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Sample records for seca2-dependent secretory protein

  1. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua; Xu, Pingyong; Huan, Shuangyan

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.

  2. Immunomodulatory action of mycobacterial secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Trajkovic, Vladimir; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy; Sharma, Pawan

    2004-04-01

    The recently discovered RD1 locus encodes proteins that are actively secreted by pathogenic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since they are missing in non-tuberculous mycobacteria, these proteins are promising not only as candidates for vaccination and diagnostic tests, but also in understanding mycobacterial evasion of protective immunity in susceptible individuals. Here we analyze the possible role of M. tuberculosis secretory proteins in immunity against tuberculosis, with emphasis on their immunomodulatory action and the potential involvement in mycobacterial subversion of the host immune defense.

  3. Secretory protein trafficking in Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Hehl, Adrian B; Marti, Matthias

    2004-07-01

    Early diverged extant organisms, which may serve as convenient laboratory models to look for and study evolutionary ancient features of eukaryotic cell biology, are rare. The diplomonad Giardia intestinalis, a protozoan parasite known to cause diarrhoeal disease, has become an increasingly popular object of basic research in cell biology, not least because of a genome sequencing project nearing completion. Commensurate with its phylogenetic status, the Giardia trophozoite has a very basic secretory system and even lacks hallmark structures such as a morphologically identifiable Golgi apparatus. The cell's capacity for protein sorting is nevertheless unimpeded, exemplified by its ability to cope with massive amounts of newly synthesized cyst wall proteins and glycans, which are sorted to dedicated Golgi-like compartments termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs) generated from endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived transport intermediates. This soluble bulk cargo is kept strictly separate from constitutively transported variant surface proteins during export, a function that is dependent on the stage-specific recognition of trafficking signals. Encysting Giardia therefore provide a unique system for the study of unconventional, Golgi-independent protein trafficking mechanisms in the broader context of eukaryotic endomembrane organization and evolution. PMID:15225300

  4. A secretory kinase complex regulates extracellular protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jixin; Xiao, Junyu; Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Wen, Jianzhong; Rahdar, Meghdad; Dixon, Jack E

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous extracellular phosphoproteins have been identified, the protein kinases within the secretory pathway have only recently been discovered, and their regulation is virtually unexplored. Fam20C is the physiological Golgi casein kinase, which phosphorylates many secreted proteins and is critical for proper biomineralization. Fam20A, a Fam20C paralog, is essential for enamel formation, but the biochemical function of Fam20A is unknown. Here we show that Fam20A potentiates Fam20C kinase activity and promotes the phosphorylation of enamel matrix proteins in vitro and in cells. Mechanistically, Fam20A is a pseudokinase that forms a functional complex with Fam20C, and this complex enhances extracellular protein phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. Our findings shed light on the molecular mechanism by which Fam20C and Fam20A collaborate to control enamel formation, and provide the first insight into the regulation of secretory pathway phosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06120.001 PMID:25789606

  5. Neuroendocrine secretory protein 7B2: structure, expression and functions.

    PubMed Central

    Mbikay, M; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M

    2001-01-01

    7B2 is an acidic protein residing in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Its sequence has been elucidated in many phyla and species. It shows high similarity among mammals. A Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro polyproline motif is its most conserved feature, being carried by both vertebrate and invertebrate sequences. It is biosynthesized as a precursor protein that is cleaved into an N-terminal fragment and a C-terminal peptide. In neuroendocrine cells, 7B2 functions as a specific chaperone for the proprotein convertase (PC) 2. Through the sequence around its Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro motif, it binds to an inactive proPC2 and facilitates its transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to later compartments of the secretory pathway where the zymogen is proteolytically matured and activated. Its C-terminal peptide can inhibit PC2 in vitro and may contribute to keep the enzyme transiently inactive in vivo. The PC2-7B2 model defines a new neuroendocrine paradigm whereby proteolytic activation of prohormones and proneuropeptides in the secretory pathway is spatially and temporally regulated by the dynamics of interactions between converting enzymes and their binding proteins. Interestingly, unlike PC2-null mice, which are viable, 7B2-null mutants die early in life from Cushing's disease due to corticotropin ('ACTH') hypersecretion by the neurointermediate lobe, suggesting a possible involvement of 7B2 in secretory granule formation and in secretion regulation. The mechanism of this regulation is yet to be elucidated. 7B2 has been shown to be a good marker of several neuroendocrine cell dysfunctions in humans. The possibility that anomalies in its structure and expression could be aetiological causes of some of these dysfunctions warrants investigation. PMID:11439082

  6. Orchestration of secretory protein folding by ER chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Gidalevitz, Tali; Stevens, Fred; Argon, Yair

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a major compartment of protein biogenesis in the cell, dedicated to production of secretory, membrane and organelle proteins. The secretome has distinct structural and post-translational characteristics, since folding in the ER occurs in an environment that is distinct in terms of its ionic composition, dynamics and requirements for quality contol. The folding machinery in the ER therefore includes chaperones and folding enzymes that introduce, monitor and react to disulfide bonds, glycans, and fluctuations of luminal calcium. We describe the major chaperone networks in the lumen and discuss how they have distinct modes of operation that enable cells to accomplish highly efficient production of the secretome. PMID:23507200

  7. Secretory autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ponpuak, Marisa; Mandell, Michael A; Kimura, Tomonori; Chauhan, Santosh; Cleyrat, Cédric; Deretic, Vojo

    2015-08-01

    Autophagy, once viewed exclusively as a cytoplasmic auto-digestive process, has its less intuitive but biologically distinct non-degradative roles. One manifestation of these functions of the autophagic machinery is the process termed secretory autophagy. Secretory autophagy facilitates unconventional secretion of the cytosolic cargo such as leaderless cytosolic proteins, which unlike proteins endowed with the leader (N-terminal signal) peptides cannot enter the conventional secretory pathway normally operating via the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Secretory autophagy may also export more complex cytoplasmic cargo and help excrete particulate substrates. Autophagic machinery and autophagy as a process also affect conventional secretory pathways, including the constitutive and regulated secretion, as well as promote alternative routes for trafficking of integral membrane proteins to the plasma membrane. Thus, autophagy and autophagic factors are intimately intertwined at many levels with secretion and polarized sorting in eukaryotic cells. PMID:25988755

  8. Wide distribution of cysteine-rich secretory proteins in snake venoms: isolation and cloning of novel snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yasuo; Hyodo, Fumiko; Morita, Takashi

    2003-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are found in epididymis and granules of mammals, and they are thought to function in sperm maturation and in the immune system. Recently, we isolated and obtained clones for novel snake venom proteins that are classified as CRISP family proteins. To elucidate the distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins, we evaluated a wide range of venoms for immuno-cross-reactivity. Then we isolated, characterized, and cloned genes for three novel CRISP family proteins (piscivorin, ophanin, and catrin) from the venom of eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Our results show the wide distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins among Viperidae and Elapidae from different continents, indicating that CRISP family proteins compose a new group of snake venom proteins. PMID:12646276

  9. Analysis of protein localization and secretory pathway function using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vallen, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of mutants has been crucial in understanding a number of processes in the field of cell biology. In this exercise, students examine the effects of mutations in the secretory pathway on protein localization. Yeast strains deficient for synthesis of histidinol dehydrogenase are transformed with a plasmid encoding a chimeric protein. The chimera contains a signal sequence fused to histidinol dehydrogenase. A strain with a defect in the translocation of secretory proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accumulates sufficient histidinol dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm to grow on media lacking histidine. In contrast, yeast proficient for secretion, or yeast with secretion defects later in the pathway, are unable to grow on media lacking histidine. Student analysis of the experimental yeast transformants and appropriate controls allows investigation into the effects of conditional defects in the secretory pathway on both cell viability and protein localization. The exercise is usually performed in a manner that allows students to execute a number of techniques common in molecular biology laboratories, including plasmid minipreps, restriction digestions, and Southern blots. Student understanding and enjoyment of the exercise was assessed by laboratory reports, oral and written examinations, and questionnaires. After completion of these experiments, students can describe the utility of protein fusions, the roles of mutant analysis in cell biology, and the steps taken by proteins transiting the secretory pathway.

  10. Regulated phosphorylation of secretory granule membrane proteins of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, C.R.; Castle, J.D.; Gorelick, F.S. )

    1990-07-01

    An antiserum raised against purified rat parotid secretory granule membrane proteins has been used to identify organelle-specific protein phosphorylation events following stimulation of intact cells from the rat parotid gland. After lobules were prelabeled with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and exposed to secretagogues, phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated with the granule membrane protein antiserum, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and visualized by autoradiography. Parallel studies of stimulated amylase release were performed. Isoproterenol treatment of parotid lobules resulted in an increase in the phosphate content of immunoprecipitable 60- and 72-kDa proteins that correlated with amylase release in a time-dependent manner. Forskolin addition mimicked these effects, but only the isoproterenol effects were reversed by propranolol treatment. To confirm the specificity of the antiserum to the secretory granule membrane fraction, subcellular isolation techniques were employed following in situ phosphorylation. The 60- and 72-kDa phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated from both a particulate fraction and a purified secretory granule fraction. Furthermore, the extraction properties of both species suggest that they are integral membrane proteins. These findings support the possibility that stimulus-regulated secretion may involve phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins of the exocrine secretory granule.

  11. Analysis of Protein Localization and Secretory Pathway Function Using the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of mutants has been crucial in understanding a number of processes in the field of cell biology. In this exercise, students examine the effects of mutations in the secretory pathway on protein localization. Yeast strains deficient for synthesis of histidinol dehydrogenase are transformed with a plasmid encoding a chimeric protein. The chimera contains a signal sequence fused to histidinol dehydrogenase. A strain with a defect in the translocation of secretory proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accumulates sufficient histidinol dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm to grow on media lacking histidine. In contrast, yeast proficient for secretion, or yeast with secretion defects later in the pathway, are unable to grow on media lacking histidine. Student analysis of the experimental yeast transformants and appropriate controls allows investigation into the effects of conditional defects in the secretory pathway on both cell viability and protein localization. The exercise is usually performed in a manner that allows students to execute a number of techniques common in molecular biology laboratories, including plasmid minipreps, restriction digestions, and Southern blots. Student understanding and enjoyment of the exercise was assessed by laboratory reports, oral and written examinations, and questionnaires. After completion of these experiments, students can describe the utility of protein fusions, the roles of mutant analysis in cell biology, and the steps taken by proteins transiting the secretory pathway. PMID:12669100

  12. Calcium-containing phosphopeptides pave the secretory pathway for efficient protein traffic and secretion in fungi.

    PubMed

    Martín, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) containing chelated calcium drastically increase the secretion of extracellular homologous and heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi. Casein phosphopeptides released by digestion of alpha - and beta-casein are rich in phosphoserine residues (SerP). They stimulate enzyme secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and enhance the immune response in mammals, and are used as food supplements. It is well known that casein phosphopeptides transport Ca2+ across the membranes and play an important role in Ca2+ homeostasis in the cells. Addition of CPPs drastically increases the production of heterologous proteins in Aspergillus as host for industrial enzyme production. Recent proteomics studies showed that CPPs alter drastically the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway in filamentous fungi, apparently because they change the calcium concentration in organelles that act as calcium reservoirs. In the organelles calcium homeostasis a major role is played by the pmr1 gene, that encodes a Ca2+/Mn2+ transport ATPase, localized in the Golgi complex; this transporter controls the balance between intra-Golgi and cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. A Golgi-located casein kinase (CkiA) governs the ER to Golgi directionality of the movement of secretory proteins by interacting with the COPII coat of secretory vesicles when they reach the Golgi. Mutants defective in the casein-2 kinase CkiA show abnormal targeting of some secretory proteins, including cytoplasmic membrane amino acid transporters that in ckiA mutants are miss-targeted to vacuolar membranes. Interestingly, addition of CPPs increases a glyceraldehyde-3-phpshate dehydrogenase protein that is known to associate with microtubules and act as a vesicle/membrane fusogenic agent. In summary, CPPs alter the protein secretory pathway in fungi adapting it to a deregulated protein traffic through the organelles and vesicles what results in a drastic increase in secretion of heterologous and also of

  13. Analysis of Protein Localization and Secretory Pathway Function Using the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallen, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of mutants has been crucial in understanding a number of processes in the field of cell biology. In this exercise, students examine the effects of mutations in the secretory pathway on protein localization. Yeast strains deficient for synthesis of histidinol dehydrogenase are transformed with a plasmid encoding a…

  14. Secretory proteins in the reproductive tract of the snapping turtle, Chelhydra serpentina.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, I Y; Paulson, J R; Dudley, M; Patzlaff, J S; Al-Kindi, A Y A

    2004-12-01

    SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to separate the secretory proteins produced by the epithelial and endometrial glands of the uterine tube and uterus in the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina. The proteins were analyzed throughout the phases of the reproductive cycle from May to August, including preovulatory, ovulatory, postovulatory or luteal, and vitellogenic phases. The pattern of secretory proteins is quite uniform along the length of the uterine tube, and the same is true of the uterus, but the patterns for uterine tube and uterus are clearly different. We identify 13 major proteins in C. serpentina egg albumen. Bands co-migrating with 11 of these are found in the uterine tube, but at most 4 are found in the uterus, suggesting that the majority of the albumen proteins are most likely secreted in the uterine tube, not in the uterus. Although some of the egg albumen proteins are present in the uterine tube only at the time of ovulation, most of the bands corresponding to albumen proteins are present throughout the breeding season even though the snapping turtle is a monoclutch species. These results suggest that the glandular secretory phase in the uterine tube is active and quite homogeneous in function regardless of location or phase of the reproductive cycle. PMID:15596394

  15. Intracellular and transcellular transport of secretory and membrane proteins in the rat hepatocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Sztul, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The intra- and transcellular transport of hepatic secretory and membrane proteins was studied in rats in vivo using (/sup 3/H)fucose and (/sup 35/S)cyteine as metabolic precursors. Incorporated radioactivity in plasma, bile, and liver subcellular fractions was measured and the labeled proteins of the Golgi complex, bile and plasma were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by fluorography. /sup 3/H-radioactivity in Golgi fractions peaked at 10 min post injection (p.i.) and then declined concomitantly with the appearance of labeled glycoproteins in plasma. Maximal secretion of secretory fucoproteins from the Golgi complex occurred between 10 and 20 min p.i. In contrast, the clearance of labeled proteins from Golgi membrane subfractions occurred past 30 min p.i., indicating that membrane proteins leave the Golgi complex at least 10 min later than the bulk of content proteins. A major 80K form of Secretory Component (SC) was identified in the bile by precipitation with an anti IgA antibody. A comparative study of kinetics of transport of /sup 35/S-labeled SC and /sup 35/S-labeled albumin showed that albumin peaked in bile at approx.45 min p.i., whereas the SC peak occurred at 80 min p.i., suggesting that the transit time differs for plasma and membrane proteins which are delivered to the bile canaliculus (BC).

  16. Nanosilver pathophysiology in earthworms: Transcriptional profiling of secretory proteins and the implication for the protein corona.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Engelmann, Péter; Autrup, Herman; Sutherland, Duncan S; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J

    2016-01-01

    Previously we have identified lysenin as a key protein constituent of the secretome from Eisenia fetida coelomocytes and revealed its critical importance in priming interactions between the cells and the protein corona around nanosilver. As alterations of the protein environment can directly affect the corona composition, the extent to which nanoparticles influence the cells' protein secretion profile is of remarkable interest that has rarely acquired attention. Here, we have probed transcriptional responses of E. fetida coelomocytes to the representative nanosilver NM-300K (15 nm) in a time-dependent manner (2, 4, 8 and 24 h at a low-cytotoxic concentration), and examined the implication of the temporal changes in transcriptional profiles of secretory proteins with a particular reference to that of lysenin. NM-300K was accumulated in/at the cells and lysenin was, after transient induction, gradually suppressed over time indicating a negative feedback cycle. This may limit further enrichment of lysenin in the corona and thereby decrease the lysenin-assisted uptake of the nanoparticles. Other differentially expressed genes were those involved in metal stress (likewise in AgNO3-stressed cells) and in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. This offers an intriguing perspective of the nanosilver pathophysiology in earthworms, in which the conserved pattern recognition receptor TLRs may play an effector role.

  17. Cysteine-Rich Atrial Secretory Protein from the Snail Achatina achatina: Purification and Structural Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Shabelnikov, Sergey; Kiselev, Artem

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of cardiac bioactive peptides and their functions in molluscs, soluble proteins expressed in the heart and secreted into the circulation have not yet been reported. In this study, we describe an 18.1-kDa, cysteine-rich atrial secretory protein (CRASP) isolated from the terrestrial snail Achatina achatina that has no detectable sequence similarity to any known protein or nucleotide sequence. CRASP is an acidic, 158-residue, N-glycosylated protein composed of eight alpha-helical segments stabilized with five disulphide bonds. A combination of fold recognition algorithms and ab initio folding predicted that CRASP adopts an all-alpha, right-handed superhelical fold. CRASP is most strongly expressed in the atrium in secretory atrial granular cells, and substantial amounts of CRASP are released from the heart upon nerve stimulation. CRASP is detected in the haemolymph of intact animals at nanomolar concentrations. CRASP is the first secretory protein expressed in molluscan atrium to be reported. We propose that CRASP is an example of a taxonomically restricted gene that might be responsible for adaptations specific for terrestrial pulmonates. PMID:26444993

  18. Machine Learning of Protein Interactions in Fungal Secretory Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kludas, Jana; Arvas, Mikko; Castillo, Sandra; Pakula, Tiina; Oja, Merja; Brouard, Céline; Jäntti, Jussi; Penttilä, Merja; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we apply machine learning methods for predicting protein interactions in fungal secretion pathways. We assume an inter-species transfer setting, where training data is obtained from a single species and the objective is to predict protein interactions in other, related species. In our methodology, we combine several state of the art machine learning approaches, namely, multiple kernel learning (MKL), pairwise kernels and kernelized structured output prediction in the supervised graph inference framework. For MKL, we apply recently proposed centered kernel alignment and p-norm path following approaches to integrate several feature sets describing the proteins, demonstrating improved performance. For graph inference, we apply input-output kernel regression (IOKR) in supervised and semi-supervised modes as well as output kernel trees (OK3). In our experiments simulating increasing genetic distance, Input-Output Kernel Regression proved to be the most robust prediction approach. We also show that the MKL approaches improve the predictions compared to uniform combination of the kernels. We evaluate the methods on the task of predicting protein-protein-interactions in the secretion pathways in fungi, S.cerevisiae, baker's yeast, being the source, T. reesei being the target of the inter-species transfer learning. We identify completely novel candidate secretion proteins conserved in filamentous fungi. These proteins could contribute to their unique secretion capabilities. PMID:27441920

  19. Machine Learning of Protein Interactions in Fungal Secretory Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kludas, Jana; Arvas, Mikko; Castillo, Sandra; Pakula, Tiina; Oja, Merja; Brouard, Céline; Jäntti, Jussi; Penttilä, Merja; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we apply machine learning methods for predicting protein interactions in fungal secretion pathways. We assume an inter-species transfer setting, where training data is obtained from a single species and the objective is to predict protein interactions in other, related species. In our methodology, we combine several state of the art machine learning approaches, namely, multiple kernel learning (MKL), pairwise kernels and kernelized structured output prediction in the supervised graph inference framework. For MKL, we apply recently proposed centered kernel alignment and p-norm path following approaches to integrate several feature sets describing the proteins, demonstrating improved performance. For graph inference, we apply input-output kernel regression (IOKR) in supervised and semi-supervised modes as well as output kernel trees (OK3). In our experiments simulating increasing genetic distance, Input-Output Kernel Regression proved to be the most robust prediction approach. We also show that the MKL approaches improve the predictions compared to uniform combination of the kernels. We evaluate the methods on the task of predicting protein-protein-interactions in the secretion pathways in fungi, S.cerevisiae, baker's yeast, being the source, T. reesei being the target of the inter-species transfer learning. We identify completely novel candidate secretion proteins conserved in filamentous fungi. These proteins could contribute to their unique secretion capabilities.

  20. Machine Learning of Protein Interactions in Fungal Secretory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kludas, Jana; Arvas, Mikko; Castillo, Sandra; Pakula, Tiina; Oja, Merja; Brouard, Céline; Jäntti, Jussi; Penttilä, Merja

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we apply machine learning methods for predicting protein interactions in fungal secretion pathways. We assume an inter-species transfer setting, where training data is obtained from a single species and the objective is to predict protein interactions in other, related species. In our methodology, we combine several state of the art machine learning approaches, namely, multiple kernel learning (MKL), pairwise kernels and kernelized structured output prediction in the supervised graph inference framework. For MKL, we apply recently proposed centered kernel alignment and p-norm path following approaches to integrate several feature sets describing the proteins, demonstrating improved performance. For graph inference, we apply input-output kernel regression (IOKR) in supervised and semi-supervised modes as well as output kernel trees (OK3). In our experiments simulating increasing genetic distance, Input-Output Kernel Regression proved to be the most robust prediction approach. We also show that the MKL approaches improve the predictions compared to uniform combination of the kernels. We evaluate the methods on the task of predicting protein-protein-interactions in the secretion pathways in fungi, S.cerevisiae, baker’s yeast, being the source, T. reesei being the target of the inter-species transfer learning. We identify completely novel candidate secretion proteins conserved in filamentous fungi. These proteins could contribute to their unique secretion capabilities. PMID:27441920

  1. Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.T. )

    1991-08-01

    The effect of Ca2+ and calmodulin on phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins was studied. Secretory granules were incubated in a phosphorylation reaction mixture containing (32P)ATP and test reagents. The 32P-labeled proteins were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 32P content was visualized by autoradiography, and the relative intensities of specific bands were quantitated. When the reaction mixture contained EGTA and no added Ca2+, 32P was incorporated into two proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 13,000. When 10(-4) M Ca2+ was added without EGTA, two additional proteins (58,000 and 48,000 Mr) were phosphorylated, and the 13,000-Mr protein was absent. The addition of 2.4 microM calmodulin markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of the 58,000- and 48,000-Mr proteins and resulted in the phosphorylation of a major protein whose molecular weight (64,000 Mr) is identical to that of one of the calmodulin binding proteins located on the granule surface. Calmodulin had no effect on phosphorylation in the absence of Ca2+ but was effective in the presence of calcium between 10 nM and 50 microM. Trifluoperazine and calmidazolium, calmodulin antagonists, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the calmodulin effect. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a phorbol ester that activates protein kinase C, produced no increase in phosphorylation, and 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methyl piperazine dihydrochloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, had no effect. These results indicate that Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and endogenous substrates are present in islet secretory granules.

  2. Ranking Gene Ontology terms for predicting non-classical secretory proteins in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Protein secretion is an important biological process for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several sequence-based methods mainly rely on utilizing various types of complementary features to design accurate classifiers for predicting non-classical secretory proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) terms are increasing informative in predicting protein functions. However, the number of used GO terms is often very large. For example, there are 60,020 GO terms used in the prediction method Euk-mPLoc 2.0 for subcellular localization. This study proposes a novel approach to identify a small set of m top-ranked GO terms served as the only type of input features to design a support vector machine (SVM) based method Sec-GO to predict non-classical secretory proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To evaluate the Sec-GO method, two existing methods and their used datasets are adopted for performance comparisons. The Sec-GO method using m=436 GO terms yields an independent test accuracy of 96.7% on mammalian proteins, much better than the existing method SPRED (82.2%) which uses frequencies of tri-peptides and short peptides, secondary structure, and physicochemical properties as input features of a random forest classifier. Furthermore, when applying to Gram-positive bacterial proteins, the Sec-GO with m=158 GO terms has a test accuracy of 94.5%, superior to NClassG+ (90.0%) which uses SVM with several feature types, comprising amino acid composition, di-peptides, physicochemical properties and the position specific weighting matrix. Analysis of the distribution of secretory proteins in a GO database indicates the percentage of the non-classical secretory proteins annotated by GO is larger than that of classical secretory proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Of the m top-ranked GO features, the top-four GO terms are all annotated by such subcellular locations as GO:0005576 (Extracellular region). Additionally, the method Sec-GO is easily implemented and its web tool of

  3. Protein modifications in the plant secretory pathway: current status and practical implications in molecular pharming.

    PubMed

    Faye, Loïc; Boulaflous, Aurelia; Benchabane, Meriem; Gomord, Véronique; Michaud, Dominique

    2005-03-01

    Plants have become, over the last ten years, a suitable alternative to microbial and animal cell factories for the production of clinically-useful, therapeutic proteins. Besides the well known advantage of low-cost and large-scale production of safe and biologically active mammalian proteins, plants also are able to perform most post-translational maturations required for biological activity and suitable pharmacokinetics of recombinant therapeutic proteins. In this short review we focus on glycosylation and proteolytic processing of plant-made pharmaceuticals during their transport through the plant cell's secretory pathway. We also address the practical implications of these important processes on the effectiveness of plant molecular pharming systems.

  4. The Protein Architecture of Human Secretory Vesicles Reveals Differential Regulation of Signaling Molecule Secretion by Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Taupenot, Laurent; Ziegler, Michael; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Ma, Qi; Smoot, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Hook, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Secretory vesicles are required for release of chemical messengers to mediate intercellular signaling among human biological systems. It is necessary to define the organization of the protein architecture of the ‘human’ dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) to understand mechanisms for secretion of signaling molecules essential for cellular regulatory processes. This study, therefore, conducted extensive quantitative proteomics and systems biology analyses of human DCSV purified from human pheochromocytoma. Over 600 human DCSV proteins were identified with quantitative evaluation of over 300 proteins, revealing that most proteins participate in producing peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, enzymes, and the secretory machinery. Systems biology analyses provided a model of interacting DCSV proteins, generating hypotheses for differential intracellular protein kinases A and C signaling pathways. Activation of cellular PKA and PKC pathways resulted in differential secretion of neuropeptides, catecholamines, and β-amyloid of Alzheimer's disease for mediating cell-cell communication. This is the first study to define a model of the protein architecture of human DCSV for human disease and health. PMID:22916103

  5. Alteration in Endometrial Proteins during Early- and Mid-Secretory Phases of the Cycle in Women with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Murli; Khan, Huma; Sirohi, Vijay Kumar; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad; Dwivedi, Anila

    2014-01-01

    Background Compromised receptivity of the endometrium is a major cause of unexplained infertility, implantation failure and subclinical pregnancy loss. In order to investigate the changes in endometrial protein profile as a cause of unexplained infertility, the current study was undertaken to analyze the differentially expressed proteins of endometrium from early-secretory (LH+2) to mid-secretory phase (LH+7), in women with unexplained infertility. Methods 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the proteomic changes between early- (n = 8) and mid-secretory (n = 8) phase endometrium of women with unexplained infertility. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified by LC-MS analysis and validated by immunoblotting and immuno-histochemical analysis in early- (n = 4) and mid-secretory (n = 4) phase endometrium of infertile women. Validated proteins were also analyzed in early- (n = 4) and mid-secretory (n = 4) phase endometrium of fertile women. Results Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed between early- and mid- secretory phases of endometrium of infertile women. The expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1b, Protein disulfide isomerase A3, Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), Cofilin-1 and RAN GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran) were found to be significantly increased, whereas, Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3, Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], Sorcin, and Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 were significantly decreased in mid- secretory phase endometrium of infertile women as compared to early-secretory phase endometrium of infertile women. Validation of 4 proteins viz. Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran were performed in separate endometrial biopsy samples from infertile women. The up-regulated expression of Sorcin and down-regulated expression of Cofilin-1 and Apolipoprotein-A1, were observed in mid-secretory phase as compared to early-secretory phase in case of fertile women. Conclusions De

  6. Over-production of various secretory-form proteins in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Noda, Shuhei; Ito, Yuko; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2010-10-01

    Streptomyces lividans is known to produce large amounts of proteins in culture supernatants. In this report, to expand the secretory expression system with a strong promoter derived from phospholipase D of Streptoverticillium cinnamoneum, we expressed three kinds of proteins: transglutaminase from Stv. cinnamoneum (StvcMTG) and beta-1,4-endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase from Thermobifida fusca YX. The StvcMTG gene was introduced into S. lividans using the shuttle vector pUC702 for Escherichia coli and S. lividans, and high level secretory production of StvcMTG (230 microg/ml in the culture supernatant) was achieved. The other prokaryotic proteins, beta-1,4-endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase, were also expressed in (His)(6)-tag fused form into culture supernatants and retained high activity. Furthermore, complete purification was achieved by conventional column or affinity column chromatography for each recombinant protein with 1 mg/ml over protein concentration. Three independent proteins were thus successfully expressed and purified, and we expect to use this system for the expression of other valuable heterologous proteins.

