Science.gov

Sample records for seawater

  1. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  2. SRB seawater corrosion project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozack, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of 2219 aluminum when exposed to seawater was characterized. Controlled corrosion experiments at three different temperatures (30, 60 and 100 C) and two different environments (seawater and 3.5 percent salt solution) were designed to elucidate the initial stages in the corrosion process. It was found that 2219 aluminum is an active catalytic surface for growth of Al2O3, NaCl, and MgO. Formation of Al2O3 is favored at lower temperatures, while MgO is favored at higher temperatures. Visible corrosion products are formed within 30 minutes after seawater exposure. Corrosion characteristics in 3.5 percent salt solution are different than corrosion in seawater. Techniques utilized were: (1) scanning electron microscopy, (2) energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and (3) Auger electron spectroscopy.

  3. Uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, D.; Folkendt, M.

    1982-09-21

    A novel process for recovering uranium from seawater is proposed and some of the critical technical parameters are evaluated. The process, in summary, consists of two different options for contacting adsorbant pellets with seawater without pumping the seawater. It is expected that this will reduce the mass handling requirements, compared to pumped seawater systems, by a factor of approximately 10/sup 5/, which should also result in a large reduction in initial capital investment. Activated carbon, possibly in combination with a small amount of dissolved titanium hydroxide, is expected to be the preferred adsorbant material instead of the commonly assumed titanium hydroxide alone. The activated carbon, after exposure to seawater, can be stripped of uranium with an appropriate eluant (probably an acid) or can be burned for its heating value (possible in a power plant) leaving the uranium further enriched in its ash. The uranium, representing about 1% of the ash, is then a rich ore and would be recovered in a conventional manner. Experimental results have indicated that activated carbon, acting alone, is not adequately effective in adsorbing the uranium from seawater. We measured partition coefficients (concentration ratios) of approximately 10/sup 3/ in seawater instead of the reported values of 10/sup 5/. However, preliminary tests carried out in fresh water show considerable promise for an extraction system that uses a combination of dissolved titanium hydroxide (in minute amounts) which forms an insoluble compound with the uranyl ion, and the insoluble compound then being sorbed out on activated carbon. Such a system showed partition coefficients in excess of 10/sup 5/ in fresh water. However, the system was not tested in seawater.

  4. Glyphosate persistence in seawater.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Carter, Steve; Negri, Andrew P

    2014-08-30

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely applied herbicides globally but its persistence in seawater has not been reported. Here we quantify the biodegradation of glyphosate using standard "simulation" flask tests with native bacterial populations and coastal seawater from the Great Barrier Reef. The half-life for glyphosate at 25 °C in low-light was 47 days, extending to 267 days in the dark at 25 °C and 315 days in the dark at 31 °C, which is the longest persistence reported for this herbicide. AMPA, the microbial transformation product of glyphosate, was detected under all conditions, confirming that degradation was mediated by the native microbial community. This study demonstrates glyphosate is moderately persistent in the marine water under low light conditions and is highly persistent in the dark. Little degradation would be expected during flood plumes in the tropics, which could potentially deliver dissolved and sediment-bound glyphosate far from shore.

  5. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-09-15

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the remarkable merit that it would not compete with growing demands of pure water. This review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100% Faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride ion. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) using biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sun light without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, while the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water that can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Iridium in sea-water.

    PubMed

    Fresco, J; Weiss, H V; Phillips, R B; Askeland, R A

    1985-08-01

    Iridium in sea-water has been measured (after isolation from the saline matrix by reduction with magnesium) by neutron bombardment, radiochemical purification and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The concentration obtained in a Pacific coastal water was 1.02 +/- 0.26 x 10(-14) g per g of sea-water. At such extremely low concentrations, seawater is an extremely unlikely source for anomalously high iridium concentrations measured in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer of deep-sea sediments.

  7. Seawater transport during coral biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Alexander C.; Adkins, Jess F.; Erez, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    Cation transport during skeletal growth is a key process controlling metal/calcium (Me/Ca) paleoproxy behavior in coral. To characterize this transport, cultured corals were transferred into seawater enriched in the rare earth element Tb3 + as well as stable isotopes of calcium, strontium, and barium. Subsequent NanoSIMS ion images of each coral skeleton were used to follow uptake dynamics. These images show a continuous region corresponding to new growth that is homogeneously enriched in each tracer. Isotope ratio profiles across the new growth boundary transition rapidly from natural abundance ratios to a ratio matching the enriched culture solution. The location of this transition is the same for each element, within analytical resolution. The synchronous incorporation of all these cations, including the dissimilar ion terbium, which has no known biological function in coral, suggests that: (1) there is cation exchange between seawater and the calcifying fluid, and (2) these elements are influenced by similar transport mechanisms consistent with direct and rapid seawater transport to the site of calcification. Measured using isotope ratio profiles, seawater transport rates differ from place to place on the growing coral skeleton, with calcifying fluid turnover times from 30 min to 5.7 h. Despite these differences, all the elements measured in this study show the same transport dynamics at each location. Using an analytical geochemical model of biomineralization that includes direct seawater transport we constrain the role of active calcium pumping during calcification and we show that the balance between seawater transport and precipitation can explain observed Me/Ca variability in deep-sea coral.

  8. Neodymium isotopic variations in seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepgras, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Direct measurement of the isotopic composition of Nd in the Atlantic agree with the Nd content in ferromanganese sediments and differ from the observed amounts in the Pacific samples. These data indicate the existence of distinctive differences in the isotopic composition of Nd in the waters of major oceans; the average values determined from seawater and ferromanganese sediments are considerably lower than in sources with oceanic mantle affinities showing that the REE in the oceans is dominated by continental sources. The Nd isotopic variations in seawater are applied to relate the residence time of Nd and mixing rates between the oceans.

  9. Gases in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2003-12-01

    production and consumption, photochemistry, air-sea exchange, and vertical mixing. We will not discuss the effect of vertical mixing on gases in seawater and instead refer the reader to Chapter 6.08. Nor will we consider the deeper oceans as this region is discussed in chapters on benthic fluxes and early diagenesis (Chapter 6.11), the biological pump (Chapter 6.04), and the oceanic calcium carbonate cycle (Chapter 6.19) all in this volume. We will discuss the cycling of gases in surface oceans, including the thermocline, and in particular concentrate on the exchange of various volatile compounds across the air-sea interface.As we will show, while much is known about the cycling of gases such as CO2 and DMS in the water column, frustratingly little is known about many of the chemical species for which the ocean is believed to be a significant source to the atmosphere. We suspect the passage of time will reveal that the cycling of volatile compounds containing selenium and iodine may well prove as complex as that of DMS. Early studies of DMS assumed that it was produced from a precursor compound, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), known to be present in some species of phytoplankton, and that the main sink in the water column was exchange across the air-sea interface. We now know that DMSP and DMS are both rapidly cycled in water column by a complex interaction between phytoplankton, microzooplankton, bacteria, and viruses (see Figure 1). Some detailed process experiments have revealed that only ˜10% of the total DMS produced (and less than 1.3% of the DMSP produced) is transferred to the atmosphere, with the bulk of the DMS and DMSP, either being recycled in the water column or photo-oxidized (Archer et al., 2002b).

  10. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  11. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  12. Uranium extraction: Fuel from seawater

    DOE PAGES

    Tsouris, Costas; Oak Ridge National Lab.

    2017-02-17

    Over four billion tonnes of uranium are currently in the oceans that could be harvested for nuclear fuel, but current capture methods have limited performance and reusability. Now, an electrochemical method using modified carbon electrodes is shown to be promising for the extraction of uranium from seawater.

  13. A new classification of transient seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The understanding of seawater intrusion is based largely on generic studies of steady-state conditions, including modified forms of the Henry problem, which has been used to decipher coastal aquifer groundwater age distributions, density and dispersive controls, heterogeneity effects and the relevant scaling factors (dimensionless numbers). The understanding of transient seawater intrusion, from the same generic sense, is incomplete. Among the most fundamental classifications of transient seawater intrusion is the notion of active and passive seawater intrusion, used widely in the literature. Active seawater intrusion occurs when the head gradient at the shoreline slopes away from the sea, whereas passive seawater intruson occurs despite a head gradient sloping towards the shoreline. In this presentation, the attributes of active and passive seawater intrusion are firstly presented, in terms of differences in the mixing zone behaviour. This includes an assessment of watertable salinisation, which is rarely considered as a consequence of seawater intrusion. Application of the controlling dimensionless numbers, derived from previous steady-state studies, are then proposed. A third type of seawater intrusion class is then defined: passive-active seawater intrusion. In this case, the head gradient slopes towards the sea at the shoreline (and therefore would be considered passive seawater intrusion based on previous definitions), but at some landward location above the seawater wedge, the head gradient slopes inland, drawing seawater towards the groundwater sinks creating the condition. The situations of passive, active and passive-active seawater intrusion are each characteristically different, in terms of time-scales for salinisation, shape and width of the interface, and the key controlling factors. On the premise that seawater intrusion is, literally, a transient process, this study concludes that a new classification system is needed to contextuarilse seawater

  14. Characteristics of active seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badaruddin, Sugiarto; Werner, Adrian D.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2017-08-01

    The inland migration of seawater in coastal aquifers, known as seawater intrusion (SWI), can be categorised as passive or active, depending on whether the hydraulic gradient slopes downwards towards the sea or the land, respectively. Despite active SWI occurring in many locations, it has received considerably less attention than passive SWI. In this study, active SWI caused by an inland freshwater head decline (FHD) is characterised using numerical modelling of various idealised unconfined coastal aquifer settings. Relationships between key features of active SWI (e.g., interface characteristics and SWI response time-scales) and the parameters of the problem (e.g., inland FHD, freshwater-seawater density contrast, dispersivity, hydraulic conductivity, porosity and aquifer thickness) are explored for the first time. Sensitivity analyses show that the SWI response time-scales under active SWI situations are influenced by both the initial and final boundary head differences. The interface is found to be steeper under stronger advection (i.e., caused by the inland FHD), higher dispersivity and hydraulic conductivity, and lower aquifer thickness, seawater density and porosity. The interface movement is faster and the mixing zone is wider with larger hydraulic conductivity, seawater-freshwater density difference, and aquifer thickness, and with lower porosity. Dimensionless parameters (Peclet number and mixed convection ratio) from previous steady-state analyses offer only limited application to the controlling factors of passive SWI, and are not applicable to active SWI. The current study of active SWI highlights important functional relationships that improve the general understanding of SWI, which has otherwise been founded primarily on steady-state and passive SWI.

  15. Isotopic composition of Silurian seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Knauth, L.P.; Kealy, S.; Larimer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Direct isotopic analyses of 21 samples of the Silurian hydrosphere preserved as fluid inclusions in Silurian halite deposits in the Michigan Basin Salina Group yield delta/sup 18/O, deltaD ranging from 0.2 to +5.9 and -26 to -73, respectively. delta/sup 18/O has the same range as observed for modern halite facies evaporite waters and is a few per thousand higher than 100 analyses of fluid inclusions in Permian halite. deltaD is about 20 to 30 per thousand lower than modern and Permian examples. The trajectory of evaporating seawater on a deltaD-delta/sup 18/O diagram initially has a positive slope of 3-6, but hooks strongly downward to negative values, the shape of the hook depending upon humidity. Halite begins to precipitate at delta values similar to those observed for the most /sup 18/O rich fluid inclusions. Subsequent evaporation yields progressively more negative delta values as observed for the fluid inclusions. The fluid inclusion data can be readily explained in terms of evaporating seawater and are consistent with the degree of evaporation deduced from measured bromide profiles. These data are strongly inconsistent with arguments that Silurian seawater was 5.5 per thousand depleted in /sup 18/O. delta/sup 18/O for evaporite waters is systematically related to that of seawater, and does not show a -5.5 per thousand shift in the Silurian, even allowing for variables which affect the isotope evaporation trajectory. The lower deltaD may indicate a component of gypsum dehydration waters or may suggest a D-depleted Silurian hydrosphere.

  16. Mn solubility tested in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    It has been known for the past 2 or 3 years that the concentration of manganese in the upper several hundred meters of ocean water is unlike that of other trace metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel. Trace metals are needed as a sort of ‘vitamin supplement’ by marine plants and animals; the surface supply is biologically scavenged and regenerated at depth. Thus ocean concentrations of trace metals increase with depth.Manganese, by contrast, appears to be concentrated in the photic zone and becomes relatively depleted in the depth interval 50-100 m from the surface. W. Landing and K. Bruland (Ear. Planet. Sci. Lett. 49, 45-56, 1980) described their observations of vertical distributions of manganese in a study of samples from the north Pacific. Recently, W. Sunda, S. A. Huntsman, and A. Harvey, in a study supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have found similar behavior of manganese in samples of coastal seawater and offshore seawater collected off North Carolina (Nature, 20, January 1983). They suggest on the basis of experiments conducted with these samples that the marine biological community itself serves to condition the surface seawater and, with the assistance of photoreduction, cause manganese to dissolve in the otherwise oxygenated zones.

  17. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  18. Rechargeable Seawater Battery and Its Electrochemical Mechanism

    DOE PAGES

    kim, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Eungje; Kim, Hyojin; ...

    2015-03-11

    Herein, we explore the electrochemical mechanism of a novel rechargeable seawater battery system that uses seawater as the cathode material. Sodium is harvested from seawater while charging the battery, and the harvested sodium is discharged with oxygen dissolved in the seawater, functioning as oxidants to produce electricity. The seawater provides both anode (Na metal) and cathode (O2) materials for the proposed battery. Based on the discharge voltage (~2.9 V) with participation of O2 and the charge voltage (~4.1 V) with Cl2 evolution during the first cycle, a voltage efficiency of about 73% is obtained. If the seawater battery is constructedmore » using hard carbon as the anode and a Na super ion conductor as the solid electrolyte, a strong cycle performance of 84% is observed after 40 cycles.« less

  19. Rechargeable Seawater Battery and Its Electrochemical Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    kim, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Eungje; Kim, Hyojin; Johnson, Christopher; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Youngsik

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we explore the electrochemical mechanism of a novel rechargeable seawater battery system that uses seawater as the cathode material. Sodium is harvested from seawater while charging the battery, and the harvested sodium is discharged with oxygen dissolved in the seawater, functioning as oxidants to produce electricity. The seawater provides both anode (Na metal) and cathode (O2) materials for the proposed battery. Based on the discharge voltage (~2.9 V) with participation of O2 and the charge voltage (~4.1 V) with Cl2 evolution during the first cycle, a voltage efficiency of about 73% is obtained. If the seawater battery is constructed using hard carbon as the anode and a Na super ion conductor as the solid electrolyte, a strong cycle performance of 84% is observed after 40 cycles.

  20. Rechargeable Seawater Battery and Its Electrochemical Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    kim, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Eungje; Kim, Hyojin; Johnson, Christopher; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Youngsik

    2015-03-11

    Herein, we explore the electrochemical mechanism of a novel rechargeable seawater battery system that uses seawater as the cathode material. Sodium is harvested from seawater while charging the battery, and the harvested sodium is discharged with oxygen dissolved in the seawater, functioning as oxidants to produce electricity. The seawater provides both anode (Na metal) and cathode (O2) materials for the proposed battery. Based on the discharge voltage (~2.9 V) with participation of O2 and the charge voltage (~4.1 V) with Cl2 evolution during the first cycle, a voltage efficiency of about 73% is obtained. If the seawater battery is constructed using hard carbon as the anode and a Na super ion conductor as the solid electrolyte, a strong cycle performance of 84% is observed after 40 cycles.

  1. Seawater chemistry and early carbonate biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Porter, Susannah M

    2007-06-01

    The first appearances of aragonite and calcite skeletons in 18 animal clades that independently evolved mineralization during the late Ediacaran through the Ordovician (approximately 550 to 444 million years ago) correspond to intervals when seawater chemistry favored aragonite and calcite precipitation, respectively. Skeletal mineralogies rarely changed once skeletons evolved, despite subsequent changes in seawater chemistry. Thus, the selection of carbonate skeletal minerals appears to have been dictated by seawater chemistry at the time a clade first acquired its mineralized skeleton.

  2. Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Song, Haijun; Qiu, Haiou; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Tian, Li; Bates, Steven; Lyons, Timothy W.; Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.

    2014-03-01

    The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-Permian biocrisis, the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. Here, we analyze carbonate-associated-sulfate (CAS) from three Permo-Triassic sections in South China in order to document the behavior of the C-S cycle and its relationship to marine environmental changes during the mass extinction and its aftermath. We find that δ34SCAS varied from +9‰ to +44‰ at rates up to 100‰ Myr-1 during the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic. We model the marine sulfur cycle to demonstrate that such rapid variation required drawdown of seawater sulfate concentrations to ⩽4 mM and a reduction in its residence time to ⩽200 kyr. This shorter residence time resulted in positive covariation with δ13Ccarb due to strong coupling of the organic carbon and pyrite burial fluxes. Carbon and sulfur isotopic shifts were associated with contemporaneous changes in climate, marine productivity, and microbial sulfate reduction rates, with negative shifts in δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS linked to warming, decreased productivity, and reduced sulfate reduction. Sustained cooling during the Spathian re-invigorated oceanic overturning circulation, reduced marine anoxia, and limited pyrite burial. As seawater sulfate built to higher concentrations during the Spathian, the coupling of the marine C and S cycles came to an end and a general amelioration of marine environmental conditions set the stage for a recovery of invertebrate faunas. Variation in seawater sulfate during the Early Triassic was probably controlled by climate change, possibly linked to major eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  3. Difference between deep seawater and surface seawater in the preventive effect of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Yoshioka, Saburo; Hamada, Atsuhide; Takuma, Daisuke; Yokota, Junko; Kusunose, Masahiko; Kyotani, Shojiro; Kawakita, Hirohisa; Odani, Kazuhiro; Tsutsui, Yasuyuki; Nishioka, Yutaka

    2004-11-01

    Using surface and deep seawater collected in the sea area of Muroto Cape (Kochi, Japan), desalinated drinking samples of about 1200 hardness were prepared and examined for the effects on the prevention of atherosclerosis in dietary induced hyperlipidemia rabbits. The plasma LDL cholesterol level was lower in the deep seawater group than in the surface seawater group. GPx activity was significantly higher in the deep seawater group than in the control group, while there was no difference between the surface seawater and control groups. The level of LPO was also significantly lower in the deep seawater group than in the control group. The Sudan IV lipid stained area ratio on the inner surface of the aorta was significantly lower in the deep seawater groups than in the control group, while there was no difference between the surface seawater and control groups. The oil red O stained cross section of the aorta in the control and surface seawater administration group foam cells had accumulated to form thick layers, while in the deep seawater administration group, the degree of their accumulation was very low. These results suggested that the deep seawater was useful for the prevention of hyperlipidemia and arteriosclerosis compared to the surface seawater, and it was found that reduction of the LDL cholesterol level and enhancement of GPx activity were involved in its effects.

  4. Recovery of uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Best, F.R.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1980-12-01

    This report is the proceedings of a topical meeting on the recovery of uranium from seawater, held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on December 1-2, 1980. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and hosted by the MIT Energy Laboratory and Nuclear Engineering Department. Workers from six different countries presented a total of sixteen papers in three major categories: the state-of-the-art resulting from past efforts; detailed results from sorber preparation and performance experiments; and overall system design aspects. Sorbers discussed include hydrous titanium oxide, ion exchange resins, chitosan, humic acids and activated carbon. Systems for contacting seawater with the sorber include actively pumped, current and wave-powered concepts. Filter configurations include thin multilayer stacks, fluidized beds and free falling particles. Several of the researchers estimated eventual production costs in the 200 to 400 $/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ range, although values as high as 2000 $/lb were also quoted. The bulk of the proceedings is comprised of the unedited papers, as provided by the authors. The proceedings also include edited transcripts of the discussions on all papers and the panel and concluding discussions. All papers have been abstracted separately.

  5. Greening Drylands with Seawater Easily and Naturally.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-03-01

    The sun and sea are inexhaustible sources of energy and water that could be used to transform drylands into more viable ecosystems. A sustainable and cost-effective approach is proposed for greening drylands and restoring wildlife and biodiversity in deserts using seawater desert-houses (or movable seawater ponds) that could offer important environmental advantages.

  6. Chemical effect on ozone deposition over seawater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over seawater. Recent studies suggest that surface layer resistance over sea-water is influenced by wind-speed and chemical interaction at the air-water interface. Here, we investigate the e...

  7. Dealloying of cupronickels in stagnant seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.R.; Heidersbach, R.H.; Lenard, D.R.

    1999-11-01

    This report discusses the dealloying (denickelification) of 70-30 cupronickel (UNS C 71500) heat exchanger tubing in stagnant seawater. Heat exchanger tubing exposed to stagnant seawater was examined. The results include metallographic, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray spectrographic analyses supporting the conclusion that the dealloying occurred by a dissolution followed by redeposition of copper process.

  8. Chemical effect on ozone deposition over seawater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over seawater. Recent studies suggest that surface layer resistance over sea-water is influenced by wind-speed and chemical interaction at the air-water interface. Here, we investigate the e...

  9. The effect of seawater on thermoregulator centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dontas, S.; Phocas, E.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were done on dogs to determine the mechanism of thermoregulation. Results show that natural seawater, injected intravenously (150, 200, and 300 cc ), causes narcosis of the thermic centers and increases temperature. Diluted seawater injection causes an excitation of the thermic centers and an antipyretic effect.

  10. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used tomore » separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.« less

  11. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used to separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.

  12. Low sulfate seawater mitigates barite scale

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Simm, I.

    1996-12-09

    Low-sulfate seawater (LSSW) technology provides operational and economic benefits for desulfating seawater to control barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) and strontium sulfate (SrSO{sub 4}) scale. This concluding article in a three part series describes, from a scale control perspective, the membrane technology deployed in the North Sea Brae fields.

  13. Superhydrophobic surfaces for applications in seawater.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Michele; Benedetti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Technological fields in which seawater is implied are numerorus, working in seawater (shipping, oil industry, marine aquaculture,..), and exploiting seawater in plants (cooling heat-exchange, desalination, power plants,..). All suffer from detrimental effects induced by biofouling mainly enhancing material failures and limiting energetic efficiencies. Among the remediation solutions, technologies coniugating economical, green and efficiency criteria should represent the direction. With the aim to meet these criteria, superhydrophobic (SH) technology attracted many researches for the protection of materials operating in contact with seawater. In this work, the literature focusing on such technology for the protection of surfaces in contact with seawater has been reviewed, mainly focusing on boat and ship hull protection. Despite the growing interest around SH technology in seawater for fouling control and friction drag reduction of hulls, to date literature shows that superhydrophobicity in seawater is still limited if compared with a time window compatible with technological needs (set on years). An evaluation of the causes of early superhydrophobicity loss under operative conditions clearly indicates that, to the best of present knowledge, a SH surface cannot preserve this feature by itself alone (especially in real seawater). Hence, we have considered to highlight the behaviour of SH surfaces in seawater in relation to early stages of biocolonization (conditioning film and pioneering bioslime formation). Considering the annual costs sustained for the biofouling impact control, advantages coming from SH surfaces, in terms of foul control and friction drag reduction, would allow economical savings allowing to cover both the appliance of longevity keeping strategies of the SH surfaces and investments in green technologies of SH coating life cycle (production, storing). In addition a brief outlook is provided on technological fields exploiting seawater in pipelines

  14. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  15. Tidal Boundary Conditions in SEAWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulligan, Ann E.; Langevin, Christian; Post, Vincent E.A.

    2011-01-01

    SEAWAT, a U.S. Geological Survey groundwater flow and transport code, is increasingly used to model the effects of tidal motion on coastal aquifers. Different options are available to simulate tidal boundaries but no guidelines exist nor have comparisons been made to identify the most effective approach. We test seven methods to simulate a sloping beach and a tidal flat. The ocean is represented in one of the three ways: directly using a high hydraulic conductivity (high-K) zone and indirect simulation via specified head boundaries using either the General Head Boundary (GHB) or the new Periodic Boundary Condition (PBC) package. All beach models simulate similar water fluxes across the upland boundary and across the sediment-water interface although the ratio of intertidal to subtidal flow is different at low tide. Simulating a seepage face results in larger intertidal fluxes and influences near-shore heads and salinity. Major differences in flow occur in the tidal flat simulations. Because SEAWAT does not simulate unsaturated flow the water table only rises via flow through the saturated zone. This results in delayed propagation of the rising tidal signal inland. Inundation of the tidal flat is delayed as is flow into the aquifer across the flat. This is severe in the high-K and PBC models but mild in the GHB models. Results indicate that any of the tidal boundary options are fine if the ocean-aquifer interface is steep. However, as the slope of that interface decreases, the high-K and PBC approaches perform poorly and the GHB boundary is preferable.

  16. The Geologic History of Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, H. D.

    2003-12-01

    Aristotle proposed that the saltness of the sea was due to the effect of sunlight on water. Robert Boyle took strong exception to this view and - in the manner of the Royal Society - laid out a program of research in the opening paragraph of his Observations and Experiments about the Saltness of the Sea (1674) (Figure 1): (20K)Figure 1. Title page of Robert Boyle's Tracts consisting of Observations about the Saltness of the Sea and other essays (1674). The Cause of the Saltness of the Sea appears by Aristotle's Writings to have busied the Curiosity of Naturalists before his time; since which, his Authority, perhaps much more than his Reasons, did for divers Ages make the Schools and the generality of Naturalists of his Opinion, till towards the end of the last Century, and the beginning of ours, some Learned Men took the boldness to question the common Opinion; since when the Controversie has been kept on foot, and, for ought I know, will be so, as long as ‘tis argued on both sides but by Dialectical Arguments, which may be probable on both sides, but are not convincing on either. Wherefore I shall here briefly deliver some particulars about the Saltness of the Sea, obtained by my own trials, where I was able; and where I was not, by the best Relations I could procure, especially from Navigators.Boyle measured and compiled a considerable set of data for variations in the saltness of surface seawater. He also designed an improved piece of equipment for sampling seawater at depth, but the depths at which it was used were modest: 30 m with his own instrument, 80 m with another, similar sampler. However, the younger John Winthrop (1606-1676), an early member of the Royal Society, an important Governor of Connecticut, and a benefactor of Harvard College, was asked to collect seawater from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean during his crossing from England to New England in the spring of 1663. The minutes of the Royal Society's meeting on July 20, 1663, give the

  17. Prediction of seawater solubility of aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Y.; Tokura, K.; Kishi, H.; Strachan, W.M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The salting-out effect by seawater constituents on the water solubilities of 11 aromatic compounds, anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene, biphenyl, naphthalene, p-nitrotoluene, p-toluidine, o-nitrophenol, m-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol and phenol was investigated. A best fit equation for the salting-out parameters, K, and distilled water solubilities, S/sub 0/, at 20/sup 0/C was found to be K = -0.0298 log S/sub 0/ + 0.114. Seawater solubilities, S, predicted for solutions of ionic strength, I, using the equation log S = (0.0298 I + 1)logS/sub 0/ - 0.114 I were in agreement with observed values within 13% and there were no significant differences between values from the Pacific Ocean seawater and those from 35% NaCl solutions. It was concluded that dissolved organic matter in seawater had an insignificant effect for the test chemicals.

  18. Photochemical degradation of triadimefon in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun; Yang, Guipeng; Cao, Xiaoyan; Lin, Zhifeng

    2008-05-01

    The photochemical degradation of triadimefon in seawater was investigated under different reaction conditions in this study. The results showed that triadimefon could be effectively degraded by the irradiation of a high-pressure mercury lamp and the photodegradation rates were influenced by aquatic media, heavy metal ions and photosensitizers. The photochemical degradation of triadimefon followed the first-order reaction kinetic behavior, with the rate constants ranging from 0.0027 to 0.0128 min-1 under the studied conditions. The photolysis of triadimefon was slower in natural seawater than in distilled water or synthetic seawater. All the heavy metal ions studied in this paper had inhibition effects on the photolysis of triadimefon. Acetone, as a common photosensitizer, could accelerate the photolysis of triadimefon. Three photoproducts were identified by GC-MS analysis. Our study confirmed that photochemical degradation is an effective pathway to remove triadimefon in seawater.

  19. Activated seawater waste water treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, R.H.

    1984-04-10

    A waste water treatment system for use in treating household waste water particularly for tidal coastal areas where seawater is plentiful and fresh water may be scarce. The system uses a source of seawater, preferably from a central storage location, to which hydrogen peroxide has been added. Individual households are provided with the seawater-hydrogen peroxide mixture as flush water directly into the toilet flush tanks. The discharge from each household, including wastes from toilets, bathing, wash and kitchen units, is fed to a series of two or three reaction chambers, and a filter unit before being drained back into the tidal waters. The system includes also a bypass line independent of the flushing mechanisms to provide a continuous source of the seawater-hydrogen peroxide mixture directly into the reaction chambers to insure continuous aerobic biochemical reaction with solids in the reaction chambers thus providing for continuous reaction independent of fluctuating rate of usage of the household waste systems.

  20. Synthetic seawater as stress-corrosion test medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Seawater minimizes pitting corrosion of aluminum-alloy test samples. Of three corrosion-inhibiting methods evaluated using (a) chromate inhibitors in saltwater, (b) surface treating sample via anodizing or alodine treatment, and (c) synthetic seawater, synthetic seawater was most effective test medium, since it is more uniform than fresh seawater.

  1. Synthetic seawater as stress-corrosion test medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Seawater minimizes pitting corrosion of aluminum-alloy test samples. Of three corrosion-inhibiting methods evaluated using (a) chromate inhibitors in saltwater, (b) surface treating sample via anodizing or alodine treatment, and (c) synthetic seawater, synthetic seawater was most effective test medium, since it is more uniform than fresh seawater.

  2. Technical note: Examining ozone deposition over seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, Golam; Kang, Daiwen; Foley, Kristen; Schwede, Donna; Gantt, Brett; Mathur, Rohit

    2016-09-01

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over sea-water and can be influenced by chemical interactions at the air-water interface. Here, we examine the effect of chemical interactions of iodide, dimethylsulfide, dissolved organic carbon, and bromide in seawater on ozone deposition. We perform a series of simulations using the hemispheric Community Multiscale Air Quality model for summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Our results suggest that each chemical interaction enhances the ozone deposition velocity and decreases the atmospheric ozone mixing ratio over seawater. Iodide enhances the median deposition velocity over seawater by 0.023 cm s-1, dissolved organic carbon by 0.021 cm s-1, dimethylsulfide by 0.002 cm s-1, and bromide by ∼0.0006 cm s-1. Consequently, iodide decreases the median atmospheric ozone mixing ratio over seawater by 0.7 ppb, dissolved organic carbon by 0.8 ppb, dimethylsulfide by 0.1 ppb, and bromide by 0.02 ppb. In a separate model simulation, we account for the effect of dissolved salts in seawater on the Henry's law constant for ozone and find that it reduces the median deposition velocity by 0.007 cm s-1 and increases surface ozone mixing ratio by 0.2 ppb. The combined effect of these processes increases the median ozone deposition velocity over seawater by 0.040 cm s-1, lowers the atmospheric ozone mixing ratio by 5%, and slightly improves model performance relative to observations.

  3. Cenozoic seawater Sr/Ca evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosdian, Sindia M.; Lear, Caroline H.; Tao, Kai; Grossman, Ethan L.; O'Dea, Aaron; Rosenthal, Yair

    2012-10-01

    Records of seawater chemistry help constrain temporal variations in geochemical processes that impact the global carbon cycle and climate through Earth's history. Here we reconstruct Cenozoic seawater Sr/Ca (Sr/Casw) using fossil Conus and turritellid gastropod Sr/Ca. Combined with an oxygen isotope paleotemperature record from the same samples, the gastropod record suggests that Sr/Caswwas slightly higher in the Eocene (˜11.4 ± 3 mmol/mol) than today (˜8.54 mmol/mol) and remained relatively stable from the mid- to late Cenozoic. We compare our gastropod Cenozoic Sr/Casw record with a published turritellid gastropod Sr/Casw record and other published biogenic (benthic foraminifera, fossil fish teeth) and inorganic precipitate (calcite veins) Sr/Caswrecords. Once the uncertainties with our gastropod-derived Sr/Casw are taken into account the Sr/Casw record agrees reasonably well with biogenic Sr/Caswrecords. Assuming a seawater [Ca] history derived from marine evaporite inclusions, all biogenic-based Sr/Casw reconstructions imply decreasing seawater [Sr] through the Cenozoic, whereas the calcite vein Sr/Casw reconstruction implies increasing [Sr] through the Cenozoic. We apply a simple geochemical model to examine the implications of divergence among these seawater [Sr] reconstructions and suggest that the interpretation and uncertainties associated with the gastropod and calcite vein proxies need to be revisited. Used in conjunction with records of carbonate depositional fluxes, our favored seawater Sr/Ca scenarios point to a significant increase in the proportion of aragonite versus calcite deposition in shelf sediments from the Middle Miocene, coincident with the proliferation of coral reefs. We propose that this occurred at least 10 million years after the seawater Mg/Ca threshold was passed, and was instead aided by declining levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  4. Chinese Primary Standard Seawater: Stability checks and comparisons with IAPSO Standard Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Luo, Yan; Kang, Ying; Yu, Tao; Wang, Aijun; Zhang, Chuan

    2016-07-01

    The authors give a brief introduction to the Chinese Primary Standard Seawater, with a description of its preparation procedures. IAPSO Standard Seawater (IAPSO SSW), was taken as a stable reference in the stability check of Chinese Primary Standard Seawater (CP SSW), and linear regression model as well as hypothesis testing were introduced into the analysis of check results; a demonstration check of CP SSW (batch number P8) achieved a positive conclusion. In comparisons of several batches of these two kinds of standard seawater on Practical Salinity, identical seawater samples from a homogeneous source were measured repeatedly. To evaluate the comparison results, performance criteria referred to as En numbers were adopted, the maximum of which was 0.42, indicating that no significant differences lay between these two kinds of SSWs when used to determine Practical Salinity. Measures taken to assure the reliability of measurement results are presented.

  5. RAPID DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN SEAWATER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-01-16

    A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium and yttrium isotopes in seawater samples for measurement. The new SRNL method employs a novel and effective pre-concentration step that utilizes a blend of calcium phosphate with iron hydroxide to collect both strontium and yttrium rapidly from the seawater matrix with enhanced chemical yields. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with rapid Sr Resin and DGA Resin cartridge separation options using vacuum box technology, allow seawater samples up to 10 liters to be analyzed. The total {sup 89}Sr + {sup 90}Sr activity may be determined by gas flow proportional counting and recounted after ingrowth of {sup 90}Y to differentiate {sup 89}Sr from {sup 90}Sr. Gas flow proportional counting provides a lower method detection limit than liquid scintillation or Cerenkov counting and allows simultaneous counting of samples. Simultaneous counting allows for longer count times and lower method detection limits without handling very large aliquots of seawater. Seawater samples up to 6 liters may be analyzed using Sr Resin for {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr with a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of 1-10 mBq/L, depending on count times. Seawater samples up to 10 liters may be analyzed for {sup 90}Sr using a DGA Resin method via collection and purification of {sup 90}Y only. If {sup 89}Sr and other fission products are present, then {sup 91}Y (beta energy 1.55 MeV, 58.5 day half-life) is also likely to be present. {sup 91}Y interferes with attempts to collect {sup 90}Y directly from the seawater sample without initial purification of Sr isotopes first and {sup 90}Y ingrowth. The DGA Resin option can be used to determine {sup 90}Sr, and if {sup 91}Y is also present, an ingrowth option with using DGA Resin again to collect {sup 90}Y can be performed. An MDA for {sup 90}Sr of <1 m

  6. The fluorine complexation degree in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenko, A. V.; Savenko, V. S.

    2011-02-01

    Ionometric measurements of the complexation degree of fluorides in seawater of 5-35‰ salinity at 25°C were carried out using two procedures for the standardization of the measuring electrochemical circuits. It was shown that, if we determine the degree of the fluorine complexation in seawater using the measured values of the total coefficients of the activity, the fraction of free ions is much dependent on the value used of the activity coefficient of the free ions calculated by means of one of the versions of either the second or third approximation of the Debye-Huckel electrostatic theory of strong electrolyte solutions. With the more correct measurement of the fluorine complexation degree in seawater on the basis of the comparison of the EMF values in pure KCl-KF solutions and in mixtures of these solutions and seawater at equal ionic power and fluoride concentrations, a close correlation was revealed for the free ion fraction in three series of experiments at fluorine contents of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mM (the concentration of the fluorine in seawater of 35‰ salinity amounts to 0.421 ± 0.014 mM.)

  7. Attenuation of TNT in seawater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Harrison, I; Vane, C H

    2010-01-01

    The ability of two differing marine sediments (one clayey, the other sandy) to attenuate the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), dissolved in intertidal seawater from the eastern English coast of the North Sea, was examined using aerobic microcosms. Analysis of the seawater from the microcosms revealed an initial sharp decline in TNT concentration with clayey sediment in both sterilized (to prevent microbial activity) and unsterilized microcosms. This effect did not occur to such a marked extent in similar sterile and non-sterile sandy sediment microcosms and was attributed mainly to sorption of TNT to the fine clay particles of the clayey sediment. As time progressed, the attenuation of TNT in microcosms containing either type of sediment was found to be less in those that had been sterilized compared with those where microbial action proceeded unhindered. Feeding the microcosms, (i.e. supplying extra carbon sources for the microbial communities), appeared to have a small, but perceptible, enhancing effect upon TNT dissipation. The attenuation of TNT was also measured in large microcosms containing 2.5 L of seawater and no sediment. Analysis of the seawater revealed a gradual decline in TNT concentration in non-sterile and fed microcosms compared to their sterile counterpart. Overall, this laboratory study showed that the attenuation of TNT is slow (half-life in seawater ca.1900 days; half-life sand sediment <700 days; half life in clay sediment 130 days) under conditions commonly encountered in coastal waters of the North Sea.

  8. Seawater chemistry and the advent of biocalcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Sean T.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Horita, Juske

    2004-06-01

    Major ion compositions of primary fluid inclusions from terminal Proterozoic (ca. 544 Ma) and Early Cambrian (ca. 515 Ma) marine halites indicate that seawater Ca2+ concentrations increased approximately threefold during the Early Cambrian. The timing of this shift in seawater chemistry broadly coincides with the “Cambrian explosion,” a brief drop in marine 87Sr/86Sr values, and an increase in tectonic activity, suggesting a link between the advent of biocalcification, hydrothermal mid-ocean-ridge brine production, and the composition of seawater. The Early Cambrian surge in oceanic [Ca2+] was likely the first such increase following the rise of metazoans and may have spurred evolutionary changes in marine biota.

  9. Seawater chemistry and the advent of biocalcification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, S.T.; Lowenstein, T.K.; Horita, J.

    2004-01-01

    Major ion compositions of primary fluid inclusions from terminal Proterozoic (ca. 544 Ma) and Early Cambrian (ca. 515 Ma) marine halites indicate that seawater Ca2+ concentrations increased approximately threefold during the Early Cambrian. The timing of this shift in seawater chemistry broadly coincides with the "Cambrian explosion," a brief drop in marine 87Sr/86Sr values, and an increase in tectonic activity, suggesting a link between the advent of biocalcification, hydrothermal mid-ocean-ridge brine production, and the composition of seawater. The Early Cambrian surge in oceanic [Ca2+] was likely the first such increase following the rise of metazoans and may have spurred evolutionary changes in marine biota. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  10. Seawater Chemistry and the Advent of Biocalcification

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, S. T.; Lowenstein, T K.; Horita, Juske

    2004-01-01

    Major ion compositions of primary fluid inclusions from terminal Proterozoic (ca. 544 Ma) and Early Cambrian (ca. 515 Ma) marine halites indicate that seawater Ca{sup 2+} concentrations increased approximately threefold during the Early Cambrian. The timing of this shift in seawater chemistry broadly coincides with the 'Cambrian explosion,' a brief drop in marine {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, and an increase in tectonic activity, suggesting a link between the advent of biocalcification, hydrothermal mid-ocean-ridge brine production, and the composition of seawater. The Early Cambrian surge in oceanic [Ca{sup 2+}] was likely the first such increase following the rise of metazoans and may have spurred evolutionary changes in marine biota.

  11. Microbiological Assay for Organic Compounds in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Litchfield, Carol D.; Hood, Donald W.

    1965-01-01

    A method for the quantitative identification of organic compounds in seawater has been developed. When auxotrophic mutants of Serratia marinorubra were incubated at 21 to 24 C for 72 hr with constant agitation, standard bioassay reference curves were obtained. Sodium glycerophosphate (400 mg per liter), ammonium dibasic citrate (5 g per liter), and glycerol (25 ml per liter) supplied the needed nutrients for maximal growth with a limited concentration of the required metabolite. Data are presented for the microbiological assay for biotin in waters of the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent bays. The range of sensitivity for the biotin mutant A101V is 5 to 12 mμg per liter in seawater, with a growth response from 2 to 16 mμg per liter of seawater. The possible ecological and chemical significance of biotin occurrence in spring-summer off-shore water is discussed. PMID:5866037

  12. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  13. Nucleation from seawater emissions during mesocosm experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Clémence; Culot, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Schwier, Allison; Mas, Sébastien; Charriere, Bruno; Sempéré, Richard; Marchand, Nicolas; D'Anna, Barbara; Sellegri, Karine

    2015-04-01

    Nucleation and new particle formation in the marine atmosphere is usually associated to the presence of macroalgea emerged at low tides in coastal areas, while these processes were very rarely detected away from coastlines. In the present study, we evidence the formation of new particles from the 1 nm size above the seawater surface in the absence of any macroalgea population. Within the SAM project (Sources of marine Aerosol in the Mediterranean),seawater mesocosms experiments were deployed in May 2013 at the STARESO in western Corsica, with the goal of investigating the relationship between marine aerosol emissions and the seawater biogeochemical properties. Three mesocosms imprisoned 3,3 m3 of seawater each and their emerged part was flushed with aerosol-filtered natural air. One of these mesocosms was left unchanged as control and the two others were enriched by addition of nitrates and phosphates respecting Redfield ratio (N:P = 16) in order to create different levels of phytoplanctonic activities. We followed both water and air characteristics of three mesocosms during a period of three weeks by using online water and atmospheric probes as well as seawater daily samples for chemical and biological analysis. Secondary new particle formation was followed on-line in the emerged parts of the mesocosms, using a SMPS for the size distribution above 6 nm and a Particle Size Magnifyer (PSM) for the number of cluster particles between 1 and 6 nm. We will present how the cluster formation rates and early growth rates relate to the gaz-phase emissions from the seawater and to its biogeochemical properties. Aknowledgemnts: The authors want to acknowledge the financial support of the ANR "Source of marine Aerosol in the Mediterranean" (SAM), and the support of MISTRAL CHARMEX and MERMEX programs.

  14. Technical note: Examining ozone deposition over seawater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over sea-water and can be influenced by chemical interactions at the air-water interface. Here, we examine the effect of chemical interactions of iodide, dimethylsulfide, dissolved organic c...

  15. Technical note: Examining ozone deposition over seawater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over sea-water and can be influenced by chemical interactions at the air-water interface. Here, we examine the effect of chemical interactions of iodide, dimethylsulfide, dissolved organic c...

  16. Potentiometric titration of calcium in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shi-Nan; Ji, Hong; Wu, Ai-Qin; Chen, Guo-Hua

    1997-03-01

    By using calcium ion selective electrode (Ca ISE) as indicating electrode, saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as reference electrode and EGTA as titrant, calcium in seawater was determined by potentiometric titration in borate buffer solution. This method can reduce observation errors in the determination of the endpoint, and thus provide better analytical precision (<0.08%) than present complexometric titration.

  17. Rare earth element scavenging in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    1990-10-01

    Examinations of rare earth element (REE) adsorption in seawater, using a variety of surface-types, indicated that, for most surfaces, light rare earth elements (LREEs) are preferentially adsorbed compared to the heavy rare earths (HREEs). Exceptions to this behavior were observed only for silica phases (glass surfaces, acid-cleaned diatomaceous earth, and synthetic SiO 2). The affinity of the rare earths for surfaces can be strongly affected by thin organic coatings. Glass surfaces which acquired an organic coating through immersion in Tampa Bay exhibited adsorptive behavior typical of organic-rich, rather than glass, surfaces. Models of rare earth distributions between seawater and carboxylate-rich surfaces indicate that scavenging processes which involve such surfaces should exhibit a strong dependence on pH and carbonate complexation. Scavenging models involving carboxylate surfaces produce relative REE abundance patterns in good general agreement with observed shale-normalized REE abundances in seawater. Scavenging by carboxylate-rich surfaces should produce HREE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs and may produce enrichments of lanthanum relative to its immediate trivalent neighbors. Due to the origin of distribution coefficients as a difference between REE solution complexation (which increases strongly with atomic number) and surface complexation (which apparently also increases with atomic number) the relative solution abundance patterns of the REEs produced by scavenging reactions can be quite complex.

  18. Thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles for seawater desalination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qipeng; Chen, Ningping; Zhao, Dieling; Lu, Xianmao

    2013-11-13

    Thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a class of smart materials that respond to a change in temperature may by used as a draw solute to extract water from brackish or seawater by forward osmosis (FO). A distinct advantage is the efficient regeneration of the draw solute and the recovery of water via heat-facilitated magnetic separation. However, the osmotic pressure attained by this type of draw solution is too low to counteract that of seawater. In this work, we have designed a FO draw solution based on multifunctional Fe3O4 nanoparticles grafted with copolymer poly(sodium styrene-4-sulfonate)-co-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PSSS-PNIPAM). The resulting regenerable draw solution shows high osmotic pressure for seawater desalination. This is enabled by three essential functional components integrated within the nanostructure: (i) a Fe3O4 core that allows magnetic separation of the nanoparticles from the solvent, (ii) a thermoresponsive polymer, PNIPAM, that enables reversible clustering of the particles for further improved magnetic capturing at a temperature above its low critical solution temperature (LCST), and (iii) a polyelectrolyte, PSSS, that provides an osmotic pressure that is well above that of seawater.

  19. Secular decline of seawater calcium increases seawater buffering and pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, M.; Sigman, D. M.; Higgins, J. A.; Haug, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Reconstructed changes in seawater calcium and magnesium concentration ([Ca2+], [Mg2+]) predictably affect the ocean's acid/base and carbon chemistry. Yet inaccurate formulations of chemical equilibrium "constants" are currently in use to account for these changes. Here we develop an efficient implementation of the MIAMI Ionic Interaction Model (Millero and Pierrot, 1998) to predict all chemical equilibrium constants required for carbon chemistry calculations under variable [Ca2+] and [Mg2+] (Hain et al., 2015). We investigate the impact of [Ca2+] and [Mg2+] on the relationships among the ocean's pH, CO2, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), saturation state of CaCO3 (Ω), and buffer capacity. Increasing [Ca2+] and/or [Mg2+] enhances "ion pairing," which increases seawater buffering by increasing the concentration ratio of total to "free" (uncomplexed) carbonate ion. An increase in [Ca2+], however, also causes a decline in carbonate ion to maintain a given Ω, thereby overwhelming the ion pairing effect and decreasing seawater buffering. Given the reconstructions of Eocene [Ca2+] and [Mg2+] ([Ca2+]~20mM; [Mg2+]~30 mM), Eocene seawater would have required essentially the same DIC as today to simultaneously explain a similar-to-modern Ω and the estimated Eocene atmospheric CO2 of ~1000 ppm. During the Cretaceous, at ~4 times modern [Ca2+], ocean buffering would have been at a minimum. Overall, during times of high seawater [Ca2+], CaCO3 saturation, pH, and atmospheric CO2 were more susceptible to perturbations of the global carbon cycle. For example, given both Eocene and Cretaceous seawater [Ca2+] and [Mg2+], a doubling of atmospheric CO2 would require less carbon addition to the ocean/atmosphere system than under modern seawater composition. Moreover, increase in seawater buffering since the Cretaceous may have been a driver of evolution by raising energetic demands of biologically controlled calcification and CO2 concentration mechanisms that aid photosynthesis.

  20. Gradient zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B.

    1995-11-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. A simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was found, for conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operations.

  1. Toxicological Investigation of Radioactive Uranium in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Trace uranium detection measurement was performed using DNA immobilized on a graphite pencil electrode (DGE). The developed probe was connected to the portable handheld voltammetric systems used for seawater analysis. The sensitive voltammogram was obtained within only 30 s accumulation time, and the anodic stripping working range was attained at 100~800 μg/l U and 10~50 μg/l. The statistic relative standard deviation of 30.0 mg/l with the 15th stripping was 0.2115. Here, toxicological and analytical application was performed in the seawater survey in a contaminated power plant controlling water. The results were found to be applicable for real-time toxicological assay for trace control. PMID:24278591

  2. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  3. Photothermal Membrane Distillation for Seawater Desalination.

    PubMed

    Politano, Antonio; Argurio, Pietro; Di Profio, Gianluca; Sanna, Vanna; Cupolillo, Anna; Chakraborty, Sudip; Arafat, Hassan A; Curcio, Efrem

    2017-01-01

    Thermoplasmonic effects notably improve the efficiency of vacuum membrane distillation, an economically sustainable tool for high-quality seawater desalination. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes filled with spherical silver nanoparticles are used, whose size is tuned for the aim. With the addition of plasmonic nanoparticles in the membrane, the transmembrane flux increases by 11 times, and, moreover, the temperature at the membrane interface is higher than bulk temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Lithium in Brachiopods - proxy for seawater evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspers, Natalie; Magna, Tomas; Tomasovych, Adam; Henkel, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Marine biogenic carbonates have the potential to serve as a proxy for evolution of seawater chemistry. In order to compile a record of the past and recent δ7Li in the oceans, foraminifera shells, scleractinian corals and belemnites have been used. However, only a foraminifera-based record appears to more accurately reflect the Li isotope composition of ocean water. At present, this record is available for the Cenozoic with implications for major events during this period of time, including K/T event [1]. A record for the entire Phanerozoic has not yet been obtained. In order to extend this record to the more distant past, Li elemental/isotope systematics of brachiopods were investigated because these marine animals were already present in Early Cambrian oceans and because they are less sensitive to diagenesis-induced modifications due to their shell mineralogy (low-Mg calcite). The preliminary data indicates a species-, temperature- and salinity-independent behavior of Li isotopes in brachiopod shells. Also, no vital effects have been observed for different shell parts. The consistent offset of -4‰ relative to modern seawater is in accordance with experimental data [2]. Further data are now being collected for Cenozoic specimens to more rigorously test brachiopods as possible archives of past seawater in comparison to the existing foraminiferal records. [1] Misra & Froelich (2012) Science 335, 818-823 [2] Marriott et al. (2004) Chem Geol 212, 5-15

  5. Buffer capacity, ecosystem feedbacks, and seawater chemistry under global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, C. P.; Thomas, F. I.; Atkinson, M. J.; Jokiel, P. L.; Onuma, M. A.; Kaku, N.; Toonen, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) results in reduced seawater pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), but also reduced seawater buffer capacity. As buffer capacity decreases, diel variation in seawater chemistry increases. However, a variety of ecosystem feedbacks can modulate changes in both average seawater chemistry and diel seawater chemistry variation. Here we model these effects for a coastal, reef flat ecosystem. We show that an increase in offshore pCO2 and temperature (to 900 μatm and +3°C) can increase diel pH variation by as much as a factor of 2.5 and can increase diel pCO2 variation by a factor of 4.6, depending on ecosystem feedbacks and seawater residence time. Importantly, these effects are different between day and night. With increasing seawater residence time and increasing feedback intensity, daytime seawater chemistry becomes more similar to present-day conditions while nighttime seawater chemistry becomes less similar to present-day conditions. Better constraining ecosystem feedbacks under global change will improve projections of coastal water chemistry, but this study shows the importance of considering changes in both average carbonate chemistry and diel chemistry variation for organisms and ecosystems. Further, we will discuss our recent work examining the effects of diel seawater chemistry variation on coral calcification rates.

  6. Injection with seawater: problems in the operation of a seawater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Garbis, S.J.

    1982-05-01

    Reservoir pressure elevation by means of water injection in the production formation is a technique that improves production efficiency. In offshore activities, seawater is available for injection, but it has a high level of solids in suspension and also ions and dissolved gases that may cause problems in the water injection system. Therefore, a seawater treatment plant is necessary for preparation of the injection water. The treatment system has the following components for physical treatment: colander, which prevents the intake of large objects to the system; filters, which include flocculation for coagulation means for the removal of microscopic particles that can pass through the colander; deaerator; and system controls.

  7. The major-ion composition of Silurian seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, S.T.; Lowenstein, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    One-hundred fluid inclusions in Silurian marine halite were analyzed in order to determine the major-ion composition of Silurian seawater. The samples analyzed were from three formations in the Late Silurian Michigan Basin, the A-1, A-2, and B Evaporites of the Salina Group, and one formation in the Early Silurian Canning Basin (Australia), the Mallowa Salt of the Carribuddy Group. The results indicate that the major-ion composition of Silurian seawater was not the same as present-day seawater. The Silurian ocean had lower concentrations of Mg2+, Na+, and SO2-4, and much higher concentrations of Ca2+ relative to the ocean's present-day composition. Furthermore, Silurian seawater had Ca2+ in excess of SO2-4. Evaporation of Silurian seawater of the composition determined in this study produces KC1-type potash minerals that lack the MgSO4-type late stage salts formed during the evaporation of present-day seawater. The relatively low Na+ concentrations in Silurian seawater support the hypothesis that oscillations in the major-ion composition of the oceans are primarily controlled by changes in the flux of mid-ocean ridge brine and riverine inputs and not global or basin-scale, seawater-driven dolomitization. The Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of Silurian seawater was ~1.4, and the K+/Ca2+ ratio was ~0.3, both of which differ from the present-day counterparts of 5 and 1, respectively. Seawaters with Mg2+/Ca2+ 2 (e.g., modern seawater) facilitate the precipitation of aragonite and high-magnesian calcite. Therefore, the early Paleozoic calcite seas were likely due to the low Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of seawater, not the pCO2 of the Silurian atmosphere. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Toxicity of ozonated seawater to marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adam C; Gensemer, Robert W; Stubblefield, William A; Van Genderen, Eric; Dethloff, Gail M; Cooper, William J

    2006-10-01

    Ballast water transport of nonindigenous species (NIS) is recognized as a significant contributor to biological invasions and a threat to coastal ecosystems. Recently, the use of ozone as an oxidant to eliminate NIS from ballast while ships are in transit has been considered. We determined the toxicity of ozone in artificial seawater (ASW) for five species of marine organisms in short-term (< or = 5 h) batch exposures. Larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were the most sensitive to oxidant exposure, and the mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) was the most sensitive invertebrate. Conversely, benthic amphipods (Leptocheirus plumulosus and Rhepoxinius abronius) were the least sensitive of all species tested. Mortality from ozone exposure occurred quickly, with median lethal times ranging from 1 to 3 h for the most sensitive species, although additional mortality was observed 1 to 2 d following ozone exposure. Because ozone does not persist in seawater, toxicity likely resulted from bromide ion oxidation to bromine species (HOBr and OBr-), which persist as residual toxicants after at least 2 d of storage. Total residual oxidant (TRO; as Br2) formation resulting from ozone treatment was measured in ASW and four site-specific natural seawaters. The rate of TRO formation correlated with salinity, but dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen did not affect TRO concentrations. Acute toxicity tests with each water over 48 h using mysid shrimp, topsmelt, and sheepshead minnows yielded results similar to those of batch exposure. Addition of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) to ozonated waters resulted in TRO elimination and survival of all organisms. Our results provide necessary information for the optimization of an efficacious ozone ballast water treatment system.

  9. Enhancement of Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Dietz, Travis; Tsinas, Zois; Tomaszewski, Claire; Pazos, Ileana M.; Nigliazzo, Olga; Li, Weixing; Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad; Barkatt, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Even at a concentration of 3 μg/L, the world’s oceans contain a thousand times more uranium than currently know terrestrial sources. In order to take advantage of this stockpile, methods and materials must be developed to extract it efficiently, a difficult task considering the very low concentration of the element and the competition for extraction by other atoms in seawater such as sodium, calcium, and vanadium. The majority of current research on methods to extract uranium from seawater are vertical explorations of the grafting of amidoxime ligand, which was originally discovered and promoted by Japanese studies in the late 1980s. Our study expands on this research horizontally by exploring the effectiveness of novel uranium extraction ligands grafted to the surface of polymer substrates using radiation. Through this expansion, a greater understanding of uranium binding chemistry and radiation grafting effects on polymers has been obtained. While amidoxime-functionalized fabrics have been shown to have the greatest extraction efficiency so far, they suffer from an extensive chemical processing step which involves treatment with powerful basic solutions. Not only does this add to the chemical waste produced in the extraction process and add to the method’s complexity, but it also significantly impacts the regenerability of the amidoxime fabric. The approach of this project has been to utilize alternative, commercially available monomers capable of extracting uranium and containing a carbon-carbon double bond to allow it to be grafted using radiation, specifically phosphate, oxalate, and azo monomers. The use of commercially available monomers and radiation grafting with electron beam or gamma irradiation will allow for an easily scalable fabrication process once the technology has been optimized. The need to develop a cheap and reliable method for extracting uranium from seawater is extremely valuable to energy independence and will extend the quantity of

  10. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region. PMID:26729101

  11. Physicochemical properties of protein-modified silver nanoparticles in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hangyue

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical properties of silver nanoparticles stabilized with casein protein in seawater. UV?vis spectrometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to measure the stability of silver nanoparticles in seawater samples. The obtained results show an increased aggregation tendency of silver nanoparticles in seawater, which could be attributed its relatively high cation concentration that could neutralize the negatively charges adsorbed on the surface of silver nanoparticles and reduce the electrostatic repulsion forces between nanoparticles. Similarly, due to the surface charge screening process, the zeta potential of silver nanoparticles in seawater decreased. This observation further supported the aggregation behavior of silver nanoparticles. This study also investigated the dissolution of silver nanoparticles in seawater. Result shows that the silver nanoparticle dissolution in DI water is lower than in seawater, which is attributed to the high Cl? concentration present in seawater. As Cl? can react with silver and form soluble AgCl complex, dissolution of silver nanoparticles was enhanced. Finally, this study demonstrated that silver nanoparticles are destabilized in seawater condition. These results may be helpful in understanding the environmental risk of discharged silver nanoparticles in seawater conditions.

  12. Seawater drinking restores water balance in dehydrated harp seals.

    PubMed

    How, Ole-Jakob; Nordøy, Erling S

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to answer the question of whether dehydrated harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) are able to obtain a net gain of water from the intake of seawater. Following 24 h of fasting, three subadult female harp seals were dehydrated by intravenous administration of the osmotic diuretic, mannitol. After another 24 h of fasting, the seals were given 1,000 ml seawater via a stomach tube. Urine and blood were collected for measurement of osmolality and osmolytes, while total body water (TBW) was determined by injections of tritiated water. In all seals, the maximum urinary concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) were higher than in seawater, reaching 540 and 620 mM, respectively, compared to 444 and 535 mM in seawater. In another experiment, the seals were given ad lib access to seawater for 48 h after mannitol-induced hyper-osmotic dehydration. In animals without access to seawater, the mean blood osmolality increased from 331 to 363 mOsm kg(-1) during dehydration. In contrast, the blood osmolality, hematocrit and TBW returned to normal when the seals were permitted ad lib access to seawater after dehydration. In conclusion, this study shows that harp seals have the capacity to gain net water from mariposa (voluntarily drinking seawater) and are able to restore water balance after profound dehydration by drinking seawater.

  13. Ion exchange properties of Japanese natural zeolites in seawater.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    Ion exchange properties of five different Japanese natural zeolites in seawater were examined. Sodium ions could be reduced by all zeolites, although anions, Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-), in seawater showed barely changes. Natural zeolite desalination treatment mainly depends on the ion exchange between Na(+), K(+) and Mg(2+) in seawater and Ca(2+) in natural zeolite. This study found that mordenite is superior to clinoptilolite for use in Na(+) reduction. Mordenite with high cation exchange capacity containing Ca(2+) resulted in the highest Na(+) reduction from seawater.

  14. Corrosion-Related Consequences of Biodiesel in Contact with Natural Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    unprotected carbon steel exposed to natural KW seawater with biodiesel addition. However, the deepest pits were measured in biodiesel with PG seawater...presence of seawater influenced the chemistry of the biodiesel, contributing both sulfur and chloride. Keywords: seawater, carbon steel...day studies. The highest corrosion rates measured by electrochemical techniques were for unprotected carbon steel exposed to natural KW seawater with

  15. On the GIBBS thermodynamic potential of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, Rainer; Hagen, Eberhard

    Free Enthalpy, the GIBBS thermodynamic potential G(S,t,p) of seawater, has been recomputed including the sound speed equation of DEL GROSSO (1974), temperatures of maximum density (TMD) of CALDWELL (1978), freezing point depression measurements of DOHERTY and KESTER (1974), rederived limiting laws and ice properties, and an extended set of dilution heat data of BROMLEY (1968) and MILLERO, HANSEN and HOFF (1973). As a new reference state, the standard ocean state has been chosen. The resulting average deviations are 0.0006 kg m -3 for pure water density at 1 atm, 0.002 kg m -3 for seawater density at 1 atm, 0.02 m/s for sound speed, 0.01 J kgK -1 for heat capacity at 1 atm, 0.4 kJ kg -1 for dilution heats, 0.002°C for freezing points, and 0.04°C for TMDs. Resulting pressure-dependent freezing points are in good agreement with experiments and UNESCO (1978) formulas. Enthalpy as thermodynamic potential has been explicitly determined for easy computation of potential temperature, potential density, and sound speed. All functions are expressed in the new International Temperature Scale ITS-90.

  16. Corrosion of barrier materials in seawater environments

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.H.; Soo, P.

    1995-07-01

    A brief review has been carried out on the performance of barrier materials for low-level radioactive wastes in seawater environments. The environments include those for shallower coastal waters as well as the deep ocean (down to 3800 m). The review is mainly focused on metallic materials since they are the most common for seawater service and they have the largest data base. Information from the literature is usually pertinent to shallower coastal locations, but there is a valuable source of corrosion data obtained from several studies of metallic specimens exposed to ocean-bed conditions. In addition, the corrosion of carbon steel barriers has been evaluated for actual waste containers that were retrieved from previously-used disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of the metallic materials studied, carbon steel showed the least corrosion resistance. Failure by non-uniform attack in a typical waste container could occur in as little as 25 y in some ocean environments ` Penetration by local attack, such as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was also observed for more expensive materials such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and lead alloys.

