: The Seamless Summer Food Waiver. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasse, Tania; Ohls, Jim

    The Seamless Summer Food Waiver is a federal initiative to help school food authorities reach a larger number of hungry children in low-income areas during the summer months, by reducing paperwork and administrative burdens associated with operating the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). This issue brief describes the SFSP and the impact of the…

  16. Optimizing the seamless tube extrusion process using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Li, Li; Wang, Xiang; Ma, Xu Liang

    2010-03-01

    In order to reveal the mechanism of extrusion forming for large-scale aluminum alloy seamless pipe, in this research the rigid-viscous plastic finite element method was used to analyze the effect of the technological parameters of the aluminum alloy pipe extrusion process, consistent with the use requirements.

  17. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) not over 125 pounds water capacity (nominal) and a service pressure at least 150 to not over 500...) Wall thickness. The wall stress may not exceed 15,000 psi. A minimum wall thickness of 0.100 inch...

  18. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... change in cylinder wall thickness, service pressure, or diameter; a 30 percent or greater change in water...) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum water... specimen 6061-T6 38,000 35,000 214 1 “D” represents specimen diameters. When the cylinder wall is...

  19. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall... permitted in paragraph (d) of this section. (f) Wall thickness. The wall stress may not exceed 24,000...

  20. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water... eliminate these defects provided the minimum wall thickness is maintained. (5) Welding or brazing on a cylinder is not permitted. (d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall...

  1. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... steel cylinder with a water capacity not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500... per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed to...

  2. Seamless Assessment in Science: A Guide for Elementary & Middle School. Grades: K - 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    When a classroom is opened to inquiry-based learning, teachers can no longer rely solely on traditional end-of-unit tests. "Seamless Assessment" is a one-stop guide to strategies that mirror the investigatory spirit. Working with the popular 5E model as an instructional framework, the authors have designed methods for embedding formative and…

  3. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material, as follows: (1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of... AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS...) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  4. Interprofessional education for students of the health professions: the "Seamless Care" model.

    PubMed

    Mann, K V; Mcfetridge-Durdle, J; Martin-Misener, R; Clovis, J; Rowe, R; Beanlands, H; Sarria, M

    2009-05-01

    "Seamless Care" was one of 21 grants awarded by Health Canada to inform policymakers of the effectiveness of interprofessional education in promoting collaborative patient-centred practice among health professionals. The "Seamless Care" model of interprofessional education was designed with input from three Faculties at Dalhousie University (Medicine, Dentistry and Health Professions). The design was grounded in relevant learning theories--Social Cognitive Theory, Self-efficacy, Situated Learning theory and Constructivism. The intervention was informed by principles of active learning, problem-based learning, reflection and role modeling. The primary goal of Seamless Care was to develop students' interprofessional patient-centred collaborative skills through experiential learning. Fourteen student teams, each including one student from medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry and dental hygiene, learned with, from and about each other while they were mentored in the collaborative care of patients transitioning from acute care to the community. Student teams providing collaborative care assisted patients experiencing a chronic illness to become more active in managing their health through development of self-management and decision-making skills. This paper describes the Seamless Care model of interprofessional education and discusses the theoretical underpinnings of this experiential model of interprofessional education designed to extend classroom-based interprofessional education to the clinical setting.

  5. Electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  6. Vehicle Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-14

    Dimensions. Pertinent physical dimensions are determined using standard mensurative instrumentation such as steel tape measures, plumb bobs...vehicles use ITOP 2-2- 801(1)5. 4.2.3 Center of Gravity (CG). Determine the center of gravity of the test vehicle in accordance with TOP 2-2...8006. For tracked vehicles use ITOP 2-2-800(1)7. 4.2.4 Ground Pressure. Determine ground pressure in accordance with TOP 2-2-801. For tracked

  7. Launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, William S.

    1994-06-01

    Concentrated efforts by NASA and the DOD to begin development of a new large launch vehicle have been under way for over a decade. Options include the National Launch System, Advanced Launch System, a heavy lift vehicle, a Shuttle-derived vehicle, a Titan-derived vehicle, Single stage To Orbit, NASP and Spacelifter, to name a few. All initially promised low operations costs achieved at development costs in the $5 billion - $10 billion range. However, none has obtained approval for development, primarily because it became apparent that these cost goals could not realistically be met.

  8. Elevation scanning laser/multi-sensor hazard detection system controller and mirror/mast speed control components. [roving vehicle electromechanical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The electro-mechanical and electronic systems involved with pointing a laser beam from a roving vehicle along a desired vector are described. A rotating 8 sided mirror, driven by a phase-locked dc motor servo system, and monitored by a precision optical shaft encoder is used. This upper assembly is then rotated about an orthogonal axis to allow scanning into all 360 deg around the vehicle. This axis is also driven by a phase locked dc motor servo-system, and monitored with an optical shaft encoder. The electronics are realized in standard TTL integrated circuits with UV-erasable proms used to store desired coordinates of laser fire. Related topics such as the interface to the existing test vehicle are discussed.

  9. Vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  10. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  11. Progress Toward Standards for the Seamless Interoperability of Broadband Satellite Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Glover, Daniel R.; vonDeak, Thomas C.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1998-01-01

    The realization of the full potential of the National Information Infrastructure (NH) and Global Information Infrastructure (GII) requires seamless interoperability of emerging satellite networks with terrestrial networks. This requires a cooperative effort between industry, academia and government agencies to develop and advocate new, satellite-friendly communication protocols and modifications to existing communication protocol standards. These groups have recently come together to actively participating in a number of standards making bodies including: the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Forum, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the Telecommunication Industry Association MA) to ensure that issues regarding efficient use of these protocols over satellite links are not overlooked. This paper will summarize the progress made toward standards development to achieve seamless integration and accelerate the deployment of multimedia applications.

  12. Beneficial effects of Bifidobacteria in a gastroresistant seamless capsule on hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Taki, Kentaro; Takayama, Fumio; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal microflora is deranged in hemodialysis (HD) patients as an increase in aerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and a decrease in anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium . Bifidobacteria ferment carbohydrates to produce acetic acid and lactic acid, which inhibit the intestinal putrefaction. Thus, intake of Bifidobacteria effectively restores the disturbed microflora to normal. However, Bifidobacteria in most medical products and healthy foods cannot usually survive because of exposure to gastric juices before it reaches the intestines. A gastroresistant seamless capsule prevents Bifidobacteria from inactivation by acidic gastric juice and allows it to be active in the intestines. We showed that the oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum in a gastroresistant seamless capsule to HD patients is effective in decreasing the pre-HD serum levels of homocysteine, indoxyl sulfate, and triglyceride. The reduction in the serum level of homocysteine is mainly attributable to the supply of folate produced by Bifidobacterium longum in the human intestines.

  13. Toward Seamless Weather-Climate Prediction with a Global Cloud Resolving Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    and the El Nino -Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Organized moist convections in the tropical atmosphere have their origins at space scale of less than...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toward Seamless Weather-Climate...performance in reproducing the atmospheric internal modes such as MJO and teleconnection patterns associated with El Nino . This experiment may be

  14. Low-power consumption seamless wireless and wired links using transparent waveform transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes wired and wireless seamless networks consisting of radiowave and optical fiber links. Digital coherent technology developed for high-speed optical fiber transmission can mitigate signal deformation in radiowave links in the air as well as in optical fibers. Radio-over-fiber (RoF) technique, which transmits radio waveforms on intensity envelops of optical signals, can provide direct waveform transfer between optical and radio signals by using optical-to-electric or electric-to-optical conversion devices. Combination of RoF in millimeter-wave bands and digital coherent with high-performance digital signal processing (DSP) can provide wired and wireless seamless links where bit rate of wireless links would be close to 100 Gb/s. Millimeter-wave transmission distance would be shorter than a few kilometers due to large atmospheric attenuation, so that many moderate distance wireless links, which are seamlessly connected to optical fiber networks should be required to provide high-speed mobile-capable networks. In such systems, reduction of power consumption at media converters connecting wired and wireless links would be very important to pursue both low-power consumption and large capacity.

  15. 77 FR 59374 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...] Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 4\\1/2\\ Inches... and pressure pipe (under 4\\1/2\\ inches) (hereinafter, ``small diameter pipe'') from Japan for...

  16. Space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  1. The NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Management Technology Experiment for X-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Samuels, Jeff; Brownston, Lee; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Technology Experiment for X-37 was intended to run IVHM software on-board the X-37 spacecraft. The X-37 is intended to be an unpiloted vehicle that would orbit the Earth for up to 21 days before landing on a runway. The objectives of the experiment were to demonstrate the benefits of in-flight IVHM to the operation of a Reusable Launch Vehicle, to advance the Technology Readiness Level of this IVHM technology within a flight environment, and to demonstrate that the IVHM software could operate on the Vehicle Management Computer. The scope of the experiment was to perform real-time fault detection and isolation for X-37's electrical power system and electro-mechanical actuators. The experiment used Livingstone, a software system that performs diagnosis using a qualitative, model-based reasoning approach that searches system-wide interactions to detect and isolate failures. Two of the challenges we faced were to make this research software more efficient so that it would fit within the limited computational resources that were available to us on the X-37 spacecraft, and to modify it so that it satisfied the X-37's software safety requirements. Although the experiment is currently unfunded, the development effort had value in that it resulted in major improvements in Livingstone's efficiency and safety. This paper reviews some of the details of the modeling and integration efforts, and some of the lessons that were learned.

  2. Decoding the Epigenetic Heterogeneity of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells with Seamless Gene Editing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amar M; Perry, Dustin W; Steffey, Valeriya V Adjan; Miller, Kenneth; Allison, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells exhibit cell cycle-regulated heterogeneity for trimethylation of histone-3 on lysine-4 (H3K4me3) on developmental gene promoters containing bivalent epigenetic domains. The heterogeneity of H3K4me3 can be attributed to Cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) phosphorylation and activation of the histone methyltransferase, MLL2 (KMT2B), during late-G1. The deposition of H3K4me3 on developmental promoters in late-G1 establishes a permissive chromatin architecture that enables signaling cues to promote differentiation from the G1 phase. These data suggest that the inhibition of MLL2 phosphorylation and activation will prevent the initiation of differentiation. Here, we describe a method to seamlessly modify a putative CDK2 phosphorylation site on MLL2 to restrict its phosphorylation and activation. Specifically, by utilizing dimeric CRISPR RNA-guided nucleases, RFNs (commercially known as the NextGEN™ CRISPR), in combination with an excision-only piggyBac™ transposase, we demonstrate how to generate a point mutation of threonine-542, a predicted site to prevent MLL2 activation. This gene editing method enables the use of both positive and negative selection, and allows for subsequent removal of the donor cassette without leaving behind any unwanted DNA sequences or modifications. This seamless "donor-excision" approach provides clear advantages over using single stranded oligo-deoxynucleotides (ssODN) as donors to create point mutations, as the use of ssODN necessitate additional mutations in the donor PAM sequence, along with extensive cloning efforts. The method described here therefore provides the highest targeting efficiency with the lowest "off-target" mutation rates possible, while removing the labor-intensive efforts associated with screening thousands of clones. In sum, this chapter describes how seamless gene editing may be utilized to examine stem cell heterogeneity of epigenetic marks, but is also widely applicable for performing

  3. Innovative Technology for Preparation of Seamless Nitinol Tubes Using SHS Without Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetr, Pavel; Pecenová, Zuzana; Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents innovative technology for the production of seamless Ni-Ti tubes using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The proposed production technology is a unique method which removes the need of forming operations, reduces machining processes, and at the same time it eliminates the negatives of production Ni-Ti alloys by conventional melting methods. The proposed process consists in SHS reaction in evacuated silica tube with the use of extremely high heating rate (over 300 K min-1).

  4. Seamless full color holographic printing method based on spatial partitioning of SLM.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmin; Stoykova, Elena; Kang, Hoonjong; Hong, Sunghee; Park, Joosup; Park, Jiyong; Hong, Jisoo

    2015-01-12

    The holographic wavefront printer decodes the wavefront coming from a three-dimensional object from a computer generated hologram displayed on a spatial light modulator. By recording this wavefront as an analog volume hologram this printing method is highly suitable for realistic color 3D imaging. We propose in the paper spatial partitioning of the spatial light modulator to perform mosaic delivery of exposures at primary colors for seamless reconstruction of a white light viewable color hologram. The method is verified for a 3 × 3 color partitioning scheme by a wavefront printer with demagnification of the light beam diffracted from the modulator.

  5. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  6. Innovative Technology for Preparation of Seamless Nitinol Tubes Using SHS Without Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetr, Pavel; Pecenová, Zuzana; Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents innovative technology for the production of seamless Ni-Ti tubes using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The proposed production technology is a unique method which removes the need of forming operations, reduces machining processes, and at the same time it eliminates the negatives of production Ni-Ti alloys by conventional melting methods. The proposed process consists in SHS reaction in evacuated silica tube with the use of extremely high heating rate (over 300 K min-1).

  7. OEPR Cloning: an Efficient and Seamless Cloning Strategy for Large- and Multi-Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Jiang, Hui; Wu, Lei; Zhu, Ling-Yun; Meng, Er; Zhang, Dong-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Here, an efficient cloning strategy for large DNA fragments and for simultaneous assembly of multiple DNA fragments assembly is presented. This strategy is named OEPR (based on Overlap Extension PCR and Recombination in vivo). OEPR cloning is a seamless, restriction- and ligation-independent method. The method takes advantage of both homologous recombination enzymes in E. coli and overlap PCR. Using OEPR cloning, a long fragment (1–6 kb) or multiple fragments (2–4 fragments) can be easily constructed and simultaneously assembled into a target vector. PMID:28300166

  8. Microsphere-Based Seamless Scaffolds Containing Macroscopic Gradients of Encapsulated Factors for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Milind; Morris, Casey P.; Ellis, Ryan J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal control of bioactive signals in three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds is greatly desired. Coupled together, these attributes may mimic and maintain complex signal patterns, such as those observed during axonal regeneration or neovascularization. Seamless polymer constructs may provide a route to achieve spatial control of signal distribution. In this study, a novel microparticle-based scaffold fabrication technique is introduced as a method to create 3D scaffolds with spatial control over model dyes using uniform poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. Uniform microspheres were produced using the Precision Particle Fabrication technique. Scaffolds were assembled by flowing microsphere suspensions into a cylindrical glass mold, and then microspheres were physically attached to form a continuous scaffold using ethanol treatment. An ethanol soak of 1 h was found to be optimum for improved mechanical characteristics. Morphological and physical characterization of the scaffolds revealed that microsphere matrices were porous (41.1 ± 2.1%) and well connected, and their compressive stiffness ranged from 142 to 306 kPa. Culturing chondrocytes on the scaffolds revealed the compatibility of these substrates with cell attachment and viability. In addition, bilayered, multilayered, and gradient scaffolds were fabricated, exhibiting excellent spatial control and resolution. Such novel scaffolds can serve as sustained delivery devices of heterogeneous signals in a continuous and seamless manner, and may be particularly useful in future interfacial tissue engineering investigations. PMID:18795865

  9. Laser direct write system for fabricating seamless roll-to-roll lithography tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrzelka, Joseph E.; Hardt, David E.