  7. A signal sequence is sufficient for green fluorescent protein to be routed to regulated secretory granules.

    PubMed

    El Meskini, R; Jin, L; Marx, R; Bruzzaniti, A; Lee, J; Emeson, R; Mains, R

    2001-02-01

    To investigate trafficking in neuroendocrine cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tags were fused to various portions of the preproneuropeptide Y (NPY) precursor. Two neuroendocrine cell lines, AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells and PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells, along with primary anterior pituitary cells, were examined. Expression of chimeric constructs did not disrupt trafficking or regulated secretion of endogenous ACTH and prohormone convertase 1 in AtT-20 cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that the chimeric constructs remained intact, as long as the Lys-Arg cleavage site within preproNPY was deleted. GFP was stored in, and released from, regulated granules in cells expressing half of the NPY precursor fused to GFP, and also in cells in which only the signal sequence of preproNPY was fused to GFP. Thus, in neuroendocrine cells, entering the lumen of the secretory pathway is sufficient to target GFP to regulated secretory granules.

  8. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands.

  9. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  10. Bacterial mimetics of endocrine secretory granules as immobilized in vivo depots for functional protein drugs

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Fernández, Yolanda; Unzueta, Ugutz; Mendoza, Rosa; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejando; Álamo, Patricia; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vázquez, Esther; Schwartz, Simó; Abasolo, Ibane; Corchero, José Luis; Mangues, Ramon; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the human endocrine system many protein hormones including urotensin, glucagon, obestatin, bombesin and secretin, among others, are supplied from amyloidal secretory granules. These granules form part of the so called functional amyloids, which within the whole aggregome appear to be more abundant than formerly believed. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic, nanostructured functional amyloids whose biological fabrication can be tailored to render materials with defined biophysical properties. Since under physiological conditions they steadily release their building block protein in a soluble and functional form, IBs are considered as mimetics of endocrine secretory granules. We have explored here if the in vivo implantation of functional IBs in a given tissue would represent a stable local source of functional protein. Upon intratumoral injection of bacterial IBs formed by a potent protein ligand of CXCR4 we have observed high stability and prevalence of the material in absence of toxicity, accompanied by apoptosis of CXCR4+ cells and tumor ablation. Then, the local immobilization of bacterial amyloids formed by therapeutic proteins in tumors or other tissues might represent a promising strategy for a sustained local delivery of protein drugs by mimicking the functional amyloidal architecture of the mammals’ endocrine system. PMID:27775083

  11. Microtubules and protein secretion in rat lacrimal glands: localization of short-term effects of colchicine on the secretory process

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The pathway and kinetics of the secretory protein transport in rat lacrimal exorbital gland have been established by an in vitro time- course radioautographic study of pulse-labeled protein secretion. The colchicine-sensitive steps have been localized by using the drug at various times with respect to the pulse labeling of proteins. Colchicine (10 microM) does not block any step of the secretory protein transport, but when introduced before the pulse it decreases the transfer of labeled proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi area, suppressing their temporary accumulation in the Golgi area before any alteration of this organelle is detectable. Moreover, colchicine inhibits protein release only from the secretory granules formed in its presence because the peroxidase discharge is diminished 1 h after colchicine addition, and the secretion of newly synthesized proteins is strongly inhibited only when colchicine is introduced before secretory granule formation. Morphometric studies show that there is a great increase of secondary lysosomes, related to crinophagy, as early as 40-50 min after colchicine is added. However, changes in lysosomal enzymatic activities remained biochemically undetectable. We conclude that: (a) the labile microtubular system does not seem indispensable for protein transport in the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi area but may facilitate this step, perhaps by maintaining the spatial organization of this area; and (b) in the lacrimal gland, colchicine inhibits protein release not by acting on the steps of secretion following the secretory granule formation, but by acting chiefly on the steps preceding secretory granule formation, perhaps by making the secretory granules formed in its presence incapable of discharging their content. PMID:7142282

  12. Subcellular location of secretory proteins retained in the liver during the ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatic protein secretion in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Volentine, G.D.; Tuma, D.J.; Sorrell, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol administration inhibits the secretion of proteins by the liver, resulting in their hepatocellular retention. Experiments were designed in this study to determine the subcellular location of the retained secretory proteins. Ethanol was administered acutely to nonfasted rats by gastric intubation, whereas control animals received an isocaloric dose of glucose. Two hours after intubation, when maximum blood ethanol levels (45 mM) were observed, (/sup 3/H)leucine and (/sup 14/C)fucose were injected simultaneously into the dorsal vein of the penis. The labelling of secretory proteins was determined in the liver and plasma at various time periods after label injection. Ethanol treatment decreased the secretion of both leucine- and fucose-labeled proteins into the plasma. This inhibition of secretion was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the hepatic retention of both leucine- and fucose-labeled immunoprecipitable secretory proteins. At the time of maximum inhibition of secretion, leucine labeled secretory proteins located in the Golgi apparatus represented about 50% of the accumulated secretory proteins in the livers of the ethanol-treated rats, whereas the remainder was essentially equally divided among the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol. Because fucose is incorporated into secretory proteins almost exclusively in the Golgi complex, fucose-labeled proteins accumulated in the livers of the ethanol-treated rats mainly in the Golgi apparatus, with the remainder located in the cytosol. These results show that ethanol administration causes an impaired movement of secretory proteins along the secretory pathway, and that secretory proteins accumulate mainly, but not exclusively, in the Golgi apparatus.

  13. DHRSX, a novel non-classical secretory protein associated with starvation induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoying; Luo, Yang; Li, Ge; Wang, Lanlan; Na, Daxiang; Wu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yingmei; Mo, Xiaoning; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) X-linked (DHRSX) is a novel human gene without any substantial functional annotation and was initially cloned and identified in our laboratory. In this study, we present evidence that it encodes a non-classical secretory protein and promotes starvation induced autophagy. Using the Baf.A1 assay and N-terminal sequencing, we showed that DHRSX is secreted in a non-classical form. We expressed and purified a recombinant human GST-DHRSX fusion protein. Functional studies revealed that HeLa and U2OS cells overexpressing DHRSX or treated with the GST-DHRSX fusion protein exhibited higher levels of starvation-induced autophagy, resulting in increased endogenous LC3-II levels, a punctate GFP-LC3 distribution, and structures associated with autophagy, with a lower accumulation of autophagy substrates such as p62 and polyQ80. Accordingly, knockdown of endogenous DHRSX through specific siRNAs reduced LC3-II levels obviously in U2OS cells induced by starvation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that DHRSX is a novel non-classical secretory protein involved in the positive regulation of starvation induced autophagy and provide a new avenue for research on this protein family and autophagy regulation.

  14. Immunodominant antigens in Naegleria fowleri excretory--secretory proteins were potential pathogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Ae-Hee; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kim, Daesik; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2009-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous pathogenic free-living amoeba, is the most virulent species and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in laboratory animals and humans. The parasite secretes various inducing molecules as biological responses, which are thought to be involved in pathophysiological and immunological events during infection. To investigate what molecules of N. fowleri excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) are related with amoebic pathogenicity, N. fowleri ESPs fractionated by two-dimensional electrophoresis were reacted with N. fowleri infection or immune sera. To identify immunodominant ESPs, six major protein spots were selected and analyzed by N-terminal sequencing. Finally, six proteins, 58, 40, 24, 21, 18, and 16 kDa of molecular weight, were partially cloned and matched with reference proteins as follow: 58 kDa of exendin-3 precursor, 40 kDa of secretory lipase, 24 kDa of cathepsin B-like proteases and cysteine protease, 21 kDa of cathepsin B, 18 kDa of peroxiredoxin, and 16 kDa of thrombin receptor, respectively. These results suggest that N. fowleri ESPs contained important proteins, which may play an important role in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri.

  15. Overproduction of a Model Sec- and Tat-Dependent Secretory Protein Elicits Different Cellular Responses in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Sonia; Marín, Silvia; Mellado, Rafael P

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces lividans is considered an efficient host for the secretory production of homologous and heterologous proteins. To identify possible bottlenecks in the protein production process, a comparative transcriptomic approach was adopted to study cellular responses during the overproduction of a Sec-dependent model protein (alpha-amylase) and a Tat-dependent model protein (agarase) in Streptomyces lividans. The overproduction of the model secretory proteins via the Sec or the Tat route in S. lividans does elicit a different major cell response in the bacterium. The stringent response is a bacterial response to nutrients' depletion, which naturally occurs at late times of the bacterial cell growth. While the induction of the stringent response at the exponential phase of growth may limit overall productivity in the case of the Tat route, the induction of that response does not take place in the case of the Sec route, which comparatively is an advantage in secretory protein production processes. Hence, this study identifies a potential major drawback in the secretory protein production process depending on the secretory route, and provides clues to improving S. lividans as a protein production host.

  16. Expression of Active Fluorophore Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Pigs Bypassing the Secretory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R; Tiedemann, Daniela; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the expression of recombinant fluorescent proteins in the milk of two lines of transgenic pigs generated by Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated genetic engineering. The Sleeping Beauty transposon consisted of an ubiquitously active CAGGS promoter driving a fluorophore cDNA, encoding either Venus or mCherry. Importantly, the fluorophore cDNAs did not encode for a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, and in previous studies of the transgenic animals a cytoplasmic localization of the fluorophore proteins was found. Unexpectedly, milk samples from lactating sows contained high levels of bioactive Venus or mCherry fluorophores. A detailed analysis suggested that exfoliated cells of the mammary epithelium carried the recombinant proteins passively into the milk. This is the first description of reporter fluorophore expression in the milk of livestock, and the findings may contribute to the development of an alternative concept for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins in the udder. PMID:27086548

  17. Expression of Active Fluorophore Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Pigs Bypassing the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R.; Tiedemann, Daniela; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the expression of recombinant fluorescent proteins in the milk of two lines of transgenic pigs generated by Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated genetic engineering. The Sleeping Beauty transposon consisted of an ubiquitously active CAGGS promoter driving a fluorophore cDNA, encoding either Venus or mCherry. Importantly, the fluorophore cDNAs did not encode for a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, and in previous studies of the transgenic animals a cytoplasmic localization of the fluorophore proteins was found. Unexpectedly, milk samples from lactating sows contained high levels of bioactive Venus or mCherry fluorophores. A detailed analysis suggested that exfoliated cells of the mammary epithelium carried the recombinant proteins passively into the milk. This is the first description of reporter fluorophore expression in the milk of livestock, and the findings may contribute to the development of an alternative concept for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins in the udder. PMID:27086548

  18. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Moeller, Steffen; Suganthan, P.N.; Martinetz, Thomas

    2010-01-15

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  19. Protein modifications in the plant secretory pathway: current status and practical implications in molecular pharming.

    PubMed

    Faye, Loïc; Boulaflous, Aurelia; Benchabane, Meriem; Gomord, Véronique; Michaud, Dominique

    2005-03-01

    Plants have become, over the last ten years, a suitable alternative to microbial and animal cell factories for the production of clinically-useful, therapeutic proteins. Besides the well known advantage of low-cost and large-scale production of safe and biologically active mammalian proteins, plants also are able to perform most post-translational maturations required for biological activity and suitable pharmacokinetics of recombinant therapeutic proteins. In this short review we focus on glycosylation and proteolytic processing of plant-made pharmaceuticals during their transport through the plant cell's secretory pathway. We also address the practical implications of these important processes on the effectiveness of plant molecular pharming systems. PMID:15734039

  20. Laboratory evolution of fast-folding green fluorescent protein using secretory pathway quality control.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Adam C; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has undergone a long history of optimization to become one of the most popular proteins in all of cell biology. It is thermally and chemically robust and produces a pronounced fluorescent phenotype when expressed in cells of all types. Recently, a superfolder GFP was engineered with increased resistance to denaturation and improved folding kinetics. Here we report that unlike other well-folded variants of GFP (e.g., GFPmut2), superfolder GFP was spared from elimination when targeted for secretion via the SecYEG translocase. This prompted us to hypothesize that the folding quality control inherent to this secretory pathway could be used as a platform for engineering similar 'superfolded' proteins. To test this, we targeted a combinatorial library of GFPmut2 variants to the SecYEG translocase and isolated several superfolded variants that accumulated in the cytoplasm due to their enhanced folding properties. Each of these GFP variants exhibited much faster folding kinetics than the parental GFPmut2 protein and one of these, designated superfast GFP, folded at a rate that even exceeded superfolder GFP. Remarkably, these GFP variants exhibited little to no loss in specific fluorescence activity relative to GFPmut2, suggesting that the process of superfolding can be accomplished without altering the proteins' normal function. Overall, we demonstrate that laboratory evolution combined with secretory pathway quality control enables sampling of largely unexplored amino-acid sequences for the discovery of artificial, high-performance proteins with properties that are unparalleled in their naturally occurring analogues. PMID:18545653

  1. Identification of Secretory Proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Tang, Hua; Chen, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Chang-Jian; Zhu, Pan-Pan; Ding, Hui; Chen, Wei; Lin, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is killing millions of lives every year and on the blacklist of the most appalling public health problems. Recent findings suggest that secretory protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may serve the purpose of developing specific vaccines and drugs due to their antigenicity. Responding to global infectious disease, we focused on the identification of secretory proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel method called MycoSec was designed by incorporating g-gap dipeptide compositions into pseudo amino acid composition. Analysis of variance-based technique was applied in the process of feature selection and a total of 374 optimal features were obtained and used for constructing the final predicting model. In the jackknife test, MycoSec yielded a good performance with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93, demonstrating that the proposed system is powerful and robust. For user's convenience, the web server MycoSec was established and an obliging manual on how to use it was provided for getting around any trouble unnecessary. PMID:27597968

  2. Identification of Secretory Proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using Pseudo Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Tang, Hua; Chen, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Chang-Jian; Zhu, Pan-Pan; Ding, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is killing millions of lives every year and on the blacklist of the most appalling public health problems. Recent findings suggest that secretory protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may serve the purpose of developing specific vaccines and drugs due to their antigenicity. Responding to global infectious disease, we focused on the identification of secretory proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel method called MycoSec was designed by incorporating g-gap dipeptide compositions into pseudo amino acid composition. Analysis of variance-based technique was applied in the process of feature selection and a total of 374 optimal features were obtained and used for constructing the final predicting model. In the jackknife test, MycoSec yielded a good performance with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93, demonstrating that the proposed system is powerful and robust. For user's convenience, the web server MycoSec was established and an obliging manual on how to use it was provided for getting around any trouble unnecessary. PMID:27597968

  3. Identification of Secretory Proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using Pseudo Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Tang, Hua; Chen, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Chang-Jian; Zhu, Pan-Pan; Ding, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is killing millions of lives every year and on the blacklist of the most appalling public health problems. Recent findings suggest that secretory protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may serve the purpose of developing specific vaccines and drugs due to their antigenicity. Responding to global infectious disease, we focused on the identification of secretory proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel method called MycoSec was designed by incorporating g-gap dipeptide compositions into pseudo amino acid composition. Analysis of variance-based technique was applied in the process of feature selection and a total of 374 optimal features were obtained and used for constructing the final predicting model. In the jackknife test, MycoSec yielded a good performance with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93, demonstrating that the proposed system is powerful and robust. For user's convenience, the web server MycoSec was established and an obliging manual on how to use it was provided for getting around any trouble unnecessary.

  4. Identifying Schistosoma japonicum excretory/secretory proteins and their interactions with host immune system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qi; Yuan, Xiongying; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Changning; Lv, Zhiyue; Zhao, Yi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2011-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is a major infectious agent of schistosomiasis. It has been reported that large number of proteins excreted and secreted by S. japonicum during its life cycle are important for its infection and survival in definitive hosts. These proteins can be used as ideal candidates for vaccines or drug targets. In this work, we analyzed the protein sequences of S. japonicum and found that compared with other proteins in S. japonicum, excretory/secretory (ES) proteins are generally longer, more likely to be stable and enzyme, more likely to contain immune-related binding peptides and more likely to be involved in regulation and metabolism processes. Based on the sequence difference between ES and non-ES proteins, we trained a support vector machine (SVM) with much higher accuracy than existing approaches. Using this SVM, we identified 191 new ES proteins in S. japonicum, and further predicted 7 potential interactions between these ES proteins and human immune proteins. Our results are useful to understand the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis and can serve as a new resource for vaccine or drug targets discovery for anti-schistosome.

  5. Androgen-dependent synthesis of basic secretory proteins by the rat seminal vesicle.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, S J; Burchell, J M; Mainwaring, W I

    1976-01-01

    1. Two basic proteins were purified from secretions of rat seminal vesicles by using Sephadex G-200 chromatography and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. 2. It is not certain that these two proteins are distinct species and not subunits of a larger protein, but their properties are similar. Highly basic (pI = 9.7), they migrate to the cathode at high pH and their amino acid composition shows them to be rich in basic residues and serine. Threonine and hydrophobic residues are few. Both proteins are glycoproteins and have mol.wts. of 17000 and 18500. 3. Together these two proteins account for 25-30% of the protein synthesized by the vesicles, but they are absent from other tissues. 4. Changes in androgen status of the animal markedly affect these proteins. After castration, a progressive decrease in the basic proteins is observed and the synthesis of the two proteins as measured by [35S]methionine incorporation in vitro is is decreased. Testosterone administration in vivo rapidly restores their rates of synthesis. 5. These effects on specific protein synthesis are also observed for total cellular protein, and it is suggested that testosterone acts generally on the total protein-synthetic capacity of the cell and not specifically on individual proteins. Proliferative responses in the secretory epithelium may also be involved. 6. The extreme steroid specificity of the induction process suggests that the synthesis of these basic proteins is mediated by the androgen-receptor system. 7. The biological function of these proteins is not clear, but they do not appear to be involved in the formation of the copulatory plug. Images PLATE 1(a) PLATES 1(b), 1(c) AND 1(d) PLATE 2 PMID:985427

  6. ER Stress-Induced Clearance of Misfolded GPI-Anchored Proteins via the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Ajinkya, Monica; Bhat, Savithri; Itakura, Eisuke; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Summary Proteins destined for the cell surface are first assessed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for proper folding before release into the secretory pathway. This ensures that defective proteins are normally prevented from entering the extracellular environment, where they could be disruptive. Here, we report that, when ER folding capacity is saturated during stress, misfolded glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins dissociate from resident ER chaperones, engage export receptors, and quantitatively leave the ER via vesicular transport to the Golgi. Clearance from the ER commences within minutes of acute ER stress, before the transcriptional component of the unfolded protein response is activated. These aberrant proteins then access the cell surface transiently before destruction in lysosomes. Inhibiting this stress-induced pathway by depleting the ER-export receptors leads to aggregation of the ER-retained misfolded protein. Thus, this rapid response alleviates the elevated burden of misfolded proteins in the ER at the onset of ER stress, promoting protein homeostasis in the ER. PMID:25083867

  7. A dynamic study of protein secretion and aggregation in the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Sannino, Sara; Mazza, Davide; Fagioli, Claudio; Vitale, Milena; Yoboue, Edgar Djaha; Sitia, Roberto; Anelli, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Precise coordination of protein biogenesis, traffic and homeostasis within the early secretory compartment (ESC) is key for cell physiology. As a consequence, disturbances in these processes underlie many genetic and chronic diseases. Dynamic imaging methods are needed to follow the fate of cargo proteins and their interactions with resident enzymes and folding assistants. Here we applied the Halotag labelling system to study the behavior of proteins with different fates and roles in ESC: a chaperone, an ERAD substrate and an aggregation-prone molecule. Exploiting the Halo property of binding covalently ligands labelled with different fluorochromes, we developed and performed non-radioactive pulse and chase assays to follow sequential waves of proteins in ESC, discriminating between young and old molecules at the single cell level. In this way, we could monitor secretion and degradation of ER proteins in living cells. We can also follow the biogenesis, growth, accumulation and movements of protein aggregates in the ESC. Our data show that protein deposits within ESC grow by sequential apposition of molecules up to a given size, after which novel seeds are detected. The possibility of using ligands with distinct optical and physical properties offers a novel possibility to dynamically follow the fate of proteins in the ESC. PMID:25279560

  8. A Dynamic Study of Protein Secretion and Aggregation in the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Sannino, Sara; Mazza, Davide; Fagioli, Claudio; Vitale, Milena; Yoboue, Edgar Djaha; Anelli, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Precise coordination of protein biogenesis, traffic and homeostasis within the early secretory compartment (ESC) is key for cell physiology. As a consequence, disturbances in these processes underlie many genetic and chronic diseases. Dynamic imaging methods are needed to follow the fate of cargo proteins and their interactions with resident enzymes and folding assistants. Here we applied the Halotag labelling system to study the behavior of proteins with different fates and roles in ESC: a chaperone, an ERAD substrate and an aggregation-prone molecule. Exploiting the Halo property of binding covalently ligands labelled with different fluorochromes, we developed and performed non-radioactive pulse and chase assays to follow sequential waves of proteins in ESC, discriminating between young and old molecules at the single cell level. In this way, we could monitor secretion and degradation of ER proteins in living cells. We can also follow the biogenesis, growth, accumulation and movements of protein aggregates in the ESC. Our data show that protein deposits within ESC grow by sequential apposition of molecules up to a given size, after which novel seeds are detected. The possibility of using ligands with distinct optical and physical properties offers a novel possibility to dynamically follow the fate of proteins in the ESC. PMID:25279560

  9. Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus.

    PubMed

    Binelli, M; Hampton, J; Buhi, W C; Thatcher, W W

    1999-07-01

    The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF.

  10. p23, a major COPI-vesicle membrane protein, constitutively cycles through the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Nickel, W; Sohn, K; Bünning, C; Wieland, F T

    1997-10-14

    A novel type I transmembrane protein of COPI-coated vesicles, p23, has been demonstrated to be localized mainly to the Golgi complex. This protein and p24, another member of the p24 family, have been shown to bind coatomer via their short cytoplasmic tails. Here we demonstrate that p23 continuously cycles through the early secretory pathway. The cytoplasmic tail of p23 is shown to act as a functional retrieval signal as it confers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) residence to a CD8-p23 fusion protein. This ER localization is, at least in part, a result of retrieval from post-ER compartments because CD8-p23 fusion proteins receive post-ER modifications. In contrast, the cytoplasmic tail of p24 has been shown not to retrieve a CD8-p24 fusion protein. The coatomer binding motifs FF and KK in the cytoplasmic tail of p23 are reported to influence the steady-state localization of the CD8-p23 fusion protein within the ER-Golgi recycling pathway. It appears that the steady-state Golgi localization of endogenous p23 is maintained by its lumenal domain, as a fusion protein with the lumenal domain of CD8, and the membrane span as well as the cytoplasmic tail of p23 is no longer detected in the Golgi. PMID:9326620

  11. Absence of E protein arrests transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus maturation in the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ortego, Javier; Ceriani, Juan E.; Patino, Cristina; Plana, Juan; Enjuanes, Luis

    2007-11-25

    A recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (rTGEV) in which E gene was deleted (rTGEV-{delta}E) has been engineered. This deletion mutant only grows in cells expressing E protein (E{sup +} cells) indicating that E was an essential gene for TGEV replication. Electron microscopy studies of rTGEV-{delta}E infected BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells showed that only immature intracellular virions were assembled. These virions were non-infectious and not secreted to the extracellular medium in BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells. RNA and protein composition analysis by RNase-gold and immunoelectron microscopy showed that rTGEV-{delta}E virions contained RNA and also all the structural TGEV proteins, except the deleted E protein. Nevertheless, full virion maturation was blocked. Studies of the rTGEV-{delta}E subcellular localization by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy in infected E{sup -} cells showed that in the absence of E protein virus trafficking was arrested in the intermediate compartment. Therefore, the absence of E protein in TGEV resulted in two actions, a blockade of virus trafficking in the membranes of the secretory pathway, and prevention of full virus maturation.

  12. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Farkaš, Robert; Ďatková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Beňo, Milan; Sass, Miklós; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Kováčik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal β-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  13. N-hypermannose glycosylation disruption enhances recombinant protein production by regulating secretory pathway and cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongting; Wang, Shenghuan; Wang, Jiajing; Song, Meihui; Xu, Mengyang; Zhang, Mengying; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust host for heterologous protein expression. The efficient expression of cellulases in S. cerevisiae is important for the consolidated bioprocess that directly converts lignocellulose into valuable products. However, heterologous proteins are often N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae, which may affect protein activity. In this study, the expression of three heterologous proteins, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase, was found to be N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae. To block the formation of hypermannose glycan, these proteins were expressed in strains with deletions in key Golgi mannosyltransferases (Och1p, Mnn9p and Mnn1p), respectively. Their extracellular activities improved markedly in the OCH1 and MNN9 deletion strains. Interestingly, truncation of the N-hypermannose glycan did not increase the specific activity of these proteins, but improved the secretion yield. Further analysis showed OCH1 and MNN9 deletion up-regulated genes in the secretory pathway, such as protein folding and vesicular trafficking, but did not induce the unfolded protein response. The cell wall integrity was also affected by OCH1 and MNN9 deletion, which contributed to the release of secretory protein extracellularly. This study demonstrated that mannosyltransferases disruption improved protein secretion through up-regulating secretory pathway and affecting cell wall integrity and provided new insights into glycosylation engineering for protein secretion. PMID:27156860

  14. N-hypermannose glycosylation disruption enhances recombinant protein production by regulating secretory pathway and cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongting; Wang, Shenghuan; Wang, Jiajing; Song, Meihui; Xu, Mengyang; Zhang, Mengying; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust host for heterologous protein expression. The efficient expression of cellulases in S. cerevisiae is important for the consolidated bioprocess that directly converts lignocellulose into valuable products. However, heterologous proteins are often N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae, which may affect protein activity. In this study, the expression of three heterologous proteins, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase, was found to be N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae. To block the formation of hypermannose glycan, these proteins were expressed in strains with deletions in key Golgi mannosyltransferases (Och1p, Mnn9p and Mnn1p), respectively. Their extracellular activities improved markedly in the OCH1 and MNN9 deletion strains. Interestingly, truncation of the N-hypermannose glycan did not increase the specific activity of these proteins, but improved the secretion yield. Further analysis showed OCH1 and MNN9 deletion up-regulated genes in the secretory pathway, such as protein folding and vesicular trafficking, but did not induce the unfolded protein response. The cell wall integrity was also affected by OCH1 and MNN9 deletion, which contributed to the release of secretory protein extracellularly. This study demonstrated that mannosyltransferases disruption improved protein secretion through up-regulating secretory pathway and affecting cell wall integrity and provided new insights into glycosylation engineering for protein secretion. PMID:27156860

  15. A role for secretory phospholipase A2 and C-reactive protein in the removal of injured cells.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Wolbink, G J; Schalkwijk, C; Speijer, H; Hermens, W T; van den Bosch, H

    1997-03-01

    The acute phase response is initiated in response to infection or physical trauma and is characterized by an increase in the levels of some plasma proteins. Here, Erik Hack and colleagues suggest that the combined actions of two of these acute phase proteins, secretory phospholipase A2 and C-reactive protein, may serve to promote phagocytosis of injured cells and tissue debris, thereby enhancing inflammation and tissue damage.