  17. On the classification of seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-08-01

    Seawater intrusion (SWI) arising from aquifer depletion is often classified as ;active; or ;passive;, depending on whether seawater moves in the same direction as groundwater flow or not. However, recent studies have demonstrated that alternative forms of active SWI show distinctly different characteristics, to the degree that the term ;active SWI; may be misleading without additional qualification. In response, this article proposes to modify hydrogeology lexicon by defining and characterizing three classes of SWI, namely passive SWI, passive-active SWI and active SWI. The threshold parameter combinations for the onset of each form of SWI are developed using sharp-interface, steady-state analytical solutions. Numerical simulation is then applied to a hypothetical case study to test the developed theory and to provide additional insights into dispersive SWI behavior. The results indicate that the three classes of SWI are readily predictable, with the exception of active SWI occurring in the presence of distributed recharge. The key characteristics of each SWI class are described to distinguish their most defining features. For example, active SWI occurring in aquifers receiving distributed recharge only creates watertable salinization downstream of the groundwater mound and only where dispersion effects are significant. The revised classification of SWI proposed in this article, along with the analysis of thresholds and SWI characteristics, provides coastal aquifer custodians with an improved basis upon which to expect salinization mechanisms to impact freshwater availability following aquifer depletion.

  18. Controls of Trace Metals in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, K. W.; Lohan, M. C.

    2003-12-01

    Since the early 1970s, marine chemists have gained a first-order understanding of the concentrations, distributions, and chemical behaviors of trace metals in seawater. Important factors initiating this quantum leap in knowledge were major advances in modern analytical chemistry and instrumentation, along with the development and adoption of clean techniques. An instrumental development in the mid-1970s that spurred the early research on trace metals was the availability of the sensitive graphite furnace as the sample introduction system to an atomic absorption spectrometer. More recently, the appearance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometers has provided an even more sensitive and powerful instrumental capability to the arsenal of marine chemists. In addition to these instruments back in shore-based laboratories, there has been the development of sensitive shipboard methods such as stripping voltammetry and flow injection analysis (FIA) systems with either chemiluminescence or catalytically enhanced spectrophotometric detection. Along with the development of these highly sensitive analytical techniques came a recognition and appreciation of the importance of handling contamination issues by using clean techniques during all phases of sampling and analysis. This is necessary due to low concentrations of trace metals in seawater relative to the ubiquitousness of metals on a ship or in a laboratory (e.g., dust, steel hydrowire, rust, paint with copper and zinc antifouling agents, brass fittings, galvanized material, sacrificial zinc anodes, etc.). As a result, seawater concentrations of most trace metals have now been accurately determined in at least some parts of the oceans, and their oceanic distributions have been found to be consistent with oceanographic processes.The concentrations and distributions of trace metals in seawater are controlled by a combination of processes. These processes include external sources of trace metals delivered by

  19. Influence of seawater intrusion on microbial communities in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Kim, Jungman; Kim, Yumi; Nguyen, Son G; Guevarra, Robin B; Kim, Gee Pyo; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of potable water on Jeju Island in the Republic of (South) Korea. Groundwater is also used for irrigation and industrial purposes, and it is severely impacted by seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Consequently, monitoring the intrusion of seawater into groundwater on Jeju is very important for health and environmental reasons. A number of studies have used hydrological models to predict the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by seawater intrusion. However, there is conflicting evidence of intrusion due to complicated environmental influences on groundwater quality. Here we investigated the use of next generation sequencing (NGS)-based microbial community analysis as a way to monitor groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. Pristine groundwater, groundwater from three coastal areas, and seawater were compared. Analysis of the distribution of bacterial species clearly indicated that the high and low salinity groundwater differed significantly with respect to microbial composition. While members of the family Parvularculaceae were only identified in high salinity water samples, a greater percentage of the phylum Actinobacteria was predominantly observed in pristine groundwater. In addition, we identified 48 shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with seawater, among which the high salinity groundwater sample shared a greater number of bacterial species with seawater (6.7%). In contrast, other groundwater samples shared less than 0.5%. Our results suggest that NGS-based microbial community analysis of groundwater may be a useful tool for monitoring groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. This technology may also provide additional insights in understanding hydrological dynamics.

  20. Henry's law constants for dimethylsulfide in freshwater and seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, J. W. H.; Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distilled water and several waters of varying salinity were subjected, over a 0-32 C temperature range, to measurements for Henry's law constants for dimethylsulfide. Values for distilled water and seawater of the solubility parameters A and C are obtained which support the concept that the concentration of dimethylsulfide in the atmosphere is far from equilibrium with seawater.

  1. Henry's law constants for dimethylsulfide in freshwater and seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, J. W. H.; Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distilled water and several waters of varying salinity were subjected, over a 0-32 C temperature range, to measurements for Henry's law constants for dimethylsulfide. Values for distilled water and seawater of the solubility parameters A and C are obtained which support the concept that the concentration of dimethylsulfide in the atmosphere is far from equilibrium with seawater.

  2. Studies of the Voltammetric Determination of Trace Metals in Seawater.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    in seawater, a greater current difference can be detected by sampling immediately after this decay and before the faradic current has had much time to...Poorly conducting solution Seawater a) , Resultant currenta ) " Electrode Faradic current current Fara ’r response Capacitive current Current

  3. Ultrasonic waves induce rapid zeolite synthesis in a seawater solution.

    PubMed

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of zeolites from fly ash was performed through a low-temperature hydrothermal process with seawater. Compared with the results obtained using the same hydrothermal method but in the absence of sonication, the application of an ultrasonic pre-treatment to the conventional hydrothermal process with seawater reduces the crystallization temperature below that observed when hydrothermal synthesis is performed using distilled water.

  4. Light Scattering Coefficient of Seawater for Arbitrary Concentrations of Hydrosols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    The scattering coefficient of seawater as a function of concentration of hydrosol particles is calculated. The approach used is based on the...Maxwell’s equations in a stochastically scattering seawater. The water is modeled as thermally fluctuated medium filled with the hydrosol particles. It is

  5. Biologically mediated dissolution of volcanic glass in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.; Yayanos, A.; Chastain, R.; Davies, G.; Verdurmen, E. A. Th; Schiffman, P.; Bourcier, R.; De Baar, H.

    1998-12-01

    We studied the effects of biological mediation on the dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater. Experiments with typical seawater microbial populations were contrasted with a sterile control, and reactions were monitored chemically and isotopically. Biologically mediated experiments produce twice the mass of authigenic phases than abiotic experiments and the phases are different. Abiotic alteration of glass dissolves basaltic Si and Ca and scavenges seawater Mg, while biotic alteration removes Ca from seawater. Such opposing behavior of Ca and Mg in biotic and abiotic alteration of basaltic glass may have important implications for the carbon cycle and the exchange processes between ocean crust and seawater. 87Sr/ 86Sr data of glass and alteration products suggest that biological mediation enhances both the diffusion of seawater Sr into glass by a factor of 3-4, and the dissolution of basaltic Sr into seawater by a factor of 20-40. The dependence of chemical exchange processes between seawater and glass on biological activity implies that chemical fluxes from water-rock interaction at low temperatures may change as life on Earth evolves.

  6. Characterization of Coupled Coil in Seawater for Wireless Power Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    9 8. Quality factor of the coils in air, seawater, and atop a ferrite plate...coils (‘blue’). quality factor of the coils in air, seawater, and atop a ferrite plate...was designed to be inserted inside the transmit coil, as shown in Figure 5(b). The receive coil was filled with a ferrite powder to increase its

  7. Seawater Chemistry Across Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, S.; Turchyn, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Continental weathering is recognized as one of the primary mechanisms moderating the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Past carbon cycle perturbations, often associated with mass extinction events, recovered on a timescale of hundreds of thousands of years, broadly consistent with enhanced chemical weathering being the key moderating process. Since chemical weathering of continental rocks controls the delivery of cations to the oceans, records of seawater cation chemistry provide a powerful archive of this interplay and feedback between climate and weathering.The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary at 65.6 Ma is the last major mass extinction event. The two accepted drivers of K-Pg events were the geologically coeval eruption of Deccan Trap continental flood basalts and the meteorite impact at Chicxulub. The Chicxulub impact happened during a second pulse of Deccan traps volcanism. Thus, teasing apart the timing and dominant driver of the mass extinction and the recovery remains enigmatic. A key feature of the K-Pg event is the transient acidification of the global surface ocean that drove the collapse of the oceanic ecosystem. This surface ocean acidification was caused by `geologically instantaneous' influx of large quantities of acidic gases (viz. CO2, SO2) to the ocean-atmosphere system. We will present high-resolution records of Li, B, Mg, and Ca isotope (δ7Li, δ11B, δ26Mg, and δ44Ca, respectively) measured in single species foraminifera across the K-Pg boundary to assess the perturbation and the subsequent continental weathering feedback. The unique aspect of the proposed research is in the first direct reconstruction of seawater isotopic composition of elements intimately linked to the continental weathering cycle (Li, Mg, and Ca), and the carbon budget of the ocean-atmosphere system (Boron) across an event of rapid climate transition and recovery. Moreover, this will allow to fingerprint the timing of the acidic gas input to the atmosphere and to

  8. Analysis of seawater flow through optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández López, Sheila; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez Sinobar, Leonor; Benitez, Javier; Rossi, Riccardo; Laresse de Tetto, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    The relation between sea and coastal aquifer is very important to the human populations living in coastal areas. The interrelation involves the submarine ground water discharge of relatively fresh water to the sea and the intrusion of sea water into the aquifer, which impairs the quality of ground water. The main process in seawater intrusion is managed by fluid-density effects which control the displacement of saline water. The underlain salinity acts as the restoring force, while hydrodynamic dispersion and convection lead to a mixing and vertical displacement of the brine. Because of this, a good definition of this saltwater-freshwater interface is needed what is intimately joined to the study of the movements (velocity fields) of fresh and salt water. As it is well known, the flow of salt water studied in seawater intrusion in stationary state, is nearly null or very low. However, in the rest of cases, this flux can be very important, so it is necessary its study to a better comprehension of this process. One possible manner of carry out this analysis is through the data from optical fiber. So, to research the distribution and velocity of the fresh and saltwater in the aquifer, a fiber optic system (OF) has been installed in Argentona (Baix Maresme, Catalonia). The main objective is to obtain the distributed temperature measurements (OF-DTS) and made progress in the interpretation of the dynamic processes of water. For some applications, the optical fiber acts as a passive temperature sensor but in our case, the technique Heated Active Fiber Optic will be used. This is based on the thermal response of the ground as a heat emission source is introduced. The thermal properties of the soil, dependent variables of soil water content, will make a specific temperature distribution around the cable. From the analyzed data we will deduce the velocity field, the real objective of our problem. To simulate this phenomenon and the coupled transport and flow problem

  9. Proteolytic enzymes in seawater: contribution of prokaryotes and protists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayashi, Y.; Suzuki, S.

    2016-02-01

    Proteolytic enzyme is one of the major catalysts of microbial processing of organic matter in biogeochemical cycle. Here we summarize some of our studies about proteases in seawater, including 1) distribution of protease activities in coastal and oceanic seawater, 2) responses of microbial community and protease activities in seawater to organic matter amending, and 3) possible contribution of heterotrophic protists besides prokaryotes to proteases in seawater, to clarify cleared facts and remaining questions. Activities of aminopeptidases, trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases were detected from both coastal and oceanic seawater by using MCA-substrate assay. Significant activities were detected from not only particulate (cell-associated) fraction but also dissolved fraction of seawater, especially for trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases. Hydrolytic enzymes in seawater have been commonly thought to be mainly derived from heterotrophic prokaryotes; however, it was difficult to determine actual source organisms of dissolved enzymes in natural seawater. Our experiment with addition of dissolved protein to subtropical oligotrophic Pacific water showed drastically enhancement of the protease activities especially aminopeptidases in seawater, and the prokaryotic community structure simultaneously changed to be dominant of Bacteroidetes, indicating that heterotrophic bacteria were actually one of the sources of proteases in seawater. Another microcosm experiment with free-living marine heterotrophic ciliate Paranophrys marina together with an associated bacterium showed that extracellular trypsin-type activity was mainly attributed to the ciliate. The protist seemed to work in organic matter digestion in addition to be a grazer. From the results, we propose a system of organic matter digestion by prokaryotes and protists in aquatic environments, although their actual contribution in natural environments should be estimated in future studies.

  10. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which ({sup 3}H)thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate.

  11. Optimal conditions for bioremediation of oily seawater.

    PubMed

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya

    2010-12-01

    To determine the influence of nutrients on the rate of biodegradation, a five-level, three-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed for bioremediation of seawater artificially contaminated with crude oil. Removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was the dependent variable. Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols. A significant (R(2)=0.9645, P<0.0001) quadratic polynomial mathematical model was generated. Removal from samples not subjected to optimization and removal by natural attenuation were 53.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Numerical optimization was carried out based on desirability functions for maximum TPH removal. For an initial crude oil concentration of 1g/L supplemented with 190.21 mg/L nitrogen and 12.71 mg/L phosphorus, the Design-Expert software predicted 60.9% hydrocarbon removal; 58.6% removal was observed in a 28-day experiment.

  12. Energy Implications of Seawater Desalination (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, H.; Heberger, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater has traditionally come from rivers, lakes, streams, and groundwater aquifers. As demand increases and climate change alters the location and timing of water supply, these traditional sources are becoming unavailable, more difficult, or increasingly expensive to develop. As a result, many communities are switching to alternative sources of water. Interest in pursuing seawater desalination is high in many coastal communities. In California, for example, 17 plants are proposed for development along the California coast and two in Mexico. Water managers are pursing desalination because is a local supply that can help diversify the water supply portfolio. Additionally, it is a reliable supply, which can be especially valuable during a drought. But removing the salt from seawater is an energy-intensive process that consumes more energy per gallon than most other water supply and treatment options. These energy requirements are key factors that will impact the extent and success of desalination in California. Energy requirements for seawater desalination average about 4.0 kWh per cubic meter (m3) of water produced. By comparison, the least energy-intensive options of local sources of groundwater and surface water require 0 - 0.90 kWh per m3; wastewater reuse, depending on treatment levels, may require from 0.26 - 2.2 kWh per m3. Beyond the electricity required for the desalination facility itself, producing any new source of water, including through desalination, increases the amount of energy required to deliver and use the water produced as well as collect, treat, and dispose of the wastewater generated. Energy is the largest single variable cost for a desalination plant, varying from one-third to more than one-half the cost of produced water. Building a desalination plant may reduce a water utility's exposure to water reliability risks at the added expense of an increase in exposure to energy price risk. In dependent on hydropower, electricity prices tend to

  13. Effect of seawater temperature on uranium recovery from seawater using amidoxime adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiguchi, Koji; Saito, Kyoichi; Konishi, Satoshi; Furusaki, Shintaro . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Sugo, Takanobu . Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Nobukawa, Hisashi . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    Porous amidoxime hollow fibers, which were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto porous polyethylene hollow fibers and subsequent amidoximation, were used as packing materials of the adsorption bed for uranium recovery from seawater. Seawater was forced to flow through the bed charged with the amidoxime hollow fibers either by pumping or by ocean current. Uranium concentration decay through the bed could be well correlated with residence time based on the adsorption rate expressed in terms of the overall mass-transfer coefficient. The resultant activation energy of 20 kcal/mol for uranium adsorption was indicative of the chelate formation of the amidoxime group with uranyl species as a rate-determining step.

  14. Post-mesozoic rapid increase of seawater Mg/Ca due to enhanced mantle-seawater interaction.

    PubMed

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cuffaro, Marco; Brunelli, Daniele

    2013-09-25

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80 Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ocean occur in fast spreading, East Pacific Rise-type ridges. The Mesozoic Pangean superocean implies a hot fast spreading ridge system. This prevented peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg release to the Mesozoic ocean, but favored hydrothermal Mg capture and Ca release by the basaltic crust, resulting in a low seawater Mg/Ca ratio. Continent dispersal and development of slow spreading ridges allowed Mg release to the ocean by peridotite-seawater reactions, contributing to the increase of the Mg/Ca ratio of post-Mesozoic seawater.

  15. Post-Mesozoic Rapid Increase of Seawater Mg/Ca due to Enhanced Mantle-Seawater Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cuffaro, Marco; Brunelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80 Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ocean occur in fast spreading, East Pacific Rise-type ridges. The Mesozoic Pangean superocean implies a hot fast spreading ridge system. This prevented peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg release to the Mesozoic ocean, but favored hydrothermal Mg capture and Ca release by the basaltic crust, resulting in a low seawater Mg/Ca ratio. Continent dispersal and development of slow spreading ridges allowed Mg release to the ocean by peridotite-seawater reactions, contributing to the increase of the Mg/Ca ratio of post-Mesozoic seawater. PMID:24067442

  16. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F.; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  17. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  18. A Water Tank Study of the Effects of Seawater Temperature on Coral Metabolism and Changes in Chemical Compositions in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, H.; Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Oomori, T.

    2002-12-01

    For the past several years, large-scale coral bleaching has been observed in many coral reef areas around the world. Coral bleaching is considered to be caused mainly by high seawater temperature together with other factors such as strong UV-light and changes in salinity. However, the mechanism of coral bleaching is not clearly understood. We have conducted experiments using water tanks under well-controlled light and temperature conditions to elucidate the effects of seawater temperature on coral_fs metabolism and changes in chemical compositions in the seawater around the coral. Metabolism of coral was studied by analyzing changes in seawater chemical compositions. Coral specimen used in our experiment, Goniastrea aspera, was collected from northern shore of Okinawa island, Japan. pH, nitrate ion, dissolved organic carbon, and alkalinity were measured. Photochemically formed hydroxyl radical was also studied in those seawater samples.

  19. Uranium from Seawater Program Review; Fuel Resources Uranium from Seawater Program DOE Office of Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    For nuclear energy to remain sustainable in the United States, economically viable sources of uranium beyond terrestrial ores must be developed. The goal of this program is to develop advanced adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater at twice the capacity of the best adsorbent developed by researchers at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1.5 mg U/g adsorbent. A multidisciplinary team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of Texas at Austin was assembled to address this challenging problem. Polymeric adsorbents, based on the radiation grafting of acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid onto high surface-area polyethylene fibers followed by conversion of the nitriles to amidoximes, have been developed. These poly(acrylamidoxime-co-methacrylic acid) fibers showed uranium adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. The essence of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area trunk material that considerably increases the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. This technology received an R&D100 Award in 2012. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Simultaneously, de novo structure-based computational design methods are being used to design more selective and stable ligands and the most promising candidates are being synthesized, tested and evaluated for incorporation onto a support matrix. Fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic studies are being carried out to improve the adsorption efficiency, the selectivity of uranium over other metals, and the stability of the adsorbents. Understanding

  20. [Spectrophotometer detection of benzalkonium bromide concentration in seawater].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianyu; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Qi, Yuzao; Xie, Longchu

    2003-07-01

    Benzalkonium bromide is a high-efficiency algaecide. Its concentration in seawater was measured by the method of spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the deposition appeared if the concentration of benzalkonium bromide in seawater was more than 50 mg.L-1, and affected the detection of benzalkonium bromide. But, there was a good linear relationship between concentration and absorbance when the concentration was lower than 50 mg.L-1 (R2 = 0.9996). Therefore, spectrophotometer could be used to detect benzalkonium bromide in seawater.

  1. Seawater piping systems designed with AISI 316 and RCP anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Valen, S.; Johnsen, R.; Gartland, P.O.; Drugli, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    Internal cathodic protection by resistor controlled anodes--Resistor controlled Cathodic Protection (RCP)--has been introduced as an alternative method for the prevention of localized corrosion of seawater transportation systems. More than 1000 RCP anodes have been installed in seawater piping systems made from highly alloyed stainless steel which previously had suffered from corrosion. The application of cheaper stainless steels like AISI 316 in combination with RCP anodes results in significant cost savings for the seawater system, and a few systems have been installed. This paper gives a short review of the theoretical background, and a presentation of the experience from some of the installations with these materials and RCP.

  2. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME BENTONITES IN ARTIFICIAL SEAWATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi

    A high-level radioactive waste disposal facility might be built in a coastal area in Japan from the viewpoint of feasible transportation of waste. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of seawater on a bentonite-based buffer. This study investigated the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of three common sodium-types of bentonite and one calcium-type bentonite by the laboratory experiments. From the results of laboratory experiment, this study discussed the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of bentonites from the viewpoints of kinds of bentonite such as exchangeable-cation type and montmorillonite content and dry density of bentonite-based buffer.

  3. Extreme seawater compositions during Oceanic Anoxic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A.; Bottini, C.; Dickson, A. J.; Izon, G. J.; Coe, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    For almost the entire duration of the Phanerozoic, the oceans have remained well oxygenated and highly conducive to the development of animal and plant life. However, there have been relatively brief intervals, known as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), when a very significant expansion of low-oxygen regions occurred throughout the world's oceans. OAEs were characterised by highly atypical seawater chemistry, as reflected in the chemical and isotopic compositions of contemporaneous sediments and fossil remains. These oxygen-deficient intervals also exerted profound pressures on many marine species as indicated by major changes in species populations and distributions. High-resolution chemical and isotopic data recovered from marine sediments and sedimentary rocks, together with biotic information, provide us with the best means of understanding the significance of OAEs and their place in the evolution of the Earth system. We present new Mo- and Os-isotope and geochemical data from OAE 1a (early Cretaceous), which help define how this event evolved in relation to the other major environmental parameters - including global warming, continental weathering and Ontong-Java volcanism - of that time. We compare these new observations with published results from other Mesozoic OAEs and the PETM. Recently published Os-isotope data from DSDP site 463 (mid-Pacific) [1] and northern Italy [1, 2] show that the Os budget of the oceans was dominated for a period of c. 880 ka during OAE 1a by the hydrothermal flux of unradiogenic Os from the Ontong-Java province. The observation of identical Os-isotope compositions at these two very distant sites indicates that seawater was well mixed at that time. Over the same interval, the seawater Mo-isotope composition, based upon well-preserved samples from Italy, was persistently atypical, with δ98/95Mo ranging between -0.7 and +0.7 permil [3]. All the samples analysed here accumulated under highly anoxic conditions and contain highly abundant

  4. The Major-ion Composition of Permian Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, T K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.; Kovalevych, Volodymyr M.; Horita, Juske

    2005-01-01

    The major-ion (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -}) composition of Permian seawater was determined from chemical analyses of fluid inclusions in marine halites. New data from the Upper Permian San Andres Formation of Texas (274--272 Ma) and Salado Formation of New Mexico (251 Ma), analyzed by the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) method, along with published chemical compositions of fluid inclusions in Permian marine halites from North America (two formations of different ages) and the Central and Eastern European basins (eight formations of four different ages) show that Permian seawater shares chemical characteristics with modern seawater, including SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > Ca{sup 2+} at the point of gypsum precipitation, evolution into Mg{sup 2+}-Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-Cl{sup -} brines, and Mg{sup 2+}/K{sup +} ratios {approx} 5. Permian seawater, however, is slightly depleted in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and enriched in Ca{sup 2+}, although modeling results do not rule out Ca{sup 2+} concentrations close to those in present-day seawater. Na{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} in Permian seawater are close to (slightly below) their concentrations in modern seawater. Permian and modern seawater are both classified as aragonite seas, with Mg{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} ratios >2, conditions favorable for precipitation of aragonite and magnesian calcite as ooids and cements. The chemistry of Permian seawater was modeled using the chemical composition of brine inclusions for three periods: Lower Permian Asselian-Sakmarian (296--283 Ma), Lower Permian Artinskian-Kungurian (283--274 Ma), and Upper Permian Tatarian (258--251 Ma). Parallel changes in the chemistry of brine inclusions from equivalent age evaporites in North America, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe show that seawater underwent secular variations in chemistry over the 50 million years of the Permian. Modeled SO{sub 4}{sup 2

  5. Strontium (Sr) separation from seawater using titanate adsorbents: Effects of seawater matrix ions on Sr sorption behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jungho; Hong, Hye-jin; Ryu, Taegong; Park, In-Su

    2017-04-01

    Strontium (Sr) which has many industrial applications such as ferrite magnet, ceramic, and fire works exists in seawater with the concentration of approximately 7 mg/L. In previous report estimating economic potential on recovery of various elements from seawater in terms of their commercial values and concentrations in seawater, Sr locates upper than approximate break-even line, which implies Sr recovery from seawater can be potentially profitable. Recently, Sr separation from seawater has received great attention in the environmental aspect after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident which released much amount of radioactive Sr and Cs. Accordingly, the efficient separation of radioactive elements released to seawater has become critical as an important technological need as well as their removal from radioactive wastes. So far, it has been introduced to separate Sr from aqueous media by various methods including solvent extraction, adsorption by solid materials, and ion exchange. Among them, the adsorption technique using solid adsorbents is of great interest for selectively separating Sr from seawater with respect to low concentration level of Sr. In this study, we synthesized titanate nanotube (TiNT) by simple hydrothermal reaction, characterized its physicochemical properties, and systematically evaluated Sr sorption behavior under various reaction conditions corresponding to seawater environment. The synthesized TiNT exhibited the fibril-type nanotube structure with high specific surface area of 260 m2/g. The adsorption of Sr on TiNT rapidly occurred following pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and was in good agreement with Langmuir isotherm model, indicating maximum adsorption capacity of 97 mg/g. Based on Sr uptake and Na release with stoichiometric balance, sorption mechanism of Sr on TiNT was found to be ion-exchange between Na in TiNT lattice and Sr in solution phase, which was also confirmed by XRD and Raman analysis. Among competitive ions, Ca

  6. Roseivirga marina sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Sun, Cong; Wang, Rui-Jun; Wu, Min

    2015-11-01

    Strain PSRT was isolated from seawater of the Pacific Ocean. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 4-40 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and with 0.5-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3 %). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G (18.9 %), iso-C15 : 0 (26.3 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (17.9 %). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7, and the DNA G+C content was 49.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain PSRT was most closely related to Roseivirga spongicola UST030701-084T (96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), and they formed a distinct clade in neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees with significant bootstrap supports. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain PSRT represents a novel species of the genus Roseivirga, for which the name Roseivirga marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PSRT ( = MCCC 1K00459T = KCTC 42444T).

  7. Analyzing, solving offshore seawater injection problems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rubale, J.S.; Muhsin, A.A.; Shaker, H.A.; Washash, I.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in seawater treatment, necessary cleaning of injection lines, and modifying well completion practices have reduced injection well plugging on pressure maintenance projects operated by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co., (Adma-Opco) in Zakum and Umm Shaif fields, offshore Abu Dhabi, in the Arabian Gulf. Plugging was caused primarily by iron sulfide and corrosion products that were displaced down hole after being formed in the water distribution system. These materials, in turn, resulted from O/sub 2/ inadvertently entering the injection system where it combined with corrosive H/sub 2/S generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria. The problem was further compounded by debris peeling from the interior of well tubulars, a high solids content of brine used to complete injectors, and slime formation in injection pipe lines. Acidizing wells proved a quick method for partially restoring injectivity, but a continuing concerted effort is being made to achieve more permanent results by eliminating the O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S, which are at the root of the difficulty.

  8. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions.

  9. Seawater batteries for the Luna 27

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    On 20 January 1996, the first installation of seawater batteries (SWBs) on a live subsea well was successfully completed on the Luna 27 well in 591 ft of water in the Ionian Sea. The SWB pack is composed of six cells, each measuring 3.3 ft in diameter by 6.6 ft high, and is designed to provide all the electrical energy required by the autonomous control system for the well. The only operations required in the future will be periodic replacement of the anodes by use of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) every 3 to 5 years. This application of the SWBs is a part of the continuing research by Agip SpA in the area of autonomous control that began with the subsea-wells autonomous-control system (SWACS) project. This project began in 1982 and culminated with the installation of a SWACS prototype in December 1987 on the Luna 27 gas well offshore Crotone and 2.5 miles form the Luna A platform. Notwithstanding the 5-year predicted life, the system was still operating in 1996 without any noticeable problems.

  10. A closed recirculated sea-water system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1967-01-01

    Study of a virus disease in the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) necessitated the use of a marine environment to study the long range effects of the disease and to complete the life cycle of its etiologic agent. A closed recirculated sea-water system was designed for use under experimental laboratory conditions so that controlled studies of the disease could be made. As others may wish to do marine environment studies in the laboratory, the design and operation of our system are presented. Other systems currently in use have been described by Chin (1959), DeWitt and Salo (1960), McCrimmon and Berst (1966), and the authors of collected papers edited by Clark and Clark (1964). Preparatory to the design and construction of the system in use in this laboratory, visits were made to marine systems in use at the University of Washington's College of Fisheries, Seattle, -washington, and Friday Harbor Laboratory, San Juan Island, Washington; the Washington State Department of Fisheries' Point whitney Shellfish Laboratory, Brinnon, Washington; Humboldt State College, Arcata, California; and the Steinhart Aquarium of the California Academy of Science, San Francisco, California.

  11. Dissolution Kinetics of Biogenic Carbonates in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhas, A.; Erez, J.; Rollins, N.; Adkins, J. F.; Berelson, W.; Ziveri, P. P. I.; Langer, G.

    2016-02-01

    We present here laboratory-based dissolution kinetic studies of inorganic, foraminiferal, and coccolith calcite, as well as high-Mg calcite from the soft coral Rhythismia fulvum. Dissolution rate measurements were conducted using a novel 13C-based tracer measurement, which traces mass loss via isotopic enrichment in a closed system of calcite and seawater. Inorganic calcite dissolution rates are highly nonlinear with respect to saturation state, and imply multiple dissolution mechanisms. Our work validates early characterizations of highly nonlinear dissolution rates, and also agrees with far-from-equilibrium rate determinations. Dissolution rates of biogenic materials are also highly nonlinear, although the relationship between undersaturation and dissolution rate often does not resemble that of inorganic calcite. Coccoliths dissolve slowly compared to inorganic calcite after surface area normalization, even when treated with bleach to remove their organic matter. High-Mg calcite from soft corals dissolves quickly, and the relationship between dissolution rate and undersaturation seems to be complicated by the presence of two (Mg-carbonate and Ca-carbonate) phases. These biogenic dissolution rates provide a new constraint on the sensitivities of these minerals to saturation state, both in the deep ocean water column and in the surface ocean as saturation state is decreasing due to ocean acidification.

  12. Sea-water battery for subsea control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasvold, Øistein; Henriksen, Henrich; Melv˦r, Einar; Citi, Gianfederico; Johansen, Bent Ø.; Kjønigsen, Tom; Galetti, Robin

    This paper describes a power source for the autonomous control system of a subsea well (SWACS) in the Ionian Sea. The unit was deployed in Jan. 1996 at a depth of 180 m. The 650 kWh sea-water battery uses anodes made from commercial magnesium alloys, sea-water as the electrolyte and oxygen dissolved in the sea-water as oxidant. The inert cathodes are made from carbon fibers. The system is composed of six, two-metre high sea-water cells integrated in a steel structure, a d.c./d.c. converter and a valve regulated lead-acid accumulator enclosed in a titanium container together with a monitoring unit which transfers data to the surface via an acoustic link.

  13. Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: evidence from fluid inclusions.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, T K; Timofeeff, M N; Brennan, S T; Hardie, L A; Demicco, R V

    2001-11-02

    Systematic changes in the chemistry of evaporated seawater contained in primary fluid inclusions in marine halites indicate that seawater chemistry has fluctuated during the Phanerozoic. The fluctuations are in phase with oscillations in seafloor spreading rates, volcanism, global sea level, and the primary mineralogies of marine limestones and evaporites. The data suggest that seawater had high Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios (>2.5) and relatively high Na+ concentrations during the Late Precambrian [544 to 543 million years ago (Ma)], Permian (258 to 251 Ma), and Tertiary through the present (40 to 0 Ma), when aragonite and MgSO4 salts were the dominant marine precipitates. Conversely, seawater had low Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios (<2.3) and relatively low Na+ concentrations during the Cambrian (540 to 520 Ma), Silurian (440 to 418 Ma), and Cretaceous (124 to 94 Ma), when calcite was the dominant nonskeletal carbonate and K-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing chloride salts, were the only potash evaporites.

  14. A STRATEGY FOR PROTECTING CIRCULATING SEAWATER SYSTEMS FROM OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strategy is described for establishing a simple, inexpensive monitoring program for determining approximate levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in ambient water collected near intake structures of circulating seawater systems. The ambient water is obtained from the depth of intake...

  15. A STRATEGY FOR PROTECTING CIRCULATING SEAWATER SYSTEMS FROM OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strategy is described for establishing a simple, inexpensive monitoring program for determining approximate levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in ambient water collected near intake structures of circulating seawater systems. The ambient water is obtained from the depth of intake...

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose in concentrated seawater.

    PubMed

    Grande, Philipp M; de María, Pablo Domínguez

    2012-01-01

    This communication explores the use of seawater (1X) and concentrated seawater (2X and 4X) as reaction media for the enzyme-catalyzed depolymerization of cellulose. The commercially available Accellerase-1500® - a "cocktail" of different glycosidases - is able to depolymerize several amorphous celluloses and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel® in these reaction media, at slightly lower rates (ca. 90%) than those observed when reactions are performed in pure citrate buffer (control reactions). Remarkably, at concentrated seawater effluents enzymes also display significant rates of cellulose hydrolysis. Considering the expected increasing shortages in accessibility to fresh drinkable water, the herein-reported concept may provide novel inspiring leads for a smart use of resources in an environmentally-friendly and efficient manner, and for the genetic development of cellulases highly active and stable in concentrated seawater solutions.

  17. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Elimelech, Menachem; Phillip, William A

    2011-08-05

    In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale seawater desalination plants. Here, we review the possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages.

  18. Corrosion performance of zinc coated steel in seawater environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuan; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Haichao; Sun, Huyuan; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    Considering the continuous exploitation of marine resources, it is very important to study the anticorrosion performance and durability of zinc coated streel (ZCS) because its increasing use as reinforcements in seawater. Tafel polarization curves and linear polarization curves combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to evaluate the corrosion performance of ZCS at Qingdao test station during long-term immersion in seawater. The results indicated that the corrosion rate of the ZCS increased obviously with immersion time in seawater. The corrosion products that formed on the zinc coated steel were loose and porous, and were mainly composed of Zn5(OH)8Cl2, Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2, and ZnO. Pitting corrosion occurred on the steel surface in neutral seawater, and the rate of ZCS corrosion decreased with increasing pH.

  19. The geologic history of seawater pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, I.; Bachan, A.

    2017-03-01

    Although pH is a fundamental property of Earth’s oceans, critical to our understanding of seawater biogeochemistry, its long-timescale geologic history is poorly constrained. We constrain seawater pH through time by accounting for the cycles of the major components of seawater. We infer an increase from early Archean pH values between ~6.5 and 7.0 and Phanerozoic values between ~7.5 and 9.0, which was caused by a gradual decrease in atmospheric pCO2 in response to solar brightening, alongside a decrease in hydrothermal exchange between seawater and the ocean crust. A lower pH in Earth’s early oceans likely affected the kinetics of chemical reactions associated with the origin of life, the energetics of early metabolisms, and climate through the partitioning of CO2 between the oceans and atmosphere.

  20. Corrosion performance of zinc coated steel in seawater environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuan; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Haichao; Sun, Huyuan; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-03-01

    Considering the continuous exploitation of marine resources, it is very important to study the anticorrosion performance and durability of zinc coated streel (ZCS) because its increasing use as reinforcements in seawater. Tafel polarization curves and linear polarization curves combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to evaluate the corrosion performance of ZCS at Qingdao test station during long-term immersion in seawater. The results indicated that the corrosion rate of the ZCS increased obviously with immersion time in seawater. The corrosion products that formed on the zinc coated steel were loose and porous, and were mainly composed of Zn5(OH)8Cl2, Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2, and ZnO. Pitting corrosion occurred on the steel surface in neutral seawater, and the rate of ZCS corrosion decreased with increasing pH.

  1. Uptake of elements from seawater by ferromanganese crusts: Solid-phase associations and seawater speciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koschinsky, A.; Hein, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Marine Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide crusts form by precipitation of dissolved components from seawater. Three hydrogenetic crust samples (one phosphatized) and two hydrothermal Mn-oxide samples were subjected to a sequential-leaching procedure in order to determine the host phases of 40 elements. Those host-phase associations are discussed with respect to element speciation in seawater. The partitioning of elements between the two major phases, Mn oxide and Fe oxyhydroxide, can in a first-order approximation be explained by a simple sorption model related to the inorganic speciation of the elements in seawater, as has been proposed in earlier models. Free and weakly complexed cations, such as alkali and alkaline earth metals, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, T1(I), and partly Y, are sorbed preferentially on the negatively charged surface of the MnO2 in hydrogenetic crusts. The driving force is a strong coulombic interaction. All neutral or negatively charged chloro (Cd, Hg, T1), carbonate (Cu, Y, Pb, and U), and hydroxide (Be, Sc, Ti, Fe, Zr, Nb, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hf, Ta, Bi, Th, and T1(III)) complexes and oxyanions (V, Cr, As, Se, Mo, and W) bind to the slightly positively charged surface of the amorphous FeOOH phase. While coulombic interaction can explain the sorption of the negatively charged species, the binding of neutral species is based on specific chemical interaction. Organic complexation of elements in deep-ocean water seems to be at most of minor importance. Surface oxidation can explain some strong metal associations, e.g. of Co and T1 with the MnO2 and Te with the FeOOH. Sorption reactions initially driven by coulombic forces are often followed by the formation of specific bonds between the adsorbate and the atoms of the oxide surface. Differences in the associations of some metals between the non-phosphatized and phosphatized hydrogenetic crusts and between the hydrogenetic and the hydrothermal samples reflect the different physico-chemical environments of formation and

  2. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  3. Interference in the determination of calcium in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The interference of magnesium and strontium with the EGTA complexometric titration of calcium was insignificant at the level of accuracy used for the molar ratios found in seawater. Interference effects were found, however, for samples containing higher magnesium or strontium to calcium ratios. An average value of 0.02103 (SD +- 0.00001) was obtained for Ca:Cl per thousand for nine bottles of IAPSO Standard Seawater (P79, 1.9376 Cl%).

  4. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J.

    1997-02-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  5. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J.

    1995-11-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  6. Temperature Sensing in Seawater Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Xin; Liao, Yipeng; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Ocean internal-wave phenomena occur with the variation in seawater vertical temperature, and most internal-wave detections are dependent on the measurement of seawater vertical temperature. A seawater temperature sensor based on a microfiber knot resonator (MKR) is designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally in this paper. Especially, the dependences of sensing sensitivity on fiber diameter and probing wavelength are studied. Calculated results show that sensing sensitivity increases with the increasing microfiber diameter with the range of 2.30–3.91 μm and increases with the increasing probing wavelength, which reach good agreement with results obtained by experiments. By choosing the appropriate parameters, the maximum sensitivity measured can reach to be 22.81 pm/°C. The seawater temperature sensor demonstrated here shows advantages of small size, high sensitivity, easy fabrication, and easy integration with fiber systems, which may offer a new optical method to detect temperature of seawater or ocean internal-wave phenomenon and offer valuable reference for assembling micro sensors used for other parameters related to seawater, such as salinity, refractive index, concentration of NO3− and so on. PMID:25299951

  7. [Regulation effects of tourmaline on seawater pH value].

    PubMed

    Xia, Meisheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Hu, Caihong; Xu, Zirong

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy were employed to examine the characteristics of tourmaline produced in east Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and batch experiments were conducted to study its regulation effects on seawater pH value. The factors affecting the regulation, such as the dosage of tourmaline and the salinity and initial pH value of seawater, were also studied. The results showed that tourmaline could regulate the seawater pH value from its initial 3 and 10 to 7.1 and 8.9, respectively, and the regulation effect was greater in the seawater with lower salinity, e.g., after 120 minutes treatment, the initial pH value (5.0) of the seawater with a salinity of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 35 was increased by 3.24, 3.16, 3.06, 2.99 and 2.85 unit, respectively. Tourmaline had little effect on seawater conductivity. This study would provide an experimental base for the application of tourmaline in aquaculture.

  8. Laboratory Experiments for Seawater Intrusion into Freshwater Aquifer with Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, K.; Karasaki, K.; Takasu, T.

    2007-12-01

    It is important for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste geologic disposal to understand groundwater flow in deep underground accurately. Especially, groundwater flow in the coastal area is considered to be quite complex that involves density and hydraulic gradient driven flow of freshwater and seawater. In order to understand the behavior of seawater intrusion into freshwater in deep underground, we constructed a laboratory equipment, 'Mini-MACRO' (MAss transport Characterization in host ROck). Mini-MACRO consists of three parts: a sandbox (0.5m x 0.25m x 0.1m) and a reservoir tank on each side containing saltwater simulating seawater and freshwater, respectively. Seawater intrusion experiments are conducted using glass beads (sub- millimeter in diameter) and colored saltwater in the sandbox with a transparent face plate to allow visual observation. We created several cases of experimental conditions to observe the seawater intrusion behavior into two-layered stratum against various hydraulic gradients and densities of saltwater resembling the so-called Henry Problem. We confirmed that the results using this equipment match numerical results under simple heterogeneous condition. These results contribute to the better understanding of seawater intrusion behavior and to increasing confidence in modeling methodology of groundwater flow and mass transport in deep underground through comparison with numerical analysis. We believe that it is crucial for the safety assessment of geologic disposal to integrate this knowledge.

  9. Electrical characteristics of a seawater MHD thruster. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tempelmeyer, K.E.

    1990-06-01

    There is renewed interest in the application of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion concept to marine propulsion. However, there is almost no experimental information concerning the major physical processes which will occur in a seawater MHD propulsion unit, such as (1) the seawater electrolysis process at operational conditions needed for ship propulsion, (2) the effects of bubble formation on the performance of a seawater thruster and (3) the effectiveness of the MHD interaction in seawater. Small scale tests of an MHD type channel but without an applied magnetic field have been carried out to provide information about the first two of these areas (1) seawater electrolysis and (2) the effect of the H2 bubbles generated during the electrolysis of seawater. Current/voltage characteristics were obtained with different electrode materials for current densities up to 0.3 amp/sq cm. The effect of bubble formation on the channel current has been assessed over a range of operating conditions. Long-duration tests to 100 hrs have been made to provide information on electrode durability and long-term operational problems.

  10. Solubility of Fe(III) in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millero, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    Recently Kuma et al. [K. Kuma, J. Nishioka, K. Matsunaga, Controls on iron (III) hydroxide solubility in seawater: The influence of pH and natural organic chelators, Limnol. Oceanogr. 41 (1996) 396-407] made some careful measurements of the solubility of Fe(III) in UV and non-UV irradiated seawater as a function of pH (5-8). They showed that organic compounds can increase the solubility (32-65%) at pH=8.1, apparently due to the formation of Fe(III) organic complexes. In this paper I have examined how these results can be quantified using a speciation model for Fe(III). The results indicate that the effect of pH (2-9) on coastal and open ocean waters by Kuma et al. and the earlier filtration measurement of Byrne and Kester [R.H. Byrne, D.R. Kester, Solubility of hydrous ferric oxide and iron speciation in sea water, Mar. Chem. 4 (1976) 255-274] can be adequately represented by considering the formation of FeOH 2+ and Fe(OH) 2+ using the hydrolysis constants ( K ∗1=10 -2.62, K ∗2=10 -6.0) determined by Millero et al. [F.J. Millero, W. Yao, J. Aicher, The speciation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in natural waters, Mar. Chem. 50 (1995) 21-39]. The solubility measurements [Kuma et al., 1996] on unaltered coastal and open ocean waters appear to require the consideration of the formation of Fe(OH) 30 ( K ∗3=10 -13.3-10 -14.3). A more careful look at these measurements indicates that the curvature between pH 7 and 8 can be attributed to the formation of complexes of Fe 3+ with organic ligands (FeL). Model speciation calculations (pH 6-8) yield total ligand concentrations of [L] T=1.2 nM and 0.17 nM for unaltered coastal and open ocean waters, respectively, assuming K' FeL=10 21. These estimates are in good agreement with the values found for ocean waters by voltammetric methods. The model calculations for the solubility of Fe(III) (0.2 nM at pH=8.1 and 0.6 nM at pH=7.65) are in good agreement with measured open ocean surface (0.2 nM) and deep waters (0.6 nM) determined by

  11. Euzebyella marina sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Zhao, Jia-Rui; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Chen, Guo-Zhong; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Mo, Xu-Hua; He, Hai-Lun; Chen, Shiyong

    2017-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellated, non-gliding, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacterium, designated CY01T, was isolated from seawater of the Yellow Sea. CY01T grew at 15-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 5-8 (optimum, 6.5-7.5) and with 0.5-12 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5-3.5 %). It could not produce flexirubin-type pigment or reduce nitrate to nitrite. CY01T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain of Euzebyella saccharophila (97.0 %) and clustered tightly with the species of the genus Euzebyella in the phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The major cellular fatty acids of CY01T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-6. Polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), four unidentified lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.2 mol%. Based on the results of the polyphasic characterization of CY01T, it represents a novel species of the genus Euzebyella, for which the name Euzebyella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CY01T (=CCTCC AB 2014348T=KCTC 42440T).

  12. 129I in archived seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Henrietta N.; Smith, John N.; Livingston, Hugh D.; Kilius, Linas R.; Edmond, John M.

    1998-07-01

    Anthropogenic 129I (t1/2=15.7 My) discharged by the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France) is a promising tracer of physical and biogeochemical processes in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. To improve understanding of its releases and dispersal, 129I was measured in archived seawater samples that had been collected as part of previous tracer studies, thus allowing direct comparison of 129I with other anthropogenic radionuclides. A sample collected in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic in 1969 was selected in order to directly measure the impact of weapons-fallout 129I in the oceans. The measured 129I/127I ratio of the sample is 0.53±0.08×10-10 (0.53±0.08IU: 1IU≡129I/127I=10-10), compared to the pre-anthropogenic ratio of ∼10-12 (0.01 IU). The ratio of 129I to 137Cs is 2.0±0.6 (atom ratio), 1.6±0.6 when corrected for 7 yr of radioactive decay from the bomb-input peak. This observed ratio is ten times higher than predicted from fission yields, possibly reflecting the greater volatility of iodine relative to cesium. 129I/137Cs ratios in Scottish and Norwegian Coastal waters, sampled in 1976 and 1978, are in good agreement with predictions based on the available release data. Reprocessing 129I is clearly seen in the northern Greenland Sea (>6 IU) and in Denmark Straits Overflow Water (1.4 IU) in samples collected during the TTO/NAS program in 1981. The strength of the tracer signal in the overflow water - the ratio of the concentration in the overflow core to its minimum value in the station profile - is approximately four times higher for 129I than for the other tracers measured (137Cs, 90Sr, and 3H).

  13. Octadecabacterponticola sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Park, Sooyeon; Yoon, Sun Young; Jung, Yong-Taek; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, HDSW-34T, was isolated from seawater of Hwang-do on the Yellow Sea, South Korea, and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain HDSW-34T grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 1.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HDSW-34Tclustered with the type strains of four species of the genus Octadecabacter, showing 96.7-97.6 % sequence similarity. Strain HDSW-34T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids detected in strain HDSW-34T were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain HDSW-34T was 62.0 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness values with Octadecabacterantarcticus CIP 106731T and Octadecabacterarcticus DSM 13978T were 11-18 %. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain HDSW-34T is separated from other recognized species of the genus Octadecabacter. On the basis of the data presented, strain HDSW-34T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Octadecabacter, for which the name Octadecabacterponticola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HDSW-34T (= KCTC 52250T=NBRC 112296T).

  14. Flavobacterium ponti sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, Sooyeon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Soo-Jin; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, non-gliding, yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated GSW-R14(T), was isolated from seawater of Geoje Island in the South Sea, Korea. Strain GSW-R14(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GSW-R14(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, joining Flavobacterium gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) by a bootstrap resampling value of 100 %. Strain GSW-R14(T) exhibited 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) and similarities of 91.2-95.2 % to other members of the genus Flavobacterium. Strain GSW-R14(T) contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The fatty acid profile of strain GSW-R14(T) was similar to that of F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T). The DNA G+C content of strain GSW-R14(T) was 31.4 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness with F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) was 31 %. Strain GSW-R14(T) could be distinguished from F. gelidilacus and the other species of the genus Flavobacterium by its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and by several phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, strain GSW-R14(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ponti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is GSW-R14(T) (=KCTC 22802(T) =CCUG 58402(T)).

  15. Flavobacterium marinum sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Liu, Hongcan; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin; Zhou, Yuguang

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-gliding, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SW105(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the Indian Ocean. The strain produced flexirubin-type pigments and grew at 15-45 °C (optimum, 35 °C), at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-1.5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C17 : 1ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major menaquinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified aminophospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SW105(T) was 36.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolate was related to members of the genus Flavobacterium, showing the highest similarity to Flavobacterium ummariense DS-12(T) and Flavobacterium ceti CCUG 52969(T) (94.3 and 93.0 % sequence similarity, respectively). On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain SW105(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW105(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10825(T) = JCM 18132(T)).

  16. Marine bacteria comprise a possible indicator of drowning in seawater.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Takahama, Keiichi; Seo, Yasuhisa; Kozawa, Shuji; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2008-04-07

    To investigate the effectiveness of marine bacteria as a new marker of drowning in seawater, we determined the optimal conditions of media required to selectively detect marine bacteria and applied the technique to drowned cadavers. We incubated model blood samples (n=20 per group) mixed with seawater, river, tap or muddy water on agar plates (Todd Hewitt, TH; Marine 2216, M2216) and determined the NaCl concentration required to selectively detect marine bacteria. We also used TCBS agar plates without manipulation to isolate Vibrio spp. Among the culture media, TH agar was superior. Bioluminescent colonies were detected only in blood mixed with seawater. Blue colonies stained using the cytochrome oxidase test (COT), were detected in blood mixed with both sea and river water. However when the NaCl concentration was above 4%, COT stained colonies were detectable only in blood mixed with seawater. We subsequently used 2, 3 and 4% NaCl in TH and TCBS agar to examine blood from victims who had drowned in seawater (n=8) and in fresh water (n=7), as well as from victims who died near aquatic environments (non drowned; dry-land control, n=7). Bioluminescent colonies were detectable on 2-4% NaCl TH agar only from two victims that drowned in seawater. Bioluminescent colonies did not grow on TCBS agar. Blue colonies from all cadavers that had drowned in seawater (8/8) and in four of those that had drowned in fresh water (4/7) proliferated on TH agar containing 2% and/or 3% NaCl, but at 4% NaCl such colonies were detected only from cadavers that had drowned in seawater (8/8). Colonies from only one cadaver from seawater grew on TCBS agar. Furthermore, neither bioluminescent nor blue colonies were detected on TH agar containing 4% NaCl in samples from two cadavers found in an estuary (brackish water) who were thought to have been carried from areas of fresh water. Homologous analyses of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the dominant colonies on TH agar containing 4% NaCl were

  17. Sporulation and survival of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, D.S.; Collins, M.V.; Mitchell, S.M.; Cole, R.A.; Flick, G.J.; Wetch, C.N.; Lindquist, A.; Dubey, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    We have been collaborating since 1992 in studies on southern sea otters (Enhdyra lutris nereis) as part of a program to define factors, which may be responsible for limiting the growth of the southern sea otter population. We previously demonstrated Toxoplasma gondii in sea otters. We postulated that cat feces containing oocysts could be entering the marine environment through storm run-off or through municipal sewage since cat feces are often disposed down toilets by cat owners. The present study examined the sporulation of T. gondii oocysts in seawater and the survival of sporulated oocysts in seawater. Unsporulated oocysts were placed in 15 ppt artificial seawater, 32 ppt artificial seawater or 2% sulfuric acid (positive control) at 24 C in an incubator. Samples were examined daily for 3 days and development monitored by counting 100 oocysts from each sample. From 75 to 80% of the oocysts were sporulated by 3 days post-inoculation under all treatment conditions. Groups of 2 mice were fed 10,000 oocysts each from each of the 3 treatment groups. All inoculated mice developed toxoplasmosis indicating that oocysts were capable of sporulating in seawater. Survival of sporulated oocysts was examined by placing sporulated T. gondii oocysts in 15 ppt seawater at room temperature 22a??24 C (RT) or in a refrigerator kept at 4 C. Mice fed oocysts that had been stored at 4C or RT for 6 months became infected. These results indicate that T. gondii oocysts can sporulate and remain viable in seawater for several months.

  18. Opportunities and Barriers to Address Seawater Intrusion Along California's Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, R.

    2016-12-01

    In many California coastal areas reliant on groundwater seawater intrusion is a serious problem. This presentation will discuss how particular groundwater management institutions in the state are addressing seawater intrusion issues, how stakeholders are participating in this process, and how scientific information can contribute to policies that support reducing or halting ongoing intrusion. In 2014, the California Legislature passed the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA). The Act established requirements for 127 high and medium priority groundwater basins to form groundwater sustainability agencies (GSAs) and develop plans to sustainably manage their basin. Sustainable is defined in SGMA as avoiding specific unacceptable impacts, including significant and unreasonable seawater intrusion. Special Act Districts, created by an act of the legislature, have the option to be the sole GSA in their service area, and they can provide a window into current and potentially future strategies to address seawater intrusion. Additionally, adjudicated basins are often considered one of the best approaches to achieve efficient groundwater management, and these basins are exempt from SGMA and managed pursuant to a court judgment. The strategies utilized to manage seawater intrusion by three special act districts and five adjudicated basins will be discussed. These basins cover significant areas of central and southern California and all have experienced seawater intrusion. Our research team just completed reports for the State Water Resources Control Board on all the adjudicated and special act districts in the state, and this presentation will draw on our findings to better understand the barriers and opportunities to alleviate seawater intrusion and the information required to develop solutions.

  19. Impurities Removal in Seawater to Optimize the Magnesium Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natasha, N. C.; Firdiyono, F.; Sulistiyono, E.

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium extraction from seawater is promising way because magnesium is the second abundant element in seawater and Indonesia has the second longest coastline in the world. To optimize the magnesium extraction, the impurities in seawater need to be eliminated. Evaporation and dissolving process were used in this research to remove the impurities especially calcium in seawater. Seawater which has been evaporated from 100 ml to 50 ml was dissolved with variations solution such as oxalic acid and ammonium bicarbonate. The solution concentration is 100 g/l and it variations are 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml and 50 ml. This step will produce precipitate and filtrate then it will be analysed to find out the result of this process. The precipitate was analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) but the filtrate was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). XRD analysis shows that calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate were formed and ICP analysis shows that the remaining calcium in seawater using oxalic acid is about 0.01% and sodium 0.14% but when using ammonium bicarbonate the remaining calcium is 2.5% and sodium still more than 90%. The results show that both oxalic acid and ammonium bicarbonate can remove the impurities but when using oxalic acid, not only the impurities but also magnesium was precipitated. The conclusion of this research is the best solution to remove the impurities in seawater without precipitate the magnesium is using ammonium bicarbonate.

  20. Estimates of ikaite export from sea ice to the underlying seawater in a sea ice-seawater mesocosm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Galley, Ryan J.; Else, Brent G. T.; Campbell, Karley; Papakyriakou, Tim; Crabeck, Odile; Lemes, Marcos; Delille, Bruno; Rysgaard, Søren

    2016-09-01

    The precipitation of ikaite and its fate within sea ice is still poorly understood. We quantify temporal inorganic carbon dynamics in sea ice from initial formation to its melt in a sea ice-seawater mesocosm pool from 11 to 29 January 2013. Based on measurements of total alkalinity (TA) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2), the main processes affecting inorganic carbon dynamics within sea ice were ikaite precipitation and CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In the underlying seawater, the dissolution of ikaite was the main process affecting inorganic carbon dynamics. Sea ice acted as an active layer, releasing CO2 to the atmosphere during the growth phase, taking up CO2 as it melted and exporting both ikaite and TCO2 into the underlying seawater during the whole experiment. Ikaite precipitation of up to 167 µmol kg-1 within sea ice was estimated, while its export and dissolution into the underlying seawater was responsible for a TA increase of 64-66 µmol kg-1 in the water column. The export of TCO2 from sea ice to the water column increased the underlying seawater TCO2 by 43.5 µmol kg-1, suggesting that almost all of the TCO2 that left the sea ice was exported to the underlying seawater. The export of ikaite from the ice to the underlying seawater was associated with brine rejection during sea ice growth, increased vertical connectivity in sea ice due to the upward percolation of seawater and meltwater flushing during sea ice melt. Based on the change in TA in the water column around the onset of sea ice melt, more than half of the total ikaite precipitated in the ice during sea ice growth was still contained in the ice when the sea ice began to melt. Ikaite crystal dissolution in the water column kept the seawater pCO2 undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in spite of increased salinity, TA and TCO2 associated with sea ice growth. Results indicate that ikaite export from sea ice and its dissolution in the underlying seawater can potentially hamper

  1. Development of analytical techniques of vanadium isotope in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Owens, J. D.; Sarafian, A.; Sen, I. S.; Huang, K. F.; Blusztajn, J.; Nielsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Vanadium (V) is a transition metal with isotopes of 50V and 51V, and oxidation states of +2, +3, +4 and +5. The average concentration in seawater is 1.9 ppb, which results in a marine residence time of ~50 kyrs. Its various oxidation states make it a potential tool for investigating redox conditions in the ocean and sediments due to redox related changes in the valance state of vanadium. In turn, chemical equilibrium between different oxidation states of V will likely cause isotopic fractionation that can potentially be utilized to quantify past ocean redox states. In order to apply V isotopes as a paleo-redox tracer, it is required that we know the isotopic composition of seawater and the relation to marine sources and sinks of V. We developed a novel method for pre-concentrating V and measuring the isotope ratio in seawater samples. In our method, we used four ion exchange chromatography columns to separate vanadium from seawater matrix elements, in particular titanium and chromium, which both have an isobaric interference on 50V. The first column uses the NOBIAS resin, which effectively separates V and other transition metals from the majority of seawater matrix. Subsequent columns are identical to those utilized when separating V from silicate samples (Nielsen et al, Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 2011). The isotopic composition of the purified V is measured using a Thermo Scientific Neptune multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) in medium resolution mode. This setup resolves all molecular interferences from masses 49, 50, 51, 52 and 53 including S-O species on mass 50. To test the new method, we spiked an open ocean seawater sample from the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) station with 10-25 μg of Alfa Aesar vanadium solution, which has an isotopic composition of δ51V = 0 [where δ51V = 1000 × [(51V/50Vsample - 51V/50VAA)/51V/50VAA]. The average of six spiked samples is -0.03±0.19‰, which is within error of the true

  2. Abiotic Nitrous Oxide Production in Natural and Artificial Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, H.; Stanton, C. L.; Cavazos, A. R.; Ostrom, N. E.; Glass, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean contributes approximately one third of global sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. While nitrification is thought to be the dominant pathway for marine N2O production, mechanisms remain unresolved. Previous studies have carried the implicit assumption that marine N2O originates directly from enzymatic sources. However, abiotic production of N2O is possible via chemical reactions between nitrogenous intermediates and redox active trace metals in seawater. In this study, we investigated N2O production and isotopic composition in treatments with and without added hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitric oxide (NO), intermediates in microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and Fe(III). Addition of substrates to sterile artificial seawater was compared with filtered and unfiltered seawater from Sapelo Island, coastal Georgia, USA. N2O production was observed immediately after addition of Fe(III) in the presence of NH2OH at pH 8 in sterile artificial seawater. Highest N2O production was observed in the presence of Fe(III), NO, and NH2OH. The isotopomer site preference of abiotically produced N2O was consistent with previous studies (31 ± 2 ‰). Higher abiotic N2O production was observed in sterile artificial seawater (salinity: 35 ppt) than filtered Sapelo Island seawater (salinity: 25 ppt) whereas diluted sterile artificial seawater (18 ppt) showed lowest N2O production, suggesting that higher salinity promotes enhanced abiotic N2O production. Addition of Fe(III) to unfiltered Sapelo Island seawater stimulated N2O production. The presence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), which lack known N2O producing enzymes, in Sapelo Island seawater was confirmed by successful amplification of the archaeal amoA gene, whereas ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), which contain N2O-producing enzymes were undetected. Given the few Fe-containing proteins present in AOA, it is likely that Fe(III) addition promoted N2O production via an abiotic vs. enzymatic N2O mechanism

  3. Non‐diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline

    PubMed Central

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non‐diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. Methods For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non‐diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Results Non‐diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non‐diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. PMID:27101776

  4. Non-diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline.

    PubMed

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle; de Gabory, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non-diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non-diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Non-diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non-diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. © 2016 The Authors International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, published by ARSAAOA, LLC.

  5. Quasi-horizontal circulation cells in 3D seawater intrusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abarca, E.; Carrera, J.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Voss, C.I.

    2007-01-01

    The seawater intrusion process is characterized by the difference in freshwater and seawater density that causes freshwater to float on seawater. Many confined aquifers have a large horizontal extension with respect to thickness. In these cases, while buoyancy acts in the vertical direction, flow is confined between the upper and bottom boundaries and the effect of gravity is controlled by variations of aquifer elevation. Therefore, the effective gravity is controlled by the slope and the shape of the aquifer boundaries. Variability in the topography of the aquifer boundaries is one case where 3D analysis is necessary. In this work, density-dependent flow processes caused by 3D aquifer geometry are studied numerically and specifically, considering a lateral slope of the aquifer boundaries. Sub-horizontal circulation cells are formed in the saltwater entering the aquifer. The penetration of the saltwater can be quantified by a dimensionless buoyancy number that measures the lateral slope of the aquifer relative to freshwater flux. The penetration of the seawater intrusion wedge is controlled more by this slope than by the aquifer thickness and dispersivity. Thus, the slope must be taken into account in order to accurately evaluate seawater intrusion. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biogeochemical effects of seawater restoration to diked salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Portnoy, J.W.; Giblin, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted greenhouse microcosm experiments to examine the biogeochemical effects of restoring seawater to historically diked Cape Cod salt marshes. Peat cores from both seasonally flooded and drained diked marshes were waterlogged with seawater, and porewater chemistry was subsequently monitored for 21 mo. The addition of seawater to highly organic, seasonally flooded peat caused the death of freshwater wetland plants, 6-8 cm of sediment subsidence, and increased N and P mineralization. Also, sulfides and alkalinity increased 10-fold, suggesting accelerated decomposition by sulfate reduction. Addition of seawater to the low-organic-content acidic peat from the drained marsh increased porewater pH, alkalinity, PO4-P, and Fe(II), which we attribute to the reestablishment of SO4 and Fe(III) mineral reduction. Increased cation exchange contributed to 6-fold increases in dissolved Fe(II) and Al and 60-fold increases in NH4-N within 6 mo of sail-nation. Seawater reintroductions to seasonally flooded diked marshes will cause porewater sulfides to increase, likely reducing the success of revegetation efforts. Sulfide toxicity is of less concern in resalinated drained peats because of the abundance of Fe(II) to precipitate sulfides, and of NH4-N to offset sulfide inhibition of N uptake. Restoration of either seasonally flooded or drained diked marshes could stimulate potentially large nutrient and Fe(II) releases, which could in turn increase primary production and lower oxygen in receiving waters. These findings suggest that tidal restoration be gradual and carefully monitored.

