Gerharz, C. D.; Gabbert, H. E.; Engers, R.; Ramp, U.; Mayer, H.; Luley, C.
The clonal rat rhabdomyosarcoma cell line BA-HAN-1C was tested for its susceptibility to differentiation induction with different polar compounds. This cell line is composed of proliferating mononuclear tumour cells, some of which spontaneously fuse to form terminally differentiated postmitotic myotube-like giant cells. Exposure of BA-HAN-1C cells to dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), sodium butyrate (NaBut) and N-monomethylformamide (NMF) resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation (P less than 0.001) and in a simultaneous increase in differentiation. The response was most pronounced after exposure to NMF as evidenced by a marked increase in the creatine kinase activity used as a biochemical marker of differentiation (P less than 0.05) and the number of terminally differentiated myotube-like giant cells (P less than 0.001). Furthermore, about 5% of the mononuclear cells exhibited thick and thin myofilaments which were never observed in the mononuclear cells of the control. In contrast, the effects of DMSO, HMBA and NaBut were exclusively confined to a significant increase in biochemical differentiation (P less than 0.05), whereas no increase in morphological differentiation was observed and the number of myotube-like giant cells even significantly (P less than 0.001) decreased. This heterogeneous response to differentiation induction with different polar compounds probably indicates different mechanisms of action and suggests that the induction of biochemical differentiation might be independently regulated from events leading to cell fusion and terminal differentiation. Images Figure 1 PMID:2803927
At one time all Navaho stories were handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth. Some stories were recorded and then trnsalated into English. In the process of translation, the stories often times lost their meaning. To avoid this, the second volume of "Grandfather Stories," which were told by elders living in the vicinity…
Turner, Graham H.
Discusses the meaning of deaf culture with reference to the views of other specialists in the field. The author observes that he is not floating a rival analysis of the constituents of Deaf culture; attempting to relabel phenomena; searching for the definition; claiming that the idea of deaf cultures is either qualitatively or quantitatively…
Inđić, D; Vuković, S; Kljajić, P; Gvozdenac, S; Tanasković, S; Andrić, G
During the last decade of XX century, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte became an important introduced harmful species in maize production in the northern Serbia region. The aim of this work was to assess the efficacy of imidacloprid based insecticides formulated for seed treatment in the control of D. v. virgifera. Experiments were set at two localities (Čurug--two-year maize culturing; Bečej--four-year maize culturing) in 2013, according to OEPP (PP 1/212(1) 2004) method. Imidacloprid based insecticide (600 g a.i./L) was applied at rates 0.36; 0.55; 0,7 and 0.8 L/100 kg of maize seeds (hybrids NS 5041 and NS 640 Ultra). The degree of maize root damage was determined according to scale 1-6 (http://www.ent.iastate.edu/-pest/rootworm/nodeinjury/nodeinjury.htm). A number of damaged plants was also registered and expressed in percents, as well as the development of adventitious roots. Significance of differences between root damages and number of damaged plants between treatments was tested using ANOVA. Regardless on localities and applied rates, maize roots in treatments with imidacloprid were significantly less damaged by larvae D. v. virgifera (1.1-1.4) compared to the control (3.7-4.1). Also, a significant reduction in percent of damaged plants (5.0-20%) was registered compared to the control (90-97.5%). At both localities in treatments with imidacloprid adventitious roots were well developed in 60.5 to 91% of plants compared to the control were it was the case in 10-27.5% plants. It is important to emphasize that roots were significantly more developed in treated variants compared to the control. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that imidacloprid, regardless on its future status and restraints/limitations in maize seed treatment, provided efficient protection of maize roots from D. v. virgifera larvae, even at rate twice lower (0.36) than recommended (0.8 L/100 kg seeds), which justifies the application of lower quantities of imidacloprid