  16. Secretion of the Adipocyte-Specific Secretory Protein Adiponectin Critically Depends on Thiol-Mediated Protein Retention▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao V.; Schraw, Todd D.; Kim, Ja-Young; Khan, Tayeba; Rajala, Michael W.; Follenzi, Antonia; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin is a secretory protein abundantly secreted from adipocytes. It assembles into a number of different higher-order complexes. Adipocytes maintain tight control over circulating plasma levels, suggesting the existence of a complex, highly regulated biosynthetic pathway. However, the critical mediators of adiponectin maturation within the secretory pathway have not been elucidated. Previously, we found that a significant portion of de novo-synthesized adiponectin is not secreted and retained in adipocytes. Here, we show that there is an abundant pool of properly folded adiponectin in the secretory pathway that is retained through thiol-mediated retention, as judged by the release of adiponectin in response to treatment of adipocytes with reducing agents. Adiponectin is covalently bound to the ER chaperone ERp44. An adiponectin mutant lacking cysteine 39 fails to stably interact with ERp44, demonstrating that this residue is the primary site mediating the covalent interaction. Another ER chaperone, Ero1-Lα, plays a critical role in the release of adiponectin from ERp44. Levels of both of these proteins are highly regulated in adipocytes and are influenced by the metabolic state of the cell. While less critical for the secretion of trimers, these chaperones play a major role in the assembly of higher-order adiponectin complexes. Our data highlight the importance of posttranslational events controlling adiponectin levels and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. One mechanism for increasing circulating levels of specific adiponectin complexes by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists may be selective upregulation of rate-limiting chaperones. PMID:17353260

  17. Effects of fluoride on matrix proteins and their properties in rat secretory enamel.

    PubMed

    Aoba, T; Moreno, E C; Tanabe, T; Fukae, M

    1990-06-01

    This publication concerns the selective adsorption of rat enamel proteins onto hydroxyapatite, their solubility in aqueous solutions, and the effect that systemic fluoride has on these properties. The enamel proteins used as adsorbates were extracted in 0.5 mol/L acetic acid from the secretory enamel of the upper and lower incisors of SD rats (females, 200-220 g body weight). Equilibration of the proteins with hydroxyapatite was performed in two solutions: (i) 50 mmol/L acetate buffer at pH 6.0 and 0 degrees C, and (ii) 50 mmol/L Tris buffer containing 4 mol/L guanidine at pH 7.4 and room temperature. Enamel was dissected from animals, which were given either de-ionized water (control group) or water containing 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm fluoride as NaF for four weeks. From these enamel samples, the proteins were extracted in sequence with 160 mmol/L NaCl and 3 mmol/L phosphate (pH 7.3), 50 mmol/L carbonate buffer (pH 10.8), and finally, with 0.5 mol/L acetic acid for dissolution of the enamel mineral. The F, Ca, and P contents of the various enamel samples were determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. M. tuberculosis Secretory Protein ESAT-6 Induces Metabolic Flux Perturbations to Drive Foamy Macrophage Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varshneya; Kaur, Charanpreet; Chaudhary, Vijay K; Rao, Kanury V S; Chatterjee, Samrat

    2015-01-01

    The Foamy Macrophage (FM) differentiation forms a major component of the host dependent survival axis of M. tuberculosis. The FM which are characterized by the intracellular accumulation of lipid bodies (LBs), ensure a privileged existence for the bacilli through ready provision of nutrients and by conferring protection against bactericidal pathways. The mycobacterial secretory protein ESAT-6 has been identified as the molecular mediator of the FM differentiation process although little is known about the mechanism through which it induces this process. In the present study, we show that ESAT-6 induces GLUT-1 mediated enhanced glucose uptake by macrophages which is coupled to metabolic flux perturbations in the glycolytic pathway caused by differential rates of reaction at several steps in the pathway. Two major changes identified were the simultaneous buildup of DHAP (for Triglyceride synthesis) and AcCoA (for synthesis of 3-HB, ligand for the anti-lipolytic GPR109A). We also show that part of the observed effects involve protein- protein interactions between ESAT-6 and the macrophage glycolytic enzymes, Enolase1 and Phosphoglycerate kinase1. PMID:26250836

  19. Altered synthesis of some secretory proteins in pancreatic lobules isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, R.D.; Erlanson-Albertsson, C. )

    1990-03-01

    The in vitro incorporation of (35S)cysteine into lipase, colipase, amylase, procarboxypeptidase A and B, and the serine proteases and total proteins was studied in pancreatic lobules isolated from normal and diabetic rats with or without insulin treatment. The incorporation of (35S)cysteine into total proteins was 65% greater in pancreatic lobules from diabetic animals than from normal rats. The increased incorporation was partly reversed by insulin treatment (2 U/100 g/day for 5 days) of diabetic rats. The relative rates of biosynthesis for amylase and the procarboxypeptidases in diabetic pancreatic lobules were decreased by 75 and 25%, respectively, after 1 h of incubation, while those for lipase, colipase, and the serine proteases were increased by 90, 85, and 35%, respectively. The absolute rates of synthesis for these enzymes changed in the same direction as the relative rates in diabetic lobules, except that for the procarboxypeptidases, which did not change. The changed rates of biosynthesis for the pancreatic enzymes were reversed by insulin treatment of the diabetic rats. Kinetic studies showed that the incorporation of (35S)cysteine into amylase, lipase, and colipase was linear until up to 2 h of incubation in normal pancreatic lobules, while in the diabetic lobules the incorporation into lipase and colipase was accelerated, reaching a plateau level already after 1 h of incubation. It is concluded that the biosynthesis of pancreatic secretory proteins in diabetic rats is greatly changed both in terms of quantity and kinetics.

  20. Golgi-to-plastid trafficking of proteins through secretory pathway: Insights into vesicle-mediated import toward the plastids

    PubMed Central

    Baslam, Marouane; Oikawa, Kazusato; Kitajima-Koga, Aya; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diversity of protein targeting pathways to plastids and their regulation in response to developmental and metabolic status is a key issue in the regulation of cellular function in plants. The general import pathways that target proteins into and across the plastid envelope with changes in gene expression are critical for plant development by regulating the response to physiological and metabolic changes within the cell. Glycoprotein targeting to complex plastids involves routing through the secretory pathway, among others. However, the mechanisms of trafficking via this system remain poorly understood. The present article discusses our results in site-specific N-glycosylation of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) glycoproteins and highlights protein delivery in Golgi/plastid pathway via the secretory pathway. Furthermore, we outline the hypotheses that explain the mechanism for importing vesicles trafficking with nucleus-encoded proteins into plastids. PMID:27700755

  1. The human homolog of the JE gene encodes a monocyte secretory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, B J; Stier, P; Ernst, T; Wong, G G

    1989-01-01

    The mouse fibroblast gene, JE, was one of the first platelet-derived growth factor-inducible genes to be described as such. The protein encoded by JE (mJE) is the prototype of a large family of secreted, cytokinelike glycoproteins, all of whose members are induced by a mitogenic or activation signal in monocytes macrophages, and T lymphocytes; JE is the only member to have been identified in fibroblasts. We report the identification of a human homolog for murine JE, cloned from human fibroblasts. The protein predicted by the coding sequence of human JE (hJE) is 55 amino acids shorter than mJE, and its sequence is identical to that of a recently purified monocyte chemoattractant. When expressed in COS cells, the human JE cDNA directed the secretion of N-glycosylated proteins of Mr 16,000 to 18,000 as well as proteins of Mr 15,500, 15,000, and 13,000. Antibodies raised against mJE recognized these hJE species, all of which were secreted by human fibroblasts. hJE expression was stimulated in HL60 cells during phorbol myristate acetate-induced monocytoid differentiation. However, resting human monocytes constitutively secreted hJE; treatment with gamma interferon did not enhance hJE expression in monocytes, and treatment with phorbol myristate acetate or lipopolysaccharide inhibited its expression. Thus, human JE encodes yet another member of the large family of JE-related cytokinelike proteins, in this case a novel human monocyte and fibroblast secretory protein. Images PMID:2513477

  2. Involvement of various organs in the initial plasma clearance of differently glycosylated rat liver secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, V; Heinrich, P C; vom Berg, D; Steube, K; Andus, T; Tran-Thi, T A; Decker, K; Gerok, W

    1988-05-01

    The initial plasma clearance and organ distribution of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and alpha 2-macroglobulin carrying different types of oligosaccharide, side chains was studied in rats. The differently glycosylated proteins were synthesized by rat hepatocytes in culture in the presence of tunicamycin (unglycosylated form), swainsonine (hybrid type), or 1-deoxymannojirimycin (high-mannose type). Deglycosylated glycoproteins (Asn-GlcNAc) were obtained by endoglucosaminidase H treatment of high-mannose-type glycoproteins. Ten minutes after intravenous injection 3% of complex type, 26% of hybrid type, 84% of high-mannose type. 64% of unglycosylated and 80% of deglycosylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein disappeared from the plasma. The respective values for alpha 2-macroglobulin were 26%, 42%, 59% and 67%. When the clearance of total hepatic secretory proteins was examined, major differences between glycosylated and unglycosylated (glyco)proteins were found, particularly in the case of low-molecular-mass polypeptides. Whereas complex-type alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and alpha 2-macroglobulin showed no accumulation in various organs, hybrid-type alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and alpha 2-macroglobulin were present in spleen and liver. High-mannose-type alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and alpha 2-macroglobulin also accumulated mainly in spleen and liver. Spleen had the highest specific activity; liver, due to its larger organ mass, represented the major organ for the uptake of high-mannose-type glycoproteins. Competition experiments with mannan and GlcNAc-bovine-serum-albumin showed a mannose/GlcNAc receptor-mediated removal. Whereas unglycosylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was taken up by the kidney, unglycosylated alpha 2-macroglobulin was found in the spleen. Deglycosylated glycoproteins (Asn-GlcNAc) were removed from the plasma via two different mechanisms: firstly, clearance by the kidney similar to the unglycosylated glycoproteins; secondly, clearance by a mannose/GlcNAc receptor

  3. Sorting of cyst wall proteins to a regulated secretory pathway during differentiation of the primitive eukaryote, Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Reiner, D S; McCaffery, M; Gillin, F D

    1990-10-01

    Giardia lamblia, which belongs to the earliest identified lineage to diverge from the eukaryotic line of descent, is one of many protists reported to lack a Golgi apparatus. Our recent finding of a developmentally regulated secretory pathway in G. lamblia makes it an ideal organism with which to test the hypothesis that the Golgi may be more readily demonstrated in actively secreting cells. These ultrastructural studies now show that a regulated pathway of transport and secretion of cyst wall antigens via a novel class of large, osmiophilic secretory vesicles, the encystation-specific vesicles (ESV), is assembled during encystation of G. lamblia. Early in encystation, cyst antigens are localized in simple Golgi membrane stacks and concentrated within enlarged Golgi cisternae which appear to be precursors of ESV. This would represent an unusual mechanism of secretory vesicle biogenesis. Later in differentiation, cyst antigens are localized within ESV, which transport them to the plasma membrane and release them by exocytosis to the nascent cell wall. ESV are not observed after completion of the cyst wall. In contrast to the regulated transport of cyst wall proteins, we demonstrate a distinct constitutive lysosomal pathway. During encystation, acid phosphatase activity is localized in endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and small constitutive peripheral vacuoles which function as lysosomes. However, acid phosphatase activity is not detectable in ESV. These studies show that G. lamblia, an early eukaryote, is capable of carrying out Golgi-mediated sorting of proteins to distinct regulated secretory and constitutive lysosomal pathways.

  4. Secretory Carrier Membrane Protein (SCAMP) deficiency influences behavior of adult flies

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, JiaLin C.; Tham, Chook Teng; Keatings, Kathleen; Fan, Steven; Liou, Angela Yen-Chun; Numata, Yuka; Allan, Douglas; Numata, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Secretory Carrier Membrane Proteins (SCAMPs) are a group of tetraspanning integral membrane proteins evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and plants. Mammalian genomes contain five SCAMP genes SCAMP1-SCAMP5 that regulate membrane dynamics, most prominently membrane-depolarization and Ca2+-induced regulated secretion, a key mechanism for neuronal and neuroendocrine signaling. However, the biological role of SCAMPs has remained poorly understood primarily owing to the lack of appropriate model organisms and behavior assays. Here we generate Drosophila Scamp null mutants and show that they exhibit reduced lifespan and behavioral abnormalities including impaired climbing, deficiency in odor associated long-term memory, and a susceptibility to heat-induced seizures. Neuron-specific restoration of Drosophila Scamp rescues all Scamp null behavioral phenotypes, indicating that the phenotypes are due to loss of neuronal Scamp. Remarkably, neuronal expression of human SCAMP genes rescues selected behavioral phenotypes of the mutants, suggesting the conserved function of SCAMPs across species. The newly developed Drosophila mutants present the first evidence that genetic depletion of SCAMP at the organismal level leads to varied behavioral abnormalities, and the obtained results indicate the importance of membrane dynamics in neuronal functions in vivo. PMID:25478561

  5. Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Human Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) Protein from Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiguo; Moy, Allison; Sohal, Kirti; Dam, Carolyn; Kuo, Peter; Ulrich, Beau; Whittaker, James; Whittaker, Mei; Düzgünes, Nejat; Konopka, Kryatyna; Franz, Andreas H.; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P.

    2009-01-01

    The human secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been shown to possess anti-protease, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Its presence in saliva is believed to be a major deterrent to oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1. The 11.7 kD peptide is a secreted, nonglycosylated protein rich in disulfide bonds. Currently, recombinant SLPI is only available as an expensive bacterial expression product. We have investigated the utility of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris to produce and secrete SLPI with C-terminal c-myc and polyhistidine tags. The posttransformational vector amplification protocol was used to isolate strains with increased copy number, and culturing parameters were varied to optimize SLPI expression. Modification of the purification procedure allowed the secreted, recombinant protein to be isolated from the cell-free fermentation medium with cobalt affinity chromatography. This yeast-derived SLPI was shown to have an anti-protease activity comparable to the commercially available bacterial product. Thus, P. pastoris provides an efficient, cost-effective system for producing SLPI for structure function analysis studies as well as a wide array of potential therapeutic applications. PMID:19505578

  6. Secretory pancreatic stone protein messenger RNA. Nucleotide sequence and expression in chronic calcifying pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, D; Bernard, J P; Rouquier, S; Iovanna, J; Sarles, H; Dagorn, J C

    1989-01-01

    The pancreatic stone protein and its secretory form (PSP-S) are inhibitors of CaCO3 crystal growth, possibly involved in the stabilization of pancreatic juice. We have established the structure of PSP-S mRNA and monitored its expression in chronic calcifying pancreatitis (CCP). A cDNA encoding pre-PSP-S has been cloned from a human pancreatic cDNA library. Its nucleotide sequence revealed that it comprised all but the 5' end of PSP-S mRNA, which was obtained by sequencing the first exon of the PSP-S gene. The complete mRNA sequence is 775 nucleotides long, including 5'- and 3'- noncoding regions of 80 and 197 nucleotides, respectively, attached to a poly(A) tail of approximately 125 nucleotides. It encodes a preprotein of 166 amino acids, including a prepeptide of 22 amino acids. No overall sequence homology was found between PSP-S and other pancreatic proteins. Some homology with several serine proteases was observed in the COOH-terminal region, however. The mRNA levels of PSP-S, trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and colipase in CCP and control pancreas were compared. PSP-S mRNA was three times lower in CCP than in control, whereas the others were not altered. It was concluded that PSP-S gene expression is specifically reduced in CCP patients. Images PMID:2525567

  7. A Dynamic Analysis of Secretory Granules Containing Proteins Involved In Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Louis; Simon, Alex; Jacobs, Conor; Fulwiler, Audrey; Hilken, Lindsay; Scalettar, Bethe; Lochner, Janis

    2010-10-01

    Formation and encoding of long-term memories requires a series of structural changes at synapses, or sites of neuronal communication, in the hippocampus; these changes are mediated by neuromodulatory proteins and serve to strengthen synapses to improve communication. Two prominent neuromodulators, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are copackaged into secretory granules (SGs) in the body of nerve cells and are transported to distal synapses by motor proteins. At synapses, particularly presynaptic sites, the fate of tPA and BDNF is largely unknown. Motivated by this, and by recent data implicating presynaptic BDNF in early phases of learning, we used fluorescence microscopy to elucidate dynamic properties of presynaptic tPA and BDNF. We find that presynaptic SGs containing tPA and/or BDNF undergo Brownian and anomalous diffusive motion that, in 75% of cases, is so slow that it typically would be classified as immobility. These results suggest that tPA and BDNF are retained at presynaptic sites to facilitate their corelease and role in learning.

  8. Topology and functional domains of Sec63p, an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein required for secretory protein translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Feldheim, D; Rothblatt, J; Schekman, R

    1992-01-01

    SEC63 encodes a protein required for secretory protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (J. A. Rothblatt, R. J. Deshaies, S. L. Sanders, G. Daum, and R. Schekman, J. Cell Biol. 109:2641-2652, 1989). Antibody directed against a recombinant form of the protein detects a 73-kDa polypeptide which, by immunofluorescence microscopy, is localized to the nuclear envelope-ER network. Cell fractionation and protease protection experiments confirm the prediction that Sec63p is an integral membrane protein. A series of SEC63-SUC2 fusion genes was created to assess the topology of Sec63p within the ER membrane. The largest hybrid proteins are unglycosylated, suggesting that the carboxyl terminus of Sec63p faces the cytosol. Invertase fusion to a loop in Sec63p that is flanked by two putative transmembrane domains produces an extensively glycosylated hybrid protein. This loop, which is homologous to the amino terminus of the Escherichia coli heat shock protein, DnaJ, is likely to face the ER lumen. By analogy to the interaction of the DnaJ and Hsp70-like DnaK proteins in E. coli, the DnaJ loop of Sec63p may recruit luminal Hsp70 (BiP/GRP78/Kar2p) to the translocation apparatus. Mutations in two highly conserved positions of the DnaJ loop and short deletions of the carboxyl terminus inactivate Sec63p activity. Sec63p associates with several other proteins, including Sec61p, a 31.5-kDa glycoprotein, and a 23-kDa protein, and together with these proteins may constitute part of the polypeptide translocation apparatus. A nonfunctional DnaJ domain mutant allele does not interfere with the formation of the Sec63p/Sec61p/gp31.5/p23 complex. Images PMID:1620130

  9. Secretory Pathway-Dependent Localization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rho GTPase-Activating Protein Rgd1p at Growth Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lefèbvre, Fabien; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Hugues, Michel; Crouzet, Marc; Vieillemard, Aurélie; McCusker, Derek; Thoraval, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in eukaryotes depends upon the regulation of Rho GTPases. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP) Rgd1p stimulates the GTPase activities of Rho3p and Rho4p, which are involved in bud growth and cytokinesis, respectively. Consistent with the distribution of Rho3p and Rho4p, Rgd1p is found mostly in areas of polarized growth during cell cycle progression. Rgd1p was mislocalized in mutants specifically altered for Golgi apparatus-based phosphatidylinositol 4-P [PtdIns(4)P] synthesis and for PtdIns(4,5)P2 production at the plasma membrane. Analysis of Rgd1p distribution in different membrane-trafficking mutants suggested that Rgd1p was delivered to growth sites via the secretory pathway. Rgd1p may associate with post-Golgi vesicles by binding to PtdIns(4)P and then be transported by secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane. In agreement, we show that Rgd1p coimmunoprecipitated and localized with markers specific to secretory vesicles and cofractionated with a plasma membrane marker. Moreover, in vivo imaging revealed that Rgd1p was transported in an anterograde manner from the mother cell to the daughter cell in a vectoral manner. Our data indicate that secretory vesicles are involved in the delivery of RhoGAP Rgd1p to the bud tip and bud neck. PMID:22447923

  10. Alpha-latrotoxin modulates the secretory machinery via receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wan, Qunfang; Lin, Xianguang; Zhu, Hongliang; Volynski, Kirill; Ushkaryov, Yuri; Xu, Tao

    2005-09-01

    The hypothesis whether alpha-latrotoxin (LTX) could directly regulate the secretory machinery was tested in pancreatic beta cells using combined techniques of membrane capacitance (Cm) measurement and Ca2+ uncaging. Employing ramp increase in [Ca2+]i to stimulate exocytosis, we found that LTX lowers the Ca2+ threshold required for exocytosis without affecting the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP). The burst component of exocytosis in response to step-like [Ca2+]i increase generated by flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ was also speeded up by LTX treatment. LTX increased the maximum rate of exocytosis compared with control responses with similar postflash [Ca2+]i and shifted the Ca2+ dependence of the exocytotic machinery toward lower Ca2+ concentrations. LTXN4C, a LTX mutant which cannot form membrane pores or penetrate through the plasma membrane but has similar affinity for the receptors as the wild-type LTX, mimicked the effect of LTX. Moreover, the effects of both LTX and LTXN4C) were independent of intracellular or extracellular Ca2+ but required extracellular Mg2+. Our data propose that LTX, by binding to the membrane receptors, sensitizes the fusion machinery to Ca2+ and, hence, may permit release at low [Ca2+]i level. This sensitization is mediated by activation of protein kinase C. PMID:16101679

  11. Cysteine-rich secretory protein-3: a potential biomarker for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kosari, Farhad; Asmann, Yan W; Cheville, John C; Vasmatzis, George

    2002-11-01

    Electronic profiling of publicly available expressed sequence tag databases identified a gene, cysteine-rich secretoryprotein-3 (CRISP-3), that is up-regulated in prostate cancer, and of which the expression is relatively prostate-specific. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of CRISP-3 as a biomarker for prostate cancer. In transient transfection studies, CRISP-3 was found to be a secretory protein. Using a multiple tissue dot blot experiment, CRISP-3 transcript was identified in a limited number of human tissues including the prostate. In situ hybridization experiments indicated that CRISP-3 mRNA is epithelial-specific and is up-regulated in prostate adenocarcinoma compared with benign prostate tissue. CRISP-3 mRNA overexpression in cancer was confirmed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription-PCR using benign prostatic epithelia and adenocarcinoma (in 5 of 5 cases) isolated by laser capture microdissection, as well as bulk tissues (in 20 of 23 cases) from surgically resected human prostates. These findings suggest that CRISP-3 is a potential biomarker for prostate cancer.

  12. Secretory proteins characteristic of environmental changes in cellular signal transduction: Expression in oral fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mednieks, M. I.; Burke, J. C.; Sivakumar, T. P.; Hand, A. R.; Grindeland, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Past studies have shown that both hypo- and hyper-gravity have significant consequences on a variety of tissues and organ systems. It is not known if the effects of environmental stimuli such as altered gravity are beneficial or detrimental, and if the effects can be prevented or reversed. Animal experiments from the Space Lab and Cosmos missions indicate that events that are mediated by cyclic AMP, such as cellular responses to catecholamine and peptide hormone action, are significantly altered in a number of tissues as a consequence of space flight. A secretory cyclic AMP-receptor protein (cARP), is present in saliva, and can serve as an indicator of individual responses to physiologic and environmental stress. Animal experiments have shown that the hypergravity component of space flight is a significant stress factor. In humans, cARP levels in each individual are constant under normal conditions, but elevated after acute stress. Additionally, the levels of cARP in secreted saliva can be compared to those in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), which reflects the protein composition of serum. The ratio of cARP in saliva to that in GCF can be used as a measure of basal compared to hyper-or hypo-gravity values. An ultimate goal is to test hyper and zero G responses in human saliva to determine if cARP is a suitable index of acute and chronic stress. A miniaturized test kit for saliva collection has been designed. Samples can be collected and stored till analyses are carried out that will distinguish the effects of increased gravity from those of one and zero G. Such tests can serve as an individualized monitoring system for physiologic responses either in space or on earth. .

  13. Identification of a cDNA encoding a novel small secretory protein, neurosecretory protein GL, in the chicken hypothalamic infundibulum.

    PubMed

    Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Bessho, Yuki; Maejima, Sho; Masuda, Keiko; Shikano, Kenshiro; Kondo, Kunihiro; Furumitsu, Megumi; Tachibana, Tetsuya

    2014-03-28

    To find novel neuropeptide and/or peptide hormone precursors in the avian brain, we performed a cDNA subtractive screen of the chicken hypothalamic infundibulum, which contains one of the feeding and neuroendocrine centers. After sequencing 596 clones, we identified a novel cDNA encoding a previously unknown protein. The deduced precursor protein consisted of 182 amino acid residues, including one putative small secretory protein of 80 amino acid residues. This small protein was flanked at the N-terminus by a signal peptide and at the C-terminus by a glycine amidation signal and a dibasic amino acid cleavage site. Because the predicted C-terminal amino acids of the small protein were Gly-Leu-NH2, the small protein was named neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated specific expression of the NPGL precursor mRNA in the hypothalamic infundibulum. Furthermore, the mRNA levels in the hypothalamic infundibulum increased during post-hatching development. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the cells containing the NPGL precursor mRNA were localized in the medial mammillary nucleus and infundibular nucleus within the hypothalamic infundibulum of 8- and 15-day-old chicks. Subcutaneous infusion of NPGL in chicks increased body weight gain without affecting food intake. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the identification and localization of the NPGL precursor mRNA and the function of its translated product in animals. Our findings indicate that NPGL may participate in the growth process in chicks.

  14. Predicting Secretory Proteins of Malaria Parasite by Incorporating Sequence Evolution Information into Pseudo Amino Acid Composition via Grey System Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Zhong; Fang, Jian-An; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The malaria disease has become a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. The culprit of the disease is the parasite, which secretes an array of proteins within the host erythrocyte to facilitate its own survival. Accordingly, the secretory proteins of malaria parasite have become a logical target for drug design against malaria. Unfortunately, with the increasing resistance to the drugs thus developed, the situation has become more complicated. To cope with the drug resistance problem, one strategy is to timely identify the secreted proteins by malaria parasite, which can serve as potential drug targets. However, it is both expensive and time-consuming to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite by experiments alone. To expedite the process for developing effective drugs against malaria, a computational predictor called “iSMP-Grey” was developed that can be used to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite based on the protein sequence information alone. During the prediction process a protein sample was formulated with a 60D (dimensional) feature vector formed by incorporating the sequence evolution information into the general form of PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) via a grey system model, which is particularly useful for solving complicated problems that are lack of sufficient information or need to process uncertain information. It was observed by the jackknife test that iSMP-Grey achieved an overall success rate of 94.8%, remarkably higher than those by the existing predictors in this area. As a user-friendly web-server, iSMP-Grey is freely accessible to the public at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iSMP-Grey. Moreover, for the convenience of most experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematical equations involved in this paper. PMID:23189138

  15. Predicting secretory proteins of malaria parasite by incorporating sequence evolution information into pseudo amino acid composition via grey system model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Zhong; Fang, Jian-An; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The malaria disease has become a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. The culprit of the disease is the parasite, which secretes an array of proteins within the host erythrocyte to facilitate its own survival. Accordingly, the secretory proteins of malaria parasite have become a logical target for drug design against malaria. Unfortunately, with the increasing resistance to the drugs thus developed, the situation has become more complicated. To cope with the drug resistance problem, one strategy is to timely identify the secreted proteins by malaria parasite, which can serve as potential drug targets. However, it is both expensive and time-consuming to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite by experiments alone. To expedite the process for developing effective drugs against malaria, a computational predictor called "iSMP-Grey" was developed that can be used to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite based on the protein sequence information alone. During the prediction process a protein sample was formulated with a 60D (dimensional) feature vector formed by incorporating the sequence evolution information into the general form of PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) via a grey system model, which is particularly useful for solving complicated problems that are lack of sufficient information or need to process uncertain information. It was observed by the jackknife test that iSMP-Grey achieved an overall success rate of 94.8%, remarkably higher than those by the existing predictors in this area. As a user-friendly web-server, iSMP-Grey is freely accessible to the public at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iSMP-Grey. Moreover, for the convenience of most experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematical equations involved in this paper.