  7. XAS and TRLIF spectroscopy of uranium and neptunium in seawater.

    PubMed

    Maloubier, Melody; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Monfort, Marguerite; Den Auwer, Christophe; Moulin, Christophe

    2015-03-28

    Seawater contains radionuclides at environmental levels; some are naturally present and others come from anthropogenic nuclear activity. In this report, the molecular speciation in seawater of uranium(VI) and neptunium(V) at a concentration of 5 × 10(-5) M has been investigated for the first time using a combination of two spectroscopic techniques: Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLIF) for U and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for U and Np at the LIII edge. In parallel, the theoretical speciation of uranium and neptunium in seawater at the same concentration is also discussed and compared to spectroscopic data. The uranium complex was identified as the neutral carbonato calcic complex UO2(CO3)3Ca2, which has been previously described in other natural systems. In the case of neptunium, the complex identified is mainly a carbonato complex whose exact stoichiometry is more difficult to assess. The knowledge of the actinide molecular speciation and reactivity in seawater is of fundamental interest in the particular case of uranium recovery and more generally regarding the actinide life cycle within the biosphere in the case of accidental release. This is the first report of actinide direct speciation in seawater medium that can complement inventory data.

  8. Degradation Products of Benzophenone-3 in Chlorinated Seawater Swimming Pools.

    PubMed

    Manasfi, Tarek; Storck, Veronika; Ravier, Sylvain; Demelas, Carine; Coulomb, Bruno; Boudenne, Jean-Luc

    2015-08-04

    Oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenone, benzophenone-3) is one of the UV filters commonly found in sunscreens. Its presence in swimming pools and its reactivity with chlorine has already been demonstrated but never in seawater swimming pools. In these pools, chlorine added for disinfection results in the formation of bromine, due to the high levels of bromide in seawater, and leads to the formation of brominated disinfection byproducts, known to be more toxic than chlorinated ones. Therefore, it seems important to determine the transformation products of oxybenzone in chlorinated seawater swimming pools; especially that users of seawater swimming pools may apply sunscreens and other personal-care products containing oxybenzone before going to pools. This leads to the introduction of oxybenzone to pools, where it reacts with bromine. For this purpose, the reactivity of oxybenzone has been examined as a function of chlorine dose and temperature in artificial seawater to assess its potential to produce trihalomethanes and to determine the byproducts generated following chlorination. Increasing doses of chlorine and increasing temperatures enhanced the formation of bromoform. Experiments carried out with excess doses of chlorine resulted in the degradation of oxybenzone and allowed the determination of the degradation mechanisms leading to the formation of bromoform. In total, ten transformation products were identified, based on which the transformation pathway was proposed.

  9. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gattuso, J.-P.; Frankignoulle, M.; Bourge, I.; Romaine, S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    The carbonate chemistry of seawater is usually not considered to be an important factor influencing calcium-carbonate-precipitation by corals because surface seawater is supersaturated with respect to aragonite. Recent reports, however, suggest that it could play a major role in the evolution and biogeography of recent corals. We investigated the calcification rates of five colonies of the zooxanthellate coral Stylophora pistillata in synthetic seawater using the alkalinity anomaly technique. Changes in aragonite saturation from 98% to 585% were obtained by manipulating the calcium concentration. The results show a nonlinear increase in calcification rate as a function of aragonite saturation level. Calcification increases nearly 3-fold when aragonite saturation increases from 98% to 390%, i.e., close to the typical present saturation state of tropical seawater. There is no further increase of calcification at saturation values above this threshold. Preliminary data suggest that another coral species, Acropora sp., displays a similar behaviour. These experimental results suggest: (l) that the rate of calcification does not change significantly within the range of saturation levels corresponding to the last glacial-interglacial cycle, and (2) that it may decrease significantly in the future as a result of the decrease in the saturation level due to anthropogenic release of CO2 into the atmosphere. Experimental studies that control environmental conditions and seawater composition provide unique opportunities to unravel the response of corals to global environmental changes.

  10. Differentiating seawater and groundwater sulfate attack in Portland cement mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanam, Manu . E-mail: manus@iitm.ac.in; Cohen, Menashi; Olek, Jan

    2006-12-15

    The study reported in this article deals with understanding the physical, chemical and microstructural differences in sulfate attack from seawater and groundwater. Portland cement mortars were completely immersed in solutions of seawater and groundwater. Physical properties such as length, mass, and compressive strength were monitored periodically. Thermal analysis was used to study the relative amounts of phases such as ettringite, gypsum, and calcium hydroxide, and microstructural studies were conducted by scanning electron microscopy. Portland cement mortars performed better in seawater solution compared to groundwater solution. The difference in performance could be attributed to the reduction in the quantity of the expansive attack products (gypsum and ettringite). The high Cl concentration of seawater could have played an important role by binding the C{sub 3}A to form chloroaluminate compounds, such as Friedel's salt (detected in the microstructural studies), and also by lowering the expansive potential of ettringite. Furthermore, the thicker layer of brucite forming on the specimens in seawater could have afforded better protection against ingress of the solution than in groundwater.

  11. Seawater-Cultured Botryococcus braunii for Efficient Hydrocarbon Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Kenichi; Saga, Kiyotaka; Okada, Shigeru; Imou, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    As a potential source of biofuel, the green colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii produces large amounts of hydrocarbons that are accumulated in the extracellular matrix. Generally, pretreatment such as drying or heating of wet algae is needed for sufficient recoveries of hydrocarbons from B. braunii using organic solvents. In this study, the Showa strain of B. braunii was cultured in media derived from the modified Chu13 medium by supplying artificial seawater, natural seawater, or NaCl. After a certain period of culture in the media with an osmotic pressure corresponding to 1/4-seawater, hydrocarbon recovery rates exceeding 90% were obtained by simply mixing intact wet algae with n-hexane without any pretreatments and the results using the present culture conditions indicate the potential for hydrocarbon milking. Highlights Seawater was used for efficient hydrocarbon extraction from Botryococcus braunii. The alga was cultured in media prepared with seawater or NaCl. Hydrocarbon recovery rate exceeding 90% was obtained without any pretreatment. PMID:23799107

  12. Seawater calcium isotope ratios across the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, E.M.; Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, ca. 34 Ma), Earth's climate cooled significantly from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate, while the calcite (CaCO3) compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific Ocean increased rapidly. Fluctuations in the CCD could result from various processes that create an imbalance between calcium (Ca) sources to, and sinks from, the ocean (e.g., weathering and CaCO3 deposition), with different effects on the isotopic composition of dissolved Ca in the oceans due to differences in the Ca isotopic composition of various inputs and outputs. We used Ca isotope ratios (??44/40Ca) of coeval pelagic marine barite and bulk carbonate to evaluate changes in the marine Ca cycle across the EOT. We show that the permanent deepening of the CCD was not accompanied by a pronounced change in seawater ??44/40Ca, whereas time intervals in the Neogene with smaller carbonate depositional changes are characterized by seawater ??44/40Ca shifts. This suggests that the response of seawater ??44/40Ca to changes in weathering fluxes and to imbalances in the oceanic alkalinity budget depends on the chemical composition of seawater. A minor and transient fluctuation in the Ca isotope ratio of bulk carbonate may reflect a change in isotopic fractionation associated with CaCO3 precipitation from seawater due to a combination of factors, including changes in temperature and/or in the assemblages of calcifying organisms. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  13. Table Salt from Seawater (Solar Evaporation). What We Take from Our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Science Education Center.

    This module discusses methods of obtaining table salt from seawater. Topic areas considered include: (1) obtaining salt by solar evaporation of seawater in holes; (2) obtaining salt by boiling seawater in pots; (3) how table salt is obtained from seawater in the Philippines; and (4) methods of making salt by solar evaporation of seawater in the…

  14. Table Salt from Seawater (Solar Evaporation). What We Take from Our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Science Education Center.

    This module discusses methods of obtaining table salt from seawater. Topic areas considered include: (1) obtaining salt by solar evaporation of seawater in holes; (2) obtaining salt by boiling seawater in pots; (3) how table salt is obtained from seawater in the Philippines; and (4) methods of making salt by solar evaporation of seawater in the…

  15. Ozone-Activated Halogenation of Mono- and Dimethylbipyrrole in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abdhesh; Borgen, Miles; Aluwihare, Lihini I; Fenical, William

    2017-01-03

    Polyhalogenated N-methylbipyrroles of two different structure classes have been detected worldwide in over 100 environmental samples including seawater, bird eggs, fish, dolphin blubber, and in the breast milk of humans that consume seafood. These molecules are concentrated in the fatty tissues in comparable abundance to some of the most important anthropogenic contaminants, such as the halogenated flame-retardants and pesticides. Although the origin of these compounds is still unknown, we present evidence that the production of these materials can involve the direct ozone activated seawater halogenation of N-methylbipyrrole precursors. This observation shows that environmental polyhalogenated bipyrroles can be produced via an abiotic process, and implies that the ozone activated halogenation of a variety of natural and anthropogenic seawater organics may be a significant process occurring in surface ocean waters.

  16. Degradation of graphite/polymer composites in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, W.C. )

    1991-12-01

    Glass-reinforced plastics have a substantial history of use in sea water. With the advent of high-performance graphite fibers offering greater stiffness than glass, some marine engineering applications may be implemented where glass was unsuitable. However, the nobility of graphite in the galvanic series makes it an extremely efficient cathode when coupled with metals in seawater. Degradation of the cathodic composite material is an unexpected result of the corrosion chemistry in natural seawater. Deep submergence of composite materials introduces another potential degradative mechanism in seawater due to an increase moisture uptake by damage-dependent mechanisms. In this paper other environmental exposure to sunlight, deep submergence and cyclic thermal changes which show potential for degradation of composites are discussed.

  17. Bacteria-driven production of alkyl nitrates in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michelle J.; Michaud, Jennifer M.; Williams, Renee; Sherwood, Byron Pedler; Pomeroy, Robert; Azam, Farooq; Burkart, Michael; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    and ship-borne measurements have shown that the ocean is a large, diffuse source for short chain (C1-C3) gas phase alkyl nitrates (RONO2). Photochemical production of RONO2 has been demonstrated previously as a viable mechanism in surface waters; however, it cannot account for the observed depth profile of RONO2, suggesting an additional, dark RONO2 production mechanism. We present measurements of gas phase C1-C5 alkyl nitrates emitted from seawater in a controlled mesocosm experiment conducted under low-light conditions in a glass-walled wave channel. Ethyl and butyl nitrate emission rates from seawater are strongly correlated with the abundance of heterotrophic bacteria (R2 ≥ 0.89) and show no correlation to chlorophyll a concentration. Controlled flask experiments conducted using ambient and sterile seawater, inoculated with a heterotrophic bacterium, confirm that bacterial driven production of select RONO2 can proceed efficiently in the absence of light.

  18. Analytical calculation of muon intensities under deep sea-water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inazawa, H.; Kobayakawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the energy loss of high energy muons through different materials, such as rock and sea-water can cast light on characteristics of lepton interactions. There are less ambiguities for the values of atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) in sea-water than in rock. Muon intensities should be measured as fundamental data and as background data for searching the fluxes of neutrino. The average range energy relation in sea-water is derived. The correction factors due to the range fluctuation is also computed. By applying these results, the intensities deep under sea are converted from a given muon energy spectra at sea-level. The spectra of conventional muons from eta, K decays have sec theta enhancement. The spectrum of prompt muons from charmed particles is almost isotropic. The effect of prompt muons is examined.

  19. Numerical modeling of seawater intrusion into endorheic hydrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafri, U.; Shalev, E.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Wollman, S.; Yechieli, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Several groundwater endorheic base levels are known in different parts of the world. Some of them allow seawater encroachment into them. Two examples of such groundwater systems, at Lake Asal in the Afar Depression of East Africa and Lago Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic, have been modeled using FEFLOW. The simulated flow pattern reproduces the seawater encroachment all the way from the sea to the endorheic base level. When the water in that base level undergoes concentration to brine through evaporation, the dense brine starts to flow below the encroaching seawater body in the opposite direction toward the sea. These processes reach steady-state conditions in a relatively short time of several hundred years.

  20. Mining Critical Metals and Elements from Seawater: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Mamadou S; Kotte, Madhusudhana Rao; Cho, Manki

    2015-08-18

    The availability and sustainable supply of technology metals and valuable elements is critical to the global economy. There is a growing realization that the development and deployment of the clean energy technologies and sustainable products and manufacturing industries of the 21st century will require large amounts of critical metals and valuable elements including rare-earth elements (REEs), platinum group metals (PGMs), lithium, copper, cobalt, silver, and gold. Advances in industrial ecology, water purification, and resource recovery have established that seawater is an important and largely untapped source of technology metals and valuable elements. This feature article discusses the opportunities and challenges of mining critical metals and elements from seawater. We highlight recent advances and provide an outlook of the future of metal mining and resource recovery from seawater.

  1. Reconstruction of secular variation in seawater sulfate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algeo, T. J.; Luo, G. M.; Song, H. Y.; Lyons, T. W.; Canfield, D. E.

    2015-04-01

    Long-term secular variation in seawater sulfate concentrations ([SO42-]SW) is of interest owing to its relationship to the oxygenation history of Earth's surface environment. In this study, we develop two complementary approaches for quantification of sulfate concentrations in ancient seawater and test their application to late Neoproterozoic (635 Ma) to Recent marine units. The "rate method" is based on two measurable parameters of paleomarine systems: (1) the S-isotope fractionation associated with microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), as proxied by Δ34SCAS-PY, and (2) the maximum rate of change in seawater sulfate, as proxied by &partial; δ 34SCAS/∂ t(max). The "MSR-trend method" is based on the empirical relationship of Δ34SCAS-PY to aqueous sulfate concentrations in 81 modern depositional systems. For a given paleomarine system, the rate method yields an estimate of maximum possible [SO42-]SW (although results are dependent on assumptions regarding the pyrite burial flux, FPY), and the MSR-trend method yields an estimate of mean [SO42-]SW. An analysis of seawater sulfate concentrations since 635 Ma suggests that [SO42-]SW was low during the late Neoproterozoic (<5 mM), rose sharply across the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary (~5-10 mM), and rose again during the Permian (~10-30 mM) to levels that have varied only slightly since 250 Ma. However, Phanerozoic seawater sulfate concentrations may have been drawn down to much lower levels (~1-4 mM) during short (<~2 Myr) intervals of the Cambrian, Early Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Cretaceous as a consequence of widespread ocean anoxia, intense MSR, and pyrite burial. The procedures developed in this study offer potential for future high-resolution quantitative analyses of paleo-seawater sulfate concentrations.

  2. Molecular Architecture for Polyphosphazene Electrolytes for Seawater Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K. Harrup; Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Christopher J. Orme; Eric S. Peterson

    2005-08-01

    In this work, a series of polyphosphazenes were designed to function as water resistant, yet ionically conductive membranes for application to lithium/seawater batteries. In membranes of this nature, various molecular architectures are possible and representatives from each possible type were chosen. These polymers were synthesized and their performance as solid polymer electrolytes was evaluated in terms of both lithium ion conductivity and water permeability. The impact that this molecular architecture has on total performance of the membranes for seawater batteries is discussed. Further implications of this molecular architecture on the mechanisms of lithium ion transport through polyphosphazenes are also discussed.

  3. A new focus on groundwater-seawater interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, C.; Sanford, W.; Polemio, M.; Povinec, P.

    2007-01-01

    In summary, the papers in this volume present research by those working from the marine and the terrestrial sides of issues related to SGD and groundwater-seawater interactions. The first part of this paper provides an introduction and background information on the subject of SGD and groundwater-seawater interactions. The second part of this paper provides an overview of the 38 symposium papers and places them in context according to the methods used to quantify SGD. The papers presented in this volume describe important contributions to the literature and document a variety of investigative approaches applied over a range of conditions at locations across the globe.

  4. An Evaluation of Carbon Steel Corrosion Under Stagnant Seawater Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    0.5 g 1- 1 yeast extract, 1.0 g 1-1 ascorbic acid oriented samples. in 750 ml synthetic seawater and 250 ml distilled water . The experiments were...129 mg dm- 2 d-1) and localized corrosion was electron acceptor, is reduced to sulphide. In his observed. The experiments of Lee et al. (1993a; 1993b...model, sulphide reacts with iron to form a corrosion were conducted with an artificial seawater medium product that ultimately transfers electrons to

  5. The major-ion composition of Carboniferous seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Nora M.; García-Veigas, Javier; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Giles, Peter S.; Williams-Stroud, Sherilyn

    2014-06-01

    The major-ion chemistry (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, SO42-, and Cl-) of Carboniferous seawater was determined from chemical analyses of fluid inclusions in marine halites, using the cryo scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) technique. Fluid inclusions in halite from the Mississippian Windsor and Mabou Groups, Shubenacadie Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada (Asbian and Pendleian Substages, 335.5-330 Ma), and from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, Utah, USA, (Desmoinesian Stage 309-305 Ma) contain Na+-Mg2+-K+-Ca2+-Cl- brines, with no measurable SO42-, which shows that the Carboniferous ocean was a “CaCl2 sea”, relatively enriched in Ca2+ and low in SO42- with equivalents Ca2+ > SO42- + HCO3-. δ34S values from anhydrite in the Mississippian Shubenacadie Basin (13.2-14.0 ‰) and the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation (11.2-12.6 ‰) support seawater sources. Br in halite from the Shubenacadie Basin (53-111 ppm) and the Paradox Basin (68-147 ppm) also indicate seawater parentages. Carboniferous seawater, modeled from fluid inclusions, contained ∼22 mmol Ca2+/kg H2O (Mississippian) and ∼24 mmol Ca2+/kg H2O (Pennsylvanian). Estimated sulfate concentrations are ∼14 mmol SO42-/kg H2O (Mississippian), and ∼12 mmol SO42-/kg H2O (Pennsylvanian). Calculated Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios are 2.5 (Mississippian) and 2.3 (Pennsylvanian), with an estimated range of 2.0-3.2. The fluid inclusion record of seawater chemistry shows a long period of CaCl2 seas in the Paleozoic, from the Early Cambrian through the Carboniferous, when seawater was enriched in Ca2+ and relatively depleted in SO42-. During this ∼200 Myr interval, Ca2+ decreased and SO42- increased, but did not cross the Ca2+-SO42- chemical divide to become a MgSO4 sea (when SO42- in seawater became greater than Ca2+) until the latest Pennsylvanian or earliest Permian (∼309-295 Ma). Seawater remained a MgSO4 sea during the Permian and Triassic, for ∼100 Myr. Fluid inclusions also record

  6. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard T.; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li -Jung; Wood, Jordana; Binder, Andrew J.; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 gL-1). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N -methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. Furthermore, the preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  7. Removal of trihalomethane from chlorinated seawater using gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Rajamohan, R; Natesan, Usha; Venugopalan, V P; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rangarajan, S

    2015-12-01

    Chlorine addition as a biocide in seawater results in the formation of chlorination by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Removal of THMs is of importance as they are potential mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. In this context, a study was conducted that used ionizing radiation to remove THMs from chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg/L) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation. Bromoform (BF) showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons such as bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM). In chlorine-dosed seawater, total irradiation dose of 0.4 to 5 kGy caused percentage reduction in the range of 6.9 to 76.7%, 2.3 to 99.6%, and 45.7 to 98.3% for BDCM, DBCM, and BF, respectively. During the irradiation process, pH of the chlorinated seawater decreased with increase in the absorbed dose; however, no change in total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. The results show that gamma dose of 2.5 kGy was adequate for maximum degradation of THM; but for complete mineralization, higher dose would be required.

  8. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged frommore » 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.« less

  9. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.

  10. Traceable Reference Standards for Seawater pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, J. F.; Easley, R. A.; Pratt, K. W.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification is primarily driven by increased anthropogenic atmospheric CO2. Our present understanding of the effects of an increasingly acidic ocean is largely founded on metrologically unlinked collections of diverse environmental observations and laboratory studies with vast temporal and geographic extents. To understand these complex implications better, it is critical to establish rigorous metrological traceability in seawater carbon-system measurements and to develop a comprehensive evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. This poster communicates the development of a NIST reference material to extend metrological traceability to measurements of seawater pH. Traceability of seawater pH to the International System of Units (SI) is achieved through a multi-standard suite of synthetic seawater buffers certified using primary pH metrology (Harned cell measurements). The primary measurements of these buffer materials extend to lower salinities and pH values than those from previous investigations. The lifetime of these liquid buffers (months) is too short for use as a reference material (years). To leverage the measurement to a stable calibrator, a purified batch of colorimetric pH indicator is characterized spectrophotometrically using these same primary buffers. Use of a multi-standard suite of primary buffers traceably links the solid reference material to the primary pH measurements in a manner compliant with current practice for calibration of secondary pH measurements. An uncertainty analysis compliant with presently accepted metrological guidelines for pH determined with the reference material is presented.

  11. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard; Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li -Jung; Wood, Jordana R.; Binder, Andrew; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 μgL⁻¹). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N’-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. The preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  12. Precipitation softening: a pretreatment process for seawater desalination.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, George M; Zayyat, Ramez M; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of membrane fouling in reverse osmosis systems and elimination of scaling of heat transfer surfaces in thermal plants are a major challenge in the desalination of seawater. Precipitation softening has the potential of eliminating the major fouling and scaling species in seawater desalination plants, thus allowing thermal plants to operate at higher top brine temperatures and membrane plants to operate at a reduced risk of fouling, leading to lower desalinated water costs. This work evaluated the use of precipitation softening as a pretreatment step for seawater desalination. The effectiveness of the process in removing several scale-inducing materials such as calcium, magnesium, silica, and boron was investigated under variable conditions of temperature and pH. The treatment process was also applied to seawater spiked with other known fouling species such as iron and bacteria to determine the efficiency of removal. The results of this work show that precipitation softening at a pH of 11 leads to complete elimination of calcium, silica, and bacteria; to very high removal efficiencies of magnesium and iron (99.6 and 99.2 %, respectively); and to a reasonably good removal efficiency of boron (61 %).

  13. Disinfection by-product formation during seawater desalination: A review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daekyun; Amy, Gary L; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-09-15

    Due to increased freshwater demand across the globe, seawater desalination has become the technology of choice in augmenting water supplies in many parts of the world. The use of chemical disinfection is necessary in desalination plants for pre-treatment to control both biofouling as well as the post-disinfection of desalinated water. Although chlorine is the most commonly used disinfectant in desalination plants, its reaction with organic matter produces various disinfection by-products (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes [THMs], haloacetic acids [HAAs], and haloacetonitriles [HANs]), and some DBPs are regulated in many countries due to their potential risks to public health. To reduce the formation of chlorinated DBPs, alternative oxidants (disinfectants) such as chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone can be considered, but they also produce other types of DBPs. In addition, due to high levels of bromide and iodide concentrations in seawater, highly cytotoxic and genotoxic DBP species (i.e., brominated and iodinated DBPs) may form in distribution systems, especially when desalinated water is blended with other source waters having higher levels of organic matter. This article reviews the knowledge accumulated in the last few decades on DBP formation during seawater desalination, and summarizes in detail, the occurrence of DBPs in various thermal and membrane plants involving different desalination processes. The review also identifies the current challenges and future research needs for controlling DBP formation in seawater desalination plants and to reduce the potential toxicity of desalinated water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time and the crystallization of apatite in seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.; Roberson, C.E.; Neil, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    Carbonate fluorapatite has been synthesized in seawater in an experiment of nearly 10-years duration. The addition of phosphate to seawater whose fluoride concentration had been increased to 7.6 mg/l brought about an initial amorphous phosphate precipitate. After 20 months, a crystalline magnesium phosphate phase developed within the amorphous phosphate. Crystallization of apatite, which occurred during the last 3 years of the experiment, was accompanied by dissolution of the crystalline magnesium phosphate phase. The MgO content of the apatite (1.9 percent) is high in comparison to Tertiary and older apatite but similar to some young apatite; the CO2 content (3.6 percent) is medium, and the fluorine content (2.2 percent) is low but again similar to some young apatite. The hydroxyl ion (OH-) likely fills the need for additional fluorine-position atoms. The mole ratio of Ca plus substituent elements to P plus substituent elements (1.50) is low in comparison to the expected ratio of 1.67. The substitution of the hydronium ion (H3O+) for Ca may account for this difference. The synthesis of apatite in seawater demonstrates that the factor of time overcomes the well known inhibiting effect of magnesium upon the crystallization of apatite. It also implies that given an adequate supply of phosphate, apatite can form in most ocean environments and likely plays a major pan in the control of the phosphate content of seawater. ?? 1984.

  15. Fugacity analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between microplastics and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwang; Chang, Sein; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the accumulation of plastic debris in the marine environment has become a great concern worldwide. Although plastics are biologically and chemically inert, plastic debris has been suspected of causing adverse effects on ecosystems due to the increase in reactivity by size reduction and/or micropollutants associated with plastics. Because of the high sorption capacity of microplastics toward organic micropollutants, it is suspected that microplastics may play roles in the distribution and fate of micropollutants. In order to quantitatively evaluate the "net flow" of environmental contaminants in water-plastic-organism systems, a fugacity analysis was conducted using concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in open oceans and in polyethylene as a representative material of plastic debris. Ratio of fugacity in polyethylene to that in seawater showed a decreasing trend with increasing partition coefficient between polyethylene and seawater (KPE/sw). This indicates that phase equilibrium between polyethylene and seawater is not attained for higher molecular weight PAHs. Disequilibrium of high molecular weight PAHs suggests that transfer from seawater to plastic debris is thermodynamically driven and the role of plastic debris as a vector to transfer them to living organisms would be minimal. However, additives may slowly migrate from plastics into the environment causing potentially serious effects on ecosystems.

  16. Fugacity analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between microplastics and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwang; Chang, Sein; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the accumulation of plastic debris in the marine environment has become a great concern worldwide. Although plastics are biologically and chemically inert, plastic debris has been suspected of causing adverse effects on ecosystems due to the increase in reactivity by size reduction and/or micropollutants associated with plastics. Because of the high sorption capacity of microplastics toward organic micropollutants, it is suspected that microplastics may play roles in the distribution and fate of micropollutants. In order to quantitatively evaluate the "net flow" of environmental contaminants in water-plastic-organism systems, a fugacity analysis was conducted using concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in open oceans and in polyethylene as a representative material of plastic debris. Ratio of fugacity in polyethylene to that in seawater showed a decreasing trend with increasing partition coefficient between polyethylene and seawater (KPE/sw). This indicates that phase equilibrium between polyethylene and seawater is not attained for higher molecular weight PAHs. Disequilibrium of high molecular weight PAHs suggests that transfer from seawater to plastic debris is thermodynamically driven and the role of plastic debris as a vector to transfer them to living organisms would be minimal. However, additives may slowly migrate from plastics into the environment causing potentially serious effects on ecosystems.

  17. COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL USING STORAGE IN SEAWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the flow balance method facility (FBM) used to control a combined sewer overflow (CSO) and a statistically based efficiency evaluation for the system. he FBM uses containment within a receiving water body (in this case seawater) to store CSO followed by pumpb...

  18. Experimental measurement of boron isotope fractionation in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, Kateryna; Kaufman, Alan J.; Yao, Wengsheng; Byrne, Robert H.; Tossell, John A.

    2006-08-01

    The boron isotopic composition of marine carbonates is considered to be a tracer of seawater pH. Use of this proxy benefits from an intimate understanding of chemical kinetics and thermodynamic isotope exchange reactions between the two dominant boron-bearing species in seawater: boric acid B(OH) 3 and borate ion B(OH) 4-. However, because of our inability to quantitatively separate these species in solution, the degree of boron isotope exchange has only been known through theoretical estimates. In this study, we present results of a spectrophotometric procedure wherein the boron isotope equilibrium constant ( 11-10KB) is determined empirically from the difference in the dissociation constants of 11B(OH) 3 and 10B(OH) 3 in pure water, 0.6 mol kg - 1 H 2O KCl and artificial seawater. Within experimental uncertainty, our results show no dependence of 11-10KB on temperature, but 11-10KB at 25 °C in pure water was statistically different than results obtained in solutions at high ionic strength. 11-10KB of the seawater ( S = 35, B T = 0.01 mol kg - 1 H 2O) at 25 °C is 1.0272 ± 0.0006. This result is significantly larger than the theoretical value used in numerous paleo-pH studies ( 11-10KB = 1.0194).

  19. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-10-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around -8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  20. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Mao, Qingxiang; Ma, Yongda; Wang, Li; Chen, Xian; Hu, Yi; Ge, Hengjiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group), or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group), or only immersion in seawater (I group), or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group). The circulating endothelial cell (CEC) count and coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured. The CEC count in B group increased at 4 h, 7 h, and 10 h after injury and then reduced, whereas it continuously increased to a greater extent in BI group (P < 0.05). The von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α ) in BI group had a marked increase after injury, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the BI group decreased. Microscope observations revealed thrombus formation in lungs of the animals in BI group, but not in C, I, or B groups. Burn injury causes endothelial dysfunction, and seawater immersion lastingly aggravates this injury, leading to a higher risk of developing thrombosis.

  1. Physiological indices of seawater readiness in postspawning steelhead kelts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buelow, Jessica; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Management goals to improve the recovery of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks at risk of extinction include increasing the proportion of postspawning fish that survive and spawn again. To be successful, postspawning steelhead (kelts) migrating downstream to the ocean must prepare physiologically and physically for a seawater transition. We sampled blood, gill filaments, and evaluated the external condition of migrating kelts from an ESA-listed population in the Snake/Columbia River system over two consecutive years to evaluate their physiological readiness for transition to seawater. We chose attributes often considered as measures of preparation for seawater in juveniles, including gill Na+,K+ ATPase activity, plasma electrolytes and hormones to consider factors related to external condition, size and sex. We found kelts in good external condition had plasma profiles similar to downstream-migrating smolts. In addition, we found more than 80% of kelts ranked in good external condition had smolt-like body silvering. We compared measures from migrating kelts with samples obtained from hatchery fish at the time of spawning to confirm that Na+, K+ ATPase activity in kelts was significantly elevated over spawning fish. We found significant differences in gill Na+, K+ ATPase activity in migrating kelts between the years of sampling, but little indication of influence of fish condition. We conclude that the postspawning steelhead sampled exhibited a suite of behaviours, condition and physiology characteristic of fish prepared for successful transition to a seawater environment.

  2. A Synopsis of the Chemical/Physical Properties of Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    oceanic pH are fixed, the oxidation-reduction potential of seawater (Eh) is relatively constant. Cooper and Zika (1983) suggested that photochemically...245, Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. Cooper, W. J. and R. G. Zika . 1983. Photochemical formation of hydrogen peroxide in surface and ground

  3. [Detection of bromine uptake in cadavers from seawater].

    PubMed

    Powitz, G

    1992-01-01

    Pieces of animal and human lungs were placed in seawater. The fluids pressed of it produced in X-ray fluorescence analysis bromine concentrations, which exceeded the physiological level. These experiments created the supposition to interpret correctly relevant findings in the victims of flight accidents.

  4. Tandem electrochemical desalination-potentiometric nitrate sensing for seawater analysis.

    PubMed

    Cuartero, Maria; Crespo, Gastón A; Bakker, Eric

    2015-08-18

    We report on a methodology for the direct potentiometric determination of nitrate in seawater by in-line coupling to an electrochemical desalination module. A microfluidic custom-fabricated thin layer flat cell allows one to electrochemically reduce the chloride concentration of seawater more than 100-fold, from 600 mM down to ∼2.8 mM. The desalinator operates by the exhaustive electrochemical plating of the halides from the thin layer sample onto a silver element as silver chloride, which is coupled to the transfer of the counter cations across a permselective ion-exchange membrane to an outer solution. As a consequence of suppressing the major interference of an ion-exchanger based membrane, the 80 μL desalinated sample plug is passed to a potentiometric flow cell of 13 μL volume. The potentiometric sensor is composed of an all-solid-state nitrate selective electrode based on lipophilic carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) as an ion-to-electron transducer (slope of -58.9 mV dec(-1), limit of detection of 5 × 10(-7) M, and response time of 5 s in batch mode) and a miniaturized reference electrode. Nitrate is successfully determined in desalinated seawater using ion chromatography as the reference method. It is anticipated that this concept may form an attractive platform for in situ environmental analysis of a variety of ions that normally suffer from interference by the high saline level of seawater.

  5. Physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet radiation sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrentera, Laura; Uribe, Roberto M.; Rodríguez, Romana R.; Carrillo, Ricardo E.

    1994-03-01

    The physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer is described. The physical characterization was performed using radiochromic dye films by evaluating the uniformity of the radiant exposure along each lamp, the effect of the radiation from one lamp on the array of adjacent lamps, and by measuring the UV radiation absorption of seawater with respect to distilled water. The biological characterization was performed by measuring the amount of reduction of bacteria in stored seawater after different filtration and UV treatments. Among the filtration methods tested, differential filtration (5, 3 and 0.45 μm filters connected in series) caused the highest bacterial reduction factor of 60%. UV radiant exposures of 212, 424, 636 and 848 J m -2 yielded bacteria reduction factors of 99.86, 99.969, 99.997 and 100%, respectively, for populations of Vibrio and Pseudomonas bacteria present in stored seawater. It is concluded that the system is useful for water disinfection when 1, 2 or 3 lamps are on; when 4 lamps are used the treated water becomes sterile.

  6. Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, P.; Ford, R.; Collando, F.; Morgan, J.; Frusti, E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

  7. A novel determination of calcite dissolution kinetics in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhas, Adam V.; Rollins, Nick E.; Berelson, William M.; Dong, Sijia; Erez, Jonathan; Adkins, Jess F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel determination of the dissolution kinetics of inorganic calcite in seawater. We dissolved 13 C -labeled calcite in unlabeled seawater, and traced the evolving δ13 C composition of the fluid over time to establish dissolution rates. This method provides sensitive determinations of dissolution rate, which we couple with tight constraints on both seawater saturation state and surface area of the dissolving minerals. We have determined dissolution rates for two different abiotic calcite materials and three different grain sizes. Near-equilibrium dissolution rates are highly nonlinear, and are well normalized by geometric surface area, giving an empirical dissolution rate dependence on saturation state (Ω) of: This result substantiates the non-linear response of calcite dissolution to undersaturation. The bulk dissolution rate constant calculated here is in excellent agreement with those determined in far from equilibrium and dilute solution experiments. Plots of dissolution versus undersaturation indicates the presence of at least two dissolution mechanisms, implying a criticality in the calcite-seawater system. Finally, our new rate determination has implications for modeling of pelagic and seafloor dissolution. Nonlinear dissolution kinetics in a simple 1-D lysocline model indicate a possible transition from kinetic to diffusive control with increasing water depth, and also confirm the importance of respiration-driven dissolution in setting the shape of the calcite lysocline.

  8. Evaluating Foraminifera as an Archive for Seawater Chromium Isotopic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Planavsky, N.; Hull, P. M.; Tripati, A.; Reinhard, C.; Zou, H.; Elder, L. E.; Henehan, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in using chromium isotopes (δ53Cr) as a proxy to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's ocean-atmosphere system throughout geological history. Potential archives for seawater δ53Cr that have been identified to date include iron formations and organic-rich siliciclastic sediments. However, these types of sediments are not common and they are discontinuous over geologic time. As a result, alternative types of archives are needed. Here we evaluate the utility of foraminifera tests as a recorder of seawater δ53Cr. Core-tops used were from different ocean basins. Mono-specific samples of Globigerinoides sacculifer, Orbulina universa, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, Globoratalia crassula-crassaformis, Globoratalia truncatulinoides, and Globigerinella siphonifera were isolated to investigate inter-species isotope fractionation. Chromium concentrations were measured by isotope dilution method to be 0.1-0.3 μg/g. The δ53Cr values of these species range from 0.2‰ to 2.4‰, with an analytical uncertainty of 0.3‰ (95% confidence). Despite the high analytical uncertainty due to the extremely low levels of Cr present, there is still large detectable variation in foraminiferal δ53Cr values, which overlap presently available seawater values (Bonnand et al., 2013; Scheiderich et al., 2015). Possible explanations for such variations in foraminiferal δ53Cr values include heterogeneity of seawater δ53Cr in the modern oceans, and/or photobiochemical redox cycling of Cr in the surface oceans. Therefore, care should be taken when using foraminifera to reconstruct past seawater δ53Cr values. ReferencesBonnand, P., James, R., Parkinson, I., Connelly, D., Fairchild, I., 2013. The chromium isotopic composition of seawater and marine carbonates. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 382: 10-20. Scheiderich, K., Amini, M., Holmden, C., Francois, R., 2015. Global variability of chromium isotopes in seawater demonstrated by Pacific

  9. Strontium isotopic variations of Neoproterozoic seawater: Implications for crustal evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Asmerom, Y.; Jacobsen, S.B.; Knoll, A.H.; Butterfield, N.J. ); Swett, K. )

    1991-10-01

    The authors report high precision Sr isotopic data on carbonates from the Neoproterozoic Shaler Group, Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Samples with low {sup 87}Rb/{sup 86}Sr ratios (<0.01) were selected for Sr isotopic analysis. {delta}{sup 18}O, Mn, Ca, Mg, and Sr data were used to recognize altered samples. The altered samples are characterized by high Mn/Sr ({ge}2) and variable {delta}{sup 18}O; most are dolomites. The data indicate that between ca. 790-850 Ma the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of seawater varied between 0.70676 and 0.70561. The samples show smooth and systematic variation, with the lowest {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr value of 0.70561 at ca. 830 Ma. The low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of carbonates from the lower parts of the section is similar to a value reported for one sample from the Adrar of Mauritania ({approx}900 Ma), West African Craton. Isotopic ratios from the upper part of the Shaler section are identical to values from the lower part of the Neoproterozoic Akademikerbreen Group, Spitsbergen. Although a paucity of absolute age determinations hinders attempts at the precise correlation of Neoproterozoic successions, it is possible to draw a broad outline of the Sr isotopic composition of seawater for this period. Data from this study and the literature are used to construct a curve of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of Neoproterozoic seawater. The Sr isotope composition of seawater reflects primarily the balance between continental Sr input through river input and mantle input via hydrothermal circulation of seawater through mid-ocean ridges. Coupling of Nd and Sr isotopic systems allows the authors to model changes in seafloor spreading rates (or hydrothermal flux) and continental erosion. The Sr hydrothermal flux and the erosion rate (relative to present-day value) are modeled for the period 500-900 Ma.

  10. Fouling control in seawater by on-line acid addition

    SciTech Connect

    Salvago, G.; Taccani, G.; Polimeni, R.; Fumagalli, G.; Picenoni, D.

    1996-11-01

    An experimental plant was set up containing once-through test lines supplied with seawater. The pH level of the seawater was maintained at 6.3 by the acids addition. Heat exchange monitoring equipment and channels exposing different metal specimens were installed on each of the lines. Observation by microscope and EDS analyses were carried out both on the specimen surfaces and on the cross section of the fouling after fracturing in liquid N{sub 2}. The results obtained show that: fouling must not be confused with its effects or simply with its biological components; acidifying seawater can prevent the resistance to heat exchange from increasing without impeding its biological activity. Observation by microscope of the fouling cross sections showed that in untreated seawater the foulings on stainless steel were composed of a continuous compact layer, covered by disorderly clusters. These compact layers were found to contain high quantities of corrosion products of the metals. Elements typical of corrosion products of ferrous materials (Fe, Mn) were also found on Pt, copper alloys and plastic materials. The addition of HCl or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the seawater, to bring it to pH 6.3, reduces the amount of fouling adhering to the surfaces, prevents the development of the continuous layer containing iron and prevents significant increases in heat exchange resistance. The addition of CO{sub 2} can encourage the development of incoherent fibrous material with high Si content and low Fe content which is of little impediment to heat exchange. The addition of lactic acid can encourage both the abnormal development of biomass and the formation of several, separate, layers on stainless steel surfaces.

  11. Potential impact of seawater uranium extraction on marine life

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeters, Robert T.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Gill, Gary A.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2016-02-18

    A variety of adsorbent materials have been developed to extract uranium from seawater as an alternative traditional terrestrial mining. A large-scale deployment of these adsorbents would be necessary to recover useful quantities of uranium and this raises a number of concerns regarding potential impacts on the surrounding marine environment. Two concerns are whether or not the adsorbent materials are toxic and any potentially harmful effects that may result from depleting uranium or vanadium (also highly concentrated by the adsorbents) from the local environment. To test the potential toxicity of the adsorbent with or without bound metals, Microtox assays were used to test both direct contact toxicity and the toxicity of any leachate in the seawater. The Microtox assay was chosen because it the detection of non-specific mechanisms of toxicity. Toxicity was not observed with leachates from any of 68 adsorbent materials that were tested, but direct contact with some adsorbents at very high adsorbent con-centrations exhibited toxicity. These concentrations are, however, very unlikely to be seen in the actual marine deployment. Adsor-bents that accumulated uranium and trace metals were also tested for toxicity, and no toxic effect was observed. Biofouling on the adsorbents and in columns or flumes containing the adsorbents also indicates that the adsorbents are not toxic and that there may not be an obvious deleterious effect resulting from removing uranium and vanadium from seawater. An extensive literature search was also performed to examine the potential impact of uranium and vanadium extraction from seawater on marine life using the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) document analysis tool, IN-SPIRE™. Although other potential environmental effects must also be considered, results from both the Microtox assay and the literature search provide preliminary evidence that uranium extraction from seawater could be performed with minimal impact on

  12. Extraction of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen from Seawater and Hydrocarbon Production Therefrom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-05

    acidification of seawater by subjecting the seawater to an ion exchange reaction to exchange H.sup. ions for Na.sup. ions. Carbon dioxide may be...extracted from the acidified seawater. Optionally, the ion exchange reaction can be conducted under conditions which produce hydrogen as well as carbon dioxide . The carbon dioxide and hydrogen may be used to produce hydrocarbons.

  13. Adsorption and desorption of phosphate on limestone in experiments simulating seawater intrusion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The absorption and desorption of phosphorus on a large block of limestone was investigated using deionized water (DIW) and seawater. The limestone had a high affinity to adsorb phosphorus in DIW. Phosphate adsorption was significantly less in seawater, and more phosphorus was desorbed in the seawate...

  14. The composition of Standard Seawater and the definition of the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millero, Frank J.; Feistel, Rainer; Wright, Daniel G.; McDougall, Trevor J.

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental determinations of the physical properties of seawater have previously been made for Atlantic surface waters, referred to as "Standard Seawater". In this paper a Reference Composition consisting of the major components of Atlantic surface seawater is determined using these earlier analytical measurements. The stoichiometry of sea salt introduced here is thus based on the most accurate prior determination of the composition, adjusted to achieve charge balance and making use of the 2005 atomic weights. Reference Seawater is defined as any seawater that has the Reference Composition and a new Reference-Composition Salinity SR is defined to provide the best available estimate of the Absolute Salinity of both Reference Seawater and the Standard Seawater that was used in the measurements of the physical properties. From a practical point of view, the value of SR can be related to the Practical Salinity S by S=(35.16504/35)gkg×S. Reference Seawater that has been "normalized" to a Practical Salinity of 35 has a Reference-Composition Salinity of exactly SR=35.16504 g kg -1. The new independent salinity variable SR is intended to be used as the concentration variable for future thermodynamic functions of seawater, as an SI-based extension of Practical Salinity, as a reference for natural seawater composition anomalies, as the currently best estimate for Absolute Salinity of IAPSO Standard Seawater, and as a theoretical model for the electrolyte mixture "seawater".

  15. Coral calcifying fluid pH is modulated by seawater carbonate chemistry not solely seawater pH.

    PubMed

    Comeau, S; Tambutté, E; Carpenter, R C; Edmunds, P J; Evensen, N R; Allemand, D; Ferrier-Pagès, C; Tambutté, S; Venn, A A

    2017-01-25

    Reef coral calcification depends on regulation of pH in the internal calcifying fluid (CF) in which the coral skeleton forms. However, little is known about calcifying fluid pH (pHCF) regulation, despite its importance in determining the response of corals to ocean acidification. Here, we investigate pHCF in the coral Stylophora pistillata in seawater maintained at constant pH with manipulated carbonate chemistry to alter dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and therefore total alkalinity (AT). We also investigate the intracellular pH of calcifying cells, photosynthesis, respiration and calcification rates under the same conditions. Our results show that despite constant pH in the surrounding seawater, pHCF is sensitive to shifts in carbonate chemistry associated with changes in [DIC] and [AT], revealing that seawater pH is not the sole driver of pHCF Notably, when we synthesize our results with published data, we identify linear relationships of pHCF with the seawater [DIC]/[H(+)] ratio, [AT]/ [H(+)] ratio and [[Formula: see text

  16. Determining the Henry's Law constants of THMs in seawater by means of purge-and-trap gas chromatography (PT-GC): the influence of seawater as sample matrix.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bevia, Francisco; Fernandez-Torres, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    The influence of seawater salts as salting out agents on the purge-and-trap gas chromatography (PT-GC) determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) was studied. This is particularly important since seawater is chlorinated when used as a cooling agent in coastal nuclear power stations. The chlorination produces unwanted THMs as by-products. A PT-GC apparatus was used to determine the Henry's Law constant of each THM, with seawater as the sample matrix.

  17. River-derived humic substances as iron chelators in seawater

    PubMed Central

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F.; Wallner, Gabriele; Hann, Stephan; Laux, Monika; Cervantes Recalde, Maria F.; Jirsa, Franz; Neubauer, Elisabeth; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2015-01-01

    The speciation of iron(III) in oxic seawater is dominated by its hydrolysis and sedimentation of insoluble iron(III)-oxyhydroxide. As a consequence, many oceanic areas have very low iron levels in surface seawater which leads to iron deficiency since phytoplankton require iron as a micronutrient in order to grow. Fortunately, iron solubility is not truly as low as Fe(III) solubility measurements in inorganic seawater would suggest, since oceanic waters contain organic molecules which tend to bind the iron and keep it in solution. Various iron-binding organic ligands which combine to stabilize dissolved iron have been detected and thoroughly investigated in recent years. However, the role of iron-binding ligands from terrestrial sources remains poorly constrained. Blackwater rivers supply large amounts of natural organic material (NOM) to the ocean. This NOM (which consists mainly of vascular plant-derived humic substances) is able to greatly enhance iron bioavailability in estuaries and coastal regions, however, breakdown processes lead to a rapid decrease of river-derived NOM concentrations with increasing distance from land. It has therefore been argued that the influence of river-derived NOM on iron biogeochemistry in offshore seawater does not seem to be significant. Here we used a standard method based on 59Fe as a radiotracer to study the solubility of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide in seawater in the presence of riverine NOM. We aimed to address the question how effective is freshwater NOM as an iron chelator under open ocean conditions where the concentration of land-derived organic material is about 3 orders of magnitude smaller than in coastal regions, and does this iron chelating ability vary between NOM from different sources and between different size fractions of the river-borne NOM. Our results show that the investigated NOM fractions were able to substantially enhance Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide solubility in seawater at concentrations of the NOM ≥ 5

  18. River-derived humic substances as iron chelators in seawater.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Hann, Stephan; Laux, Monika; Cervantes Recalde, Maria F; Jirsa, Franz; Neubauer, Elisabeth; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-08-20

    The speciation of iron(III) in oxic seawater is dominated by its hydrolysis and sedimentation of insoluble iron(III)-oxyhydroxide. As a consequence, many oceanic areas have very low iron levels in surface seawater which leads to iron deficiency since phytoplankton require iron as a micronutrient in order to grow. Fortunately, iron solubility is not truly as low as Fe(III) solubility measurements in inorganic seawater would suggest, since oceanic waters contain organic molecules which tend to bind the iron and keep it in solution. Various iron-binding organic ligands which combine to stabilize dissolved iron have been detected and thoroughly investigated in recent years. However, the role of iron-binding ligands from terrestrial sources remains poorly constrained. Blackwater rivers supply large amounts of natural organic material (NOM) to the ocean. This NOM (which consists mainly of vascular plant-derived humic substances) is able to greatly enhance iron bioavailability in estuaries and coastal regions, however, breakdown processes lead to a rapid decrease of river-derived NOM concentrations with increasing distance from land. It has therefore been argued that the influence of river-derived NOM on iron biogeochemistry in offshore seawater does not seem to be significant. Here we used a standard method based on (59)Fe as a radiotracer to study the solubility of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide in seawater in the presence of riverine NOM. We aimed to address the question how effective is freshwater NOM as an iron chelator under open ocean conditions where the concentration of land-derived organic material is about 3 orders of magnitude smaller than in coastal regions, and does this iron chelating ability vary between NOM from different sources and between different size fractions of the river-borne NOM. Our results show that the investigated NOM fractions were able to substantially enhance Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide solubility in seawater at concentrations of the NOM ≥ 5

  19. Nucleation and Growth of Gas Hydrate in Natural Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, S. A.; Osegovic, J. P.; Young, J. C.; Max, M. D.; Ames, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Large-scale nucleation of gas hydrate takes place when hydrate-forming gas and seawater are brought together under suitable pressure-temperature conditions or where dissolved hydrate-forming gas in saturated or near-saturated seawater is chilled or brought to higher pressures. Profuse formation of hydrate shells on gas bubbles and nucleation of at least five different forms of gas hydrate have been achieved in fresh natural seawater. Growth of masses of solid gas hydrate takes place when hydrate-forming gas reactant dissolved in seawater is brought into the vicinity of the hydrate. The gas concentration of the enriched water in the vicinity of hydrate is higher than the hydrate equilibrium gas concentration. Hydrate growth under these conditions is accelerated due to the chemical potential difference between the enriched water and the hydrate crystals, which induces mass flux of dissolved hydrate forming gas into new hydrate crystals. As long as water enriched in the hydrate-forming gas is circulated into the vicinity of the hydrate, growth proceeds into the water space. Experimental approaches for growth of examples of solid masses of hydrate are presented. Results of these experiments provide an insight into the growth of gas hydrate under natural conditions where interstitial water in marine sediments is captured by burial from open seawater, and where solid gas hydrate forms on the seafloor. By using fresh natural seawater, which is a chemically and materially complex fluid, our experiments in pressurized, refrigerated reactors should closely track the growth history of solid hydrate in the natural environment. In our model for hydrate growth in sediments, nearly complete pore fill by diagenetic hydrate can best be accomplished by nucleation of hydrate at a point source within the pore water or at a particular point on sediment particulate, with growth outward into the water space that is refreshed with ground water having high concentrations of hydrate

  20. Atmospheric Aerosol Emissions Related to the Mediterranean Seawater Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellegri, K.; Schwier, A.; Rose, C.; Gazeau, F. P. H.; Guieu, C.; D'anna, B.; Ebling, A. M.; Pey, J.; Marchand, N.; Charriere, B.; Sempéré, R.; Mas, S.

    2016-02-01

    Marine aerosols contribute significantly to the global aerosol load and consequently has an important impact on the Earth's climate. Different factors influence the way they are produced at the air/seawater interface. The sea state (whitecap coverage, temperature, etc. ) influence the size and concentration of primarily produced particles but also biogeochemical characteristics of the seawater influence both the physical and chemical primary fluxes to the atmosphere. An additional aerosol source of marine aerosol to the atmosphere is the formation of new particles by gaz-to-particle conversion, i.e. nucleation. How the seawater and surface microlayer biogeochemical compositions influences the aerosol emissions is still a large debate. In order to study marine emissions, one approach is to use semi-controlled environments such as mesocosms. Within the MedSea and SAM projects, we characterize the primary Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) during mesocosms experiments performed during different seasons in the Mediteranean Sea. Mesocosms were either left unchanged as control or enriched by addition of nutriments in order to create different levels of phytoplanctonic activities. The mesocosms waters were daily analyzed for their chemical and biological composition (DOC, CDOM, TEP, Chl-a, virus, bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations). SSA production by bubble bursting was daily simulated in a dedicated set-up. The size segregated SSA number fluxes, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties, and chemical composition were determined as a function of the seawater characteristics. We show that the SSA organic content was clearly correlated to the seawater Chl-a level, provided that the mesocosm was not enriched to create an artificial phytoplanctonic bloom. In our experiments, the enrichment of the seawater with natural surface microlayer did not impact the SSA organic content nor its CCN properties. At last, nucleation of secondary particles were observed to occur in

  1. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-08

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  2. Experimental calibration of Mg isotope fractionation between aragonite and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengrong; Hu, Ping; Gaetani, Glenn; Liu, Chao; Saenger, Casey; Cohen, Anne; Hart, Stanley

    2013-02-01

    The detectable magnesium (Mg) isotope fractionation between biogenic aragonite (including aragonitic corals, bivalves, scaphopod, and sclerosponges) and seawater can potentially be applied to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) in the past. To calibrate this thermometer, eight sets of inorganic precipitation experiments ('free-drift') in seawater (Mg/Ca = 5 or 10) have been carried out at 25-55 °C over a range of degassing rate. A cleaning procedure was adopted to remove Mg contamination by sea salt, surface absorbed Mg and silicate dust as nucleation centers. The Mg isotope fractionation between cleaned aragonite and seawater-like aqueous solution varies insignificantly with Mg/Ca ratios and Mg isotope compositions of the initial solution, and the CO2-degassing rate (0-75 cc/min), but decreases noticeably with increasing temperatures having a temperature sensitivity of ˜0.008-0.01‰/°C in the following form: Δ≈1000lnα=1.67(±0.36)-0.82(±0.11)×{1000}/{T} where αaragonite-seawater is the fractionation factor, and T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin. It is consistent with equilibrium fractionation between Mg2+ aquo-complex and magnesite predicted by one theoretical calculation. Qualitative comparison among Mg-bearing carbonates based on Mg-O bond strengths show the relative sequence of 26Mg enrichment is aragonite > dolomite > magnesite > calcite. Thus, the surprising agreement indicates either the calculation overestimated Mg fractionation between magnesite and fluid, or both theoretical calculation and our calibration represent Mg isotope fractionation between MgCO30-H2O cluster and Mg2+ aquo complexes. Comparison of our calibration with the Mg isotope fractionation between biogenic aragonite and seawater suggests Mg and oxygen isotope fractionations of some biogenic aragonites (e.g., Porites sp. corals) agree with our calibration within analytical uncertainty, whereas others deviate significantly, indicating biological and/or kinetic isotope

  3. Impediment to symbiosis establishment between giant clams and Symbiodinium algae due to sterilization of seawater.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment ("symbiosis rate") is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds.

  4. Impediment to Symbiosis Establishment between Giant Clams and Symbiodinium Algae Due to Sterilization of Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment (“symbiosis rate”) is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds. PMID:23613802

  5. Modification of Optical Properties of Seawater Exposed to Oil Contaminants Based on Excitation-Emission Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2015-10-01

    The optical behaviour of seawater exposed to a residual amount of oil pollution is presented and a comparison of the fluorescence spectra of oil dissolved in both n-hexane and seawater is discussed based on excitation-emission spectra. Crude oil extracted from the southern part of the Baltic Sea was used to characterise petroleum properties after contact with seawater. The wavelength-independent fluorescence maximum for natural seawater and seawater artificially polluted with oil were determined. Moreover, the specific excitation-emission peaks for natural seawater and polluted water were analysed to identify the natural organic matter composition. It was found that fluorescence spectra identification is a promising method to detect even an extremely low concentration of petroleum residues directly in the seawater. In addition, alien substances disturbing the fluorescence signatures of natural organic substances in a marine environment is also discussed.

  6. Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial abyssal seawater oxygen isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    2016-06-01

    An earlier analysis of pore-water salinity (chlorinity) in two deep-sea cores, using terminal constraint methods of control theory, concluded that although a salinity amplification in the abyss was possible during the LGM, it was not required by the data. Here the same methodology is applied to δ18Ow in the upper 100 m of four deep-sea cores. An ice volume amplification to the isotopic ratio is, again, consistent with the data but not required by it. In particular, results are very sensitive, with conventional diffusion values, to the assumed initial conditions at -100 ky and a long list of noise (uncertainty) assumptions. If the calcite values of δ18O are fully reliable, then published enriched values of the ratio in seawater are necessary to preclude sub-freezing temperatures, but the seawater δ18O in pore fluids does not independently require the conclusion.

  7. Isolation and characterization of microalgae for biodiesel production from seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liu; Qi, Yun; Chen, Guanyi

    2015-05-01

    As green marine microalgae isolated from local seawater in Tianjin, China, Nannochloropsis gaditana Q6 was tolerant to the variation of salinity with the highest biomass and lipid concentration in natural seawater medium. Although this strain could grow mixotrophically with glycerol, the narrow gap between mixotrophic and autotrophic cultivation suggested that autotrophic cultivation was the optimal trophic type for N. gaditana Q6 growth. In addition, strain Q6 was more sensitive to the variance of NH4HCO3 concentration than NaH2PO4 concentration. Consequently, the lipid production could be maximized by the two-stage cultivation strategy, with an initial high NH4HCO3 concentration for biomass production followed by low NH4HCO3 concentration for lipid accumulation.

  8. Performance of OTEC Heat Exchanger Materials in Tropical Seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen-Basse, Jorn

    1985-03-01

    The corrosion of several aluminum alloys in flowing Hawaiian surface seawater and water from 600 m depth for exposure periods up to three years has been studied. The alloys tested in cold water were Alclad (7072) 3003 and 3004; and bare 3004 and 5052). All show some pitting. Pit growth is slow, and pits do not penetrate the cladding. In the warm water, only uniform corrosion has been found. All alloys corrode at the same, low rate of˜3 μm/year after an initial short period of more rapid corrosion. This behavior is closely linked to the formation of a protective inorganic scale film on the surface. It consists of precipitated scale minerals from the seawater and aluminum corrosion products. The results indicate that OTEC evaporator heat exchangers constructed of aluminum alloys should have acceptable service lives.

  9. Determination of photosynthetic parameters in two seawater-tolerant vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Nianwei; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Wenqian

    2016-03-01

    It is difficult to determine the photosynthetic parameters of non-flat leaves/green stems using photosynthetic instruments, due to the unusual morphology of both organs, especially for Suaeda salsa and Salicornia bigelovii as two seawater-tolerant vegetables. To solve the problem, we developed a simple, practical, and effective method to measure and calculate the photosynthetic parameters (such as P N, g s, E) based on unit fresh mass, instead of leaf area. The light/CO2/temperature response curves of the plants can also be measured by this method. This new method is more effective, stable, and reliable than conventional methods for plants with non-flat leaves. In addition, the relative notes on measurements and calculation of photosynthetic parameters were discussed in this paper. This method solves technical difficulties in photosynthetic parameter determination of the two seawater-tolerant vegetables and similar plants.

  10. Recovery of uranium from seawater by immobilized tannin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, T.; Nakajima, A.

    1987-06-01

    Tannin compounds having multiple adjacent hydroxy groups have an extremely high affinity for uranium. To prevent the leaching of tannins into water and to improve the adsorbing characteristics of these compounds, the authors tried to immobilize tannins. The immobilized tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability to uranium, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The immobilized tannin can recover uranium from natural seawater with high efficiency. About 2530 ..mu..g uranium is adsorbed per gram of this adsorbent within 22 h. Depending on the concentration in seawater, an enrichment of up to 766,000-fold within the adsorbent is possible. Almost all uranium adsorbed is easily desorbed with a very dilute acid. Thus, the immobilized tannin can be used repeatedly in the adsorption-desorption process.

  11. Desalting seawater and brackish waters: 1981 cost update

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.A.

    1982-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of desalting cost update reports. Cost data are reported for desalting seawater by various distillation systems and by reverse osmosis. Costs of desalting four brackish waters, representative of those found in the United States by both reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are also given. Cost data are presented parametrically as a function of energy cost and plant size. The cost of desalting seawater by distillation has increased by 40% during the past two years, while desalting by reverse osmosis has increased by about 36% during the same period. Brackish water desalting by reverse osmosis has only increased by about 12%, and brackish water desalting by electrodialysis is up by 40%. Again, the continued increase in energy costs has had a major impact on all desalination systems.

  12. The Separation and Isotopic Analysis Seawater Cu and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermin, J.; Vance, D.; Archer, C.; Statham, P. J.

    2004-12-01

    Many transition metals are key micronutrients and their concentration profiles in the oceans often show nutrient-like patterns, with strong surface depletions and deep enrichments1. In addition, their biological usage has been shown to induce isotopic fractionations2 so that the precise and accurate analysis of their isotope systems in seawater has potential applications in tracing metal micronutrient usage in the past ocean. The analytical challenges involved in realising this goal are, however, considerable, given the low concentrations of transition metals in seawater and the requirement to extract small amounts from large samples at low blank and with no artificial isotopic fractionation. Here we present a method for the separation an analysis of Cu and Zn isotopes that is applicable to 0.1-5 L samples of seawater. Trace metals were concentrated from seawater using a Chelex-100 ion-exchange column3 and further purified and separated from each other using a small anion column4,5. All isotopic analyses were performed on a ThermoFinnigan Neptune instrument at the University of Bristol. The main requirements for precise and accurate isotopic analyses are a low contribution from analytical blank and the robust correction for analytical mass discrimination. Our blanks allow the analysis of seawater samples of 50-250 mL for Cu, samples of about 100 mL for Zn in the deep oceans and for Zn-depleted open ocean surface water samples of around 5L. The correction for mass discrimination is most readily considered as two components - that occurring during the chemical separation procedure in response to non-100% yields and that occurring in the mass spectrometer. Correction of all mass discrimination throughout the procedure is most robustly done for Zn and Fe using a double-spike that is added prior to any chemical treatment. This approach has been tested using standard-doped seawater samples that had previously been stripped of their metal contents using the Chelex column

  13. Microbial Specificity of Metallic Surfaces Exposed to Ambient Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, B. R.; Bard, R. F.; Tosteson, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    High-molecular-weight materials associated with the extracellular matrix and film found on titanium and aluminum surfaces after exposure to flowing coastal seawater were isolated. This material was purified by hydroxylapatite chromatography and subsequently employed to produce antibodies in the toad, Bufo marinus. The antibodies were immobilized on a solid support and employed to isolate adhesion-enhancing, high-molecular-weight materials from the laboratory culture media of bacterial strains recovered from the respective metallic surfaces during the course of their exposure to seawater. The adhesion-enhancing materials produced by the surface-associated bacterial strains were immunologically related to the extracellular biofouling matrix material found on the surfaces from which these bacteria were isolated. The surface selectivity of these bacterial strains appeared to be based on the specificity of the interaction between adhesion-enhancing macromolecules produced by these bacteria and the surfaces in question. PMID:16346622

  14. Application of BEM to cathodic protection of seawater pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miyasaka, M.; Ishiguro, J.; Kishimoto, K.; Aoki, S.