    2013-03-01

    Implementations of roll to roll contact lithography require new approaches towards manufacturing tooling, including stamps for roll to roll nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and soft lithography. Suitable roll based tools must have seamless micro- or nano-scale patterns and must be scalable to roll widths of one meter. The authors have developed a new centrifugal stamp casting process that can produce uniform cylindrical polymer stamps in a scalable manner. The pattern on the resulting polymer tool is replicated against a corresponding master pattern on the inner diameter of a centrifuge drum. This master pattern is created in photoresist using a UV laser direct write system. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a laser direct write system targeting the internal diameter of a rotating drum. The design uses flying optics to focus a laser beam along the axis of the centrifuge drum and to redirect the beam towards the drum surface. Experimental patterning results show uniform coatings of negative photoresist in the centrifuge drum that are effectively patterned with a 405 nm laser diode. Seamless patterns are shown to be replicated in a 50 mm diameter, 60 mm long cylindrical stamp made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Direct write results show gratings with line widths of 10 microns in negative photoresist. Using an FPGA, the laser can be accurately timed against the centrifuge encoder to create complex patterns.

  10. Seamless Insert-Plasmid Assembly at High Efficiency and Low Cost.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Roger M; Ostermeier, Christian; Geiser, Martin; Li, Julia Su Zhou; Widmer, Hans; Auer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Seamless cloning methods, such as co-transformation cloning, sequence- and ligation-independent cloning (SLIC) or the Gibson assembly, are essential tools for the precise construction of plasmids. The efficiency of co-transformation cloning is however low and the Gibson assembly reagents are expensive. With the aim to improve the robustness of seamless cloning experiments while keeping costs low, we examined the importance of complementary single-stranded DNA ends for co-transformation cloning and the influence of single-stranded gaps in circular plasmids on SLIC cloning efficiency. Most importantly, our data show that single-stranded gaps in double-stranded plasmids, which occur in typical SLIC protocols, can drastically decrease the efficiency at which the DNA transforms competent E. coli bacteria. Accordingly, filling-in of single-stranded gaps using DNA polymerase resulted in increased transformation efficiency. Ligation of the remaining nicks did not lead to a further increase in transformation efficiency. These findings demonstrate that highly efficient insert-plasmid assembly can be achieved by using only T5 exonuclease and Phusion DNA polymerase, without Taq DNA ligase from the original Gibson protocol, which significantly reduces the cost of the reactions. We successfully used this modified Gibson assembly protocol with two short insert-plasmid overlap regions, each counting only 15 nucleotides.

  11. Seamless interworking architecture for WBAN in heterogeneous wireless networks with QoS guarantees.

    PubMed

    Khan, Pervez; Ullah, Niamat; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-10-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 standard is a communication standard optimized for low-power and short-range in-body/on-body nodes to serve a variety of medical, consumer electronics and entertainment applications. Providing high mobility with guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to a WBAN user in heterogeneous wireless networks is a challenging task. A WBAN uses a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to gather data from body sensors and forwards it to a remote server through wide range wireless networks. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of WBAN with Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs). The main issue is interworking of WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks including seamless handover, QoS, emergency services, cooperation and security. We propose a Seamless Interworking Architecture (SIA) for WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks based on a cost function. The cost function is based on power consumption and data throughput costs. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms typical approaches in terms of throughput, delay and packet loss rate.

  12. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  13. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  14. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  15. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  16. Green Vehicle Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Green Vehicle Guide Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... your needs. Search for a SmartWay Vehicle Green Vehicle Guide ​What is a green vehicle? Alternative fuels ...

  17. Aerospace Sensor Systems: From Sensor Development To Vehicle Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of years of sensor system development and application for aerospace systems. The emphasis of this work is on developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion and crew vehicle systems as well as monitoring the safety of those systems. Specific areas of work include chemical species sensors, thin film thermocouples and strain gages, heat flux gages, fuel gages, SiC based electronic devices and sensors, space qualified electronics, and MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as integrated and multifunctional sensor systems. Each sensor type has its own technical challenges related to integration and reliability in a given application. The general approach has been to develop base sensor technology using microfabrication techniques, integrate sensors with "smart" hardware and software, and demonstrate those systems in a range of aerospace applications. Descriptions of the sensor elements, their integration into sensors systems, and examples of sensor system applications will be discussed. Finally, suggestions related to the future of sensor technology will be given. It is concluded that smart micro/nano sensor technology can revolutionize aerospace applications, but significant challenges exist in maturing the technology and demonstrating its value in real-life applications.

  18. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  19. Enhancing Access to NASA Data via Seamless Integration Into Decision Support Systems: two Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Rui, H.; Rishe, N.; Tetrault, R.

    2005-12-01

    The amount and variety of information that can be extracted from NASA satellite data form a rich resource that is largely untapped by the applications user community. In part, this is because of the complexity and cost of using such data. Many approaches, such as subsetting, have been taken to ameliorate this situation. Mostly, however, they have not sufficiently addressed the core needs of the applications community. The latter is generally not interested in the data per se (e.g., how they are processed), but rather in the specific measurements (e.g., surface rain) from the data, which can be infused in some decision support system. These measurements should ideally be seamlessly accessible. To rapidly bridge the gap between NASA information systems and services and the practical needs of the applications (and research) community, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has collaborated with the Florida International University High Performance Database Research Center (FIU HPDRC) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS) to demonstrate the feasibility of making NASA data more easily and seamlessly accessible via the Web, from within the FIU's TerraFly and the FAS' Crop Explorer environments, respectively. TerraFly currently serves a broad segment of the research and applications community (some 10,000 unique users per day), by facilitating the access to various textual, remotely sensed, and vector data. Crop Explorer is the primary decision support tool used by the FAS analysts to monitor the production, supply, and demand of agricultural commodities worldwide. The key NASA information system providing the data integrated into TerraFly and Crop Explorer is the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni), which enables users to easily and quickly obtain science information from the data, without having to download and handle large amounts of data. The

  20. Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  1. Hermes vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenet, J.-C.

    1984-10-01

    Projected mission profiles and computational models of the Hermes winged manned reentry vehicle are discussed. Launched into a low orbit with a crew of at most four by the Ariane 5 vehicle, Hermes will serve transportation, crew relief, safety, and freight carriage functions. It will have a nominal 300-500 km circular or 600-900 km heliosynchronous orbit, weigh from 13,500-16,700 kg, and return in hypersonic glide to a wheeled landing. The vehicle dimensions will be 15-18 m length, 6 m height at the tail fin, and a 10 m span. The L/D ratio will be 1.5-1.6, thereby furnishing a cross range of 2500 km. Hermes will have a Shuttle-type fuselage, carbon-carbon nose, and insulation on the extrados designed to keep the structure at 175 C or lower. The avionics will have 3-4 levels of redundance, each mission phase-dependent. Power will be supplied by three fuel cells and a bank of four Ag-Zn batteries. Hardware development is scheduled to begin in 1988.

  2. Seamless Management of Paper and Electronic Documents for Task Knowledge Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Ken

    Due to the progress of Internet technology and the increase of distributed information on networks, the present knowledge management has been based more and more on the performance of various experienced users. In addition to the increase of electronic documents, the use of paper documents has not been reduced because of their convenience. This paper describes a method of tracking paper document locations and contents using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This research also focuses on the expression of a task process and the seamless structuring of related electronic and paper documents as a result of task knowledge formalization using information organizing. A system is proposed here that implements information organization for both Web documents and paper documents with the task model description and RFID technology. Examples of a prototype system are also presented.

  3. Seamless Indoor-Outdoor Navigation for Unmanned Multi-Sensor Aerial Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranoa, , D.; Uijt de Haag, M.; Dill, E.; Vilardaga, S.; Duan, P.

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of navigation algorithms to enable seamless operation of a small-size multi-copter in an indoor-outdoor environment. In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may be unavailable not only due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. The proposed navigation algorithm uses data from a GPS receiver, multiple 2D laser scanners, and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). This paper addresses the proposed multi-mode fusion algorithm and provides initial result using flight test data. This paper furthermore describes the 3DR hexacopter platform that has been used to collect data in an operational environment, starting in an open environment, transitioning to an indoor environment, traversing a building, and, finally, transitioning back to the outdoor environment. Implementation issues will be discussed.

  4. Preventive Maintenance Prioritization by Fuzzy Logic for Seamless Hydro Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Adhikary, P.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Preventive maintenance prioritization is one of the most important criteria for the electricity generation planners to minimize the down time and production costs. Break down of equipments increases costs and plant down time results in loss of business. This work focuses on prioritizing the preventive maintenance for seamless hydro power generation considering (24 × 7) client's power demand using fuzzy logic. The main task involves prioritizing the maintenance work considering constraints of varied power demand and hydro turbine plant breakdown. Fuzzy logic is used to optimize the preventive maintenance prioritization under the main constraints. Manual fuzzy arithmetic is used to develop the model and MATLAB Fuzzy Inference System editor used to validate the same. This novel fuzzy logic approach of preventive maintenance prioritizing for hydro power generation is absent in renewable power generation and industrial engineering literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  5. Multi-Grained Level of Detail for Rendering Complex Meshes Using a Hierarchical Seamless Texture Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Purnomo, B; Cohen, J

    2006-11-06

    Previous algorithms for view-dependent level of detail provide local mesh refinements either at the finest granularity or at a fixed, coarse granularity. The former provides triangle-level adaptation, often at the expense of heavy CPU usage and low triangle rendering throughput; the latter improves CPU usage and rendering throughput by operating on groups of triangles. We present a new multiresolution hierarchy and associated algorithms that provide adaptive granularity. This multi-grained hierarchy allows independent control of the number of hierarchy nodes processed on the CPU and the number of triangles to be rendered on the GPU. We employ a seamless texture atlas style of geometry image as a GPU-friendly data organization, enabling efficient rendering and GPU-based stitching of patch borders. We demonstrate our approach on both large triangle meshes and terrains with up to billions of vertices.

  6. Availability Improvement of Layer 2 Seamless Networks Using OpenFlow

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Elias; Jacob, Eduardo; Matias, Jon; Moreira, Naiara; Astarloa, Armando

    2015-01-01

    The network robustness and reliability are strongly influenced by the implementation of redundancy and its ability of reacting to changes. In situations where packet loss or maximum latency requirements are critical, replication of resources and information may become the optimal technique. To this end, the IEC 62439-3 Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) provides seamless recovery in layer 2 networks by delegating the redundancy management to the end-nodes. In this paper, we present a combination of the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) approach and PRP topologies to establish a higher level of redundancy and thereby, through several active paths provisioned via the OpenFlow protocol, the global reliability is increased, as well as data flows are managed efficiently. Hence, the experiments with multiple failure scenarios, which have been run over the Mininet network emulator, show the improvement in the availability and responsiveness over other traditional technologies based on a single active path. PMID:25759861

  7. A seamless acquisition digital storage oscilloscope with three-dimensional waveform display.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuojun; Tian, Shulin; Zeng, Hao; Qiu, Lei; Guo, Lianping

    2014-04-01

    In traditional digital storage oscilloscope (DSO), sampled data need to be processed after each acquisition. During data processing, the acquisition is stopped and oscilloscope is blind to the input signal. Thus, this duration is called dead time. With the rapid development of modern electronic systems, the effect of infrequent events becomes significant. To capture these occasional events in shorter time, dead time in traditional DSO that causes the loss of measured signal needs to be reduced or even eliminated. In this paper, a seamless acquisition oscilloscope without dead time is proposed. In this oscilloscope, three-dimensional waveform mapping (TWM) technique, which converts sampled data to displayed waveform, is proposed. With this technique, not only the process speed is improved, but also the probability information of waveform is displayed with different brightness. Thus, a three-dimensional waveform is shown to the user. To reduce processing time further, parallel TWM which processes several sampled points simultaneously, and dual-port random access memory based pipelining technique which can process one sampling point in one clock period are proposed. Furthermore, two DDR3 (Double-Data-Rate Three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) are used for storing sampled data alternately, thus the acquisition can continue during data processing. Therefore, the dead time of DSO is eliminated. In addition, a double-pulse test method is adopted to test the waveform capturing rate (WCR) of the oscilloscope and a combined pulse test method is employed to evaluate the oscilloscope's capture ability comprehensively. The experiment results show that the WCR of the designed oscilloscope is 6,250,000 wfms/s (waveforms per second), the highest value in all existing oscilloscopes. The testing results also prove that there is no dead time in our oscilloscope, thus realizing the seamless acquisition.

  8. A seamless acquisition digital storage oscilloscope with three-dimensional waveform display

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kuojun Guo, Lianping; Tian, Shulin; Zeng, Hao; Qiu, Lei

    2014-04-15

    In traditional digital storage oscilloscope (DSO), sampled data need to be processed after each acquisition. During data processing, the acquisition is stopped and oscilloscope is blind to the input signal. Thus, this duration is called dead time. With the rapid development of modern electronic systems, the effect of infrequent events becomes significant. To capture these occasional events in shorter time, dead time in traditional DSO that causes the loss of measured signal needs to be reduced or even eliminated. In this paper, a seamless acquisition oscilloscope without dead time is proposed. In this oscilloscope, three-dimensional waveform mapping (TWM) technique, which converts sampled data to displayed waveform, is proposed. With this technique, not only the process speed is improved, but also the probability information of waveform is displayed with different brightness. Thus, a three-dimensional waveform is shown to the user. To reduce processing time further, parallel TWM which processes several sampled points simultaneously, and dual-port random access memory based pipelining technique which can process one sampling point in one clock period are proposed. Furthermore, two DDR3 (Double-Data-Rate Three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) are used for storing sampled data alternately, thus the acquisition can continue during data processing. Therefore, the dead time of DSO is eliminated. In addition, a double-pulse test method is adopted to test the waveform capturing rate (WCR) of the oscilloscope and a combined pulse test method is employed to evaluate the oscilloscope's capture ability comprehensively. The experiment results show that the WCR of the designed oscilloscope is 6 250 000 wfms/s (waveforms per second), the highest value in all existing oscilloscopes. The testing results also prove that there is no dead time in our oscilloscope, thus realizing the seamless acquisition.