  16. Two Rab proteins, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP-2) and secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs), are present on immunoisolated parietal cell tubulovesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, B C; Goldenring, J R

    1997-01-01

    The tubulovesicles of gastric parietal cells sequester H+/K+-ATPase molecules within resting parietal cells. Stimulation of parietal cell secretion elicits delivery of intracellular H+/K+-ATPase to the apically oriented secretory canaliculus. Previous investigations have suggested that this process requires the regulated fusion of intracellular tubulovesicles with the canalicular target membrane. We have sought to investigate the presence of critical putative regulators of vesicle fusion on immunoisolated gastric parietal cell tubulovesicles. Highly purified tubulovesicles were prepared by gradient fractionation and immunoisolation on magnetic beads coated with monoclonal antibodies against the alpha subunit of H+/K+-ATPase. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of Rab11, Rab25, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP-2) and secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) on immunoisolated vesicles. The same cohort of proteins was recovered on vesicles immunoisolated with monoclonal antibodies against SCAMPs and VAMP-2. In contrast, whereas immunoreactivities for syntaxin 1A/1B and synaptosome-associated protein (SNAP-25) were present in gradient-isolated vesicles, none of the immunoreactivity was associated with immunoisolated vesicles. The observation of VAMP-2 and two Rab proteins on immunoisolated H+/K+-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles supports the role for tubulovesicles in a regulated vesicle fusion process. In addition, the presence of SCAMPs along with Rab11 and Rab25 implicates the tubulovesicles as a critical apical recycling vesicle population. PMID:9230141

  17. A Type II Protein Secretory Pathway Required for Levansucrase Secretion by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Juan G.; Sotolongo, Mailin; Menéndez, Carmen; Alfonso, Dubiel; Trujillo, Luis E.; Soto, Melvis; Ramírez, Ricardo; Hernández, Lázaro

    2004-01-01

    The endophytic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus secretes a constitutively expressed levansucrase (LsdA, EC 2.4.1.10) to utilize plant sucrose. LsdA, unlike other extracellular levansucrases from gram-negative bacteria, is transported to the periplasm by a signal-peptide-dependent pathway. We identified an unusually organized gene cluster encoding at least the components LsdG, -O, -E, -F, -H, -I, -J, -L, -M, -N, and -D of a type II secretory system required for LsdA translocation across the outer membrane. Another open reading frame, designated lsdX, is located between the operon promoter and lsdG, but it was not identified in BLASTX searches of the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases. The lsdX, -G, and -O genes were isolated from a cosmid library of strain SRT4 by complementation of an ethyl methanesulfonate mutant unable to transport LsdA across the outer membrane. The downstream genes lsdE, -F, -H, -I, -J, -L, -M, -N, and -D were isolated through chromosomal walking. The high G+C content (64 to 74%) and the codon usage of the genes identified are consistent with the G+C content and codon usage of the standard G. diazotrophicus structural gene. Sequence analysis of the gene cluster indicated that a polycistronic transcript is synthesized. Targeted disruption of lsdG, lsdO, or lsdF blocked LsdA secretion, and the bacterium failed to grow on sucrose. Replacement of Cys162 by Gly at the C terminus of the pseudopilin LsdG abolished the protein functionality, suggesting that there is a relationship with type IV pilins. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed conservation of the type II secretion operon downstream of the levansucrase-levanase (lsdA-lsdB) locus in 14 G. diazotrophicus strains representing 11 genotypes recovered from four different host plants in diverse geographical regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a type II pathway for protein secretion in the Acetobacteraceae. PMID:15262940

  18. Secretory pathway retention of mutant prion protein induces p38-MAPK activation and lethal disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Berta; Altmeppen, Hermann C.; Ulbrich, Sarah; Linsenmeier, Luise; Krasemann, Susanne; Chakroun, Karima; Acevedo-Morantes, Claudia Y.; Wille, Holger; Tatzelt, Jörg; Glatzel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding of proteins in the biosynthetic pathway in neurons may cause disturbed protein homeostasis and neurodegeneration. The prion protein (PrPC) is a GPI-anchored protein that resides at the plasma membrane and may be misfolded to PrPSc leading to prion diseases. We show that a deletion in the C-terminal domain of PrPC (PrPΔ214–229) leads to partial retention in the secretory pathway causing a fatal neurodegenerative disease in mice that is partially rescued by co-expression of PrPC. Transgenic (Tg(PrPΔ214–229)) mice show extensive neuronal loss in hippocampus and cerebellum and activation of p38-MAPK. In cell culture under stress conditions, PrPΔ214–229 accumulates in the Golgi apparatus possibly representing transit to the Rapid ER Stress-induced ExporT (RESET) pathway together with p38-MAPK activation. Here we describe a novel pathway linking retention of a GPI-anchored protein in the early secretory pathway to p38-MAPK activation and a neurodegenerative phenotype in transgenic mice. PMID:27117504

  19. The Secretory Pathway Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Sreelatha, Anju; Kinch, Lisa N.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a nearly universal post-translation modification involved in a plethora of cellular events. Even though phosphorylation of extracellular proteins had been observed, the identity of the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins remained a mystery until recently. Advances in genome sequencing and genetic studies have paved the way for the discovery of a new class of kinases that localize within the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the extracellular space. These novel kinases phosphorylate proteins and proteoglycans in the secretory pathway and appear to regulate various extracellular processes. Mutations in these kinases cause human disease, thus underscoring the biological importance of phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. PMID:25862977

  20. Perturbations in maturation of secretory proteins and their association with endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in a cell culture model for epithelial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, G; Bush, K T; Zhang, P L; Nigam, S K

    1996-01-01

    The effects of ischemia on the maturation of secretory proteins are not well understood. Among several events that occur during ischemia-reperfusion are a rapid and extensive decrease in ATP levels and an alteration of cellular oxidative state. Since the normal folding and assembly of secretory proteins are mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones, the function of which depends on ATP and maintenance of an appropriate redox environment, ischemia might be expected to perturb folding of secretory proteins. In this study, whole animal and cultured cell models for the epithelial ischemic state were used to examine this possibility. After acute kidney ischemia, marked increases in the mRNA levels of the ER chaperones glucose-regulated protein (grp)78/immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP), grp94, and ER protein (ERp)72 were noted. Likewise, when cellular ATP was depleted to less than 10% of control with antimycin A, mRNA levels of BiP, ERp72, and grp94 were increased in kidney and thyroid epithelial cell culture models. Since the signal for the up-regulation of these stress proteins is believed to be the accumulation of misfolded/misassembled secretory proteins in the ER, their induction after ischemia in vivo and antimycin treatment of cultured cells suggests that maturation of secretory proteins in the ER lumen might indeed be perturbed. To analyze the effects of antimycin A on the maturation of secretory proteins, we studied the fate of thyroglobulin (Tg), a large oligomeric secretory glycoprotein, the folding and assembly of which seems to require a variety of ER chaperones. Treatment of cultured thyroid epithelial cells with antimycin A greatly inhibited ( > 90%) the secretion of Tg. Sucrose density gradient analysis revealed that in antimycin A-treated cells Tg associates into large macromolecular complexes which, by immunofluorescence, appeared to localize to the ER. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation studies after antimycin A treatment

  1. Four distinct secretory pathways serve protein secretion, cell surface growth, and peroxisome biogenesis in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Titorenko, V I; Ogrydziak, D M; Rachubinski, R A

    1997-01-01

    We have identified and characterized mutants of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica that are deficient in protein secretion, in the ability to undergo dimorphic transition from the yeast to the mycelial form, and in peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, PEX2, PEX6, and PEX9 genes affect protein secretion, prevent the exit of the precursor form of alkaline extracellular protease from the endoplasmic reticulum, and compromise peroxisome biogenesis. The mutants sec238A, srp54KO, pex2KO, pex6KO, and pex9KO are also deficient in the dimorphic transition from the yeast to the mycelial form and are affected in the export of only plasma membrane and cell wall-associated proteins specific for the mycelial form. Mutations in the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, and PEX6 genes prevent or significantly delay the exit of two peroxisomal membrane proteins, Pex2p and Pex16p, from the endoplasmic reticulum en route to the peroxisomal membrane. Mutations in the PEX5, PEX16, and PEX17 genes, which have previously been shown to be essential for peroxisome biogenesis, affect the export of plasma membrane and cell wall-associated proteins specific for the mycelial form but do not impair exit from the endoplasmic reticulum of either Pex2p and Pex16p or of proteins destined for secretion. Biochemical analyses of these mutants provide evidence for the existence of four distinct secretory pathways that serve to deliver proteins for secretion, plasma membrane and cell wall synthesis during yeast and mycelial modes of growth, and peroxisome biogenesis. At least two of these secretory pathways, which are involved in the export of proteins to the external medium and in the delivery of proteins for assembly of the peroxisomal membrane, diverge at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:9271399

  2. Primary structure of bovine pituitary secretory protein I (chromogranin A) deduced from the cDNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, T.G.; Cohn, D.V.; Gorr, S.U.; Ornstein, D.L.; Kashdan, M.A.; Levine, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    Secretory protein I (SP-I), also referred to as chromogranin A, is an acidic glycoprotein that has been found in every tissue of endocrine and neuroendocrine origin examined but never in exocrine or epithelial cells. Its co-storage and co-secretion with peptide hormones and neurotransmitters suggest that it has an important endocrine or secretory function. The authors have isolated cDNA clones from a bovine pituitary lambdagt11 expression library using an antiserum to parathyroid SP-I. The largest clone (SP4B) hybridized to a transcript of 2.1 kilobases in RNA from parathyroid, pituitary, and adrenal medulla. Immunoblots of bacterial lysates derived from SP4B lysognes demonstrated specific antibody binding to an SP4B/..beta..-galactosidase fusion protein (160 kDa) with a cDNA-derived component of 46 kDa. Radioimmunoassay of the bacterial lystates with SP-I antiserum yielded parallel displacement curves of /sup 125/I-labeled SP-I by the SP4B lysate and authentic SP-I. SP4B contains a cDNA of 1614 nucleotides that encodes a 449-amino acid protein (calculated mass, 50 kDa). The nucleotide sequences of the pituitary SP-I cDNA and adrenal medullary SP-I cDNAs are nearly identical. Analysis of genomic DNA suggests that pituitary, adrenal, and parathyroid SP-I are products of the same gene.

  3. Niemann-Pick C1 protein transports copper to the secretory compartment from late endosomes where ATP7B resides.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Chikatoshi; Harada, Masaru; Kumemura, Hiroto; Koga, Hironori; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Terada, Kunihiko; Hanada, Shinichiro; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Koizumi, Yukio; Koyota, Souichi; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Ueno, Takato; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Sata, Michio

    2009-01-15

    Wilson disease is a genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of copper in the body by defective biliary copper excretion. Wilson disease gene product (ATP7B) functions in copper incorporation to ceruloplasmin (Cp) and biliary copper excretion. However, copper metabolism in hepatocytes has been still unclear. Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a lipid storage disorder and the most commonly mutated gene is NPC1 and its gene product NPC1 is a late endosome protein and regulates intracellular vesicle traffic. In the present study, we induced NPC phenotype and examined the localization of ATP7B and secretion of holo-Cp, a copper-binding mature form of Cp. The vesicle traffic was modulated using U18666A, which induces NPC phenotype, and knock down of NPC1 by RNA interference. ATP7B colocalized with the late endosome markers, but not with the trans-Golgi network markers. U18666A and NPC1 knock down decreased holo-Cp secretion to culture medium, but did not affect the secretion of other secretory proteins. Copper accumulated in the cells after the treatment with U18666A. These findings suggest that ATP7B localizes in the late endosomes and that copper in the late endosomes is transported to the secretory compartment via NPC1-dependent pathway and incorporated into apo-Cp to form holo-Cp.

  4. Studies on intracellular transport of secretory proteins in the rat exocrine pancreas. II. Inhibition of antimicrotubular agents.

    PubMed

    Seybold, J; Bieger, W; Kern, H F

    1975-11-28

    The possible role of microtubules and microfilaments in the secretory process of the rat exocrine pancreas was analysed in vitro using isolated pancreatic lobules. Colchicine and vinblastine as microtubule inhibitors, hexylene glycol as a microtubule stabilizer, and cytochalasin B as a disruptive agent for microfilaments were used in increasing concentrations to test their effects on protein synthesis, intracellular transport, zymogen discharge, and cellular respiration. Colchicine only at 10(-2) M concentrations inhibits protein synthesis, while vinblastine inhibits at 10(-6) and 10(-5) M by 20% and at 10(-4) M by 55%. A similar inhibition is observed with 1.5% concentrations of hexylene glycol while cytochalasine B at 1,5 and 10 mug/ml is without effect on protein synthesis. Colchicine and vinblastine have their major effects on intracellular transport both in secretion studies and cell fractionation experiments. Colchicine in concentrations between 10(-3) to 10(-5) M inhibits discharge of newly synthesized proteins by 50%, while vinblastine shows a dose-response relationship of 40% inhibition of 10(-6) M to 90% at 10(-4) M. Discharge of amylase is uniformly reduced by 30% by both colchicine and vinblastine in the whole dose range. The pronounced effect of colchicine and vinblastine is evident in cell fractionation studies: both drugs inhibit the disappearance of protein radioactivity from microsomes and its appearance in zymogen granules; similarly the peak radioactivity in smooth microsomes (Golgi) appears delayed. No differential effect on the secretory process was observed with 1.5% concentrations of hexylene glycol or cytochalasin B at 1.5 and 10 mug/ml concentrations. A fines tructural analysis of microtubules and microfilaments in the exocrine pancreatic cell reveals their distribution in all parts of the cytoplasm and in relation to all cell organelles. Both systems (microtubules, microfilaments) seem to be connected, at least in certain areas of the

  5. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  6. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-05-19

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest.

  7. CELLULAR AND SECRETORY PROTEINS OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF SCIARA COPROPHILA DURING THE LARVAL-PUPAL TRANSFORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Been, Anita C.; Rasch, Ellen M.

    1972-01-01

    The cellular and secretory proteins of the salivary gland of Sciara coprophila during the stages of the larval-pupal transformation were examined by electrophoresis in 0.6 mm sheets of polyacrylamide gel with both SDS-continuous and discontinuous buffer systems. After SDS-electrophoresis, all electrophoretograms of both reduced and nonreduced proteins from single glands stained with Coomassie brilliant blue revealed a pattern containing the same 25 bands during the stages of the larval-pupal transformation. With the staining procedures used in this study, qualitative increases and decreases were detected in existing proteins and enzymes. There was no evidence, however, for the appearance of new protein species that could be correlated with the onset of either pupation or gland histolysis. Electrophoretograms of reduced samples of anterior versus posterior gland parts indicated that no protein in the basic pattern of 25 bands was unique to either the anterior or posterior gland part. Electrophoretograms of reduced samples of secretion collected from either actively feeding or "cocoon"-building animals showed an electrophoretic pattern containing up to six of the 25 protein fractions detected in salivary gland samples, with varied amounts of these same six proteins in electrophoretograms of secretion samples from a given stage. Zymograms of non-specific esterases in salivary gland samples revealed a progressive increase in the amount of esterase reaction produce in one major band and some decrease in the second major band during later stages of the larval-pupal transformation. PMID:4116523

  8. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Plopper, C.G. . E-mail: cgplopper@ucdavis.edu; Mango, G.W.; Hatch, G.E.; Wong, V.J.; Toskala, E.; Reynolds, S.D.; Tarkington, B.K.; Stripp, B.R.

    2006-05-15

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined.

  9. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein.

    PubMed

    Plopper, C G; Mango, G W; Hatch, G E; Wong, V J; Toskala, E; Reynolds, S D; Tarkington, B K; Stripp, B R

    2006-05-15

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O3). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined.

  10. Construction of a novel twin-arginine translocation (Tat)-dependent type expression vector for secretory production of heterologous proteins in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lirong; Jia, Huimin; Xu, Daqing

    2015-11-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is recognized as a favorable host for the secretory production of heterologous proteins. However, there are few secretion-type expression vectors available for protein production in C. glutamicum. In this study, we constructed a shuttle expression vector pAU3, which harbors the strong promoter tac-M for constitutive gene transcription, the consensus RBS sequence for protein translation, and the strong cgR_0949 signal sequence for protein secretion via the Tat pathway in C. glutamicum. The applicability of pAU3 was confirmed by the highly efficient expression and secretion of the CAT protein in C. glutamicum. The vector pAU3 is highly useful for secretory production of heterologous proteins in C. glutamicum.

  11. A computational method for prediction of saliva-secretory proteins and its application to identification of head and neck cancer biomarkers for salivary diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Du, Wei; Zhou, Chunguang; Zhou, You; Cao, Zhongbo; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Human saliva is rich in proteins, which have been used for disease detection such as oral diseases and systematic diseases. In this paper, we present a computational method for predicting secretory proteins in human saliva based on two sets of human proteins from published literatures and public databases. One set contains known proteins which can be secreted into saliva, and the other contains the proteins that are deemed to be not extracellular secretion. The protein features with discerning power between two sets were firstly gathered. Then a classifier was trained based on the identified features to predict whether a protein was saliva-secretory one or not. The average values of the sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy, and Matthews correlation coefficient value by 10-fold cross validation repeated 100 times were 80.67%, 90.56%, 90.09%, 85.53%, and 0.7168, respectively. These results indicated that our selected features are informative. We applied the classifier for prediction saliva-secretory proteins out of all human proteins, if a known biomarker was likely to enter into saliva, and the potential salivary biomarkers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We also compared the top 1000 proteins predicted by computational methods in different kind of fluids. This work provided a useful tool for effectively identifying the salivary biomarkers for various human diseases and facilitate the development of salivary diagnosis.

  12. Storage and degradation of secretory proteins in adenomatous and secondary hyperplastic parathyroid cells. An immunoelectron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Berger, G; Berger, F; Billard, F; Danowski, J; Vauzelle, J L

    1989-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and chromogranin A/secretory protein-I (SP-I) have been localized on immunoelectron microscopy in double-fixed tissues from adenomatous and secondary hyperplastic parathyroid glands. Storage organelles, identified on the basis of their consistent labelling, included tow morphologically distinct varieties of granules/vesicles; the mature granules and the progranules. The former consisted of dense, mostly rounded, medium to large-sized bodies which were strongly labelled and predominant in the proximity of the cell membrane. The other variety of body included a spectrum of small pale vesicles/granules which were mainly located in the Golgi area. Because their morphology and their labelling pattern varied other bodies were assumed to be engaged in degradation or cleavage of the secretory proteins. These bodies comprised crinophagic structures, that is to say multivesicular bodies and large Golgi-related vesicles, as well as a number of atypical solid bodies. Whereas most of the granulated cells stored a mature or a maturing population of vesicles/granules, the process of maturation appeared to be either absent or incomplete in a number of cells from some glands. The major defects were frequently associated with an unusual labelling pattern of the Golgi area and selectively affected groups of cells from all the transitional oxyphil cell adenomas. The minor defects concerned individual cells of different types present in both categories of glands. The present data suggest that in hyperfunctioning glands, the type of hormone processing depends on the capacity of each cell in progranule maturation and that the maturation capacity may decrease dramatically in adenomatous or chronically hyperstimulated cells of the transitional oxyphil type. PMID:2505443

  13. Identification of Regulatory and Cargo Proteins of Endosomal and Secretory Pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana by Proteomic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Heard, William; Sklenář, Jan; Tomé, Daniel F A; Robatzek, Silke; Jones, Alexandra M E

    2015-07-01

    The cell's endomembranes comprise an intricate, highly dynamic and well-organized system. In plants, the proteins that regulate function of the various endomembrane compartments and their cargo remain largely unknown. Our aim was to dissect subcellular trafficking routes by enriching for partially overlapping subpopulations of endosomal proteomes associated with endomembrane markers. We selected RABD2a/ARA5, RABF2b/ARA7, RABF1/ARA6, and RABG3f as markers for combinations of the Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), early endosomes (EE), secretory vesicles, late endosomes (LE), multivesicular bodies (MVB), and the tonoplast. As comparisons we used Golgi transport 1 (GOT1), which localizes to the Golgi, clathrin light chain 2 (CLC2) labeling clathrin-coated vesicles and pits and the vesicle-associated membrane protein 711 (VAMP711) present at the tonoplast. We developed an easy-to-use method by refining published protocols based on affinity purification of fluorescent fusion constructs to these seven subcellular marker proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We present a total of 433 proteins, only five of which were shared among all enrichments, while many proteins were common between endomembrane compartments of the same trafficking route. Approximately half, 251 proteins, were assigned to one enrichment only. Our dataset contains known regulators of endosome functions including small GTPases, SNAREs, and tethering complexes. We identify known cargo proteins such as PIN3, PEN3, CESA, and the recently defined TPLATE complex. The subcellular localization of two GTPase regulators predicted from our enrichments was validated using live-cell imaging. This is the first proteomic dataset to discriminate between such highly overlapping endomembrane compartments in plants and can be used as a general proteomic resource to predict the localization of proteins and identify the components of regulatory complexes and provides a useful tool for the identification of new protein

  14. Identification of Regulatory and Cargo Proteins of Endosomal and Secretory Pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana by Proteomic Dissection*

    PubMed Central

    Heard, William; Sklenář, Jan; Tomé, Daniel F. A.; Robatzek, Silke; Jones, Alexandra M. E.

    2015-01-01

    The cell's endomembranes comprise an intricate, highly dynamic and well-organized system. In plants, the proteins that regulate function of the various endomembrane compartments and their cargo remain largely unknown. Our aim was to dissect subcellular trafficking routes by enriching for partially overlapping subpopulations of endosomal proteomes associated with endomembrane markers. We selected RABD2a/ARA5, RABF2b/ARA7, RABF1/ARA6, and RABG3f as markers for combinations of the Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), early endosomes (EE), secretory vesicles, late endosomes (LE), multivesicular bodies (MVB), and the tonoplast. As comparisons we used Golgi transport 1 (GOT1), which localizes to the Golgi, clathrin light chain 2 (CLC2) labeling clathrin-coated vesicles and pits and the vesicle-associated membrane protein 711 (VAMP711) present at the tonoplast. We developed an easy-to-use method by refining published protocols based on affinity purification of fluorescent fusion constructs to these seven subcellular marker proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We present a total of 433 proteins, only five of which were shared among all enrichments, while many proteins were common between endomembrane compartments of the same trafficking route. Approximately half, 251 proteins, were assigned to one enrichment only. Our dataset contains known regulators of endosome functions including small GTPases, SNAREs, and tethering complexes. We identify known cargo proteins such as PIN3, PEN3, CESA, and the recently defined TPLATE complex. The subcellular localization of two GTPase regulators predicted from our enrichments was validated using live-cell imaging. This is the first proteomic dataset to discriminate between such highly overlapping endomembrane compartments in plants and can be used as a general proteomic resource to predict the localization of proteins and identify the components of regulatory complexes and provides a useful tool for the identification of new protein

  15. iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of excretory-secretory proteins of schistosomula and adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaodan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Min; Han, Yanhui; Han, Hongxiao; Han, Qian; Lu, Ke; Hong, Yang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-04-14

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide. The schistosomulum and adult worm are two stages of the complex lifecycle of Schistosoma japonicum and excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) play a major role in host-parasite interactions. In this study, iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the proteome of ESPs obtained from schistosomula and adult worms of S. japonicum, and 298 differential ESPs were identified. Bioinformatics analysis of differential ESPs in the two developmental stages showed that 161 ESPs upregulated in schistosomula were associated with stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism and protein degradation, whereas ESPs upregulated in adult worms were mainly related to immunoregulation and purine metabolism. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), two differential proteins identified in this study, were expressed. Further studies showed that rSjHSP70 and rSjTPx stimulated macrophages expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory factors TGF-β, IL-10 and Arg-1, and suppressed the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS in LPS-induced macrophages. This study provides new insights into the survival and development of schistosomes in the final host and helps identify vaccine candidates or new diagnostic reagents for schistosomiasis.

  16. Protein domain of unknown function 3233 is a translocation domain of autotransporter secretory mechanism in gamma proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ananth; Yogeeshwari, S; Sircar, Sanchari; Agrawal, Shipra

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the enteropathogenic gram negative bacteria is one of the main causative agents of waterborne diseases like cholera. About 1/3(rd) of the organism's genome is uncharacterised with many protein coding genes lacking structure and functional information. These proteins form significant fraction of the genome and are crucial in understanding the organism's complete functional makeup. In this study we report the general structure and function of a family of hypothetical proteins, Domain of Unknown Function 3233 (DUF3233), which are conserved across gram negative gammaproteobacteria (especially in Vibrio sp. and similar bacteria). Profile and HMM based sequence search methods were used to screen homologues of DUF3233. The I-TASSER fold recognition method was used to build a three dimensional structural model of the domain. The structure resembles the transmembrane beta-barrel with an axial N-terminal helix and twelve antiparallel beta-strands. Using a combination of amphipathy and discrimination analysis we analysed the potential transmembrane beta-barrel forming properties of DUF3233. Sequence, structure and phylogenetic analysis of DUF3233 indicates that this gram negative bacterial hypothetical protein resembles the beta-barrel translocation unit of autotransporter Va secretory mechanism with a gene organisation that differs from the conventional Va system. PMID:22073138

  17. A single gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residue in a novel cysteine-rich secretory protein without propeptide.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Karin; Thämlitz, Ann-Marie; Furie, Bruce; Furie, Barbara C; Stenflo, Johan

    2006-10-24

    Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase catalyzes the modification of specific glutamyl residues to gamma-carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues in precursor proteins that possess the appropriate gamma-carboxylation recognition signal within the propeptide region. We describe the immunopurification and first biochemical characterization of an invertebrate high molecular weight Gla-containing protein with homologues in mammals. The protein, named GlaCrisp, was isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail Conus marmoreus. GlaCrisp gave intense signals in Western blot experiments employing the Gla-specific antibody M3B, and the presence of Gla was chemically confirmed by amino acid analysis after alkaline hydrolysis. Characterization of a full-length cDNA clone encoding GlaCrisp deduced a precursor containing an N-terminal signal peptide but, unlike other Gla-containing proteins, no apparent propeptide. The predicted mature protein of 265 amino acid residues showed considerable sequence similarity to the widely distributed cysteine-rich secretory protein family and closest similarity (65% identity) to the recently described substrate-specific protease Tex31. In addition, two cDNA clones encoding the precursors of two isoforms of GlaCrisp were identified. The predicted precursor isoforms differed at three amino acid positions (-6, 9, and 25). Analysis by Edman degradation and nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry, before and after methyl esterfication, identified a Gla residue at amino acid position 9 in GlaCrisp. This is the first example of a Gla-containing protein without an obvious gamma-carboxylation recognition site. The results define a new class of Gla proteins and support the notion that gamma-carboxylation of glutamyl residues is phylogenetically older than blood coagulation and the vertebrate lineage.