    1995-11-01

    A three-dimensional boundary element method (3D-BEM) was developed to quantitatively estimate cathodic protection and macro-cell corrosion. To confirm the validity and usefulness of the BEM for analysis of fluid machines handling seawater with complex 3D fields, experiments and analyses were performed. A cast iron vertical pump with Zn anodes for cathodic protection, was submerged in seawater and operated. Potential distributions inside the pump and anodic currents on the Zn anodes were measured. Polarization characteristics of the pump material were also examined as functions of flow rate, time and temperature. Extremely accurate analyses on potential and current density distributions were performed by reflecting the polarization characteristics in the boundary conditions, and by means of appropriate modeling that takes account of the symmetry of the object being analyzed.

  15. Gradient-zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B.

    1997-02-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. For conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operation, the entrainment rate was found to depend only weakly on the Richardson number. For these conditions, a simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was developed.

  16. Microbial specificity of metallic surfaces exposed to ambient seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidi, B.R.; Bard, R.F.; Tosteson, T.R.

    1984-09-01

    High-molecular-weight materials associated with the extracellular matrix and film found on titanium and aluminum surfaces after exposure to flowing coastal seawater were isolated. This material was purified by hydroxylapatite chromatography and subsequently employed to produce antibodies in the toad, Bufo marinus. The antibodies were immobilized on a solid support and employed to isolate adhesion-enhancing, high-molecular-weight materials from the laboratory culture media of bacterial strains recovered from the respective metallic surfaces during the course of their exposure to seawater. The adhesion-enhancing materials produced by the surface-associated bacterial strains were immunologically related to the extracellular biofouling matrix material found on the surfaces from which these bacteria were isolated. The surface selectivity of these bacterial strains appeared to be based on the specificity of the interaction between adhesion-enhancing macromolecules produced by these bacteria and the surfaces in question. 30 references, 6 tables.

  17. Seawater cycled throughout Earth's mantle in partially serpentinized lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, M. A.; Hémond, C.; Kamenetsky, V. S.; Danyushevsky, L.; Devey, C. W.; Rodemann, T.; Jackson, M. G.; Perfit, M. R.

    2017-02-01

    The extent to which water and halogens in Earth's mantle have primordial origins, or are dominated by seawater-derived components introduced by subduction is debated. About 90% of non-radiogenic xenon in the Earth's mantle has a subducted atmospheric origin, but the degree to which atmospheric gases and other seawater components are coupled during subduction is unclear. Here we present the concentrations of water and halogens in samples of magmatic glasses collected from mid-ocean ridges and ocean islands globally. We show that water and halogen enrichment is unexpectedly associated with trace element signatures characteristic of dehydrated oceanic crust, and that the most incompatible halogens have relatively uniform abundance ratios that are different from primitive mantle values. Taken together, these results imply that Earth's mantle is highly processed and that most of its water and halogens were introduced by the subduction of serpentinized lithospheric mantle associated with dehydrated oceanic crust.

  18. Separation of Oxygen from Seawater by Membrane Permeation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Availability Codos 3Avd t’l and/or list Special List of Figures Figure 1. Schematic of pervaporation process .................. 2 Figure 2. Schematic...oxygen extraction rate from seawater by pervaporation ....... ....................... 7 Figure 5. Photograph of the experimental set-up for measuring the...12 Figure 9. Pressure drop across pervaporation module as a function of feed water flow rate ................. 13 Figure 10

  19. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  20. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  1. Comparison of Key West and Persian Gulf Seawaters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-18

    D. A. Eden, R. A. Davis, J. E. McElhiney, C. Di lorio, "The effects of desulphated seawater injection on microbiological hydrogen sulphide generation... Mercury Hg (5.0 x 10-6) 5.6 x 102 Gallium Ga (3.0 x 10-4) 9.0 x 103 Bismuth al (1.0 x 10-4) - Niobium Nb (ɝ x 10-5) - Thallium Ti 6.0 x 10- - Gold Au

  2. Characteristics of trace elements in freshwater and seawater cultured pearls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, En; Huang, Fu-Quan; Wang, Zi-Tong; Li, Qian

    2014-09-01

    Trace elements in pearls have characteristic disciplines and functions. The previous work had paid attention to different characteristics of trace elements in freshwater and seawater cultured pearls, but only limited species of trace elements have been detected by former testing techniques and analysis methods, and the test results have not been further analyzed. With the advantages of detection in good capability and high speed, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) can concurrently test various trace and ultra-trace elements. In the present paper, trace elements of cultured pearls in freshwater and seawater were measured by ICP-MS, and analyzed compared by a method of data processing. The results show that: (1) The kinds of higher content of trace elements (Sr, Zn, Ni, Ba, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ti, Co, Ce, Zr, La, Rb) in cultured pearls are approximately the same, but the total amount of trace elements in freshwater cultured pearls is significantly less than that of seawater cultured pearls. (2) The content of trace elements (Sr, Mn, Ba, Ni, Cr, Pb) in freshwater cultured pearls is more regular, and has a relatively fixed sequence from high to low, namely Sr > Mn > Ba > Ni > Cr > Pb. The content of trace elements in seawater cultured pearls is quite different. Sr is enriched in all samples. There is no a stable order of contents for the other trace elements. (3) There is a significant correlation among some trace elements in cultured pearls. The conclusion is instructive to indicate cultured environment, cultured technology, identification, comprehensive development and utilization of cultured pearls.

  3. A new physical barrier system for seawater intrusion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoulhalik, Antoifi; Ahmed, Ashraf; Hamill, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    The construction of subsurface physical barriers is one of various methods used to control seawater intrusion (SWI) in coastal aquifers. This study proposes the mixed physical barrier (MPB) as a new barrier system for seawater intrusion control, which combines an impermeable cutoff wall and a semi-permeable subsurface dam. The effect of the traditionally-used physical barriers on transient saltwater wedge dynamics was first explored for various hydraulic gradients, and the workability of the MPB was thereafter thoroughly analysed. A newly developed automated image analysis based on light-concentration conversion was used in the experiments, which were completed in a porous media tank. The numerical code SEAWAT was used to assess the consistency of the experimental data and examine the sensitivity of the performance of the barriers to various key parameters. The results show that the MPB induced a visible lifting of the dense saline flux upward towards the outlet by the light freshwater. This saltwater lifting mechanism, observed for the first time, induced significant reduction to the saline water intrusion length. The use of the MPB yielded up to 62% and 42% more reduction of the saltwater intrusion length than the semi-permeable dam and the cutoff wall, respectively. The performance achieved by the MPB with a wall depth of 40% of the aquifer thickness was greater than that of a single cutoff wall with a penetration depth of 90% of the aquifer thickness (about 13% extra reduction). This means that the MPB could produce better seawater intrusion reduction than the traditionally used barriers at even lower cost.

  4. An Evaluation of Ballast Tank Corrosion in Hypoxic Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-12

    INTRODUCTION Deoxygenation of seawater has been demonstrated as an environmentally friendly ballast water treatment to control introduction of non-native...process of electron transfers from base metal to oxygen as the ultimate electron acceptor through a series of coupled reactions. The specific coupled...reactions varied with mechanism and causative organism. In the case of SRB, sulfate, an intermediate electron acceptor. is reduced to sulfide that reacts

  5. Catalysis and chemical mechanisms of calcite dissolution in seawater.

    PubMed

    Subhas, Adam V; Adkins, Jess F; Rollins, Nick E; Naviaux, John; Erez, Jonathan; Berelson, William M

    2017-07-18

    Near-equilibrium calcite dissolution in seawater contributes significantly to the regulation of atmospheric [Formula: see text] on 1,000-y timescales. Despite many studies on far-from-equilibrium dissolution, little is known about the detailed mechanisms responsible for calcite dissolution in seawater. In this paper, we dissolve (13)C-labeled calcites in natural seawater. We show that the time-evolving enrichment of [Formula: see text] in solution is a direct measure of both dissolution and precipitation reactions across a large range of saturation states. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer profiles into the (13)C-labeled solids confirm the presence of precipitated material even in undersaturated conditions. The close balance of precipitation and dissolution near equilibrium can alter the chemical composition of calcite deeper than one monolayer into the crystal. This balance of dissolution-precipitation shifts significantly toward a dissolution-dominated mechanism below about [Formula: see text] Finally, we show that the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) increases the dissolution rate across all saturation states, and the effect is most pronounced close to equilibrium. This finding suggests that the rate of hydration of [Formula: see text] is a rate-limiting step for calcite dissolution in seawater. We then interpret our dissolution data in a framework that incorporates both solution chemistry and geometric constraints on the calcite solid. Near equilibrium, this framework demonstrates a lowered free energy barrier at the solid-solution interface in the presence of CA. This framework also indicates a significant change in dissolution mechanism at [Formula: see text], which we interpret as the onset of homogeneous etch pit nucleation.

  6. Development and extension of seawater desalination by reverse osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Congjie

    2003-03-01

    Seawater desalination has been people's fond dream since ancient times, the dream is now becoming a reality. This paper presents a brief development history of reverse osmosis. Much attention was paid to innovative development in membranes, modules, equipments and applied technology, including asymmetric and composite membranes, spiral-wound element and hollow fiber module, energy recovery equipments and different technological processes. The extension of reverse osmosis, such as desalination, pre-concentration, integrated processes and nanofiltration, is also briefly mentioned.

  7. Microbially mediated cobalt oxidation in seawater revealed by radiotracer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.G.; Fisher, N.S. )

    1993-12-01

    The influence of microbial activity on Co and Mn oxidation in decomposing diatom cultures was determined with radiotracer techniques. Adding a consortium of microorganisms collected from coastal seawater (0.2-3-[mu]m size fraction) to the cultures increased particulate Co formation rates at 18[degrees]C by an order of magnitude (to 3.8% d[sup [minus]1]) and particulate Mn formation rates 3-fold (to 7.9% d[sup [minus

  8. Comparative ecotoxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles in natural seawater and reconstituted seawater using the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    PubMed

    Manfra, L; Rotini, A; Bergami, E; Grassi, G; Faleri, C; Corsi, I

    2017-11-01

    The impact of nanoplastics using model polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs), anionic (PS-COOH) and cationic (PS-NH2), has been investigated on the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a major component of marine zooplanktonic species. The role of different surface charges in affecting PS NP behaviour and toxicity has been considered in high ionic strength media. To this aim, the selected media were standardized reconstituted seawater (RSW) and natural sea water (NSW), the latter resembling more natural exposure scenarios. Hatched rotifer larvae were exposed for 24h and 48h to both PS NPs in the range of 0.5-50μg/ml using PS NP suspensions made in RSW and NSW. No effects on lethality upon exposure to anionic NPs were observed despite a clear gut retention was evident in all exposed rotifers. On the contrary, cationic NPs caused lethality to rotifer larvae but LC50 values resulted lower in rotifers exposed in RSW (LC50=2.75±0.67µg/ml) compared to those exposed in NSW (LC50=6.62±0.87µg/ml). PS NPs showed similar pattern of aggregation in both high ionic strength media (RSW and NSW) but while anionic NPs resulted in large microscale aggregates (Z-average 1109 ± 128nm and 998±67nm respectively), cationic NP aggregates were still in nano-size forms (93.99 ± 11.22nm and 108.3 ± 12.79nm). Both PDI and Z-potential of PS NPs slightly differed in the two media suggesting a role of their different surface charges in affecting their behaviour and stability. Our findings confirm the role of surface charges in nanoplastic behaviour in salt water media and provide a first evidence of a different toxicity in rotifers using artificial media (RSW) compared to natural one (NSW). Such evidence poses the question on how to select the best medium in standardized ecotoxicity assays in order to properly assess their hazard to marine life in natural environmental scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Seawater calcium isotopic ratios across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, E. M.; Paytan, A.

    2009-12-01

    We reconstructed the evolution of the seawater calcium (Ca) isotopic ratio from marine (pelagic) barite and bulk calcium carbonate over the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT), a period of extreme and rapid change in the global calcite compensation depth (CCD) (Lyle et al., 2008). The CCD is controlled by the balance between calcium carbonate deposition and dissolution in deep sea sediments. Large fluctuations in the CCD may cause changes in the concentration of dissolved Ca in seawater and its isotopic composition if accompanied by imbalances in marine Ca sources and sinks (De La Rocha and DePaolo, 2000). Our results show that the permanent deepening of the CCD during the EOT, which coincided with the major Cenozoic glaciation around 34 million years ago (Zachos et al., 2001), was not accompanied by a significant long-term change in the isotopic ratio of Ca in seawater or its sink (calcium carbonate). A simple isotopic mass balance model is constructed to compare predicted and observed isotopic fluctuations. References: Lyle, M. et al. Pacific Ocean and Cenozoic evolution of climate. Rev. Geophys. 46, 1-47 (2008). De La Rocha, C. L. & DePaolo, D. J. Isotopic evidence for variations in the marine calcium cycle over the Cenozoic. Science 289, 1176-1178 (2000). Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. & Billups, K. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 ma to present. Science 292, 686-693 (2001).

  10. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard T.; Gill, Gary; ...

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 gL-1). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N -methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawatermore » containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. Furthermore, the preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.« less

  11. Tapered optical fiber sensor for chemical pollutants detection in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irigoyen, Maite; Sánchez-Martin, Jose Antonio; Bernabeu, Eusebio; Zamora, Alba

    2017-04-01

    Three tapered silica optical fibers, uncoated and coated with metallic (Al or Cu) and dielectric layers (TiO2), are employed to determine the presence of oil and Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS from now on) in water, by means of the measurement of their spectral transmittance. With our experimental assembly, the presence of oil and HNS spills can be detected employing the three different kinds of tapers, since the complete range of refractive indices of the pollutants (1.329-1.501) is covered with these tapers. The most suitable spectral range to detect the presence of a chemical pollutant in seawater has been identified and a complete spectral characterization of the three types of optical fiber tapers has been carried out. The results obtained show that, in general terms, these devices working together can be employed for the early detection of oil and HNS spills in seawater in a marine industrial environment. These sensors have many advantages, such as its low cost, its simplicity and versatility (with interesting properties as quick response and repeatability), and especially that they can be self-cleaned with seawater in motion.

  12. Does chlorination of seawater reverse osmosis membranes control biofouling?

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Hong, Pei-Ying; Nada, Nabil; Croue, Jean Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Biofouling is the major problem of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes used for desalting seawater (SW). The use of chlorine is a conventional and common practice to control/prevent biofouling. Unlike polyamide RO membranes, cellulose triacetate (CTA) RO membranes display a high chlorine tolerance. Due to this characteristic, CTA membranes are used in most of the RO plants located in the Middle East region where the elevated seawater temperature and water quality promote the risk of membrane biofouling. However, there is no detailed study on the investigation/characterization of CTA-RO membrane fouling. In this investigation, the fouling profile of a full-scale SWRO desalination plant operating with not only continuous chlorination of raw seawater but also intermittent chlorination of CTA-RO membranes was studied. Detailed water quality and membrane fouling analyses were conducted. Profiles of microbiological, inorganic, and organic constituents of analysed fouling layers were extensively discussed. Our results clearly identified biofilm development on these membranes. The incapability of chlorination on preventing biofilm formation on SWRO membranes could be assigned to its failure in effectively reaching throughout the different regions of the permeators. This failure could have occurred due to three main factors: plugging of membrane fibers, chlorine consumption by organics accumulated on the front side fibers, or chlorine adaptation of certain bacterial populations.

  13. Medication inhibits tolerance to seawater in coho salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, Gerald R.; Johnson, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Applications of 10 therapeutic and two anesthetic agents to healthy smolts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) by conventional methods were followed by two different posttreatment circumstances. In condition I, fish were treated and then transferred directly to 28‰ seawater for 10 days; in condition II, fish were treated and held in fresh water for 4 days before their medium was gradually changed over a 4-hour period to 28‰ seawater. In condition I, no mortality occurred among fish treated with 2,4-D, trichlorofon, simazine, quinaldine, or light to moderate doses of MS-222. About 10% mortality occurred among fish treated with formalin and nifurpirinol. High mortality in seawater followed treatments with copper sulfate, hyamine 1622, potassium permanganate, malachite green (one protocol), and heavy doses of MS-222. In condition II, mortality was reduced but still high for copper sulfate and potassium permanganate, much lower for malachite green and hyamine 1622, and zero for the other agents. The results indicate that additional recovery time in fresh water is necessary between some treatments and exposure to salt water.

  14. Fate of rising CO{sub 2} droplets in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Youxue Zhang

    2005-10-01

    The sequestration of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean has been discussed by a number of workers, and direct ocean experiments have been carried out to investigate the fate of rising CO{sub 2} droplets in seawater. However, no applicable theoretical models have been developed to calculate the dissolution rate of rising CO{sub 2} droplets with or without hydrate shells. Such models are important for the evaluation of the fate of CO{sub 2} injected into oceans. Here, the author adapts a convective dissolution model to investigate the dynamics and kinetics of a single rising CO{sub 2} droplet (or noninteracting CO{sub 2} droplets) in seawater. The model has no free parameters; all of the required parameters are independently available from literature. The input parameters include: the initial depth, the initial size of the droplet, the temperature as a function of depth, density of CO{sub 2} liquid, the solubility of CO{sub 2} liquid or hydrate, the diffusivity of CO{sub 2}, and viscosity of seawater. The effect of convection in enhancing mass transfer is treated using relations among dimensionless numbers. The calculated dissolution rate for CO{sub 2} droplets with a hydrate shell agrees with data in the literature. The theory can be used to explore the fate of CO{sub 2} injected into oceans under various temperature and pressure conditions. 28 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Fate of rising CO2 droplets in seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youxue

    2005-10-01

    The sequestration of fossil fuel CO2 in the deep ocean has been discussed by a number of workers, and direct ocean experiments have been carried out to investigate the fate of rising CO2 droplets in seawater. However, no applicable theoretical models have been developed to calculate the dissolution rate of rising CO2 droplets with or without hydrate shells. Such models are important for the evaluation of the fate of CO2 injected into oceans. Here, I adapt a convective dissolution model to investigate the dynamics and kinetics of a single rising CO2 droplet (or noninteracting CO2 droplets) in seawater. The model has no free parameters; all of the required parameters are independently available from literature. The input parameters include: the initial depth, the initial size of the droplet, the temperature as a function of depth, density of CO2 liquid, the solubility of CO2 liquid or hydrate, the diffusivity of CO2, and viscosity of seawater. The effect of convection in enhancing mass transfer is treated using relations among dimensionless numbers. The calculated dissolution rate for CO2 droplets with a hydrate shell agrees with data in the literature. The theory can be used to explore the fate of CO2 injected into oceans under various temperature and pressure conditions.

  16. Marshes on the Move: Testing effects of seawater intrusion on ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Northeastern United States is a hotspot for sea level rise (SLR), subjecting coastal salt marshes to erosive loss, shifts in vegetation communities, and altered biogeochemistry due to seawater intrusion. Salt marsh plant community zonation is driven by tradeoffs in stress tolerance and interspecific interactions. As seawater inundates progressively higher marsh elevations, shifts in marsh vegetation communities landward may herald salt marsh “migration”, which could allow continuity of marsh function and ecosystem service provision. To elucidate possible effects of seawater intrusion on marsh-upland edge plant communities, a space-for-time approach was replicated at two Rhode Island salt marshes. At each site, peat blocks (0.5 m x 0.5 m x 0.5 m, n=6) with intact upland-marsh edge vegetation were transplanted downslope into the regularly-inundated mid-marsh. Procedural controls (n=3) were established at each elevation by removing and replacing peat blocks, and natural controls (n=3) consisted of undisturbed plots. During peak productivity, each plot was assessed for species composition, percent cover and average height. Results demonstrate stunting of marsh-upland edge vegetation in response to increased inundation, and the beginnings of colonization of the transplanted plots by salt marsh species. The extent of colonization differed between the two sites, suggesting that site-specific factors govern vegetation responses to increased inundation.

  17. Why do local communities support or oppose seawater desalination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza Ordshahi, B.; Heck, N.; Faraola, S.; Paytan, A.; Haddad, B.; Potts, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater shortages have become a global problem due to increasing water consumption and environmental changes which are reducing the reliability of traditional water resources. One option to address water shortages in coastal areas is the use of seawater desalination. Desalination technology is particularly valued for the production of high quality drinking water and consistent production. However, seawater desalination is controversial due to potential environmental, economic, and societal impacts and lack of public support for this water supply method. Compared to alternative potable water production methods, such as water recycling, little is known about public attitudes towards seawater desalination and factors that shape local support or rejection. Our research addresses this gap and explores variables that influence support for proposed desalination plants in the Monterey Bay region, where multiple facilities have been proposed in recent years. Data was collected via a questionnaire-based survey among a random sample of coastal residents and marine stakeholders between June-July, 2016. Findings of the study identify the influence of socio-demographic variables, knowledge about desalination, engagement in marine activities, perception of the environmental context, and the existence of a National Marine Sanctuary on local support. Research outcome provide novel insights into public attitudes towards desalination and enhances our understanding of why communities might support or reject this water supply technology.

  18. Effects of drinking desalinated seawater on cell viability and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Macarrão, Camila Longhi; Bachi, André Luis Lacerda; Mariano, Mario; Abel, Lucia Jamli

    2017-06-01

    Desalination of seawater is becoming an important means to address the increasing scarcity of freshwater resources in the world. Seawater has been used as drinking water in the health, food, and medical fields and various beneficial effects have been suggested, although not confirmed. Given the presence of 63 minerals and trace elements in drinking desalinated seawater (63 DSW), we evaluated their effects on the behavior of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that cell viability and proliferation in the presence of 63 DSW were significantly greater than in mineral water and in the presence of fetal bovine serum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 63 DSW showed no toxic effect on murine embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and murine melanoma (B16-F10) cells. In another assay, we also showed that pre-treatment of non-adherent THP-1 cells with 63 DSW reduces apoptosis incidence, suggesting a protective effect against cell death. We conclude that cell viability and proliferation were improved by the mineral components of 63 DSW and this effect can guide further studies on health effects associated with DSW consumption.

  19. Strontium isotopic variations of Neoproterozoic seawater - Implications for crustal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmerom, Yemane; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Butterfield, Nicholas J.; Swett, Keene

    1991-01-01

    High-precision Sr isotopic data were obtained on carbonate samples from the Neoproterozoic Shaler Group, Victoria Island (Canada). Results indicate that, between ca. 790 and 850 Ma, the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of seawater varied betweeen 0.70676 and 0.70561, with the minimum value at about 830 Ma. A curve of the Sr-87/Sr-86 seawater ratio vs. age showed that the new data substantially improve the existing isotopic record of Sr in seawater for the period 790-850 Ma. The Sr isotopic system data were coupled with data for the Nd isotopic system to model changes in the seafloor spreading rates (hydrothermal flux) and the continental erosion for the period 500-900 Ma. Results indicate that hydrothermal flux reached a maximum value at ca. 830 Ma, while a maximum in erosion rate occurred at ca. 570 Ma. These peaks are considered to be related to the developments in the Pan-African and related orogenic events.

  20. Constitutive modeling of calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Martina; Sousa, Maria De Fátima; Bertran, Celso; Bassi, Adalberto

    2014-11-01

    Calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixtures have attracted attention of many researchers since the deposition of CaCO3(s) from such solutions can lead to scaling problems in oil fields. However, despite their evident practical importance in petroleum engineering, the hydro and thermodynamic behaviors of these mixtures have not been well-understood yet. In this work, a constitutive model based on the foundations of the constitutive theory of continuum mechanics, and the Müller-Liu entropy principle is proposed. The calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixture is regarded as a reactive viscous fluid with heat and electrical conductions. The obtained results indicate that the thermodynamic behavior of CaCO3 supersaturated seawater mixtures is closely related to the individual dynamics of each constituent of the mixture, particularly to the linear momentum, and mass exchanges. Furthermore, the results show that, unlike classical continuum mixtures, the extra entropy flux is not null, and higher-order gradients of deformation contribute to the residual entropy production of the class of mixtures under study. The results of this work may be relevant for the prevention of the mineral scale formation in oil fields. The first author acknowledges the São Paulo Research Foundation (Grant 2013/ 20872-2) for its funding.

  1. Strontium isotopic variations of Neoproterozoic seawater - Implications for crustal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmerom, Yemane; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Butterfield, Nicholas J.; Swett, Keene

    1991-01-01

    High-precision Sr isotopic data were obtained on carbonate samples from the Neoproterozoic Shaler Group, Victoria Island (Canada). Results indicate that, between ca. 790 and 850 Ma, the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of seawater varied betweeen 0.70676 and 0.70561, with the minimum value at about 830 Ma. A curve of the Sr-87/Sr-86 seawater ratio vs. age showed that the new data substantially improve the existing isotopic record of Sr in seawater for the period 790-850 Ma. The Sr isotopic system data were coupled with data for the Nd isotopic system to model changes in the seafloor spreading rates (hydrothermal flux) and the continental erosion for the period 500-900 Ma. Results indicate that hydrothermal flux reached a maximum value at ca. 830 Ma, while a maximum in erosion rate occurred at ca. 570 Ma. These peaks are considered to be related to the developments in the Pan-African and related orogenic events.

  2. Turbidity study of solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nan; Sun, Wence; Shi, Yufeng; Yin, Fang; Zhang, Caihong

    2010-02-15

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the turbidity reduction in solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source. The experiment on the turbidity reduction efficiency with chemicals indicates that alum (KAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O) has a better turbidity control property because of its strongly flocculating and also well depressing the growing of algae and bacteria in the seawater. In comparison with bittern and seawater, our experiment shows that the residual brine after desalination can keep limpidity for a long time even without any chemical in it. Experiments were also conducted on the diffusion of turbidity and salinity, which show that the turbidity did not diffuse upwards in the solution. In the experiment on subsidence of soil in the bittern and saline with the same salinity, it was found that soil subsided quite quickly in the pure saline water, but very slowly in the bittern. In this paper we also proposed an economical method to protect the solar pond from the damage of rain. Finally, thermal performance of a solar pond was simulated in the conditions of different turbidities using a thermal diffusion model. (author)

  3. Identification of Corrosion Products Due to Seawater and Fresh Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gismelseed, A.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A.; Al Rawas, A.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Widatallah, H.; Rais, A.

    2004-12-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed on corrosion products extracted from the inner surface of two different metal tubes used in a desalination plant in Oman. One of the tubes corroded due to the seawater while the second was corroded due to fresh water. The corrosion products thus resulted due to seawater were scrapped off in to two layers, the easily removable rust from the top is termed outer surface corrosion product and the strongly adhered rust as internal corrosion product. The Mössbauer spectra together with the XRD pattern of the outer surface showed the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (Fe2O3). The inner surface however showed the presence of akaganite, goethite, and magnetite. On the other hand, the corrosion products due to the fresh water showed only the presence of goethite and magnetite. The mechanism of the corrosion process will be discussed based on the significant differences between the formation of the iron components of the corrosion products due to seawater and the fresh water.

  4. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  5. Uranium from seawater research. Final progress report, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Borzekowski, J.; Driscoll, M.J.; Best, F.R.

    1982-09-01

    During the FY 1982 campaign 14 new ion exchange resin formulations, prepared by the Rohm and Haas Company, were tested by MIT at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The best of these chelating resins was again of the acrylic amidoxime type; it picked up approximately 100 ppM uranium in seven days' exposure to seawater, which represents a factor of better than two improvement over the seven-day results for the best FY 1981 candidate (which saturated at roughly 100 ppM U after 30 days' exposure). Saturation was not reached and, within experimental accuracy, uranium accumulated at a constant rate over the seven-day period; it is speculated that a useful capacity of over 300 ppM U would be achieved. All resins of the styrenic amidoxime type were found to be an order of magnitude lower in their effective capacity for uranium in seawater than the best of the acrylic forms. Particle size effects, which were found to be less than expected from theoretical computations of both fluid and solid side mass transfer resistance, can not account for this difference. Scanning electron microscope examination by R and H scientists of ion exchange resin beads from beds subjected to seawater flow for 30 days in MIT's WHOI columns showed that the internal pores of the macro-reticular-type resins become filled with debris (of undetermined nature and effect) during exposure.

  6. Using bioassays for testing seawater quality in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kungolos, A; Samaras, P; Koutseris, E

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this work was the assessment of seawater quality in Thermaikos Gulf, Pagassitikos Gulf and Skiathos island in Northern Aegean Sea by the use of bioassays. Two bioassays using marine organisms as indicators of seawater quality were applied in this study; the invertebrate Artemia franciscana and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution, as physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms. According to the result of this study, improvement in coastal water quality of Thermaikos Gulf was observed between September 1997 and April-May 2000. However, coastal water quality of Pagassitikos Gulf varied during the test period; it was generally good during April-May 2000, while in October 1999 it was generally poor. Between the two bioassays that have been applied in this study, the Microtox test, where the marine bacterium V. fischeri was used as a test organism, was more sensitive in detecting toxicity in seawater.

  7. Misleading reconstruction of seawater intrusion via integral depth sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, N.; Volta, G.; Osti, A.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2016-05-01

    Saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is an urgent issue for the actual and future groundwater supply and a detailed characterization of groundwater quality with depth is a fundamental prerequisite to correctly distinguish salinization processes. In this study, interpolated Cl- maps of the Po River delta coastal aquifer (Italy), gained with Integrated Depth Sampling (IDS) and Multi-Level Sampling (MLS) techniques, are compared. The data set used to build up the IDS and MLS interpolated Cl- maps come from numerous monitoring campaigns on surface and ground waters, covering the time frame from 2010 to 2014. The IDS interpolated Cl- map recalls the phenomenon of actual seawater intrusion, with Cl- concentration never exceeding that of seawater and the absence of hypersaline groundwater all over the study area. On the contrary, in the MLS interpolated Cl- maps the lower portion of the unconfined aquifer presents hypersaline groundwater making it necessary to consider salinization processes other than actual seawater intrusion, like upward flux from a saline aquitard. Results demonstrate the obligation of using MLS in reconstructing a reliable representation of the distribution of salinity, especially in areas where the density contrast between fresh and saline groundwater is large. Implications of the reported field case are not limited to the local situation but have a wider significance, since the IDS technique is often employed in saltwater intrusion monitoring even in recent works, with detrimental effect on the sustainable water resource management of coastal aquifers.

  8. Assessment of regional management strategies for controlling seawater intrusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-optimization methods, applied with adequate sensitivity tests, can provide useful quantitative guidance for controlling seawater intrusion. This is demonstrated in an application to the West Coast Basin of coastal Los Angeles that considers two management options for improving hydraulic control of seawater intrusion: increased injection into barrier wells and in lieu delivery of surface water to replace current pumpage. For the base-case optimization analysis, assuming constant groundwater demand, in lieu delivery was determined to be most cost effective. Reduced-cost information from the optimization provided guidance for prioritizing locations for in lieu delivery. Model sensitivity to a suite of hydrologic, economic, and policy factors was tested. Raising the imposed average water-level constraint at the hydraulic-control locations resulted in nonlinear increases in cost. Systematic varying of the relative costs of injection and in lieu water yielded a trade-off curve between relative costs and injection/in lieu amounts. Changing the assumed future scenario to one of increasing pumpage in the adjacent Central Basin caused a small increase in the computed costs of seawater intrusion control. Changing the assumed boundary condition representing interaction with an adjacent basin did not affect the optimization results. Reducing the assumed hydraulic conductivity of the main productive aquifer resulted in a large increase in the model-computed cost. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management ?? ASCE.

  9. Mercury isotope signatures of seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haiying; Peng, Jingji; Yuan, Dongxing; Lu, Bingyan; Lin, Kunning; Huang, Shuyuan

    2016-07-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (SFGD) systems are commonly used to remove acidic SO2 from the flue gas with alkaline seawater in many coastal coal-fired power plants in China. However, large amount of mercury (Hg) originated from coal is also transferred into seawater during the desulfurization (De-SO2) process. This research investigated Hg isotopes in seawater discharged from a coastal plant equipped with a SFGD system for the first time. Suspended particles of inorganic minerals, carbon residuals and sulfides are enriched in heavy Hg isotopes during the De-SO2 process. δ(202)Hg of particulate mercury (PHg) gradually decreased from -0.30‰ to -1.53‰ in study sea area as the distance from the point of discharge increased. The results revealed that physical mixing of contaminated De-SO2 seawater and uncontaminated fresh seawater caused a change in isotopic composition of PHg isotopes in the discharging area; and suggested that both De-SO2 seawater and local background contributed to PHg. The impacted sea area predicted with isotopic tracing technique was much larger than that resulted from a simple comparison of pollutant concentration. It was the first attempt to apply mercury isotopic composition signatures with two-component mixing model to trace the mercury pollution and its influence in seawater. The results could be beneficial to the coal-fired plants with SFGD systems to assess and control Hg pollution in sea area.

  10. An experimental investigation of barite formation in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshram, Raja S.; François, Roger; Commeau, Judy; Brown-Leger, Susan L.

    2003-07-01

    We report results from time-series decay and sequential leaching experiments of laboratory cultured and coastal plankton to elucidate the mechanisms controlling barite formation in seawater. Batch-cultured diatoms ( Stephanopyxis palmerina) and coccolithophorids ( Emiliania huxleyi) were let to decay in the dark for 8-10 weeks, suspended in aerated seawater. The development of barite crystals was monitored by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A similar experiment was conducted with plankton collected during the spring-bloom in Vineyard Sound (MA). In addition to SEM, suspended particles were sequentially leached for Ba (distilled water rinse; 10% (v/v) HNO 3 rinse at room temperature; 30% (v/v) HCl at 80°C overnight; 50% (v/v) HNO 3 at 80°C overnight) immediately after collection, and after 10-week decay in seawater, in seawater poisoned with HgCl 2, and in seawater spiked with 135Ba. Both experiments showed an increase in the number of barite crystals during decay. The spring-bloom plankton had initially a large pool of labile Ba, soluble in distilled water and cold dilute HNO 3 that was lost from the plankton after 10-week decay in both axenic and nonaxenic conditions. In contrast, Ba in the decayed plankton samples was predominantly in forms extracted by hot HCl and hot HNO 3 acids, which were attributed to presence of barite Ba and refractory organic Ba respectively. The increase in barite crystal counts under a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the increase in HCl extractable Ba relative to organic carbon, and the loss of a large fraction of Ba during plankton decay suggest that living plankton consists of a relatively large pool of labile Ba, which is rapidly released during plankton decomposition and acts as the main source of Ba for barite formation in supersaturated microenvironments. Since mass balance indicates that only a small proportion (2 to 4%) of the labile-Ba pool is converted to barite, the availability of microenvironments that could

  11. Do Leached Authigenic Fractions Reflect the Neodymium Seawater Composition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimbert, A.; Gourlan, A. T.; Chauvel, C.

    2016-12-01

    Leaching of marine sediment is often used to recover past Nd seawater composition and reconstruct past ocean circulation. It is assumed to reliably extract REE from the authigenic fraction of sediment [1]. However, while most studies assume that the recovered signal is that of past seawater, very few report complete isotopic and trace element data that clearly demonstrate it is the case. We present new ɛNd values and REE contents measured on leachates of sediments from two Cretaceous marine sections deposited at shallow water depth (Taghazoute in Morocco) and at greater depth in the Atlantic (DSDP Site 367). REE patterns of leachates vary according to lithology: bell-shaped patterns or positive Ce anomalies for organic-poor samples and seawater-like patterns (negative Ce anomaly, low Nd/Yb ratio) for black shales. ɛNd values also vary: between -5.6 and -9.6 at Taghazoute and between -10 and -8.1 at Site 367. Interestingly, ɛNd values correlate with Ce anomalies for Taghazoute black shales. Samples with the largest Ce negative anomalies have the highest ɛNd while samples with no Ce anomalies have much lower ɛNd. This suggests the presence in the leached material of detritus mixed up with the authigenic fraction for sediments deposited in shallow environment. This confirms the findings made by Huck et al. [2] for fish teeth in a similar environment. In such environment, recovering the pristine seawater signal requires (a) the acquisition of both Nd isotopes and trace element contents, and (b) selection of the only Nd isotopic compositions associated to clear seawater trace element characteristics. For sediments deposited in open-ocean setting (Site 367), no detrital contamination affects leached fractions. The REE patterns vary depending on the nature of authigenic fraction but ɛNd remains constant. Here, ɛNd values can be used to discuss oceanic reconstructions. [1] Martin et al. (2010), Chem. Geol, 269, 414-431. [2] Huck et al. (2016), G3, 17, 679-698.

  12. An experimental investigation of barite formation in seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganeshram, R.S.; Francois, R.; Commeau, J.; Brown-Leger, S. L.

    2003-01-01

    We report results from time-series decay and sequential leaching experiments of laboratory cultured and coastal plankton to elucidate the mechanisms controlling barite formation in seawater. Batch-cultured diatoms ( Stephanopyxis palmerina ) and coccolithophorids (Emiliania huxleyi) were let to decay in the dark for 8-10 weeks, suspended in aerated seawater. The development of barite crystals was monitored by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A similar experiment was conducted with plankton collected during the spring-bloom in Vineyard Sound (MA). In addition to SEM, suspended particles were sequentially leached for Ba (distilled water rinse; 10% (v/v) HNO3 rinse at room temperature; 30% (v/v) HCl at 80??C overnight; 50% (v/v) HNO3 at 80??C overnight) immediately after collection, and after 10-week decay in seawater, in seawater poisoned with HgCl2, and in seawater spiked with 135Ba. Both experiments showed an increase in the number of barite crystals during decay. The spring-bloom plankton had initially a large pool of labile Ba, soluble in distilled water and cold dilute HNO3 that was lost from the plankton after 10-week decay in both axenic and nonaxenic conditions. In contrast, Ba in the decayed plankton samples was predominantly in forms extracted by hot HCl and hot HNO3 acids, which were attributed to presence of barite Ba and refractory organic Ba respectively. The increase in barite crystal counts under a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the increase in HCl extractable Ba relative to organic carbon, and the loss of a large fraction of Ba during plankton decay suggest that living plankton consists of a relatively large pool of labile Ba, which is rapidly released during plankton decomposition and acts as the main source of Ba for barite formation in supersaturated microenvironments. Since mass balance indicates that only a small proportion (2 to 4%) of the labile-Ba pool is converted to barite, the availability of microenvironments that could locally

  13. Planktic foraminifera shell chemistry response to seawater chemistry: Pliocene-Pleistocene seawater Mg/Ca, temperature and sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David; Brierley, Chris; Raymo, Maureen E.; Erez, Jonathan; Müller, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Foraminifera Mg/Ca paleothermometry forms the basis of a substantial portion of ocean temperature reconstruction over the last 5 Ma. Furthermore, coupled Mg/Ca-oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements of benthic foraminifera can constrain eustatic sea level (ESL) independent of paleo-shoreline derived approaches. However, this technique suffers from uncertainty regarding the secular variation of the Mg/Ca seawater ratio (Mg/Casw) on timescales of millions of years. Here we present coupled seawater-test Mg/Ca-temperature laboratory calibrations of Globigerinoides ruber in order to test the widely held assumptions that (1) seawater-test Mg/Ca co-vary linearly, and (2) the Mg/Ca-temperature sensitivity remains constant with changing Mg/Casw. We find a nonlinear Mg/Catest-Mg/Casw relationship and a lowering of the Mg/Ca-temperature sensitivity at lower than modern Mg/Casw from 9.0% °C-1 at Mg/Casw = 5.2 mol mol-1 to 7.5 ± 0.9% °C-1 at 3.4 mol mol-1. Using our calibrations to more accurately calculate the offset between Mg/Ca and biomarker-derived paleotemperatures for four sites, we derive a Pliocene Mg/Casw ratio of ∼4.3 mol mol-1. This Mg/Casw implies Pliocene ocean temperature 0.9-1.9 °C higher than previously reported and, by extension, ESL ∼30 m lower compared to when one assumes that Pliocene Mg/Casw is the same as at present. Correcting existing benthic foraminifera datasets for Mg/Casw indicates that deep water source composition must have changed through time, therefore seawater oxygen isotope reconstructions relative to present day cannot be used to directly reconstruct Pliocene ESL.

  14. Seawater fluid inclusions preserved within Cambrian-Ordovician marine cements indicate Cambrian-Ordovician seawater precipitated low-magnesium calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.J.; Goldstein, R.H. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The San Saba Member of the Wilberns Formation (Llano Uplift, Texas) contains a series of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician hardgrounds. Bladed low-Mg calcite cements are truncated at hardground surfaces and overlain by shallow marine limestones, indicating a syndepositional shallow marine origin. Primary one-phase fluid inclusions within bladed cements have marine salinities, suggesting that these low-Mg calcite cements formed as a precipitate from Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician seawater and have not undergone recrystallization. Stable isotope analysis of the bladed cement yields delta O-18 values that cluster between [minus]5.6--[minus]6.0 ([per thousand] PDB) which is comparable to those previously reported for Early Ordovician marine calcite. The delta C-13 values are more positive than those reported for this time interval (0.6--1.3 [per thousand] PDB). Trace element analysis indicates that strontium content ranges from 200 to 2,200 ppm. Iron ranges from below detection by electron microprobe to 800 ppm. Mg is generally below detection, however, cements in one hardground display Mg contents that increase progressively toward pore centers. Trace element data lack covariance that would suggest recrystallization. In addition, closed system recrystallization cannot be supported here due to a lack of microdolomite inclusions. Stable isotope, trace element, and fluid inclusion data are consistent with submarine cementation at or below the sediment-water interface. These cements have not undergone significant recrystallization and preserve a primary low Mg calcite mineralogy. These data suggest that early Paleozoic seawater differed chemically from modern seawater. Moreover, preservation of ancient seawater, within fluid inclusions, may provide a direct means of determining those differences.

  15. Seawater pH at the advent of metazoan calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Justin; Gonzalez-Roubaud, Cécile; Douville, Eric; Montagna, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of bulk limestones provides a potentially powerful tool for reconstructing seawater pH deep into the geologic past (Kasemann et al., 2005; Paris et al., 2010; Ohnemueller et al., 2014). Here, we present δ11B of 35 calcitic limestones derived from a ca. 9 m.y. interval of the terminal Proterozoic Nama Group of southern Namibia. These units immediately precede the so-called Cambrian Radiation - the greatest diversification of metazoans in Earth history marked by the near-simultaneous advent of calcification across most animal phyla. The Nama Group represents one of the best preserved (average [Sr] = 1805 ppm; Mn/Sr < 2; δ18O > -10‰) and most continuous terminal Proterozoic limestone sequences known in the world. The carbonate units investigated here were deposited between ca. 552 and 543 Ma in a semi-divided foreland basin of the Kalahari Craton (Grotzinger and Miller, 2008). Depositional environments were shore-associated and ranged from upper shoreline/tidal flats to below-wave-base lower shoreface, and comprise calcisiltites, calcarenites, heterolithic interbeds, grainstones, and microbialites (Saylor et al., 1998; Grotzinger and Miller, 2008). The δ11B of the 35 sampled Nama Group carbonates were obtained via MC-ICP-MS. Samples were screened for contamination of the δ11B signal by clays (using [Al] as a proxy for clay content) (Paris et al., 2010) and by open-system meteoric diagenesis (δ11B-δ18O correlation). The δ11B values of the limestones ranged from 0.5 to 10.8‰ (avg. = 5.3‰), which is consistent with the previously observed increasing trend in carbonate δ11B (Paris et al., 2010) from the -6.2 to 2.7‰ values reported for Neoproterozoic cap carbonate dolostones (Kasemann et al., 2005) to the ca. 25‰ value reported for most modern marine carbonates. B/Ca ratios for the sampled limestones ranged from 3.4 to 24.0 ppm (avg. = 11.0). Assuming a seawater temperature of 25° C, a salinity of 35, a depth of 10

  16. Endothelial Semaphorin 7A Promotes Inflammation in Seawater Aspiration-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minlong; Wang, Li; Dong, Mingqing; Li, Zhichao; Jin, Faguang

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Although several studies have shown that Semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) promotes inflammation, there are limited reports regarding immunological function of SEMA7A in seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Therefore, we investigated the role of SEMA7A during seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were underwent seawater instillation. Then, lung samples were collected at an indicated time for analysis. In addition, rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVECs) were cultured and then stimulated with 25% seawater for indicated time point. After these treatments, cells samples were collected for analysis. In vivo, seawater instillation induced lung histopathologic changes, pro-inflammation cytokines release and increased expression of SEMA7A. In vitro, seawater stimulation led to pro-inflammation cytokine release, cytoskeleton remodeling and increased monolayer permeability in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α inhibited the seawater induced increase expression of SEMA7A. Meanwhile, knockdown of SEMA7A by specific siRNA inhibited the seawater induced aberrant inflammation, endothelial cytoskeleton remodeling and endothelial permeability. These results suggest that SEMA7A is critical in the development of lung inflammation and pulmonary edema in seawater aspiration-induced ALI, and may be a therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:25353180

  17. Factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chuanji; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Brudecki, Grzegorz P; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2017-09-01

    Seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an innovative process at research stage. With respect to process optimization, factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues were studied for the first time in this paper. Pretreatment temperature (180°C-210°C), salinity of seawater (0ppt-50ppt), and catalysts (H2SO4, Na2CO3, and NaOH) were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment temperature exerted the largest influence on seawater-based pretreatment in terms of the enzymatic digestibility and fermentability of pretreated solids, and the inhibition of pretreatment liquids to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Salinity showed the least impact to seawater-based pretreatment, which widens the application spectrum of saline water sources such as brines discharged in desalination plant. Sulfuric acid was the most effective catalyst for seawater-based pretreatment compared with Na2CO3 and NaOH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Strontium isotopic variations of Neoproterozoic seawater: implications for crustal evolution.

    PubMed

    Asmerom, Y; Jacobsen, S B; Knoll, A H; Butterfield, N J; Swett, K

    1991-01-01

    We report high precision Sr isotopic data on carbonates from the Neoproterozoic Shaler Group, Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Lithostratigraphic correlations with the relatively well-dated Mackenzie Mountains Supergroup constrain Shaler deposition to approximately 770-880 Ma, a range corroborated by 723 +/- 3 Ma lavas that disconformably overlie Shaler carbonates and by Late Riphean microfossils within the section. Samples with low 87Rb/86Sr ratios (<0.01) were selected for Sr isotopic analysis. Delta 18O, Mn, Ca, Mg, and Sr data were used to recognize altered samples. The altered samples are characterized by high Mn/Sr (> or = 2) and variable delta 18O; most are dolomites. The data indicate that between ca. 790-850 Ma the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater varied between 0.70676 and 0.70561. The samples show smooth and systematic variation, with the lowest 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70561 at ca. 830 Ma. The low 87Sr/86Sr ratio of carbonates from the lower parts of our section is similar to a value reported for one sample from the Adrar of Mauritania (approximately 900 Ma), West African Craton. Isotopic ratios from the upper part of the Shaler section are identical to values from the lower part of the Neoproterozoic Akademikerbreen Group, Spitsbergen. Although a paucity of absolute age determinations hinders attempts at the precise correlation of Neoproterozoic successions, it is possible to draw a broad outline of the Sr isotopic composition of seawater for this period. Indeed, the Sr isotope data themselves provide a stratigraphic tool of considerable potential. Data from this study and the literature are used to construct a curve of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of Neoproterozoic seawater. The new data reported in this study substantially improve the isotopic record of Sr in seawater for the period 790-850 Ma. The Sr isotope composition of seawater reflects primarily the balance between continental Sr input through river input and mantle input via hydrothermal

  19. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AF Series Adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Chris J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new family of high-surface-area polyethylene fiber adsorbents named the AF series was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series adsorbents were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/comonomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154-354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with sodium-based synthetic aqueous solution, spiked with 8 ppm uranium. The uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170 to 200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/comonomer molar ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through column experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning times at 80 °C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1 and 3 h of KOH conditioning at 80 °C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 1 to 3 h at 80 °C resulted in a 22-27% decrease in uranium adsorption capacity in seawater.

  20. Enteric neuroplasticity in seawater-adapted European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Sorteni, C; Clavenzani, P; De Giorgio, R; Portnoy, O; Sirri, R; Mordenti, O; Di Biase, A; Parmeggiani, A; Menconi, V; Chiocchetti, R

    2014-02-01

    European eels live most of their lives in freshwater until spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea. During seawater adaptation, eels modify their physiology, and their digestive system adapts to the new environment, drinking salt water to compensate for the continuous water loss. In that period, eels stop feeding until spawning. Thus, the eel represents a unique model to understand the adaptive changes of the enteric nervous system (ENS) to modified salinity and starvation. To this purpose, we assessed and compared the enteric neuronal density in the cranial portion of the intestine of freshwater eels (control), lagoon eels captured in brackish water before their migration to the Sargasso Sea (T0), and starved seawater eels hormonally induced to sexual maturity (T18; 18 weeks of starvation and treatment with standardized carp pituitary extract). Furthermore, we analyzed the modification of intestinal neuronal density of hormonally untreated eels during prolonged starvation (10 weeks) in seawater and freshwater. The density of myenteric (MP) and submucosal plexus (SMP) HuC/D-immunoreactive (Hu-IR) neurons was assessed in wholemount preparations and cryosections. The number of MP and SMP HuC/D-IR neurons progressively increased from the freshwater to the salty water habitat (control > T0 > T18; P < 0.05). Compared with freshwater eels, the number of MP and SMP HuC/D-IR neurons significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of starved untreated salt water eels. In conclusion, high salinity evokes enteric neuroplasticity as indicated by the increasing number of HuC/D-IR MP and SMP neurons, a mechanism likely contributing to maintaining the body homeostasis of this fish in extreme conditions.

  1. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Wai, Chien; Tian, Guoxin; Janke, Christopher

    2014-05-29

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  2. A seawater desalination scheme for global hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, Naota; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Kakinuma, Kaoru; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-10-01

    Seawater desalination is a practical technology for providing fresh water to coastal arid regions. Indeed, the use of desalination is rapidly increasing due to growing water demand in these areas and decreases in production costs due to technological advances. In this study, we developed a model to estimate the areas where seawater desalination is likely to be used as a major water source and the likely volume of production. The model was designed to be incorporated into global hydrological models (GHMs) that explicitly include human water usage. The model requires spatially detailed information on climate, income levels, and industrial and municipal water use, which represent standard input/output data in GHMs. The model was applied to a specific historical year (2005) and showed fairly good reproduction of the present geographical distribution and national production of desalinated water in the world. The model was applied globally to two periods in the future (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) under three distinct socioeconomic conditions, i.e., SSP (shared socioeconomic pathway) 1, SSP2, and SSP3. The results indicate that the usage of seawater desalination will have expanded considerably in geographical extent, and that production will have increased by 1.4-2.1-fold in 2011-2040 compared to the present (from 2.8 × 109 m3 yr-1 in 2005 to 4.0-6.0 × 109 m3 yr-1), and 6.7-17.3-fold in 2041-2070 (from 18.7 to 48.6 × 109 m3 yr-1). The estimated global costs for production for each period are USD 1.1-10.6 × 109 (0.002-0.019 % of the total global GDP), USD 1.6-22.8 × 109 (0.001-0.020 %), and USD 7.5-183.9 × 109 (0.002-0.100 %), respectively. The large spreads in these projections are primarily attributable to variations within the socioeconomic scenarios.

  3. Environmental fate of the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione in seawater.

    PubMed

    Grunnet, Katja S; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2005-12-01

    To perform a thorough risk assessment of the new antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (ZnPT2), additional information regarding the fate of the compound is needed. The present study examined the recovery and transchelation of ZnPT2 in controlled laboratory experiments, photodegradation experiments, and a fate study in a large-scale field experiment. Chemical analyses were performed using a newly developed method for simultaneous analyses of ZnPT2 and copper pyrithione (CuPT2). Furthermore, two antifouling paints containing ZnPT2 were examined for the fate of leaching biocide. Naturally occurring ligands and metals in seawater influence the stability of ZnPT2. The presence of free Cu2+, which is present naturally in the seawater or is released from copper-containing paints, results in a partial transchelation of ZnPT2 into CuPT2. A complete transchelation of ZnPT2 into CuPT2 was observed when Cu2+ was present at an equimolar concentration in the absence of interfering ligands. When ZnPT2 was leached from antifouling paints containing both ZnPT2 and Cu2O, CuPT2 was found, with no trace of ZnPT2. Photodegradation was low in natural waters and absent from 1 m or more below the surface. The results show that ZnPT2 has a low persistence in seawater when leached from antifouling paints. However, the more stable and toxic transchelation product CuPT2 is formed, which has the potential to accumulate in the sediments and, therefore, should be included in both chemical analysis and risk assessment of ZPT2.

  4. Are seawater Sr/Ca variations preserved in Quaternary foraminifera?

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, H.M.; Schrag, D.P.; Clemens, S.C.

    1999-11-01

    High precision measurements of Sr/Ca in planktonic foraminifera for the last 150 ka reveal Sr/Ca variations of up to 12% on glacial/interglacial time scales. Although records showing the largest variations appear to be strongly influenced by selective dissolution, other records show Sr/Ca variations of 3--5% that do not covary with indicators of dissolution intensity and that are reproduced in sites of contrasting Quaternary dissolution histories. These systematic variations are characterized by high Sr/Ca ratios during glacial maxima, followed by steep decreases during deglaciation and gradual increases through interstadial periods, closely following {delta}{sup 18}O curves. Foraminiferal Sr/Ca variations may reflect changes in the Sr/Ca ratio of seawater, or they may be due to kinetically or biologically induced changes in Sr partitioning. Coupled numerical models of the Sr and Ca budgets of the ocean reveal that sea level changes, together with large changes in river fluxes and carbonate accumulation rates, can produce seawater Sr/Ca variations that approximate both the shape and amplitude of foraminiferal Sr/Ca variations. However, such extreme changes in river and carbonate fluxes conflict with existing data on carbonate accumulation rates and Sr isotopic constraints on the magnitude of variations in the river flux. Smaller variations (1--3%) in the Sr/Ca ratio of seawater likely characterize Quaternary glacial cycles. Changes in Sr partitioning due to glacial-interglacial changes in the carbonate ion concentration and other environmental factors likely produce additional variation in the Sr/Ca record of planktonic foraminifera.

  5. The oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millero, Frank J.; Sotolongo, Sara; Izaguirre, Miguel

    1987-04-01

    The oxidation of Fe(II) has been studied as a function of pH (5 to 9), temperature (5 to 45°C), and salinity (0 to 35). The pseudo-first-order rate constant, k1, -d[Fe(II)]/dt = k 1[Fe(II)] in water and seawater was found to be a second degree function of pH over the pH range of 7.5 to 8.5 at 5°C and 6.0 to 8.0 at 25°C. The overall rate constant ( k) -d[Fe(II)]/dt = k[Fe(II)][O 2][OH -] 2 was determined from 5 to 45°C and S = 0 to 35. The results have been fit to an equation of the form ( T = 273.15 + t° C) log k = log k 0 - 3.29I 1/2 + 1.52I where logk0 = 21.56-1545/ T with a standard error = 0.09. The energy of activation for the overall rate constant in water and seawater was 29 ± 2 kJmol-1. The values of the rate constant for pure water ( k0) are in good agreement with literature data. The half times for seawater from some previous studies at a pH = 8.0 were slower than our results for Gulf Stream waters. Measurements on Biscayne Bay waters also yield slower half times apparently due to the presence of organic ligands that can complex Fe(II).

  6. Performance and flow characteristics of MHD seawater thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of the research is to investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the electrical and flow fields inside MHD thrusters. The results of this study is important in the assessment of the feasibility of MHD seawater propulsion for the Navy. To accomplish this goal a three-dimensional fluid flow computer model has been developed and applied to study the concept of MHD seawater propulsion. The effects of strong magnetic fields on the current and electric fields inside the MHD thruster and their interaction with the flow fields, particularly those in the boundary layers, have been investigated. The results of the three-dimensional computations indicate that the velocity profiles are flatter over the sidewalls of the thruster walls in comparison to the velocity profiles over the electrode walls. These nonuniformities in the flow fields give rise to nonuniform distribution of the skin friction along the walls of the thrusters, where higher values are predicted over the sidewalls relative to those over the electrode walls. Also, a parametric study has been performed using the three-dimensional MHD flow model to analyze the performance of continuous electrode seawater thrusters under different operating parameters. The effects of these parameters on the fluid flow characteristics, and on the thruster efficiency have been investigated. Those parameters include the magnetic field (10--20 T), thruster diameter, surface roughness, flow velocity, and the electric load factor. The results show also that the thruster performance improves with the strength of the magnetic field and thruster diameter, and the efficiency decreases with the flow velocity and surface roughness.

  7. Enhancement of Extraction of Uranium from Seawater – Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, Travis Cameron; Tsinas, Zois; Tomaszewski, Claire; Pazos, Ileana; Nigliazzo, Olga; Li, Weixing; Adel-Hadadi, Mohammad; Barkatt, Aaron; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad

    2016-05-16

    Even at a concentration of 3 μg/L, the world’s oceans contain a thousand times more uranium than currently know terrestrial sources. In order to take advantage of this stockpile, methods and materials must be developed to extract it efficiently, a difficult task considering the very low concentration of the element and the competition for extraction by other atoms in seawater such as sodium, calcium, and vanadium. The majority of current research on methods to extract uranium from seawater are vertical explorations of the grafting of amidoxime ligand, which was originally discovered and promoted by Japanese studies in the late 1980s. Our study expands on this research horizontally by exploring the effectiveness of novel uranium extraction ligands grafted to the surface of polymer substrates using radiation. Through this expansion, a greater understanding of uranium binding chemistry and radiation grafting effects on polymers has been obtained. While amidoxime-functionalized fabrics have been shown to have the greatest extraction efficiency so far, they suffer from an extensive chemical processing step which involves treatment with powerful basic solutions. Not only does this add to the chemical waste produced in the extraction process and add to the method’s complexity, but it also significantly impacts the regenerability of the amidoxime fabric. The approach of this project has been to utilize alternative, commercially available monomers capable of extracting uranium and containing a carbon-carbon double bond to allow it to be grafted using radiation, specifically phosphate, oxalate, and azo monomers. The use of commercially available monomers and radiation grafting with electron beam or gamma irradiation will allow for an easily scalable fabrication process once the technology has been optimized. The need to develop a cheap and reliable method for extracting uranium from seawater is extremely valuable to energy independence, and will extend the quantity of

  8. The Thermodynamics of the Carbonate System in Seawater,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-08

    Ionization constanm of boric acid and the pH of certain wasser. Rapp. P.-V. Reun. Cons. Perm. Int., Explor. Mer. borax -chloride buffer solutions from 0 to...a0 + a1/T + as In T. Equations of similar forms have been used to analyze the ionization constants for water and boric acid and the solubility product...reliable thermodynamic quantities (AlH an for boric and carbonic acid in seawater to determine yilreabetrmdn icqniis A ad the paraeteris ofn

  9. The Nd and Sr isotopic evolution of Proterozoic seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derry, Louis A.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-04-01

    Nd isotope measurements on banded iron formations and phosphorites, and Sr isotope measurements on carbonates, indicate that during both the Early and Late Proterozoic, hydrothermal input to the oceans was a significant fraction of the total input to ocean chemistry. Isotopic data from Early Proterozoic clastic sediments show systematic differences from coeval chemical sediments. These differences become less marked toward the end of the Proterozoic. This implies a higher hydrothermal water to river water flux ratio during the Early Proterozoic. The significant changes in seawater isotopic composition during the Proterozoic reflect the transition from mantle dominated Archean oceans to a typically modern system.

  10. Documentation of the seawater intrusion (SWI2) package for MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakker, Mark; Schaars, Frans; Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Dausman, Alyssa M.

    2013-01-01

    The SWI2 Package is the latest release of the Seawater Intrusion (SWI) Package for MODFLOW. The SWI2 Package allows three-dimensional vertically integrated variable-density groundwater flow and seawater intrusion in coastal multiaquifer systems to be simulated using MODFLOW-2005. Vertically integrated variable-density groundwater flow is based on the Dupuit approximation in which an aquifer is vertically discretized into zones of differing densities, separated from each other by defined surfaces representing interfaces or density isosurfaces. The numerical approach used in the SWI2 Package does not account for diffusion and dispersion and should not be used where these processes are important. The resulting differential equations are equivalent in form to the groundwater flow equation for uniform-density flow. The approach implemented in the SWI2 Package allows density effects to be incorporated into MODFLOW-2005 through the addition of pseudo-source terms to the groundwater flow equation without the need to solve a separate advective-dispersive transport equation. Vertical and horizontal movement of defined density surfaces is calculated separately using a combination of fluxes calculated through solution of the groundwater flow equation and a simple tip and toe tracking algorithm. Use of the SWI2 Package in MODFLOW-2005 only requires the addition of a single additional input file and modification of boundary heads to freshwater heads referenced to the top of the aquifer. Fluid density within model layers can be represented using zones of constant density (stratified flow) or continuously varying density (piecewise linear in the vertical direction) in the SWI2 Package. The main advantage of using the SWI2 Package instead of variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport codes, such as SEAWAT and SUTRA, is that fewer model cells are required for simulations using the SWI2 Package because every aquifer can be represented by a single layer of cells

  11. Protein Hydrogel Microbeads for Selective Uranium Mining from Seawater.

    PubMed

    Kou, Songzi; Yang, Zhongguang; Sun, Fei

    2017-01-25

    Practical methods for oceanic uranium extraction have yet to be developed in order to tap into the vast uranium reserve in the ocean as an alternative energy. Here we present a protein hydrogel system containing a network of recently engineered super uranyl binding proteins (SUPs) that is assembled through thiol-maleimide click chemistry under mild conditions. Monodisperse SUP hydrogel microbeads fabricated by a microfluidic device further enable uranyl (UO2(2+)) enrichment from natural seawater with great efficiency (enrichment index, K = 2.5 × 10(3)) and selectivity. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using protein hydrogels to extract uranium from the ocean.