  9. Seamless Learning in the Mobile Age: A Theoretical and Methodological Discussion on Using Cooperative Inquiry to Study Digital Kids On-the-Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Yancy; So, Hyo-Jeong; Seow, Peter; Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2013-01-01

    This paper shares the theoretical and methodological frameworks that are deployed in a 3-year study to examine how Singapore primary school students leverage on mobile technology for seamless learning. This notion of seamless learning refers to the integrated and synergistic effects of learning in both formal and informal settings, which is…

  10. Use of Multiple Parallel Interface Strategies To Create a Seamless Accessible Interface for Next-Generation Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.

    Information systems in public places such as community centers and libraries require some means to provide access to individuals with physical, visual, and, if sound is involved, hearing impairments. This paper proposes a seamless adaptable human interface protocol that would allow users to incrementally modify the command and presentation aspects…

  11. The McKnight Doctoral Fellowship Program: Toward a Seamless Approach to the Production of African American Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.

    2006-01-01

    The McKnight Doctoral Fellowship Program (MDFP) in Florida addresses the issue of under-representation of African American doctorates by adopting a "seamless" approach in supporting African-Americans pursuing a doctoral degree and beyond. The success of the MDFP suggests a need to reconsider graduate support for minority students that…

  12. 77 FR 43806 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of review is... carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China covering...

  13. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... and pressure pipe from Romania for the period August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. See Initiation...

  14. 76 FR 44608 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of..., Line, and Pressure Pipe from Japan and Romania AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  15. 78 FR 33809 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission..., line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of review is November 1, 2011... order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic...

  16. 76 FR 39852 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... diameter, regardless of wall- thickness, manufacturing process (hot finished or cold-drawn), end finish... such as oil, gas, or water pipeline, or utility distribution systems. Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and...

  17. 78 FR 69820 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China... copper pipe and tube from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period November 1, 2011... refined copper pipe and tube. The product is currently classified under Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  18. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  19. A comparison of U.S. geological survey seamless elevation models with shuttle radar topography mission data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, D.; Williams, J.; Miller, W.

    2001-01-01

    Elevation models produced from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data will be the most comprehensive, consistently processed, highest resolution topographic dataset ever produced for the Earth's land surface. Many applications that currently use elevation data will benefit from the increased availability of data with higher accuracy, quality, and resolution, especially in poorly mapped areas of the globe. SRTM data will be produced as seamless data, thereby avoiding many of the problems inherent in existing multi-source topographic databases. Serving as precursors to SRTM datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced and is distributing seamless elevation datasets that facilitate scientific use of elevation data over large areas. GTOPO30 is a global elevation model with a 30 arc-second resolution (approximately 1-kilometer). The National Elevation Dataset (NED) covers the United States at a resolution of 1 arc-second (approximately 30-meters). Due to their seamless format and broad area coverage, both GTOPO30 and NED represent an advance in the usability of elevation data, but each still includes artifacts from the highly variable source data used to produce them. The consistent source data and processing approach for SRTM data will result in elevation products that will be a significant addition to the current availability of seamless datasets, specifically for many areas outside the U.S. One application that demonstrates some advantages that may be realized with SRTM data is delineation of land surface drainage features (watersheds and stream channels). Seamless distribution of elevation data in which a user interactively specifies the area of interest and order parameters via a map server is already being successfully demonstrated with existing USGS datasets. Such an approach for distributing SRTM data is ideal for a dataset that undoubtedly will be of very high interest to the spatial data user community.

  20. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  1. Vehicle suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Mikina, S.J.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes a vehicle consisting of sprung and unsprung masses, the combination of struts and support springs for the weight of the sprung mass, an axis defined by pivots between sprung and unsprung masses, with a front pivot approximately midway between the wheels and near the vertical and horizontal planes through the front axles, with a rear pivot lying in an axis through the front pivot and in a plane through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, with the plane parallel to the centrifugal force vector through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, and with the rear pivot positioned approximately midway between the rear wheels, means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the front pivot to the front wheels and ground, and means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the rear pivot to the rear wheels and ground.

  2. Launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, J. B.

    The basic principles which determine launcher design and hence constrain the spacecraft payload are determined. Some key features of the principal launcher alternatives in Europe and the U.S., namely, the unmanned, expendable Ariane and the manned, substantially reusable, Space Shuttle, are outlined. The equations of motion of the rocket are specialized to the vertical plane, parallel and normal to the flight direction, and to the motion of the center of mass and the pitch rotation. A typical Ariane 2 flight profile for transfer into GTO is illustrated. Some representative mission requirements for spacecraft launches are reviewed. Launch vehicle burnout velocities for spacecraft emplacement are given. Geostationary orbit emplacement, orbital mission performance, and configuration interactions are discussed.

  3. A Descent Rate Control Approach to Developing an Autonomous Descent Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Travis D.

    Circular parachutes have been used for aerial payload/personnel deliveries for over 100 years. In the past two decades, significant work has been done to improve the landing accuracies of cargo deliveries for humanitarian and military applications. This dissertation discusses the approach developed in which a circular parachute is used in conjunction with an electro-mechanical reefing system to manipulate the landing location. Rather than attempt to steer the autonomous descent vehicle directly, control of the landing location is accomplished by modifying the amount of time spent in a particular wind layer. Descent rate control is performed by reversibly reefing the parachute canopy. The first stage of the research investigated the use of a single actuation during descent (with periodic updates), in conjunction with a curvilinear target. Simulation results using real-world wind data are presented, illustrating the utility of the methodology developed. Additionally, hardware development and flight-testing of the single actuation autonomous descent vehicle are presented. The next phase of the research focuses on expanding the single actuation descent rate control methodology to incorporate a multi-actuation path-planning system. By modifying the parachute size throughout the descent, the controllability of the system greatly increases. The trajectory planning methodology developed provides a robust approach to accurately manipulate the landing location of the vehicle. The primary benefits of this system are the inherent robustness to release location errors and the ability to overcome vehicle uncertainties (mass, parachute size, etc.). A separate application of the path-planning methodology is also presented. An in-flight path-prediction system was developed for use in high-altitude ballooning by utilizing the path-planning methodology developed for descent vehicles. The developed onboard system improves landing location predictions in-flight using collected flight

  4. The Geodetic Seamless Archive Centers Service Layer: A System Architecture for Federating Geodesy Data Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhirter, J.; Boler, F. M.; Bock, Y.; Jamason, P.; Squibb, M. B.; Noll, C. E.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    Three geodesy Archive Centers, Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC), NASA's Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) and UNAVCO are engaged in a joint effort to define and develop a common Web Service Application Programming Interface (API) for accessing geodetic data holdings. This effort is funded by the NASA ROSES ACCESS Program to modernize the original GPS Seamless Archive Centers (GSAC) technology which was developed in the 1990s. A new web service interface, the GSAC-WS, is being developed to provide uniform and expanded mechanisms through which users can access our data repositories. In total, our respective archives hold tens of millions of files and contain a rich collection of site/station metadata. Though we serve similar user communities, we currently provide a range of different access methods, query services and metadata formats. This leads to a lack of consistency in the userís experience and a duplication of engineering efforts. The GSAC-WS API and its reference implementation in an underlying Java-based GSAC Service Layer (GSL) supports metadata and data queries into site/station oriented data archives. The general nature of this API makes it applicable to a broad range of data systems. The overall goals of this project include providing consistent and rich query interfaces for end users and client programs, the development of enabling technology to facilitate third party repositories in developing these web service capabilities and to enable the ability to perform data queries across a collection of federated GSAC-WS enabled repositories. A fundamental challenge faced in this project is to provide a common suite of query services across a heterogeneous collection of data yet enabling each repository to expose their specific metadata holdings. To address this challenge we are developing a "capabilities" based service where a repository can describe its specific query and metadata capabilities. Furthermore, the architecture of

  5. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  6. A performance improvement method for low-cost land vehicle GPS/MEMS-INS attitude determination.

    PubMed

    Cong, Li; Li, Ercui; Qin, Honglei; Ling, Keck Voon; Xue, Rui

    2015-03-09

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology is well suited for attitude determination. However, in land vehicle application, low-cost single frequency GPS receivers which have low measurement quality are often used, and external factors such as multipath and low satellite visibility in the densely built-up urban environment further degrade the quality of the GPS measurements. Due to the low-quality receivers used and the challenging urban environment, the success rate of the single epoch ambiguity resolution for dynamic attitude determination is usually quite low. In this paper, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-inertial navigation system (INS)-aided ambiguity resolution method is proposed to improve the GPS attitude determination performance, which is particularly suitable for land vehicle attitude determination. First, the INS calculated baseline vector is augmented with the GPS carrier phase and code measurements. This improves the ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP), resulting in better quality of the unconstrained float solution. Second, the undesirable float solutions caused by large measurement errors are further filtered and replaced using the INS-aided ambiguity function method (AFM). The fixed solutions are then obtained by the constrained least squares ambiguity decorrelation (CLAMBDA) algorithm. Finally, the GPS/MEMS-INS integration is realized by the use of a Kalman filter. Theoretical analysis of the ADOP is given and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can significantly improve the quality of the float ambiguity solution, leading to high success rate and better accuracy of attitude determination.

  7. Business planning in Hong Kong hospitals: the emergence of a seamless health care management process.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the progress made by public hospitals in Hong Kong in implementing a business planning approach. A review of available literature suggests two main exploratory themes. The first establishes the key features of business planning in the private sector. The second theme discusses the problems of adapting this approach to the distinctive requirements of the public sector. The literature also suggests three dimensions for evaluating planning: incremental-developmental; reactive-proactive; ends-means. Qualitative data were collected by scrutinizing relevant organizational documentation and by discussions with focus groups formed by participants in the planning process. The data were analyzed against eight key elements of a business plan identified from the literature and from panels of business experts. These elements were found to be present in the Hospital Authority's plans but were less evident in hospital level plans. Because of the unitary nature of hospital organization in Hong Kong, it has been difficult for hospitals to break out of a reactive, incremental and ends-based pattern to a more imaginative identification of the distinctive business and market that they may be in. This is, however, changing rapidly and it is clear that there is in place a robust and 'seamless' health care management process.

  8. Indoor/Outdoor Seamless Positioning Using Lighting Tags and GPS Cellular Phones for Personal Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namie, Hiromune; Morishita, Hisashi

    The authors focused on the development of an indoor positioning system which is easy to use, portable and available for everyone. This system is capable of providing the correct position anywhere indoors, including onboard ships, and was invented in order to evaluate the availability of GPS indoors. Although the performance of GPS is superior outdoors, there has been considerable research regarding indoor GPS involving sensitive GPS, pseudolites (GPS pseudo satellite), RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tags, and wireless LAN .However, the positioning rate and the precision are not high enough for general use, which is the reason why these technologies have not yet spread to personal navigation systems. In this regard, the authors attempted to implement an indoor positioning system using cellular phones with built-in GPS and infrared light data communication functionality, which are widely used in Japan. GPS is becoming increasingly popular, where GPGGS sentences of the NMEA outputted from the GPS receiver provide spatiotemporal information including latitude, longitude, altitude, and time or ECEF xyz coordinates. As GPS applications grow rapidly, spatiotemporal data becomes key to the ubiquitous outdoor and indoor seamless positioning services at least for the entire area of Japan, as well as to becoming familiar with satellite positioning systems (e.g. GPS). Furthermore, the authors are also working on the idea of using PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), as cellular phones with built-in GPS and PDA functionality are also becoming increasingly popular.

  9. Generation of the Ultrasonic Guided Waves in a Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe Using an Array Transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo; Jeon, Jin Hong; Kim, Jae-Hee; Eom, Heung-Sup; Im, Kwang Hee

    2005-04-09

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for the long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. In ultrasonic guided waves, however, there are numerous modes with different wave velocities, so that the generation and detection of the appropriate wave mode of the guided wave is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, mode tuning using an array transducer was investigated with the hardware implements to generate ultrasonic guided waves in a seamless stainless steel pipe. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. A series of experiments was carried out in order to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic tuning of modes by hardware: tuning the mode of the generated guided wave, group velocity measurement, tuned receiving and mode identification. As a result, the selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the time interval between adjacent elements of an array transducer.

  10. ONU discovery using multiple subchannels for seamless service support in long-reach OFDMA-PON.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hakjeon; Doo, Kyeong-Hwan; Lee, Jonghyun; Lee, Sangsoo

    2014-09-08

    In a passive optical network (PON), discovery is a process that detects and registers newly connected optical network units (ONUs). A long-reach PON requires a longer discovery window, e.g., at least 1 ms for 100 km, due to the increased round-trip time between an optical line terminal (OLT) and an ONU. The longer discovery window consumes more network resources and issues longer service-interruption time. From this motivation, for a long-reach orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-PON, we propose a discovery method using multiple subchannels, where each subchannel consists of one or several subcarrier(s). Compared to discovery using a single channel, the proposed discovery method can increase the number of successfully detected ONUs at the same resources (i.e., for a discovery window) and ensure seamless service support to already registered ONUs, by assigning some subchannels for discovery and the remainder for data transmission. We analyze the discovery efficiency (i.e., the number of successfully detected ONUs in the discovery process) based on a probability and optimize the discovery window size by numerical simulations.