  18. A Systematic Proteomic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes House-keeping Protein Secretion Systems*

    PubMed Central

    Halbedel, Sven; Reiss, Swantje; Hahn, Birgit; Albrecht, Dirk; Mannala, Gopala Krishna; Chakraborty, Trinad; Hain, Torsten; Engelmann, Susanne; Flieger, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a firmicute bacterium causing serious infections in humans upon consumption of contaminated food. Most of its virulence factors are secretory proteins either released to the medium or attached to the bacterial surface. L. monocytogenes encodes at least six different protein secretion pathways. Although great efforts have been made in the past to predict secretory proteins and their secretion routes using bioinformatics, experimental evidence is lacking for most secretion systems. Therefore, we constructed mutants in the main housekeeping protein secretion systems, which are the Sec-dependent transport, the YidC membrane insertases SpoIIIJ and YqjG, as well as the twin-arginine pathway, and analyzed their secretion and virulence defects. Our results demonstrate that Sec-dependent secretion and membrane insertion of proteins via YidC proteins are essential for viability of L. monocytogenes. Depletion of SecA or YidC activity severely affected protein secretion, whereas loss of the Tat-pathway was without any effect on secretion, viability, and virulence. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with protein identification by mass spectrometry revealed that secretion of many virulence factors and of enzymes synthesizing and degrading the cell wall depends on the SecA route. This finding was confirmed by SecA inhibition experiments using sodium azide. Analysis of secretion of substrates typically dependent on the accessory SecA2 ATPase in wild type and azide resistant mutants of L. monocytogenes revealed for the first time that SecA2-dependent protein secretion also requires the ATPase activity of the house-keeping SecA protein. PMID:25056936

  19. Immunocytochemical localization of secretory phospholipase A(2)-like protein in the pituitary gland and surrounding tissue of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Y; Kikuyama, S; Hayashi, H; Hanaoka, Y; Sakai, M; Tanaka, S

    2001-05-01

    Previously, we obtained a protein that has considerable amino acid sequence homology with secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from a bullfrog pituitary fraction obtained during the purification of thyrotropin (TSH). Subsequently, partial amino acid sequence (N-terminal 45 amino acid residues) analysis revealed this protein to be identical to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of otoconin-22, the major protein of aragonitic otoconia in the Xenopus saccule. In this study we developed an antibody against the N-terminal peptide of the bullfrog protein and applied it for immunocytochemical study of the pituitary and its surrounding tissue. Western blotting analysis showed that this antibody recognizes a 20.4-kD protein that has a molecular mass close to that of otoconin-22. Immunohistochemical reaction with the antibody was not found in any anterior pituitary cells but was intense in the monolayer epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac surrounding the pituitary gland, which is a major storage site of calcium carbonate in amphibians. An electron microscopic study revealed that the cuboidal cells in the endolymphatic sac contained large, polymorphic secretory granules in their apical cytoplasm. Immunogold particles indicating the presence of a PLA(2)-like protein were observed predominately in these secretory granules. These findings support the view that this PLA(2)-like protein obtained during purification of TSH was derived from the endolymphatic sac adhering to the pituitary and that this protein is a bullfrog otoconin. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:631-637, 2001) PMID:11304801

  20. Brugia malayi soluble and excretory-secretory proteins attenuate development of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Amdare, N; Khatri, V; Yadav, R S P; Tarnekar, A; Goswami, K; Reddy, M V R

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the modulation of the host-immune system by pathogens-like filarial parasites offers an alternate approach to prevent autoimmune diseases. In this study, we have shown that treatment with filarial proteins prior to or after the clinical onset of streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetes (T1D) can ameliorate the severity of disease in BALB/c mice. Pre-treatment with Brugia malayi adult soluble (Bm A S) or microfilarial excretory-secretory (Bm mf ES) or microfilarial soluble (Bm mf S) antigens followed by induction of diabetes led to lowering of fasting blood glucose levels with as many as 57.5-62.5% of mice remaining nondiabetic. These proteins were more effective when they were used to treat the mice with established T1D as 62.5-71.5% of the mice turned to be nondiabetic. Histopathological examination of pancreas of treated mice showed minor inflammatory changes in pancreatic islet cell architecture. The therapeutic effect was found to be associated with the decreased production of cytokines TNF-α & IFN-γ and increased production of IL-10 in the culture supernatants of splenocytes of treated mice. A switch in the production of anti-insulin antibodies from IgG2a to IgG1 isotype was also seen. Together these results provide a proof towards utilizing the filarial derived proteins as novel anti-diabetic therapeutics.

  1. Elevated intracellular calcium concentration increases secretory processing of the amyloid precursor protein by a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Petryniak, M A; Wurtman, R J; Slack, B E

    1996-01-01

    Secretory cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a process that releases soluble APP derivatives (APPs) into the extracellular space, is stimulated by the activation of muscarinic receptors coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The signalling pathways involved in the release process exhibit both protein kinase C- and protein tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent components [Slack, Breu, Petryniak, Srivastava and Wurtman (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 8337-8344]. The possibility that elevations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration initiate the tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent release of APPs was examined in human embryonic kidney cells expressing muscarinic m3 receptors. Inhibition of protein kinase C with the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X decreased the carbachol-evoked release of APPs by approx. 30%, as shown previously. The residual response was further decreased, in an additive manner, by the Ca2+ chelator EGTA, or by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin A25. The Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin, like carbachol, stimulated both the release of APPs and the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, one of which was identified as paxillin, a component of focal adhesions. The effects of ionomycin on APPs release and on protein tyrosine phosphorylation were concentration-dependent, and occurred over similar concentration ranges; both effects were inhibited only partly by GF 109203X, but were abolished by EGTA or by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The results demonstrate for the first time that ionophore-induced elevations in intracellular Ca2+ levels elicit APPs release via increased tyrosine phosphorylation. Part of the increase in APPs release evoked by muscarinic receptor activation might be attributable to a similar mechanism. PMID:9003386

  2. Characterization of the DMAE-modified juvenile excretory-secretory protein Juv-p120 of Litomosoides sigmodontis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ulrike; Hirzmann, Jörg; Hintz, Martin; Beck, Ewald; Geyer, Rudolf; Hobom, Gerd; Taubert, Anja; Zahner, Horst

    2011-04-01

    Juv-p120 is an excretory-secretory 160 kDa glycoprotein of juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis and exhibits features typical for mucins. 50% of its molecular mass is attributed to posttranslational modifications with the unusual substituent dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE). By that Juv-p120 corresponds to the surface proteins of the microfilarial sheath, Shp3 and Shp3a. The secreted protein consists of 697 amino acids, organized in two different domains of repeat elements separated by a stretch of polar residues. The N-terminal domain shows fourteen P/S/T/F-rich repeat elements highly modified with phospho-DMAE substituted O-glycans confering a negative charge to the protein. The C-terminal domain is extremely rich in glutamine (35%) and leucine (25%) in less organized repeats and may play a role in oligomerization of Juv-p120 monomers. A protein family with a similar Q/L-rich region and conserved core promoter region was identified in Brugia malayi by homology screening and in Wuchereria bancrofti and Loa loa by database similarity search. One of the Q/L-rich proteins in each genus has an extended S/T-rich region and due to this feature is supposed to be a putative Juv-p120 ortholog. The corresponding modification of Juv-p120 and the microfilarial sheath surface antigens Shp3/3a explains the appearance of anti-sheath antibodies before the release of microfilariae. The function of Juv-p120 is unknown. PMID:21241743

  3. Secretory Expression and Purification of Respiratory Syncytial Virus G and F Proteins in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhao, Samadhan J; Anderson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of range of symptoms from mild upper to serious lower respiratory virus infections in infants, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly. Despite many decades of research and development, a licensed RSV vaccine is not available for use in human. Since the RSV F and G proteins induce neutralizing antibodies and confer protection from infection, they are important for understanding disease and for developing vaccines and access to purified, expressed proteins is important to RSV research and diagnostics. We describe methods to produce recombinant RSV F and G proteins in human cells and purify these proteins using Ni Sepharose affinity chromatography. PMID:27464687

  4. Neurally expressed Drosophila genes encoding homologs of the NSF and SNAP secretory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, R W; Pallanck, L; Ganetzky, B

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have now converged to indicate that the neurotransmitter release apparatus is formed by assembly of cytosolic proteins with proteins of the synaptic vesicle and presynaptic terminal membranes. We are undertaking a genetic approach in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the functions of two types of cytosolic proteins thought to function in this complex: N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and the soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs). We have identified Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate and yeast NSF and SNAP genes. Both Drosophila genes encode polypeptides that closely resemble their vertebrate counterparts and are expressed in the nervous system; neither appears to be in a family of closely related Drosophila genes. These results indicate that the Drosophila NSF and SNAP genes are excellent candidates for mutational analysis of neurotransmitter release. Images PMID:8202553

  5. Crovirin, a Snake Venom Cysteine-Rich Secretory Protein (CRISP) with Promising Activity against Trypanosomes and Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Adade, Camila M.; Carvalho, Ana Lúcia O.; Tomaz, Marcelo A.; Costa, Tatiana F. R.; Godinho, Joseane L.; Melo, Paulo A.; Lima, Ana Paula C. A.; Rodrigues, Juliany C. F.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2014-01-01

    Background The neglected human diseases caused by trypanosomatids are currently treated with toxic therapy with limited efficacy. In search for novel anti-trypanosomatid agents, we showed previously that the Crotalus viridis viridis (Cvv) snake venom was active against infective forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we describe the purification of crovirin, a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) from Cvv venom with promising activity against trypanosomes and Leishmania. Methodology/Principal Findings Crude venom extract was loaded onto a reverse phase analytical (C8) column using a high performance liquid chromatographer. A linear gradient of water/acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was used. The peak containing the isolated protein (confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry) was collected and its protein content was measured. T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, L. amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes and T. brucei rhodesiense procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes were challenged with crovirin, whose toxicity was tested against LLC-MK2 cells, peritoneal macrophages and isolated murine extensor digitorum longus muscle. We purified a single protein from Cvv venom corresponding, according to Nano-LC MS/MS sequencing, to a CRISP of 24,893.64 Da, henceforth referred to as crovirin. Human infective trypanosomatid forms, including intracellular amastigotes, were sensitive to crovirin, with low IC50 or LD50 values (1.10–2.38 µg/ml). A considerably higher concentration (20 µg/ml) of crovirin was required to elicit only limited toxicity on mammalian cells. Conclusions This is the first report of CRISP anti-protozoal activity, and suggests that other members of this family might have potential as drugs or drug leads for the development of novel agents against trypanosomatid-borne neglected diseases. PMID:25330220

  6. Dense core secretory vesicles revealed as a dynamic Ca2+ store in neuroendocrine cells with a vesicle-associated membrane protein aequorin chimaera

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kathryn J.; Pinton, Paolo; Varadi, Aniko; Tacchetti, Carlo; Ainscow, Edward K.; Pozzan, Tullio; Rizzuto, Rosario; Rutter, Guy A.

    2001-01-01

    The role of dense core secretory vesicles in the control of cytosolic-free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]c) in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells is enigmatic. By constructing a vesicle-associated membrane protein 2–synaptobrevin.aequorin chimera, we show that in clonal pancreatic islet β-cells: (a) increases in [Ca2+]c cause a prompt increase in intravesicular-free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]SV), which is mediated by a P-type Ca2+-ATPase distinct from the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, but which may be related to the PMR1/ATP2C1 family of Ca2+ pumps; (b) steady state Ca2+ concentrations are 3–5-fold lower in secretory vesicles than in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi apparatus, suggesting the existence of tightly bound and more rapidly exchanging pools of Ca2+; (c) inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate has no impact on [Ca2+]SV in intact or permeabilized cells; and (d) ryanodine receptor (RyR) activation with caffeine or 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol in intact cells, or cyclic ADPribose in permeabilized cells, causes a dramatic fall in [Ca2+]SV. Thus, secretory vesicles represent a dynamic Ca2+ store in neuroendocrine cells, whose characteristics are in part distinct from the ER/Golgi apparatus. The presence of RyRs on secretory vesicles suggests that local Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from vesicles docked at the plasma membrane could participate in triggering exocytosis. PMID:11571310

  7. Dense core secretory vesicles revealed as a dynamic Ca(2+) store in neuroendocrine cells with a vesicle-associated membrane protein aequorin chimaera.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, K J; Pinton, P; Varadi, A; Tacchetti, C; Ainscow, E K; Pozzan, T; Rizzuto, R; Rutter, G A

    2001-10-01

    The role of dense core secretory vesicles in the control of cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](c)) in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells is enigmatic. By constructing a vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-synaptobrevin.aequorin chimera, we show that in clonal pancreatic islet beta-cells: (a) increases in [Ca(2+)](c) cause a prompt increase in intravesicular-free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]SV), which is mediated by a P-type Ca(2+)-ATPase distinct from the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, but which may be related to the PMR1/ATP2C1 family of Ca(2+) pumps; (b) steady state Ca(2+) concentrations are 3-5-fold lower in secretory vesicles than in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi apparatus, suggesting the existence of tightly bound and more rapidly exchanging pools of Ca(2+); (c) inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate has no impact on [Ca(2+)](SV) in intact or permeabilized cells; and (d) ryanodine receptor (RyR) activation with caffeine or 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol in intact cells, or cyclic ADPribose in permeabilized cells, causes a dramatic fall in [Ca(2+)](SV). Thus, secretory vesicles represent a dynamic Ca(2+) store in neuroendocrine cells, whose characteristics are in part distinct from the ER/Golgi apparatus. The presence of RyRs on secretory vesicles suggests that local Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from vesicles docked at the plasma membrane could participate in triggering exocytosis.

  8. liver-enriched gene 1a and 1b Encode Novel Secretory Proteins Essential for Normal Liver Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Changqing; Hu, Minjie; Zhu, Zhihui; Lo, Li Jan; Chen, Jun; Peng, Jinrong

    2011-01-01

    liver-enriched gene 1 (leg1) is a liver-enriched gene in zebrafish and encodes a novel protein. Our preliminary data suggested that Leg1 is probably involved in early liver development. However, no detailed characterization of Leg1 has been reported thus far. We undertook both bioinformatic and experimental approaches to study leg1 gene structure and its role in early liver development. We found that Leg1 identifies a new conserved protein superfamily featured by the presence of domain of unknown function 781 (DUF781). There are two copies of leg1 in zebrafish, namely leg1a and leg1b. Both leg1a and leg1b are expressed in the larvae and adult liver with leg1a being the predominant form. Knockdown of Leg1a or Leg1b by their respective morpholinos specifically targeting their 5′-UTR each resulted in a small liver phenotype, demonstrating that both Leg1a and Leg1b are important for early liver development. Meanwhile, we found that injection of leg1-ATGMO, a morpholino which can simultaneously block the translation of Leg1a and Leg1b, caused not only a small liver phenotype but hypoplastic exocrine pancreas and intestinal tube as well. Further examination of leg1-ATGMO morphants with early endoderm markers and early hepatic markers revealed that although depletion of total Leg1 does not alter the hepatic and pancreatic fate of the endoderm cells, it leads to cell cycle arrest that results in growth retardation of liver, exocrine pancreas and intestine. Finally, we proved that Leg1 is a secretory protein. This intrigued us to propose that Leg1 might act as a novel secreted regulator that is essential for liver and other digestive organ development in zebrafish. PMID:21857963

  9. Molecular characterization of secretory proteins Rv3619c and Rv3620c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Anjum; Srivastava, Shubhra; Tripathi, Sarita; Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Owais, Mohammad; Arora, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Rv3619c and Rv3620c are the secretory, antigenic proteins of the ESAT-6/CFP-10 family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. In this article, we show that Rv3619c interacts with Rv3620c to form a 1 : 1 heterodimeric complex with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 4.8 × 10(-7) M. The thermal unfolding of the heterodimer was completely reversible, with a T(m) of 48 °C. The comparative thermodynamics and thermal unfolding analysis of the Rv3619c-Rv3620c dimer, the ESAT-6-CFP-10 dimer and another ESAT family heterodimer, Rv0287-Rv0288, revealed that the binding strength and stability of Rv3619c-Rv3620c are relatively lower than those of the other two pairs. Molecular modeling and docking studies predict the structure of Rv3619c-Rv3620c to be similar to that of ESAT-6-CFP-10. Spectroscopic studies revealed that, in an acidic environment, Rv3619c and Rv3620c lose their secondary structure and interact weakly to form a complex with a lower helical content, indicating that Rv3619c-Rv3620c is destabilized at low pH. These results, combined with those of previous studies, suggest that unfolding of the proteins is required for dissociation of the complex and membrane binding. In the presence of membrane mimetics, the α-helical contents of Rv3619c and Rv3620 increased by 42% and 35%, respectively. In mice, the immune response against Rv3619c protein is characterized by increased levels of interferon-γ, interleukin-12 and IgG(2a) , indicating a dominant Th1 response, which is mandatory for protection against mycobacterial infection. This study therefore emphasizes the potential of Rv3619c as a subunit vaccine candidate.

  10. Genome-Wide Comparison of Magnaporthe Species Reveals a Host-Specific Pattern of Secretory Proteins and Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Malali

    2016-01-01

    Blast disease caused by the Magnaporthe species is a major factor affecting the productivity of rice, wheat and millets. This study was aimed at generating genomic information for rice and non-rice Magnaporthe isolates to understand the extent of genetic variation. We have sequenced the whole genome of the Magnaporthe isolates, infecting rice (leaf and neck), finger millet (leaf and neck), foxtail millet (leaf) and buffel grass (leaf). Rice and finger millet isolates infecting both leaf and neck tissues were sequenced, since the damage and yield loss caused due to neck blast is much higher as compared to leaf blast. The genome-wide comparison was carried out to study the variability in gene content, candidate effectors, repeat element distribution, genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and SNPs. The analysis of repeat element footprints revealed some genes such as naringenin, 2-oxoglutarate 3-dioxygenase being targeted by Pot2 and Occan, in isolates from different host species. Some repeat insertions were host-specific while other insertions were randomly shared between isolates. The distributions of repeat elements, secretory proteins, CAZymes and SNPs showed significant variation across host-specific lineages of Magnaporthe indicating an independent genome evolution orchestrated by multiple genomic factors. PMID:27658241

  11. Difference in distribution of membrane proteins between low- and high-density secretory granules in parotid acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko . E-mail: yoshigaki.junko@nihon-u.ac.jp; Katsumata, Osamu; Matsuki, Miwako; Yoshigaki, Tomoyoshi; Furuyama, Shunsuke; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2006-05-26

    Secretory granules (SGs) are considered to be generated as immature granules and to mature by condensation of their contents. In this study, SGs of parotid gland were separated into low-, medium-, and high-density granule fractions by Percoll-density gradient centrifugation, since it was proposed that the density corresponds to the degree of maturation. The observation with electron microscopy showed that granules in the three fractions were very similar. The average diameter of high-density granules was a little but significantly larger than that of low-density granules. Although the three fractions contained amylase, suggesting that they are all SGs, distribution of membrane proteins was markedly different. Syntaxin6 and VAMP4 were localized in the low-density granule fraction, while VAMP2 was concentrated in the high-density granule fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-syntaxin6 antibody caused coprecipitation of VAMP2 from the medium-density granule fraction without solubilization, but not from Triton X-100-solubilized fraction, while VAMP4 was coprecipitated from both fractions. Therefore, VAMP2 is present on the same granules, but is separated from syntaxin6 and VAMP4, which are expected to be removed from immature granules. These results suggest that the medium-density granules are intermediates from low- to high-density granules, and that the membrane components of SGs dynamically change by budding and fusion during maturation.

  12. Studies on intracellular transport of secretory proteins in the rat exocrine pancreas. III. Effect of cobalt, lanthanum and antimycin A.

    PubMed

    Bieger, W; Seybold, J; Kern, H F

    1975-11-28

    The effects of cobalt and lanthanum on the secretory process of the rat exocrine pancreas was studied in vitro using isolated pancreatic lobules. Cobalt in concentrations between 10(-3) to 10(-5) M has no effect on the rate of protein synthesis, intracellular transport, or discharge of zymogen granules, if the total population of stored granules is considered. It has, however, a marked effect on the release of newly packed zymogen granules which are formed during incubation in 10(-3) M CoC1(2). Determination of specific radioactivity in amylase released under the stimulation of 5X10(-6) M carbamylcholine and of total proteins retained in the zymogen granule fraction during stimulation indicate that granules formed during incubation in CoC1(2) are excluded from discharge. Lanthanum, on the other hand, has a differential effect on protein synthesis, intracellular transport, and discharge. Incorporation of tritiated leucine into TCA-precipitable proteins is inhibited by 50% at 10(-3) M LaC1(3). Intracellular transport as studied by cell fractionation is not changed during the first 35 min post pulse but is delayed from then on. This late effect is more pronounced if pancreatic lobules are preincubated for 60 min in 10(-3) M LaC1(3). Discharge of amylase and newly synthesized proteins is inhibited dose-dependently up to 80% by 10(-3) M LaC1(3). The effects of both cobalt and lanthanum are not due to an inhibition of cellular respiration. Comparison of these results with the inhibitory action of antimycin A between 10(-4) to 10(-8) M concentrations reveals a dose-dependent diminution of the rate of protein synthesis and intracellular transport, while discharge of granules is less energy dependent. The fine structural appearance of pancreatic lobules after 3 hrs incubation in 10(-3) M CoC1(2) is not altered, while in 5X10(-3) and 10(-3) M lanthanum acinar lumina are enlarged and the apical cytoplasm contains large vacuoles. At the highest concentration of lanthanum a

  13. Bacteriocin release protein-mediated secretory expression of recombinant chalcone synthase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Iffah Izzati; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2011-09-01

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants shown to exhibit health benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor effects. Thus, due to the importance of this compound, several enzymes involved in the flavonoid pathway have been cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. However, the formation of inclusion bodies has become a major disadvantage of this approach. As an alternative, chalcone synthase from Physcomitrella patens was secreted into the medium using a bacteriocin release protein expression vector. Secretion of P. patens chalcone synthase into the culture media was achieved by co-expression with a psW1 plasmid encoding bacteriocin release protein in E. coli Tuner (DE3) plysS. The optimized conditions, which include the incubation of cells for 20 h with 40 ng/ml mitomycin C at OD(600) induction time of 0.5 was found to be the best condition for chalcone synthase secretion.

  14. Bacteriocin release protein-mediated secretory expression of recombinant chalcone synthase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Iffah Izzati; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2011-09-01

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants shown to exhibit health benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor effects. Thus, due to the importance of this compound, several enzymes involved in the flavonoid pathway have been cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. However, the formation of inclusion bodies has become a major disadvantage of this approach. As an alternative, chalcone synthase from Physcomitrella patens was secreted into the medium using a bacteriocin release protein expression vector. Secretion of P. patens chalcone synthase into the culture media was achieved by co-expression with a psW1 plasmid encoding bacteriocin release protein in E. coli Tuner (DE3) plysS. The optimized conditions, which include the incubation of cells for 20 h with 40 ng/ml mitomycin C at OD(600) induction time of 0.5 was found to be the best condition for chalcone synthase secretion. PMID:21633820

  15. Use of cloned excretory/secretory low-molecular-weight proteins of Cooperia oncophora in a serological assay.

    PubMed Central

    Poot, J; Kooyman, F N; Dop, P Y; Schallig, H D; Eysker, M; Cornelissen, A W

    1997-01-01

    The potential of Cooperia oncophora excretory/secretory (ES) proteins as antigens in a serological assay which aims to establish exposure levels in cattle was assessed. ES proteins were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The N-terminal domains of two ES proteins were sequenced, and the corresponding cDNAs were cloned. Two cDNAs, designated CoES14.0 and CoES14.2, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were tested in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which crude worm antigen (CWA) was used as a reference standard. In total, 67 reference serum samples were used: 27 negative serum samples, 29 C. oncophora-specific serum samples, 7 Dictyocaulus viviparus-specific serum samples, and 4 Ostertagia ostertagi-specific serum samples. This showed respective sensitivities and specificities of 17 and 84%, 0 and 100%, and 100 and 100% by the ELISAs with the three different types of proteins (CWA, CoES14.0, and CoES14.2, respectively). Since the CoES14.2 ELISA had the best sensitivity and specificity with reference sera, its specificity was further validated in an antigen inhibition ELISA. In this assay CoES14.2 and CWA preparations of C. oncophora, Cooperia curticei, O. ostertagi, Nematodirus helvetianus, Fasciola hepatica, D. viviparus, Haemonchus placei, and Trichostrongylus colubriformus were used as competitor antigens. This experiment showed that only the homologous antigens C. oncophora CWA and CoEs14.2 resulted in 100% inhibition. The CWA preparations of all other nematodes did not affect the ELISA, even if concentrations of 250 times the 50% inhibitory concentration of C. oncophora CWA were used. These results indicate that CoES14.2 does not share cross-reactive epitopes with heterologous CWAs. Finally, we tested the CoES14.2 ELISA with sequential serum samples from naturally infected groups of animals. The optical density values that were obtained correlated well with

  16. Identification of Pathways in Liver Repair Potentially Targeted by Secretory Proteins from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Sandra; Hempel, Madlen; Brückner, Sandra; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Kaufmann, Roland; Christ, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background: The beneficial impact of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on both acute and chronic liver diseases has been confirmed, although the molecular mechanisms behind it remain elusive. We aim to identify factors secreted by undifferentiated and hepatocytic differentiated MSC in vitro in order to delineate liver repair pathways potentially targeted by MSC. Methods: Secreted factors were determined by protein arrays and related pathways identified by biomathematical analyses. Results: MSC from adipose tissue and bone marrow expressed a similar pattern of surface markers. After hepatocytic differentiation, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM-1) increased and CD166 (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, ALCAM) decreased. MSC secreted different factors before and after differentiation. These comprised cytokines involved in innate immunity and growth factors regulating liver regeneration. Pathway analysis revealed cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, chemokine signalling pathways, the complement and coagulation cascades as well as the Januskinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NOD-like receptor) signalling pathways as relevant networks. Relationships to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α) signalling seemed also relevant. Conclusion: MSC secreted proteins, which differed depending on cell source and degree of differentiation. The factors might address inflammatory and growth factor pathways as well as chemo-attraction and innate immunity. Since these are prone to dysregulation in most liver diseases, MSC release hepatotropic factors, potentially supporting liver regeneration. PMID:27409608

  17. Implantable Three-Dimensional Salivary Spheroid Assemblies Demonstrate Fluid and Protein Secretory Responses to Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Harrington, Daniel A.; Duncan, Randall L.; Jia, Xinqiao; Witt, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation treatment in patients with head and neck tumors commonly results in hyposalivation and xerostomia due to the loss of fluid-secreting salivary acinar cells. Patients develop susceptibility to oral infections, dental caries, impaired speech and swallowing, reducing the quality of life. Clinical management is largely unsatisfactory. The development of a tissue-engineered, implantable salivary gland will greatly benefit patients suffering from xerostomia. This report compares the ability of a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) and a three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA)-based culture system to support functional salivary units capable of producing fluid and phenotypic proteins. Parotid cells seeded on 2.5D, as well as those encapsulated in 3D HA hydrogels, self-assembled into acini-like structures and expressed functional neurotransmitter receptors. Structures in 3D hydrogels merged to form organized 50 μm spheroids that could be maintained in culture for over 100 days and merged to form structures over 500 μm in size. Treatment of acini-like structures with the β-adrenergic agonists norepinephrine or isoproterenol increased granule production and α-amylase staining in treated structures, demonstrating regain of protein secretion. Upon treatment with the M3 muscarinic agonist acetylcholine, acini-like structures activated the fluid production pathway by increasing intracellular calcium levels. The increase in intracellular calcium seen in structures in the 3D hydrogel culture system was more robust and prolonged than that in 2.5D. To compare the long-term survival and retention of acini-like structures in vivo, cell-seeded 2.5D and 3D hydrogels were implanted into an athymic rat model. Cells in 2.5D failed to maintain organized acini-like structures and dispersed in the surrounding tissue. Encapsulated cells in 3D retained their spheroid structure and structural integrity, along with the salivary biomarkers and maintained viability for over 3 weeks in vivo

  18. Cloning of human epidermal growth factor as a bacterial secretory protein, its properties and mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, D.A.; Matsunami, R.K.; Campion, S.R.; Foote, R.S.; Mural, R.J.; Larimer, F.W.; Stevens, A.; Niyogi, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    A chimeric gene, containing the DNA coding for the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) and that for the signal peptide of E. coli alkaline phosphatase, was constructed by the annealing and subsequent ligation of appropriate DNA oligonucleotides synthesized in an automated DNA synthesizer. The gene was then cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the transcriptional control of the E. coli trp-lac (tac) promoter, and then transformed into E. coli. Following induction with isopropylthiogalactoside, the secretion of EGF into the E. coli periplasmic space and some into the growth medium was confirmed by its specific binding to the EGF receptor and stimulation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The size and physicochemical properties of the purified protein mimicked those of authentic human EGF. Studies of structure/function relationships by specific alterations of targeted amino acid residues in the EGF molecule have been initiated by utilizing site-directed mutagenesis.