  12. Simultaneous Extraction of Lithium and Hydrogen from Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    Experimental: Synthesis of Li+ adsorbents: Lithium adsorbing ion-sieve LiMg0.5Mn1.5O4 was prepared by solid state reaction. 6.1g of Li2CO3 , 8.9g of...E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 01/26/2011 Quarterly Progress Report 10/26/2010-01/25/2011 Simultaneous Extraction of Lithium and Hydrogen...of electrolytic process and to develop effective membranes for the diffusion of lithium ion from natural seawater to an extractant. Process variables

  13. Simultaneous Extraction of Lithium and Hydrogen from Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-26

    chromatography . Anions were analyzed by Anion Ion Chromatography (Instrument Dionex ICS-1500, Column Dionex AS9-HC; AG9-HC Guard, eluent: 9.00 mM Na2CO3, flow...rate: 1.25 mL/min, and sample loop was 25 μL). Cations were analyzed by Cation Ion Chromatography (Instrument Dionex DX-500, Cation Column Dionex ...the amount was measured volumetrically. Ion chromatography : Ions in seawater diffused from/to the anode and cathode were determined by ion

  14. Uranyl peroxide enhanced nuclear fuel corrosion in seawater

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Nyman, May; Shvareva, Tatiana; Sigmon, Ginger E.; Burns, Peter C.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident brought together compromised irradiated fuel and large amounts of seawater in a high radiation field. Based on newly acquired thermochemical data for a series of uranyl peroxide compounds containing charge-balancing alkali cations, here we show that nanoscale cage clusters containing as many as 60 uranyl ions, bonded through peroxide and hydroxide bridges, are likely to form in solution or as precipitates under such conditions. These species will enhance the corrosion of the damaged fuel and, being thermodynamically stable and kinetically persistent in the absence of peroxide, they can potentially transport uranium over long distances. PMID:22308442

  15. Uranyl peroxide enhanced nuclear fuel corrosion in seawater.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Nyman, May; Shvareva, Tatiana; Sigmon, Ginger E; Burns, Peter C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-02-07

    The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident brought together compromised irradiated fuel and large amounts of seawater in a high radiation field. Based on newly acquired thermochemical data for a series of uranyl peroxide compounds containing charge-balancing alkali cations, here we show that nanoscale cage clusters containing as many as 60 uranyl ions, bonded through peroxide and hydroxide bridges, are likely to form in solution or as precipitates under such conditions. These species will enhance the corrosion of the damaged fuel and, being thermodynamically stable and kinetically persistent in the absence of peroxide, they can potentially transport uranium over long distances.

  16. Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of estuarial seawater and river water of Bailanghe in Laizhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiaofeng; Xu, Suning; Wang, Ruijiu; Li, Wenpeng; Wang, Zhiyi; Mei, Junjun; Ding, Zhilei; Yang, Peijie; Yu, Liangju; Lv, Tieying; Bai, Gang; Kang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In the study of seawater intrusion, seawater is usually taken as an end-member that mixes with other source(s). However, compared to standard seawater, the coastal seawater particularly that near the estuary, can be strongly influenced by the rivers into the sea and by coastal human activities. Their composition can be thus continuously changed and redistributed with space and time. Therefore, before investigating seawater intrusion in a certain area, it is essentially important to determine the features of the estuarine seawater (e.g. the mixture percentage between standard seawater and river water). In this study, we aimed to gain a clear situation of the seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay, Southern Bohai, China. The issue aforementioned was investigated by comparing the stable isotopic and hydrochemical composition of the marine and river water collected in this area. Samples investigated include 5 surface water samples collected at the downstream of the Bailanghe and 7 seawater samples near the estuary of Laizhou Bay. Inert tracers (δD, δ18O, Cl, Br) and reaction tracers (Na, Mg, SO4, HCO3, Ca, NO3) are particularly analyzed. The major results are as follows: 1) All the river water samples fall below the Global Meteoric Water Line in the δD - δ18O diagram, reflecting evaporation of the upstream reservoir water. The seawater samples fall on the mixing line of standard seawater and the river water in the stable isotopic diagram. 2) The Cl-δ18O diagram indicates widespread dissolution of evaporate into the river, while high concentration of Ca and HCO3-, as well as the SO42- - Cl relation of the river water samples reflect the dissolution of CO2 , carbonate and sulfate in the atmosphere and on the ground. 3) The Br/Cl ratios of seawater samples are closed to the marine ratios. This together with the plots of major ions vs. Cl suggest that the seawater samples are originated from the mixture of standard seawater and river water. Therefore, when referring to the

  17. Impact of seawater [Ca2+] on the calcification and calciteMg / Ca of Amphistegina lessonii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-04-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of studies. The underlying mechanism responsible for Mg incorporation in foraminiferal calcite and its sensitivity to environmental conditions, however, has not been fully identified. A recently published biomineralization model (Nehrke et al., 2013) proposes a combination of transmembrane transport and seawater leakage or vacuolization to link calcite Mg / Ca to seawater Mg / Ca and explains inter-species variability in Mg / Ca ratios. To test the assumptions of this model, we conducted a culture study in which seawater Mg / Ca was manipulated by varying [Ca2+] and keeping [Mg2+] constant. Foraminiferal growth rates, test thickness and calcite Mg / Ca of newly formed chambers were analyzed. Results showed optimum growth rates and test thickness at Mg / Ca closest to that of ambient seawater. Calcite Mg / Ca is positively correlated to seawater Mg / Ca, indicating that it is not absolute seawater [Ca2+] and [Mg2+] but their ratio that controls Mg / Ca in tests. These results demonstrate that the calcification process cannot be based only on seawater vacuolization, supporting the mixing model proposed by Nehrke et al. (2013). Here, however, we suggest transmembrane transport fractionation that is not as strong as suggested by Nehrke et al. (2013).

  18. Impact of seawater Ca2+ on the calcification and calcite Mg/Ca of Amphistegina lessonii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Bijma, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mg/Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleo temperature proxy, but on long timescales, also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg/Ca. Impact of both temperature and seawater Mg/Ca on Mg incorporation in foraminifera have been quantified by a number of studies. The underlying mechanism responsible for Mg incorporation in foraminiferal calcite and its sensitivity to environmental conditions, however, is not fully identified. A recently published biomineralization model (Nehrke et al., 2013) proposes a combination of transmembrane transport and seawater leakage or vacuolization to link calcite Mg/Ca to seawater Mg/Ca and explains inter-species variability in Mg/Ca ratios. To test the assumptions of this model, we conducted a culture study in which seawater Mg/Ca was manipulated by varying [Ca2+] and keeping [Mg2+] constant. Foraminiferal growth rates, test thickness and calcite Mg/Ca of newly formed chambers were analyzed. Results showed optimum growth rates and test thickness at Mg/Ca closest to that of ambient seawater. Calcite Mg/Ca is positively correlated to seawater Mg/Ca, indicating that not absolute seawater [Ca2+] and [Mg2+], but the telative ratio controls Mg/Ca in tests. These results demonstrate that the calcification process cannot be based only on seawater vacuolization, supporting the mixing model proposed by Nehrke et al. (2013). Here we, however, suggest a transmembrane transport fractionation that is not as strong as suggested by Nehrke et al. (2013).

  19. Temperature, thermal efficiency, and gradient performance from two seawater-SZ solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Collado, F.; Lowrey, P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents 10 months of experience with two seawater-SZ (Storage Zone) solar ponds operated as a source of warm seawater which could have been used in an adjacent mariculture facility. Observations and extensive temperature, gradient and efficiency data are presented. This work demonstrated operation of and heat extraction from seawater-SZ solar ponds over a much longer interval than in previous work. It confirmed that seawater-SZ solar ponds can consistently give useful temperature elevations. A few phenomena not characteristic of conventional solar ponds were identified and are discussed.

  20. Seawater sulfate reduction and sulfur isotope fractionation in basaltic systems: interaction of seawater with fayalite and magnetite at 200–350°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, Wayne C.; Bischoff, James L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    Systematics of sulfur isotopes in the 250 and 350°C experiments indicate that isotopic equilibrium is reached, and can be modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process. Isotopic composition of hydrothermally produced H2S in natural systems is strongly dependent upon the seawater/basalt ratio in the geothermal system, which controls the relative sulfide contributions from the two important sulfur sources, seawater sulfate and sulfide phases in basalt. Anhydrite precipitation during geothermal heating severely limits sulfate ingress into high temperature interaction zones. Quantitative sulfate reduction can thus be accomplished without producing strongly oxidized rocks and resultant sulfide sulfur isotope values represent a mixture of seawater and basaltic sulfur.

  1. The evolution of Phanerozoic seawater - Isotope paleothermometry finds consensus on Early Paleozoic warmth and constant seawater δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, E. L.; Henkes, G. A.; Passey, B. H.; Shenton, B.; Yancey, T. E.; Perez-Huerta, A.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of metazoan life is closely linked to the Phanerozoic evolution of ocean temperatures and chemistry. Oxygen isotopic evidence for early Phanerozoic paleotemperatures has been equivocal, with decreasing δ18O values with age being interpreted as warmer early oceans, decreasing seawater δ18O with age, or increasing diagenetic alteration in older samples. Here we compare an updated compilation of oxygen isotope data for carbonate and phosphate fossils and microfossils (Grossman, 2012, Geol. Time Scale, Elsevier, 195-220) with a compilation of new and existing clumped isotope data. Importantly, these data are curated based on sample preservation with special consideration given to screening techniques, and tectonic and burial history. Burial history is critical in the preservation of carbonate clumped isotope temperatures in particular, which can undergo reordering in the solid state. We use a model derived for reordering kinetics (Henkes et al., 2014, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 139:362-382) to screen clumped isotope data for the effects of solid-state burial alteration. With minor but significant exceptions (Late Cretaceous, Early Triassic), average δ18O values (4 m.y. window, 2 m.y. steps) for post-Devonian brachiopods, belemnites, and foraminifera, representing tropical-subtropical surface ocean conditions, yield average isotopic temperatures below 30°C (assuming a seawater δ18O value [ -1‰ VSMOW] of an "ice-free" world). In contrast, Ordovician to Devonian data show sustained temperatures of 35-40°C. Likewise, isotopic paleotemperatures from conodont apatite, known to be resistant to isotopic exchange, follow the same pattern. Clumped isotope data derived from Paleozoic brachiopod shells that experienced minimal burial (< 100 °C) and <1% reordering according to the taxon-specific clumped isotope reordering model yield typical temperatures of 25-30°C for the Carboniferous, and 35-40°C for the Ordovician-Silurian. Inserting clumped temperatures and

  2. Characterisation of iron binding ligands in seawater by reverse titration.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Gledhill, Martha; Connelly, Douglas P; Achterberg, Eric P

    2013-03-05

    Here we demonstrate the use of reverse titration - competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (RT-CLE-ACSV) for the analysis of iron (Fe) binding ligands in seawater. In contrast to the forward titration, which examines excess ligands in solution, RT-CLE-ACSV examines the existing Fe-ligand complexes by increasing the concentration of added (electroactive) ligand (1-nitroso-2-naphthol) and analysis of the proportion of Fe bound to the added ligand. The data manipulation allows the accurate characterisation of ligands at equal or lower concentrations than Fe in seawater, and disregards electrochemically inert dissolved Fe such as some colloidal phases. The method is thus superior to the forward titration in environments with high Fe and low ligand concentrations or high concentrations of inert Fe. We validated the technique using the siderophore ligand ferrioxamine B, and observed a stability constant [Formula: see text] of 0.74-4.37×10(21) mol(-1), in agreement with previous results. We also successfully analysed samples from coastal waters and a deep ocean hydrothermal plume. Samples from these environments could not be analysed with confidence using the forward titration, highlighting the effectiveness of the RT-CLE-ACSV technique in waters with high concentrations of inert Fe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Seawater Pervaporation through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes: Atomistic Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Krishna M; Qiao, Zhiwei; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    An atomistic simulation study is reported for seawater pervaporation through five zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes including ZIF-8, -93, -95, -97, and -100. Salt rejection in the five ZIFs is predicted to be 100%. With the largest aperture, ZIF-100 possesses the highest water permeability of 5 × 10(-4) kg m/(m(2) h bar), which is substantially higher compared to commercial reverse osmosis membranes, as well as zeolite and graphene oxide pervaporation membranes. In ZIF-8, -93, -95, and -97 with similar aperture size, water flux is governed by framework hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity; in hydrophobic ZIF-8 and -95, water flux is higher than in hydrophilic ZIF-93 and -97. Furthermore, water molecules in ZIF-93 move slowly and remain in the membrane for a long time but undergo to-and-fro motion in ZIF-100. The lifetime of hydrogen bonds in ZIF-93 is found to be longer than in ZIF-100. This simulation study quantitatively elucidates the dynamic and structural properties of water in ZIF membranes, identifies the key governing factors (aperture size and framework hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity), and suggests that ZIF-100 is an intriguing membrane for seawater pervaporation.

  4. Seawater Sr isotopes at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. E.; Macdougall, J. D.

    1991-06-01

    Seawater 87Sr/ 86Sr values increase abruptly by 28 × 10 -6 across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (KTB). This small, but rapid shift is superimposed on the larger scale structure of the seawater Sr isotope curve. The time scale of radiogenic Sr addition appears to be too rapid to reconcile with sources associated with volcanism, and we show that the amount of Sr required to produce even this small increase is too large to be derived from: (1) a KT bolide of the size constrained by the Ir anomaly, (2) continental crust ejecta from the impact of such a bolide, (3) soot from global wildfires initiated by an impact, or (4) any combination of these sources. The probable source of the radiogenic Sr is enhanced continental weathering, but the high rate of increase appears to rule out processes such as sea level regression, glaciation or tectonism. A plausible mechanism for rapid addition of radiogenic Sr to the oceans is enhanced weathering associated with globally distributed acid rain (pH ˜ 1) which is a proposed by-product of a bolide impact [51, EPSL Vol. 83].

  5. Effects of recharge wells and flow barriers on seawater intrusion.

    PubMed

    Luyun, Roger; Momii, Kazuro; Nakagawa, Kei

    2011-01-01

    The installation of recharge wells and subsurface flow barriers are among several strategies proposed to control seawater intrusion on coastal groundwater systems. In this study, we performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations to determine the effects of the location and application of recharge wells, and of the location and penetration depth of flow barriers, on controlling seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. We also compared the experimental results with existing analytical solutions. Our results showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved when the recharge water is injected at the toe of the saltwater wedge. Point injection yields about the same repulsion compared with line injection from a screened well for the same recharge rate. Results for flow barriers showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved with deeper barrier penetration and with barriers located closer to the coast. When the flow barrier is installed inland from the original toe position however, saltwater intrusion increases with deeper barrier penetration. Saltwater repulsion due to flow barrier installation was found to be linearly related to horizontal barrier location and a polynomial function of the barrier penetration depth. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Formation and speciation characteristics of brominated trihalomethanes in seawater chlorination.

    PubMed

    Padhi, R K; Sowmya, M; Mohanty, A K; Bramha, S N; Satpathy, K K

    2012-11-01

    Formation character of brominated-trihalomethanes (Br-THMs) in chlorinated seawater and its dependence on applied chlorine dose, reaction time, and temperature were investigated in the laboratory. Seawater was collected from the east coast of India and a chlorine dose of 1, 3, 5, and 10 ppm was each applied at a temperature of 20, 30, and 40 degrees C to investigate the yield and kinetics of Br-THMs formation. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of THM formation at various intervals of time ranging from 5 min to 168 h was determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Chlorine dose, chlorine contact time, and reaction temperature positively affected the load of THMs. The ratio of chlorine dose to halogen incorporation decreased from 12% to 5% with increasing applied chlorine dose from 1 to 10 ppm. Significant levels of THMs were found to be formed within 0.5 h of reaction, followed by a very slow rate of formation. Elevated temperature favored both increased rate of formation and overall THM yield. The formation order of different trihalomethane species at all studied temperatures was observed to be bromodichloromethane (CHCl2Br) < dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2) < bromoform (CHBr3). Formation of chloroform was not observed, and bromoform was the dominant (96% to 98%) among the three THM species formed.

  7. A Method for Seawater Desalination via Squeezing Ionic Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chi; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Fan, Shuanshi

    2016-12-06

    In this study, mechanical force applied to squeeze poly(sodium acrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels that contained seawater in order to obtain fresh water. By incorporating ionic monomer sodium acrylate (SA) into hydrogels, the salt rejection was significantly enhanced from 27.62% to 64.57% (feed concentration 35.00g/L NaCl solution). As SA's concentration continuously increased, salt rejection declined due to the change in hydrogel's matrix structure. Therefore, water recovery raised as the current swelling degree increased. We also measured pore size distribution by applying mercury intrusion porosimetry on each hydrogel sample in the interest of finding out whether the sample SA5/HEMA15 owned multi pore structure, since the result could be good for the desalination performance. After 4 times reused, the hydrogel remained good desalination performance. Although compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and multistage flash distillation (MSF) & multiple effect distillation (MED) the salt rejection of this hydrogel (roughly 64%) seemed low, the hydrogels can be used for forward osmosis and reverse osmosis, as pretreatment of seawater to reduce the energy consumption for the downstream.

  8. Metrological traceability of carbon dioxide measurements in atmosphere and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolle, F.; Pessana, E.; Sega, M.

    2017-05-01

    The accurate determination of gaseous pollutants is fundamental for the monitoring of the trends of these analytes in the environment and the application of the metrological concepts to this field is necessary to assure the reliability of the measurement results. In this work, an overview of the activity carried out at Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica to establish the metrological traceability of the measurements of gaseous atmospheric pollutants, in particular of carbon dioxide (CO2), is presented. Two primary methods, the gravimetry and the dynamic dilution, are used for the preparation of reference standards for composition which can be used to calibrate sensors and analytical instrumentation. At present, research is carried out to lower the measurement uncertainties of the primary gas mixtures and to extend their application to the oceanic field. The reason of such investigation is due to the evidence of the changes occurring in seawater carbonate chemistry, connected to the rising level of CO2 in the atmosphere. The well established activity to assure the metrological traceability of CO2 in the atmosphere will be applied to the determination of CO2 in seawater, by developing suitable reference materials for calibration and control of the sensors during their routine use.

  9. Optical biosensor for the determination of BOD in seawater.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaqi; Xiao, Lai-Long; Zhao, Li; Chen, Xi; Wang, Xiaoru; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2006-08-15

    An automatic sensing system was developed using an optical BOD sensing film. The sensing film consists of an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) film embedded with an oxygen-sensitive Ru complex. A multi-microorganisms immobilization method was developed for the BOD sensing film preparation. Three different kinds of microorganisms, Bacillus licheniformis, Dietzia maris and Marinobacter marinus from seawater, were immobilized on a polyvinyl alcohol ORMOSILs. After preconditioning, the BOD biosensor could steadily perform well up to 10 months. The linear fluctuant coefficients (R(2)) in the range of 0.3-40mgL(-1) was 0.985 when a glucose/glutamate BOD standard was applied. The reproducible response for the BOD sensing film could be obtained within +/-2.3% of the mean value in a series of 10 samples in 5.0mgL(-1) BOD standard GGA solution. The effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on the two microbial films were studied as well. The BOD sensing system was tested and applied for the BOD determination of seawater.

  10. Thermogenic hydrocarbons in seawater of the Gippsland Shelf, southeast Australia.

    PubMed

    Lavering, I H

    1994-12-01

    An offshore survey measured the concentration of thermogenic hydrocarbons (THCs) in samples extracted from seawater at 718 locations along 22 traverse lines across the Gippsland Shelf, southeast Australia, and recorded compounds typical of subsurface crude oil and natural gas (petroleum) accumulations. Background concentrations of 8 ppm, with isolated peak levels of 20 to 52 ppm, were detected in samples extracted from seawater at depths of 30 to 50 m over distances of 10 km. Two sources have been suggested - seepage of THCs from subsurface accumulations of petroleum, or THCs in waste-water discharged by several offshore petroleum production facilities which are present on the shelf. A waste-water source is favoured because of the transitory nature of the concentrations, and changes in composition consistent with plume drift away from the point(s) of discharge. Overall, however, the concentration of THCs in waters of the Gippsland Shelf compare favourably with levels in waters affected by urban runoff. The concentration of THCs in other coastal waters from urban and onshore sources is low, equivalent to the background concentration in the major oceans of the world.

  11. Thorium sorption in seawater suspensions of aluminium oxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Sherry E. H.; Moore, Robert M.

    1993-05-01

    The partitioning of thorium between solid and solution phases in seawater suspensions of aluminium oxide particles was studied in controlled laboratory experiments to determine whether partitioning is consistent with current models of trace-metal adsorption (surface complexation models). Experimental conditions (i.e., thorium and particle concentrations, pH, temperature, salinity) were chosen to be as realistic as possible for coastal seawater while minimizing nonadsorptive processes; 234Th was used as a tracer of thorium, and filtration/ultrafiltration techniques were used to prepare suspensions with minimal colloidal material, as well as to define and to separate solid and solution phases. A comparison of the experimental results with relationships predicted by surface complexation models shows that thorium sorption in the alumina suspensions was consistent with surface complexation theory: Sorption kinetics were consistent with a (pseudo-) first-order reversible reaction at constant particle concentration, the pseudo-first-order forward rate constants had a first-order dependence on particle concentration, and Kd values were independent of particle concentration. Thorium sorption consisted of two distinct reversible reactions, both of which were consistent with surface complexation theory. Second order rate constants were within the range of rate constants reported for the adsorption of divalent metal ions ontoγ-Al 2O 3 surfaces.

  12. Oxygen-isotope fractionation between marine biogenic silica and seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Matheney, R.K.; Knauth, L.P. )

    1989-12-01

    A stepwise fluorination technique has been used to selectively react away the water component of hydrous silica in order to better investigate the oxygen-isotope fractionation between biogenic opal and seawater, and to determine whether all taxa produce opal which is suitable for oxygen isotope paleothermometry. {delta}{sup 18}O of the tetrahedrally coordinated silicate oxygen of siliceous sponge spicules grown at a wide variety of temperatures varies independently of temperature. {delta}{sup 18}O from an Eocene radiolarian ooze sample is much more enriched than would be expected from any reasonable isotopic temperature curve, given the probable growing temperature of the sample. {delta}{sup 18}O of diatom samples seems to vary systematically with temperature and to conform approximately to the isotopic temperature curve for diatom frustules obtained by Labeyrie and coworkers using an entirely different analytical technique. Sponges appear to precipitate silica in isotopic disequilibrium with seawater oxygen, and old radiolarian silica may exchange readily with could oceanic bottom water. Neither will apparently be useful for paleoclimate reconstructions. Diatoms maybe useful in deducing ancient surface-water temperatures, but the systematic variation of {alpha} with temperature for diatoms may not be related to the quartz-H{sub 2}O equilibrium isotope fractionation.

  13. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AI Series Adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, R. T.; Janke, C. J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new series of adsorbents (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole to mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with high degrees of grafting (DOG) varying from 110 to 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 5 wt % hydroxylamine at 80 °C for 72 h. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with prescreening brine spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacities in prescreening ranged from 171 to 187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of percent DOG. The performance of the adsorbents with respect to uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also investigated using flow-throughcolumn testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Three hours of KOH conditioning led to higher uranium uptake than 1 h of conditioning. The adsorbent AI11, containing AN and VPA at the mole ratio of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for the highest uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in seawater flow-through-columns. The rate of vanadium adsorption over uranium linearly increased throughout the 56 days of exposure. The total mass of vanadium uptake was ~5 times greater than uranium after 56 days.

  14. Sulfathiazole: analytical methods for quantification in seawater and macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Nebot, Carolina; Nunes, Margarida; Cepeda, Alberto; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of the interconnection between pharmaceutical residues, human health, and aquaculture has highlighted the concern with the potential harmful effects it can induce. Furthermore, to better understand the consequences more research is needed and to achieve that new methodologies on the detection and quantification of pharmaceuticals are necessary. Antibiotics are a major class of drugs included in the designation of emerging contaminants, representing a high risk to natural ecosystems. Among the most prescribed are sulfonamides, with sulfathiazole being the selected compound to be investigated in this study. In the environment, macroalgae are an important group of producers, continuously exposed to contaminants, with a significant role in the trophic web. Due to these characteristics are already under scope for the possibility of being used as bioindicators. The present study describes two new methodologies based on liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfathiazole in seawater and in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Results show both methods were validated according to international standards, with MS/MS detection showing more sensitivity as expected with LODs of 2.79ng/g and 1.40ng/mL for algae and seawater, respectively. As for UV detection the values presented were respectively 2.83μg/g and 2.88μg/mL, making it more suitable for samples originated in more contaminated sites. The methods were also applied to experimental data with success with results showing macroalgae have potential use as indicators of contamination.

  15. Efficacy of different antifouling treatments for seawater cooling systems.

    PubMed

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

    2010-11-01

    In an industrial seawater cooling system, the effects of three different antifouling treatments, viz. sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), aliphatic amines (Mexel®432) and UV radiation, on the characteristics of the fouling formed were evaluated. For this study a portable pilot plant, as a side-stream monitoring system and seawater cooling system, was employed. The pilot plant simulated a power plant steam condenser, having four titanium tubes under different treatment patterns, where fouling progression could be monitored. The nature of the fouling obtained was chiefly inorganic, showing a clear dependence on the antifouling treatment employed. After 72 days the tubes under treatment showed a reduction in the heat transfer resistance (R) of around 70% for NaClO, 48% for aliphatic amines and 55% for UV, with respect to the untreated tube. The use of a logistic model was very useful for predicting the fouling progression and the maximum asymptotic value of the increment in the heat transfer resistance (ΔR(max)). The apparent thermal conductivity (λ) of the fouling layer showed a direct relationship with the percentage of organic matter in the collected fouling. The characteristics and mode of action of the different treatments used led to fouling with diverse physicochemical properties.

  16. Dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater: Mechanism and rate

    SciTech Connect

    Crovisier, J.L. ); Honnorez, J. Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg ); Eberhart, J.P. )

    1987-11-01

    Basaltic glasses are considered as natural analogues for nuclear waste glasses. Thermodynamic computer codes used to evaluate long term behavior of both nuclear waste and basaltic glasses require the knowledge of the dissolution mechanism of the glass network. The paper presents the results of a series of experiments designed to study the structure and chemical composition of alteration layers formed on the surface of artificial tholeiitic glass altered in artificial seawater. Experiments were performed at 60{degree}C, 1 bar and 350 bars in non-renewed conditions. A natural sample from Palagonia (Sicily) has been studied by electron microscopy and comparison between natural and experimental palagonitic layers is made. The behavior of dissolved silica during experiments, and both the structure and the chemical composition of the palagonitic layers, indicate that they form by precipitation of secondary minerals from solution after a total breakdown of the glassy network, i.e., congruent dissolution of the glass. Hence the dissolution equation necessary for thermodynamic modelling of basaltic glass dissolution in seawater at low temperature must be written as a simple stoichiometric process. These experiments indicate that the transformation of glass to palagonitic material is not isovolumetric. Hence it is preferable to use Fe or Ti as conservative elements for chemical budget calculations.

  17. Cavitation corrosion behavior of cast duplex stainless steel in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Shalaby, H.M.; Al-Hashem, A.

    1996-10-01

    The cavitation corrosion behavior of a commercial cast duplex stainless steel was studied in seawater using an ultrasonically induced cavitation facility at a frequency of 20 kHz and an amplitude of 25 {micro}m. The work included measurements of the free corrosion potential and mass loss in addition to microscopic examinations. Cavitation caused an active shift in the free corrosion potential. The rate of mass loss was negligible in quiescent seawater, while it significantly increased in the presence of cavitation. The application of cathodic protection reduced the rate of mass loss by 19%. Microscopic examinations revealed that the first signs of cavitation damage were in the form of slip bands and small cavities in the austenite islands and at the ferrite/austenite boundaries. With the progress of cavitation, material loss became mainly at the austenite phase and spread to the ferrite phase at a later stage. Cathodic protection decreased slightly the number of cavities. Cross-sectional examinations revealed the presence of microcracks in the bulk of the material. The microcracks initiated at the surface in the ferrite matrix. Crack propagation was impeded by the austenite islands and branched along parallel slip systems.

  18. Changes in the spectrum and rates of extracellular enzyme activities in seawater following aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziervogel, K.; Steen, A. D.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-12-01

    Marine snow aggregates are heavily colonized by heterotrophic microorganisms that express high levels of hydrolytic activities, making aggregates hotspots for carbon remineralization in the ocean. To assess how aggregate formation influences the ability of seawater microbial communities to access organic carbon, we compared hydrolysis rates of six polysaccharides in coastal seawater after aggregates had been formed (via incubation on a roller table) with hydrolysis rates in seawater from the same site that had not incubated on a roller table (referred to as whole seawater). Hydrolysis rates in the aggregates themselves were up to three orders of magnitude higher on a volume basis than in whole seawater. The enhancement of enzyme activity in aggregates relative to whole seawater differed by substrate, suggesting that the enhancement was under cellular control, rather than due to factors such as lysis or grazing. A comparison of hydrolysis rates in whole seawater with those in aggregate-free seawater, i.e. the fraction of water from the roller bottles that did not contain aggregates, demonstrated a nuanced microbial response to aggregate formation. Activities of laminarinase and xylanase enzymes in aggregate-free seawater were higher than in whole seawater, while activities of chondroitin, fucoidan, and arabinogalactan hydrolyzing enzymes were lower than in whole seawater. These data suggest that aggregate formation enhanced production of laminarinase and xylanase enzymes, and the enhancement also affected the surrounding seawater. Decreased activities of chondroitin, fucoidan, and arabinoglactan-hydrolyzing enzymes in aggregate-free seawater relative to whole seawater are likely due to shifts in enzyme production by the aggregate-associated community, coupled with the effects of enzyme degradation. Enhanced activities of laminarin- and xylan-hydrolyzing enzymes in aggregate-free seawater were due at least in part to cell-free enzymes. Measurements of enzyme lifetime

  19. Changes in the spectrum and rates of extracellular enzyme activities in seawater following aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziervogel, K.; Steen, A. D.; Arnosti, C.

    2010-03-01

    Marine snow aggregates are heavily colonized by heterotrophic microorganisms that express high levels of hydrolytic activities, making aggregates hotspots for carbon remineralization in the ocean. To assess how aggregate formation influences the ability of seawater microbial communities to access organic carbon, we compared hydrolysis rates of six polysaccharides in coastal seawater after aggregates had been formed (via incubation on a roller table) with hydrolysis rates in seawater from the same site that had not incubated on a roller table (referred to as whole seawater). Hydrolysis rates in the aggregates themselves were up to three orders of magnitude higher on a volume basis than in whole seawater. The enhancement of enzyme activity in aggregates relative to whole seawater differed by substrate, suggesting that the enhancement was under cellular control, rather than due to factors such as lysis or grazing. A comparison of hydrolysis rates in whole seawater with those in aggregate-free seawater, i.e. the fraction of water from the roller bottles that did not contain aggregates, demonstrated a nuanced microbial response to aggregate formation. Activities of laminarinase and xylanase enzymes in aggregate-free seawater were higher than in whole seawater, while activities of chondroitin, fucoidan, and arabinogalactan hydrolyzing enzymes were lower than in whole seawater. These data suggest that aggregate formation enhanced production of laminarinase and xylanase enzymes, and the enhancement also affected the surrounding seawater. Decreased activities of chondroitin, fucoidan, and arabinoglactan-hydrolyzing enzymes in aggregate-free seawaters relative to whole seawater are likely due to shifts in enzyme production by the aggregate-associated community, coupled with the effects of enzyme degradation. Enhanced activities of laminarin- and xylan-hydrolyzing enzymes in aggregate-free seawater were due at least in part to cell-free enzymes. Measurements of enzyme

  20. Quantification of glycine betaine, choline and trimethylamine N-oxide in seawater particulates: Minimisation of seawater associated ion suppression.

    PubMed

    Beale, Rachael; Airs, Ruth

    2016-09-28

    A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS, electrospray ionisation) method has been developed for the quantification of nitrogenous osmolytes (N-osmolytes) in the particulate fraction of natural water samples. Full method validation demonstrates the validity of the method for measuring glycine betaine (GBT), choline and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in particulates from seawater. Limits of detection were calculated as 3.5, 1.2 and 5.9 pg injected onto column (equivalent to 1.5, 0.6 and 3.9 nmol per litre) for GBT, choline and TMAO respectively. Precision of the method was typically 3% for both GBT and choline and 6% for TMAO. Collection of the particulate fraction of natural samples was achieved via in-line filtration. Resulting chromatography and method sensitivity was assessed and compared for the use of both glass fibre and polycarbonate filters during sample collection. Ion suppression was shown to be a significant cause of reduced instrument response to N-osmolytes and was associated with the presence of seawater in the sample matrix.

  1. Determination of Aluminum Concentration in Seawater by Colorimetry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-11-30

    this was also high. 5 . ,Irj ~ - • lri*; llo. TALLE 2 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY DETEPIJINATION OF ALUMINU1 CONCENTRATIO11 OF SEAWATER OCEAN...Concentration in Seawater by Colorimetr-y and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Charles A. Greene, Jr. and Everett N. Jones Ocean Science Department T14

  2. Variable sea ice contributions to seawater δ18O on glacial-interglacial timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, C. E.; Weaver, A. J.; Eby, M.; Meissner, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of seawater varies in time, mainly based on the amount of (depleted) ice stored on continents. Oxygen isotope records derived from ocean sediment cores serve as indicators of changes in both seawater temperature and continental ice volume. Seawater δ18O may contain a variable signature of sea ice production, especially at high latitudes. Sea ice growth produces isotopically enriched ice and depleted brine. Over glacial-interglacial cycles, changes in the sites and rates of sea ice production (and by extension sea ice meltwater and brine export) hold the potential to shift local to regional seawater isotopic chemistry. Neglecting variability in sea ice production may therefore superimpose error upon reconstructions employing high latitude δ18O records. We examine the effects of variability in sea ice production between glacial and interglacial climate states on seawater δ18O in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model. Oxygen isotopes are implemented in all components (ocean, atmosphere, land surface, and sea ice) of the coupled model. The role of glacial-interglacial sea ice variability is investigated in a set of model experiments. Here we isolate the seawater δ18O field due only to sea ice in the model. By contrasting the seawater δ18O fields due to sea ice resulting from the glacial and interglacial climates, we investigate the potential for variable sea ice formation to shift seawater δ18O.

  3. Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster...

  4. Seawater mesocosm experiments in the Arctic uncover differential transfer of marine bacteria to aerosols.

    PubMed

    Fahlgren, Camilla; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Zábori, Julia; Lindh, Markus V; Krejci, Radovan; Mårtensson, E Monica; Nilsson, Douglas; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-06-01

    Biogenic aerosols critically control atmospheric processes. However, although bacteria constitute major portions of living matter in seawater, bacterial aerosolization from oceanic surface layers remains poorly understood. We analysed bacterial diversity in seawater and experimentally generated aerosols from three Kongsfjorden sites, Svalbard. Construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from paired seawater and aerosol samples resulted in 1294 sequences clustering into 149 bacterial and 34 phytoplankton operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial communities in aerosols differed greatly from corresponding seawater communities in three out of four experiments. Dominant populations of both seawater and aerosols were Flavobacteriia, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Across the entire dataset, most OTUs from seawater could also be found in aerosols; in each experiment, however, several OTUs were either selectively enriched in aerosols or little aerosolized. Notably, a SAR11 clade OTU was consistently abundant in the seawater, but was recorded in significantly lower proportions in aerosols. A strikingly high proportion of colony-forming bacteria were pigmented in aerosols compared with seawater, suggesting that selection during aerosolization contributes to explaining elevated proportions of pigmented bacteria frequently observed in atmospheric samples. Our findings imply that atmospheric processes could be considerably influenced by spatiotemporal variations in the aerosolization efficiency of different marine bacteria.

  5. The adsorption of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd on goethite from major ion seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balistrieri, L. S.; Murray, J. W.

    1982-07-01

    The adsorption of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd on goethite (αFeOOH) from NaNO 3 solutions and from major ion seawater was compared to assess the effect of the major ions of seawater (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Cl, and SO 4) on the adsorption behavior of the metals. Magnesium and sulphate are the principal seawater ions which enhance or inhibit adsorption relative to the inert system. Their effect, as determined from the site-binding model of Davis et al. (1978), was a combination of changing the electrostatic conditions at the interface and decreasing the available binding sites. The basic differences between the experimental system of major ion seawater and natural seawater were examined. It was concluded that: 1) although the experimental metal concentrations in major ion seawater were higher than those found in natural seawater, estimates of the binding energy of Cu, Zn, and Cd with αFeOOH for natural seawater concentrations could be made from the data, 2) Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd showed little or no competition for surface sites on goethite, and 3) the presence of carbonate, phosphate, and silicate had little or no effect on the adsorption of Zn and Cd on goethite.

  6. Physiological effects of seawater intake in adult harp seals during phase I of fasting.

    PubMed

    Storeheier, P V; Nordøy, E S

    2001-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that harp seals may drink considerable amounts of seawater. The current study was undertaken to study the physiological responses to bolus administration of seawater. Adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) were fasted without access to water for 48 h and then given 1000 or 1500 ml of seawater by a stomach tube. Changes in urine and plasma parameters were thereafter monitored for another 12-20 h. Urine production and urine excretion rate of Na+ and Cl- increased soon after administration and reached a maximum 3-4 h later. Urine osmolality was kept rather stable and high ( approximately 1500 mOsm x kg(-1)) following seawater administration, due to a drop in urine concentration of urea that was proportional to the simultaneous increase in urine concentration of NaCl. Plasma osmolality remained at approximately 340 mOsm x kg(-1), while plasma concentration of urea decreased some 20-25% due to increased excretion of urea when seawater was ingested. Despite bolus administrations of seawater of up to approximately 2% of body mass, homeostasis was maintained and no ill effects observed. It is concluded that the concentrating abilities of the kidneys of harp seals are sufficient to prevent net loss of body water following seawater ingestion. Seawater ingestion may, moreover, increase urinary osmotic space and thus serve as a mechanism to excrete additional urea produced during phase I of fasting.

  7. Mercury content of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) reared in a wastewater-seawater aquacultural system

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, M.; Pierce, R.

    1986-10-01

    Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.

  8. Seasonal levels of the Vibrio predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Coast Seawater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along t...

  9. Adsorption/desorption of phosphorus on limestone from the Biscayne Aquifer under freshwater and seawater conditions.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Areas of seawater intrusion are known geochemically active regions particularly in limestone aquifers, where carbonate mineral dissolution and ion exchange reactions are important. Both of these processes can lead to a release of phosphorus from the aquifer matrix to the groundwater as seawater int...

  10. Crustal evolution reflected in seawater Sr and Nd isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.

    2013-12-01

    Radiogenic isotope ratios record time-integrated parent-daughter ratios, and are thus sensitive to chemical composition and time. The oceans recieve the integrated runoff from the continental surface and preserve these signals in marine sedimentary records. Radiogenic isotope records of seawater and marine sediments have been reconstructed over the past five decades for many of the radiogenic isotope systems. For some systems (Sr) excellent records do exist that integrate seawater signals for the entire ocean. In contrast, globally averaged records of radiogenic isotopes with short marine residence times (Nd, Pb) are much more difficult to establish. Here, I attempt to link long-term (Phanerozoic) records of marine radiogenic isotope systems to records of the evolution of the continental surface that interacts with the hydrologic cycle. For the present we can show that the dissolved and particulate loads from the continents integrate different portions of the continental surface (Peucker-Ehrenbrink et al., 2010, G-cubed 11, doi: 10.1029/2009GC002869). For instance, the areas generating the dissolved load are characterized by significantly older bedrock (~400 Myr) than those generating the particulate load (~320 Myr). The fact that both are younger than the mean bedrock age of the non-glaciated, exorheic portion of the continental surface (~450 Myr) reflects the disproportionate role active margins, high-standing ocean island, and weathering and erosion of young sedimentary strata play in exporting dissolved matter and sedimnent to the oceans. Using present-day systematics as a guide, I argue that the first-order trough-like shape of the Phanerozoic marine Sr isotope record reflects the rejuvenation of the continental surface involved in exporting Sr to the ocean from the early Phanerozoic to the mid Jurassic that is followed by an 'aging' that continues into the Quaternary. This long-term evolution of the continental surface is mirrored by a similar - though more

  11. Temporal Patterns in Seawater Quality from Dredging in Tropical Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ross; Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance and capital dredging represents a potential risk to tropical environments, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs. There is little detailed, published observational time-series data that quantifies how dredging affects seawater quality conditions temporally and spatially. This information is needed to test realistic exposure scenarios to better understand the seawater-quality implications of dredging and ultimately to better predict and manage impacts of future projects. Using data from three recent major capital dredging programs in North Western Australia, the extent and duration of natural (baseline) and dredging-related turbidity events are described over periods ranging from hours to weeks. Very close to dredging i.e. <500 m distance, a characteristic features of these particular case studies was high temporal variability. Over several hours suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) can range from 100–500 mg L-1. Less turbid conditions (10–80 mg L-1) can persist over several days but over longer periods (weeks to months) averages were <10 mg L-1. During turbidity events all benthic light was sometimes extinguished, even in the shallow reefal environment, however a much more common feature was very low light ‘caliginous’ or daytime twilight periods. Compared to pre-dredging conditions, dredging increased the intensity, duration and frequency of the turbidity events by 10-, 5- and 3-fold respectively (at sites <500 m from dredging). However, when averaged across the entire dredging period of 80–180 weeks, turbidity values only increased by 2–3 fold above pre-dredging levels. Similarly, the upper percentile values (e.g., P99, P95) of seawater quality parameters can be highly elevated over short periods, but converge to values only marginally above baseline states over longer periods. Dredging in these studies altered the overall probability density distribution, increasing the frequency of extreme values. As such

  12. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Pinxteren, Manuela; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    The two α-dicarbonyls glyoxal (CHOCHO; GLY) and methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO; MGLY) have attracted increasing attention over the past years because of their potential role in secondary organic aerosol formation. Recently Sinreich et al. (2010) suggested the open ocean as an important (so far unknown) source for GLY in the atmosphere. To date, there are few available field data of these compounds in the marine area. In this study we present measurements of GLY and MGLY in seawater and marine aerosol particles sampled during a transatlantic Polarstern cruise in spring 2011. In seawater we especially investigated the sea surface microlayer (sampled with the glass plate technique) as it is the direct interface between ocean and atmosphere. Analytical measurements were based on derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The results show that GLY and MGLY are present in the sea surface microlayer of the ocean and corresponding bulkwater with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). Significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the sea surface microlayer was found implying photochemical production of the two carbonyls though a clear connection to global radiation was not observed. On aerosol particles, both carbonyls were detected (average concentration 0.2 ng m-3) and are strongly connected to each other, suggesting similar formation mechanisms. Both carbonyls show a very good correlation with particulate oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. A slight correlation of the two carbonyls in the sea surface microlayer and in the aerosol particles was found at co-located sampling areas. In summary, the results of GLY and MGLY in marine aerosol particles and in the oceanic water give first insights towards interaction processes of these alpha dicarbonyls between ocean and atmosphere (van Pinxteren and Herrmann (2013

  13. The use of seawater as a carbon dioxide scrubbing medium for underwater life support

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckols, M.L.

    1996-09-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that seawater could be used to scrub carbon dioxide form cabin air in underwater habitats. Seawater has the capacity to absorb carbon dioxide in quantities directly dependent on a number of variables, the most significant of which is the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide in the gas. The absorption capacities of freshwater and seawater are determined in this study in relation to the variables of carbon dioxide partial pressure, water temperature and pH for use in simple engineering design calculations. A conceptual carbon dioxide scrubber is proposed which involves the direct absorption of carbon dioxide in small concentrations in diffused air by a pressurized seawater tower. This conceptual design can potentially offer a low-energy seawater carbon dioxide scrubber to be externally or internally mounted on an underwater habitat.

  14. Gypsum precipitation/dissolution as an explanation of the decrease of sulphate concentration during seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis-Yagües, V.; Boluda-Botella, N.; Ruiz-Beviá, F.

    2000-02-01

    The precipitation of gypsum during the intrusion of seawater in a coastal aquifer is shown to be a possible cause of the decrease of the sulphate concentration with respect to the conservative freshwater/seawater mixing observed in many field studies. Results of previously published laboratory column experiments and the application of a multicomponent reactive transport model show that gypsum precipitates during the first stages of seawater intrusion, causing a decrease in sulphate concentration. As the resultant front advances, the water becomes undersaturated with respect to gypsum when the content of seawater <50%. At that point, water samples exhibit a deficit of sulphate of several mmol/l, in the range of the field values reported in papers on intrusion in coastal aquifers. Thus, in addition to bacterial sulphate reduction by organic matter, gypsum precipitation is a possible explanation for the non-conservative behaviour of sulphate during seawater intrusion.

  15. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Sorbents for the Collection and Recovery of Uranium from Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Warner, Cynthia L.; Mackie, Katherine E.; Warner, Marvin G.; Gill, Gary A.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2016-02-07

    The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a long-term green fuel supply for nuclear energy. However, extraction of uranium, and other trace minerals, is challenging due to the high ionic strength and low mineral concentrations in seawater. Herein we evaluate the use of nanostructured metal oxide sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Chemical affinity, chemical adsorption capacity and kinetics of preferred sorbent materials were evaluated. High surface area manganese and iron oxide nanomaterials showed excellent performance for uranium collection from seawater. Inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions were demonstrated to be an effective and environmental benign method of stripping the uranium from the metal oxide sorbents. Various formats for the utilization of the nanostructured metals oxide sorbent materials are discussed including traditional and nontraditional methods such as magnetic separation. Keywords: Uranium, nano, manganese, iron, sorbent, seawater, magnetic, separations, nuclear energy

  16. Henry's law constant for phosphine in seawater: determination and assessment of influencing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Mei; Yu, Zhiming; Lu, Guangyuan; Song, Xiuxian

    2013-07-01

    The Henry's Law constant ( k) for phosphine in seawater was determined by multiple phase equilibration combined with headspace gas chromatography. The effects of pH, temperature, and salinity on k were studied. The k value for phosphine in natural seawater was 6.415 at room temperature (approximately 23°C). This value increases with increases in temperature and salinity, but no obvious change was observed at different pH levels. At the same temperature, there was no significant difference between the k for phosphine in natural seawater and that in artificial seawater. This implies that temperature and salinity are major determining factors for k in marine environment. Double linear regression with Henry's Law constants for phosphine as a function of temperature and salinity confirmed our observations. These results provide a basis for the measurement of trace phosphine concentrations in seawater, and will be helpful for future research on the status of phosphine in the oceanic biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus.

  17. Mercury and cadmium uptake from seawater and from food by the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus

    SciTech Connect

    Canli, M.; Furness, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    Norway lobsters, nephrops norvegicus, were fed on a mercury- and cadmium-rich diet for up to 50 d or were exposed to sublethal concentrations of organic mercury, inorganic mercury, or cadmium in seawater for 30 d. Cadmium taken up from seawater accumulated mainly in the hepatopancreas and gill, while it accumulated mainly in the hepatopancreas after feeding. Both organic and inorganic mercury taken up from seawater accumulated mainly in the gill, while highest concentrations were found in the hepatopancreas after the feeding experiment. Accumulation of organic mercury was higher than that of inorganic mercury. Although all treatments resulted in the accumulation of mercury and cadmium from seawater and food, tissue distribution of metals differed significantly among treatments. Distributions of organic and inorganic mercury also varied among tissues after uptake from seawater, with organic mercury being more evenly distributed among tissues than inorganic mercury, the latter being found predominantly in the gill.

  18. Direct Determination of Cadmium in Seawater by Standard Addition ICP-QMS/QMS with an ORC.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbei; Itoh, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    A method for direct and precise determination of Cd in seawater by ICP-QMS/QMS was developed, where a high matrix introducing unit permitted the direct introduction of seawater without clogging the cones while the matrix effect of seawater was canceled by standard addition. NH3 gas was selected as the reaction gas for removing the MoO interferences with the measurement of Cd isotopes, effectively improving the signal to background ratio. The lower limit of detection obtained at (114)Cd was 0.0002 ng mL(-1), which is enough for the determination of Cd in natural seawater. The validity of the present method was confirmed by the analysis of two certified reference materials, i.e. NASS-5 and NASS-6, whose observed values of Cd concentration agreed with the certified values. The analytical figures of merit of the present method were comparable to or better than those reported for direct analysis of seawater.

  19. On the seawater temperature dependence of the sea spray aerosol generated by a continuous plunging jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, M. E.; Nilsson, E. D.; Butcher, A.; Bilde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Breaking waves on the ocean surface produce bubbles which, upon bursting, deliver seawater constituents into the atmosphere as sea spray aerosol particles. One way of investigating this process in the laboratory is to generate a bubble plume by a continuous plunging jet. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to elucidate the role of seawater temperature on aerosol production from artificial seawater free from organic contamination using a plunging jet. The seawater temperature was varied from -1.3°C to 30.1°C, while the volume of air entrained by the jet, surface bubble size distributions, and size distribution of the aerosol particles produced was monitored. We observed that the volume of air entrained decreased as the seawater temperature was increased. The number of surface bubbles with film radius smaller than 2 mm decreased nonlinearly with seawater temperature. This decrease was coincident with a substantial reduction in particle production. The number concentrations of particles with dry diameter less than ˜1 μm decreased substantially as the seawater temperature was increased from -1.3°C to ˜9°C. With further increase in seawater temperature (up to 30°C), a small increase in the number concentration of larger particles (dry diameter >˜0.3 μm) was observed. Based on these observations, we infer that as seawater temperature increases, the process of bubble fragmentation changes, resulting in decreased air entrainment by the plunging jet, as well as the number of bubbles with film radius smaller than 2 mm. This again results in decreased particle production with increasing seawater temperature.

  20. Cathodic properties of different stainless steels in natural seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, R.; Bardal, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cathodic properties of a number of stainless steels, which were exposed to natural seawater flowing at 0 to 2.5 m/s and polarized to potentials from -300 to -950 mV SCE, have been studied. The current density development at constant potential and the free corrosion potential during the exposure time were recorded continuously. At the end of the exposure period, after approximately 28 to 36 days of exposure, polarization curves were determined. After one to three weeks of exposure, depending on the water velocity, microbiological activity on the surface caused an increase in the current density requirement of the specimen. An explanation for the mechanism behind the current density increase caused by slime production from marine bacteria may be increased exchange current density, i/sub 0/. There was no measurable calcareous deposit on the stainless steel surfaces at the end of the exposure periods.

  1. Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings. PMID:22736986

  2. Wireless sensor node for surface seawater density measurements.

    PubMed

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes' law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  3. Quantitation of Staphylococcus aureus in seawater using CHROMagar SA.

    PubMed

    Tice, Alan D; Pombo, David; Hui, Jennifer; Kurano, Michelle; Bankowski, Matthew J; Seifried, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    A microbiological algorithm has been developed to analyze beach water samples for the determination of viable colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Membrane filtration enumeration of S. aureus from recreational beach waters using the chromogenic media CHROMagar SA alone yields a positive predictive value (PPV) of 70%. Presumptive CHROMagar SA colonies were confirmed as S. aureus by 24-hour tube coagulase test. Combined, these two tests yield a PPV of 100%. This algorithm enables accurate quantitation of S. aureus in seawater in 72 hours and could support risk-prediction processes for recreational waters. A more rapid protocol, utilizing a 4-hour tube coagulase confirmatory test, enables a 48-hour turnaround time with a modest false negative rate of less than 10%.

  4. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of hot dip coating in artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hu-Yuan; Hou, Bao-Rong; Ma, Shi-de; Wei, Xu-Jun

    1999-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of a zinc-based alloy (compared with that of pure zinc) coating was studied in this research on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of hot dip coating in artificial seawater. The electrochemical parameters of these two hot dip coatings were measured by the galvanostatic method and accelerated corrosion test. The two coatings showed uniform corrosion, but the corrosion of the pure zinc coating was actively sustained continuously. The corrosion of the zinc-based alloy coating was very slow because of the formation of a stable anti-corrosion membrane. The corrosion mechanisms of these two coatings were also compared by the weak polarization curve fitting method. The corrosion of the zinc-based alloy coating is typical of that in natural passive corrosion system.

  5. Cl-36 in polar ice, rainwater and seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkel, R. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Elmore, D.; Ferraro, R. D.; Gove, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of the cosmogenic radioisotope Cl-36 in Antarctic ice, rain, and an upper limit of the seawater value are determined using van de Graaff accelerator high energy mass spectrometry. Cl-36 concentrations in Antarctic ice range between 2.5 to 8.7 x 10 to the 6th atoms Cl-36/kg, while those concentrations in samples collected at the Alan Hills ice field locations where meteorites have been brought to the surface by glacial flow and ablation are found to vary by more than a factor of three. This variation is attributed either to the effects of atmospheric mixing and scavenging or to radioactive decay in old ice. The Cl-36 concentration found in a present sample of rainwater is much lower than that reported in samples collected in the early 1960's, suggesting the occurrence of a decrease in the concentration of atmospheric Cl-36 derived from nuclear weapons tests over this time period.

  6. Corrosion fatigue of high strength fastener materials in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipton, D. G.

    1983-12-01

    Environmental effects which significantly reduce the fatigue life of metals are discussed. Corrosion fatigue is a major concern in the engineering application of high strength fasteners in marine environments. The corrosion fatigue failure of an AISI 41L4O high strength steel blade to hub attachment bolt at the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator was investigated. The reduction of fatigue strength of AISI 41L4O in marine environments and to obtain similar corrosion fatigue data for candidate replacement materials was studied. The AISI 4140, PH 13-8Mo stainless steel, alloy 718 and alloy MP-35N were tested in axial fatigue at a frequency of 20 Hz in dry air and natural seawater. The fatigue data are fitted by regression equations to allow determination of fatigue strength for a given number of cycles to failure.

  7. Cadmium Isotope Fractionation in Seawater - A Signature of Nutrient Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichtlhuber, S.; Rehkaemper, M.; Halliday, A. N.

    2005-12-01

    Cadmium displays a nutrient-like distribution akin to phosphorous in the oceans. This has been attributed to the assimilation of Cd by phytoplankton in surface waters and re-mineralization at depth. If biological uptake is associated with kinetic isotopic fractionation, as recently suggested by Lacan et al. (2005), then the Cd-depleted surface waters of the oceans (with Cd contents of < 0.08 nmol/kg) should be depleted in the "light" isotopes of Cd, relative to the bottom waters, which typically have Cd concentrations of 0.2 to 1 nmol/kg. Previous investigations were, however, unable to identify any significant Cd isotope effects in either seawater samples or sedimentary rocks (Wombacher et. al, 2003; Lacan et al., 2005). In this study, we have extended the search for Cd isotope variations in the oceans with analyses of two depth profiles and various additional seawater samples from the North Pacific, the Arctic, and the Southern Ocean. The Cd isotope measurements utilized a double spike technique in conjunction with multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), to achieve a precision and accuracy of about ± 0.8 to 1.5 ɛ114/110Cd. This precision is about a factor of 3 to 4 better than that of previous studies, which did not utilize a double spike. The data collected for the samples display a clear co-variation of Cd isotope compositions with Cd concentrations. The most Cd-rich water samples (with ~1 nmol/kg Cd) display the "lightest" Cd isotope compositions with ɛ114/110Cd ~ +3, akin to results previously obtained for crustal and mantle rocks (Wombacher et. al, 2003). In contrast, samples from the upper water column of the North Pacific (with < 0.02 nmol/kg Cd) have the heaviest Cd isotope compositions with ɛ114/110Cd values of up to +35. To a first order, the Cd isotope and concentration data can be accounted for with a simple, single-stage Rayleigh fractionation model that applies a fractionation factor of about 1.0002 to 1

  8. Geologic CO2 Capture via Reaction of Seawater with Peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.

    2010-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 occurring at or above predicted rates, together with slow progress on US and international support for CO2 capture and storage, renders it likely that CO2 levels in the atmosphere will reach 500 ppmv or more, which may be too high to sustain an acceptable standard of living. Thus, “negative CO2 emissions” may become necessary. Kelemen & Matter (PNAS 2008) proposed reaction of seawater with peridotite in situ as a route to negative emissions. Drilling and fracturing exposed peridotite beneath the seafloor would stimulate porous, thermal convection of seawater. Reaction would remove CO2 from the water, forming solid carbonates. Return of CO2-depleted water to the sea surface would draw down atmospheric CO2. This combines geologic CO2 capture and solid storage, and avoids the cost of industrial CO2 capture, transport and injection. Here I quantify this proposed method. Peridotite reacts with surface waters to form hydrous silicates and solid carbonate minerals such as magnesite, dolomite and calcite. Fully carbonated peridotite - in which all Mg and Ca form carbonate minerals - contains about 35 wt% CO2; 1 km3 of carbonated peridotite can contain up to ~ 1 Gt of CO2. Geologic examples demonstrate that full carbonation is possible. Plate tectonics brings mantle peridotite from beneath the crust to the surface. Most is present near slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. These ridges have a collective length of more than 60,000 km and form ~ 8 million km3 of oceanic crust per million years given a 7 km thickness. Newly formed crust flanking slow spreading ridges is 5-15% peridotite. It is gradually buried by sediments, but is within 100 m of the seafloor for more than 10 km on either side of the ridge (~ 106 Gt of accessible peridotite within 3 km of the seafloor). Onland exposures of peridotite include thrust slices of oceanic crust and upper mantle known as ophiolites. The largest, the Oman ophiolite, contains about 16,000 km3 of peridotite

  9. Lubrication and tribology in seawater hydraulic piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Li, Zhuang-Yun; Zhu, Yu-Quan

    2003-06-01

    Water hydraulic systems have provoked major interest because of the human friendly and environmental safety aspects. Piston pump is one of the most frequently used hydraulic units in recent engineering technique. In water hydraulic piston pump, poor lubrication is more likely to happen than in oil hydraulic one because of difference in properties between water and oil. So there are some key problems such as corrosive wear and erosion, which are investigated briefly. Many new materials have been developed, which give longer life expectancies with water without corrosion and erosion. A new type of seawater hydraulic piston pumps with better suction characteristics had been developed at HUST. Much of this research has concentrated on new materials, structure and experiments, which are also specially introduced.

  10. Geochemistry of Precambrian carbonates. V - Late Paleoproterozoic seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veizer, Jan; Plumb, K. A.; Clayton, R. N.; Hinton, R. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    A study of mineralogy, chemistry, and isotopic composition of the Coronation Supergroup (about 1.9 Ga, NWT), Canada, and the McArthur Group (about 1.65 NT), Australia, is reported in order to obtain better constrained data for the first- and second-order variations in the isotopic composition of late Paleoproterozoic (1.9 +/- 0.2 Ga) seawater. Petrologically, both carbonate sequences are mostly dolostones. The McArthur population contains more abundant textural features that attest to the former presence of sulfates and halite, and the facies investigated represent ancient equivalents of modern evaporitic sabkhas and lacustrine playa lakes. It is suggested that dolomitization was an early diagenetic event and that the O-18 depletion of the Archean to late Paleoproterozoic carbonates is not an artifact of postdepositional alteration.

  11. Subduction of Seawater Explains MORB and OIB Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G.; Ballentine, C.

    2005-12-01

    Noble gas isotopes in magmatic CO2 well gases provide a unique insight into mantle volatile origin and dynamics. Previous work on CO2 well gas from Bravo Dome, New Mexico has for the first time enabled the mantle He/Ne/Ar/Kr isotopic and elemental abundance to be determined without the ambiguity associated with air contamination in typical mantle samples. This has allowed: i) resolution of the mantle 20Ne/22Ne ratios, confirming a Solar wind irradiated meteoritic source for mantle He and Ne; ii) determination of the mantle 40Ar/36Ar ratio and; iii) determination of the relative elemental abundance of He/Ne/Ar/Kr in the well gas mantle source (Ballentine et al., 2005a). We have re-sampled this gas field with more focus on the mantle rich portion of the field and extended the analyses to include Xe abundance and isotopic composition. He and Ne, in the Earth's mantle preserve a Solar-like isotopic composition. In contrast, Ar and Kr preserve an isotopic composition indistinguishable from that of the modern atmosphere, after correction for radiogenic additions. In addition to the air-like and radiogenic components, Xe shows correlated non-radiogenic 124Xe, 126Xe and 128Xe excesses. These show up to a 10 percent primordial/Solar contribution to these isotopes and confirm earlier work on a single sample (Caffee et al., 1999). With multiple samples we can now correct for air contamination and show the proportion of air-like Xe to Primordial/Solar Xe in the convecting mantle to be ~0.8. After correction for the primordial Xe component, we further show that the elemental composition of the non-radiogenic heavy noble gases in the convecting mantle is indistinguishable from that of seawater. We discuss the consequences of seawater recycling for other volatiles (water, D/H, nitrogen) and argue that this is indeed the most likely source of heavy noble gases in the mantle. This requires that the noble gas subduction barrier (Staudacher and Allegre, 1988) is not effective

  12. Geochemistry of Precambrian carbonates. V - Late Paleoproterozoic seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veizer, Jan; Plumb, K. A.; Clayton, R. N.; Hinton, R. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    A study of mineralogy, chemistry, and isotopic composition of the Coronation Supergroup (about 1.9 Ga, NWT), Canada, and the McArthur Group (about 1.65 NT), Australia, is reported in order to obtain better constrained data for the first- and second-order variations in the isotopic composition of late Paleoproterozoic (1.9 +/- 0.2 Ga) seawater. Petrologically, both carbonate sequences are mostly dolostones. The McArthur population contains more abundant textural features that attest to the former presence of sulfates and halite, and the facies investigated represent ancient equivalents of modern evaporitic sabkhas and lacustrine playa lakes. It is suggested that dolomitization was an early diagenetic event and that the O-18 depletion of the Archean to late Paleoproterozoic carbonates is not an artifact of postdepositional alteration.