  11. Seamless positioning and navigation by using geo-referenced images and multi-sensor data.

    PubMed

    Li, Xun; Wang, Jinling; Li, Tao

    2013-07-12

    Ubiquitous positioning is considered to be a highly demanding application for today's Location-Based Services (LBS). While satellite-based navigation has achieved great advances in the past few decades, positioning and navigation in indoor scenarios and deep urban areas has remained a challenging topic of substantial research interest. Various strategies have been adopted to fill this gap, within which vision-based methods have attracted growing attention due to the widespread use of cameras on mobile devices. However, current vision-based methods using image processing have yet to revealed their full potential for navigation applications and are insufficient in many aspects. Therefore in this paper, we present a hybrid image-based positioning system that is intended to provide seamless position solution in six degrees of freedom (6DoF) for location-based services in both outdoor and indoor environments. It mainly uses visual sensor input to match with geo-referenced images for image-based positioning resolution, and also takes advantage of multiple onboard sensors, including the built-in GPS receiver and digital compass to assist visual methods. Experiments demonstrate that such a system can greatly improve the position accuracy for areas where the GPS signal is negatively affected (such as in urban canyons), and it also provides excellent position accuracy for indoor environments.

  12. Developments in convective heat transfer models featuring seamless and selected detail surfaces, employing electroless plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Several model/instrument concepts employing electroless metallic skin were considered for improvement of surface condition, accuracy, and cost of contoured-geometry convective heat transfer models. A plated semi-infinite slab approach was chosen for development and evaluation in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The plated slab model consists of an epoxy casting containing fine constantan wires accurately placed at specified surface locations. An electroless alloy was deposited on the plastic surface that provides a hard, uniformly thick, seamless skin. The chosen alloy forms a high-output thermocouple junction with each exposed constantan wire, providing means of determining heat transfer during tunnel testing of the model. A selective electroless plating procedure was used to deposit scaled heatshield tiles on the lower surface of a 0.0175-scale shuttle orbiter model. Twenty-five percent of the tiles were randomly selected and plated to a height of 0.001-inch. The purpose was to assess the heating effects of surface roughness simulating misalignment of tiles that may occur during manufacture of the spacecraft.

  13. A Seamless, High-Resolution, Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A seamless, 3-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the 20-m elevation contour. This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on the detailed variations in elevation inland of the coast and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.

  14. Recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction allows rapid and seamless cloning of oligomeric genes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Jonathan R; Mackay, J Andrew; Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-04-12

    This paper reports a new strategy, recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction (PRe-RDL), to rapidly clone highly repetitive polypeptides of any sequence and specified length over a large range of molecular weights. In a single cycle of PRe-RDL, two halves of a parent plasmid, each containing a copy of an oligomer, are ligated together, thereby dimerizing the oligomer and reconstituting a functional plasmid. This process is carried out recursively to assemble an oligomeric gene with the desired number of repeats. PRe-RDL has several unique features that stem from the use of type IIs restriction endonucleases: first, PRe-RDL is a seamless cloning method that leaves no extraneous nucleotides at the ligation junction. Because it uses type IIs endonucleases to ligate the two halves of the plasmid, PRe-RDL also addresses the major limitation of RDL in that it abolishes any restriction on the gene sequence that can be oligomerized. The reconstitution of a functional plasmid only upon successful ligation in PRe-RDL also addresses two other limitations of RDL: the significant background from self-ligation of the vector observed in RDL, and the decreased efficiency of ligation due to nonproductive circularization of the insert. PRe-RDL can also be used to assemble genes that encode different sequences in a predetermined order to encode block copolymers or append leader and trailer peptide sequences to the oligomerized gene.

  15. Microstructure evolution in TRIP-aided seamless steel tube during T-shape hydroforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Zicheng; Manabe, Ken-ichi; Li, Yanmei; Misra, R.D.K.

    2014-08-15

    Transformation-induced plasticity aided seamless steel tube comprising of ferrite, bainite, and metastable austenite was processed through forging, piercing, cold-drawing, and two-stage heat treatment. T-shape hydroforming is a classic forming method for experimental research and practical production. The current work studied austenite-to-martensite transformation and microcrack initiation and propagation of the tube during T-shape hydroforming using electron backscattering diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The strain distribution in the bcc-phase and fcc-phase was studied by evaluating changes in the average local misorientation. Compared to the compressive stress, metastable austenite with similar strain surrounding or inside the grains transformed easier under tensile loading conditions. The inclusions were responsible for microcrack initiation. The propagation of the cracks is hindered by martensite/austenite constituent due to transformation induced plasticity effect. The volume fraction of untransformed retained austenite decreased with increase in strain implying transformation-induced plasticity effect. - Highlights: • Hydroformed tubes processed via TRIP concept • EBSD provided estimate of micro local strain. • Retained austenite hinders propagation of microcracks.

  16. An Adaptive Handover Prediction Scheme for Seamless Mobility Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches. PMID:25574490

  17. Seamless Positioning and Navigation by Using Geo-Referenced Images and Multi-Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xun; Wang, Jinling; Li, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous positioning is considered to be a highly demanding application for today's Location-Based Services (LBS). While satellite-based navigation has achieved great advances in the past few decades, positioning and navigation in indoor scenarios and deep urban areas has remained a challenging topic of substantial research interest. Various strategies have been adopted to fill this gap, within which vision-based methods have attracted growing attention due to the widespread use of cameras on mobile devices. However, current vision-based methods using image processing have yet to revealed their full potential for navigation applications and are insufficient in many aspects. Therefore in this paper, we present a hybrid image-based positioning system that is intended to provide seamless position solution in six degrees of freedom (6DoF) for location-based services in both outdoor and indoor environments. It mainly uses visual sensor input to match with geo-referenced images for image-based positioning resolution, and also takes advantage of multiple onboard sensors, including the built-in GPS receiver and digital compass to assist visual methods. Experiments demonstrate that such a system can greatly improve the position accuracy for areas where the GPS signal is negatively affected (such as in urban canyons), and it also provides excellent position accuracy for indoor environments. PMID:23857267

  18. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  19. Seamless texture mapping algorithm for image-based three-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiapeng; Liu, Bin; Fang, Tao; Huo, Hong; Zhao, Yuming

    2016-09-01

    Texture information plays an important role in rendering true objects, especially with the wide application of image-based three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction and 3-D laser scanning. This paper proposes a seamless texture mapping algorithm to achieve a high-quality visual effect for 3-D reconstruction. At first, a series of image sets is produced by analyzing the visibility of triangular facets, the image sets are clustered and segmented into a number of optimal reference texture patches. Second, the generated texture patches are sequenced to create a rough texture map, then a weighting process is adopted to reduce the color discrepancies between adjacent patches. Finally, a multiresolution decomposition and fusion technique is used to generate the transition section and eliminate the boundary effect. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective and practical for obtaining high-quality 3-D texture mapping for 3-D reconstruction. Compared with traditional methods, it maintains the texture clarity while eliminating the color seams, in addition, it also supports 3-D texture mapping for big data application.

  20. Seamless Tracing of Human Behavior Using Complementary Wearable and House-Embedded Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Augustyniak, Piotr; Smoleń, Magdalena; Mikrut, Zbigniew; Kańtoch, Eliasz

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal system for seamless surveillance of elderly people in their living environment. The system uses simultaneously a wearable sensor network for each individual and premise-embedded sensors specific for each environment. The paper demonstrates the benefits of using complementary information from two types of mobility sensors: visual flow-based image analysis and an accelerometer-based wearable network. The paper provides results for indoor recognition of several elementary poses and outdoor recognition of complex movements. Instead of complete system description, particular attention was drawn to a polar histogram-based method of visual pose recognition, complementary use and synchronization of the data from wearable and premise-embedded networks and an automatic danger detection algorithm driven by two premise- and subject-related databases. The novelty of our approach also consists in feeding the databases with real-life recordings from the subject, and in using the dynamic time-warping algorithm for measurements of distance between actions represented as elementary poses in behavioral records. The main results of testing our method include: 95.5% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the video system, 96.7% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the accelerometer-based system, 98.9% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the combined accelerometer and video-based system, and 80% accuracy of complex outdoor activity recognition by the accelerometer-based wearable system. PMID:24787640

  1. Balloon focus: a seamless multi-focus+context method for treemaps.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ying; Shen, Han-Wei

    2008-01-01

    The treemap is one of the most popular methods for visualizing hierarchical data. When a treemap contains a large number of items, inspecting or comparing a few selected items in a greater level of detail becomes very challenging. In this paper, we present a seamless multi-focus and context technique, called Balloon Focus, that allows the user to smoothly enlarge multiple treemap items served as the foci, while maintaining a stable treemap layout as the context. Our method has several desirable features. First, this method is quite general and hence can be used with different treemap layout algorithms. Second, as the foci are enlarged, the relative positions among all items are preserved. Third, the foci are placed in a way that the remaining space is evenly distributed back to the non-focus treemap items. When Balloon Focus enlarges the focus items to a maximum degree, the above features ensure that the treemap will maintain a consistent appearance and avoid any abrupt layout changes. In our algorithm, a DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) is used to maintain the positional constraints, and an elastic model is employed to govern the placement of the treemap items. We demonstrate a treemap visualization system that integrates data query, manual focus selection, and our novel multi-focus+context technique, Balloon Focus, together. A user study was conducted. Results show that with Balloon Focus, users can better perform the tasks of comparing the values and the distribution of the foci.

  2. Improved seamless mutagenesis by recombineering using ccdB for counterselection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Bian, Xiaoying; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Müller, Rolf; Zhang, Youming; Fu, Jun; Stewart, A. Francis

    2014-01-01

    Recombineering, which is the use of homologous recombination for DNA engineering in Escherichia coli, usually uses antibiotic selection to identify the intended recombinant. When combined in a second step with counterselection using a small molecule toxin, seamless products can be obtained. Here, we report the advantages of a genetic strategy using CcdB as the counterselectable agent. Expression of CcdB is toxic to E. coli in the absence of the CcdA antidote so counterselection is initiated by the removal of CcdA expression. CcdB counterselection is robust and does not require titrations or experiment-to-experiment optimization. Because counterselection strategies necessarily differ according to the copy number of the target, we describe two variations. For multi-copy targets, we use two E. coli hosts so that counterselection is exerted by the transformation step that is needed to separate the recombined and unrecombined plasmids. For single copy targets, we put the ccdA gene onto the temperature-sensitive pSC101 Red expression plasmid so that counterselection is exerted by the standard temperature shift to remove the expression plasmid. To reduce unwanted intramolecular recombination, we also combined CcdB counterselection with Redα omission. These options improve the use of counterselection in recombineering with BACs, plasmids and the E. coli chromosome. PMID:24369425

  3. Seamless tracing of human behavior using complementary wearable and house-embedded sensors.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Piotr; Smoleń, Magdalena; Mikrut, Zbigniew; Kańtoch, Eliasz

    2014-04-29

    This paper presents a multimodal system for seamless surveillance of elderly people in their living environment. The system uses simultaneously a wearable sensor network for each individual and premise-embedded sensors specific for each environment. The paper demonstrates the benefits of using complementary information from two types of mobility sensors: visual flow-based image analysis and an accelerometer-based wearable network. The paper provides results for indoor recognition of several elementary poses and outdoor recognition of complex movements. Instead of complete system description, particular attention was drawn to a polar histogram-based method of visual pose recognition, complementary use and synchronization of the data from wearable and premise-embedded networks and an automatic danger detection algorithm driven by two premise- and subject-related databases. The novelty of our approach also consists in feeding the databases with real-life recordings from the subject, and in using the dynamic time-warping algorithm for measurements of distance between actions represented as elementary poses in behavioral records. The main results of testing our method include: 95.5% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the video system, 96.7% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the accelerometer-based system, 98.9% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the combined accelerometer and video-based system, and 80% accuracy of complex outdoor activity recognition by the accelerometer-based wearable system.

  4. An adaptive handover prediction scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Ali Safa; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches.

  5. Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

  6. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus.

  7. Seamless Data-Rate Change Using Punctured Convolutional Codes for Time-Varying Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Ying

    1995-01-01

    In a time-varying signal-to-noise (SNR) environment, symbol rate is often changed to maximize ata return. However, the symbol-rate change has some undesirable effects such as changing the ransmission bandwidth and perhaps causing the receiver symbol loop to lose lock temporarily, thus osing some data. In this article, we are proposing an alternate way of varying the data rate without hanging the symbol rate and therefore the transmission bandwidth. The data rate change is achieved n a seamless fashion by puncturing the convolutionally encoded symbol stream to adapt to the hanging SNR environment. We have also derived an exact expression to enumerate the number of nique puncturing patterns. To demonstrate this seamless rate-change capability, we searched for good uncturing patterns for the Galileo (14, 1/4) convolutional code and changed the data rates by using the unctured codes to match the Galileo SNR profile of November 9, 1997.

  8. Vehicle/engine integration. [orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  9. High-quality seamless DEM generation blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2 and ICESat/GLAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Linwei; Shen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Liangpei; Zheng, Xianwei; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Qiangqiang

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a high-quality seamless global digital elevation model (DEM) dataset has been a challenge for the Earth-related research fields. Recently, the 1-arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM-1) data have been released globally, covering over 80% of the Earth's land surface (60°N-56°S). However, voids and anomalies still exist in some tiles, which has prevented the SRTM-1 dataset from being directly used without further processing. In this paper, we propose a method to generate a seamless DEM dataset blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2, and ICESat laser altimetry data. The ASTER GDEM v2 data are used as the elevation source for the SRTM void filling. To get a reliable filling source, ICESat GLAS points are incorporated to enhance the accuracy of the ASTER data within the void regions, using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. After correction, the voids in the SRTM-1 data are filled with the corrected ASTER GDEM values. The triangular irregular network based delta surface fill (DSF) method is then employed to eliminate the vertical bias between them. Finally, an adaptive outlier filter is applied to all the data tiles. The final result is a seamless global DEM dataset. ICESat points collected from 2003 to 2009 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and to assess the vertical accuracy of the global DEM products in China. Furthermore, channel networks in the Yangtze River Basin were also extracted for the data assessment.

  10. The Method to Obtain Position Using Gnss and Rfid for Realization of Indoor and Outdoor Seamless Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikada, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Takeuchi, S.