  19. A Secretory Protein of Necrotrophic Fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum That Suppresses Host Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenjun; Wei, Wei; Fu, Yanping; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Kang, Zhensheng; Dickman, Martin B.; Jiang, Daohong

    2013-01-01

    SSITL (SS1G_14133) of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum encodes a protein with 302 amino acid residues including a signal peptide, its secretion property was confirmed with immunolocalization and immunofluorescence techniques. SSITL was classified in the integrin alpha N-terminal domain superfamily, and its 3D structure is similar to those of human integrin α4-subunit and a fungal integrin-like protein. When S. sclerotiorum was inoculated to its host, high expression of SSITL was detected during the initial stages of infection (1.5–3.0 hpi). Targeted silencing of SSITL resulted in a significant reduction in virulence; on the other hand, inoculation of SSITL silenced transformant A10 initiated strong and rapid defense response in Arabidopsis, the highest expressions of defense genes PDF1.2 and PR-1 appeared at 3 hpi which was 9 hr earlier than that time when plants were inoculated with the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum. Systemic resistance induced by A10 was detected by analysis of the expression of PDF1.2 and PR-1, and confirmed following inoculation with Botrytis cinerea. A10 induced much larger lesions on Arabidopsis mutant ein2 and jar1, and slightly larger lesions on mutant pad4 and NahG in comparison with the wild-type plants. Furthermore, both transient and constitutive expression of SSITL in Arabidopsis suppressed the expression of PDF1.2 and led to be more susceptible to A10 and the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Our results suggested that SSITL is an effector possibly and plays significant role in the suppression of jasmonic/ethylene (JA/ET) signal pathway mediated resistance at the early stage of infection. PMID:23342034

  20. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Excretory-Secretory Protein 2 Adopts a Netrin-Like Fold and Defines a Novel Family of Nematode Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    K Kucera; L Harrison; M Cappello; Y Modis

    2011-12-31

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure of AceES-2 determined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution shows that it adopts a netrin-like fold similar to that found in tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMPs) and in complement factors C3 and C5. However, recombinant AceES-2 does not significantly inhibit the 10 most abundant human matrix metalloproteases or complement-mediated cell lysis. The presence of a highly acidic surface on AceES-2 suggests that it may function as a cytokine decoy receptor. Several small nematode proteins that have been annotated as TIMPs or netrin-domain-containing proteins display sequence homology in structurally important regions of AceES-2's netrin-likefold. Together, our results suggest that AceES-2 defines a novel family of nematode netrin-like proteins, which may function to modulate the host immune response to hookworm and other parasites.

  1. Ancylostoma ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 adopts a netrin-like fold and defines a novel family of nematode proteins.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Kaury; Harrison, Lisa M; Cappello, Michael; Modis, Yorgo

    2011-04-22

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure of AceES-2 determined at 1.75 Å resolution shows that it adopts a netrin-like fold similar to that found in tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMPs) and in complement factors C3 and C5. However, recombinant AceES-2 does not significantly inhibit the 10 most abundant human matrix metalloproteases or complement-mediated cell lysis. The presence of a highly acidic surface on AceES-2 suggests that it may function as a cytokine decoy receptor. Several small nematode proteins that have been annotated as TIMPs or netrin-domain-containing proteins display sequence homology in structurally important regions of AceES-2's netrin-like fold. Together, our results suggest that AceES-2 defines a novel family of nematode netrin-like proteins, which may function to modulate the host immune response to hookworm and other parasites.

  2. Is the Campylobacter jejuni secretory protein Cj0069 a suitable antigen for serodiagnostics?

    PubMed

    Corso, J; Lugert, R; Groß, U; Zautner, A E

    2011-03-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most common bacterial pathogen of gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry is the main reservoir and consequently the main origin of infections for humans. As a consequence of a primary Campylobacter infection which typically manifests as diarrhea, there is an increased risk to suffer from post-infectious complications such as reactive arthritis, neuropathia, myositis or a Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Usually the verification of acute campylobacteriosis is made by stool culture. In contrast, post-infectious complications can be diagnosed by serological assays. Since most of them are based on whole cell lysates, an insufficient specificity results from cross-reactions between related species. Therefore, the use of recombinant antigens becomes more and more favorable. Campylobacter is able to secrete a number of proteins, which are amongst others necessary for cell invasion and therefore play a crucial role for virulence. One of these, Cj0069, has a similar specificity and sensitivity in the detection of anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG compared to the well-established antigens OMP18 and P39. This makes it a suitable antigen for diagnosing C. jejuni post-infectious complications.

  3. Modulation of dendritic cell function by the radiation-mediated secretory protein γ-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Kang, S-M; Kim, M-H; Song, K-H; Jung, S-Y; Ahn, J; Hwang, S-G; Lee, J-H; Lim, D-S; Song, J-Y

    2015-01-01

    Recently, γ-synuclein (SNCG), which is also known as breast cancer-specific gene-1, has been demonstrated to be an adverse and aggressive marker in breast cancer. In our previous study, SNCG was significantly upregulated in irradiated human breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced, tumor-derived SNCG can influence dendritic cell (DC) function in immune systems. The phenotypical and functional changes of DCs in the presence or absence of SNCG were investigated by FACS analysis, ELISA, and real-time PCR. The ability of SNCG-treated DCs to influence T cells was also examined by coculturing with T cells. The treatment of DCs with SNCG protein inhibited the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, and decreased the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The SNCG-treated DCs inhibited T-cell proliferation slightly, but distinctively increased the population of regulatory T cells. In addition, the production of TGF-β from T cells was significantly increased when they were cocultured with SNCG-treated DCs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that tumor-derived SNCG contributes to immunosuppressive effects via the inhibition of DC differentiation and activation, thus making it a potential target for cancer treatment. PMID:27551446

  4. 21 CFR 866.5380 - Free secretory component immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques free secretory component (normally a portion of the secretory IgA antibody molecule) in body fluids. Measurement of free secretory component (protein molecules) aids in the diagnosis...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5380 - Free secretory component immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques free secretory component (normally a portion of the secretory IgA antibody molecule) in body fluids. Measurement of free secretory component (protein molecules) aids in the diagnosis...

  6. Transport through the yeast endocytic pathway occurs through morphologically distinct compartments and requires an active secretory pathway and Sec18p/N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hicke, L; Zanolari, B; Pypaert, M; Rohrer, J; Riezman, H

    1997-01-01

    Molecules travel through the yeast endocytic pathway from the cell surface to the lysosome-like vacuole by passing through two sequential intermediates. Immunofluorescent detection of an endocytosed pheromone receptor was used to morphologically identify these intermediates, the early and late endosomes. The early endosome is a peripheral organelle that is heterogeneous in appearance, whereas the late endosome is a large perivacuolar compartment that corresponds to the prevacuolar compartment previously shown to be an endocytic intermediate. We demonstrate that inhibiting transport through the early secretory pathway in sec mutants quickly impedes transport from the early endosome. Treatment of sensitive cells with brefeldin A also blocks transport from this compartment. We provide evidence that Sec18p/N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein, a protein required for membrane fusion, is directly required in vivo for forward transport early in the endocytic pathway. Inhibiting protein synthesis does not affect transport from the early endosome but causes endocytosed proteins to accumulate in the late endosome. As newly synthesized proteins and the late steps of secretion are not required for early to late endosome transport, but endoplasmic reticulum through Golgi traffic is, we propose that efficient forward transport in the early endocytic pathway requires delivery of lipid from secretory organelles to endosomes. Images PMID:9017592

  7. Protein targeting via the "constitutive-like" secretory pathway in isolated pancreatic islets: passive sorting in the immature granule compartment

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have suggested the existence of a novel "constitutive-like" secretory pathway in pancreatic islets, which preferentially conveys a fraction of newly synthesized C-peptide, insulin, and proinsulin, and is related to the presence of immature secretory granules (IGs). Regulated exocytosis of IGs results in an equimolar secretion of C- peptide and insulin; however an assay of the constitutive-like secretory pathway recently demonstrated that this route conveys newly synthesized C-peptide in molar excess of insulin (Arvan, P., R. Kuliawat, D. Prabakaran, A.-M. Zavacki, D. Elahi, S. Wang, and D. Pilkey. J. Biol. Chem. 266:14171-14174). We now use this assay to examine the kinetics of constitutive-like secretion. Though its duration is much shorter than the life of mature granules under physiologic conditions, constitutive-like secretion appears comparatively slow (t1/2 approximately equal to 1.5 h) compared with the rate of proinsulin traffic through the ER and Golgi stacks. We have examined whether this slow rate is coupled to the rate of IG exit from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Escape from the 20 degrees C temperature block reveals a t1/2 less than or equal to 12 min from TGN exit to stimulated release of IGs; the time required for IG formation is too rapid to be rate limiting for constitutive-like secretion. Further, conditions are described in which constitutive-like secretion is blocked yet regulated discharge of IGs remains completely intact. Thus, constitutive-like secretion appears to represent an independent secretory pathway that is kinetically restricted to a specific granule maturation period. The data support a model in which passive sorting due to insulin crystallization results in enrichment of C-peptide in membrane vesicles that bud from IGs to initiate the constitutive-like secretory pathway. PMID:1639842

  8. Vesicle associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8)-mediated zymogen granule exocytosis is dependent on endosomal trafficking via the constitutive-like secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Messenger, Scott W; Falkowski, Michelle A; Thomas, Diana D H; Jones, Elaina K; Hong, Wanjin; Gaisano, Herbert Y; Giasano, Herbert Y; Boulis, Nicholas M; Groblewski, Guy E

    2014-10-01

    Acinar cell zymogen granules (ZG) express 2 isoforms of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family (VAMP2 and -8) thought to regulate exocytosis. Expression of tetanus toxin to cleave VAMP2 in VAMP8 knock-out (-/-) acini confirmed that VAMP2 and -8 are the primary VAMPs for regulated exocytosis, each contributing ∼50% of the response. Analysis of VAMP8(-/-) acini indicated that although stimulated secretion was significantly reduced, a compensatory increase in constitutive secretion maintained total secretion equivalent to wild type (WT). Using a perifusion system to follow secretion over time revealed VAMP2 mediates an early rapid phase peaking and falling within 2-3 min, whereas VAMP8 controls a second prolonged phase that peaks at 4 min and slowly declines over 20 min to support the protracted secretory response. VAMP8(-/-) acini show increased expression of the endosomal proteins Ti-VAMP7 (2-fold) and Rab11a (4-fold) and their redistribution from endosomes to ZGs. Expression of GDP-trapped Rab11a-S25N inhibited secretion exclusively from the VAMP8 but not the VAMP2 pathway. VAMP8(-/-) acini also showed a >90% decrease in the early endosomal proteins Rab5/D52/EEA1, which control anterograde trafficking in the constitutive-like secretory pathway. In WT acini, short term (14-16 h) culture also results in a >90% decrease in Rab5/D52/EEA1 and a complete loss of the VAMP8 pathway, whereas VAMP2-secretion remains intact. Remarkably, rescue of Rab5/D52/EEA1 expression restored the VAMP8 pathway. Expressed D52 shows extensive colocalization with Rab11a and VAMP8 and partially copurifies with ZG fractions. These results indicate that robust trafficking within the constitutive-like secretory pathway is required for VAMP8- but not VAMP2-mediated ZG exocytosis.

  9. Bem3, a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein, traffics to an intracellular compartment and recruits the secretory Rab GTPase Sec4 to endomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Debarati; Sen, Arpita; Boettner, Douglas R.; Fairn, Gregory D.; Schlam, Daniel; Bonilla Valentin, Fernando J.; Michael McCaffery, J.; Hazbun, Tony; Staiger, Chris J.; Grinstein, Sergio; Lemmon, Sandra K.; Claudio Aguilar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cell polarity is essential for many cellular functions including division and cell-fate determination. Although RhoGTPase signaling and vesicle trafficking are both required for the establishment of cell polarity, the mechanisms by which they are coordinated are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the yeast RhoGAP (GTPase activating protein), Bem3, is targeted to sites of polarized growth by the endocytic and recycling pathways. Specifically, deletion of SLA2 or RCY1 led to mislocalization of Bem3 to depolarized puncta and accumulation in intracellular compartments, respectively. Bem3 partitioned between the plasma membrane and an intracellular membrane-bound compartment. These Bem3-positive structures were polarized towards sites of bud emergence and were mostly observed during the pre-mitotic phase of apical growth. Cell biological and biochemical approaches demonstrated that this intracellular Bem3 compartment contained markers for both the endocytic and secretory pathways, which were reminiscent of the Spitzenkörper present in the hyphal tips of growing fungi. Importantly, Bem3 was not a passive cargo, but recruited the secretory Rab protein, Sec4, to the Bem3-containing compartments. Moreover, Bem3 deletion resulted in less efficient localization of Sec4 to bud tips during early stages of bud emergence. Surprisingly, these effects of Bem3 on Sec4 were independent of its GAP activity, but depended on its ability to efficiently bind endomembranes. This work unveils unsuspected and important details of the relationship between vesicle traffic and elements of the cell polarity machinery: (1) Bem3, a cell polarity and peripherally associated membrane protein, relies on vesicle trafficking to maintain its proper localization; and (2) in turn, Bem3 influences secretory vesicle trafficking. PMID:23943876

  10. The 11S rat seminal vesicle mRNA directs the in vitro synthesis of two precursors of the major secretory protein IV.

    PubMed Central

    Metafora, S; Guardiola, J; Paonessa, G; Abrescia, P

    1984-01-01

    The 11s mRNA extracted from the rat seminal vesicles directs the synthesis of two different precursors of the major secretory protein RSV-IV. These two precursors are not interconvertible and seemingly originate from different translational events. Sucrose gradients, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and positive hybridization translation experiments do not allow the separation of the two putatively different mRNAs. It is concluded that the two RSV-IV precursors either derive from two extremely similar, but physically not separable mRNA species, or from two different modes of translation of the same mRNA molecule. Images PMID:6701092

  11. Proteomic Analysis of the Excretory and Secretory Proteins of Haemonchus contortus (HcESP) Binding to Goat PBMCs In Vivo Revealed Stage-Specific Binding Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Wang, Shuai; Bo, Gao; Ehsan, Muhammad; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai; Xu, LiXin; Li, XiangRui

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic gastrointestinal nematode, and its excretory and secretory products (HcESPs) interact extensively with the host cells. In this study, we report the interaction of proteins from HcESPs at different developmental stages to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vivo using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 407 HcESPs that interacted with goat PBMCs at different time points were identified from a H. contortus protein database using SEQUEST searches. The L4 and L5 stages of H. contortus represented a higher proportion of the identified proteins compared with the early and late adult stages. Both stage-specific interacting proteins and proteins that were common to multiple stages were identified. Forty-seven interacting proteins were shared among all stages. The gene ontology (GO) distributions of the identified goat PBMC-interacting proteins were nearly identical among all developmental stages, with high representation of binding and catalytic activity. Cellular, metabolic and single-organism processes were also annotated as major biological processes, but interestingly, more proteins were annotated as localization processes at the L5 stage than at the L4 and adult stages. Based on the clustering of homologous proteins, we improved the functional annotations of un-annotated proteins identified at different developmental stages. Some unnamed H. contortus ATP-binding cassette proteins, including ADP-ribosylation factor and P-glycoprotein-9, were identified by STRING protein clustering analysis. PMID:27467391

  12. Proteomic Analysis of the Excretory and Secretory Proteins of Haemonchus contortus (HcESP) Binding to Goat PBMCs In Vivo Revealed Stage-Specific Binding Profiles.

    PubMed

    Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Wang, Shuai; Bo, Gao; Ehsan, Muhammad; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai; Xu, LiXin; Li, XiangRui

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic gastrointestinal nematode, and its excretory and secretory products (HcESPs) interact extensively with the host cells. In this study, we report the interaction of proteins from HcESPs at different developmental stages to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vivo using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 407 HcESPs that interacted with goat PBMCs at different time points were identified from a H. contortus protein database using SEQUEST searches. The L4 and L5 stages of H. contortus represented a higher proportion of the identified proteins compared with the early and late adult stages. Both stage-specific interacting proteins and proteins that were common to multiple stages were identified. Forty-seven interacting proteins were shared among all stages. The gene ontology (GO) distributions of the identified goat PBMC-interacting proteins were nearly identical among all developmental stages, with high representation of binding and catalytic activity. Cellular, metabolic and single-organism processes were also annotated as major biological processes, but interestingly, more proteins were annotated as localization processes at the L5 stage than at the L4 and adult stages. Based on the clustering of homologous proteins, we improved the functional annotations of un-annotated proteins identified at different developmental stages. Some unnamed H. contortus ATP-binding cassette proteins, including ADP-ribosylation factor and P-glycoprotein-9, were identified by STRING protein clustering analysis. PMID:27467391

  13. Better Than Nothing? Limitations of the Prediction Tool SecretomeP in the Search for Leaderless Secretory Proteins (LSPs) in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdale, Andrew; Davis, Melissa J.; Doblin, Monika S.; Bacic, Antony

    2016-01-01

    In proteomic analyses of the plant secretome, the presence of putative leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs) is difficult to confirm due to the possibility of contamination from other sub-cellular compartments. In the absence of a plant-specific tool for predicting LSPs, the mammalian-trained SecretomeP has been applied to plant proteins in multiple studies to identify the most likely LSPs. This study investigates the effectiveness of using SecretomeP on plant proteins, identifies its limitations and provides a benchmark for its use. In the absence of experimentally verified LSPs we exploit the common-feature hypothesis behind SecretomeP and use known classically secreted proteins (CSPs) of plants as a proxy to evaluate its accuracy. We show that, contrary to the common-feature hypothesis, plant CSPs are a poor proxy for evaluating LSP detection due to variation in the SecretomeP prediction scores when the signal peptide (SP) is modified. Removing the SP region from CSPs and comparing the predictive performance against non-secretory proteins indicates that commonly used threshold scores of 0.5 and 0.6 result in false-positive rates in excess of 0.3 when applied to plants proteins. Setting the false-positive rate to 0.05, consistent with the original mammalian performance of SecretomeP, yields only a marginally higher true positive rate compared to false positives. Therefore the use of SecretomeP on plant proteins is not recommended. This study investigates the trade-offs of using SecretomeP on plant proteins and provides insights into predictive features for future development of plant-specific common-feature tools. PMID:27729919

  14. Stage-specific excretory-secretory small heat shock proteins from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti--putative links to host's intestinal mucosal defense system.

    PubMed

    Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Geisinger, Frank; Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Soblik, Hanns; Steen, Hanno; Mitreva, Makedonka; Erttmann, Klaus D; Perbandt, Markus; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W

    2011-09-01

    In a search for molecules involved in the interaction between intestinal nematodes and mammalian mucosal host cells, we performed MS to identify excretory-secretory proteins from Strongyloides ratti. In the excretory-secretory proteins of the parasitic female stage, we detected, in addition to other peptides, peptides homologous with the Caenorhabditis elegans heat shock protein (HSP)-17, named Sra-HSP-17.1 (∼ 19 kDa) and Sra-HSP-17.2 (∼ 18 kDa), with 49% amino acid identity. The full-length cDNAs (483 bp and 474 bp, respectively) were identified, and the genomic organization was analyzed. To allow further characterization, the proteins were recombinantly expressed and purified. Profiling of transcription by quantitative real-time-PCR and of protein by ELISA in various developmental stages revealed parasitic female-specific expression. Sequence analyses of both the DNA and amino acid sequences showed that the two proteins share a conserved α-crystallin domain and variable N-terminals. The Sra-HSP-17s showed the highest homology with the deduced small HSP sequence of the human pathogen Strongyloides stercoralis. We observed strong immunogenicity of both proteins, leading to strong IgG responses following infection of rats. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the binding of Sra-HSP-17s to the monocyte-macrophage lineage but not to peripheral lymphocytes or neutrophils. A rat intestinal epithelial cell line showed dose-dependent binding to Sra-HSP-17.1, but not to Sra-HSP-17.2. Exposed monocytes released interleukin-10 but not tumor necrosis factor-α in response to Sra-HSP-17s, suggesting the possible involvement of secreted female proteins in host immune responses.

  15. Conversion of secretory proteins into membrane proteins by fusing with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor signal of alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Oda, K; Cheng, J; Saku, T; Takami, N; Sohda, M; Misumi, Y; Ikehara, Y; Millán, J L

    1994-01-01

    Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) is initially synthesized as a precursor (proPLAP) with a C-terminal extension. We constructed a recombinant cDNA which encodes a chimeric protein (alpha GL-PLAP) comprising rat alpha 2u-globulin (alpha GL) and the C-terminal extension of PLAP. Two molecular species (25 kDa and 22 kDa) were expressed in the COS-1 cell transfected with the cDNA for alpha GL-PLAP. Only the 22 kDa form was labelled with both [3H]stearic acid and [3H]ethanolamine. Upon digestion with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C the 22 kDa form was released into the medium, indicating that this form is anchored on the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). A specific IgG raised against a C-terminal nonapeptide of proPLAP precipitated the 25 kDa form but not the 22 kDa form, suggesting that the 25 kDa form is a precursor retaining the C-terminal propeptide. When a mutant alpha GL-PLAP, in which the aspartic acid residue is replaced with tryptophan at a putative cleavage/attachment site, was expressed in COS-1 cells, the 25 kDa precursor was the only form found inside the cell and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, as judged by immunofluorescence microscopy. In vitro translation programmed with mRNAs coding for the wild-type and mutant forms of alpha GL-PLAP demonstrated that the C-terminal propeptide was cleaved from the wild-type chimeric protein, but not from the mutant one. This gave rise to the 22 kDa form attached with a GPI anchor, suggesting that GPI is covalently linked to the aspartic acid residue (Asp159) of alpha GL-PLAP. Taken together, these results indicate that the C-terminal propeptide of PLAP functions as a signal to render alpha GL a GPI-linked membrane protein in vitro and in vivo in cultured cells, and that the chimeric protein constructed in this study may be useful for elucidating the mechanism underlying the cleavage of the propeptide and attachment of GPI, which occur in the endoplasmic reticulum. Images

  16. Identification of a second homolog of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein that is expressed in the nervous system and secretory tissues of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Boulianne, G L; Trimble, W S

    1995-01-01

    N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is an ATPase known to have an essential role in intracellular membrane transport events. Recently, cDNA clones encoding a Drosophila melanogaster homolog of this protein, named dNSF, were characterized and found to be expressed in the nervous system. We now report the identification of a second homolog of NSF, called dNSF-2 within this species and report evidence that this ubiquitous and widely utilized fusion protein belongs to a multigene family. The predicted amino acid sequence of dNSF-2 is 84.5% identical to dNSF (hereafter named dNSF-1), 59% identical to NSF from Chinese hamster, and 38.5% identical to the yeast homolog SEC18. The highest similarity was found in a region of dNSF-2 containing one of two ATP-binding sites; this region is most similar to members of a superfamily of ATPases. dNSF-2 is localized to a region between bands 87F12 and 88A3 on chromosome 3, and in situ hybridization techniques revealed expression in the nervous system during embryogenesis and in several imaginal discs and secretory structures in the larvae. Developmental modulation of dNSF-2 expression suggests that quantitative changes in the secretory apparatus are important in histogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624376

  17. Transient developmental expression of IgY and secretory component like protein in the gut of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Iscaki, S; Vaerman, J P; Charlemagne, J

    1992-01-01

    We previously reported that a primitive vertebrate, the Mexican axolotl (Amphibian, Urodela) synthesizes two classes of immunoglobulins. IgM are present in serum early in the development, and represent the bulk of specific antibody synthesis after an antigenic challenge. IgY occur in the serum later during the development, and are relatively insensitive to immunization. We demonstrate in the present work, using immunofluorescence with specific Mabs, that IgY are expressed in the gut epithelium, as secretory molecules. Secretory IgY are well expressed in the stomach and intestinal mucosae of young animals from 1 month after hatching to the seventh month. Thereafter, IgY progressively disappear from the gut and become readily detectable in the serum of 9-month-old preadult immunologically mature animals. Axolotl IgY are closely associated in the gut to secretory component-like (SC) molecules that are well-recognized by antisera to the SC of different mammalian species. This is the first description, in a primitive tetrapode, of an immunoglobulin class that could be the physiological counterpart of mammalian IgA. PMID:1627950

  18. DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEIN of Nicotiana benthamiana contributes to potyvirus movement and transports to plasmodesmata via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin system.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chao; Cong, Qian-Qian; Li, Xiang-Dong; Mou, An-Li; Gao, Rui; Liu, Jin-Liang; Tian, Yan-Ping

    2015-02-01

    The intercellular movement of plant viruses requires both viral and host proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated that the frame-shift protein P3N-PIPO (for the protein encoded by the open reading frame [ORF] containing 5'-terminus of P3 and a +2 frame-shift ORF called Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF and embedded in the P3) and CYLINDRICAL INCLUSION (CI) proteins were required for potyvirus cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide genetic evidence showing that a Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV; genus Potyvirus) mutant carrying a truncated PIPO domain of 58 amino acid residues could move between cells and induce systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants; mutants carrying a PIPO domain of seven, 20, or 43 amino acid residues failed to move between cells and cause systemic infection in this host plant. Interestingly, the movement-defective mutants produced progeny that eliminated the previously introduced stop codons and thus restored their systemic movement ability. We also present evidence showing that a developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein of N. benthamiana (referred to as NbDREPP) interacted with both P3N-PIPO and CI of the movement-competent TVBMV. The knockdown of NbDREPP gene expression in N. benthamiana impeded the cell-to-cell movement of TVBMV. NbDREPP was shown to colocalize with TVBMV P3N-PIPO and CI at plasmodesmata (PD) and traffic to PD via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system. We also show that myosin XI-2 is specially required for transporting NbDREPP to PD. In conclusion, NbDREPP is a key host protein within the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system that interacts with two movement proteins and influences virus movement.

  19. Proteolysis in the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, D.E.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1987-05-01

    Many secretory proteins are degraded intracellularly rather than secreted, however the location of this catabolic process is not known. The authors have tested the hypothesis that the degradation occurs in the organelles of the secretory pathway. Slices of rat liver were incubated with (/sup 14/C)leucine for 3 h and then incubated under chase conditions for 30 min. The tissue was homogenized and the Golgi apparatus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) were isolated by ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. The organelles were incubated in 0.3M sucrose-50 mM citrate (pH 4) for 8-12 h at 37 C; control samples were incubated at 4 C. Percent degradation was calculated as the amount of acid soluble radioactivity released relative to total radioactivity in the sample. Proteolysis in the organelles incubated at 37 C was as follows: Golgi: 15-25%; sER: 10-20%; rER: 10-20%. Proteolysis at 4 C was negligible in all cases. These results support the hypothesis that the compartments of the secretory pathway are capable of degrading newly synthesized secretory proteins.

  20. Expression, immunolocalization, and serological reactivity of a novel sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-like protein, an excretory/secretory antigen from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanwei; Zheng, Youwei; Li, Yuzhe; Yang, Mei; Li, Ting; Zeng, Suxiang; Yu, Xinbing; Huang, Huaiqiu; Hu, Xuchu

    2013-06-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection, is a zoonotic parasitic disease of hepatobiliary system in which the proteins released by adult are major pathogenetic factors. In this study, we first characterized a putative sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (CsSMPase) A-like secretory protein, which was highly expressed in the adult worm. The full-length gene was cloned. The putative protein is of relatively low homology comparing with SMPase from other species, and of rich T cell and B cell epitopes, suggesting that it is an antigen of strong antigenicity. The complete coding sequence of the gene was expressed in the Escherichia coli. The recombinant CsSMPase (rCsSMPase) can be recognized by C. sinensis-infected serum, and the protein immunoserum can recognize a specific band in excretory/secretory products (ESPs) of C. sinensis adult by western blotting. Immunolocalization revealed that CsSMPase was not only localized on tegument, ventral sucker of metacercaria, and the intestine of adult but also on the nearby epithelium of bile duct of the infected Sprague-Dawley rats, implying that CsSMPase was mainly secreted and excreted through adult intestine and directly interacted with bile duct epithelium. Although immunized rats evoked high level antibody response, the antigen level was low in clonorchiasis patients. And the sensitivity and specificity of rCsSMPase were 50.0 % (12/24) and 88.4 % (61/69), in sera IgG-ELISA, respectively. It is likely due to the fact that CsSMPase binding to the plasma membrane of biliary epithelium decreases the antigen immune stimulation.