  13. Corrosion fatigue of high strength fastener materials in seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Environmental effects which significantly reduce the fatigue life of metals are discussed. Corrosion fatigue is a major concern in the engineering application of high strength fasteners in marine environments. The corrosion fatigue failure of an AISI 41L4O high strength steel blade to hub attachment bolt at the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator was investigated. The reduction of fatigue strength of AISI 41L4O in marine environments and to obtain similar corrosion fatigue data for candidate replacement materials was studied. The AISI 4140, PH 13-8Mo stainless steel, alloy 718 and alloy MP-35N were tested in axial fatigue at a frequency of 20 Hz in dry air and natural seawater. The fatigue data are fitted by regression equations to allow determination of fatigue strength for a given number of cycles to failure.

  14. Crevice and pitting corrosion behavior of stainless steels in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Zaragoza-Ayala, A.E.; Orozco-Cruz, R.

    1999-11-01

    Pitting and crevice corrosion tests in natural seawater were performed on a series of stainless steels (i.e., S31603, N08904, S32304, S31803, S32520, N08925 and S31266) in order to determine their resistance to these types of localized corrosion. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements for these alloys show for short exposure times an ennoblement in the OCP. After a certain time, occasional fall and rise in the OCP values was observed, which can be related to nucleation and repassivation of pits and/or crevices on the metal surface. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior and microscopic observations shows that only S31603 and S32304 alloys were susceptible to crevice and pitting corrosion, whereas the remaining alloys exhibited good resistance. Pitting potentials determined by the potentiodynamic technique also show S3 1603 and S32304 are susceptible to pitting corrosion under the experimental conditions used in this work.

  15. Determination of humic substances in seawater by electrochemistry (mechanisms)

    SciTech Connect

    Quentel, F.; Madec, C.; Courtot-Coupez, J.

    1987-01-01

    A new method for the measurement of the concentration of humic substances (HS) in seawater is described. The peak obtained by differential cathodic sweep voltammetry after HS adsorption in the presence of traces of molybdenum(VI) can be used for quantitative determination. Measurements using various electrochemical techniques, alternating current polarography, cyclic voltammetry, and adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry, would indicate that the film adsorbed onto the electrode is the result of the adsorption of the organic substance in a first step followed in a subsequent step by the formation of a surface complex (Mo(VI)-HS)/sub ads/ rather than the direct adsorption of the dissolved complex. The electrochemical mechanism corresponds to a one-electron reduction of the adsorbed (Mo(VI)-HS)/sub ads/complex to the corresponding (Mo(V)-HS)/sub ads/ complex. 15 references, 6 figures.

  16. Geochemistry of Precambrian carbonates. V - Late Paleoproterozoic seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizer, Jan; Plumb, K. A.; Clayton, R. N.; Hinton, R. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1992-06-01

    A study of mineralogy, chemistry, and isotopic composition of the Coronation Supergroup (about 1.9 Ga, NWT), Canada, and the McArthur Group (about 1.65 NT), Australia, is reported in order to obtain better constrained data for the first- and second-order variations in the isotopic composition of late Paleoproterozoic (1.9 +/- 0.2 Ga) seawater. Petrologically, both carbonate sequences are mostly dolostones. The McArthur population contains more abundant textural features that attest to the former presence of sulfates and halite, and the facies investigated represent ancient equivalents of modern evaporitic sabkhas and lacustrine playa lakes. It is suggested that dolomitization was an early diagenetic event and that the O-18 depletion of the Archean to late Paleoproterozoic carbonates is not an artifact of postdepositional alteration.

  17. Simulation of apparent optical properties in different seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campoy, Jesús; Alcarria, Ramón; González-Marcos, Ana

    2015-08-01

    In both optical oceanography (bio-optical) and biophotonics, one of the main objectives is to be able to simulate the propagation of light in heterogeneous turbid media. The most widely used approach is the Monte Carlo method which is a standard for its flexibility and reliability in modeling the geometry of a heterogeneous system. Seawater has been selected as an object of study because advantages in recent years in photonic technologies have improved experimental methods for analyzing waters. Original simulation results are presented in the analysis of water with different concentrations of phytoplankton, with the aim to facilitate the characterization of different types of water. The method reveals the differences that can be found in the characterization and diagnosis of water. The intent of this work is to show how it is possible to identify a type of water, according to the concentration of phytoplankton, being obtained by commercial simulation software.

  18. Kinetics of Inorganic Calcite Dissolution in Seawater under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.; Subhas, A.; Rollins, N.; Berelson, W.; Adkins, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    While understanding calcium carbonate dissolution is vital in constructing global carbon cycles and predicting the effect of seawater acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2, there is still a major debate over the basic formulation of a dissolution rate law. The kinetics of calcium carbonate dissolution are typically described by the equation: Rate=k(1-Ω)n, while Ω=[Ca2+][CO32-]/Ksp. In this study, 13C-labeled calcite is dissolved in unlabeled seawater and the evolving d13C composition of the fluid is traced over time to establish dissolution rate. Instead of changing ion concentration to obtain varying Ω (as in our previous study; Subhas et al. 2015), we changed Ksp by conducting experiments under different pressures (described in theory as ∂lnKsp/∂P=-ΔV/RT, where ΔV is partial molal volume). This involved the construction of a pressure vessel that could hold our sample bag and provide aliquots while remaining pressurized. Pressure experiments were conducted between 0-2000PSI. Results support the conclusion in our previous study that near-equilibrium dissolution rates are highly nonlinear, but give a disparate relationship between undersaturation and dissolution rate if Ω is calculated assuming the specific ΔV embedded in CO2SYS. A revised ΔV from -37cm3 to -65cm3 would make the dissolution formulation equation agree, but clearly appears unreasonable. Our results are explained by a pressure effect on carbonate dissolution kinetics over and above the influence of pressure on Ω. If this is a phenomenon that occurs in nature, then we would predict that dissolution should be occurring shallower in the water column (as sometimes observed) than indicated by standard Ω calculations.

  19. Effects of seawater acidification on a coral reef meiofauna community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmento, V. C.; Souza, T. P.; Esteves, A. M.; Santos, P. J. P.

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing risk that ocean acidification will modify benthic communities, great uncertainty remains about how this impact will affect the lower trophic levels, such as members of the meiofauna. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of water acidification on a phytal meiofauna community from a coral reef. Community samples collected from the coral reef subtidal zone (Recife de Fora Municipal Marine Park, Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil), using artificial substrate units, were exposed to a control pH (ambient seawater) and to three levels of seawater acidification (pH reductions of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 units below ambient) and collected after 15 and 30 d. After 30 d of exposure, major changes in the structure of the meiofauna community were observed in response to reduced pH. The major meiofauna groups showed divergent responses to acidification. Harpacticoida and Polychaeta densities did not show significant differences due to pH. Nematoda, Ostracoda, Turbellaria, and Tardigrada exhibited their highest densities in low-pH treatments (especially at the pH reduction of 0.6 units, pH 7.5), while harpacticoid nauplii were strongly negatively affected by low pH. This community-based mesocosm study supports previous suggestions that ocean acidification induces important changes in the structure of marine benthic communities. Considering the importance of meiofauna in the food web of coral reef ecosystems, the results presented here demonstrate that the trophic functioning of coral reefs is seriously threatened by ocean acidification.

  20. Responses to high seawater temperatures in zooxanthellate octocorals.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Strychar, Kevin B

    2013-01-01

    Increases in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) as a result of global warming have caused reef-building scleractinian corals to bleach worldwide, a result of the loss of obligate endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Since the 1980's, bleaching severity and frequency has increased, in some cases causing mass mortality of corals. Earlier experiments have demonstrated that zooxanthellae in scleractinian corals from three families from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (Faviidae, Poritidae, and Acroporidae) are more sensitive to heat stress than their hosts, exhibiting differential symptoms of programmed cell death - apoptosis and necrosis. Most zooxanthellar phylotypes are dying during expulsion upon release from the host. The host corals appear to be adapted or exapted to the heat increases. We attempt to determine whether this adaptation/exaptation occurs in octocorals by examining the heat-sensitivities of zooxanthellae and their host octocoral alcyonacean soft corals - Sarcophyton ehrenbergi (Alcyoniidae), Sinularia lochmodes (Alcyoniidae), and Xenia elongata (Xeniidae), species from two different families. The soft coral holobionts were subjected to experimental seawater temperatures of 28, 30, 32, 34, and 36°C for 48 hrs. Host and zooxanthellar cells were examined for viability, apoptosis, and necrosis (in hospite and expelled) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescent microscopy (FM), and flow cytometry (FC). As experimental temperatures increased, zooxanthellae generally exhibited apoptotic and necrotic symptoms at lower temperatures than host cells and were expelled. Responses varied species-specifically. Soft coral hosts were adapted/exapted to higher seawater temperatures than their zooxanthellae. As with the scleractinians, the zooxanthellae appear to be the limiting factor for survival of the holobiont in the groups tested, in this region. These limits have now been shown to operate in six species within five families and two orders of the Cnidaria

  1. Chloroform extraction of iodine in seawater: method development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, H. B.; Glimme, A.; Tumey, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    While 129I poses little to no radiological health hazard, the isotopic ratio of 129I to stable iodine is very useful as a nearly conservative tracer for ocean mixing processes. The unfortunate disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant released many radioactive materials into the environment, including 129I. The release allows the studying of oceanic processes through the tracking of 129I. However, with such a low iodine (~0.5 micromolar) and 129I concentrations (<10-11) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is needed for accurate measurements. In order to prepare the samples of ocean water for analysis by AMS, the iodine needs to be separated from the various other salts in the seawater. Solvent extraction is the preferred method for preparation of seawater for AMS analysis of 129I. However, given the relatively low background 129I concentrations in the Pacific Ocean, we sought to optimize recovery of thismethod, which would minimize both the sample size and the carrier addition required for analysis. We started from a base method described in other research and worked towards maximum efficiency of the process while boosting the recovery of iodine. During development, we assessed each methodological change qualitatively using a color scale (I2 in CHCl3) and quantitatively using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The "optimized method" yielded a 20-40% increase in recovery of the iodine compared to the base method (80-85% recovery vs. 60%). Lastly, the "optimized method" was tested by AMS for fractionation of the extracted iodine.

  2. Effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development in aquaculture tanks.

    PubMed

    Wietz, Matthias; Hall, Michael R; Høj, Lone

    2009-07-01

    Microbial biofilms developing in aquaculture tanks represent a reservoir for opportunistic bacterial pathogens, and procedures to control formation and bacterial composition of biofilms are important for the development of commercially viable aquaculture industries. This study investigated the effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development on microscope glass slides placed in small-scale aquaculture tanks containing the live feed organism Artemia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated that ozonation accelerated the biofilm formation cycle, while it delayed the establishment of filamentous bacteria. Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups in the biofilm for both water types, but ozonation influenced their dynamics. With ozonation, the bacterial community structure was relatively stable and dominated by Gammaproteobacteria throughout the experiment (21-66% of total bacteria). Without ozonation, the community showed larger fluctuations, and Alphaproteobacteria emerged as dominant after 18 days (up to 54% of total bacteria). Ozonation of seawater also affected the dynamics of less abundant populations in the biofilm such as Betaproteobacteria, Planctomycetales and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium branch of phylum Bacteroidetes. The abundance of Thiothrix, a bacterial genus capable of filamentous growth and fouling of larvae, increased with time for both water types, while no temporal trend could be detected for the genus Vibrio. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated temporal changes in the dominant bacterial populations for both water types. Sequencing of DGGE bands confirmed the FISH data, and sequences were related to bacterial groups commonly found in biofilms of aquaculture systems. Several populations were closely related to organisms involved in sulfur cycling. Improved Artemia survival rates in tanks receiving ozonated water suggested a positive effect of ozonation on animal

  3. Responses to High Seawater Temperatures in Zooxanthellate Octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Sammarco, Paul W.; Strychar, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) as a result of global warming have caused reef-building scleractinian corals to bleach worldwide, a result of the loss of obligate endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Since the 1980’s, bleaching severity and frequency has increased, in some cases causing mass mortality of corals. Earlier experiments have demonstrated that zooxanthellae in scleractinian corals from three families from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (Faviidae, Poritidae, and Acroporidae) are more sensitive to heat stress than their hosts, exhibiting differential symptoms of programmed cell death – apoptosis and necrosis. Most zooxanthellar phylotypes are dying during expulsion upon release from the host. The host corals appear to be adapted or exapted to the heat increases. We attempt to determine whether this adaptation/exaptation occurs in octocorals by examining the heat-sensitivities of zooxanthellae and their host octocoral alcyonacean soft corals – Sarcophyton ehrenbergi (Alcyoniidae), Sinularia lochmodes (Alcyoniidae), and Xenia elongata (Xeniidae), species from two different families. The soft coral holobionts were subjected to experimental seawater temperatures of 28, 30, 32, 34, and 36°C for 48 hrs. Host and zooxanthellar cells were examined for viability, apoptosis, and necrosis (in hospite and expelled) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescent microscopy (FM), and flow cytometry (FC). As experimental temperatures increased, zooxanthellae generally exhibited apoptotic and necrotic symptoms at lower temperatures than host cells and were expelled. Responses varied species-specifically. Soft coral hosts were adapted/exapted to higher seawater temperatures than their zooxanthellae. As with the scleractinians, the zooxanthellae appear to be the limiting factor for survival of the holobiont in the groups tested, in this region. These limits have now been shown to operate in six species within five families and two orders of the

  4. Enriched Seawater Delivery System to Support In Situ Ocean Acidification Experiments using Carbon Dioxide for pH Adjustment of Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, W. J.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Shane, F.; Kecy, C.; Headley, K. L.; Herlien, B.; Maughan, T.; Scholfield, J.; Salamy, K. A.; O'Reilly, T.; Brewer, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    A series of Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) experiments are underway or are in planning to perform in situ ocean acidification research at a number of locations around the world. One of the most challenging locations is in Monterey Bay at the site of the Monterey Accelerated Research System, the United States test facility for cabled observatories. This site is located at 890 m deep and 4 0C within the local oxygen minimum zone and approximately 50 kilometers from shore. At this depth and temperature the behavior of liquid CO2 presents various challenges that had to be addressed in order to provide the low pH seawater needed for the FOCE apparatus to perform as desired. To solve this challenge a team of engineers and scientists at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have developed a standalone device referred to as the Enriched Seawater Delivery System. Simple injections of seawater saturated at one atmosphere with CO2 demonstrated that the FOCE unit itself performs as designed. However, providing a consistent source of CO2 enriched pH altered seawater within the design criteria proved to be an imposing problem which when solved could have a broader impact in the oceanographic community. The decision was made to build a stand-alone device separate from the FOCE flume to perform in situ CO2 experiments in conditions where CO2 hydrate can form. Challenges to be over-come by this work included: (1) liquid CO2 is buoyant at the prescribed depth; (2) minimizing the formation of hydrates while manufacturing the CO2 enriched seawater. Because CO2 hydrate is denser than seawater, management of the phases and stability of liquid CO2 was necessary to prevent clogging within the delivery system. Our earliest field experiments demonstrated that containing and controlling the CO2 and the CO2-enriched seawater is difficult and makes the metering of the enriched fluid with on demand milliliter per second precision an extremely challenging problem. The Enriched

  5. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    PubMed

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident.

  6. Plutonium determination in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liguo; Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    Knowing the concentration and isotopic ratio of Pu in seawater is of critical importance for assessing Pu contamination and investigating oceanic processes. In recent decades, the concentration of (239+240)Pu in seawater, particularly for surface seawater, has presented an exponential decreasing trend with time; thus determination of Pu in seawater has become a challenge nowadays. Here, we have summarized and critically discussed a variety of reported analytical methods for Pu determination in seawater sample based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analytical technique for rapid ultra-trace detection of Pu. Generally, pretreatments for seawater sample include co-precipitation, valence adjustment and chemical separation and purification procedures, all of which are comprehensively reviewed. Overall, the selected anion-exchange, extraction resins and operation condition are important for decontamination of interference from matrix elements and achieving satisfactory chemical yields. In addition, other mass spectrometric and radiometric detections are briefly addressed and compared with the focus on assessing ICP-MS. Finally, we discuss some issues and prospects in determination and application of Pu isotopes in seawater samples for future research.

  7. Application of SEAWAT to select variable-density and viscosity problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dausman, Alyssa M.; Langevin, Christian D.; Thorne, Danny T.; Sukop, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    SEAWAT is a combined version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS, designed to simulate three-dimensional, variable-density, saturated groundwater flow. The most recent version of the SEAWAT program, SEAWAT Version 4 (or SEAWAT_V4), supports equations of state for fluid density and viscosity. In SEAWAT_V4, fluid density can be calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species, and optionally, fluid pressure. Fluid viscosity is calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species, and the program also includes additional functions for representing the dependence of fluid viscosity on temperature. This report documents testing of and experimentation with SEAWAT_V4 with six previously published problems that include various combinations of density-dependent flow due to temperature variations and/or concentration variations of one or more species. Some of the problems also include variations in viscosity that result from temperature differences in water and oil. Comparisons between the results of SEAWAT_V4 and other published results are generally consistent with one another, with minor differences considered acceptable.

  8. A Descriptive Study of Open Fractures Contaminated by Seawater: Infection, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongyi; Li, Xingwei; Zheng, Xianyou

    2017-01-01

    Aims. In this work, the main objectives were to investigate the clinical characteristics and bacterial spectrum present in open fractures contaminated by seawater. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and included all patients with open fractures from 1st January, 2012, to 31st December, 2015, in our hospital. Patients were grouped based on the presence of seawater contamination in wounds. We compared the infection rate, bacterial spectrum, and antibiotic resistance between the two groups. Results. We totally included 1337 cases of open fracture. Wounds from 107 cases (8.0%) were contaminated by seawater. The wound infection rate of seawater-contaminated group was significantly higher in patients with Gustilo-Anderson Type II and Type III open fractures. The bacterial spectrum from seawater-contaminated wounds was remarkably different from that of the remaining. Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that more than 90% of infecting pathogens in seawater-contaminated wounds were sensitive to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion. Cephalosporin in combination with quinolone was recommended in the early-stage management of open fractures contaminated by seawater.

  9. Effects of fresh and seawater ingestion on osmoregulation in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Sam; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

    2010-04-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are marine mammals with body water needs challenged by little access to fresh water and constant exposure to salt water. Osmoregulation has been studied in marine mammals for a century. Research assessing the effects of ingested fresh water or seawater in dolphins, however, has been limited to few animals and sampling times. Nine 16- to 25-h studies were conducted on eight adult dolphins to assess the hourly impact of fresh water, seawater, and seawater with protein ingestion on plasma and urine osmolality, urine flow rate (ufr), urinary and plasma solute concentrations, and solute clearance rates. Fresh water ingestion increased ufr. Fresh water ingestion also decreased plasma and urine osmolality, sodium and chloride urine concentrations, and solute excretion rates. Seawater ingestion resulted in increased ufr, sodium, chloride, and potassium urine concentrations, sodium excretion rates, and urine osmolality. Seawater with protein ingestion was associated with increased ufr, plasma osmolality, sodium excretion, and sodium, chloride, potassium, and urea urine concentrations. In conclusion, bottlenose dolphins appear to maintain water and plasma solute balance after ingesting fresh water or seawater by altering urine osmolality and solute clearance. Ingestion of protein with seawater appears to further push osmoregulation limits and urine solute concentrations in dolphins.

  10. A Descriptive Study of Open Fractures Contaminated by Seawater: Infection, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongyi

    2017-01-01

    Aims. In this work, the main objectives were to investigate the clinical characteristics and bacterial spectrum present in open fractures contaminated by seawater. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and included all patients with open fractures from 1st January, 2012, to 31st December, 2015, in our hospital. Patients were grouped based on the presence of seawater contamination in wounds. We compared the infection rate, bacterial spectrum, and antibiotic resistance between the two groups. Results. We totally included 1337 cases of open fracture. Wounds from 107 cases (8.0%) were contaminated by seawater. The wound infection rate of seawater-contaminated group was significantly higher in patients with Gustilo-Anderson Type II and Type III open fractures. The bacterial spectrum from seawater-contaminated wounds was remarkably different from that of the remaining. Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that more than 90% of infecting pathogens in seawater-contaminated wounds were sensitive to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion. Cephalosporin in combination with quinolone was recommended in the early-stage management of open fractures contaminated by seawater. PMID:28303249

  11. Seawater-drowning-induced acute lung injury: From molecular mechanisms to potential treatments

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Faguang; Li, Congcong

    2017-01-01

    Drowning is a crucial public safety problem and is the third leading cause of accidental fatality, claiming ~372,000 lives annually, worldwide. In near-drowning patients, acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most common complications. Approximately 1/3 of near-drowning patients fulfill the criteria for ALI or ARDS. In the present article, the current literature of near-drowning, pathophysiologic changes and the molecular mechanisms of seawater-drowning-induced ALI and ARDS was reviewed. Seawater is three times more hyperosmolar than plasma, and following inhalation of seawater the hyperosmotic seawater may cause serious injury in the lung and alveoli. The perturbing effects of seawater may be primarily categorized into insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant, blood-air barrier disruption, formation of pulmonary edema, inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and various other hypertonic stimulation. Potential treatments for seawater-induced ALI/ARDS were also presented, in addition to suggestions for further studies. A total of nine therapeutic strategies had been tested and all had focused on modulating the over-activated immunoreactions. In conclusion, seawater drowning is a complex injury process and the exact mechanisms and potential treatments require further exploration. PMID:28587319

  12. Effect of sunlight on the infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum in seawater.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Abid M; Telser, Lital; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in seawater can result in waterborne and food borne outbreaks. This study was performed to determine the effect of sunlight and salinity on the die-off of Cryptosporidium parvum. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Escherichia coli, and MS2 coliphage were seeded into tap water and seawater samples and then exposed to sunlight. The die-off of C. parvum in seawater, as measured by infectivity, was greater under sunlight (-3.08 log10) than under dark conditions (-1.31 log10). While, no significant difference was recorded in the die-off of C. parvum, under dark conditions, in tap water as compared to seawater (P < 0.05), indicating that the synergistic effect of salinity and sunlight was responsible for the enhanced die-off in seawater. The die-off of MS2 coliphage and E. coli was greater than that observed for C. parvum under all tested conditions. This indicates that these microorganisms cannot serve as indicators for the presence of C. parvum oocysts in seawaters. The results of the study suggest that C. parvum can persist as infectious oocysts for a long time in seawater and can thus pose a serious hazard by direct and indirect contact with humans.

  13. Predatory Bacteria as Natural Modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Seawater and Oysters

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Johnna P.; Dickens, Keyana A.; Parent, Michelle A.; Soroka, Douglas S.; Boyd, E. Fidelma

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The pathogens examined were V. vulnificus strain VV1003, V. parahaemolyticus O1:KUT (KUT stands for K untypeable), and V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and corresponding O3:K6 mutants deficient in the toxRS virulence regulatory gene or the rpoS alternative stress response sigma factor gene. Vibrios were selected for streptomycin resistance, which facilitated their enumeration. In natural seawater, oysters bioconcentrated each Vibrio strain for 24 h at 22°C; however, counts rapidly declined to near negligible levels by 72 h. In natural seawater with or without oysters, vibrios decreased more than 3 log units to near negligible levels within 72 h. Neither toxRS nor rpoS had a significant effect on Vibrio levels. In autoclaved seawater, V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 counts increased 1,000-fold over 72 h. Failure of the vibrios to persist in natural seawater and oysters led to screening of the water samples for VPB on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 host cells. Many VPB, including Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs; Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Bacteriovorax stolpii) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus-like predators, were detected by plaque assay and electron microscopic analysis of plaque-purified isolates from Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Hawaiian seawater. When V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 was added to natural seawater containing trace amounts of VPB, Vibrio counts diminished 3 log units to nondetectable levels, while VPB increased 3 log units within 48 h. We propose a new paradigm that VPB are important modulators of pathogenic vibrios in seawater and oysters. PMID:22904049

  14. Tanshinone IIA attenuates seawater aspiration-induced lung injury by inhibiting macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Dun-Quan; Li, Wang-Ping; Xu, Min; Li, Jia-Huan; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Qi-Xin; Liu, Wei; Mu, De-Guang; Dong, Hai-Ying; Wang, Yan-Xia; Nan, Yan-Dong; Li, Zhi-Chao; Jin, Fa-Guang

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation takes responsibility for the seawater aspiration-induced lung injury. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) can protect lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice through the inhibition of inflammation, but it is not reported whether TIIA have a protective effect on lung injury induced by seawater aspiration. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in acute lung injury. In this study, we observed the effect of TIIA on the seawater aspiration-induced lung injury and the role of MIF in it. Seawater was aspirated into trachea of rats to make the lung injury model. TIIA was administered to investigate its beneficial effect on seawater-induced acute lung injury. The results showed that seawater aspiration led to hyoxemia, pulmonary edema, neutrophil infiltration, and lung histopathologic changes, with the elevated MIF expression in the lung tissues and plasma. However, these changes were attenuated by TIIA. In macrophage cells we also demonstrated that TIIA could inhibit MIF expression, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity and release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced by seawater. Besides, pretreatment with (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid (ISO-1), the MIF antagonist, elevated NF-κB and cytokines induced by seawater were also reduced markedly. Furthermore, rMIF treatment alone increased the phosphorylation level of NF-κB and release of cytokines, which was almost abolished by TIIA. Taken together, our results suggested that TIIA exert a protective effect on the seawater aspiration-induced lung injury partly through downregulation of MIF and the subsequent NF-κB activity, as well as expression of IL-6 and TNF-α.

  15. Survival of the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in filtered seawater and seawater containing ovarian fluid, crude oil and serum-enriched culture medium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.

    2001-01-01

     The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (NA-VHSV) could be recovered for up to 40 h in natural filtered seawater (27 ppt) with a 50% loss of infectivity after approximately 10 h at 15°C. Addition of 10 ppb North Slope crude oil to the seawater had no effect on virus survival. However, when various concentrations of teleost ovarian fluid were added to seawater, virus could be recovered after 72 h at 0.01% ovarian fluid and after 96 h at 1.0%. When cell culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum was added to the seawater, 100% of the virus could be recovered for the first 15 d and 60% of the virus remained after 36 d. These findings quantify NA-VHSV infectivity in natural seawater and demonstrate that ovarian fluid, which occurs naturally during spawning events, significantly prolongs the survival and infectivity of the virus. The extended stabilization of virus in culture medium supplemented with serum allows for low titer field samples to be collected and transported in an unfrozen state without significant loss of virus titer.

  16. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Co2 Dissolved in Seawater for Laser Remote Sensing in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somekawa, Toshihiro; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-06-01

    We examined the applicability of Raman lidar technique as a laser remote sensing tool in water. The Raman technique has already been used successfully for measurements of CO2 gas dissolved in water and bubbles. Here, the effect of seawater on CO2 Raman spectra has been evaluated. A frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was irradiated to CO2 gas dissolved in a standard seawater. In seawater, the Raman signals at 984 and 1060-1180 cm-1 from SO42- were detected, which shows no spectral interference caused by Raman signals derived from CO2.

  17. Do foraminifera accurately record seawater neodymium isotope composition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrivner, Adam; Skinner, Luke; Vance, Derek

    2010-05-01

    Palaeoclimate studies involving the reconstruction of past Atlantic meridional overturning circulation increasingly employ isotopes of neodymium (Nd), measured on a variety of sample media (Frank, 2002). In the open ocean, Nd isotopes are a conservative tracer of water mass mixing and are unaffected by biological and low-temperature fractionation processes (Piepgras and Wasserburg, 1987; Lacan and Jeandel, 2005). For decades, benthic foraminifera have been widely utilised in stable isotope and geochemical studies, but have only recently begun to be exploited as a widely distributed, high-resolution Nd isotope archive (Klevenz et al., 2008), potentially circumventing the difficulties associated with other methods used to recover past deep-water Nd isotopes (Klevenz et al., 2008; Rutberg et al., 2000; Tachikawa et al., 2004). Thus far, a single pilot study (Klevenz et al., 2008) has indicated that core-top sedimentary benthic foraminifera record a Nd isotope composition in agreement with the nearest available bottom seawater data, and has suggested that this archive is potentially useful on both millennial and million-year timescales. Here we present seawater and proximal core-top foraminifer Nd isotope data for samples recovered during the 2008 "RETRO" cruise of the Marion Dufresne. The foraminifer samples comprise a depth-transect spanning 3000m of the water column in the Angola Basin and permit a direct comparison between high-resolution water column and core-top foraminiferal Nd isotope data. We use these data to assess the reliability of both planktonic and benthic foraminifera as recorders of water column neodymium isotope composition. Frank, M., 2002. Radiogenic isotopes: Tracers of past ocean circulation and erosional input, Rev. Geophys., 40 (1), 1001, doi:10.1029/2000RG000094. Klevenz, V., Vance, D., Schmidt, D.N., and Mezger, K., 2008. Neodymium isotopes in benthic foraminifera: Core-top systematics and a down-core record from the Neogene south Atlantic

  18. Triple sulfur isotope composition of Late Archean seawater sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, G.; Fischer, W. W.; Sessions, A. L.; Adkins, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sulfur isotope ratios in Archean sedimentary rocks have provided powerful insights into the behavior of the ancient sulfur cycle, the redox state of fluid Earth, and the timing of the rise of atmospheric oxygen [1]. Most processes fractionate sulfur isotopes in proportion to their mass differences, but the Archean sulfur isotope record is marked by pronounced mass-independent fractionation (MIF, Δ33S≠0). The origin of these signatures has been traditionally interpreted as the result of photolysis of SO2 from short wavelength UV light, with positive Δ33S values recorded in pyrite and negative Δ33S values in sulfate-bearing phases [2]. This long-held hypothesis rests on observations of negative Δ33S from enigmatic barite occurrences from mixed volcanic sedimentary strata in Mesoarchean greenstone terrains. Despite forming the framework for understanding Archean sulfur cycle processes [3], it is largely untested [3]. It is largely untested. Consequently, the biggest challenge to our current understanding of the early sulfur cycle is a poor understanding of the isotopic composition of seawater sulfate. Sulfate evaporite minerals are absent from Archean strata and the sulfur isotope record is written entirely by measurements of pyrite. Carbonate associated sulfate (CAS) provides an important archive for assaying the isotopic composition of ancient seawater sulfate It has been exploited in many studies of Phanerozoic and Proterozoic sulfate but have been only marginally used thus far for Archean samples because of the extremely low concentration of CAS in limestones and dolomites from this era. We have developed a novel MC-ICP-MS approach to solve this problem [4]. This new method lowers the detection limit by up to three orders of magnitude for δ34S and Δ33S measurements, enabling to work on a few nmols of sulfate which represent only tens of mg of sample powders micromilled from specific carbonate textures. Two stratigraphic sections from the 2

  19. Oxidation kinetics of manganese (II) in seawater at nanomolar concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Langen, Peter J.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Elrod, Virginia A.

    1997-12-01

    Manganese oxidation rates were determined at low (˜ 20 nM) concentrations in seawater by measuring dissolved manganese (Mn(II)) using flow injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection. Mn(II) was measured in samples that had been filtered (0.2 μm) and kept in the dark under controlled temperature and pH conditions for time periods up to 6 months. Eight 9 L carboys with mean pH values ranging from 8 to 8.7 were held at 25°C, another carboy (pH = 9.32) was kept at 5°C. Oxidation followed the Morgan (1967) homogeneous rate equation ( d[Mn(II)]/ dt = k1 [O 2][OH -] 2[Mn(II)]). The mean rate constant k1 = 1.7 ± 0.7 × 10 12 M -3 d -1 (95% CI), determined using hydroxide ion activities determined with pH measurements on the NBS scale, was in agreement with work by Morgan (1967; k1 = 4 × 10 12 M -3 d -1) and Davies and Morgan (1989; k1 = 1.1 × 10 12 M -3 d -1) in dilute solutions. The rate constant at 5°C was 1.3 ± 0.3 × 10 12 M -3 d -1. If free hydroxide concentrations (based on the free proton pH scale) are used, then the rate constant at 25°C was k 1∗ = 0.34 ± 0.14 × 10 12 M -3d -1. Autocatalytic increases in Mn(II) oxidation rates, as predicted by a heterogeneous reaction mechanism (Morgan, 1967) ( d[Mn(II)]/ dt= k2'[Mn(II)][MnO 2]) were not observed, indicating that the homogeneous reaction dominates Mn(II) oxidation at low nM concentrations in seawater. Bacteria were enumerated by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining during the experiments. No significant correlation between bacterial concentrations and Mn(II) oxidation rates was found.

  20. Physical and numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a worldwide problem caused, among others factors, by aquifer overexploitation, rising sea levels, and climate changes. To limit the deterioration of both surface water and groundwater quality caused by saline intrusion, in recent years many research studies have been developed to identify possible countermeasures, mainly consisting of underground barriers. In this context, physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of general solutions to contain the salt wedge. This work presents a laboratory experiment where seawater intrusion was reproduced in a specifically designed sand-box. The physical model, built at the University of Padova, represents the terminal part of a coastal aquifer and consists of a flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 49 cm with glass beads characterized by a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10 ≈ 1.5. The resulting porous media is homogeneous, with porosity of about 0.37 and hydraulic conductivity of about 1.3×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank filled by freshwater provides the recharge to the aquifer. The downstream tank simulates the sea and red food dye is added to the saltwater to easily visualize the salt wedge. The volume of the downstream tank is about five times the upstream one, and, due to the small filtration discharge, salt concentration variations (i.e., water density variations) due to the incoming freshwater flow are negligible. The hydraulic gradient during the tests is constant, due to the fixed water level in the two tanks. Water levels and discharged flow rate are continuously monitored. The experiment presented here had a duration of 36 h. For the first 24 h, the saltwater wedge was let to evolve until quasi stationary condition was obtained. In the last 12 h, water withdrawal was carried out at a

  1. Seawater intrusion vulnerability indicators for freshwater lenses in strip islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L.; Werner, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater lenses on small islands have been described as some of the most vulnerable aquifer systems in the world. Yet, little guidance is available regarding methods for rapidly assessing the vulnerability of freshwater lenses to the potential effects of climate change. To address this gap we employ a steady-state analytic modelling approach to develop seawater intrusion (SWI) vulnerability indicator equations. The vulnerability indicator equations quantify the propensity for SWI to occur in strip islands due to both recharge change and sea-level rise (SLR) (incorporating the effect of land surface inundation (LSI)). This work extends that of Werner et al. (2012) who developed SWI vulnerability indicator equations for unconfined and confined continental aquifers, and did not consider LSI. Flux-controlled and head-controlled conceptualisations of freshwater lenses are adopted. Under flux-controlled conditions the water table is able to rise unencumbered by land surface effects. Under head-controlled conditions the head is fixed at the centre of the lens due to, for example, centrally located topographic controls, surface water features or pumping. A number of inferences about SWI vulnerability in freshwater lenses can be made from the analysis: (1) SWI vulnerability indicators for SLR (under flux-controlled conditions) are proportional to lens thickness (or volume) and the rate of LSI and inversely proportional to island width; (2) SWI vulnerability indicators for recharge change (under flux-controlled conditions) are proportional to lens thickness (or volume) and inversely proportional to recharge; (3) SLR has greater impact under head-controlled conditions rather than flux-controlled conditions, whereas the opposite is the case for LSI and recharge change. Example applications to several case studies illustrate use of the method for rapidly ranking lenses according to vulnerability, thereby allowing for prioritisation of areas where further and more detailed SWI

  2. Assessing seawater intrusion overshoot using physical and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L.; Stoeckl, L.; Werner, A. D.; Post, V.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract In recent years, a number of numerical modelling studies of sea-level rise (SLR) and seawater intrusion (SWI) (i.e., Watson et al., 2010; Chang et al., 2011) have reported an overshoot phenomenon, whereby the freshwater-saltwater interface temporarily extends further inland than the eventual steady-state position. In this study, physical sand box modelling of SLR-SWI in a flux-controlled unconfined aquifer setting was carried out to test if SWI overshoot is a measurable physical process. An overshoot was observed in the SLR physical experiment and images of the overshoot are presented. A SLD experiment was also carried out and the overshoot was again observed. These are the first documented cases of overshoot in a laboratory setting, and the first time overshoot for a retreating interface has been reported. The transient wedge toe position obtained from the physical experiments was compared to numerical modelling results, and a reasonable match was obtained, with an overshoot simulated numerically for both the SLR and SLD cases. This provides confidence in the results of the physical experiments. The magnitude of the overshoot for SLR and SLD in the physical experiments was 24% of the change in steady-state interface position, albeit the laboratory setting is designed to maximise overshoot extent by adopting high groundwater flow gradients and large and rapid sea-level changes. While the likelihood of overshoot at the field scale appears to be low, this work has demonstrated that SWI overshoot is physically plausible, and can be produced in controlled laboratory experiments. References Chang, S. W., T. P. Clement, M. J. Simpson, and K. -K. Lee (2011), Does sea-level rise have an impact on saltwater intrusion?, Adv. Water Res., 34(10), 1283-1291, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2011.06.006. Watson, T. A., A. D. Werner, and C. T. Simmons (2010), Transience of seawater intrusion in response to sea-level rise, Water Resour. Res., 46, W12533, doi:10.1029/2010WR009564.

  3. MAP precipitation from landfill leachate and seawater bittern waste.

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Zhao, Q L

    2002-09-01

    The leachates generated at Hong Kong landfill sites contain high strength of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) over 3,000 mg l(-1) and are generally inhibitive to most biological treatment processes. To remove the NH4+-N from the landfill leachates and also recover the nitrogen as a struvite fertilizer, a lab-scale study was performed to investigate the feasibility of NH4+-N removal and struvite crystallization using different magnesium sources. Three combinations of chemicals, MgCl2 x 6H2O+Na2HPO4 x 12H2O, MgO+H3PO4 and MgSO4 x 7H2O+Ca(H2PO4) x H2O, were first used at different molar ratios to precipitate NH4+-N from the leachate. The experimental results indicated that NH4+-N was removed by 92%, 36% and 70% respectively at pH 9.0 and a molar ratio of Mg:N:P=1:1:1. Two synthetic seawater bitten wastes containing Mg2+ at 9,220 mg l(-1) and 24,900 mg l(-1) respectively were then used as a magnesium source, while 85% H3PO4 chemical was used as a phosphorus source. The results revealed that NH4+-N was removed by 80% and 72% respectively, while a molar ratio of Mg:N:P=1:1:1 was applied. In the final stage of experiments, the magnesium-ammonium-phosphate (MAP) precipitates were examined by SEM, EDS and XRD. The SEM micrographs of the MAP precipitates showed a typical morphology of elongated tubular and short prismatic crystals. The EDS and XRD results indicated that the chemical composition of the MAP precipitates depended on the chemicals used and experimental conditions. The study confirmed that the recovery of NH4+-N from landfill leachate and seawater bitten wastes could be effectively achieved by MAP precipitation to obtain struvite crystals with a composition of 5.1%N, 10.3%Mg and 16.5%P.

  4. Effect of temperature on seawater desalination-water quality analyses for desalinated seawater for its use as drinking and irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Guler, Enver; Ozakdag, Deniz; Arda, Muserref; Yuksel, Mithat; Kabay, Nalan

    2010-08-01

    The effect of feed seawater temperature on the quality of product water in a reverse osmosis process was investigated using typical seawater at Urla Bay, Izmir region, Turkey. The tests were carried out at different feed seawater temperatures (11-23 degrees C) using two RO modules with one membrane element each. A number of variables, including pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, rejection percentage of a number of ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl(-), HCO3(-), and SO4(2-)), and the levels of boron and turbidities in collected permeates, were measured. The suitability of these permeates as irrigation and drinking water was checked by comparison with water quality standards.

  5. Preliminary ecotoxicity assessment of new generation alternative fuels in seawater.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gunther; Dolecal, Renee E; Colvin, Marienne A; George, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    The United States Navy (USN) is currently demonstrating the viability of environmentally sustainable alternative fuels to power its fleet comprised of aircraft and ships. As with any fuel used in a maritime setting, there is potential for introduction into the environment through transport, storage, and spills. However, while alternative fuels are often presumed to be eco-friendly relative to conventional petroleum-based fuels, their environmental fate and effects on marine environments are essentially unknown. Here, standard laboratory-based toxicity experiments were conducted for two alternative fuels, jet fuel derived from Camelina sativa (wild flax) seeds (HRJ5) and diesel fuel derived from algae (HRD76), and two conventional counterparts, jet fuel (JP5) and ship diesel (F76). Initial toxicity tests performed on water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from neat fuels partitioned into seawater, using four standard marine species in acute and chronic/sublethal tests, indicate that the alternative fuels are significantly less toxic to marine organisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The hazards of eruptions through lakes and seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, L.G.; Witter, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Eruptions through crater lakes or shallow seawater, referred to here as subaqueous eruptions, present hazards from hydromagmatic explosions, such as base surges, lahars, and tsunamis, which may not exist at volcanoes on dry land. We have systematically compiled information from eruptions through surface water in order to understand the circumstances under which these hazards occur and what disastrous effects they have caused in the past. Subaqueous eruptions represent only 8% of all recorded eruptions but have produced about 20% of all fatalities associated with volcanic activity in historical time. Excluding eruptions that have resulted in about a hundred deaths or less, lahars have killed people in the largest number of historical subaqueous eruptions (8), followed by pyroclastic flows (excluding base surges; 5) tsunamis (4), and base surges (2). Subaqueous eruptions have produced lahars primarily on high (>1000 m), steep-sided volcanoes containing small (<1 km diameter) crater lakes. Tsunamis and other water waves have caused death or destroyed man-made structures only at submarine volcanoes and at Lake Taal in the Philippines. In spite of evidence that magma-water mixing makes eruptions more explosive, such explosions and their associated base surges have caused fewer deaths, and have been implicated in fewer eruptions involving large numbers of fatalities than lahars and tsunamis. The latter hazards are more deadly because they travel much farther from a volcano and inundate coastal areas and stream valleys that tend to be densely settled.

  7. Homogeneous precipitation of magnesium phosphates from seawater solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, S. V.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Savenko, V. S.

    2001-03-01

    Homogeneous (unseeded) nucleation of Mg phosphate from modified Ca-free seawater solutions was investigated at 20°C and pH of 8. Precipitated solid phase was characterized using chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and IR-spectroscopy. Effect of aqueous phosphate and ammonia concentrations and the intensity of stirring on the induction period time ( τ) of Mg phosphates nucleation were studied. A linear relationship between logarithm of bobbierite (Mg 3(PO 4) 2 · 8H 2O) saturation index and log τ was established with a slope close to 2. Aqueous NH 4+ (up to 0.002 M) has no effect on the nucleation kinetics and does not incorporate in the precipitated solid phase. Stirring of solution has a dramatic effect on nucleation kinetics: the induction period decreases by a factor of 100-10 000 in unstirred solutions compared to stirred ones. The relative diffusion/chemical reaction control mechanism of Mg phosphates precipitation from supersaturated solutions is discussed. It is shown that spontaneous inorganic precipitation of Mg-(ammonium) phosphates (struvite and bobbierite) in modern marine environment is impossible because of very sluggish kinetics.

  8. Seawater strontium isotopes at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdougall, J. D.; Martin, E.

    1988-01-01

    Anomalously high values of Seawater Sr-87/Sr-86 near the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary have been reported. However, few of the data from the literature are from a single continuous section, and perhaps the most complete study of the boundary region, from a shallow marine limestone sequence in Alabama, showed elevated Sr-87/Sr-86 but no pronounced spike. Thus, in order to investigate the cause of the change in strontium isotopic composition, it is important to determine the exact nature and magnitude of the increase by studying in detail continuous sections through the boundary. If there is indeed a Sr isotope spike at the K-T boundary, it requires the addition of a large amount of radiogenic Sr to the oceans over a short time period, a phenomenon that may be linked to other large-scale environmental disturbances which occurred at that time. In order to address this question, a high-resolution strontium isotope study of foraminifera from three Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) cores which recovered the K-T boundary section: Site 356 in the South Atlantic, Site 384 in the North Atlantic and Site 577 from the Shatsky Rise in the Pacific was initiated. The isotope measurements are being made on either single or small numbers of forams carefully picked and identified and in most cases examined by SEM before analysis. Because this work is not yet complete, conclusions drawn here must be viewed as tentative. They are briefly discussed.

  9. Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

  10. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    2015-03-01

    Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  11. Seawater isotope constraints on tropical hydrology during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, Delia W.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; LeGrande, Allegra N.

    2007-07-01

    Paleoceanographic data from the low latitude Pacific Ocean provides evidence of changes in the freshwater budget and redistribution of freshwater within the basin during the Holocene. Reconstructed Holocene seawater δ 18O changes compare favorably to differences predicted between climate simulations for the middle Holocene (MH) and for the pre-Industrial late Holocene (LH). The model simulations demonstrate that changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle affect the relationship between δ 18Osw and surface salinity, and allow, for the first time, quantitative estimates of western Pacific salinity change during the Holocene. The simulations suggest that during the MH, the mean salinity of the Pacific was higher because less water vapor was transported from the Atlantic Ocean and more was transported to the Indian Ocean. The salinity of the western Pacific was enhanced further due both to the greater advection of salt to the region by ocean currents and to an increase in continental precipitation at the expense of maritime precipitation, the latter a consequence of the stronger Asian summer monsoon.

  12. Systems studies on the extraction of uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.J.; Best, F.R.

    1981-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done at MIT during FY 1981 on the overall system design of a uranium-from-seawater facility. It consists of a sequence of seven major chapters, each of which was originally prepared as a stand-alone internal progress report. These chapters trace the historical progression of the MIT effort, from an early concern with scoping calculations to define the practical boundaries of a design envelope, as constrained by elementary economic and energy balance considerations, through a parallel evaluation of actively-pumped and passive current-driven concepts, and thence to quantification of the features of a second generation system based on a shipboard-mounted, actively-pumped concept designed around the use of thin beds of powdered ion exchange resin supported by cloth fiber cylinders (similar to the baghouse flyash filters used on power station offgas). An assessment of the apparently inherent limitations of even thin settled-bed sorber media then led to selection of an expanded bed (in the form of an ion exchange wool), which would permit an order of magnitude increase in flow loading, as a desirable advance. Thus the final two chapters evaluate ways in which this approach could be implemented, and the resulting performance levels which could be attained. Overall, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production costs under 200 $/lb appear to be within reach if a high capacity (several thousand ppM U) ion exchange wool can be developed.

  13. Biotransformation of potentially persistent alkylphenols in natural seawater.

    PubMed

    Lofthus, Synnøve; Almås, Inger K; Evans, Peter; Pelz, Oliver; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2016-08-01

    Produced water (PW) discharged to the marine environment may contain both natural substances and industrial chemicals that are potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic (PBT). Identification of substances as PBT is dependent upon accurate assessment of biodegradation rates, but these measurements can be impeded where substances exhibit inherently low solubility in water. Examples of substances of this kind include some alkylated phenols (APs). Biotransformation of three APs, suspected to be PBT compounds in PW, was investigated by adopting a new methodology in which they were immobilized to hydrophobic adsorbents submerged in natural seawater. These compounds were not ready biodegradable by conventional screening biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) methods at high concentrations (2 mg/L). However, potential biodegradability for two of the three APs were demonstrated by the immobilization method at low concentrations (appr. 100 μg/L), with biotransformation half-lives <50 days. Thus, standard screening tests should be supplemented by biodegradation methods suited for testing of poorly soluble substances before the persistence of potential PBT substances are defined.

  14. Evaluation of media for monitoring fecal streptococci in seawater.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshpe-Purer, Y

    1989-01-01

    The selectivity of KF streptococcus agar (KF) for monitoring fecal streptococci (FS) in seawater was examined in 234 samples of Mediterranean water and compared with the selectivity of M-Enterococcus agar (M-Ent) for 124 samples and with bile-esculin-azide agar (BEA) for 17 samples. KF was found to be unsuitable for marine water because Vibrio alginolyticus and other gram-negative bacilli indigenous to this environment grew well on it and produced red colonies identical to those of FS. In 26% of samples, some with high counts of red colonies on the membrane filters (MF), there were no streptococci, only gram-negative bacilli and staphylococci, and in an additional 23.1% the streptococci constituted less than 50% of the "typical" red colonies on the MF. V. alginolyticus also produced FS-like colonies on MF incubated on BEA but was not isolated from MF incubated on M-Ent. Although staphylococci grew and produced FS-like colonies on all three media, M-Ent was the most selective since no gram-negative bacilli were isolated from MF incubated on it. PMID:2782876

  15. Seawater desalination and serum magnesium concentrations in Israel.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon; Shlezinger, Meital; Katz, Rachel; Shalev, Varda; Amitai, Yona

    2017-04-01

    With increasing shortage of fresh water globally, more countries are consuming desalinated seawater (DSW). In Israel >50% of drinking water is now derived from DSW. Desalination removes magnesium, and hypomagnesaemia has been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Presently the impact of consuming DSW on body magnesium status has not been established. We quantified changes in serum magnesium in a large population based study (n = 66,764), before and after desalination in regions consuming DSW and in regions where DSW has not been used. In the communities that switched to DSW in 2013, the mean serum magnesium was 2.065 ± 0.19 mg/dl before desalination and fell to 2.057 ± 0.19 mg/dl thereafter (p < 0.0001). In these communities 1.62% of subjects exhibited serum magnesium concentrations ≤1.6 mg/dl between 2010 and 2013. This proportion increased by 24% between 2010-2013 and 2015-2016 to 2.01% (p = 0.0019). In contrast, no such changes were recorded in the communities that did not consume DSW. Due to the emerging evidence of increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with hypomagnesaemia, it is vital to consider re-introduction of magnesium to DSW.

  16. Transmission lines with very lossy conductors and seawater return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G. E.

    1982-10-01

    There are potential benefits in undersea cable technology by the use of copper-coated non-conductors (Kevlar) or poor conductors (graphite) with conventional or sea-water outer conductor. Kevlar is a very strong non-conductive fiber even in small sizes and it can be fabricated as a bundle of many copper-coated strands. Non-metallic conductors are being developed for a wide range of uses. For example, graphite materials are being used to provide strong flexible golf clubs and spark plug wires that cause minimal interference with radio reception. There is extensive research and development in these materials such as development of light-weight strong materials for airplanes. The particular application of interest in the research reported here is the cables used as undersea data links for transmitting signals from hydrophones under water to sonobuoy radio transmitters at the surface of the ocean. Non-metallic conducting materials have recently shown impressive capabilities and prospective future gains from the viewpoint of such ocean applications including high strength, low specific gravity and relatively low resistance. This report is intended to provide the technical development of such data transmission lines in order to provide the basis for design of such cables. The technical basis for the design of undersea cables is provided in considerable detail. The electromagnetic theory, algorithm development, and properties of materials are described. Optimal designs are considered.

  17. Characterisation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Coastal Inland Seawater, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Nsikak U.; Fred-Ahmadu, Omowunmi H.; Adedapo, Adebusayo E.; Anake, Winifred U.

    2017-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in samples of surface seawater collected from five (5) different locations along the coastline of a tropical lagoon. The surface water samples were analysed using gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with fifteen (15) PCB congeners detected across the studied area. The chlorobiphenyls levels are in the order Ebute Ero > Oko Baba > Ijora > Lagos Island > Unilag lagoon front with levels 107.89, 53.15, 34.90, 27.78, and 2.15 mg/L, respectively. The enhanced average concentration of PCBs at the Ebute Ero site is due to the predominance of PCB-180 and PCB-185. A negative correlation was found between the total PCB concentration and the level of dissolved oxygen. Although, the results indicated fairly high levels of PCBs, the anthropogenic contributions from industrial releases and domestic activities may be largely associated with the detected concentrations of the di-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octa-chlorobiphenyls.

  18. Superoxide-mediated dissolution of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide in seawater.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Manabu; Rose, Andrew L; Waite, T David; Omura, Tatsuo

    2006-02-01

    We have investigated the kinetics of superoxide-mediated dissolution of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO) in seawater by spectrophotometrically examining the rate of formation of a ferrous-ferrozine complex (Fe(II)(FZ)3) with particular attention given to the effect of aging and iron concentration on the rate of superoxide-mediated dissolution of AFO. The production rates of Fe(II)(FZ)3 decreased with aging of AFO for iron concentrations from 50 to 500 nM, indicating that changes to the chemical and physical properties of AFO affected the reactivity of inorganic ferric iron species with superoxide. A kinetic model developed by assuming that Fe(II)' formation is preceded by the thermal dissolution of AFO provided a good description of the Fe(II)(FZ)3 production rates over time. First-order rate constants for Fe(II)' formation were found to depend on the total iron concentration, suggesting that superoxide-mediated Fe(II) reduction is affected not only by the rate of thermal dissolution of AFO but also by the rate of AFO precipitation. The reported high rates of superoxide production by both photochemical and biotic pathways in aquatic systems coupled with the ability of superoxide to dissolve freshly formed ferric oxides suggest that this process may have a significant impact on the biogeochemical cycling of iron, especially if organisms have an affinity for ferrous iron.

  19. 'Rare biosphere' bacteria as key phenanthrene degraders in coastal seawaters.

    PubMed

    Sauret, Caroline; Séverin, Tatiana; Vétion, Gilles; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Fagervold, Sonja K; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2014-11-01

    By coupling DNA-SIP and pyrosequencing approaches, we identified Cycloclasticus sp. as a keystone degrader of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) despite being a member of the 'rare biosphere' in NW Mediterranean seawaters. We discovered novel PAH-degrading bacteria (Oceanibaculum sp., Sneathiella sp.) and we identified other groups already known to possess this function (Alteromonas sp., Paracoccus sp.). Together with Cycloclasticus sp., these groups contributed to potential in situ phenanthrene degradation at a rate >0.5 mg l(-1) day(-1), sufficient to account for a considerable part of PAH degradation. Further, we characterized the PAH-tolerant bacterial communities, which were much more diverse in the polluted site by comparison to unpolluted marine references. PAH-tolerant bacteria were also members of the rare biosphere, such as Glaciecola sp. Collectively, these data show the complex interactions between PAH-degraders and PAH-tolerant bacteria and provide new insights for the understanding of the functional ecology of marine bacteria in polluted waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seawater intrusion and pumping wells in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjafzadeh Anvar, Amir; Riva, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Coastal aquifers are affected by seawater intrusion (SWI), this problem is exacerbated by groundwater extractions. In this work, we analyze key parameters affecting pumping wells contamination in costal aquifers. The USGS SUTRA code is employed to solve numerically flow and transport and to characterize SWI under diverse groundwater withdrawal scenarios. We developed two- and three-dimensional variable-density flow and solute transport models, respectively representing the existence of a pumping well barrier and of a single pumping well. The impact of the joint extraction of fresh- and salt- water has also been considered. We then analyzed the effect of (i) the location and pumping rate of fresh- and salt- water pumping wells (ii) the permeability of the aquifer as well as (iii) the transverse and longitudinal dispersivity on the maximum pumping time, tmax. The latter is defined as the maximum freshwater pumping time preventing the well to be contaminated by salt water. Finally we derived empirical equations to be used in practical applications to evaluate tmax as a function of key parameters highlighted.

  1. Irradiance Inversion Theory to Retrieve Volume Scattering Function of Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takafumi

    2003-03-01

    An attempt to retrieve the volume scattering function (VSF) of source-free and no-inelastic-scattering ocean water is made from the upwelling irradiance Eu and downwelling irradiance Ed . It will be shown, from the radiative transfer equation, that the VSF of seawater can be calculated by the planar irradiances when the scattering phase function of the suspended particles in the backward direction and the molecular VSF are known. On the derivation of the hydrosol VSF, several optical properties such as the absorption coefficient a ; the scattering coefficients of hydrosol, b , bf , bb and those of the suspended particles, bp , bfp , bbp ; the beam attenuation coefficient c ; the average cosines μ, μd , and μu ; and the backscattering shape factor for the downwelling light stream, rdu , will also be obtained. On the derivation of those optical parameters, classical knowledge related to interrelationships between inherent optical properties and apparent optical properties and obtained with Monte Carlo numerical simulations is analytically verified. The present theory can be applied to surface waters and any wavelengths, except for waters and wavelengths with an extremely low bb/a ratio.

  2. Biogeography of bacterioplankton in the tropical seawaters of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lau, Stanley C K; Zhang, Rui; Brodie, Eoin L; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge about the biogeography of marine bacterioplankton on the global scale in general and in Southeast Asia in particular has been scarce. This study investigated the biogeography of bacterioplankton community in Singapore seawaters. Twelve stations around Singapore island were sampled on different schedules over 1 year. Using PCR-DNA fingerprinting, DNA cloning and sequencing, and microarray hybridization of the 16S rRNA genes, we observed clear spatial variations of bacterioplankton diversity within the small area of the Singapore seas. Water samples collected from the Singapore Strait (south) throughout the year were dominated by DNA sequences affiliated with Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria that were believed to be associated with the influx of water from the open seas in Southeast Asia. On the contrary, water in the relatively polluted Johor Strait (north) were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and that were presumably associated with river discharge and the relatively eutrophic conditions of the waterway. Bacterioplankton diversity was temporally stable, except for the episodic surge of Pseudoalteromonas, associated with algal blooms. Overall, these results provide valuable insights into the diversity of bacterioplankton communities in Singapore seas and the possible influences of hydrological conditions and anthropogenic activities on the dynamics of the communities.

  3. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated milk casein in seawater.

    PubMed

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Shinguh, Masahiro; Maruyama, Hideo

    2004-02-15

    A new biodegradable flocculant was prepared from a common and inexpensive protein. Milk casein was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. The methylated milk casein (MeCS), having a methylation degree of 81%, was applied to the separation or flocculation of diatomite in seawater (pH 8.1+/-0.1) at room temperature (18-23 degrees C). The flocculating ability of MeCS was evaluated by a sedimentation balance method (cumulative measurement method). The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of a small amount of MeCS (0.25 wt% of the diatomite weight). The results of sedimentation analysis showed that the size-frequency curve had a very sharp and high peak; thus the diatomite floc formed by MeCS had a rather uniform size. The settling velocity of diatomite floc at the appropriate MeCS dosages (0.25-2 wt% of diatomite) was about 3 x 10(-3) ms(-1).

  4. The success and limitations of high alloy stainless steels in seawater service

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, P.; Malpas, R.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The performance of high alloy stainless steels has been determined in chlorinated natural seawater in large scale and prototype seawater handling systems consisting of pumps, pipework and valves at ambient North Sea temperatures. In addition the influence of temperature on the corrosion characteristics of these alloys has been investigated. The results show that austenitic stainless steels with minimum molybdenum and nitrogen contents of 6% and 0.2% respectively and high alloy duplex stainless steels with minimum compositions of 25% Cr, 3% Mo and 0.15% N can be successfully used for the fabrication of seawater systems handling North Sea ambient or heated seawater. These alloys have some limitations, however, in areas of heat transfer, particularly where air spaces are present in a system; where dissimilar metal crevices are present and at positions where fretting can occur.

  5. 76 FR 14953 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Honolulu Seawater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... the Proposed Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning Project, Honolulu, HI AGENCY: Department of the Army...); Building 230; Fort Shafter, HI 96858-5440. Comments may also be submitted via e-mail to honoluluswac@usace...

  6. [Determination of trace elements in Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hui; Wang, Chang-Hai; Liu, Zhao-Pu

    2008-03-01

    The dry leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater were dissolved in nitric acid and then oxygenated by perchloric acid. Nine kinds of trace elements in the samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, zinc, iron, copper and lead, with added lanthanum chloride as releaser to eliminate the interference of co-existent ions. The recoveries were 96.58%-104.31%, and the relative standard deviations of sample determination (10 times) were less than 2%. This method is simple, sensitive and rapid with satisfactory results and good reproducibility. The results indicated that there were rich Ca, Mg, K and Na, and moderate Mn, Zn and Fe elements in the Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater. However, the concentrations of Cu and Pb were low. Therefore, Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater has officinal and economic values. These results provide data for further research on Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater.

  7. Effects of acidified seawater on coral calcification and symbiotic algae on the massive coral Porites australiensis.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Akira; Ozaki, Saori; Nakamura, Takashi; Inoue, Mayuri; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka; Sakai, Kazuhiko

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effect of acidified seawater on calcification and symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll content per single algal cell, fluorescence yield (Fv/Fm)) on a massive coral, Porites australiensis, a common species in the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan. We found that acidified seawater significantly decreased the calcification and fluorescence yield, but did not affect zooxanthellae density and chlorophyll content per single algal cell. This indicates low levels of photoacclimation to acidified seawater in this species, and this is contrary to the findings of previous studies of Acropora species. A significant correlation between calcification and fluorescence yield was observed, indicating the presence of a strong relationship between calcification and algal photosynthesis. Our results indicate that endosymbiont photosynthetic dysfunction may enhance the decrease of coral calcification in future acidified ocean conditions. Calcification and fluorescence yield among colonies clearly differed, showing that the response to acidified seawater is highly variable among colonies in natural coral populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of the distribution of sea-water conductivity on the ocean induced magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saynisch, Jan; Irrgang, Christopher; Hagedoorn, Jan; Thomas, Maik

    2016-04-01

    The variability of oceanic contributions to Earth's magnetic field ranges from sub-daily scales to thousands of years. To study the sensitivity and the range of oceanic magnetic signals, an induction model is coupled to an ocean general circulation model. In the presented study, the sensitivity of the induction process to spatial and temporal variations in sea-water conductivity is investigated. In current calculations of ocean induced magnetic fields, a realistic distribution of sea-water conductivity is often neglected. We shown that assuming an ocean-wide constant conductivity is insufficient to accurately capture the spatial and, more important, the temporal variability of the magnetic signal. Using a realistic global sea-water conductivity distribution changes the temporal variability of the magnetic field up to 45%. Vertical gradients in sea-water conductivity prove to be a key factor for the variability of the oceanic induced magnetic field.

  9. Color correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1 in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue

    1999-07-01

    Application of color correlation optical systems for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae 01 in seawater samples with matched filters and phase only filters recorded in holographic plates in three channels (RGB).

  10. Bicarbonate Elution of Uranium from Amidoxime-Based Polymer Adsorbents for Sequestering Uranium from Seawater

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Horng-Bin; Wai, Chien M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; ...