    2012-07-01

    To obtain indoor positioning by using GPS (GNSS) satellite is difficult now. Additionally it is difficult to obtain high accuracy outdoor position when GPS receiver cannot find four or more GPS satellites in the viewing field of sky. The Japanese Government executed a new law NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) for a spatial information society on May 30, 2007. In this law, everybody can know positional information in real time, anytime and anywhere. In addition, it is necessary to use satellite positioning for realization of seamless positioning, and to promote ubiquitous network technology. Realization of advanced geospatial information society will achieve by creating condition which can obtain positional information anytime and anywhere. However, those technologies have not been established yet. Our laboratory conducted seamless positioning experiment to verify whether it can obtain position seamlessly by using VRS-GPS (Virtual Reference System-GPS) ,QZSS(LEX signal) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) for realizing an advanced spatial information society. Especially, QZSS was launched in 2010 by JAXA and is satellite system taken by a combination of multi orbit plane and each satellite deployed to appear constantly 1 satellite near the zenith in Japan. We are joining the demonstration experiment of a part of Hokuriku area in Japan at 5th to 9th in March and 23th to 27th in April 2012. In this paper we described advanced spatial information society will realize by a combination of GPS(GNSS),RFID and QZSS.

  11. An electromechanical actuation system for an expendable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1992-08-01

    A major effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center in recent years has been to develop electro-mechanical actuators (EMA's) to replace the hydraulic systems used for thrust vector control (TVC) on launch vehicles. This is an attempt ot overcome the inherent inefficiencies and costs associated with the existing hydraulic structures. General Dynamics Space Systems Division, under contract to NASA Lewis, is developing 18.6 kW (25 hp), 29.8 kW (40 hp), and 52.2 kW (70 hp) peak EMA systems to meet the power demands for TVC on a family of vehicles developed for the National Launch System. These systems utilize a pulse population modulated converter and field-oriented control scheme to obtain independent control of both the voltage and frequency. These techniques allow an induction motor to be operated at its maximum torque at all times. At NASA Lewis, we are building on this technology to develop our own in-house system capable of meeting the peak power requirements for an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) such as the Atlas. Our EMA will be capable of delivering 22.4 kW (30 hp) peak power with a nominal of 6.0 kW (8 hp). This system differs from the previous ones in two areas: (1) the use of advanced control methods, and (2) the incorporation of built-in-test. The advanced controls are essential for minimizing the controller size, while the built-in-test is necessary to enhance the system reliability and vehicle health monitoring. The ultimate goal of this program is to demonstrate an EMA which will be capable of self-test and easy integration into other projects. This paper will describe the effort underway at NASA Lewis to develop an EMA for an Atlas class ELV. An explanation will be given for each major technology block, and the status of each major technology block and the status of the overall program will be reported.

  12. An electromechanical actuation system for an expendable launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    A major effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center in recent years has been to develop electro-mechanical actuators (EMA's) to replace the hydraulic systems used for thrust vector control (TVC) on launch vehicles. This is an attempt ot overcome the inherent inefficiencies and costs associated with the existing hydraulic structures. General Dynamics Space Systems Division, under contract to NASA Lewis, is developing 18.6 kW (25 hp), 29.8 kW (40 hp), and 52.2 kW (70 hp) peak EMA systems to meet the power demands for TVC on a family of vehicles developed for the National Launch System. These systems utilize a pulse population modulated converter and field-oriented control scheme to obtain independent control of both the voltage and frequency. These techniques allow an induction motor to be operated at its maximum torque at all times. At NASA Lewis, we are building on this technology to develop our own in-house system capable of meeting the peak power requirements for an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) such as the Atlas. Our EMA will be capable of delivering 22.4 kW (30 hp) peak power with a nominal of 6.0 kW (8 hp). This system differs from the previous ones in two areas: (1) the use of advanced control methods, and (2) the incorporation of built-in-test. The advanced controls are essential for minimizing the controller size, while the built-in-test is necessary to enhance the system reliability and vehicle health monitoring. The ultimate goal of this program is to demonstrate an EMA which will be capable of self-test and easy integration into other projects. This paper will describe the effort underway at NASA Lewis to develop an EMA for an Atlas class ELV. An explanation will be given for each major technology block, and the status of each major technology block and the status of the overall program will be reported.

  13. Seamless lamination of a concave-convex architecture with single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Taekyung; Baik, Jaeyoon; Seo, Keumyoung; Moon, Youngkwon; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kyu Kwak, Sang; Ju, Sanghyun; Real Ahn, Joung

    2015-10-01

    Graphene has been used as an electrode and channel material in electronic devices because of its superior physical properties. Recently, electronic devices have changed from a planar to a complicated three-dimensional (3D) geometry to overcome the limitations of planar devices. The evolution of electronic devices requires that graphene be adaptable to a 3D substrate. Here, we demonstrate that chemical-vapor-deposited single-layer graphene can be transferred onto a silicon dioxide substrate with a 3D geometry, such as a concave-convex architecture. A variety of silicon dioxide concave-convex architectures were uniformly and seamlessly laminated with graphene using a thermal treatment. The planar graphene was stretched to cover the concave-convex architecture, and the resulting strain on the curved graphene was spatially resolved by confocal Raman spectroscopy; molecular dynamic simulations were also conducted and supported the observations. Changes in electrical resistivity caused by the spatially varying strain induced as the graphene-silicon dioxide laminate varies dimensionally from 2D to 3D were measured by using a four-point probe. The resistivity measurements suggest that the electrical resistivity can be systematically controlled by the 3D geometry of the graphene-silicon dioxide laminate. This 3D graphene-insulator laminate will broaden the range of graphene applications beyond planar structures to 3D materials.Graphene has been used as an electrode and channel material in electronic devices because of its superior physical properties. Recently, electronic devices have changed from a planar to a complicated three-dimensional (3D) geometry to overcome the limitations of planar devices. The evolution of electronic devices requires that graphene be adaptable to a 3D substrate. Here, we demonstrate that chemical-vapor-deposited single-layer graphene can be transferred onto a silicon dioxide substrate with a 3D geometry, such as a concave-convex architecture. A

  14. Opening Doors to the Seismic Data Community: IRIS Developments for Seamless Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T.; Casey, R.; Kamb, L.; Laughbon, C.; Muench, J.; Schoch, S.

    2006-05-01

    For the past five years, IRIS has enabled programmatic access to seismological databases worldwide through a data service technology called the Data Handling Interface (DHI). Basing the DHI on industry-standard CORBA technology has allowed a number of client programs to be developed in Java, Matlab and C/C++ which can access data from 6 regional and 2 global-area seismic data centers. More recently, the commonly used program SAC (Seismic Analysis Code) has been updated to interface with DHI, bringing seamless data access and powerful analysis tools together. In addition, noting the maturation of web services into an accepted data service technology, IRIS has developed a prototype web service version of the DHI using the SOAP protocol. As work continues in refining and expanding the utility of DHI, IRIS is also developing a searchable data product repository to allow registered data producers from locations across the globe to make their products available to the community. Here, scientists will be able to discover a myriad of data sources through a single web-service-oriented interface, searching via both common geographic and time-oriented attributes as well as product-specific metadata attributes. A facility for packaging and downloading these products is also being provided. As we move forward towards fully developing a service-oriented architecture (SOA) for IRIS data sources and facilities, we are creating software to allow data discovery and workflow computing to be at anyone's fingertips. Web service and portlet technologies allow easy incorporation of IRIS tools and data into research programs, educational websites and government planning. Data conversion and presentation are also concepts that are being explored in this growing field of cyberinfrastructure development.

  15. Spoked-ring microcavities: enabling seamless integration of nanophotonics in unmodified advanced CMOS microelectronics chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Mark T.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Ram, Rajeev J.; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Popovic, Milos A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the spoked-ring microcavity, a nanophotonic building block enabling energy-efficient, active photonics in unmodified, advanced CMOS microelectronics processes. The cavity is realized in the IBM 45nm SOI CMOS process - the same process used to make many commercially available microprocessors including the IBM Power7 and Sony Playstation 3 processors. In advanced SOI CMOS processes, no partial etch steps and no vertical junctions are available, which limits the types of optical cavities that can be used for active nanophotonics. To enable efficient active devices with no process modifications, we designed a novel spoked-ring microcavity which is fully compatible with the constraints of the process. As a modulator, the device leverages the sub-100nm lithography resolution of the process to create radially extending p-n junctions, providing high optical fill factor depletion-mode modulation and thereby eliminating the need for a vertical junction. The device is made entirely in the transistor active layer, low-loss crystalline silicon, which eliminates the need for a partial etch commonly used to create ridge cavities. In this work, we present the full optical and electrical design of the cavity including rigorous mode solver and FDTD simulations to design the Qlimiting electrical contacts and the coupling/excitation. We address the layout of active photonics within the mask set of a standard advanced CMOS process and show that high-performance photonic devices can be seamlessly monolithically integrated alongside electronics on the same chip. The present designs enable monolithically integrated optoelectronic transceivers on a single advanced CMOS chip, without requiring any process changes, enabling the penetration of photonics into the microprocessor.

  16. Seamless, axially aligned, fiber tubes, meshes, microbundles and gradient biomaterial constructs

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Roberto; Firpo, Matthew A.; Kaplan, David L.; Peattie, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    A new electrospinning apparatus was developed to generate nanofibrous materials with improved organizational control. The system functions by oscillating the deposition signal (ODS) of multiple collectors, allowing significantly improved nanofiber control by manipulating the electric field which drives the electrospinning process. Other electrospinning techniques designed to impart deposited fiber organizational control, such as rotating mandrels or parallel collector systems, do not generate seamless constructs with high quality alignment in sizes large enough for medical devices. In contrast, the ODS collection system produces deposited fiber networks with highly pure alignment in a variety of forms and sizes, including flat (8 × 8 cm2), tubular (1.3 cm diameter), or rope-like microbundle (45 μm diameter) samples. Additionally, the mechanism of our technique allows for scale-up beyond these dimensions. The ODS collection system produced 81.6 % of fibers aligned within 5° of the axial direction, nearly a four-fold improvement over the rotating mandrel technique. The meshes produced from the 9 % (w/v) fibroin/PEO blend demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy due to the fiber alignment. In 37 °C PBS, aligned samples produced an ultimate tensile strength of 16.47 ± 1.18 MPa, a Young's modulus of 37.33 MPa, and a yield strength of 7.79 ± 1.13 MPa. The material was 300 % stiffer when extended in the direction of fiber alignment and required 20 times the amount of force to be deformed, compared to aligned meshes extended perpendicular to the fiber direction. The ODS technique could be applied to any electrospinnable polymer to overcome the more limited uniformity and induced mechanical strain of rotating mandrel techniques, and greatly surpasses the limited length of standard parallel collector techniques. PMID:22890517

  17. Seamless Level 2/Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment using dynamic event tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Douglas Matthew

    The current approach to Level 2 and Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using the conventional event-tree/fault-tree methodology requires pre-specification of event order occurrence which may vary significantly in the presence of uncertainties. Manual preparation of input data to evaluate the possible scenarios arising from these uncertainties may also lead to errors from faulty/incomplete input preparation and their execution using serial runs may lead to computational challenges. A methodology has been developed for Level 2 analysis using dynamic event trees (DETs) that removes these limitations with systematic and mechanized quantification of the impact of aleatory uncertainties on possible consequences and their likelihoods. The methodology is implemented using the Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees (ADAPT) software. For the purposes of this work, aleatory uncertainties are defined as those arising from the stochastic nature of the processes under consideration, such as the variability of weather, in which the probability of weather patterns is predictable but the conditions at the time of the accident are a matter of chance. Epistemic uncertainties are regarded as those arising from the uncertainty in the model (system code) input parameters (e.g., friction or heat transfer correlation parameters). This work conducts a seamless Level 2/3 PRA using a DET analysis. The research helps to quantify and potentially reduce the magnitude of the source term uncertainty currently experienced in Level 3 PRA. Current techniques have been demonstrated with aleatory uncertainties for environmental releases of radioactive materials. This research incorporates epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in a phenomenologically consistent manner through use of DETs. The DETs were determined using the ADAPT framework and linking ADAPT with MELCOR, MELMACCS, and the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2. Aleatory and epistemic uncertainties incorporated

  18. Efficient Buffering Scheme in the LMA for Seamless Handover in PMIPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Ryoul; Lee, Hyo-Beom; Choi, Hyon-Young; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Youn-Hee

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is proposed as a new network-based local mobility protocol which does not involve the Mobile Node (MN) in mobility management. PMIPv6, which uses link-layer attachment information, reduces the movement detection time and eliminates duplicate address detection procedures in order to provide faster handover than Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). To eliminate packet loss during the handover period, the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) buffering scheme is proposed. In this scheme, the LMA buffers lost packets of the Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) and the MN during the handover and recovers them after handover. A new Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) handler is defined which efficiently manages the LMA buffer. The ARQ handler relays ARQ result between the MAG and the MN to the LMA. The LMA removes any buffered packets which have been successfully delivered to the MN. The ARQ handler recovers the packet loss during the handover using buffered packets in the LMA. The ARQ information, between the MAG and LMA, is inserted in the outer header of IP-in-IP encapsulated packets of a standard PMIPv6 tunnel. Since the proposed scheme simply adds information to the standard operation of an IP-in-IP tunnel between the LMA and the MAG, it can be implemented seamlessly without modification to the original PMIPv6 messages and signaling sequence. Unlike other Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) based enhancement for PMIPv6, the proposed scheme does not require any handover related information before the actual handover.