  1. A biosynthetic regulated secretory pathway in constitutive secretory cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    It has frequently been proposed that while the constitutive secretory pathway is present in all cells, the regulated secretory pathway is found only in specialized cells such as neuronal, endocrine, or exocrine types. In this study we provide evidence that suggests that this distinction is not as restrictive as proposed. We have identified a population of post-Golgi storage vesicles in several constitutive secretory cells using [35S]SO4-labeled glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains as a marker. A fraction of this pool of vesicles can undergo exocytosis in response to stimuli such as cytoplasmic Ca2+ and phorbol esters. The effect of Ca2+ was demonstrated both in intact cells in the presence of the ionophore A23187 and in streptolysin-O-permeabilized semi-intact cells. N-ethylmaleiimide, under conditions known to block regulated and constitutive secretion, inhibited the stimulated secretion from these cells, suggesting that the observed release of labeled GAG chains was not due to a leakage artefact. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the stored GAG chains were in low-density membrane granules (d approximately 1.12 g/ml), whose size was greater than that of synaptic- like vesicles found in PC12 cells. In addition, in CHO cells that express epitope-tagged rab 3D, the labeled GAG chains were found to cofractionate with the exogenous rab protein. When expressed in the regulated cell line AtT-20, this tagged rab protein was found to colocalize with ACTH-containing dense-core granules by indirect immunofluorescence. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the presence of a cryptic regulated secretory pathway in "constitutive" cells and suggest that the regulated secretory pathway is more widespread amongst different cell types than previously believed. PMID:8682857

  2. Effect of colchicine on the transport of precursor enamel protein in secretory ameloblasts studied by /sup 3/H-proline radioautography in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, S.; Takano, Y.; Wakisaka, S.; Ichikawa, H.; Nishikawa, S.; Akai, M.

    1988-08-01

    The incorporation of 3H-proline into the secretory ameloblasts of rat molar tooth germs cultured with or without colchicine was studied by light and electron microscope radioautography to determine the function of microtubules in the transport of precursor enamel protein from the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (rER) to the Golgi cisternae. The grain counts over the transitional vesicles, which accumulated in various cellular regions with colchicine treatment, continued to increase with chase time, unlike in controls. At 30 and 90 min chase, these counts were significantly higher than in controls. Moreover, the total grain count over the organelles (rER, pale granules, and transitional vesicles), which are positioned before the Golgi cisternae in the synthetic pathway, maintained a significantly higher level at 90 min chase in colchicine-treated tooth germs than in controls. The transport of synthesized protein to the Golgi cisternae via transitional vesicles was suppressed in colchicine-treated tooth germs. Some grains appeared with time over pale granular materials that appeared in the intercellular spaces of secretory ameloblasts with colchicine treatment. However, at each chase period, the grain count over pale granular materials was not so high as the count over the enamel in control. The present results indicate that colchicine affects the transport of newly synthesized protein from the rER to the Golgi cisterna via transitional vesicles, probably by interfering with the oriented transport related to microtubular function. It is suggested that the microtubular system may be concerned with the movement of the transitional vesicles.

  3. Directed Evolution of a Secretory Leader for the Improved Expression of Heterologous Proteins and Full-Length Antibodies in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rakestraw, J. Andy; Sazinsky, Stephen L.; Piatesi, Andrea; Antipov, Eugene; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2010-01-01

    Because of its eukaryotic nature, simple fermentation requirements, and pliable genetics, there have been many attempts at improving recombinant protein production in S. cerevisiae. These strategies typically involve altering the expression of a native protein thought to be involved in heterologous protein trafficking. Usually, these approaches yield three to ten-fold improvements over wild-type strains and are almost always specific to one type of protein. In this study, a library of mutant alpha mating factor 1 leader peptides (MFα1pp) is screened for the enhanced secretion of a single-chain antibody. One of the isolated mutants is shown to enhance the secretion of the scFv up to sixteen-fold over wild-type. These leaders also confer a secretory improvement to two other scFvs as well as two additional, structurally unrelated proteins. Moreover, the improved leader sequences, combined with strain engineering, allow for a one-hundred eighty fold improvement over previous reports in the secretion of full length, functional, glycosylated human IgG1. The production of full-length IgG1 at milligram per liter titers in a simple, laboratory-scale system will significantly expedite drug discovery and reagent synthesis while reducing antibody cloning, production, and characterization costs. PMID:19459139

  4. Inflammatory mediators in dengue virus infection in children: interleukin-6 and its relation to C-reactive protein and secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Juffrie, M; Meer, G M; Hack, C E; Haasnoot, K; Sutaryo; Veerman, A J; Thijs, L G

    2001-07-01

    To assess the potential role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection, levels of this cytokine were measured in children with dengue virus infection on admission to the hospital. As presumed surrogate markers of IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) were measured. Three groups were studied: 33 apparently healthy children as negative controls, 11 children with bacterial infections as positive controls, and 186 children with serologically documented dengue virus infection. One-hundred and fifteen patients had dengue fever (DF) and 71 had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Compared with healthy controls, dengue shock syndrome (DSS) patients had significantly higher levels of IL-6 on admission (P < 0.05), comparable with those in positive controls. Dengue patients with shock had significantly higher levels of IL-6 than normotensive patients (P < 0.001) and higher levels of IL-6 were associated with a higher incidence of ascites. C-reactive protein concentrations in dengue patients and in healthy children were not different, but lower than in children with bacterial infections (P = 0.008). Secretory phospholipase A2 levels were higher in dengue patients than in apparently healthy children (P < or = 0.05) and similar to those in children with bacterial infection. Dengue shock syndrome patients had significantly higher sPLA2 concentrations than normotensive patients (P = 0.02). These data indicate that IL-6 and sPLA2 may have a pathogenetic role only in the most severe forms of dengue virus infection.

  5. Group X secretory phospholipase A2 regulates the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Shridas, Preetha; Bailey, William M; Boyanovsky, Boris B; Oslund, Rob C; Gelb, Michael H; Webb, Nancy R

    2010-06-25

    We developed C57BL/6 mice with targeted deletion of group X secretory phospholipase A(2) (GX KO). These mice have approximately 80% higher plasma corticosterone concentrations compared with wild-type (WT) mice under both basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced stress conditions. This increased corticosterone level was not associated with increased circulating ACTH or a defect in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis as evidenced by a normal response to dexamethasone challenge. Primary cultures of adrenal cells from GX KO mice exhibited significantly increased corticosteroid secretion compared with WT cells. Conversely, overexpression of GX secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)), but not a catalytically inactive mutant form of GX sPLA(2), significantly reduced steroid production 30-40% in Y1 mouse adrenal cell line. This effect was reversed by the sPLA(2) inhibitor, indoxam. Silencing of endogenous M-type receptor expression did not restore steroid production in GX sPLA(2)-overexpressing Y1 cells, ruling out a role for this sPLA(2) receptor in this regulatory process. Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), the rate-limiting protein in corticosteroid production, was approximately 2-fold higher in adrenal glands of GX KO mice compared with WT mice, whereas StAR expression was suppressed in Y1 cells overexpressing GX sPLA(2). Results from StAR-promoter luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that GX sPLA(2) antagonizes StAR promoter activity and liver X receptor-mediated StAR promoter activation. In summary, GX sPLA(2) is expressed in mouse adrenal glands and functions to negatively regulate corticosteroid synthesis, most likely by negatively regulating StAR expression.

  6. Group X Secretory Phospholipase A2 Regulates the Expression of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR) in Mouse Adrenal Glands*

    PubMed Central

    Shridas, Preetha; Bailey, William M.; Boyanovsky, Boris B.; Oslund, Rob C.; Gelb, Michael H.; Webb, Nancy R.

    2010-01-01

    We developed C57BL/6 mice with targeted deletion of group X secretory phospholipase A2 (GX KO). These mice have ∼80% higher plasma corticosterone concentrations compared with wild-type (WT) mice under both basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced stress conditions. This increased corticosterone level was not associated with increased circulating ACTH or a defect in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis as evidenced by a normal response to dexamethasone challenge. Primary cultures of adrenal cells from GX KO mice exhibited significantly increased corticosteroid secretion compared with WT cells. Conversely, overexpression of GX secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), but not a catalytically inactive mutant form of GX sPLA2, significantly reduced steroid production 30–40% in Y1 mouse adrenal cell line. This effect was reversed by the sPLA2 inhibitor, indoxam. Silencing of endogenous M-type receptor expression did not restore steroid production in GX sPLA2-overexpressing Y1 cells, ruling out a role for this sPLA2 receptor in this regulatory process. Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), the rate-limiting protein in corticosteroid production, was ∼2-fold higher in adrenal glands of GX KO mice compared with WT mice, whereas StAR expression was suppressed in Y1 cells overexpressing GX sPLA2. Results from StAR-promoter luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that GX sPLA2 antagonizes StAR promoter activity and liver X receptor-mediated StAR promoter activation. In summary, GX sPLA2 is expressed in mouse adrenal glands and functions to negatively regulate corticosteroid synthesis, most likely by negatively regulating StAR expression. PMID:20421306

  7. Larval excretory-secretory products from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni modulate HSP70 protein expression in defence cells of its snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, Zahida; Davies, Angela J.; Kirk, Ruth S.; Rollinson, David

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) following cellular stress is a response shared by many organisms. Amongst the HSP family, the ∼70 kDa HSPs are the most evolutionarily conserved with intracellular chaperone and extracellular immunoregulatory functions. This study focused on the effects of larval excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni on HSP70 protein expression levels in haemocytes (defence cells) from its snail intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. S. mansoni larval stage ESPs are known to interfere with haemocyte physiology and behaviour. Haemocytes from two different B. glabrata strains, one which is susceptible to S. mansoni infection and one which is resistant, both showed reduced HSP70 protein levels following 1 h challenge with S. mansoni ESPs when compared to unchallenged controls; however, the reduction observed in the resistant strain was less marked. The decline in intracellular HSP70 protein persisted for at least 5 h in resistant snail haemocytes only. Furthermore, in schistosome-susceptible snails infected by S. mansoni for 35 days, haemocytes possessed approximately 70% less HSP70. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, partially restored HSP70 protein levels in ESP-challenged haemocytes, demonstrating that the decrease in HSP70 was in part due to intracellular degradation. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway appears to regulate HSP70 protein expression in these cells, as the mitogen-activated protein-ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, significantly reduced HSP70 protein levels. Disruption of intracellular HSP70 protein expression in B. glabrata haemocytes by S. mansoni ESPs may be a strategy employed by the parasite to manipulate the immune response of the intermediate snail host. PMID:20182834

  8. Lipoprotein lipase and angiopoietin-like 4 - Cardiomyocyte secretory proteins that regulate metabolism during diabetic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Puthanveetil, Prasanth; Wan, Andrea; Rodrigues, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac diseases have been extensively studied following diabetes and altered metabolism has been implicated in its initiation. In this context, there is a shift from glucose utilization to predominantly fatty acid metabolism. We have focused on the micro- and macro-environments that the heart uses to provide fatty acids to the cardiomyocyte. Specifically, we will discuss the cross talk between endothelial cells, smooth muscles and cardiomyocytes, and their respective secretory products that allows for this shift in metabolism. These changes will then be linked to alterations in the cardiovascular system and the augmented heart disease observed during diabetes. Traditionally, the heart was only thought of as an organ that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the body through its function as a pump. However, the heart as an endocrine organ has also been suggested. Secreted products from the cardiomyocytes include the natriuretic peptides atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Both have been shown to have vasodilatory, diuretic and antihypertensive effects. These peptides have been extensively studied and their deficiency is considered to be a major cause for the initiation of cardiovascular and cardiometabolic disorders. Another secretory enzyme, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), has been implicated in diabetic heart disease. LPL is a triglyceride-hydrolyzing enzyme that is synthesized within the cardiomyocyte and secreted towards the lumen under various conditions. For example, moderate or short-term hyperglycemia stimulates the release of LPL from the cardiomyocytes towards the endothelial cells. This process allows LPL to contact lipoprotein triglycerides, initiating their break down, with the product of lipolysis (free fatty acids, FA) translocating towards the cardiomyocytes for energy consumption. This mechanism compensates for the lack of glucose availability following diabetes. Under prolonged, chronic conditions of hyperglycemia, there is

  9. Lipoprotein lipase and angiopoietin-like 4 - Cardiomyocyte secretory proteins that regulate metabolism during diabetic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Puthanveetil, Prasanth; Wan, Andrea; Rodrigues, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac diseases have been extensively studied following diabetes and altered metabolism has been implicated in its initiation. In this context, there is a shift from glucose utilization to predominantly fatty acid metabolism. We have focused on the micro- and macro-environments that the heart uses to provide fatty acids to the cardiomyocyte. Specifically, we will discuss the cross talk between endothelial cells, smooth muscles and cardiomyocytes, and their respective secretory products that allows for this shift in metabolism. These changes will then be linked to alterations in the cardiovascular system and the augmented heart disease observed during diabetes. Traditionally, the heart was only thought of as an organ that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the body through its function as a pump. However, the heart as an endocrine organ has also been suggested. Secreted products from the cardiomyocytes include the natriuretic peptides atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Both have been shown to have vasodilatory, diuretic and antihypertensive effects. These peptides have been extensively studied and their deficiency is considered to be a major cause for the initiation of cardiovascular and cardiometabolic disorders. Another secretory enzyme, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), has been implicated in diabetic heart disease. LPL is a triglyceride-hydrolyzing enzyme that is synthesized within the cardiomyocyte and secreted towards the lumen under various conditions. For example, moderate or short-term hyperglycemia stimulates the release of LPL from the cardiomyocytes towards the endothelial cells. This process allows LPL to contact lipoprotein triglycerides, initiating their break down, with the product of lipolysis (free fatty acids, FA) translocating towards the cardiomyocytes for energy consumption. This mechanism compensates for the lack of glucose availability following diabetes. Under prolonged, chronic conditions of hyperglycemia, there is

  10. Exocyst Is Involved in Cystogenesis and Tubulogenesis and Acts by Modulating Synthesis and Delivery of Basolateral Plasma Membrane and Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lipschutz, Joshua H.; Guo, Wei; O'Brien, Lucy E.; Nguyen, Yen H.; Novick, Peter; Mostov, Keith E.

    2000-01-01

    Epithelial cyst and tubule formation are critical processes that involve transient, highly choreographed changes in cell polarity. Factors controlling these changes in polarity are largely unknown. One candidate factor is the highly conserved eight-member protein complex called the exocyst. We show that during tubulogenesis in an in vitro model system the exocyst relocalized along growing tubules consistent with changes in cell polarity. In yeast, the exocyst subunit Sec10p is a crucial component linking polarized exocytic vesicles with the rest of the exocyst complex and, ultimately, the plasma membrane. When the exocyst subunit human Sec10 was exogenously expressed in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, there was a selective increase in the synthesis and delivery of apical and basolateral secretory proteins and a basolateral plasma membrane protein, but not an apical plasma membrane protein. Overexpression of human Sec10 resulted in more efficient and rapid cyst formation and increased tubule formation upon stimulation with hepatocyte growth factor. We conclude that the exocyst plays a central role in the development of epithelial cysts and tubules. PMID:11102522

  11. Purification and identification of a binding protein for pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor: a novel role of the inhibitor as an anti-granzyme A.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Kokado, Yoshimasa; Satomi, Shigeki; Yamasaki, Yoshie; Hirayasu, Hirofumi; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Fushiki, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) is a potent trypsin inhibitor that is mainly found in pancreatic juice. PSTI has been shown to bind specifically to a protein, distinct from trypsin, on the surface of dispersed cells obtained from tissues such as small intestine. In the present study, we affinity-purified the binding protein from the 2% (w/v) Triton X-100-soluble fraction of dispersed rat small-intestinal cells using recombinant rat PSTI. Partial N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein gave a sequence that was identical with the sequence of mouse granzyme A (GzmA), a tryptase produced in cytotoxic lymphocytes. We confirmed the formation of an affinity-cross-linked complex between (125)I-labelled PSTI and recombinant rat GzmA (rGzmA). In situ hybridization and immunostaining revealed the existence of GzmA-expressing intraepithelial lymphocytes in the rat small intestine. We concluded that the PSTI-binding protein isolated from the dispersed cells is GzmA that is produced in the lymphocytes of the tissue. The rGzmA hydrolysed the N -alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester (BLT), and the BLT hydrolysis was inhibited by PSTI. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans, such as fucoidan or heparin, showed almost no effect on the inhibition of rGzmA by PSTI, whereas they decreased the inhibition by antithrombin III. In the present paper, we propose a novel role of PSTI as a GzmA inhibitor. PMID:12590650

  12. A functional cyclic AMP response element plays a crucial role in neuroendocrine cell type-specific expression of the secretory granule protein chromogranin A.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H; Mahata, S K; Mahata, M; Webster, N J; Parmer, R J; O'Connor, D T

    1995-01-01

    Chromogranin A, a soluble acidic protein, is a ubiquitous component of secretory vesicles throughout the neuroendocrine system. We reported previously the cloning and initial characterization of the mouse chromogranin A gene promoter, which showed that the promoter contains both positive and negative domains and that a proximal promoter spanning nucleotides -147 to +42 bp relative to the transcriptional start site is sufficient for neuroendocrine cell type-specific expression. The current study was undertaken to identify the particular elements within this proximal promoter that control tissue-specific expression. We found that deletion or point mutations in the potential cAMP response element (CRE) site at -68 bp virtually abolished promoter activity specifically in neuroendocrine (PC12 chromaffin or AtT20 corticotrope) cells, with little effect on activity in control (NIH3T3 fibroblast) cells; thus, the CRE box is necessary for neuroendocrine cell type-specific activity of the chromogranin A promoter. Furthermore, the effect of the CRE site is enhanced in the context of intact (wild-type) promoter sequences between -147 and -100 bp. DNase I footprint analysis showed that these regions (including the CRE box) bind nuclear proteins present in both neuroendocrine (AtT20) and control (NIH3T3) cells. In AtT20 cells, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and factor-specific antibody supershifts showed that an oligonucleotide containing the chromogranin A CRE site formed a single, homogeneous protein-DNA complex containing the CRE-binding protein CREB. However, in control NIH3T3 cells we found evidence for an additional immunologically unrelated protein in this complex. A single copy of this oligonucleotide was able to confer neuroendocrine-specific expression to a heterologous (thymidine kinase) promoter, albeit with less fold selectivity than the full proximal chromogranin A promoter. Hence, the CRE site was partially sufficient to explain the neuroendocrine cell type

  13. The mannose receptor binds Trichuris muris excretory/secretory proteins but is not essential for protective immunity

    PubMed Central

    deSchoolmeester, Matthew L; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Gordon, Siamon; Else, Kathryn J

    2009-01-01

    Trichuris muris is a natural mouse model of the human gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichuris trichiura and it is well established that a T helper type 2-dominated immune response is required for worm expulsion. Macrophages accumulate in the large intestine of mice during infection and these cells are known to express the mannose receptor (MR), which may act as a pattern recognition receptor. The data presented here show for the first time that T. muris excretory/secretory products (E/S) induce bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to produce several cytokines and have MR-binding activity. Using alternatively activated BMDM from MR knockout mice it is shown that the production of interleukin-6 partially depends on the MR. Infection of MR knockout mice with T. muris reveals that this receptor is not necessary for the expulsion of the parasite because MR knockout mice expel parasites with the same kinetics as wild-type animals and have similar cytokine responses in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, despite acting to reduce serum levels of proinflammatory mediators, absence of the MR does not lead to increased gut inflammation after T. muris infection when assessed by macrophage influx, goblet cell hyperplasia and crypt depth. This work suggests that, despite binding components of T. muris E/S, the MR is not critically involved in the generation of the immune response to this parasite. PMID:18624733

  14. Secretory diarrhoea: mechanisms and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Donowitz, Mark; Verkman, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease remains a major health burden worldwide. Secretory diarrhoeas are caused by certain bacterial and viral infections, inflammatory processes, drugs and genetic disorders. Fluid secretion across the intestinal epithelium in secretory diarrhoeas involves multiple ion and solute transporters, as well as activation of cyclic nucleotide and Ca2+ signalling pathways. In many secretory diarrhoeas, activation of Cl− channels in the apical membrane of enterocytes, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Ca2+-activated Cl− channels, increases fluid secretion, while inhibition of Na+ transport reduces fluid absorption. Current treatment of diarrhoea includes replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses using oral rehydration solutions, and drugs targeting intestinal motility or fluid secretion. Therapeutics in the development pipeline target intestinal ion channels and transporters, regulatory proteins and cell surface receptors. This Review describes pathogenic mechanisms of secretory diarrhoea, current and emerging therapeutics, and the challenges in developing antidiarrhoeal therapeutics. PMID:26122478

  15. Cysteine- rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3), ERG and PTEN define a molecular subtype of prostate cancer with implication to patients' prognosis.

    PubMed

    Al Bashir, Samir; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Hegazy, Samar A; Dolph, Michael; Donnelly, Bryan; Bismar, Tarek A

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine- rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3) prognostic significance in prostate cancer (PCA) has generated mixed result. Herein, we investigated and independently validated CRISP3 expression in relation to ERG and PTEN genomic aberrations and clinical outcome. CRISP3 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry using a cohort of patients with localized PCA (n = 215) and castration resistant PCA (CRPC) (n = 46). The Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSKCC) and Swedish cohorts were used for prognostic validation. Results showed, CRISP3 protein intensity to be significantly associated with neoplastic epithelium, being highest in CRPC vs. benign prostate tissue (p < 0.0001), but was not related to Gleason score (GS). CRISP3 mRNA was significantly associated with higher GS (p = 0.022 in MSKCC, p = 1.1e-4 in Swedish). Significant association between CRISP3 expression and clinical outcome was documented at the mRNA but not the protein expression levels. CRISP3 mRNA expression was related to biochemical recurrence in the MSKCC (p = 0.038) and lethal disease in the Swedish cohort (p = 0.0086) and retained its prognostic value in the subgroup of patients with GS 6 & 7. Furthermore, CRISP3 protein and mRNA expression was significantly associated with positive ERG status and with PTEN deletions. Functional biology analysis documented phenylalanine metabolism as the most significant pathway governing high CRISP3 and ERG expression in this subtype of PCA. In conclusion, the combined status of CRISP3, ERG and PTEN define a molecular subtype of PCA with poorest and lethal outcome. Assessing their combined value may be of added value in stratifying patients into different prognostic groups and identify those with poorest clinical outcome.

  16. Quality control in the secretory assembly line.

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, A

    2001-01-01

    As a rule, only proteins that have reached a native, folded and assembled structure are transported to their target organelles and compartments within the cell. In the secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells, this type of sorting is particularly important. A variety of molecular mechanisms are involved that distinguish between folded and unfolded proteins, modulate their intracellular transport, and induce degradation if they fail to fold. This phenomenon, called quality control, occurs at several levels and involves different types of folding sensors. The quality control system provides a stringent and versatile molecular sorting system that guaranties fidelity of protein expression in the secretory pathway. PMID:11260794

  17. Novel secretory protein Ss-Caf1 of the plant-pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is required for host penetration and normal sclerotial development.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xueqiong; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong; Fu, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    To decipher the mechanism of pathogenicity in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a pathogenicity-defective mutant, Sunf-MT6, was isolated from a T-DNA insertional library. Sunf-MT6 could not form compound appressorium and failed to induce lesions on leaves of rapeseed though it could produce more oxalic acid than the wild-type strain. However, it could enter into host tissues via wounds and cause typical necrotic lesions. Furthermore, Sunf-MT6 produced fewer but larger sclerotia than the wild-type strain Sunf-M. A gene, named Ss-caf1, was disrupted by T-DNA insertion in Sunf-MT6. Gene complementation and knockdown experiments confirmed that the disruption of Ss-caf1 was responsible for the phenotypic changes of Sunf-MT6. Ss-caf1 encodes a secretory protein with a putative Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand motif. High expression levels of Ss-caf1 were observed at an early stage of compound appressorium formation and in immature sclerotia. Expression of Ss-caf1 without signal peptides in Nicotiana benthamiana via Tobacco rattle virus-based vectors elicited cell death. These results suggest that Ss-caf1 plays an important role in compound appressorium formation and sclerotial development of S. sclerotiorum. In addition, Ss-Caf1 has the potential to interact with certain host proteins or unknown substances in host cells, resulting in subsequent host cell death.

  18. Novel secretory protein Ss-Caf1 of the plant-pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is required for host penetration and normal sclerotial development.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xueqiong; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong; Fu, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    To decipher the mechanism of pathogenicity in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a pathogenicity-defective mutant, Sunf-MT6, was isolated from a T-DNA insertional library. Sunf-MT6 could not form compound appressorium and failed to induce lesions on leaves of rapeseed though it could produce more oxalic acid than the wild-type strain. However, it could enter into host tissues via wounds and cause typical necrotic lesions. Furthermore, Sunf-MT6 produced fewer but larger sclerotia than the wild-type strain Sunf-M. A gene, named Ss-caf1, was disrupted by T-DNA insertion in Sunf-MT6. Gene complementation and knockdown experiments confirmed that the disruption of Ss-caf1 was responsible for the phenotypic changes of Sunf-MT6. Ss-caf1 encodes a secretory protein with a putative Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand motif. High expression levels of Ss-caf1 were observed at an early stage of compound appressorium formation and in immature sclerotia. Expression of Ss-caf1 without signal peptides in Nicotiana benthamiana via Tobacco rattle virus-based vectors elicited cell death. These results suggest that Ss-caf1 plays an important role in compound appressorium formation and sclerotial development of S. sclerotiorum. In addition, Ss-Caf1 has the potential to interact with certain host proteins or unknown substances in host cells, resulting in subsequent host cell death. PMID:24299212

  19. Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 plays a role in prostate cancer cell invasion and affects expression of PSA and ANXA1.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Bhakti R; Breed, Ananya A; Apte, Snehal; Acharya, Kshitish; Mahale, Smita D

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) is upregulated in prostate cancer as compared to the normal prostate tissue. Higher expression of CRISP-3 has been linked to poor prognosis and hence it has been thought to act as a prognostic marker for prostate cancer. It is proposed to have a role in innate immunity but its role in prostate cancer is still unknown. In order to understand its function, its expression was stably knocked down in LNCaP cells. CRISP-3 knockdown did not affect cell viability but resulted in reduced invasiveness. Global gene expression changes upon CRISP-3 knockdown were identified by microarray analysis. Microarray data were quantitatively validated by evaluating the expression of seven candidate genes in three independent stable clones. Functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes identified cell adhesion, cell motility, and ion transport to be affected among other biological processes. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, also known as Kallikrein 3) was the top most downregulated gene whose expression was also validated at protein level. Interestingly, expression of Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a known anti-inflammatory protein, was upregulated upon CRISP-3 knockdown. Re-introduction of CRISP-3 into the knockdown clone reversed the effect on invasiveness and also led to increased PSA expression. These results suggest that overexpression of CRISP-3 in prostate tumor may maintain higher PSA expression and lower ANXA1 expression. Our data also indicate that poor prognosis associated with higher CRISP-3 expression could be due to its role in cell invasion. PMID:26369530

  20. Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 plays a role in prostate cancer cell invasion and affects expression of PSA and ANXA1.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Bhakti R; Breed, Ananya A; Apte, Snehal; Acharya, Kshitish; Mahale, Smita D

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) is upregulated in prostate cancer as compared to the normal prostate tissue. Higher expression of CRISP-3 has been linked to poor prognosis and hence it has been thought to act as a prognostic marker for prostate cancer. It is proposed to have a role in innate immunity but its role in prostate cancer is still unknown. In order to understand its function, its expression was stably knocked down in LNCaP cells. CRISP-3 knockdown did not affect cell viability but resulted in reduced invasiveness. Global gene expression changes upon CRISP-3 knockdown were identified by microarray analysis. Microarray data were quantitatively validated by evaluating the expression of seven candidate genes in three independent stable clones. Functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes identified cell adhesion, cell motility, and ion transport to be affected among other biological processes. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, also known as Kallikrein 3) was the top most downregulated gene whose expression was also validated at protein level. Interestingly, expression of Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a known anti-inflammatory protein, was upregulated upon CRISP-3 knockdown. Re-introduction of CRISP-3 into the knockdown clone reversed the effect on invasiveness and also led to increased PSA expression. These results suggest that overexpression of CRISP-3 in prostate tumor may maintain higher PSA expression and lower ANXA1 expression. Our data also indicate that poor prognosis associated with higher CRISP-3 expression could be due to its role in cell invasion.

  1. Characterization of a novel repetitive secretory protein specifically expressed in the modified salivary gland of Hydropsyche sp. (Trichoptera; Hydropsychidae).