    2017-05-02

    Uranium adsorbed on amidoxime-based polyethylene fibers in simulated seawater can be quantitatively eluted using 3 M KHCO3 at 40°C. Thermodynamic calculations are in agreement with the experimental observation that at high bicarbonate concentrations (3 M) uranyl ions bound to amidoxime molecules are converted to uranyl tris-carbonato complex in the aqueous solution. The elution process is basically the reverse reaction of the uranium adsorption process which occurs at a very low bicarbonate concentration (~10-3 M) in seawater. The bicarbonate elution is followed by a NaOH treatment to remove natural organic matter adsorbed on the polymer adsorbent, in real seawater experiments. Furthermore,more » by using the sequential bicarbonate and NaOH elution, the adsorbent is reusable after rinsing with deionized water and the recycled adsorbent shows no loss of uranium loading capacity based on real seawater experiments.« less

  11. A solvent extraction technique for the isotopic measurement of dissolved copper in seawater.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire M; Ellwood, Michael J; Wille, Martin

    2013-05-02

    Stable copper (Cu) isotope geochemistry provides a new perspective for investigating and understanding Cu speciation and biogeochemical Cu cycling in seawater. In this work, sample preparation for isotopic analysis employed solvent-extraction with amino pyrollidine dithiocarbamate/diethyl dithiocarbamate (APDC/DDC), coupled with a nitric acid back-extraction, to concentrate Cu from seawater. This was followed by Cu-purification using anion-exchange. This straightforward technique is high yielding and fractionation free for Cu and allows precise measurement of the seawater Cu isotopic composition using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A deep-sea profile measured in the oligotrophic north Tasman Sea shows fractionation in the Cu isotopic signature in the photic zone but is relatively homogenised at depth. A minima in the Cu isotopic profile correlates with the chlorophyll a maximum at the site. These results indicate that a range of processes are likely to fractionate stable Cu isotopes in seawater.

  12. Continuous Underway Seawater Measurements of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoerb, M.; Kim, M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The products of isoprene and terpene oxidation have been shown to contribute significantly to secondary aerosol production rates over continental regions, where the emission rates have been well characterized. Significantly less is known about the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from marine sources. We discuss the development of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) employing benzene reagent ion chemistry for the selective detection of biogenic volatile organic compounds. The CIMS was coupled to a seawater equilibrator for the measurement of dissolved gases in surface seawater. This system was deployed aboard the R/V Knorr during the Western Atlantic Climate Study II in Spring 2014. Here, we report surface seawater (5 m depth) concentrations of dimethyl sulfide, isoprene, and alpha-pinene. The concentration measurements are discussed in terms of surface seawater temperature, nutrient availability, and primary productivity.

  13. Tribological performances of CrAlN coating coupled with different ceramics in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Lei; Wang, Yongxin; Zhang, Yangrong; Miao, Qiong; Xue, Qunji

    2017-09-01

    This paper attempts to present a comparative study of tribological performances of chromium aluminum nitride (CrAlN) coating coupled with Si3N4, SiC, WC, Al2O3 and ZrO2 balls in air and seawater. The comparison results show that the tribological performance of different tribopairs is determined by the property of ceramics. Seawater plays an important role in reducing the coefficient of friction (COF) by forming tribochemical films and developing a hydrodynamic lubrication regime. The wear rates of CrAlN/SiC in air and seawater are much lower than that of the combination of CAIN and other tribopairs because of the integrated effect of tribochemical film and micro-dimples on SiC ball. It is therefore apparent that CrAlN/SiC has the smallest COF and lowest wear rate in both air and seawater.

  14. Photoinduced oxidation of H2S species: A sink for sulfide in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pos, Willer H.; Milne, Peter J.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Zika, Rod G.

    1997-06-01

    Photokinetic studies demonstrate that sulfide is consumed in seawater upon light exposure. The half-life (t1/2) of sulfide (10 μM) added to Biscayne Bay water and Gulf Stream water are 49(±15) and 147(±10) min, respectively. Both UV and visible radiation were shown to accelerate the photodecomposition of sulfide. However, due to a higher amount of radiation in the visible range reaching the sea surface, we predict that this portion of the light spectrum will be most important in inducing photoreaction of sufide in seawater. This as yet unaccounted sink of sulfide in seawater could be responsible for the sulfide daytime low and nighttime high concentration values observed by several investigators. This finding further unbalances the sulfide budget and reinforces the need for systematic research on the role of photochemical processes on sulfur species in seawater.

  15. Discharge and Corrosion Performance of AP65 Magnesium Alloy in Simulated Seawater: Effect of Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Naiguang; Wang, Richu; Peng, Chaoqun; Peng, Bing; Feng, Yan; Hu, Chengwang

    2014-12-01

    The discharge and corrosion performance of AP65 magnesium alloy in simulated seawater with different temperatures is investigated by electrochemical techniques and corrosion morphology observation. The results indicate that AP65 alloy can hardly be activated at a large current density in the 0 °C simulated seawater, whereas the activation time is shortened, and the potential exhibits a significantly negative shift in the 35 °C simulated seawater. However, the increase in temperature promotes the localized corrosion and thus is detrimental to the anode efficiency of AP65 alloy. Moreover, the effect of seawater temperature and current density on the surface morphology of AP65 alloy during the discharge process is also analyzed.

  16. Review: the effects of secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca on marine biocalcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.

    2009-07-01

    Synchronized transitions in the polymorph mineralogy of the major reef-building and sediment-producing calcareous marine organisms and abiotic CaCO3 precipitates (ooids, marine cements) throughout Phanerozoic time is believed to have been caused by tectonically-induced variations in seawater molar Mg/Ca (>2="aragonite seas"; <2="calcite seas"). Here, I review a series of experiments in which extant calcifying taxa were reared in experimental seawater formulated over the range of mMg/Ca ratios (1.0 to 5.2) that occurred throughout their geologic history. Aragonite-secreting bryopsidalean algae and scleractinian corals and calcite-secreting coccolithophores exhibited higher rates of calcification and growth in the experimental seawaters that favored their skeletal mineral. These results support the assertion that seawater Mg/Ca played an important role in determining which hypercalcifying marine organisms were the major reef-builders and sediment-producers throughout Earth history. The observation that primary production increased along with calcification in mineralogically-favorable seawater is consistent with the hypothesis that calcification promotes photosynthesis within autotrophs through the liberation of CO2. The Mg/Ca ratio of calcite secreted by the coccolithophores, coralline algae and reef-dwelling animals (crustacea, urchins, calcareous tube worms) declined with reductions in seawater Mg/Ca. Calcifying microbial biofilms varied their mineral polymorph with seawater Mg/Ca (mMg/Ca<2=low Mg calc; mMg/Ca>2=arag+high Mg calc), suggesting a nearly abiotic mode of calcification. These results indicate that biomineralogical control can be partially overridden by ambient seawater Mg/Ca and suggests that modern high Mg calcite organisms probably secreted low Mg calcite in calcite seas of the past. Notably, Mg fractionation in autotrophic organisms was more strongly influenced by changes in seawater Mg/Ca, a probable consequence of them inducing a less controlled

  17. Effect of the scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuhua; Liu, Zhenfa; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Haihua

    2017-09-01

    A scale inhibitor was synthesized from polysuccinimide with 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid and aspartic acid. The effect of scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination was studied. The results showed that the ion content of permeate water is lower with the scale inhibitor added in RO system for seawater desalination than without scale inhibitor. On the contrary, the ion content of concentrate water is higher when with scale inhibitor in RO system.

  18. Study on the determination of trace methyl mercury in seawater by gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongzhu; Cui, Xianzhou

    1990-03-01

    Sample seawater containing trace methyl mercury was acidified and adsorbed on hydrosulfo-cotton, washed with hydrochloric acid, extracted by benzene and dried, and then determined by a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector. This method, which can detect a minimum concentration of 0.1×10-10%, can be used to monitor the 10-10% content of methyl mercury in seawater.

  19. Evaluation of Sea-Water Reverse Osmosis Modules for Single-Pass Shipboard Desalination Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-03-01

    DEVELOPMENT CENTER Bethesda, Md. 20034 A EVALUATION OF SEA-WATER REVERSE OSMOSIS MODULES FOR SINGLE-PASS SHIPBOARD DESALINATION SYSTEMS by J. F...Synthetic Sea- Water Test System at NSRDC Figure 5 - Drawing; Natural Sea-Water Reverse Osmosis Desalination Test Loop at Wrightsville...results of the evaluations of RO rnodulues S-52 and S-53 • DESCRIPTION OF REVERSE OSMOSIS MODULE MEMBRANE -MODULE CONFIGURATION Figure

  20. Resistance of Coated and Uncoated IR Windows to Seawater Corrosion. Phase V. Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    competitive substrate materials, uncoated; single-layer AR coatings on germanium and zinc selenide; multiple-layer AR coatings on germanium; overcoatings on...testing) whose plastic coating has torn and peeled away from the substrate , leaving the substrate exposed to corrosion by seawater... 21 12. A coated...II examined two substrate materials (germanium and chalcogenide glass), and antifouling methods such as forced seawater circulation and electric

  1. Artificial Seawater Media Facilitate Cultivating Members of the Microbial Majority from the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pitre, David M.; Weckhorst, Jessica Lee; Lanclos, V. Celeste; Webber, Austen T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-throughput cultivation studies have been successful at bringing numerous important marine bacterioplankton lineages into culture, yet these frequently utilize natural seawater media that can hamper portability, reproducibility, and downstream characterization efforts. Here we report the results of seven experiments with a set of newly developed artificial seawater media and evaluation of cultivation success via comparison with community sequencing data from the inocula. Eighty-two new isolates represent highly important marine clades, including SAR116, OM60/NOR5, SAR92, Roseobacter, and SAR11. For many, isolation with an artificial seawater medium is unprecedented, and several organisms are also the first of their type from the Gulf of Mexico. Community analysis revealed that many isolates were among the 20 most abundant organisms in their source inoculum. This method will expand the accessibility of bacterioplankton cultivation experiments and improve repeatability by avoiding normal compositional changes in natural seawater. IMPORTANCE The difficulty in cultivating many microbial taxa vexes researchers intent on understanding the contributions of these organisms to natural systems, particularly when these organisms are numerically abundant, and many cultivation attempts recover only rare taxa. Efforts to improve this conundrum with marine bacterioplankton have been successful with natural seawater media, but that approach suffers from a number of drawbacks and there have been no comparable artificial alternatives created in the laboratory. This work demonstrates that a newly developed suite of artificial-seawater media can successfully cultivate many of the most abundant taxa from seawater samples and many taxa previously only cultivated with natural-seawater media. This methodology therefore significantly simplifies efforts to cultivate bacterioplankton and greatly improves our ability to perform physiological characterization of cultures

  2. Artificial Seawater Media Facilitate Cultivating Members of the Microbial Majority from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Henson, Michael W; Pitre, David M; Weckhorst, Jessica Lee; Lanclos, V Celeste; Webber, Austen T; Thrash, J Cameron

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cultivation studies have been successful at bringing numerous important marine bacterioplankton lineages into culture, yet these frequently utilize natural seawater media that can hamper portability, reproducibility, and downstream characterization efforts. Here we report the results of seven experiments with a set of newly developed artificial seawater media and evaluation of cultivation success via comparison with community sequencing data from the inocula. Eighty-two new isolates represent highly important marine clades, including SAR116, OM60/NOR5, SAR92, Roseobacter, and SAR11. For many, isolation with an artificial seawater medium is unprecedented, and several organisms are also the first of their type from the Gulf of Mexico. Community analysis revealed that many isolates were among the 20 most abundant organisms in their source inoculum. This method will expand the accessibility of bacterioplankton cultivation experiments and improve repeatability by avoiding normal compositional changes in natural seawater. IMPORTANCE The difficulty in cultivating many microbial taxa vexes researchers intent on understanding the contributions of these organisms to natural systems, particularly when these organisms are numerically abundant, and many cultivation attempts recover only rare taxa. Efforts to improve this conundrum with marine bacterioplankton have been successful with natural seawater media, but that approach suffers from a number of drawbacks and there have been no comparable artificial alternatives created in the laboratory. This work demonstrates that a newly developed suite of artificial-seawater media can successfully cultivate many of the most abundant taxa from seawater samples and many taxa previously only cultivated with natural-seawater media. This methodology therefore significantly simplifies efforts to cultivate bacterioplankton and greatly improves our ability to perform physiological characterization of cultures postisolation.

  3. Determination of thorium in seawater by neutron activation analysis and mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Chih-An

    1987-01-01

    The recent development of neutron activation analysis and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of /sup 232/Th in seawater has made possible rapid sampling and analysis of this long-lived, non-radiogenic thorium isotope on small-volume samples. The marine geochemical utility of /sup 232/Th, whose concentration in seawater is extremely low, warrants the development of these sensitive techniques. The analytical methods and some results are presented and discussed in this article. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Effects of Chemical Structure on Hydrolysis Pathways of Small Peptides in Coastal Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Reyna, N. E.; Hamdan, L. J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Deciphering peptide hydrolysis pathways is key to understanding the mechanism of peptide hydrolysis, in particular the types of extracellular enzymes that are active in seawater. From the hydrolyzed fragments of small peptides, one can estimate the role of amino-, carboxy-, and endopeptidases in a quantitative way. In this study, we incubated several small peptides with different amino acid compositions, alanine-valine-phenylalanine-alanine (AVFA), phenylalanine-alanine-serine-tryptophan-glycine-alanine (FASWGA), VFA, SWGA, VVFA, arginine-valine-phenylalanine-alanine (RVFA), SVFA, aspartic acid-valine-phenylalanine-alanine (DVFA), trialanine (AAA), and AVF in two coastal seawaters (ship channel seawater in the western Gulf of Mexico and Sta. C6 seawater in the northern Gulf of Mexico). In both seawaters, aminopeptidases played a more dominant role (22-67%) in hydrolyzing peptides with hydrophobic amino acid at the N-terminus, such as AVFA, VVFA, VFA, and AAA, or with basic amino acid at the N-terminus (RVFA), as compared to those with N-terminal polar amino acid (SVFA, SWGA) or acidic amino acid (DVFA) (0-24%). This result indicates that amino acid composition in a peptide structure affects how the peptide is hydrolyzed. We also found that peptides in the C6 seawater were hydrolyzed dominantly by aminopeptidases (10-59%), while those in the ship channel seawater also by endo- or carboxypeptidases (9-69%). This pattern suggests that peptide hydrolysis pathways depend on specific environment conditions, such as bacterial community structure, that can lead to variations in abundances or activities among amino-, carboxy- and endopeptidases. Overall, the results provide insights into the effects of chemical structure and seawater environment on peptide hydrolysis pathways.

  5. Draft genome of Bacillus sp. A053 isolated from the Arctic seawater with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Zhiteng; Cui, Pengfei; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-08-01

    Bacillus sp. A053, isolated from the Arctic seawater, shows strong antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the draft sequence of the approximately 4.1-Mbp genome of this strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome sequence of Bacillus strain isolated from the Arctic seawater with antifungal activity. The genome sequence may provide fundamental molecular information on elucidating the metabolic pathway of antimicrobial compound in this strain.

  6. Differential modification of seawater carbonate chemistry by major coral reef benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Heather N.; Andersson, Andreas J.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Lebrato, Mario; Yeakel, Kiley; Davidson, Charlie; D'Angelo, Sydney; Bahr, Keisha D.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) resulting from uptake of anthropogenic CO2 may negatively affect coral reefs by causing decreased rates of biogenic calcification and increased rates of CaCO3 dissolution and bioerosion. However, in addition to the gradual decrease in seawater pH and Ω a resulting from anthropogenic activities, seawater carbonate chemistry in these coastal ecosystems is also strongly influenced by the benthic metabolism which can either exacerbate or alleviate OA through net community calcification (NCC = calcification - CaCO3 dissolution) and net community organic carbon production (NCP = primary production - respiration). Therefore, to project OA on coral reefs, it is necessary to understand how different benthic communities modify the reef seawater carbonate chemistry. In this study, we used flow-through mesocosms to investigate the modification of seawater carbonate chemistry by benthic metabolism of five distinct reef communities [carbonate sand, crustose coralline algae (CCA), corals, fleshy algae, and a mixed community] under ambient and acidified conditions during summer and winter. The results showed that different communities had distinct influences on carbonate chemistry related to the relative importance of NCC and NCP. Sand, CCA, and corals exerted relatively small influences on seawater pH and Ω a over diel cycles due to closely balanced NCC and NCP rates, whereas fleshy algae and mixed communities strongly elevated daytime pH and Ω a due to high NCP rates. Interestingly, the influence on seawater pH at night was relatively small and quite similar across communities. NCC and NCP rates were not significantly affected by short-term acidification, but larger diel variability in pH was observed due to decreased seawater buffering capacity. Except for corals, increased net dissolution was observed at night for all communities under OA, partially buffering against nighttime acidification. Thus, algal-dominated areas of coral reefs and increased

  7. Extraction of Carbon Dioxide from Seawater by an Electrochemical Acidification Cell. Part 2 - Laboratory Scaling Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-11

    from seawater. The studies showed that lowering the pH of the seawater by the acidification cells was an electrically driven membrane process... membranes which separate the three compartments. A cation-permeable membrane is a cross-linked polymer backbone with attached sulfonic acid groups. The... membrane matrix while blocking the passage of anions when an electrical current is flowing. Figure 1 shows a typical three compartment cell

  8. Phase partitioning and solubility of iron in natural seawater controlled by dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Guo, Laodong

    2004-12-01

    The phase partitioning and solubility of Fe as well as its relationship with marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) in different natural seawater and phytoplankton cultures were examined using radiotracer and ultrafiltration techniques to better understand Fe biogeochemical cycling and its biological availability in the ocean. Fe solubility in seawaters was related to the filter's cutoff, with the Fe solubility in the <3 × 103 amu fraction being about one third of that in the <10 × 103 amu filtrate. The Fe solubility decreased from estuarine to coastal to oceanic seawater and then to DOM-free seawater. There was a significant linear relationship between Fe solubility or [FeL] concentration and the dissolved organic carbon concentration for the seawater of different origins tested, suggesting that Fe solubility was largely controlled by the amount of dissolved organic matter. In addition, Fe solubility was significantly enhanced by the presence of fresh phytoplankton exudates, indicating that the nature of organic ligands also plays an important role in controlling the Fe solubility in seawater. Most of the Fe-bound organic ligands were in the size fraction <10 × 103 amu and decreased from the estuarine to the coastal and then to the oceanic seawater. Among the standard macromolecular organic compounds examined, siderophores (deferoxamine mesylate and ferrichrome) showed the highest binding capacity for Fe, and carrageenan (a high molecular weight-sulfated acid polysaccharide) also slightly increased Fe solubility. Complexation of organic ligands with Fe appeared to be Fe-specific or Fe preferential. Our results highlight quantitatively the importance of DOM in controlling Fe solubility in seawater. Further studies are needed to elucidate the interrelationship between the biogeochemical cycles of Fe and the chemistry of DOM in the ocean.

  9. Coral calcification responds to seawater acidification: a working hypothesis towards a physiological mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marubini, F.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Furla, P.; Allemand, D.

    2008-09-01

    The decrease in the saturation state of seawater, Ω, following seawater acidification, is believed to be the main factor leading to a decrease in the calcification of marine organisms. To provide a physiological explanation for this phenomenon, the effect of seawater acidification was studied on the calcification and photosynthesis of the scleractinian tropical coral Stylophora pistillata. Coral nubbins were incubated for 8 days at three different pH (7.6, 8.0, and 8.2). To differentiate between the effects of the various components of the carbonate chemistry (pH, CO{3/2-}, HCO{3/-}, CO2, Ω), tanks were also maintained under similar pH, but with 2-mM HCO{3/- }added to the seawater. The addition of 2-mM bicarbonate significantly increased the photosynthesis in S. pistillata, suggesting carbon-limited conditions. Conversely, photosynthesis was insensitive to changes in pH and pCO2. Seawater acidification decreased coral calcification by ca. 0.1-mg CaCO3 g-1 d-1 for a decrease of 0.1 pH units. This correlation suggested that seawater acidification affected coral calcification by decreasing the availability of the CO{3/2-} substrate for calcification. However, the decrease in coral calcification could also be attributed either to a decrease in extra- or intracellular pH or to a change in the buffering capacity of the medium, impairing supply of CO{3/2-} from HCO{3/-}.

  10. Impact of variable seawater conductivity on motional induction simulated with an ocean general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgang, C.; Saynisch, J.; Thomas, M.

    2016-01-01

    Carrying high concentrations of dissolved salt, ocean water is a good electrical conductor. As seawater flows through the Earth's ambient geomagnetic field, electric fields are generated, which in turn induce secondary magnetic fields. In current models for ocean-induced magnetic fields, a realistic consideration of seawater conductivity is often neglected and the effect on the variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field unknown. To model magnetic fields that are induced by non-tidal global ocean currents, an electromagnetic induction model is implemented into the Ocean Model for Circulation and Tides (OMCT). This provides the opportunity to not only model ocean-induced magnetic signals but also to assess the impact of oceanographic phenomena on the induction process. In this paper, the sensitivity of the induction process due to spatial and temporal variations in seawater conductivity is investigated. It is shown that assuming an ocean-wide uniform conductivity is insufficient to accurately capture the temporal variability of the magnetic signal. Using instead a realistic global seawater conductivity distribution increases the temporal variability of the magnetic field up to 45 %. Especially vertical gradients in seawater conductivity prove to be a key factor for the variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field. However, temporal variations of seawater conductivity only marginally affect the magnetic signal.

  11. Impact of variable sea-water conductivity on motional induction simulated with an OGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgang, C.; Saynisch, J.; Thomas, M.

    2015-08-01

    Carrying high concentrations of dissolved salt, ocean water is a good electrical conductor. As sea-water flows through the Earth's ambient geomagnetic field, electric fields are generated, which in turn induce secondary magnetic fields. In current models for oceanic induced magnetic fields, a realistic consideration of sea-water conductivity is often neglected and the effect on the variability of the oceanic induced magnetic field unknown. To model magnetic fields that are induced by non-tidal global ocean currents, an electromagnetic induction model is implemented into the Ocean Model for Circulation and Tides (OMCT). This provides the opportunity to not only model oceanic induced magnetic signals, but to assess the impact of oceanographic phenomena on the induction process. In this paper, the sensitivity of the induction process due to spatial and temporal variations in sea-water conductivity is investigated. It is shown that assuming an ocean-wide uniform conductivity is insufficient to accurately capture the temporal variability of the magnetic signal. Using instead a realistic global sea-water conductivity distribution increases the temporal variability of the magnetic field up to 45 %. Especially vertical gradients in sea-water conductivity prove to be a key factor for the variability of the oceanic induced magnetic field. However, temporal variations of sea-water conductivity only marginally affect the magnetic signal.

  12. Photoconversion of Chlorinated Saline Wastewater DBPs in Receiving Seawater is Overall a Detoxification Process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Li, Yu

    2017-01-03

    Chlorine disinfection of wastewater effluents rich in bromide and iodide ions results in the formation of relatively toxic bromo- and iodo-disinfection byproducts (DBPs), especially highly toxic bromophenolic and iodophenolic DBPs, which could harm the marine ecosystem when they are discharged into receiving seawater along with the wastewater effluents. In this study, we investigated the conversion of three individual halophenolic DBPs (5-bromosalicylic acid, 2,5-dibromohydroquinone, and 2,4,6-triiodophenol) and two chlorinated saline wastewater DBP mixtures in seawater. The conversion products were analyzed with ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, and the conversion of overall halo-DBPs in the wastewater DBP mixtures was monitored by measuring total organic halogen. The photoconversion-induced variations in the toxicity were evaluated using the embryos of a marine polychaete. Halophenolic DBPs were found to undergo photoconversion in seawater. The conversion was triggered by photonucleophilic substitution: bromophenolic and iodophenolic DBPs were converted to their chlorophenolic or hydroxyphenolic analogues, via substituting the bromine and iodine atoms with chloride or hydroxide ions in seawater; chlorophenolic DBPs were converted to their hydroxyphenolic analogues, via substituting the chlorine atoms with hydroxide ions in seawater. The hydroxyphenolic analogues thus formed further decomposed and finally cleaved to aliphatic compounds. The photoconversion of chlorinated saline wastewater DBPs in receiving seawater was overall a dehalogenation and detoxification process.

  13. Crude And Seawater 8-12μm Emissivity Measurements For Oil Slick Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niclos, Raquel; Dona, Carolina; Valor, Enric; Bisquert, Maria M.

    2013-12-01

    The study purpose was to carry out experimental TIR measurements to characterize crude and seawater emissivity spectral and angular variations. The results confirmed that crude emissivity is lower than seawater emissivity and flat in the 8-12μm region, but also showed that crude emissivity decreases with angle, from 0.956±0.005 at 15o to 0.873±0.007 at 65o, even more than that of seawater. The seawater-crude emissivity difference increases with angle (+0.030±0.007 at 15o and +0.068±0.010 at 65o). This fact implies significant emissivity differences for off-nadir observation angles, which can be used for crude oil slick identification from TIR satellite data. The experimental results were checked by the dual-angle viewing capability of the ENVISAT-AATSR during the BP Deepwater Horizon oil slick in 2010. Nadir-forward emissivity differences of +0.027 and +0.017 were obtained for the oil slick and surrounding clean seawater respectively. The seawater- oil emissivity difference was +0.045 for the forward view, in agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Graphene-based Recyclable Photo-Absorbers for High-Efficiency Seawater Desalination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangqing; Ou, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wu, Hui

    2016-04-13

    Today's scientific advances in water desalination dramatically increase our ability to transform seawater into fresh water. As an important source of renewable energy, solar power holds great potential to drive the desalination of seawater. Previously, solar assisted evaporation systems usually relied on highly concentrated sunlight or were not suitable to treat seawater or wastewater, severely limiting the large scale application of solar evaporation technology. Thus, a new strategy is urgently required in order to overcome these problems. In this study, we developed a solar thermal evaporation system based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Because this material can absorb over 95% of sunlight, we achieved high evaporation efficiency up to 70% under only 1 kW m(-2) irradiation. Moreover, it could be separated from seawater under the action of magnetic force by decorated with MNPs. Thus, this system provides an advantage of recyclability, which can significantly reduce the material consumptions. Additionally, by using photoabsorbing bulk or layer materials, the deposition of solutes offen occurs in pores of materials during seawater desalination, leading to the decrease of efficiency. However, this problem can be easily solved by using MNPs, which suggests this system can be used in not only pure water system but also high-salinity wastewater system. This study shows good prospects of graphene-based materials for seawater desalination and high-salinity wastewater treatment.

  15. The evaporation path of seawater and the coprecipitation of Br- and K+ with halite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaffrey, M. A.; Lazar, B.; Holland, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    Brines and salt were sampled at the Morton Bahamas solar salt production facility on Great Inagua Island in the Bahamas. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography to define more precisely than heretofore the evaporation path of seawater to the end of the halite facies. At Inagua, calcium carbonate begins to precipitate at a brine concentration factor of 1.8 times that of seawater. Gypsum begins to precipitate at a brine concentration of 3.8 times seawater, and halite at a concentration factor of 10.6. Three of the most concentrated brines from Inagua (40 times seawater) were evaporated further in the laboratory. Magnesium sulfate first precipitated at brine concentrations about 70 times those of seawater, and potassium-bearing phases began to precipitate for these brines at concentrations greater than 90 times those of seawater. The distribution of coefficients of Br- and K+ between brines and halite were determined by combining analytical data for the Inagua brines with measurements of the Br- and K+ content of halites from Inagua and of halite which had precipitated from Inagua brines during storage. The observed average value of DBr- is 0.032, in good agreement with some of the previous measurements. The measured values of DK+ are highly variable (0.001 to 0.021); DK+ for halite precipitated early in the halite facies is in the vicinity of 0.015.

  16. The salinity gradient power generating system integrated into the seawater desalination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongqiang; Wang, Wanjun; Cai, Bingqian; Hao, Jiacheng; Xia, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Seawater desalination is an important way to solve the problem of fresh water shortage. Low energy efficiency and high cost are disadvantages existing in seawater desalination. With huge reserve and the highest energy density among different types of marine energy, salinity gradient energy has a bright application prospect. The promotion of traditional salinity gradient power generating systems is hindered by its low efficiency and specific requirements on site selection. This paper proposes a salinity gradient power generating system integrated into the seawater desalination system which combines the salinity gradient power generating system and the seawater desalination system aiming to remedy the aforementioned deficiency and could serve as references for future seawater desalination and salinity gradient energy exploitation. The paper elaborates on the operating principles of the system, analyzes the detailed working process, and estimates the energy output and consumption of the system. It is proved that with appropriate design, the energy output of the salinity gradient power generating system can satisfy the demand of the seawater desalination system.

  17. Chemometrics for the classification and calibration of seawater using the H+ affinity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kortazar, L; Sáez, J; Astigarraga, E; Goienaga, N; Fernández, L

    2013-11-15

    In 1819 Alexander Marcet proposed that seawater contains small amounts of all soluble substances and that the relative abundances of some of them were constant. This hypothesis is nowadays known as Marcet's Principle or the principle of constancy of the composition of seawater. Based on this principle, the present research tried to prove that it is possible to detect polluted seawater samples using the seawater H(+) affinity spectrum by the application of the possibilities provided by chemometric tools. Seawater samples were classified using the principal component analysis (PCA) of the HBound spectra of the samples. It was concluded that the sampling points location does not have any influence in the cluster formation, while the season in which they were collected is significant. On the other hand, the seawater composition was calibrated using estuary water samples of different salinities. Once the major constituents were measured, the data analysis concluded that it is possible to make a calibration of the HBound spectrum vs. any of these constituents by means of partial least square (PLS) regression. Thus, the experimental evidence collected in this work confirms that it is possible to detect polluted sea or estuary water samples using these chemometric tools and the H(+) affinity spectrum because with polluted samples these multivariate methods lead to incoherent results. So, suspect polluted zones may be monitored in a simple way with a low cost method and spending much less time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Residue characteristics and distributions of perfluorinated compounds in surface seawater along Shenzhen coastline].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Wu; Zhang, Hong; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shen, Jin-Can; Yang, Bo

    2012-06-01

    In order to explore the residue characteristics and distributions of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in 18 surface seawater samples along Shenzhen coastline, high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) combined with solid phase extraction enrichment was applied in this research. The results indicated that residue level of PFCs in coastal surface seawater samples was significantly affected by human activities. Sigma PFCs residue levels in surface seawater from Shenzhen west coast, which locates below the estuary of Pearl River and Donghao River, are much higher than those from the east coast, which has low development and sparse population (P<0.05). Under natural conditions, sigma PFCs residue levels in coastal surface seawater samples from Shenzhen Bays are higher than those out of bays. The major residue species in surface seawater samples along Shenzhen coast were medium- and short-chain PFCs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanoic acid and perfluoropentanoic acid. Their similar environmental behavior (P<0.05, P<0.01) is likely associated with the production process of PFCs-related products. Furthermore, cluster analysis results show that PFOS (R2 = 0.4092) level can be used as a representative parameter for evaluating PFCs contamination status in surface seawater along Shenzhen coast.

  19. The evaporation path of seawater and the coprecipitation of Br- and K+ with halite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaffrey, M. A.; Lazar, B.; Holland, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    Brines and salt were sampled at the Morton Bahamas solar salt production facility on Great Inagua Island in the Bahamas. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography to define more precisely than heretofore the evaporation path of seawater to the end of the halite facies. At Inagua, calcium carbonate begins to precipitate at a brine concentration factor of 1.8 times that of seawater. Gypsum begins to precipitate at a brine concentration of 3.8 times seawater, and halite at a concentration factor of 10.6. Three of the most concentrated brines from Inagua (40 times seawater) were evaporated further in the laboratory. Magnesium sulfate first precipitated at brine concentrations about 70 times those of seawater, and potassium-bearing phases began to precipitate for these brines at concentrations greater than 90 times those of seawater. The distribution of coefficients of Br- and K+ between brines and halite were determined by combining analytical data for the Inagua brines with measurements of the Br- and K+ content of halites from Inagua and of halite which had precipitated from Inagua brines during storage. The observed average value of DBr- is 0.032, in good agreement with some of the previous measurements. The measured values of DK+ are highly variable (0.001 to 0.021); DK+ for halite precipitated early in the halite facies is in the vicinity of 0.015.

  20. Leaching Characteristics of Lithium Adsorbents in Seawater and its Implication of Marine Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H. O.; Kim, J. A.; Jeong, S.; Chung, K. S.; Ryu, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The lithium-manganese oxide adsorbent material have been developed by KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) to recovery the lithium from seawater and pilot plant was conducted in Okgye Harbor, Gangneung, Korea. There is the possibility of release toxic substances to marine environments from lithium recovery adsorbents during the operation of lithium recovery process on the marine station. Therefore, the changes in marine environmental impact should be predicted to assure marine environmental integrity for application of lithium recovery adsorbents in real sea. In this study, the batch-scale experiments was conducted using natural seawater (NSW) and artificial seawater (ASW) to determine the leaching characteristics of lithium recovery adsorbents. Solid-liquid ratio was determine by considering the unit area of exposing lithium recovery adsorbents in pilot plant, NSW and ASW were exchanged every two days for 14 days to simulate the real marine environment. After agitating with 30 rpm to simulate water movement under 10 and 25°C (average seawater temperature in winter and summer in Okgye Harbor, respectively), dynamic leached substances (heavy metals) and their leaching rate were determined. This study provides the practical design factors, maximum dose of lithium recovery adsorbents, duration, and frequency, for lithium recovery from seawater based on marine environmental risk. Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the national research project titled "The Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Seawater" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Ocean and Fisheries.

  1. Long-Term Viscoelastic Response of E-glass/Bismaleimide Composite in Seawater Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yian, Zhao; Zhiying, Wang; Keey, Seah Leong; Boay, Chai Gin

    2015-12-01

    The effect of seawater absorption on the long-term viscoelastic response of E-glass/BMI composite is presented in this paper. The diffusion of seawater into the composite shows a two-stage behavior, dominated by Fickian diffusion initially and followed by polymeric relaxation. The Glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composite with seawater absorption is considerably lowered due to the plasticization effect. However the effect of water absorption at 50 °C is found to be reversible after drying process. The time-temperature superposition (TTS) was performed based on the results of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis to construct the master curve of storage modulus. The shift factors exhibit Arrhenius behavior when temperature is well below Tg and Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) like behavior when temperature gets close to glass transition region. As a result, a semi-empirical formulation is proposed to account for the seawater absorption effect in predicting long-term viscoelastic response of BMI composites based on temperature dependent storage modulus and TTS. The predicted master curves show that the degradation of storage modulus accelerates with both seawater exposure and increasing temperature. The proposed formulation can be applied to predict the long-term durability of any thermorheologically simple composite materials in seawater environment.

  2. Seasonal levels of the Vibrio predator bacteriovorax in atlantic, pacific, and gulf coast seawater.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Boyd, E Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = -0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII.

  3. Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Boyd, E. Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = −0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII. PMID:24454382

  4. Microbial communities related to biodegradation of dispersed Macondo oil at low seawater temperature with Norwegian coastal seawater

    PubMed Central

    Brakstad, Odd G; Throne-Holst, Mimmi; Netzer, Roman; Stoeckel, Donald M; Atlas, Ronald M

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in 2010 created a deepwater plume of small oil droplets from a deepwater well in the Mississippi Canyon lease block 252 (‘Macondo oil’). A novel laboratory system was used in the current study to investigate biodegradation of Macondo oil dispersions (10 μm or 30 μm median droplet sizes) at low oil concentrations (2 mg l−1) in coastal Norwegian seawater at a temperature of 4–5°C. Whole metagenome analyses showed that oil biodegradation was associated with the successive increased abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, while Alphaproteobacteria (Pelagibacter) became dominant at the end of the experiment. Colwellia and Oceanospirillales were related to n-alkane biodegradation, while particularly Cycloclasticus and Marinobacter were associated with degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs). The larger oil droplet dispersions resulted in delayed sequential changes of Oceanospirillales and Cycloclasticus, related with slower degradation of alkanes and aromatic HCs. The bacterial successions associated with oil biodegradation showed both similarities and differences when compared with the results from DWH field samples and laboratory studies performed with deepwater from the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:26485443

  5. Microbial communities related to biodegradation of dispersed Macondo oil at low seawater temperature with Norwegian coastal seawater.

    PubMed

    Brakstad, Odd G; Throne-Holst, Mimmi; Netzer, Roman; Stoeckel, Donald M; Atlas, Ronald M

    2015-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in 2010 created a deepwater plume of small oil droplets from a deepwater well in the Mississippi Canyon lease block 252 ('Macondo oil'). A novel laboratory system was used in the current study to investigate biodegradation of Macondo oil dispersions (10 μm or 30 μm median droplet sizes) at low oil concentrations (2 mg l(-1)) in coastal Norwegian seawater at a temperature of 4-5°C. Whole metagenome analyses showed that oil biodegradation was associated with the successive increased abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, while Alphaproteobacteria (Pelagibacter) became dominant at the end of the experiment. Colwellia and Oceanospirillales were related to n-alkane biodegradation, while particularly Cycloclasticus and Marinobacter were associated with degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs). The larger oil droplet dispersions resulted in delayed sequential changes of Oceanospirillales and Cycloclasticus, related with slower degradation of alkanes and aromatic HCs. The bacterial successions associated with oil biodegradation showed both similarities and differences when compared with the results from DWH field samples and laboratory studies performed with deepwater from the Gulf of Mexico. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Biological Properties of Acidic Cosmetic Water from Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Ting; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Pan, Jian-Liang; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chen, Shi-Hui; Liu, Po-Len; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min; Hsiao, Shu-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This current work was to investigate the biological effects of acidic cosmetic water (ACW) on various biological assays. ACW was isolated from seawater and demonstrated several bio-functions at various concentration ranges. ACW showed a satisfactory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, which reduced 90% of bacterial growth after a 5-second exposure. We used cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to test the properties of ACW in inflammatory cytokine release, and it did not induce inflammatory cytokine release from un-stimulated, normal PBMCs. However, ACW was able to inhibit bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine TNF-α released from PBMCs, showing an anti-inflammation potential. Furthermore, ACW did not stimulate the rat basophilic leukemia cell (RBL-2H3) related allergy response on de-granulation. Our data presented ACW with a strong anti-oxidative ability in a superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. In mass spectrometry information, magnesium and zinc ions demonstrated bio-functional detections for anti-inflammation as well as other metal ions such as potassium and calcium were observed. ACW also had minor tyrosinase and melanin decreasing activities in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn-MP) without apparent cytotoxicity. In addition, the cell proliferation assay illustrated anti-growth and anti-migration effects of ACW on human skin melanoma cells (A375.S2) indicating that it exerted the anti-cancer potential against skin cancer. The results obtained from biological assays showed that ACW possessed multiple bioactivities, including anti-microorganism, anti-inflammation, allergy-free, antioxidant, anti-melanin and anticancer properties. To our knowledge, this was the first report presenting these bioactivities on ACW. PMID:22754342

  7. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Sarp, S; Bucs, Sz S; Amy, G; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines.

    PubMed

    Mericq, Jean-Pierre; Laborie, Stéphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

    2010-10-01

    Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process to RO to further concentrate RO brines and increase the global recovery of the process. VMD is an evaporative technology that uses a membrane to support the liquid-vapour interface and enhance the contact area between liquid and vapour in comparison with conventional distillation. This study focuses on VMD for the treatment of RO brines. Simulations were performed to optimise the operating conditions and were completed by bench-scale experiments using actual RO brines and synthetic solutions up to a salt concentration of 300 g L(-1). Operating conditions such as a highly permeable membrane, high feed temperature, low permeate pressure and a turbulent fluid regime allowed high permeate fluxes to be obtained even for a very high salt concentration (300 g L(-1)). For the membrane studied, temperature and concentration polarisation were shown to have little effect on permeate flux. After 6 to 8 h, no organic fouling or biofouling was observed for RO brines. At high salt concentrations, scaling occurred (mainly due to calcium precipitation) but had only a limited impact on the permeate flux (24% decrease for a permeate specific volume of 43L m(-2) for the highest concentration of salt). Calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitated first due to their low solubility and formed mixed crystal deposits on the membrane surface. These phenomena only occurred on the membrane surface and did not totally cover the pores. The crystals were easily removed simply by washing the membrane with water. A global recovery factor of 89% can be obtained by coupling RO and VMD

  9. Mechanisms for Photoinactivation of Enterococcus faecalis in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2012-01-01

    Field studies in fresh and marine waters consistently show diel fluctuations in concentrations of enterococci, indicators of water quality. We investigated sunlight inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis to gain insight into photoinactivation mechanisms and cellular responses to photostress. E. faecalis bacteria were exposed to natural sunlight in clear, filtered seawater under both oxic and anoxic conditions to test the relative importance of oxygen-mediated and non-oxygen-mediated photoinactivation mechanisms. Multiple methods were used to assess changes in bacterial concentration, including cultivation, quantitative PCR (qPCR), propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR, LIVE/DEAD staining using propidium iodide (PI), and cellular activity, including ATP concentrations and expression of the superoxide dismutase-encoding gene, sodA. Photoinactivation, based on numbers of cultivable cells, was faster in oxic than in anoxic microcosms exposed to sunlight, suggesting that oxygen-mediated photoinactivation dominated. There was little change in qPCR signal over the course of the experiment, demonstrating that the nucleic acid targets were not damaged to a significant extent. The PMA-qPCR signal was also fairly stable, consistent with the observation that the fraction of PI-permeable cells was constant. Thus, damage to the membrane was minimal. Microbial ATP concentrations decreased in all microcosms, particularly the sunlit oxic microcosms. The increase in relative expression of the sodA gene in the sunlit oxic microcosms suggests that cells were actively responding to oxidative stress. Dark repair was not observed. This research furthers our understanding of photoinactivation mechanisms and the conditions under which diel fluctuations in enterococci can be expected in natural and engineered systems. PMID:22941072

  10. Nucleation of metastable aragonite CaCO3 in seawater

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenhao; Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin A.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the conditions in which a compound adopts a metastable structure when it crystallizes out of solution is an unsolved and fundamental problem in materials synthesis, and one which, if understood and harnessed, could enable the rational design of synthesis pathways toward or away from metastable structures. Crystallization of metastable phases is particularly accessible via low-temperature solution-based routes, such as chimie douce and hydrothermal synthesis, but although the chemistry of the solution plays a crucial role in governing which polymorph forms, how it does so is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate an ab initio technique to quantify thermodynamic parameters of surfaces and bulks in equilibrium with an aqueous environment, enabling the calculation of nucleation barriers of competing polymorphs as a function of solution chemistry, thereby predicting the solution conditions governing polymorph selection. We apply this approach to resolve the long-standing “calcite–aragonite problem”––the observation that calcium carbonate precipitates as the metastable aragonite polymorph in marine environments, rather than the stable phase calcite––which is of tremendous relevance to biomineralization, carbon sequestration, paleogeochemistry, and the vulnerability of marine life to ocean acidification. We identify a direct relationship between the calcite surface energy and solution Mg–Ca ion concentrations, showing that the calcite nucleation barrier surpasses that of metastable aragonite in solutions with Mg:Ca ratios consistent with modern seawater, allowing aragonite to dominate the kinetics of nucleation. Our ability to quantify how solution parameters distinguish between polymorphs marks an important step toward the ab initio prediction of materials synthesis pathways in solution. PMID:25739963

  11. Brachybacterium aquaticum sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurwinder; Kumar, Narender; Mual, Poonam; Kumar, Anand; Kumar, Rajendran Mathan; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2016-11-01

    A pale-yellowish bacterium, strain KWS-1T, was isolated from seawater during a study of the bacterial diversity of the marine environment of the Kanyakumari coastal region of the Bay of Bengal, India, and was studied by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain KWS-1T had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties (cell-wall diamino acid, menaquinone and fatty acid profile) consistent with its classification in the genus Brachybacterium. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain KWS-1T was related most closely to Brachybacterium paraconglomeratum JCM 17781T, followed by Brachybacterium saurashtrense DSM 23186T, Brachybacterium gingengisoli JCM 19356T, Brachybacterium faecium JCM 11609T and Brachybacterium conglomeratum JCM 11608T (98.45, 98.24, 98.12, 98.10 and 98.10 % similarity, respectively), whereas the sequence similarity values with respect to the other Brachybacterium species with validly published names were between 97.4 and 94.2 %. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain KWS-1T and the five most closely related species were less than the threshold value for species discrimination. The major lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine and the major quinone was menaquinone MK-7. The DNA G+C content of strain KWS-1T was 71.8 mol%. The above data in combination with the phenotypic distinctiveness of strain KWS-1T from other reference strains clearly indicate that the strain represents a novel species, for which the name Brachybacterium aquaticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KWS-1T (=MTCC 11836T=DSM 28796T=JCM 30059T).

  12. Nucleation of metastable aragonite CaCO3 in seawater.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenhao; Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin A; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-03-17

    Predicting the conditions in which a compound adopts a metastable structure when it crystallizes out of solution is an unsolved and fundamental problem in materials synthesis, and one which, if understood and harnessed, could enable the rational design of synthesis pathways toward or away from metastable structures. Crystallization of metastable phases is particularly accessible via low-temperature solution-based routes, such as chimie douce and hydrothermal synthesis, but although the chemistry of the solution plays a crucial role in governing which polymorph forms, how it does so is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate an ab initio technique to quantify thermodynamic parameters of surfaces and bulks in equilibrium with an aqueous environment, enabling the calculation of nucleation barriers of competing polymorphs as a function of solution chemistry, thereby predicting the solution conditions governing polymorph selection. We apply this approach to resolve the long-standing "calcite-aragonite problem"--the observation that calcium carbonate precipitates as the metastable aragonite polymorph in marine environments, rather than the stable phase calcite--which is of tremendous relevance to biomineralization, carbon sequestration, paleogeochemistry, and the vulnerability of marine life to ocean acidification. We identify a direct relationship between the calcite surface energy and solution Mg:Ca [corrected] ion concentrations, showing that the calcite nucleation barrier surpasses that of metastable aragonite in solutions with Mg:Ca ratios consistent with modern seawater, allowing aragonite to dominate the kinetics of nucleation. Our ability to quantify how solution parameters distinguish between polymorphs marks an important step toward the ab initio prediction of materials synthesis pathways in solution.

  13. Kordia antarctica sp. nov., isolated from Antarctic seawater.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kiwoon; Choi, Ahyoung; Kang, Ilnam; Lee, Kiyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, chemoheterotrophic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, flexirubin-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain IMCC3317(T), was isolated from a coastal seawater sample from the Antarctic Penninsula. Optimal growth of strain IMCC3317(T) was observed at 20 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 2-3 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain IMCC3317(T) belonged to the genus Kordia and was closely related to Kordia algicida OT-1(T) (96.7 % sequence similarity) and Kordia periserrulae IMCC1412(T) (96.1 % sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were 10-methyl C16 : 0 and/or iso-C16 : 1ω9c, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.1 mol%. The strain contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the respiratory quinone. The polar lipids detected in the strain were phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown aminophospholipids, aminolipids and polar lipids. On the basis of phylogenetic distinction and differential phenotypic characteristics, it is suggested that strain IMCC3317(T) ( = KCTC 32292(T) = NBRC 109401(T)) be assigned to the genus Kordia as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Kordia antarctica sp. nov. is proposed.

  14. Marinobacterium marisflavi sp. nov., isolated from a costal seawater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hana; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Yang, Seung-Jo; Lee, Jung-Sook; Hong, Jae-Sang; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2009-05-01

    A marine bacterium designated strain IMCC4074(T) was isolated from surface seawater collected off Incheon Port, the Yellow Sea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomy. The strain was Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic, slightly halophilic, strictly aerobic, and motile rods. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the strain was most closely related to Marinobacterium litorale KCTC 12756(T) (93.9%) and shared low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with members of the genus Marinobacterium (91.8-93.9%) and the genus Neptunomonas (93.4%) in the order Oceanospirillales. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this marine isolate formed an independent phyletic line within the genus Marinobacterium clade. The DNA G+C composition of the strain was 56.0 mol% and the predominant constituents of the cellular fatty acids were C(16:0) (28.0%), C(16:1 )omega7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH (19.3%), C(18:1 )omega7c (17.8%), and C(17:1) cyclo (12.5%), which differentiated the strain from other Marinobacterium species. Based on the taxonomic data collected in this study, only a distant relationship could be found between strain IMCC4074(T) and other members of the genus Marinobacterium, thus the strain represents a novel species of the genus Marinobacterium, for which the name Marinobacterium marisflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Marinobacterium marisflavi is IMCC4074(T) (= KCTC 12757(T) = LMG 23873(T)).

  15. Removal rates of dissolved munitions compounds in seawater.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W; Vlahos, Penny; Tobias, Craig; Ballentine, Mark; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Cooper, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    The historical exposure of coastal marine systems to munitions compounds is of significant concern due to the global distribution of impacted sites and known toxicological effects of nitroaromatics. In order to identify specific coastal regions where persistence of these chemicals should be of concern, it is necessary to experimentally observe their behavior under a variety of realistic oceanographic conditions. Here, we conduct a mesocosm scale pulse addition experiment to document the behavior of two commonly used explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in simulated marine systems containing water and sediments collected from Long Island Sound, CT. The addition of sediments and sediment grain-size had a major influence on the loss rates of all compounds detected. RDX and reduced TNT products were removed from seawater only in the presence of sediment, and TNT degraded significantly faster in the presence of sediment. Both compounds were removed from the system faster with decreasing grain-size. Based on these findings and a thorough review of the literature, we hypothesize that in addition to bacterial abundance and nutrient availability, TNT removal rates in coastal marine waters may be controlled by sorption and rapid surface-mediated bacterial transformation, while RDX removal rates are controlled by diffusion into sedimentary anoxic regions and subsequent anaerobic bacterial breakdown. A comparison of published removal rates of RDX and TNT highlights the extreme variability in measured degradation rates and identifies physicochemical variables that covary with the breakdown of these munitions compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seawater intrusion in the Salalah plain aquifer, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shammas, M. I.; Jacks, G.

    2007-11-01

    Salalah is situated on a fresh water aquifer that is replenished during the annual monsoon season. The aquifer is the only source of water in Salalah city. The rainfall and mist precipitation in the Jabal AlQara recharges the plain with significant renewable fresh groundwater that has allowed agricultural and industrial development to occur. In Salalah city where groundwater has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes, the groundwater has been withdrawn from the aquifer more rapidly than it can be replenished by natural recharge. The heavy withdrawal of large quantities of the groundwater from the aquifer has led to the intrusion of seawater. Agricultural activities utilize over 70% of the groundwater. For the study of the saltwater intrusion, the area has been divided into four strips, A, B, C and D, on the basis of land-use in the area. Water samples were collected from 18 water wells. Chemical analysis of major ions and pollution parameters in the groundwater was carried out and compared to the previous observed values. The electrical conductivity and chloride concentrations were highest in the agricultural and residential strips and Garziz grass farm. Before 1992 the aquifer was in a steady state, but presently (2005) the groundwater quality in most of the agricultural and residential strips does not meet drinking water standards. In addition, model simulations were developed with the computer code MODFLOW and MT3DMS for solute transport to determine the movement of the freshwater/saltwater interface. The study proposes the protection of the groundwater in Salalah plain aquifer from further encroachment by artificial recharge with reclaimed water, preferably along the Salalah coastal agricultural strip. This scheme can also be applied to other regions with similar conditions.

  17. Ice-nucleating particles in Canadian Arctic sea-surface microlayer and bulk seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irish, Victoria E.; Elizondo, Pablo; Chen, Jessie; Chou, Cédric; Charette, Joannie; Lizotte, Martine; Ladino, Luis A.; Wilson, Theodore W.; Gosselin, Michel; Murray, Benjamin J.; Polishchuk, Elena; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Miller, Lisa A.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2017-09-01

    The sea-surface microlayer and bulk seawater can contain ice-nucleating particles (INPs) and these INPs can be emitted into the atmosphere. Our current understanding of the properties, concentrations, and spatial and temporal distributions of INPs in the microlayer and bulk seawater is limited. In this study we investigate the concentrations and properties of INPs in microlayer and bulk seawater samples collected in the Canadian Arctic during the summer of 2014. INPs were ubiquitous in the microlayer and bulk seawater with freezing temperatures in the immersion mode as high as -14 °C. A strong negative correlation (R = -0. 7, p = 0. 02) was observed between salinity and freezing temperatures (after correction for freezing depression by the salts). One possible explanation is that INPs were associated with melting sea ice. Heat and filtration treatments of the samples show that the INPs were likely heat-labile biological materials with sizes between 0.02 and 0.2 µm in diameter, consistent with previous measurements off the coast of North America and near Greenland in the Arctic. The concentrations of INPs in the microlayer and bulk seawater were consistent with previous measurements at several other locations off the coast of North America. However, our average microlayer concentration was lower than previous observations made near Greenland in the Arctic. This difference could not be explained by chlorophyll a concentrations derived from satellite measurements. In addition, previous studies found significant INP enrichment in the microlayer, relative to bulk seawater, which we did not observe in this study. While further studies are needed to understand these differences, we confirm that there is a source of INP in the microlayer and bulk seawater in the Canadian Arctic that may be important for atmospheric INP concentrations.

  18. Characterization and testing of amidoxime-based adsorbent materials to extract uranium from natural seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Janke, Christopher James; Wood, Jordana; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Gill, Gary

    2015-11-19

    Extraction of uranium (U) from seawater for use as a nuclear fuel is a significant challenge due to the low concentration of U in seawater (~3.3 ppb) and difficulties to selectively extract U from the background of major and trace elements in seawater. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) s Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) has been serving as a marine test site for determining performance characteristics (adsorption capacity, adsorption kinetics, and selectivity) of novel amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under natural seawater exposure conditions. This report describes the performance of three formulations (38H, AF1, AI8) of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbent produced at ORNL in MSL s ambient seawater testing facility. The adsorbents were produced in two forms, fibrous material (40-100 mg samples) and braided material (5-10 g samples), exposed to natural seawater using flow-through columns and recirculating flumes. All three formulations demonstrated high 56 day uranium adsorption capacity (>3 gU/kg adsorbent). The AF1 formulation had the best uranium adsorption performance, with 56-day capacity of 3.9 g U/kg adsorbent, saturation capacity of 5.4 g U/kg adsorbent, and ~25 days half-saturation time. The two exposure methods, flow-through columns and flumes were demonstrated to produce similar performance results, providing confidence that the test methods were reliable, that scaling up from 10 s of mg quantities of exposure in flow-through columns to gram quantities in flumes produced similar results, and that the manufacturing process produces a homogenous adsorbent. Adsorption kinetics appear to be element specific, with half-saturation times ranging from minutes for the major cations in seawater to 8-10weeks for V and Fe. Reducing the exposure time provides a potential pathway to improve the adsorption capacity of U by reducing the V/U ratio on the adsorbent.

  19. Sponge exhalent seawater contains a unique chemical profile of dissolved organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Christopher J.; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water), in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater), and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater). Samples were collected from two sponge species, Ircinia campana and Spheciospongia vesparium, on a near-shore hard bottom reef in the Florida Keys. Metabolic profiles generated from untargeted metabolomics analysis indicated that many more compounds were enhanced in the exhalent samples than in the inhalant samples. Targeted metabolomics analysis revealed differences in diversity and concentration of metabolites between exhalent and off reef seawater. For example, most of the nucleosides were enriched in the exhalent seawater, while the aromatic amino acids, caffeine and the nucleoside xanthosine were elevated in the off reef water samples. Although the metabolic profile of the exhalent seawater was unique, the impact of sponge metabolism on the overall reef DOM profile was spatially limited in our study. There were also no significant differences in the metabolic profiles of exhalent water between the two sponge species, potentially indicating that there is a characteristic DOM profile in the exhalent seawater of Caribbean sponges. Additional work is needed to determine whether the impact of sponge DOM is greater in habitats with higher sponge cover and diversity. This work provides the first insight into the molecular-level impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on reef DOM and

  20. Characterization and Testing of Amidoxime-Based Adsorbent Materials to Extract Uranium from Natural Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Janke, Christopher J.; Wood, Jordana R.; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T.; Gill, Gary A.

    2016-04-20

    Extraction of uranium (U) from seawater for use as a nuclear fuel is a significant challenge due to the low concentration of U in seawater (~3.3 ppb) and difficulties to selectively extract U from the background of major and trace elements in seawater. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)’s Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) has been serving as a marine test site for determining performance characteristics (adsorption capacity, adsorption kinetics, and selectivity) of novel amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under natural seawater exposure conditions. This manuscript describes the performance of three formulations (38H, AF1, AI8) of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents produced at ORNL in MSL’s ambient seawater testing facility. The adsorbents were produced in two forms, fibrous material (40-100 mg samples) and braided material (5-10 g samples), and exposed to natural seawater using flow-through columns and recirculating flumes. All three formulations demonstrated high 56 day uranium adsorption capacity (>3 g U/kg adsorbent). The AF1 formulation had the best uranium adsorption performance, with a 56 day capacity of 3.9 g U/ kg adsorbent, a saturation capacity of 5.4 g U/kg adsorbent, and ~25 days half-saturation time. The two exposure methods, flowthrough columns and flumes, were demonstrated to produce similar performance results, providing confidence that the test methods were reliable, that scaling up from 10’s of mg quantities of exposure in flow-through columns to gram quantities in flumes produced similar results, and confirm that the manufacturing process produces a homogeneous adsorbent. Adsorption kinetics appear to be element specific, with half-saturation times ranging from minutes for the major cations in seawater, to 8-10 weeks for V and Fe. Reducing the exposure time provides a potential pathway to improve the adsorption capacity of U by reducing the V/U ratio on the adsorbent.

  1. Cell Culture Isolation of Piscine Nodavirus (Betanodavirus) in Fish-Rearing Seawater.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Shinnosuke; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Piscine nodavirus (betanodavirus) is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in a variety of cultured fish species, particularly marine fish. In the present study, we developed a sensitive method for cell culture isolation of the virus from seawater and applied the method to a spontaneous fish-rearing environment. The virus in seawater was concentrated by an iron-based flocculation method and subjected to isolation with E-11 cells. A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the virus in water. After spiking into seawater was performed, a betanodavirus strain (red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus [RGNNV] genotype) was effectively recovered in the E-11 cells at a detection limit of approximately 10(5)copies (equivalent to 10(2)50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50])/liter seawater. In an experimental infection of juvenile sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) with the virus, the virus was isolated from the drainage of a fish-rearing tank when the virus level in water was at least approximately 10(5)copies/liter. The application of this method to seven band grouper-rearing floating net pens, where VNN prevailed, resulted in the successful isolation of the virus from seawater. No differences were found in the partial sequences of the coat protein gene (RNA2) between the clinical virus isolates of dead fish and the cell-cultured virus isolates from seawater, and the viruses were identified as RGNNV. The infection experiment showed that the virus isolates from seawater were virulent to seven band grouper. These results showed direct evidence of the horizontal transmission of betanodavirus via rearing water in marine aquaculture.

  2. Hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) pups ingest snow and seawater during their post-weaning fast.

    PubMed

    Schots, Pauke C; Bue, Marie E; Nordøy, Erling S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of exogenous water intake (snow/seawater) in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) pups during their post-weaning fast. In this study, five hooded seal pups had ad lib access to snow and seawater for the first 12 and last 21 days of their post-weaning fast, respectively. Total body water and water flux were determined during both exposure periods by use of the tritiated water method. Blood samples were collected to monitor changes in hematocrit, plasma urea and plasma osmolality. Body mass loss was on average 0.36 kg day(-1). Average total body water changed from 15.7 to 11.4 L, while total water influx changed from 15 to 18 mL day(-1) kg(-1) during snow and seawater exposure, respectively. Of this influx an average of 35% can be attributed to metabolic water, while approximately 8% was due to respiratory water influx. Interestingly, 56 and 58% of the total water influx was due to snow and seawater ingestion, respectively, amounting to 8 mL day(-1) kg(-1) snow (counted as liquid water) and 10 mL day(-1) kg(-1) seawater. Based on the results of the plasma parameters it is concluded that fasting hooded seal pups maintain water balance and homeostasis when access to snow or seawater is permitted. It is further concluded that snow and seawater intake, in addition to metabolic and respiratory water, is important for maintenance of water balance and excretion of urea during the post-weaning fast of hooded seal pups.

  3. Cell Culture Isolation of Piscine Nodavirus (Betanodavirus) in Fish-Rearing Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Shinnosuke; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Kawato, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Piscine nodavirus (betanodavirus) is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in a variety of cultured fish species, particularly marine fish. In the present study, we developed a sensitive method for cell culture isolation of the virus from seawater and applied the method to a spontaneous fish-rearing environment. The virus in seawater was concentrated by an iron-based flocculation method and subjected to isolation with E-11 cells. A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the virus in water. After spiking into seawater was performed, a betanodavirus strain (redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus [RGNNV] genotype) was effectively recovered in the E-11 cells at a detection limit of approximately 105 copies (equivalent to 102 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50])/liter seawater. In an experimental infection of juvenile sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) with the virus, the virus was isolated from the drainage of a fish-rearing tank when the virus level in water was at least approximately 105 copies/liter. The application of this method to sevenband grouper-rearing floating net pens, where VNN prevailed, resulted in the successful isolation of the virus from seawater. No differences were found in the partial sequences of the coat protein gene (RNA2) between the clinical virus isolates of dead fish and the cell-cultured virus isolates from seawater, and the viruses were identified as RGNNV. The infection experiment showed that the virus isolates from seawater were virulent to sevenband grouper. These results showed direct evidence of the horizontal transmission of betanodavirus via rearing water in marine aquaculture. PMID:26896128

  4. Scleractinian corals produce calcite, and grow more slowly, in artificial Cretaceous seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Justin B.; Stanley, Steven M.; Hardie, Lawrence A.

    2006-07-01

    The mineralogies of most biotic and abiotic carbonates have alternated in synchroneity between the calcite (hexagonal) and aragonite (orthorhombic) polymorphs of CaCO3 throughout the Phanerozoic Eon. These intervals of calcite and aragonite production, or calcite seas and aragonite seas, are thought to be caused primarily by secular variation in the molar magnesium/calcium ratio of seawater (mMg/Ca > 2 = aragonite + high-Mg calcite; mMg/Ca < 2 = low-Mg calcite), a ratio that has oscillated between 1.0 and 5.2 throughout the Phanerozoic. In laboratory experiments, we show that three species of scleractinian corals, which produce aragonite in modern seawater and which have flourished as important reef builders primarily during aragonite seas of the past, began producing calcite in artificial seawater with an ambient mMg/Ca ratio below that of modern seawater (5.2). The corals produced progressively higher percentages of calcite and calcified at lower rates with further reduction of the ambient mMg/Ca ratio. In artificial seawater of imputed Late Cretaceous composition (mMg/Ca = 1.0), which favors the precipitation of the calcite polymorph, scleractinian corals produced skeletons containing >30% low-Mg calcite (skeletal mMg/Ca < 0.04). These results indicate that the skeletal mineral used by scleractinian corals is partially determined by seawater chemistry. Furthermore, slow calcification rates, resulting from the production of largely aragonitic skeletons in chemically unfavorable seawater (mMg/Ca < 2), probably contributed to the scleractinians' diminished reef-building role in the calcite seas of Late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic time.