  19. Development of a seamless multisource topographic/bathymetric elevation model of Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, D.; Wilson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require knowledge of the nearshore topography and bathymetry. However, because existing topographic and bathymetric data have been collected independently for different purposes, it has been difficult to use them together at the land/water interface owing to differences in format, projection, resolution, accuracy, and datums. As a first step toward solving the problems of integrating diverse coastal datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are collaborating on a joint demonstration project to merge their data for the Tampa Bay region of Florida. The best available topographic and bathymetric data were extracted from the USGS National Elevation Dataset and the NOAA hydrographic survey database, respectively. Before being merged, the topographic and bathymetric datasets were processed with standard geographic information system tools to place them in a common horizontal reference frame. Also, a key part of the preprocessing was transformation to a common vertical reference through the use of VDatum, a new tool created by NOAA's National Geodetic Survey for vertical datum conversions. The final merged product is a seamless topographic/bathymetric model covering the Tampa Bay region at a grid spacing of 1 arc-second. Topographic LIDAR data were processed and merged with the bathymetry to demonstrate the incorporation of recent third party data sources for several test areas. A primary application of a merged topographic/bathymetric elevation model is for user-defined shoreline delineation, in which the user decides on the tidal condition (for example, low or high water) to be superimposed on the elevation data to determine the spatial position of the water line. Such a use of merged topographic/bathymetric data could lead to the development of a shoreline zone, which could reduce redundant mapping efforts by federal, state, and local agencies

  20. Seamless, axially aligned, fiber tubes, meshes, microbundles and gradient biomaterial constructs.

    PubMed

    Jose, Rod R; Elia, Roberto; Firpo, Matthew A; Kaplan, David L; Peattie, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    A new electrospinning apparatus was developed to generate nanofibrous materials with improved organizational control. The system functions by oscillating the deposition signal (ODS) of multiple collectors, allowing significantly improved nanofiber control by manipulating the electric field which drives the electrospinning process. Other electrospinning techniques designed to impart deposited fiber organizational control, such as rotating mandrels or parallel collector systems, do not generate seamless constructs with high quality alignment in sizes large enough for medical devices. In contrast, the ODS collection system produces deposited fiber networks with highly pure alignment in a variety of forms and sizes, including flat (8 × 8 cm(2)), tubular (1.3 cm diameter), or rope-like microbundle (45 μm diameter) samples. Additionally, the mechanism of our technique allows for scale-up beyond these dimensions. The ODS collection system produced 81.6 % of fibers aligned within 5° of the axial direction, nearly a four-fold improvement over the rotating mandrel technique. The meshes produced from the 9 % (w/v) fibroin/PEO blend demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy due to the fiber alignment. In 37 °C PBS, aligned samples produced an ultimate tensile strength of 16.47 ± 1.18 MPa, a Young's modulus of 37.33 MPa, and a yield strength of 7.79 ± 1.13 MPa. The material was 300 % stiffer when extended in the direction of fiber alignment and required 20 times the amount of force to be deformed, compared to aligned meshes extended perpendicular to the fiber direction. The ODS technique could be applied to any electrospinnable polymer to overcome the more limited uniformity and induced mechanical strain of rotating mandrel techniques, and greatly surpasses the limited length of standard parallel collector techniques.

  1. An effort for developing a seamless transport modeling and remote sensing system for air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Dai, T.; Misawa, S.; Uchida, J.; Schutgens, N.; Hashimoto, M.; Oikawa, E.; Takenaka, H.; Tsuruta, H.; Inoue, T.; Higurashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wide area of the globe, like Asian region, still suffers from a large emission of air pollutants and cause serious impacts on the earth's climate and the public health of the area. Launch of an international initiative, Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), is an example of efforts to ease the difficulties by reducing Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs), i.e., black carbon aerosol, methane and other short-lived atmospheric materials that heat the earth's system, along with long-lived greenhouse gas mitigation. Impact evaluation of the air pollutants, however, has large uncertainties. We like to introduce a recent effort of projects MEXT/SALSA and MOEJ/S-12 to develop a seamless transport model for atmospheric constituents, NICAM-Chem, that is flexible enough to cover global scale to regional scale by the NICAM nonhydrostatic dynamic core (NICAM), coupled with SPRINTARS aerosol model, CHASER atmospheric chemistry model and with their three computational grid systems, i.e. quasi homogeneous grids, stretched grids and diamond grids. A local ensemble transform Kalman filter/smoother with this modeling system was successfully applied to data from MODIS, AERONET, and CALIPSO for global assimilation/inversion and surface SPM and SO2 air pollution monitoring networks for Japanese area assimilation. My talk will be extended to discuss an effective utility of satellite remote sensing of aerosols using Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) on board the GOSAT satellite and Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on board the new third generation geostationary satellite, Himawari-8. The CAI has a near-ultraviolet channel of 380nm with 500m spatial resolution and the AHI has high frequency measurement capability of every 10 minutes. These functions are very effective for accurate land aerosol remote sensing, so that a combination with the developed aerosol assimilation system is promising.

  2. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Seamless Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a Gulfstream G-III airplane (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) swept wing modified with an experimental seamless, compliant flap called the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap. The stall characteristics of the modified ACTE wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified, clean wing at the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 feet above mean sea level, in free air as well as in ground effect. A polyhedral finite-volume unstructured full Navier-Stokes CFD code, STAR-CCM (registered trademark) plus (CD-adapco [Computational Dynamics Limited, United Kingdom, and Analysis & Design Application Co., United States]), was used. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations were conducted for a clean wing and the ACTE wings at various ACTE deflection angles in free air (-2 degrees, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees) as well as in ground effect (15 degrees and 30 degrees). Solution sensitivities to grid densities were examined. In free air, the ACTE wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the clean wing. In ground effect, all wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the corresponding wings in free air. Even though the lift curves are higher in ground effect than in free air, the maximum lift coefficients for all wings are lower in ground effect. Finally, the lift increase due to ground effect for the ACTE wing is predicted to be less than the clean wing.

  3. On-Orbit Propulsion System Performance of ISS Visiting Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Mary Regina M.; Swanson, Robert A.; Kamath, Ulhas P.; Hernandez, Francisco J.; Spencer, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents the culmination of over two decades of unprecedented global human endeavors to conceive, design, build and operate a research laboratory in space. Uninterrupted human presence in space since the inception of the ISS has been made possible by an international fleet of space vehicles facilitating crew rotation, delivery of science experiments and replenishment of propellants and supplies. On-orbit propulsion systems on both ISS and Visiting Vehicles are essential to the continuous operation of the ISS. This paper compares the ISS visiting vehicle propulsion systems by providing an overview of key design drivers, operational considerations and performance characteristics. Despite their differences in design, functionality, and purpose, all visiting vehicles must adhere to a common set of interface requirements along with safety and operational requirements. This paper addresses a wide variety of methods for satisfying these requirements and mitigating credible hazards anticipated during the on-orbit life of propulsion systems, as well as the seamless integration necessary for the continued operation of the ISS.

  4. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  5. Seamless Digital Environment – Plan for Data Analytics Use Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron

    2016-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program initiated research in to what is needed in order to provide a roadmap or model for Nuclear Power Plants to reference when building an architecture that can support the growing data supply and demand flowing through their networks. The Digital Architecture project published report Digital Architecture Planning Model (Oxstrand et. al, 2016) discusses things to consider when building an architecture to support the increasing needs and demands of data throughout the plant. Once the plant is able to support the data demands it still needs to be able to provide the data in an easy, quick and reliable method. A common method is to create a “one stop shop” application that a user can go to get all the data they need. The creation of this leads to the need of creating a Seamless Digital Environment (SDE) to integrate all the “siloed” data. An SDE is the desired perception that should be presented to users by gathering the data from any data source (e.g., legacy applications and work management systems) without effort by the user. The goal for FY16 was to complete a feasibility study for data mining and analytics for employing information from computer-based procedures enabled technologies for use in developing improved business analytics. The research team collaborated with multiple organizations to identify use cases or scenarios, which could be beneficial to investigate in a feasibility study. Many interesting potential use cases were identified throughout the FY16 activity. Unfortunately, due to factors out of the research team’s control, none of the studies were initiated this year. However, the insights gained and the relationships built with both PVNGS and NextAxiom will be valuable when moving forward with future research. During the 2016 annual Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL) group meeting it was identified would be very beneficial to the industry to

  6. Towards a seamless model of Quaternary sediments for continental-scale hydrogeology in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.; Schumacher, M. N.; Chen, J.; Sudicky, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    One of the challenges in modelling groundwater flow systems at the continental-scale is to integrate the geology, i.e. the physical properties of the media, into the grid of a numerical model. In Canada, the development of such a model has been hampered by both the scarcity of data in some remote areas where thick stratigraphic sequences occur (e.g. Hudson Bay Lowlands) and the fact that large subsurface datasets, such as sediment thickness maps, have yet to be compiled in file formats and at scales that would allow seamless coverage across provincial boundaries. Furthermore, thickness maps, where available, are generally not subdivided according to a stratigraphic framework. Here we present a preliminary digital map of Quaternary sediment types and their estimated thickness for Canada and parts of the United States designed specifically for continental-scale groundwater flow modelling. This preliminary map currently consists of a triangulated surface whose internal topological boundaries match sediment unit contacts from pre-existing map compilations of surficial materials at the provincial/state and national scales. Thickness data, mainly derived from available thickness maps, and estimated hydraulic conductivities are stored as values (min, average, max) on the nodes of the surface rather than as a range or a description in a text field or legend. This is a significant improvement from previous map compilations which greatly facilitates interoperability with numerical models. When completed, the map will consist of three surfaces: 1) a surface layer; 2) a subsurface layer representing the characteristics of the dominant subsurface unit; and, 3) locally, a deeper layer to account for important buried valley aquifers. To date, only the surface layer (0-5 m thickness) has been integrated in the numerical model but it has already led to improved depth to water table in drift covered areas over previous model runs which did not take into account the Quaternary

  7. Compound control strategy used in Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yongling; Yan, Meng

    2017-01-01

    This article briefly describes the overall structure of the loading test rig; establish mathematical model of loading EMA, analyze its stability, surplus force and other properties in MATLAB; propose a compound control strategy combined speed feedback, PID and feed-forward compensation based on structure invariance principle. To verify the effectiveness of the control strategy, do a co-simulation by designing a controller based on the control strategy above in MATLAB and building the EMA model in AMESim. The results show that the compound control strategy can significantly improve dynamic tracking accuracy and reduce surplus force.

  8. (Electro)Mechanical Properties of Olefinic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spontak, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Conventional styrenic triblock copolymers (SBCs) swollen with a midblock-selective oil have been previously shown to exhibit excellent electromechanical properties as dielectric elastomers. In this class of electroactive polymers, compliant electrodes applied as active areas to opposing surfaces of an elastomer attract each other, and thus compress the elastomer due to the onset of a Maxwell stress, upon application of an external electric field. This isochoric process is accompanied by an increase in lateral area, which yields the electroactuation strain (measuring beyond 300% in SBC systems). Performance parameters such as the Maxwell stress, transverse strain, dielectric breakdown, energy density and electromechanical efficiency are determined directly from the applied electric field and resulting electroactuation strain. In this study, the same principle used to evaluate SBC systems is extended to olefinic block copolymers (OBCs), which can be described as randomly-coupled multiblock copolymers that consist of crystallizable polyethylene hard segments and rubbery poly(ethylene-co-octene) soft segments. Considerations governing the development of a methodology to fabricate electroresponsive OBC systems are first discussed for several OBCs differing in composition and bulk properties. Evidence of electroactuation in selectively-solvated OBC systems is presented and performance metrics measured therefrom are quantitatively compared with dielectric elastomers derived from SBC and related materials.

  9. Electro-mechanical behavior of a shape memory alloy actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausley, Matthew E.; Furst, Stephen J.; Talla, Vamsi; Seelecke, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents experimental study and numerical simulation of the electro-thermo-mechanical behavior of a commercially available Flexinol shape memory alloy (SMA) wire [1]. Recently, a novel driver device has been presented [2], which simultaneously controls electric power and measures resistance of an SMA wire actuator. This application of a single wire as both actuator and sensor will fully exploit the multifunctional nature of SMA materials and minimize system complexity by avoiding extra sensors. Though the subject is not new [3-6], comprehensive resistance data under controlled conditions for time-resolved and hysteresis-based experiments is not readily available from the literature. A simple experimental setup consisting of a Flexinol wire mounted in series with the tip of a compliant cantilever beam is used to systematically study the SMA behavior. A Labview-based data acquisition system measures actuator displacement and SMA wire stress and resistance and controls the power passed through the SMA actuator wire. The experimental setup is carefully insulated from ambient conditions, as the thermal response of a 50-micron diameter Flexinol wire is extremely sensitive to temperature fluctuation due to convective heat transfer. Actuator performance is reported for a range of actuation frequencies and input power levels. The effect of varying actuator pre-stress is reported as well. All of the experimental data is compared with simulated behavior that is derived from a numerical model for SMA material [7-10].

  10. Controller modeling and evaluation for PCV electro-mechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Joey K.

    1993-01-01

    Hydraulic actuators are currently used to operate the propellant control valves (PCV) for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) and other rocket engines. These actuators are characterized by large power to weight ratios, large force capabilities, and rapid accelerations, which favor their use in control valve applications. However, hydraulic systems are also characterized by susceptibility to contamination, which leads to frequent maintenance requirements. The Control Mechanisms Branch (EP34) of the Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating the application of electromechanical actuators as replacements for the hydraulic units in PCV's over the last few years. This report deals with some testing and analysis of a PCV electromechanical actuator (EMA) designed and fabricated by HR Textron, Inc. This prototype actuator has undergone extensive testing by EP34 personnel since early 1993. At this time, the performance of the HR Textron PCV EMA does not meet requirements for position tracking.

  11. Carbon Nanotube Based Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie; Dai, Hongjie; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) enable nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) because of their inherent nanostructure, intrinsic electric conductivity and mechanical resilience. The collaborative work between Stanford (experiment) and NASA Ames (theory and simulation) has made progress in two types of CNT based NEMS for nanoelectronics and sensor applications. The CNT tipped scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a NEMS in which CNT tips are used for nanoscale probing, imaging and manipulating. It showed great improvement in probing surfaces and biological systems over conventional tips. We have recently applied it to write (lithography) and read (image) uniform SiO2 lines on large Si surface area at speed up to 0.5 mm per s. Preliminary work using approximately 10 nm multiwall nanotube tips produced approximately 10 nm structures and showed that the CNT tips didn't wear down when crashed as conventional tips often do. This presents a solution to the long standing tip-wear problem in SPM nanolithography. We have also explored potential of CNT tips in imaging DNA in water. Preliminary experiment using 10 nm CNT tips reached 5 nm resolution. The 1 nm nanolithography and 1 nm DNA imaging can be expected by using approximately 1 nm CNT tips. In contrast to CNT tipped SPM, we also fabricated CNT devices on silicon wafer in which CNTs connect patterned metallic lines on SiO2/Si by a simple chemical vapor deposition process. Using conventional lithography for silicon wafer, we have been able to obtain CNT based transistors and sensors. Investigations of the CNT NEMS as physical, biological and chemical sensors are in progress and will be discussed.

  12. Uncovering signals from measurement noise by electro mechanical amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droogendijk, H.; Sanders, R. G. P.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2013-05-01

    We present an electromechanical parametric scheme to improve the low-frequency signal-to-noise ratio of energy buffering type transducers. The method is based on periodic modulation of the stiffness in the sensory system which produces upconverted replicas of the signals of interest at frequencies where measurement is less troubled by noise or other detrimental effects. We demonstrate this principle by means of capacitive biomimetic hair flow sensors, where we modulate the rotational spring stiffness by periodic electrostatic spring softening, such that a replica of the original signal is formed around the modulation frequency. Using this replica we gain up to a 25-fold improvement of the low-frequency signal-to-noise ratio and sensing threshold. For transient measurements we demonstrate that tiny signals, which are below the noise-levels in the base-band, are revealed well when upconverted to higher frequencies.

  13. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) for enzymatic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeetender, Amritsar; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Stiharu, Ion G.; Balagopal, Ganesharam

    2004-08-01

    Early enzymatic identification and confirmation is essential for diagnosis and prevention as in the case of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Biochemical markers continue to be an important clinical tool for the enzymatic detection. The advent of MEMS devices can enable the use of various microstructures for the detection of enzymes. In this study, the concept of MEMS is applied for the detection of enzyme reaction, in which microcantilevers undergo changes in mechanical behavior that can be optically detected when enzyme molecules adsorb on their surface. This paper presents the static behavior of microcantilevers under Horse Radish Peroxide (HRP) enzyme reaction. The reported experimental results provide valuable information that will be useful in the development of MEMS sensors for enzymatic detection. The surface stress produced due to enzyme reactions results in the bending of cantilevers as similar to the influencing of thermal stress in the cantilevers. This paper also reports the influence of thermal gradient on the microcantilevers.

  14. Carbon-nanotube based nano-electro-mechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, S. J.; Hall, A. R.; Spivak, D. M.; Falvo, M. R.; Superfine, R.; Washburn, S.

    2004-03-01

    We report on the fabrication and performance of nanometer-scale electromechanical oscillators which use multi-walled carbon nanotubes as torsional springs. Carbon nanotube devices may offer high quality factors due to the inert surface of the torsional member, and high sensitivity due to their nanoscale dimensions. They also provide a means to study the effects of torsion on nanotube transport. The devices have a paddle-oscillator geometry and are driven electrostatically. In previous work we manipulated these devices directly with a scanning probe to measure the torsional properties of the nanotube, its shear modulus, and its subsequent stiffening under repeated strain [1]. Here we use both optical and electron-beam techniques to measure the response of the devices to applied voltages. We demonstrate both quasi-static and on-resonance performance characteristics. 1. P. A. Williams, S. J. Papadakis, A. M. Patel, M. R. Falvo, S. Washburn, and R. Superfine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 255502 (2002).

  15. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-12-21

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  16. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-08-17

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  17. Electro-mechanical heat switch for cryogenic applications

    DOEpatents

    van den Berg, Marcel L.; Batteux, Jan D.; Labov, Simon E.

    2003-01-01

    A heat switch includes two symmetric jaws. Each jaw is comprised of a link connected at a translatable joint to a flexible arm. Each arm rotates about a fixed pivot, and has an articulated end including a thermal contact pad connected to a heat sink. The links are joined together at a translatable main joint. To close the heat switch, a closing solenoid is actuated and forces the main joint to an over-center position. This movement rotates the arms about their pivots, respectively, forces each of them into a stressed configuration, and forces the thermal contact pads towards each other and into compressive contact with a cold finger. The closing solenoid is then deactivated. The heat switch remains closed due to a restoring force generated by the stressed configuration of each arm, until actuation of an opening solenoid returns the main joint to its starting open-switch position.

  18. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm2 and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, — one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources. PMID:26601246

  19. Fabrication of seamless electrospun collagen/PLGA conduits whose walls comprise highly longitudinal aligned nanofibers for nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yuanming; Huang, Chen; Zhu, Yi; Fan, Cunyi; Ke, Qinfei

    2013-06-01

    An ideal nerve scaffold should supply structural guidance and trophic support to facilitate nerve regeneration. Aligned electrospun nanofibers have shown considerable promise for the precise guidance of regenerating axons in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, uniaxially aligned three-dimension (3D) nanofiberous scaffolds may allow regenerating axons to traverse large gaps to treat severe nerve injuries. However, the aligned 3D conduit was always rolled by an aligned 2-dimensional (2D) sheet in current fabrication methods, which was inconvenient for transplant due to the discontinuous joint and inconsistent size. We developed a modified one-step electrospinning technique to produce a seamless 3D nanofiberous nerve conduit (NC) with highly longitudinal aligned nanofibers that combines the biocompatibility of natural collagen and the strength of the synthetic polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the parallel alignment of the scaffold fibers. To test the effectiveness of these scaffolds at restoring neuronal connections, they were implanted into adult rats across a 13 mm sciatic nerve defect. Tests of, motor function, nerve conduction, axonal and Schwann cell morphology, and marker expression all revealed that uniaxially aligned seamless 3D electrospun collagen/PLGA NCs were superior to randomly oriented NCs and inferior to autografts for promoting axon regeneration, myelination, action potential propagation, neuromuscular transmission, and functional recovery. These uniaxially aligned seamless 3D electrospun collagen/PLGA nerve guides can also incorporate signaling molecules and additional structural cues to guide nerve growth, and so may be a promising substitute for autogenous nerve grafts.

  20. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M; Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M; Boss, M; Berman, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy are different forms of Spatially-Fractioned Radiation Therapy (SFRT) that is fundamentally different from the conventional seamless and temporally fractionated radiation therapy. SFRT is characterized by a ultra-high dose (10s –100s Gy) dose single treatment with drastic inhomogeneity pattern of given spatial frequencies. Preclinical and limited clinical studies have shown that the SFRT treatments may offer significant improvements in reducing treatment toxicity, especially for those patients who have not benefited from the state-of-the-art radiation therapy approaches. This preliminary study aims to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms of SFRT, which currently remains poorly understood. Methods: A genetically engineered 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cell line and nude mice skin fold window chamber were used. A nanotechnology-based 160kV x-ray irradiator delivered 50Gy (entrance dose) single treatments of microbeam or seamless radiation. Animals were in 3 groups: mock, seamless radiation, and 300μm microbeam radiation. The windows were imaged using a hyperspectral system to capture total hemoglobin/saturation, GFP fluorescence emission, RFP fluorescence emission, and vessel density at 9 time points up to 7 days post radiation. Results: We found unique physiologic changes in different tumor/normal tissue regions and differential effects between seamless and microbeam treatments. They include 1) compared to microbeam and mock radiation seamless radiation damaged more microvasculature in tumor-surrounding normal tissue, 2) a pronounced angiogenic effect was observed with vascular proliferation in the microbeam irradiated portion of the tumor days post treatment (no such effect observed in seamless and mock groups), and 3) a notable change in tumor vascular orientation was observed where vessels initially oriented parallel to the beam length were replaced by vessels running perpendicular to the irradiation

  1. Manufacturing process controls for high reliability carbon filament-wound seamless-aluminum-lined composite pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, C. A.; Haddock, R. C.

    1992-07-01

    An account is given of the manufacturing, inspection, and test-process variables associated with the production of carbon filament-wound/epoxy-matrix, seamless aluminum-lined pressure vessels, which have achieved operating pressures of the order of 10,000 psi and burst-to-operating safety factors of as low as 1.5-1.0. Attention is given to the process controls that are needed to reach current reliability requirements. Attention is given to liner surface preparation, age sensitivity, and the dangers of exposure to heat and stress.

  2. ViDI: Virtual Diagnostics Interface. Volume 2; Unified File Format and Web Services as Applied to Seamless Data Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Technical Monitor); Schwartz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The desire to revolutionize the aircraft design cycle from its currently lethargic pace to a fast turn-around operation enabling the optimization of non-traditional configurations is a critical challenge facing the aeronautics industry. In response, a large scale effort is underway to not only advance the state of the art in wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and information technology, but to unify these often disparate elements into a cohesive design resource. This paper will address Seamless Data Transfer, the critical central nervous system that will enable a wide variety of varied components to work together.

  3. Application of Vehicle Dynamic Modeling in Uavs for Precise Determination of Exterior Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    Advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and especially micro aerial vehicle (MAV) technology together with increasing quality and decreasing price of imaging devices have resulted in growing use of MAVs in photogrammetry. The practicality of MAV mapping is seriously enhanced with the ability to determine parameters of exterior orientation (EO) with sufficient accuracy, in both absolute and relative senses (change of attitude between successive images). While differential carrier phase GNSS satisfies cm-level positioning accuracy, precise attitude determination is essential for both direct sensor orientation (DiSO) and integrated sensor orientation (ISO) in corridor mapping or in block configuration imaging over surfaces with low texture. Limited cost, size, and weight of MAVs represent limitations on quality of onboard navigation sensors and puts emphasis on exploiting full capacity of available resources. Typically short flying times (10-30 minutes) also limit the possibility of estimating and/or correcting factors such as sensor misalignment and poor attitude initialization of inertial navigation system (INS). This research aims at increasing the accuracy of attitude determination in both absolute and relative senses with no extra sensors onboard. In comparison to classical INS/GNSS setup, novel approach is presented here to integrated state estimation, in which vehicle dynamic model (VDM) is used as the main process model. Such system benefits from available information from autopilot and physical properties of the platform in enhancing performance of determination of trajectory and parameters of exterior orientation consequently. The navigation system employs a differential carrier phase GNSS receiver and a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) grade inertial measurement unit (IMU), together with MAV control input from autopilot. Monte-Carlo simulation has been performed on trajectories for typical corridor mapping and block imaging. Results reveal

  4. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  5. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  6. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  7. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  8. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  9. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  10. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  11. Transformable descent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichkhadze, K. M.; Finchenko, V. S.; Aleksashkin, S. N.; Ostreshko, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents some types of planetary descent vehicles, the shape of which varies in different flight phases. The advantages of such vehicles over those with unchangeable form (from launch to landing) are discussed. It is shown that the use of transformable descent vehicles widens the scope of possible tasks to solve.

  12. Activation of microcomponents with light for micro-electro-mechanical systems and micro-optical-electro-mechanical systems applications.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Robert C; Tait, R Niall; Ubriaco, Mike

    2002-04-20

    We examine the light-activation properties of micrometer-sized gear structures fabricated with polysilicon surface micromachining techniques. The gears are held in place on a substrate through a capped anchor post and are free to rotate about the post. The light-activation technique is modeled on photon radiation pressure, and the equation of motion of the gear is solved for this activation technique. Experimental measurements of torque and damping are found to be consistent with expected results for micrometer-scale devices. Design optimization for optically actuated microstructures is discussed.

  13. Control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ruiyong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zhang, Wendong; Sang, Shengbo; Li, Pengwei

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a flight control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors. The system is designed under the inner loop and outer loop strategy. The trajectory tracking navigation loop is the outer loop of the attitude loop, while the attitude control loop is the outer loop of the stabilization loop. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control was adopted for stabilization and attitude control. The three-dimensional (3D) trajectory tracking control of a UAV could be approximately divided into lateral control and longitudinal control. The longitudinal control employs traditional linear PID feedback to achieve the desired altitude of the UAV, while the lateral control uses a non-linear control method to complete the desired trajectory. The non-linear controller can automatically adapt to ground velocity change, which is usually caused by gust disturbance, thus the UAV has good wind resistance characteristics. Flight tests and survey missions were carried out with our self-developed delta fixed-wing UAV and MEMS-based autopilot to confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed navigation method.

  14. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

    2010-01-01

    Project Description These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 17 and 18, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  15. Vehicle/engine integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-04-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  16. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  17. Seamless data-range change using punctured convolutional codes for time-varying signal-to-noise ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Y.; Cheung, K.-M.

    1995-01-01

    In a time-varying signal-to-noise ration (SNR) environment, symbol rate is often changed to maximize data return. However, the symbol-rate change has some undesirable effects, such as changing the transmission bandwidth and perhaps causing the receiver symbol loop to lose lock temporarily, thus losing some data. In this article, we are proposing an alternate way of varying the data rate without changing the symbol rate and, therefore, the transmission bandwidth. The data rate change is achieved in a seamless fashion by puncturing the convolutionally encoded symbol stream to adapt to the changing SNR environment. We have also derived an exact expression to enumerate the number of distinct puncturing patterns. To demonstrate this seamless rate change capability, we searched for good puncturing patterns for the Galileo (14,1/4) convolutional code and changed the data rates by using the punctured codes to match the Galileo SNR profile of November 9, 1997. We show that this scheme reduces the symbol-rate changes from nine to two and provides a comparable data return in a day and a higher symbol SNR during most of the day.

  18. Novel design of honeycombs using a seamless combination of auxetic and conventional cores toward phononic band gap engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sushovan; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel design for the geometric configuration of honeycombs using a seamless combination of auxetic and conventional cores-elements with negative and positive Possion ratios respectively, has been presented. The proposed design has been shown to generate a superior band gap property while retaining all major advantages of a purely conventional or purely auxetic honeycomb structure. Seamless combination ensures that joint cardinality is also retained. Several configurations involving different degree of auxeticity and different proportions auxetic and conventional elements have been analyzed. It has been shown that the preferred configurations open up wide and clean band gap at a significantly lower frequency ranges compared to their pure counterparts. In view of existence of band gaps being desired feature for the phononic applications, reported results might be appealing. Use of such design may enable superior vibration control as well. Proposed configurations can be made isovolumic and iso-weight giving designers a fairer ground of applying such configurations without significantly changing size and weight criteria.

  19. Counter-selection recombineering of the baculovirus genome: a strategy for seamless modification of repeat-containing BACs.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, Marcel; Soedling, Helen M; Mann, Derek A; Nicholson, Linda J; Dolphin, Colin T

    2010-09-01

    Recombineering is employed to modify large DNA clones such as fosmids, BACs and PACs. Subtle and seamless modifications can be achieved using counter-selection strategies in which a donor cassette carrying both positive and negative markers inserted in the target clone is replaced by the desired sequence change. We are applying counter-selection recombineering to modify bacmid bMON14272, a recombinant baculoviral genome, as we wish to engineer the virus into a therapeutically useful gene delivery vector with cell targeting characteristics. Initial attempts to replace gp64 with Fusion (F) genes from other baculoviruses resulted in many rearranged clones in which the counter-selection cassette had been deleted. Bacmid bMON14272 contains nine highly homologous regions (hrs) and deletions were mapped to recombination between hr pairs. Recombineering modifications were attempted to decrease intramolecular recombination and/or increase recombineering efficiency. Of these only the use of longer homology arms on the donor molecule proved effective permitting seamless modification. bMON14272, because of the presence of the hr sequences, can be considered equivalent to a highly repetitive BAC and, as such, the optimized method detailed here should prove useful to others applying counter-selection recombineering to modify BACs or PACs containing similar regions of significant repeating homologies.