  5. Benthic marine calcifiers coexist with CaCO3-undersaturated seawater worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrato, M.; Andersson, A. J.; Ries, J. B.; Aronson, R. B.; Lamare, M. D.; Koeve, W.; Oschlies, A.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. D.; Thatje, S.; Amsler, M.; Vos, S. C.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ruhl, H. A.; Gates, A. R.; McClintock, J. B.

    2016-07-01

    Ocean acidification and decreasing seawater saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals have raised concerns about the consequences to marine organisms that build CaCO3 structures. A large proportion of benthic marine calcifiers incorporate Mg2+ into their skeletons (Mg-calcite), which, in general, reduces mineral stability. The relative vulnerability of some marine calcifiers to ocean acidification appears linked to the relative solubility of their shell or skeletal mineralogy, although some organisms have sophisticated mechanisms for constructing and maintaining their CaCO3 structures causing deviation from this dependence. Nevertheless, few studies consider seawater saturation state with respect to the actual Mg-calcite mineralogy (ΩMg-x) of a species when evaluating the effect of ocean acidification on that species. Here, a global dataset of skeletal mole % MgCO3 of benthic calcifiers and in situ environmental conditions spanning a depth range of 0 m (subtidal/neritic) to 5600 m (abyssal) was assembled to calculate in situ ΩMg-x. This analysis shows that 24% of the studied benthic calcifiers currently experience seawater mineral undersaturation (ΩMg-x < 1). As a result of ongoing anthropogenic ocean acidification over the next 200 to 3000 years, the predicted decrease in seawater mineral saturation will expose approximately 57% of all studied benthic calcifying species to seawater undersaturation. These observations reveal a surprisingly high proportion of benthic marine calcifiers exposed to seawater that is undersaturated with respect to their skeletal mineralogy, underscoring the importance of using species-specific seawater mineral saturation states when investigating the impact of CO2-induced ocean acidification on benthic marine calcification.

  6. Seawater intrusion in fractured coastal aquifers: A preliminary numerical investigation using a fractured Henry problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebben, Megan L.; Werner, Adrian D.; Graf, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Despite that fractured coastal aquifers are widespread, the influence of fracture characteristics on seawater intrusion (SWI) has not been explored in previous studies. This research uses numerical modelling in a first step towards understanding the influence of fracture orientation, location and density on the extent of seawater and accompanying patterns of groundwater discharge in an idealised coastal aquifer. Specifically, aquifers containing single fractures or networks of regularly spaced fractures are studied using modified forms of the Henry SWI benchmark problem. The applicability of equivalent porous media (EPM) models for representing simple fracture networks in steady-state simulations of SWI is tested. The results indicate that the influence of fractures on SWI is likely to be mixed, ranging from enhancement to reduction in seawater extent and the width of the mixing zone. For the conceptual models considered here, vertical fractures in contact with the seawater wedge increase the width of the mixing zone, whereas vertical fractures inland of the wedge have minimal impact on the seawater distribution. Horizontal fractures in the lower part of the aquifer force the wedge seaward, whereas horizontal fractures located within the zone of freshwater discharge enhance the wedge. Inclined fractures roughly parallel to the seawater-freshwater interface increase the landward extent of seawater and fractures perpendicular to the interface inhibit the wedge. The results show that EPM models are likely inadequate for inferring salinity distributions in most of the fractured cases, although the EPM approach may be suitable for orthogonal fracture networks if fracture density is high and appropriate dispersivity values can be determined.

  7. Variable response of three Trifolium repens ecotypes to soil flooding by seawater.

    PubMed

    White, Anissia C; Colmer, Timothy D; Cawthray, Greg R; Hanley, Mick E

    2014-08-01

    Despite concerns about the impact of rising sea levels and storm surge events on coastal ecosystems, there is remarkably little information on the response of terrestrial coastal plant species to seawater inundation. The aim of this study was to elucidate responses of a glycophyte (white clover, Trifolium repens) to short-duration soil flooding by seawater and recovery following leaching of salts. Using plants cultivated from parent ecotypes collected from a natural soil salinity gradient, the impact of short-duration seawater soil flooding (8 or 24 h) on short-term changes in leaf salt ion and organic solute concentrations was examined, together with longer term impacts on plant growth (stolon elongation) and flowering. There was substantial Cl(-) and Na(+) accumulation in leaves, especially for plants subjected to 24 h soil flooding with seawater, but no consistent variation linked to parent plant provenance. Proline and sucrose concentrations also increased in plants following seawater flooding of the soil. Plant growth and flowering were reduced by longer soil immersion times (seawater flooding followed by drainage and freshwater inputs), but plants originating from more saline soil responded less negatively than those from lower salinity soil. The accumulation of proline and sucrose indicates a potential for solute accumulation as a response to the osmotic imbalance caused by salt ions, while variation in growth and flowering responses between ecotypes points to a natural adaptive capacity for tolerance of short-duration seawater soil flooding in T. repens. Consequently, it is suggested that selection for tolerant ecotypes is possible should the predicted increase in frequency of storm surge flooding events occur. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Constrains on the Uranium Isotopic Composition of Seawater and Implications for Coral U/Th Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutcharavan, P. M.; Dutton, A.; Ellwood, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Coral U-series geochronology is an important tool for calibrating records of sea level change during the late Quaternary and coral 14C dates for the radiocarbon timescale. However, coralline aragonite is highly susceptible to diagenesis, and samples must be carefully screened to ensure a specimen is unaltered. One method used to accept or reject U-series ages is the initial coral 234U/238U activity ratio, which reflects the 234U/238U activity of seawater at the time of coral skeleton formation. Due to the long residence time of uranium in the ocean (~400,000 years), researchers often assume that seawater 234U/238U has remained constant throughout the late Pleistocene. Coral specimens whose U-series ages yield an initial 234U/238U value that is significantly different than modern seawater are considered altered. Several studies have demonstrated that coral initial 234U/238U and, hence, seawater 234U/238U may have varied significantly on glacial-interglacial timescales, but the cause of this variability is subject to debate. To evaluate the pattern and mechanisms of 234U/238U variability in seawater over the last glacial cycle, we draw upon a compilation of U-series measurements of shallow and deep water corals to better define the observed variability. Observed trends from the coral record will be assessed using a simple two-box model of the ocean to determine how changes to the ocean's uranium isotope budget during glacial cycles can explain shifts in seawater 234U/238U. An improved understanding the evolution of seawater 234U/238U composition will enable more robust interpretations of both closed-system and open-system ages for corals. Such interpretations of U-series ages are essential to the development of robust chronologies for climate and sea level change and for improving the calibration of the radiocarbon timescale.

  9. Microbial ureolysis in the seawater-catalysed urine phosphorus recovery system: Kinetic study and reactor verification.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Tao; Dai, Ji; Liu, Rulong; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-12-15

    Our previous study has confirmed the feasibility of using seawater as an economical precipitant for urine phosphorus (P) precipitation. However, we still understand very little about the ureolysis in the Seawater-based Urine Phosphorus Recovery (SUPR) system despite its being a crucial step for urine P recovery. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of microbial ureolysis in the seawater-urine system. Indigenous bacteria from urine and seawater exhibited relatively low ureolytic activity, but they adapted quickly to the urine-seawater mixture during batch cultivation. During cultivation, both the abundance and specific ureolysis rate of the indigenous bacteria were greatly enhanced as confirmed by a biomass-dependent Michaelis-Menten model. The period for fully ureolysis was decreased from 180 h to 2.5 h after four cycles of cultivation. Based on the successful cultivation, a lab-scale SUPR reactor was set up to verify the fast ureolysis and efficient P recovery in the SUPR system. Nearly complete urine P removal was achieved in the reactor in 6 h without adding any chemicals. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis revealed that the predominant groups of bacteria in the SUPR reactor likely originated from seawater rather than urine. Moreover, batch tests confirmed the high ureolysis rates and high phosphorus removal efficiency induced by cultivated bacteria in the SUPR reactor under seawater-to-urine mixing ratios ranging from 1:1 to 9:1. This study has proved that the enrichment of indigenous bacteria in the SUPR system can lead to sufficient ureolytic activity for phosphate precipitation, thus providing an efficient and economical method for urine P recovery.

  10. Variable response of three Trifolium repens ecotypes to soil flooding by seawater

    PubMed Central

    White, Anissia C.; Colmer, Timothy D.; Cawthray, Greg R.; Hanley, Mick E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite concerns about the impact of rising sea levels and storm surge events on coastal ecosystems, there is remarkably little information on the response of terrestrial coastal plant species to seawater inundation. The aim of this study was to elucidate responses of a glycophyte (white clover, Trifolium repens) to short-duration soil flooding by seawater and recovery following leaching of salts. Methods Using plants cultivated from parent ecotypes collected from a natural soil salinity gradient, the impact of short-duration seawater soil flooding (8 or 24 h) on short-term changes in leaf salt ion and organic solute concentrations was examined, together with longer term impacts on plant growth (stolon elongation) and flowering. Key Results There was substantial Cl– and Na+ accumulation in leaves, especially for plants subjected to 24 h soil flooding with seawater, but no consistent variation linked to parent plant provenance. Proline and sucrose concentrations also increased in plants following seawater flooding of the soil. Plant growth and flowering were reduced by longer soil immersion times (seawater flooding followed by drainage and freshwater inputs), but plants originating from more saline soil responded less negatively than those from lower salinity soil. Conclusions The accumulation of proline and sucrose indicates a potential for solute accumulation as a response to the osmotic imbalance caused by salt ions, while variation in growth and flowering responses between ecotypes points to a natural adaptive capacity for tolerance of short-duration seawater soil flooding in T. repens. Consequently, it is suggested that selection for tolerant ecotypes is possible should the predicted increase in frequency of storm surge flooding events occur. PMID:24942000

  11. Evaluation of Seawater Intrusion Potential into a Coastal Underground Oil Storage Cavern in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Lim, J.; Moon, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Underground oil storage caverns have been operated in Korea since 1990s, and the facility at Yeosu, south coast of Korea, is one of the largest underground oil storage facilities in Korea. Hydrologic and water quality monitoring of the facility has been performed to find out whether the facility maintains secure containment condition and long-term stability. Recently, seawater intrusion into the base of the storage cavern was suspected based on the long-term monitoring of water levels and chemical analyses of seepage water pumped out from cavern bottom. The sudden decrease of water pressure during the construction of storage tunnel seems to cause the inland movement of saline water. In this study, numerical analysis was performed to estimate the potential of seawater intrusion into underground oil storage cavern using a three dimensional groundwater simulation model, FEFLOW (Diersch, 2005). The geometry of the cavern and water curtain was represented by using the implemented functions. The groundwater flow field and seawater intrusion in response to construction activity was also estimated. The simulation results were validated by comparing EC and salinity of seepage water monitoring data. Sensitivity analyses on hydraulic conductivity and water pressure from the water curtain or injection well were also conducted. Relatively high groundwater level was observed at this site due to the low hydraulic conductivity of base rock and high altitude of the mountains. Therefore, the amount of intruded seawater does not seem to be significant. However, apparent decrease of water level was observed along the main fracture zone and seawater could be intruded along these paths. Simulation results show that the seawater intrusion to the cavern is mainly controlled by the fracture zone, which would be the main channel of groundwater movement. The injection of fresh water to the injection wells along the coast may retard the intrusion of seawater.

  12. A comparison of recent Standard Seawater and Quality Evaluation of the Standard Seawater supplied in a bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Takeshi; Takatsuki, Yasushi; Imai, Jun; Aoyama, Michio

    The results of IAPSO Standard Seawater (SSW) comparisons are presented for batches P 132 to P 140. We try to match up our data with the previous result of comparison experiment to make the newest "offset table". According to the newest "offset table" proposed in this study, the standard deviation of the batch to batch differences among batches P 132 to P 140 is calculated to be 0.3 × 10-3 in salinity. This value is smaller than the value reported in the previous studies. The quality of SSW, from the point of view of batch to batch differences, has improved recently. The SSW batch P 138 and P 140 were stored in bottles made from borosilicate glass and closed with chemically resistant plastic stoppers, while batches P 133 to P 137 and P 139 were stored in glass ampoules. We measured 30 bottles of P 138 and P 140 along with several ampoules of other batches in order to check the quality, those are, within-batch difference and batch-to-batch difference. The standard deviations (1σ) of 30 repeat measurements on P 138 and P 140 were both 0.3 × 10-3 in salinity. The difference between label-delived and measured salinity of P 138 referred to batch P 137 was -0.1 × 10-3 and that of P 140 reffered to batch P 139 was -0.5 × 10-3 in salinity. These values are comparable with other batches stored in a traditional glass ampoules. This result shows that SSW in a shot-bottle is, at least as for P 138 and P 140 at this moment, almost equivalent to SSW in a glass ampoule in quality.

  13. User's guide to SEAWAT; a computer program for simulation of three-dimensional variable-density ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Weixing; Langevin, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    This report documents a computer program (SEAWAT) that simulates variable-density, transient, ground-water flow in three dimensions. The source code for SEAWAT was developed by combining MODFLOW and MT3DMS into a single program that solves the coupled flow and solute-transport equations. The SEAWAT code follows a modular structure, and thus, new capabilities can be added with only minor modifications to the main program. SEAWAT reads and writes standard MODFLOW and MT3DMS data sets, although some extra input may be required for some SEAWAT simulations. This means that many of the existing pre- and post-processors can be used to create input data sets and analyze simulation results. Users familiar with MODFLOW and MT3DMS should have little difficulty applying SEAWAT to problems of variable-density ground-water flow.

  14. Simulation of the Acoustic Pulse Expected from the Interaction of Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos and Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Acoustic Ultra-high energy Neutrino Detection (SAUND), that uses existing hydrophone arrays to detect UHE neutrinos from the acoustic pulse generated by...Ultra-High Energy (UHE) neutrino and seawater. When a neutrino interacts with seawater, the reaction creates a long, narrow shower of sub-atomic...particles. The energy from this reaction causes nearly instantaneous heating of the seawater on an acoustic timescale. The acoustic pulse created by the

  15. Environmental concerns of desalinating seawater using reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Tularam, Gurudeo Anand; Ilahee, Mahbub

    2007-08-01

    This Critical Review on environmental concerns of desalination plants suggests that planning and monitoring stages are critical aspects of successful management and operation of plants. The site for the desalination plants should be selected carefully and should be away from residential areas particularly for forward planning for possible future expansions. The concerning issues identified are noise pollution, visual pollution, reduction in recreational fishing and swimming areas, emission of materials into the atmosphere, the brine discharge and types of disposal methods used are the main cause of pollution. The reverse osmosis (RO) method is the preferred option in modern times especially when fossil fuels are becoming expensive. The RO has other positives such as better efficiency (30-50%) when compared with distillation type plants (10-30%). However, the RO membranes are susceptible to fouling and scaling and as such they need to be cleaned with chemicals regularly that may be toxic to receiving waters. The input and output water in desalination plants have to be pre and post treated, respectively. This involves treating for pH, coagulants, Cl, Cu, organics, CO(2), H(2)S and hypoxia. The by-product of the plant is mainly brine with concentration at times twice that of seawater. This discharge also includes traces of various chemicals used in cleaning including any anticorrosion products used in the plant and has to be treated to acceptable levels of each chemical before discharge but acceptable levels vary depending on receiving waters and state regulations. The discharge of the brine is usually done by a long pipe far into the sea or at the coastline. Either way the high density of the discharge reaches the bottom layers of receiving waters and may affect marine life particularly at the bottom layers or boundaries. The longer term effects of such discharge concentrate has not been documented but it is possible that small traces of toxic substances used in the

  16. Dissolved Gases in Seawater and Sediments (Paper 7R0315)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, R. M.

    1987-07-01

    the photooxidative daylight loss of oxygen from near-surface tropical waters (Gieskes and Kraay, 1982), isotopic fractionation between fresh and seawater and the atmosphere (Benson and Krause, 1984) , edge effects on chemistry in the 02 minimum zone (Mullins et al., 1985), and the relationship between oxygen and other biogeochemical properties (Pak, 1984; Blizard and Pak, 1984; Lewitus and Broenkow, 1985).

  17. Polymer dynamics of DOC networks and gel formation in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, Pedro; Santschi, Peter H.

    2010-08-01

    The ocean plays a major role in global biogeochemical carbon cycling; it holds an important reservoir of reduced organic carbon, mostly in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and processes about one-half of the total primary production of the planet. Dissolved molecules present between living and assimilable size extremes (˜1000 nm -1 nm), constitute the most abundant form of remnant biochemicals in the ocean, outweighing the total living biomass by a factor of roughly 200. Because DOC is the fundamental substrate for marine microorganisms, and is primarily composed by small refractory biopolymers, this prompted the idea that the ocean might function as a huge repository of recalcitrant carbon. The missing link that elucidates this paradox and explains how the rich and vast stock of DOC becomes available to bacteria was the discovery that DOC throughout the water column remains in reversible assembly/dispersion equilibrium forming porous microscopic gels (Chin et al., Nature 391, 568-572, 1998). This abiotic DOC-POM shunt yields a microgel pool containing ˜70 gigatons of carbon forming discrete patches of high nutrient concentration that can be readily colonized by microorganisms. The presence of this huge gel mass in seawater extending far into the dark ocean has ramifications that might well scale nonlinearly through the microbial loop to the World Ocean and global climate system and it is fundamentally changing how oceanographers think about processes linking the microbial loop and biological pump to the rest of the biosphere and the geosphere. Even if a small fraction of DOC remains self-assembled, marine scientists will have to revise the rationale of established aquatic paradigms ranging from trace metal chelation, size-reactivity relationships, the microbial loop, the biological pump, colloid pumping, and humification. A ubiquitous, reversible DOC assembly/dispersion process implies a dynamic "patchiness" spanning from the molecular to the micron

  18. Sea-level rise impacts on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Review and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketabchi, Hamed; Mahmoodzadeh, Davood; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) influences groundwater hydraulics and in particular seawater intrusion (SWI) in many coastal aquifers. The quantification of the combined and relative impacts of influential factors on SWI has not previously been considered in coastal aquifers. In the present study, a systematic review of the available literature on this topic is first provided. Then, the potential remaining challenges are scrutinized. Open questions on the effects of more realistic complexities such as gradual SLR, parameter uncertainties, and the associated influences in decision-making models are issues requiring further investigation. We assess and quantify the seawater toe location under the impacts of SLR in combination with recharge rate variations, land-surface inundation (LSI) due to SLR, aquifer bed slope variation, and changing landward boundary conditions (LWBCs). This is the first study to include all of these factors in a single analysis framework. Both analytical and numerical models are used for these sensitivity assessments. It is demonstrated that (1) LSI caused by SLR has a significant incremental impact on the seawater toe location, especially in the flatter coasts and the flux-controlled (FC) LWBCs, however this impact is less than the reported orders of magnitude differences which were estimated using only analytical solutions; (2) LWBCs significantly influence the SLR impacts under almost all conditions considered in this study; (3) The main controlling factors of seawater toe location are the magnitudes of fresh groundwater discharge to sea and recharge rate. Regional freshwater flux entering from the landward boundary and the groundwater hydraulic gradient are the major contributors of fresh groundwater discharge to sea for both FC and head-controlled (HC) systems, respectively; (4) A larger response of the aquifer and larger seawater toe location changes are demonstrable for a larger ratio of the aquifer thickness to the aquifer length particularly in

  19. SEAWAT Version 4: A Computer Program for Simulation of Multi-Species Solute and Heat Transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Thorne, Daniel T.; Dausman, Alyssa M.; Sukop, Michael C.; Guo, Weixing

    2008-01-01

    The SEAWAT program is a coupled version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS designed to simulate three-dimensional, variable-density, saturated ground-water flow. Flexible equations were added to the program to allow fluid density to be calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species. Fluid density may also be calculated as a function of fluid pressure. The effect of fluid viscosity variations on ground-water flow was included as an option. Fluid viscosity can be calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species, and the program includes additional functions for representing the dependence on temperature. Although MT3DMS and SEAWAT are not explicitly designed to simulate heat transport, temperature can be simulated as one of the species by entering appropriate transport coefficients. For example, the process of heat conduction is mathematically analogous to Fickian diffusion. Heat conduction can be represented in SEAWAT by assigning a thermal diffusivity for the temperature species (instead of a molecular diffusion coefficient for a solute species). Heat exchange with the solid matrix can be treated in a similar manner by using the mathematically equivalent process of solute sorption. By combining flexible equations for fluid density and viscosity with multi-species transport, SEAWAT Version 4 represents variable-density ground-water flow coupled with multi-species solute and heat transport. SEAWAT Version 4 is based on MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS and retains all of the functionality of SEAWAT-2000. SEAWAT Version 4 also supports new simulation options for coupling flow and transport, and for representing constant-head boundaries. In previous versions of SEAWAT, the flow equation was solved for every transport timestep, regardless of whether or not there was a large change in fluid density. A new option was implemented in SEAWAT Version 4 that allows users to control how often the flow field is updated. New options were also implemented for representing constant

  20. Measurement of the Dielectric Constant of Seawater at L-Band: Techniques and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.; LeVine, D.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite instruments, that will monitor salinity from space in the near future, require an accurate relationship between salinity/temperature and seawater dielectric constant. This paper will review measurements that were made of the dielectric constant of seawater during the past several years. The objective of the measurements is to determine the dependence of the dielectric constant of seawater on salinity and on temperature, more accurately than in the past. by taking advantage of modem instrumentation. The measurements of seawater permittivity have been performed as a function of salinity and temperature using a transmission resonant cavity technique. The measurements have been made in the salinity range of 10 to 38 psu and in the temperature range of IOU C to 35 C. These results will be useful in algorithm development for sensor systems such as SMOS and Aquarius. The measurement system consists of a brass microwave cavity that is resonant at 1.413 GHz. The seawater is introduced into the cavity through a capillary glass tube having an inner diameter of 0.1 mm. The diameter of the tube has been made very small so that the amount of seawater introduced in the cavity is small - thus maintaining the sensitivity of the measurements and allowing the use of perturbation theory predicting the seawater permittivity. The change in resonant frequency and the change in cavity Q can be used to determine the real and imaginary pare of the dielectric constant of seawater introduced into the slender tube. The microwave measurements are made by an HPS722D network analyzer. The cavity has been immersed in a uateriethylene-glycol bath which is connected to a Lauda circulator. The circulator keeps the brass cavity at a temperature constant to within 0.01 degrees. The system is automated using a Visual Basic program to control the analyzer and to collect the data. The results of the dielectric constant measurements of seawater will be presented. The measurement results will be

  1. δ44/40Ca variations of seawater from Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossil corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gothmann, A. O.; Higgins, J. A.; Blättler, C. L.; Stolarski, J.; Adkins, J. F.; Bender, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous archives including fossil carbonates, marine barite, and authigenic phosphates have shown that the Ca-isotope composition of seawater has varied throughout the Phanerozoic. Such changes are thought to be driven by oscillations between calcite seas and aragonite seas, with relatively heavy seawater δ44/40Ca occurring when aragonite deposition is favored and relatively light seawater δ44/40Ca when calcite deposition is favored[1,2]. While the Ca-isotope composition of Neogene and Late Paleogene seawater has been fairly well characterized, current records lack redundancy for ages >35Ma, and are sparsely sampled during the Late Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic. Fossil scleractinian corals may be good candidates for supplementing existing records of seawater Ca isotopes. Although the coral Ca-isotope effect has been shown to be somewhat variable between different taxa, it has also been shown that the Ca-isotope composition of scleractinians exhibits a weak temperature dependence, and is essentially independent of salinity and calcification rate[3]. We measured a suite of ~35 well-preserved fossil corals for Ca isotopes, ranging in age from Jurassic through Recent. We find that the δ44/40Ca seawater composition reconstructed from Neogene-age fossil corals is broadly consistent with existing records. However, Cretaceous and Late Jurassic fossil corals are ~1.1‰ lighter in δ44/40Ca than modern corals. The Cretaceous and Jurassic data support a record from Cretaceous-age authigenic phosphates, but indicate a δ44/40Ca of seawater that is ~0.8‰ lower than that inferred from fossil brachiopods and belemnites of similar ages. We are uncertain which record may best reflect the isotopic composition of seawater, but the differences between these reconstructions have implications for our current understanding of calcite and aragonite seas, and for the global calcium cycle. It is also possible that part of the depletion observed in Jurassic and Cretaceous age corals

  2. Mechanisms and Rates of Decay of Marine Viruses in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Suttle, Curtis A.; Chen, Feng

    1992-01-01

    Loss rates and loss processes for viruses in coastal seawater from the Gulf of Mexico were estimated with three different marine bacteriophages. Decay rates in the absence of sunlight ranged from 0.009 to 0.028 h-1, with different viruses decaying at different rates. In part, decay was attributed to adsorption by heat-labile particles, since viruses did not decay or decayed very slowly in seawater filtered through a 0.2-μm-pore-size filter (0.2-μm-filtered seawater) and in autoclaved or ultracentrifuged seawater but continued to decay in cyanide-treated seawater. Cyanide did cause decay rates to decrease, however, indicating that biological processes were also involved. The observations that decay rates were often greatly reduced in 0.8- or 1.0-μm-filtered seawater, whereas bacterial numbers were not, suggested that most bacteria were not responsible for the decay. Decay rates were also reduced in 3-μm-filtered or cycloheximide-treated seawater but not in 8-μm-filtered seawater, implying that flagellates consumed viruses. Viruses added to flagellate cultures decayed at 0.15 h-1, corresponding to 3.3 viruses ingested flagellate-1 h-1. Infectivity was very sensitive to solar radiation and, in full sunlight, decay rates were 0.4 to 0.8 h-1. Even when UV-B radiation was blocked, rates were as high as 0.17 h-1. Calculations suggest that in clear oceanic waters exposed to full sunlight, most of the virus decay, averaged over a depth of 200 m, would be attributable to solar radiation. When decay rates were averaged over 24 h for a 10-m coastal water column, loss rates of infectivity attributable to sunlight were similar to those resulting from all other processes combined. Consequently, there should be a strong diel signal in the concentration of infectious viruses. In addition, since sunlight destroys infectivity more quickly than virus particles, a large proportion of the viruses in seawater is probably not infective. Images PMID:16348812

  3. A Comparative study on the nonspecific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xuying; Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-06-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly ( P < 0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater; whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  4. A sequential extraction to determine the distribution of phosphorus in the seawater and marine surface sediment.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Isil; Aydin, Firat; Saydut, Abdurrahman; Hamamci, Candan

    2009-09-15

    The distribution of phosphorus species among environmental compartments (e.g., between water and sediment), significantly affects the bioavailability of these species to organisms. The eastern Mediterranean Sea is one of the most extreme oligotrophic oceanic regions on earth in terms of nutrient concentrations and primary productivity. The paper presents the results of inorganic and organic forms in surface sediment and seawater from NE Mediterranean Sea (Burclar Bay, Erdemli, South Anatolia of Turkey) in May 2007. Speciation of phosphorus in seawater and surface sediment using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) has been reported here. The method is based on sequential extractions of the seawater and sediment each releasing four forms of inorganic phosphorus: loosely sorbed phosphorus, phosphorus bound to aluminium (P-Al), phosphorus bound to iron (P-Fe) and phosphorus bound to calcium (P-Ca). The most abundant form of inorganic phosphorus in the seawater and surface sediment is calcium-bound phosphorus. Relative abundances of the remaining phosphorus forms in sediment follow the order: P-Al>P-Fe>loosely bound-P and in seawater follow the order P-Fe>P-Al>loosely bound-P.

  5. Seawater-based wastewater accelerates development of aerobic granular sludge: A laboratory proof-of-concept.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiling; Luo, Jinghai; Guo, Gang; Mackey, Hamish R; Hao, Tianwei; Chen, Guanghao

    2017-05-15

    This study aimed to develop an aerobic granular sludge process for the efficient treatment of highly saline wastewater and understand the granulation process in a seawater-based multi-ion matrix. Five identical sequencing batch airlift reactors (SBARs) are used to treat synthetic saline sewage with different proportions of real seawater (0%-100%). The results confirm that aerobic granular sludge can be successfully developed with various proportions of seawater up to 100% and show that seawater not only significantly accelerates granulation but also generates stronger granular structures than does freshwater. The increased presence of gel-forming alginate-like exopolysaccharides in the granules explains why a greater proportion of seawater leads to higher density and improves the cohesive strength of the granules. SEM-EDX analysis further revealed substantial presence of both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) phosphate in the granule core as well as in the outer layers providing extra bridging forces in addition to alginate-like exopolysaccharides for accelerating the granule formation and maintaining the structure. It is hoped that this work could explore another approach for saline sewage treatment and bring some clues for the mystery of granulation mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survival behaviour and virulence of the fish pathogen Vibrio ordalii in seawater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pamela; Poblete-Morales, Matías; Irgang, Rute; Toranzo, Alicia E; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-06-15

    Vibrio ordalii, the causative agent of atypical vibriosis, is a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that severely affects the salmonid aquaculture industry. V. ordalii has been biochemically, antigenically and genetically characterized. However, studies on the survival behaviour of this bacterium in aquatic environments are scarce, and there is no information regarding its disease transmission and infectious abilities outside of the fish host or regarding water as a possible reservoir. The present study investigated the survival behaviour of V. ordalii Vo-LM-06 and Vo-LM-18 in sterile and non-sterile seawater microcosms. After a year in sterile seawater without nutrients, 1% of both V. ordalii strains survived (~10(3) colony-forming units ml(-1)), and long-term maintenance did not affect bacterial biochemical or genetic properties. Additionally, V. ordalii maintained for 60 d in sterile seawater remained infective in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. However, after 2 d of natural seawater exposure, this bacterium became non-culturable, indicating that autochthonous microbiota may play an important role in survival. Recuperation assays that added fresh medium to non-sterile microcosms did not favour V. ordalii recovery on solid media. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of V. ordalii survival behaviour in seawater ecosystems.

  7. Use of microcosms to determine the survival of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum in seawater.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Irgang, Rute; Magariños, Beatriz; Romalde, Jesús L; Toranzo, Alicia E

    2006-05-01

    The survival of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum in different seawater microcosms was investigated during 160 days. The persistence of culturable cells was greater in sterile than in natural seawater. Standard plate counts showed that T. maritimum survived in sterile seawater for more than 5 months at concentration around 10(3) cfu ml(-1). However, T. maritimum proved to be very labile in non-sterile seawater, rendering culturable cells no longer than 5 days. These results were confirmed when DNA-based methods were applied. Regardless of the microcosms used, epifluorescence microscopy counts remained at about 10(6) cells ml(-1) throughout the experiment, even though we can not distinguish T. maritimum in the case of non-sterile microcosms. Resuscitation assays with addition of fresh medium to non-sterile microcosms did not favour the recovery of T. maritimum on solid media. Although morphological changes from filamentous to spheres were observed after 3 days in the non-sterile microcosms, in the case of the sterile microcosms this change was observed at the sixth day. The biochemical, physiological, serological and genetic characteristics were unaffected in the sterile microcosms. The overall results contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour of T. maritimum in natural seawater and suggest that the aquatic bacterial population play an important role in the survival of this fish pathogen.

  8. Identification of disinfection by-products in freshwater and seawater swimming pools and evaluation of genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Manasfi, Tarek; De Méo, Michel; Coulomb, Bruno; Di Giorgio, Carole; Boudenne, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects. Numerous DBPs that occur in swimming pools are genotoxic and carcinogenic. This toxicity is of a greater concern in the case of brominated DBPs that have been shown to have substantially greater toxicities than their chlorinated analogs. In chlorinated seawater swimming pools, brominated DBPs are formed due to the high content of bromide. Nevertheless, very little data is reported about DBP occurrence and mutagenicity of water in these pools. In the present study, three seawater and one freshwater swimming pools located in Southeastern France were investigated to determine qualitatively and quantitatively their DBP contents. An evaluation of the genotoxic properties of water samples of the freshwater pool and a seawater pool was conducted through the Salmonella assay (Ames test). The predominant DBPs identified in the freshwater pool were chlorinated species and included trichloroacetic acid, chloral hydrate, dichloroacetonitrile, 1,1,1-trichloropropanone and chloroform. In the seawater pools, brominated DBPs were the predominant species and included dibromoacetic acid, bromoform and dibromoacetonitile. Bromal hydrate levels were also reported. In both types of pools, haloacetic acids were the most prevalent chemical class among the analyzed DBP classes. The distribution of other DBP classes varied depending on the type of pool. As to genotoxicity, the results of Ames test showed higher mutagenicity in the freshwater pool as a consequence of its considerably higher DBP contents in comparison to the tested seawater pool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-temperature electrolysis of synthetic seawater using solid oxide electrolyzer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chee Kuan; Liu, Qinglin; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Qiang; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2017-02-01

    A Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSCF-GDC solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) is used to investigate the effects of seawater electrolysis for hydrogen production through electrolyzing steam produced from simulated seawater bath. Steam electrolysis using an SOEC with its fuel electrode contaminated by sea salt is also investigated. Steam produced from seawater is found to be free of contaminants, which are present in the seawater. Similar electrochemical performance is observed from the polarization curves and impedance spectra when using steam produced from pure water and seawater. Their short-term degradation rates are similar, which are registered at 15% 1000 h-1 for both cases. For the case of direct sea salt contamination in an SOEC's fuel electrode, both the uncontaminated and contaminated cells exhibit rather similar performance as observed from the polarization curves and impedance spectra. The difference in ASR values from the polarization curves and impedance spectra between the uncontaminated and contaminated cell are all within a 10% range. Rather similar short-term degradation rates of 15% 1000 h-1 and 16% 1000 h-1 are recorded for the uncontaminated and contaminated cells, respectively. Post-mortem analysis shows that the sea salt impregnated into the cell has been vaporized at a typical SOEC operating temperature of 800 °C over the period of operation.

  10. Expression of aquaporin 3 in gills of the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): Effects of seawater acclimation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dawoon; Sato, J Denry; Shaw, Joseph R; Stanton, Bruce A

    2012-03-01

    Estuarine fish, such as the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), are constantly and rapidly exposed to changes in salinity. Although ion transport in killifish gills during acclimation to increased salinity has been studied extensively, no studies have examined the role of aquaglyceroporin 3 (AQP3), a water, glycerol, urea, and ammonia transporter, during acclimation to increased salinity in this sentinel environmental model organism. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that transfer from freshwater to seawater decreases AQP3 gene and protein expression in the gill of killifish. Transfer from freshwater to seawater decreased AQP3 mRNA in the gill after 1 day, but had no effect on total gill AQP3 protein abundance as determined by western blot. Quantitative confocal immunocytochemistry confirmed western blot studies that transfer from freshwater to seawater did not change total AQP3 abundance in the gill; however, immunocytochemistry revealed that the amount of AQP3 in pillar cells of secondary lamellae decreased in seawater fish, whereas the amount of AQP3 in mitochondrion rich cells (MRC) in primary filaments of the gill increased in seawater fish. This response of AQP3 expression is unique to killifish compared to other teleosts. Although the role of AQP3 in the gill of killifish has not been completely elucidated, these results suggest that AQP3 may play an important role in the ability of killifish to acclimate to increased salinity.

  11. Origins of seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer - A case study of the Pajaro Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, L.D.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Seawater may enter and contaminate stratified coastal aquifers through a number of different pathways. These pathways and their relative contribution are examined in the Pajaro Valley, California, a coastal area with extensive groundwater development. This study considers three pathways of possible intrusion of the primary confined aquifer: (1) onshore leakage from brackish sources, the estuary and sloughs, through the confining layer; (2) near-shore leakage from the ocean through the confining layer; and (3) offshore flow from the ocean through the submarine canyon outcrop of the aquifer. Groundwater flow and seawater intrusion are simulated using an areal, two-dimensional solute-transport computer model. This analysis indicates that leakage through confining layers is the principal mechanism of recharge to the aquifer. Although lateral flow through the offshore outcrop contaminates the aquifer, as a whole, at a higher rate, vertical leakage through the sea floor initially is the main pathway of seawater intrusion to the onshore portion of the aquifer. It is likely that leakage generally is the dominant mechanism of recharge and initial cause of seawater intrusion for poorly-confined, stratified coastal aquifers. This analysis suggests that a significant time interval follows the initial observation of seawater intrusion, during which remedial action can be taken to control lateral flow through the offshore outcrop, which ultimately will be the largest component of future intrusion in these aquifers. ?? 1987.

  12. Mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuyuan; Lin, Kunning; Yuan, Dongxing; Gao, Yaqin; Sun, Lumin

    2016-12-15

    Samples of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in the post-desulfurized seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant together with samples of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over the post-desulfurized seawater surface were collected and analyzed to study the mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air. Experimental results showed that when DGM in the seawater was converted to GEM in the air, the δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values were changed, ranging from -2.98 to -0.04‰ and from -0.31 to 0.64‰, respectively. Aeration played a key role in accelerating the transformation of DGM to GEM, and resulted in light mercury isotopes being more likely to be enriched in the GEM. The ratio Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg was 1.626 in all samples, suggesting that mercury mass independent fractionation occurred owing to the nuclear volume effect during the transformation. In addition, mass independent fractionation of mercury even isotopes was found in the GEM above the post-desulfurized seawater surface in the aeration pool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of marine pollution caused by the release of metals into seawater following acid spills.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Jean-Yves; Giamarchi, Philippe; Le Floch, Stephane

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the potential metal pollution induced by the accidental spill of different acids into seawater. The acids sink to the bottom according to their densities and subsequently react with marine sediments. The acids selected for this study were acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids; the metallic elements selected were Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. The sediment was collected in Brest Harbour. The percentages of metals released from this sediment in the presence of various concentrations of acids in seawater were important; concentrations of approximately 7 mg L(-1) for Mn and 60 mg L(-1) for Zn were observed under our experimental conditions. We also examined the rate of release of these metals from the sediment into the seawater in the presence of the different acids and under different experimental conditions. We found that most of the metallic elements were released from the sediments into the seawater during the first fifteen minutes of exposure. After this time, a high degree of pollution was induced if acids leached into seawater were not rapidly diluted.

  14. The development and control of the seawater intrusion in the eastern coastal of Laizhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jichun; Meng, Fanhai; Wang, Xiaowen; Wang, Dong

    2008-06-01

    Seawater intrusion was observed in China’s coastal aquifers as early as 1960s. At present, it covers an area of more than 2,000 km2 in China. In 2002, the seawater intrusion area was increased to 1773.6 km2 in Shandong Province, China, and it is continuing to extend in the coastal area of Laizhou Bay. In order to study the characteristic of the seawater intrusion and the pattern of the saltwater/freshwater interface, we set the China’s first three-dimensional seawater intrusion observation network in Longkou City of Shandong Province in 1989. In order to control the development of the seawater intrusion, in 1995, a continuous underground concrete wall, by the method of high-pressure jet grouting, was constructed in the downstream plain area of the Huangshuihe river in Longkou City. The average depth of the 5,842 m long concrete wall is 26.7 m, and the maxim depth is 41 m. It forms a coastal underground reservoir with the total storage capacity of about 5,359 × 104 m3. In the past 10 years, the reservoir obtained great economic benefit, social benefit and ecosystem benefit.

  15. Differential Decay of Wastewater Bacteria and Change of Microbial Communities in Beach Sand and Seawater Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; He, Xia; Yan, Tao

    2015-07-21

    Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted to determine the decay kinetics of wastewater bacteria and the change of microbial communities in beach sand and seawater. Cultivation-based methods showed that common fecal indicator bacteria (FIBs; Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens) exhibited biphasic decay patterns in all microcosms. Enterococci and C. perfringens, but not E. coli, showed significantly smaller decay rates in beach sand than in seawater. Cultivation-independent qPCR quantification of 16S rRNA gene also showed significantly slower decrease of total bacterial densities in beach sand than in seawater. Microbial community analysis by next-generation sequencing (NGS) further illustrated that the decreasing relative abundance of wastewater bacteria was contrasted by the increase in indigenous beach sand and seawater microbiota, and the overall microbial community dynamics corresponded well with the decay of individual FIB populations. In summary, the differential decay of wastewater bacteria in beach sand and in seawater provides a kinetic explanation to the often-observed higher abundance of FIBs in beach sand, and the NGS-based microbial community analysis can provide valuable insights to understanding the fate of wastewater bacteria in the context of indigenous microbial communities in natural environments.

  16. Microbial Flora of Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas) Subjected to Ultraviolet-Irradiated Seawater1

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, G. J.; Lee, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    The ability of oysters to purge themselves of microbial contaminants was investigated by identifying the microorganisms retained by oysters after they have been subjected to ultraviolet (UV) light-treated seawater. A UV intensity of 960 μw per min per cm2 reduced the microbial count of seawater from 263 to 13 per ml. The coliform multitube test (MPN) was reduced from a high of 17 to <0.18 per 100 ml. Over 75% of the microorganisms found in treated seawater were Acinetobacter/Moraxella, Vibrio/Pseudomonas type II, and Flavobacterium/Cytophaga. With the exception of coliforms, the microbial composition of oysters subjected to UV-treated seawater remained at levels comparable to the control oysters held in untreated seawater. Total counts ranged between 103 and 105/g. The microorganism most frequently encountered were Flavobacterium/Cytophaga, Vibrio/Pseudomonas type II, Pseudomonas type III or IV, Acinetobacter/Moraxella, gram-positive cocci and Bacillus. Together they comprised over 90% of the flora. Coagulase-positive, deoxyribonuclease-positive, and beta-hemolytic cocci were found in some samples, as were V. parahaemolyticus, V. aliginolyticus, and Aeromonas species. PMID:4551037

  17. Ultrafast and Efficient Extraction of Uranium from Seawater Using an Amidoxime Appended Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Bai, Zhuanling; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Linjuan; Cai, Yawen; Li, Yuxiang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Lanhua; Diwu, Juan; Wang, Jianqiang; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao

    2017-09-27

    Enrichment of uranyl from seawater is crucial for the sustainable development of nuclear energy, but current uranium extraction technology suffers from multiple drawbacks of low sorption efficiency, slow uptake kinetics, or poor extraction selectivity. Herein, we prepared the first example of amidoxime appended metal-organic framework UiO-66-AO by a postsynthetic modification method for rapid and efficient extraction of uranium from seawater. UiO-66-AO can remove 94.8% of uranyl ion from Bohai seawater within 120 min and 99% of uranyl ion from Bohai seawater containing extra 500 ppb uranium within 10 min. The uranyl sorption capacity in a real seawater sample was determined to be 2.68 mg/g. In addition, the recyclability of the UiO-66-AO framework was demonstrated for at least three adsorption/desorption cycles. The origin for the superior sorption capability was further probed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis on the uranium-sorbed sample, suggesting multiple amidoxime ligands are able to chelate uranyl(VI) ions, forming a hexagonal bipyramid coordination geometry.

  18. Distribution of cadmium in the pearl oyster following exposure to cadmium in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Francesconi, K.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Laboratory studies on the uptake of cadmium from seawater have shown that bivalve molluscs readily accumulated cadmium from this medium and that the relative concentrations of cadmium between viscera and muscle were always the same as those found in natural populations. These results suggested that in the natural environment seawater was a major source of cadmium for bivalve molluscs. Results of a recent study have indicated that seawater is not always the major contributor of cadmium to bivalve molluscs. These authors reported high levels of cadmium in the pearl oyster Pinctada albina albina, collected from Shark Bay in Western Australia, and noted that there was no correlation between cadmium concentrations in the oysters and cadmium concentrations in the surrounding seawater. Australia is one of several countries which have a maximum permissible level of cadmium in molluscs. The possibility that the pearl oyster, and perhaps other molluscs as well, may accumulate cadmium preferentially in different tissues depending upon the source of cadmium has important implications in the area of contaminants in marine foodstuffs. The present study reports the uptake and distribution of cadmium within P. albina albina when subjected to cadmium in seawater alone.

  19. Experimental evidence of seawater drinking in juvenile hooded (Cystophora cristata) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica).

    PubMed

    Skalstad, I; Nordøy, E S

    2000-09-01

    This study was undertaken to measure whether young harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) drink seawater and, if so, to investigate how the excess salt load is handled. Blood and urine samples were collected from hooded seal pups (n = 3) and harp seal pups (n = 3) after 2 weeks of freshwater exposure, at intervals during 3 weeks of seawater exposure and, finally, after 2 weeks of re-exposure to fresh water. Total water turnover, as measured by injection of tritiated water, was 2200 ml x day(-1) and 3300 ml x day(-1) in hooded seals and harp seals, respectively. The extent of mariposia was taken as the difference between total water turnover and influx of water through food (free and metabolic water) and respiratory water exchange. Seawater drinking amounted to 14% and 27% of total water turnover (rH2O) for the hooded seals and harp seals, respectively. Further evidence of mariposia was obtained from an increase in the excretion rate of the urine osmolytes Na+, Cl- and Mg2+, during the period of seawater exposure. It is concluded that water influx due to seawater drinking can not be excluded as a source of error when estimating food consumption of free-ranging harp seals and hooded seals, by use of labeled water techniques.

  20. Effect of different seawater Mg2 + concentrations on calcification in two benthic foraminifers

    PubMed Central

    Mewes, Antje; Langer, Gerald; de Nooijer, Lennart Jan; Bijma, Jelle; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium, incorporated in foraminiferal calcite (Mg/CaCC), is used intensively to reconstruct past seawater temperatures but, in addition to temperature, the Mg/CaCC of foraminiferal tests also depends on the ratio of Mg and Ca in seawater (Mg/CaSW). The physiological mechanisms responsible for these proxy relationships are still unknown. This culture study investigates the impact of different seawater [Mg2 +] on calcification in two benthic foraminiferal species precipitating contrasting Mg/CaCC: Ammonia aomoriensis, producing low-Mg calcite and Amphistegina lessonii, producing intermediate-Mg calcite. Foraminiferal growth and test thickness were determined and, Mg/Ca was analyzed using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Results show that at present-day seawater Mg/CaSW of ~ 5, both species have highest growth rates, reflecting their adaptation to modern seawater element concentrations. Test thickness is not significantly affected by different Mg/CaSW. The relationship between Mg/CaSW and Mg/CaCC shows a distinct positive y-axis intercept, possibly reflecting at least two processes involved in foraminiferal biomineralization. The associated Mg partition (DMg) changes non-linearly with increasing Mg/CaSW, hence suggesting that the DMg is best described by an exponential function approaching an asymptote. PMID:26089590

  1. Practical application of a sea-water battery in deep-sea basin and its performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Araki, Eiichiro; Mochizuki, Masashi; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi

    Stable power supply is essential for various long-term sea floor geophysical observations. Due to a simple structure and a large energy capacity, sea-water batteries have been developed and used for such observations. However, the characteristics of sea-water batteries have not been well known in the case of installations at depths more than 5000 m in deep-sea basin. In 2000, a sea floor borehole broadband seismic observatory was installed in the northwestern Pacific basin where the water depth is 5577 m. For electric power supply, a Sea-Water Battery (SWB) system with monitoring and control was developed and used. The SWB system consists of four sea-water battery cells, a DC/DC converter, the Power Control System, the Data Logger, and an accumulator. The conditions of the SWB system were recorded more than 1 year, and the monitoring data was recovered. The SWB system generated enough power for the observation system consuming power of 6 W in average and continued to supply power for at least 5 years. From the monitoring data, the SWB can supply up to the long-term average of at least 13 W. The energy density is estimated to be 318 Wh kg -1. The sea-water battery is useful for application of long-term power consumption even in the deep-sea basin.

  2. Multiplex biotoxin surface plasmon resonance method for marine biotoxins in algal and seawater samples.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Sara E; Elliott, Christopher T; Delahaut, Philippe; Campbell, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, okadaic acid (and analogues) and domoic acid was developed. This method was compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Seawater samples (n=256) from around Europe were collected by the consortia of an EU project MIcroarrays for the Detection of Toxic Algae (MIDTAL) and evaluated using each method. A simple sample preparation procedure was developed which involved lysing and releasing the toxins from the algal cells with glass beads followed by centrifugation and filtering the extract before testing for marine biotoxins by both multi-SPR and ELISA. Method detection limits based on IC20 values for PSP, okadaic acid and domoic acid toxins were 0.82, 0.36 and 1.66 ng/ml, respectively, for the prototype multiplex SPR biosensor. Evaluation by SPR for seawater samples has shown that 47, 59 and 61 % of total seawater samples tested positive (result greater than the IC20) for PSP, okadaic acid (and analogues) and domoic acid toxins, respectively. Toxic samples were received mainly from Spain and Ireland. This work has demonstrated the potential of multiplex analysis for marine biotoxins in algal and seawater samples with results available for 24 samples within a 7 h period for three groups of key marine biotoxins. Multiplex immunological methods could therefore be used as early warning monitoring tools for a variety of marine biotoxins in seawater samples.

  3. The critical point and two-phase boundary of seawater, 200–500°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, James L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    The two-phase boundary of seawater was determined by isothermal decompression of fully condensed seawater in the range of 200–500°C. The pressure at which phase separation occurred for each isotherm was determined by a comparison of the refractive index of fluid removed from the top and bottom of the reaction vessel. The critical point was determined to be in the range of 403–406°C, 285–302 bar and was located by the inflection in the two-phase boundary and by the relative volume of fluid and vapor as a function of temperature. The two-phase boundary of 3.2% NaCl solution was found to coincide exactly with that of seawater over the range tested in the present study. The boundary for both is described by a single seventh-order polynomial equation. The two-phase boundary defines the maximum temperature of seawater circulating at depth in the oceanic crust. Thus the boundary puts a limit of about 390°C for seawater circulating near the seafloor at active ocean ridges (2.5 km water depth), and about 465°C at the top of a magma chamber occurring at 2 km below the seafloor.

  4. Low-magnesium calcite produced by coralline algae in seawater of Late Cretaceous composition

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Steven M.; Ries, Justin B.; Hardie, Lawrence A.

    2002-01-01

    Shifts in the Mg/Ca ratio of seawater driven by changes in midocean ridge spreading rates have produced oscillations in the mineralogy of nonskeletal carbonate precipitates from seawater on time scales of 108 years. Since Cambrian time, skeletal mineralogies of anatomically simple organisms functioning as major reef builders or producers of shallow marine limestones have generally corresponded in mineral composition to nonskeletal precipitates. Here we report on experiments showing that the ambient Mg/Ca ratio actually governs the skeletal mineralogy of some simple organisms. In modern seas, coralline algae produce skeletons of high-Mg calcite (>4 mol % MgCO3). We grew three species of these algae in artificial seawaters having three different Mg/Ca ratios. All of the species incorporated amounts of Mg into their skeletons in proportion to the ambient Mg/Ca ratio, mimicking the pattern for nonskeletal precipitation. Thus, the algae calcified as if they were simply inducing precipitation from seawater through their consumption of CO2 for photosynthesis; presumably organic templates specify the calcite crystal structure of their skeletons. In artificial seawater with the low Mg/Ca ratio of Late Cretaceous seas, the algae in our experiments produced low-Mg calcite (<4 mol % MgCO3), the carbonate mineral formed by nonskeletal precipitation in those ancient seas. Our results suggest that many taxa that produce high-Mg calcite today produced low-Mg calcite in Late Cretaceous seas. PMID:12399549

  5. Impacts of seawater intrusion on soil salinity and alkalinity in Bafra Plain, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Demir, Yusuf

    2013-02-01

    This study was carried out to investigate possible seawater intrusion into groundwater along the coastal lines of the Bafra Plain and salinity-alkalinity problems over land areas irrigated with water exposed to seawater intrusion were evaluated. For this purpose, 32 groundwater wells were selected over the plain, water samples were taken from these wells between October 2007 and September 2008, and chemical analyses were performed over these samples. Soil samples were taken from the fields irrigated with this water at 32 different locations at the end of the irrigation season in September 2008 from 0-30, 30-60, 60-90, and 90-120 cm soil depths and textures. EC, pH, Na, Ca, Mg, and K analyses were performed over these samples. Excessive seawater intrusion was observed in some parts of the plain and impacts of seawater intrusion decreased with the distance from the coastal line. It was determined that groundwater quality was significantly affected from seawater intrusion. Salinity and especially alkalinity problems were observed in land areas irrigated with this water and alkalinity increased with the rate of intrusion.

  6. Effect of phytoplankton biomass in seawater on chemical properties of sea spray aerosols.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyeon; Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Kwangyul; Han, Seunghee; Kim, Hyunji; Williams, Leah R; Joo, Hung Soo; Park, Kihong

    2016-09-15

    This study is to investigate the effect of biological seawater properties on sea spray aerosols (SSA). Concentrations of chlorophyll-a and bacteria were measured at coastal site in Korea in fall and summer seasons. Also, aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was used to determine chemical constituents (organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride) of non-refractory submicrometer aerosols sprayed from seawaters using a bubble bursting system. The average concentration of chlorophyll-a in seawater in fall was 1.75±0.78μg/l, whereas it significantly increased to 5.11±2.16μg/l in summer. It was found that the fraction of organics in the submicrometer SSA was higher in summer (68%) than fall (49%), and that the organic fraction in the SSA increased as the concentration of chlorophyll-a increased in seawater, suggesting that the high phytoplankton biomass in seawater could lead to the enhancement of organic species in the SSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The long-term impact of magnesium in seawater on foraminiferal mineralogy: Mechanism and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, I.; Nooijer, L. J.; Hart, M. B.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2016-03-01

    Foraminifera are unicellular protists, primarily known for their calcium carbonate shells that provide an extensive fossil record. This record, ranging from Cambrian to present shows both major shifts and gradual changes in the relative occurrence of taxa producing different polymorphs of carbonate. Here we present evidence for coupling between shifts in calcite- versus aragonite-producing species and periods with, respectively, low and high seawater Mg/Ca throughout the Phanerozoic. During periods when seawater Mg/Ca is <2 mol/mol, low-Mg calcite-producing species dominate the foraminiferal community. Vice versa, high-Mg calcite- and aragonite-producing species are more abundant during periods with relatively high seawater Mg/Ca. This alteration in dominance of the phase precipitated is due to selective recovery of groups producing the favorable polymorph after shifts from calcite to aragonite seas. In addition, relatively high extinction rates of species producing the mineral phase not favored by the seawater Mg/Ca of that time may be responsible for this alteration. These results imply that the current high seawater Mg/Ca will, in the long term, favor prevalence of high-Mg and aragonite-producing foraminifera over calcite-producing taxa, possibly shifting the balance toward a community in which calcite production is less dominant.

  8. Precise determination of seawater calcium using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hou-Chun; You, Chen-Feng; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Chen, Bao-Shan; Li, Yen

    2014-02-21

    We describe a method for rapid, precise and accurate determination of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentration in seawater using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). A 10 μL aliquot of seawater was spiked with an appropriate (43)Ca enriched solution for (44)Ca/(43)Ca ID-ICP-MS analyses, using an Element XR (Thermo Fisher Scientific), operated at low resolution in E-scan acquisition mode. A standard-sample bracketing technique was applied to correct for potential mass discrimination and ratio drift at every 5 samples. A precision of better than 0.05% for within-run and 0.10% for duplicate measurements of the IAPSO seawater standard was achieved using 10 μL solutions with a measuring time less than 3 minutes. Depth profiles of seawater samples collected from the Arctic Ocean basin were processed and compared with results obtained by the classic ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) titration. Our new ID-ICP-MS data agreed closely with the conventional EGTA data, with the latter consistently displaying 1.5% excess Ca(2+) values, possibly due to a contribution of interference from Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) in the EGTA titration. The newly obtained Sr/Ca profiles reveal sensitive water mass mixing in the upper oceanic column to reflect ice melting in the Arctic region. This novel technique provides a tool for seawater Ca(2+) determination with small sample size, high throughput, excellent internal precision and external reproducibility.

  9. Alloy 31, a new 6 moly stainless steel with improved corrosion resistance in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Jasner, M.; Heubner, U.

    1995-10-01

    Alloy 31--UNS N08031--31Ni-27Cr-6.5Mo-1.2Cu-0.2N-balance iron--is an advanced 6 Mo stainless steel with increased chromium and nickel, contents for seawater service. In hot seawater the pitting potential of alloy 31 remains high up to 90 C (194 F). Investigations of resistance to crevice corrosion in real piping systems in natural seawater, both North Sea and Baltic Sea, show that the threshold conditions for alloy 31 in chlorinated seawater (North Sea) are at 40 C and 1 ppm chlorine well superior to the 6 Mo stainless grades being currently in use. In addition, alloy 31 shows an excellent resistance to corrosion versus both hot reducing media (e.g. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and hot oxidizing media (e.g. HNO{sub 3}). The combination of high resistance to localized corrosion vs. hot chloride-bearing cooling waters including seawater and aggressive oxidizing and reducing hot corrosive media is a unique feature of alloy 31. Alloy 31 is recommended for the construction of heat exchangers, process coolers and piping systems. The material is supplied in a number of semifinished products such as seamless and welded pipes, fittings, flanges, forged bars, plate, sheet, strip, wire and prefabricated piping systems.

  10. Chromium Isotope Compositions of Shells and Surface Seawater - a First Look at the Potential of Cr in Marine Skeletal Carbonates as a Seawater Redox Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; Bruggmann, S.; Paulukat, C.

    2016-12-01

    In order to validate the potential use of the Cr isotope system in skeletal carbonates as a paleo-redox proxy for seawater it tis crucial to compare the Cr isotope compositon of different modern carbonate-shell species with δ53Cr values of ambient seawater samples. Pereira et al. (2016) were the first to appy the Cr isotope system to skeltal carbonates (scleractinian corals), and these authors reported an average δ53Cr offset of 0.9 permil relative to local seawater from the Rocas Atoll (Brazil. In the meantime we have enlarged our data set by analyzing various genera/species of different marine classes (bivalves, gastropods, and corals) from geographically diverse locations, with the overall aim of identifying and understandig potential fractionation processes that may accompany the pathway of Cr from the seawater to its incorporation into the skeletal carbonates. Different species of bivalves and gastropods each from 4 different locations from where we measured the surface seawater Cr isotope composition (Indian Ocean, Mediteranean Sea, Baltic Sea and East North Atlantic Ocean/North Sea) revealed variable Cr concentrations in the range from 20 to 300 ppb, with gastropods generally exhibiting concentrations in the higher end of this range. Isotopically, we measure a range of δ53Cr = -0.12 to +0.71 ‰l (average δ53Cr = 0.34 ± 0.18 ‰; 2σ; n=98), which in each location is significanlty negtively offset by Δ values of up to 0.4 ‰ from the respective ambient seawater Cr isotope compostions. We tested Cr concentration and Cr isotope variations in individual samples of a single species from within one location, so for example in Anomia Simplex, and obtained Cr concentrations of 39 ± 14 ppb (n=15; 2σ) and average δ53Cr = +0.09 ± 0.10 ‰ (n=15; 2σ) for samples from an Indian Ocean location. While this study is just at its beginning and necessitates detailed investigations in the future, we see systematic trends pointing towards reductive processes of Cr

  11. Equilibrium studies in natural waters: Speciation of phenolic compounds in synthetic seawater at different salinities

    SciTech Connect

    Demianov, P.; De Stefano, C.; Sammartano, S.; Gianguzza, A.

    1995-05-01

    Interactions between some phenolic compounds and macro-constituents of synthetic seawater (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cl{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), at 20, 35, and 45 {per_thousand} salinity, have been investigated potentiometrically by using the [H]-glass electrode. The formation constants of phenol, o- and p-cresol, o-a dn p-nitrophenol complexes with sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions have been determined in the ionic strength range 0 {le} I {le} 1 mol/L. A comparison between the apparent protonation constants of phenols determined in synthetic seawater, and those simulated by a suitable complex formation model, is discussed. The possibility of calculating, by simulation, the apparent protonation constants of some chlorophenolic compounds in synthetic seawater is also reported.

  12. Seawater-Assisted Self-Healing of Catechol Polymers via Hydrogen Bonding and Coordination Interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jincai; Ejima, Hirotaka; Yoshie, Naoko

    2016-07-27

    It is highly desirable to prevent crack formation in polymeric materials at an early stage and to extend their lifespan, particularly when repairs to these materials would be difficult for humans. Here, we designed and synthesized catechol-functionalized polymers that can self-heal in seawater through hydrogen bonding and coordination. These bioinspired acrylate polymers are originally viscous materials, but after coordination with environmentally safe, common metal cations in seawater, namely, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), the mechanical properties of the polymers were greatly enhanced from viscous to tough, hard materials. Reduced swelling in seawater compared with deionized water owing to the higher osmotic pressure resulted in greater toughness (∼5 MPa) and self-healing efficiencies (∼80%).

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete in seawater environment.

    PubMed

    Yue, Pengjun; Tan, Zhuoying; Guo, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to conduct research about the microstructure and basic properties of recycled aggregate concrete under seawater corrosion. Concrete specimens were fabricated and tested with different replacement percentages of 0%, 30%, and 60% after immersing in seawater for 4, 8, 12, and 16 months, respectively. The basic properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) including the compressive strength, the elastic modulus, and chloride penetration depth were explicitly investigated. And the microstructure of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was revealed to find the seawater corrosion by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that higher amount of the RCA means more porosity and less strength, which could lower both the compressive strength and resistance to chloride penetration. This research could be a guide in theoretical and numerical analysis for the design of RAC structures.

  14. Standardized seawater rearing of chinook salmon smolts to evaluate hatchery practices showed low statistical power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Elder, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    We examined, under standardized conditions, seawater survival of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at the smolt stage to evaluate the experimental hatchery practices applied to their rearing. The experimental rearing practices included rearing fish at different densities; attempting to control bacterial kidney disease with broodstock segregation, erythromycin injection, and an experimental diet; rearing fish on different water sources; and freeze branding the fish. After application of experimental rearing practices in hatcheries, smolts were transported to a rearing facility for about 2-3 months of seawater rearing. Of 16 experiments, 4 yielded statistically significant differences in seawater survival. In general we found that high variability among replicates, plus the low numbers of replicates available, resulted in low statistical power. We recommend including four or five replicates and using ?? = 0.10 in 1-tailed tests of hatchery experiments to try to increase the statistical power to 0.80.