  20. Simple and seamless broadband optical frequency comb generation using an InAs/InP quantum dot laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Xiupu; Xu, Tiefeng; Dai, Zhenxiang; Dai, Shixun; Liu, Taijun

    2017-03-15

    A simple and seamless broadband optical frequency comb (OFC) generator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using a Fabry-Perot quantum dot mode-locked laser combined with a dual-driven LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator driven by a low-power radio frequency (RF) signal. It is experimentally demonstrated that the 10-dB seamless bandwidth of the OFC is 8.2 nm (1.02 THz), which has 62 and 40 comb lines for frequency intervals of 16.56 GHz and 24.84 GHz, respectively. The single-sideband phase noise is as low as -112 and -108  dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz, respectively, for the photodetector-converted 16.56 and 24.84 GHz frequency carriers. Correspondingly, the RF linewidths of the 16.56 GHz and 24.84 GHz carriers are about 251 Hz-263 Hz, respectively. Using a QD laser, an ultra-low phase noise and quasi-tunable broadband OFC generator is obtained easily.

  1. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  2. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  3. 40 CFR 1066.310 - Coastdown procedures for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... direction, in coordination with time-of-day data, using at least one stationary electro-mechanical... opposite direction, consistent with good engineering judgment. Harmonize starting and stopping points...

  4. Production of Seamless Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities from Ultra-fine Grained Niobium, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Crooks, Ph.D., P.E.

    2009-10-31

    The positron and electron linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) will require over 14,000, nine-cell, one meter length, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities [ILC Reference Design Report, 2007]. Manufacturing on this scale will benefit from more efficient fabrication methods. The current methods of fabricating SRF cavities involve deep drawing of the halves of each of the elliptical cells and joining them by high-vacuum, electron beam welding, with at least 19 circumferential welds per cavity. The welding is costly and has undesirable effects on the cavity surfaces, including grain-scale surface roughening at the weld seams. Hydroforming of seamless tubes avoids welding, but hydroforming of coarse-grained seamless tubes results in strain-induced surface roughening. Surface roughness limits accelerating fields, because asperities prematurely exceed the critical magnetic field and become normal conducting. This project explored the technical and economic feasibility of an improved processing method for seamless tubes for hydroforming. Severe deformation of bulk material was first used to produce a fine structure, followed by extrusion and flow-forming methods of tube making. Extrusion of the randomly oriented, fine-grained bulk material proceeded under largely steady-state conditions, and resulted in a uniform structure, which was found to be finer and more crystallographically random than standard (high purity) RRR niobium sheet metal. A 165 mm diameter billet of RRR grade niobium was processed into five, 150 mm I.D. tubes, each over 1.8 m in length, to meet the dimensions used by the DESY ILC hydroforming machine. Mechanical properties met specifications. Costs of prototype tube production were approximately twice the price of RRR niobium sheet, and are expected to be comparable with economies of scale. Hydroforming and superconducting testing will be pursued in subsequent collaborations with DESY and Fermilab. SRF Cavities are used to construct

  5. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  6. Vehicle underbody fairing

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  7. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-30

    TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics Mr. Jim Parker, Associate Director Dr. Greg Hudas, Chief Engineer UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A (OPSEC...TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim Parker; Greg Hudas 5d. PROJECT...Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned Ground Vehicles

  8. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  9. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  10. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  11. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  12. Seamless Data-Rate Change Using Punctured Convolutional Codes for a Time-Varying Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Ying; Cheung, Kar-Ming

    1995-01-01

    In a time-varying signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) environment, symbol rate is changed to maximize data return. However, the symbol-rate changes may cause the receiver symbol loop to lose lock, thus losing real-time data. We propose an alternate way of varying the data rate in a seamless fashion by puncturing the convolutionally encoded symbol stream and transmitting the punctured encoded symbols with a constant symbol rate. We systematically searched for good puncturing patterns for the Galileo (14,1/4) convolutional code and changed the data rates by using the punctured codes to match the Galileo SNR profile of November 9, 1997. We concluded that this scheme reduces the symbol-rate changes from 9 to 2 and provides a larger data return and a higher symbol SNR during most of the day.

  13. Bioelectrochemistry of heme peptide at seamless three-dimensional carbon nanotubes/graphene hybrid films for highly sensitive electrochemical biosensing.

    PubMed

    Komori, Kikuo; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-02-18

    A seamless three-dimensional hybrid film consisting of carbon nanotubes grown at the graphene surface (CNTs/G) is a promising material for the application to highly sensitive enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors. The CNTs/G film was used as a conductive nanoscaffold for enzymes. The heme peptide (HP) was immobilized on the surface of the CNTs/G film for amperometric sensing of H2O2. Compared with flat graphene electrodes modified with HP, the catalytic current for H2O2 reduction at the HP-modified CNTs/G electrode increased due to the increase in the surface coverage of HP. In addition, microvoids in the CNTs/G film contributed to diffusion of H2O2 to modified HP, resulting in the enhancement of the catalytic cathodic currents. The kinetics of the direct electron transfer from the CNTs/G electrode to compound I and II of modified HP was also analyzed.

  14. Analysis of Learning Behavior in Problem-Solving-Based and Project-Based Discussion Activities within the Seamless Online Learning Integrated Discussion (SOLID) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Both asynchronous and synchronous discussions have advantages and limitations for online learning. This study conducts an empirical analysis of these discussion activities while applying the proposed Seamless Online Learning Integrated Discussion (SOLID) system, which can instantly integrate Facebook's asynchronous discussion function with the MSN…

  15. The Impact of a Principle-Based Pedagogical Design on Inquiry-Based Learning in a Seamless Learning Environment in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Siu Cheung; Song, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    An inquiry-based learning pedagogy coupled with a seamless learning environment is a potential way to realise the educational goal of learner-centred learning in digital classrooms in the 21st century. An overarching research framework is proposed for preparing teachers to effectively develop pedagogical designs that are premised on theoretical…

  16. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  17. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  18. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  19. Saturn IB Vehicle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This 1968 chart depicts the various mission configurations for the Saturn IB launch vehicle. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

  20. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  1. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

  2. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  3. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  4. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-29

    the path of the vehicle is difficult to conu·ol which may lead to more aborted test u·ials than using driver-conu·olled steer inputs. Using a driver...reduces both the time required to prepare the vehicle and the probability of aborted u·ials. This allows more attempts to be made, but test results

  5. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  6. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  7. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  8. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  9. Vehicle body cover

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, T.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes a vehicle body covered with a vehicle body cover which comprises: a front cover part, a rear cover part, a pair of side cover parts, and a roof cover part: the front cover part having portions adapted to cover only a hood, an area around a windshield and tops of front fenders of a vehicle body. The portion covering the hood is separated from the portions covering the tops of the fenders by cuts in the front cover part, the front cover part having an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the hood is hinged to the car body. The front cover part has a cut-out at a position corresponding to the windshield of the vehicle body and the front cover part has at least one cut-out at a position corresponding to where a rear view mirror is attached to the vehicle body; and the rear cover part having portions adapted to cover an area around a rear window, a trunk lid and a rear end of the vehicle body, the portion covering the trunk lid separated from the rest of the rear cover part by cuts corresponding to three sides of the trunk lid and an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the trunk lid is hinged to the vehicle body. The rear cover part has a hole at position corresponding to a trunk lid lock, a cut-out portion at a position corresponding to the rear window of the vehicle body, a cut-out at a position corresponding to a license plate of the vehicle body and cut-outs at positions corresponding to rear taillights of the vehicle body.

  10. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Faymon, Karl A.

    1987-01-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  11. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  12. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  13. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  14. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  15. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  16. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  17. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  18. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  19. Vehicle speed control device

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Trump, W.E.

    1987-03-10

    An apparatus is described for automatically limiting the speed of a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine having a spark ignition system with an ignition coil, comprising: sensor means for generating a speed signal directly representative of the speed of the vehicle comprising a series of speed signal pulses having a pulse repetition frequency proportional to the speed of the vehicle; control means for converting speed signal pulses into a DC voltage proportional to the vehicle speed; means for comparing the DC voltage to a predetermined DC voltage having substantially zero AC components representative of a predetermined maximum speed and for generating a difference signal in response thereto; and means for generating a pulse-width modulated control signal responsive to the difference signal; power means responsive to the control signal for intermittently interrupting the ignition system.

  20. New Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-02-01

    The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

  1. Light Duty Vehicle Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a fact sheet on how the Final Endangerment Finding will allow EPA to finalize the first greenhouse gas standards for new light-duty vehicles as part of the joint rulemaking with the Department of Transportation.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program takes a systematic approach to Program implementation. Elements of this approach include the evaluation of new technologies, competitive selection of projects and partners, review of Program and project improvement, project tracking, and portfolio management and adjustment.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Program Planning

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program’s strategic goal is to develop sustainable, cost-competitive technologies to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, increase fuel efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the Nation's energy security.

  5. Hybrid vehicle control

    DOEpatents

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  6. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  7. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    roll , pitch , and yaw information. We assume the vehicle dynamics are slow, and as such, the coupling between the inclinometers and platform...the vehicle has a nonzero roll or pitch angle, Σu has dimension 3. For this condition, the unobservable subspace is similar to a single beam failure...position is defined in local tangent plane coordinates, where x aligns with north, y aligns with east, and z is down. Euler attitude angles are roll (φ

  8. Analyzing Vehicle Operator Deviations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    related to vehicle operator deviations ( VODs ). VODs occur when a vehicle enters the airport movement area without ATC approval. We developed a VOD ...prediction model to help understand the human factors causes associated with different types of VODs . We then examined the validity of the model, using...the data that we needed was missing due to incomplete reporting of the human factors associated with a given VOD . To aid in the development of a

  9. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  10. Army Ground Vehicle Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-25

    IV (> 75 bhp ) compliant COTS engines and directly integrate into current and new heavy-duty vehicles. • Combat vehicle: permanent armor...propulsion system volume [ bhp /ft3] — Air filtration requirements, thermal management system, transmission, engine, ducting requirements, final drives...transmission 40 ft3;  engine 31 ft3;  air filtration 31 ft3 o Bradley FIV: Cummins VTA903 has SHRR of 0.6 BHP / BHP vs. today’s COTS > 0.85

  11. Launch Vehicle Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

  12. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  13. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment... impacts. 523 Vehicle classification. 525 Exemptions from average fuel economy standards. 526 Petitions...

  14. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  15. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  16. Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

  17. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  18. Modeling of black carbon in Asia using a global-to-regional seamless aerosol-transport model.

    PubMed

    Goto, Daisuke

    2014-12-01

    In Asia, the evaluation of black carbon (BC) using global aerosol-transport models has been incomplete due to a lack of available measurements. Recently, new measurements and datasets at various Asian sites have become available for use in model validation. In this study, we compared the BC mass concentrations obtained by an aerosol-coupled global nonhydrostatic model adopting a uniform-grid system with in-situ measurements and other models over Asia. The results revealed that our model, as well as other global models, was unable to reproduce the observed BC values at most sites in China and India, most likely due to strong local hotspots. To overcome the inconsistency between the models and measurements, we developed a new aerosol-transport model using a stretched-grid system for high-resolution simulations with up to approximately 10 km grids. Our model can be used as a global-to-regional seamless aerosol-transport model for low to high horizontal resolution simulations.

  19. Integrating weather and climate predictions for seamless hydrologic ensemble forecasting: A case study in the Yalong River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Aizhong; Deng, Xiaoxue; Ma, Feng; Duan, Qingyun; Zhou, Zheng; Du, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Despite the tremendous improvement made in numerical weather and climate models over the recent years, the forecasts generated by those models still cannot be used directly for hydrological forecasting. A post-processor like the Ensemble Pre-Processor (EPP) developed by U.S. National Weather Service must be used to remove various biases and to extract useful predictive information from those forecasts. In this paper, we investigate how different designs of canonical events in the EPP can help post-process precipitation forecasts from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). The use of canonical events allow those products to be linked seamlessly and then the post-processed ensemble precipitation forecasts can be generated using the Schaake Shuffle procedure. We used the post-processed ensemble precipitation forecasts to drive a distributed hydrological model to obtain ensemble streamflow forecasts and evaluated those forecasts against the observed streamflow. We found that the careful design of canonical events can help extract more useful information, especially when up-to-date observed precipitation is used to setup the canonical events. We also found that streamflow forecasts using post-processed precipitation forecasts have longer lead times and higher accuracy than streamflow forecasts made by traditional Extend Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and the forecasts based on original GEFS and CFSv2 precipitation forecasts.

  20. Evaluation of a regional model climatology in Europe using dynamical downscaling from a seamless Earth prediction approach (EC-Earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montavez, Juan P.; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate and weather forecasting applications share a common ancestry and build on the same physical principles. Nevertheless, climate research and numerical weather prediction are commonly seen as different disciplines. The emerging concept of "seamless prediction" forges weather forecasting and climate change studies into a single framework (Palmer et al., 2008). In principle, as models develop towards higher resolution and more feedbacks are included, some aspects of model uncertainty should reduce. However, global models can only resolve processes down to 50-100 km at present. Moreover, users of climate information often require much higher detail and downscaling methods are needed to provide regional climate information consistent with global climate trajectories. Therefore, this work presents an evaluation of the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to reproduce the present climatology over Europe using a high resolution (25 km). The RCM used in this study is a climate version of the MM5 model (Fernández et al., 2007). The analysis here focuses on the annual and seasonal biases and variability for temperature (mean, maximum and minimum) and precipitation. The statistical parameters are obtained by interpolating the simulated values on the E-OBS gridded dataset from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) at a resolution of 0.5° for the period 1990-2000. The novel approach of this contribution is that the driving model is EC-Earth version 2 (Hazeleger et al., 2010), which follows the seamless prediction approach to provide climate forcings to the regional model. The atmospheric model of EC-Earth is based on ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System, cycle 31r1, corresponding to the current seasonal forecast system of ECMWF. The standard configuration runs at T159 horizontal spectral resolution with 62 vertical levels. The ocean component is based on version 2 of the NEMO model with a horizontal resolution of nominally 1 degree and 42 vertical levels