    PubMed

    Eum, Jai-Hoon; Yoe, Sung-Moon; Seo, Young-R; Kang, Seok-Woo; Han, Sung-Sik

    2005-05-01

    Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a common salivary gland-specific gene, Nf-1, from late instar Hydropsyche sp. larvae, and show that the corresponding gene product is translated in the gland and secreted to the gland lumen. The deduced Nf-1 protein is primarily composed of five repetitive sequence units of 63-65 amino acids, and contains a putative signal sequence composed of 19 amino acids. Secreted Nf-1 (approximately 37 kDa) was localized to the gland lumen by Western blotting of gland and lumen fractions. Together, the structure, expression pattern and protein localization of Nf-1 indicate that this protein is likely to be a major component of the silk shields and nets produced by the aquatic insect, Trichoptera.

  2. Vaccination with Legionella pneumophila membranes induces cell-mediated and protective immunity in a guinea pig model of Legionnaires' disease. Protective immunity independent of the major secretory protein of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Blander, S J; Horwitz, M A

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the capacity of Legionella pneumophila membranes to induce cell-mediated immune responses and protective immunity in a guinea pig model of Legionnaires' disease. Guinea pigs immunized by aerosol with L. pneumophila membranes developed strong cell-mediated immune responses to L. pneumophila membranes as demonstrated by cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and in vitro splenic lymphocyte proliferation. Guinea pigs immunized by aerosol or by subcutaneous inoculation with L. pneumophila membranes developed strong protective immunity against lethal aerosol challenge with L. pneumophila. Overall, in six independent experiments, 39 of 49 (80%) guinea pigs immunized with L. pneumophila membranes survived challenge compared with 2 of 40 (5%) sham-immunized controls (P = 2 x 10(-13). In contrast, guinea pigs immunized by aerosol with formalin-killed L. pneumophila did not develop either a strong cell-mediated immune response to L. pneumophila antigens or protective immunity to lethal aerosol challenge. The capacity of L. pneumophila membranes to induce protective immunity was independent of the major secretory protein of L. pneumophila, which we previously demonstrated is an immunoprotective molecule. Purified L. pneumophila membranes did not contain detectable major secretory protein (MSP) on immunoblots; immunization of guinea pigs with L. pneumophila membranes did not induce anti-MSP antibody; and guinea pigs developed comparable protective immunity after immunization with membranes from either an L. pneumophila strain that secretes the major secretory protein or an isogenic mutant that does not. This study demonstrates that (a) immunization with L. pneumophila membranes but not formalin-killed L. pneumophila induces strong cell-mediated immune responses and protective immunity, (b) L. pneumophila membranes contain immunoprotective molecules distinct from the major secretory protein of L. pneumophila, and (c) L. pneumophila membranes have potential as

  3. RanBP2/Nup358 Potentiates the Translation of a Subset of mRNAs Encoding Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Akef, Abdalla; Cui, Xianying A.; Gueroussov, Serge; Cenik, Can; Roth, Frederick P.; Palazzo, Alexander F.

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, most mRNAs that encode secreted or membrane-bound proteins contain elements that promote an alternative mRNA nuclear export (ALREX) pathway. Here we report that ALREX-promoting elements also potentiate translation in the presence of upstream nuclear factors. These RNA elements interact directly with, and likely co-evolved with, the zinc finger repeats of RanBP2/Nup358, which is present on the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore. Finally we show that RanBP2/Nup358 is not only required for the stimulation of translation by ALREX-promoting elements, but is also required for the efficient global synthesis of proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and likely the mitochondria. Thus upon the completion of export, mRNAs containing ALREX-elements likely interact with RanBP2/Nup358, and this step is required for the efficient translation of these mRNAs in the cytoplasm. ALREX-elements thus act as nucleotide platforms to coordinate various steps of post-transcriptional regulation for the majority of mRNAs that encode secreted proteins. PMID:23630457

  4. Cell type-specific gene expression in the neuroendocrine system. A neuroendocrine-specific regulatory element in the promoter of chromogranin A, a ubiquitous secretory granule core protein.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H; Rozansky, D J; Webster, N J; O'Connor, D T

    1994-01-01

    The acidic secretory protein chromogranin A universally occurs in amine and peptide hormone and neurotransmitter storage granules throughout the neuroendocrine system. What factors govern the activity of the chromogranin A gene, to yield such a widespread yet neuroendocrine-selective pattern of expression? To address this question, we isolated the mouse chromogranin A gene promoter. The promoter conferred cell type-specific expression in several neuroendocrine cell types (adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, anterior pituitary corticotropes, and anterior pituitary somatolactotropes) but not in control (fibroblast or kidney) cells. In neuroendocrine cells, analysis of promoter deletions established both positive and negative transcriptional regulatory domains. A distal positive domain (-4.8/-2.2 kbp) was discovered, as well as negative (-258/-181 bp) and positive (-147/-61 bp) domains in the proximate promoter. The proximate promoter contained a minimal neuroendocrine-specific element between -77 and -61 bp. Sequence alignment of the mouse promoter with corresponding regions in rat and bovine clones indicated that the mouse sequence shares over 85% homology with rat and 52% with bovine promoters. DNaseI footprinting and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays demonstrated the presence of nuclear factors in neuroendocrine cells that recognized the proximate promoter. We conclude that the chromogranin A promoter contains both positive and negative domains governing its cell type-specific pattern of transcription, and that a small proximate region of the promoter, containing novel as well as previously described elements, interacts specifically with neuroendocrine nuclear proteins, and is thereby sufficient to ensure widespread neuroendocrine expression of the gene. Images PMID:8040254

  5. Attenuation of increased secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, matricellular proteins and angiotensin II and left ventricular remodeling by candesartan and omapatrilat during healing after reperfused myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Ariv; Uwiera, Richard R E; Idikio, Halliday; Menon, Vijay; Jugdutt, Catherine; Jugdutt, Bodh I

    2013-04-01

    While secretory-leukocyte-protease-inhibitor (SLPI) may promote skin wound healing, its role in infarct healing after reperfused myocardial infarction (RMI) remains unclear. Short-term intravenous angiotensin II (AngII) receptor blocker therapy with candesartan (CN) attenuates increased SLPI and markers of early matrix/left ventricular (LV) in acute RMI. To determine whether reducing effects of AngII with CN or the vasopeptidase inhibitor omapatrilat (OMA) during the healing phase after RMI attenuates SLPI and other mediators of healing and matrix/LV remodeling, we measured these in Sprague-Dawley rats randomized to oral placebo, CN (30 mg/kg/day) or OMA (10 mg/kg/day) therapy during healing between days 2 and 23 after RMI and sham. On day-25, RMI-placebo showed significant LV remodeling, systolic/diastolic dysfunction and impaired passive compliance, and ischemic zone increases in SLPI, secreted-protein-acidic-and-rich-in-cysteine (SPARC) and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA and protein. In addition, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and -2, a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase (ADAM)-10 and -17, inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(1) and its signaling molecule p-Smad-2, myeloperoxidase (MPO), AngII, MPO-positive granulocytes, MAC387-positive macrophages and monocytes, scar collagens, cardiomyocyte and fibroblast apoptosis, and microvascular no-reflow also increased whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 decreased. Both CN and OMA attenuated all the changes except IL-10, which normalized. Thus, CN or OMA treatment during healing after RMI results in attenuation of SLPI as well as tissue AngII and mediators of inflammation and matrix/LV remodeling including SPARC, OPN, and ADAMs. Whether increasing SLPI on top of background AngII inhibition or therapy such as CN or OMA might produce added remodeling benefit needs study.

  6. Secretory expression of a heterologous protein, Aiio-AIO6BS, in Bacillus subtilis via a non-classical secretion pathway.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xingliang; Yang, Yalin; Liu, Xuewei; Li, Dong; Li, Juan; Guo, Xiaoze; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-09-16

    The quenching enzyme AIO6 (AiiO-AIO6) has been reported as a feed additive preparation for application in aquaculture and biological control of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila. We developed an economical strategy to express AIO6BS (AiiO-AIO6BS, codon optimized AIO6 in Bacillus subtilis) in Bacillus subtilis for facilitating its widespread application. Promoter p43 without the signal peptide was used for secretory expression of AIO6BS in B. subtilis. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that AIO6BS was successfully expressed and secreted into the cell culture. Expression analysis of AIO6BS in the single or double mutant of the lytC and lytD genes for cell autolysis in B. subtilis 1A751 and cell autolysis-resistant engineered strain LM2531 derived from the wild type 168 indicated that the release of the heterologous protein AIO6BS was not simply mediated by cell lysis. Expression level of AIO6BS did not change in the mutants of B. subtilis that harbored mutations in the secA, tatAC, or ecsA genes compared with that in the parent wild type strain. These results suggested the AIO6BS protein was likely secreted via a non-classical secretion pathway. The expression analysis of the various N- or C-terminal truncated gene products indicated that AIO6BS probably acts as an export signal to direct its self-secretion across the cell membrane. PMID:27514447

  7. Liver-Enriched Gene 1, a Glycosylated Secretory Protein, Binds to FGFR and Mediates an Anti-stress Pathway to Protect Liver Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxia; Liu, Feng; Cui, Zongbin; Chen, Jun; Peng, Jinrong

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals and birds, teleost fish undergo external embryogenesis, and therefore their embryos are constantly challenged by stresses from their living environment. These stresses, when becoming too harsh, will cause arrest of cell proliferation, abnormal cell death or senescence. Such organisms have to evolve a sophisticated anti-stress mechanism to protect the process of embryogenesis/organogenesis. However, very few signaling molecule(s) mediating such activity have been identified. liver-enriched gene 1 (leg1) is an uncharacterized gene that encodes a novel secretory protein containing a single domain DUF781 (domain of unknown function 781) that is well conserved in vertebrates. In the zebrafish genome, there are two copies of leg1, namely leg1a and leg1b. leg1a and leg1b are closely linked on chromosome 20 and share high homology, but are differentially expressed. In this report, we generated two leg1a mutant alleles using the TALEN technique, then characterized liver development in the mutants. We show that a leg1a mutant exhibits a stress-dependent small liver phenotype that can be prevented by chemicals blocking the production of reactive oxygen species. Further studies reveal that Leg1a binds to FGFR3 and mediates a novel anti-stress pathway to protect liver development through enhancing Erk activity. More importantly, we show that the binding of Leg1a to FGFR relies on the glycosylation at the 70th asparagine (Asn70 or N70), and mutating the Asn70 to Ala70 compromised Leg1’s function in liver development. Therefore, Leg1 plays a unique role in protecting liver development under different stress conditions by serving as a secreted signaling molecule/modulator. PMID:26901320

  8. Involvement of multiple protein kinase C isozymes in the ACTH secretory pathway of AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    McFerran, B. W.; MacEwan, D. J.; Guild, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    1. The mouse AtT-20/D16-16 anterior pituitary tumour cell line was used as a model system for the study of protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated enhancement of calcium- and guanine nucleotide-evoked adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretion. 2. A profile of the PKC isozymes present in AtT-20 cells was obtained by Western blotting analysis and it was found that AtT-20 cells express the alpha, beta, epsilon and zeta isoforms of PKC. 3. PKC isozymes were activated by the use of substances reported to activate particular isoforms of the enzyme. The effects of these substances were investigated in both intact and electrically-permeabilized cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, EC50 = 1 +/- 0.05 nM, which activates all isozymes of PKC, except the zeta isozyme), thymeleatoxin (TMX, EC50 = 10 +/- 0.5 nM, which activates the alpha, beta and gamma isozymes) and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate 20-acetate (dPPA, EC50 = 3 +/- 0.5 nM, a beta 1-selective isozyme activator) all stimulated ACTH secretion from intact cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximal TMX stimulated ACTH secretion was of a similar degree to that obtained in response to PMA but maximal dPPA-stimulated ACTH secretion was only 60-70% of that obtained in response to PMA or TMX. 4. Calcium stimulated ACTH secretion from electrically-permeabilized cells over the concentration-range of 100 nM to 10 microM. PMA (100 nM), TMX (100 nM) but not dPPA (100 nM) enhanced the amount of ACTH secreted at every concentration of calcium investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:7670732

  9. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined. PMID:27575269

  10. Isolation of a cDNA clone for spinach lipid transfer protein and evidence that the protein is synthesized by the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, W.R.; Thoma, S.; Botella, J.; Somerville, C.R. )

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a nonspecific lipid transfer protein from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was isolated by probing a library with synthetic oligonucleotides based on the amino acid sequence of the protein. Determination of the DNA sequence indicated a 354-nucleotide open reading frame which encodes a 118-amino acid residue polypeptide. The first 26 amino acids of the open reading frame, which are not present in the mature protein, have all the characteristics of a signal sequence which is normally associated with the synthesis of membrane proteins or secreted proteins. In vitro transcription of the cDNA and translation in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes or microsomes from cultured maize endosperm cells indicated that proteolytic processing of the preprotein to the mature form was associated with cotranslational insertion into the microsomal membranes. Because there is no known mechanism by which the polypeptide could be transferred from the microsomal membranes to the cytoplasm, the proposed role of this protein in catalyzing lipid transfer between intracellular membranes is in doubt. Although the lipid transfer protein is one of the most abundant proteins in leaf cells, the results of genomic Southern analysis were consistent with the presence of only one gene. Analysis of the level of mRNA by Northern blotting indicated that the transcript was several-fold more abundant than an actin transcript in leaf and petiole tissue, but was present in roots at less than 1% of the level in petioles.

  11. Fluconazole transport into Candida albicans secretory vesicles by the membrane proteins Cdr1p, Cdr2p, and Mdr1p.

    PubMed

    Basso, Luiz R; Gast, Charles E; Mao, Yuxin; Wong, Brian

    2010-06-01

    A major cause of azole resistance in Candida albicans is overexpression of CDR1, CDR2, and/or MDR1, which encode plasma membrane efflux pumps. To analyze the catalytic properties of these pumps, we used ACT1- and GAL1-regulated expression plasmids to overexpress CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 in a C. albicans cdr1 cdr2 mdr1-null mutant. When the genes of interest were expressed, the resulting transformants were more resistant to multiple azole antifungals, and accumulated less [(3)H]fluconazole intracellularly, than empty-vector controls. Next, we used a GAL1-regulated dominant negative sec4 allele to cause cytoplasmic accumulation of post-Golgi secretory vesicles (PGVs), and we found that PGVs isolated from CDR1-, CDR2-, or MDR1-overexpressing cells accumulated much more [(3)H]fluconazole than did PGVs from empty-vector controls. The K(m)s (expressed in micromolar concentrations) and V(max)s (expressed in picomoles per milligram of protein per minute), respectively, for [(3)H]fluconazole transport were 0.8 and 0.91 for Cdr1p, 4.3 and 0.52 for Cdr2p, and 3.5 and 0.59 for Mdr1p. [(3)H]fluconazole transport by Cdr1p and Cdr2p required ATP and was unaffected by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), whereas [(3)H]fluconazole transport by Mdr1p did not require ATP and was inhibited by CCCP. [(3)H]fluconazole uptake by all 3 pumps was inhibited by all other azoles tested, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s; expressed as proportions of the [(3)H]fluconazole concentration) of 0.2 to 5.6 for Cdr1p, 0.3 to 3.1 for Cdr2p, and 0.3 to 3.1 for Mdr1p. The methods used in this study may also be useful for studying other plasma membrane transporters in C. albicans and other medically important fungi.

  12. Methods to Purify and Assay Secretory Pathway Kinases.

    PubMed

    Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Wen, Jianzhong; Xiao, Junyu

    2016-01-01

    Members of the four-jointed and VLK families of secretory pathway kinases appear to be responsible for the phosphorylation of secreted proteins and proteoglycans. These enzymes have been implicated in many biological processes and mutations in several of these kinases cause human diseases. Here, we describe methods to purify and assay two members of the four-jointed family of secretory kinases: the Fam20C protein kinase and the Fam20B proteoglycan kinase. PMID:27632012

  13. Yeast secretory expression of insulin precursors.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, T

    2000-09-01

    Since the 1980s, recombinant human insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has been produced using either the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the prokaryote Escherichia coli. Here, development of the insulin secretory expression system in S. cerevisiae and its subsequent optimisation is described. Expression of proinsulin in S. cerevisiae does not result in efficient secretion of proinsulin or insulin. However, expression of a cDNA encoding a proinsulin-like molecule with deletion of threonine(B30) as a fusion protein with the S. cerevisiae alpha-factor prepro-peptide (leader), followed either by replacement of the human proinsulin C-peptide with a small C-peptide (e.g. AAK), or by direct fusion of lysine(B29) to glycine(A1), results in the efficient secretion of folded single-chain proinsulin-like molecules to the culture supernatant. The secreted single-chain insulin precursor can then be purified and subsequently converted to human insulin by tryptic transpeptidation in organic aqueous medium in the presence of a threonine ester. The leader confers secretory competence to the insulin precursor, and constructed (synthetic) leaders have been developed for efficient secretory expression of the insulin precursor in the yeasts S. cerevisiae and Pichia pastories. The Kex2 endoprotease, specific for dibasic sites, cleaves the leader-insulin precursor fusion protein in the late secretory pathway and the folded insulin precursor is secreted to the culture supernatant. However, the Kex2 endoprotease processing of the pro-peptide-insulin precursor fusion protein is incomplete and a significant part of the pro-peptide-insulin precursor fusion protein is secreted to the culture supernatant in a hyperglycosylated form. A spacer peptide localised between the leader and the insulin precursor has been developed to optimise Kex2 endoprotease processing and insulin precursor fermentation yield. PMID:11030562

  14. Role of aquaporins and regulation of secretory vesicle volume in cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Sugiya, H; Matsuki-Fukushima, M; Hashimoto, S

    2008-01-01

    In exocrine glands, secretory proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) exhibit vectorial transport from ER through a succession of membrane-bounded components such as Golgi complex, condensing vacuoles and secretory granules. The secretory granules migrate to particular locations within the cell close to the apical membrane prior to the release of their contents into the acinar lumen. Currently, to release intragranular contents, secretory granules have been demonstrated to transiently dock and fuse at 'porosome', a permanent cup-shaped structures at the cell membranes. Then swelling of secretory granules occurs to allow explusion of intragranular contents. In this process, water and ion fluxes in the granule membrane appear to contribute to maintain secretory granule integrity and morphology via osmoregulation in secretory granules. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small, hydrophobic, integral membrane proteins, which function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. The AQPs reside constitutively at the plasma membrane in most cell types. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the AQPs are present in secretory granules in exocrine glands, synaptic vesicles and intracellular vesicles in liver and kidney, implying that AQPs in secretory granules and vesicles are involved in their volume regulation. This paper reviews the possible role of AQPs on secretory granules, especially in exocrine glands, in secretory function.

  15. Islet secretory granules contain cytochrome b561.

    PubMed

    Mackin, R B; Jones, D P; Noe, B D

    1986-08-01

    A cytochrome has been detected in secretory granules prepared from anglerfish islets of Langerhans. The heme moiety was determined to be of the b type, and the dithionite-reduced cytochrome exhibited an alpha-band maximum at 561 nm with an extinction coefficient of 13.8 mM-1 X cm-1. The protein was present at a concentration of 40 +/- 4 pmol/mg of secretory granule protein. The cytochrome was found to be an integral membrane protein and to be reduced by ascorbic acid but not by NADH, NADPH, reduced glutathione (GSH), or succinate. Because of the similarity to previously characterized secretory granule cytochrome b561's from neuroendocrine tissues, this cytochrome is also referred to as cytochrome b561. Although its function has not yet been elucidated, the apparent specificity for ascorbate suggests that it may be a component of the ascorbate-dependent peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase system that functions in the amidation of islet hormones. PMID:3525285

  16. Docking of Secretory Vesicles Is Syntaxin Dependent

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Heidi; Cornelisse, L. Niels; Toonen, Ruud F.G.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    Secretory vesicles dock at the plasma membrane before they undergo fusion. Molecular docking mechanisms are poorly defined but believed to be independent of SNARE proteins. Here, we challenged this hypothesis by acute deletion of the target SNARE, syntaxin, in vertebrate neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Deletion resulted in fusion arrest in both systems. No docking defects were observed in synapses, in line with previous observations. However, a drastic reduction in morphologically docked secretory vesicles was observed in chromaffin cells. Syntaxin-deficient chromaffin cells showed a small reduction in total and plasma membrane staining for the docking factor Munc18-1, which appears insufficient to explain the drastic reduction in docking. The sub-membrane cortical actin network was unaffected by syntaxin deletion. These observations expose a docking role for syntaxin in the neuroendocrine system. Additional layers of regulation may have evolved to make syntaxin redundant for docking in highly specialized systems like synaptic active zones. PMID:17205130

  17. Secretory pathway of cellulase: a mini-review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cellulase plays an important role in modern industry and holds great potential in biofuel production. Many different types of organisms produce cellulase, which go through secretory pathways to reach the extracellular space, where enzymatic reactions take place. Secretory pathways in various cells have been the focus of many research fields; however, there are few studies on secretory pathways of cellulases in the literature. It is therefore necessary and important to review the current knowledge on the secretory pathways of cellulases. In this mini-review, we address the subcellular locations of cellulases in different organisms, discuss the secretory pathways of cellulases in different organisms, and examine the secretory mechanisms of cellulases. These sections start with a description of general secreted proteins, advance to the situation of cellulases, and end with the knowledge of cellulases, as documented in UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB). Finally, gaps in existing knowledge are highlighted, which may shed light on future studies for biofuel engineering. PMID:24295495

  18. Label-free Quantitative Proteomics Reveals a Role for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis SecA2 Pathway in Exporting Solute Binding Proteins and Mce Transporters to the Cell Wall*

    PubMed Central

    Feltcher, Meghan E.; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Zulauf, Katelyn E.; Malik, Seidu; Griffin, Jennifer E.; Sassetti, Christopher M.; Chen, Xian; Braunstein, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an example of a bacterial pathogen with a specialized SecA2-dependent protein export system that contributes to its virulence. Our understanding of the mechanistic basis of SecA2-dependent export and the role(s) of the SecA2 pathway in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis has been hindered by our limited knowledge of the proteins exported by the pathway. Here, we set out to identify M. tuberculosis proteins that use the SecA2 pathway for their export from the bacterial cytoplasm to the cell wall. Using label-free quantitative proteomics involving spectral counting, we compared the cell wall and cytoplasmic proteomes of wild type M. tuberculosis to that of a ΔsecA2 mutant. This work revealed a role for the M. tuberculosis SecA2 pathway in the cell wall localization of solute binding proteins that work with ABC transporters to import solutes. Another discovery was a profound effect of SecA2 on the cell wall localization of the Mce1 and Mce4 lipid transporters, which contribute to M. tuberculosis virulence. In addition to the effects on solute binding proteins and Mce transporter export, our label-free quantitative analysis revealed an unexpected relationship between SecA2 and the hypoxia-induced DosR regulon, which is associated with M. tuberculosis latency. Nearly half of the transcriptionally controlled DosR regulon of cytoplasmic proteins were detected at higher levels in the ΔsecA2 mutant versus wild type M. tuberculosis. By increasing the list of M. tuberculosis proteins known to be affected by the SecA2 pathway, this study expands our appreciation of the types of proteins exported by this pathway and guides our understanding of the mechanism of SecA2-dependent protein export in mycobacteria. At the same time, the newly identified SecA2-dependent proteins are helpful for understanding the significance of this pathway to M. tuberculosis virulence and physiology. PMID:25813378

  19. Transcriptional regulation of secretory capacity by bZip transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    FOX, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of specialized secretory organs expand their secretory pathways to accommodate the increased protein load necessary for their function. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus and the secretory vesicles, expand not only the membrane components but also the protein machinery required for increased protein production and transport. Increased protein load causes an ER stress response akin to the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Recent work has implicated several bZip transcription factors in the regulation of protein components of the early secretory pathway necessary to alleviate this stress. Here, we highlight eight bZip transcription factors in regulating secretory pathway component genes. These include components of the three canonical branches of the UPR–ATF4, XBP1, and ATF6, as well as the five members of the Creb3 family of transcription factors. We review findings from both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems suggesting that all of these proteins increase secretory capacity in response to increased protein load. Finally, we propose that the Creb3 family of factors may have a dual role in secretory cell differentiation by also regulating the pathways necessary for cell cycle exit during terminal differentiation. PMID:25821458

  20. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity.

    PubMed

    Engeland, C G; Hugo, F N; Hilgert, J B; Nascimento, G G; Junges, R; Lim, H-J; Marucha, P T; Bosch, J A

    2016-02-01

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and their transporter molecule Secretory Component (SC). S-IgA/SC, IgA1/SC and IgA2/SC ratios were calculated to assess the differential effects of stress on immunoglobulin transport versus availability. This study involved 113 university students, in part selected on high scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale and/or the Beck Depression Inventory. Stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Unstimulated saliva was collected and analysed for total S-IgA and its subclasses, as well as SC and total salivary protein. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for gender, age, health behaviours, and concentration effects (total protein) revealed that higher perceived stress was associated with lower levels of IgA1 but not IgA2. Perceived stress, loneliness and depressive symptoms were all associated with lower IgA1/SC ratios. Surprisingly, higher SC levels were associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms, indicative of enhanced transport activity, which explained a lower IgA1/SC ratio (loneliness and depression) and IgA2/SC ratio (depression). This is the first study to investigate the effects of protracted psychological stress across S-IgA subclasses and its transporter SC. Psychological stress was negatively associated with secretory immunity, specifically IgA1. The lower immunoglobulin/transporter ratio that was associated with higher loneliness and depression suggested a relative immunoglobulin depletion, whereby availability was not keeping up with enhanced transport demand.

  1. Some features of secretory systems in plants.

    PubMed

    Juniper, B E; Gilchrist, A J; Robins, R J

    1977-09-01

    Recent work on secretion in plants is reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomy and physiology of root cap cells in higher plants, the stalked glands of Drosera capensis, and the secretory mechanism of Dionaea muscipula. Cells of the root cap of higher plants switch from a geo-perceptive role to one of mucilage secretion at maturation. Features of this process, the role of the Golgi and the pathway for mucilage distribution are reviewed. In contrast, the stalked glands of the leaves of Drosera capensis are much longer lived and have a complex anatomy. The mechanisms for mucilage secretion, protein absorption and the role of the cell membranes in the internal secretion of the protein are described, using data from X-ray microscopv. The secretion of fluid and protein by Dionaea is stimulated by various nitrogen-containing compounds. Uric acid, often excreted by captured insects, is particularly effective in this respect.

  2. Secretory function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kuryszko, J; Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G

    2016-01-01

    There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass. Apart from leptin, the following belong to adipokines: adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin and cytokines: TNF and IL 6. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone of antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activity. It plays a key role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Resistin exerts a counter effect compared to adiponectin and its physiological role is to maintain fasting glycaemia. Visfatin stimulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake by muscle cells and adipocytes. Apelin probably increases the insulin sensitivity of tissues. TNF evokes insulin resistance by blocking insulin receptors and inhibits insulin secretion. Approximately 30% of circulating IL 6 comes from adipose tissue. It causes insulin resistance by decreasing the expression of insulin receptors, decreases adipogenesis and adiponectin and visfatin secretion, and stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. In 2004, Bays introduced the notion of adiposopathy, defined as dysfunction of the adipose tissue, whose main feature is insulin and leptin resistance as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines: TNF and IL 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein. This means that excess of adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue, leads to the development of a chronic subclinical

  3. An uncleaved signal peptide directs the Malus xiaojinensis iron transporter protein Mx IRT1 into the ER for the PM secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Tan, Song; Berry, James O; Li, Peng; Ren, Na; Li, Shuang; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei-Bing; Qi, Xiao-Ting; Yin, Li-Ping

    2014-11-07

    Malus xiaojinensis iron-regulated transporter 1 (Mx IRT1) is a highly effective inducible iron transporter in the iron efficient plant Malus xiaojinensis. As a multi-pass integral plasma membrane (PM) protein, Mx IRT1 is predicted to consist of eight transmembrane domains, with a putative N-terminal signal peptide (SP) of 1-29 amino acids. To explore the role of the putative SP, constructs expressing Mx IRT1 (with an intact SP) and Mx DsIRT1 (with a deleted SP) were prepared for expression in Arabidopsis and in yeast. Mx IRT1 could rescue the iron-deficiency phenotype of an Arabidopsis irt1 mutant, and complement the iron-limited growth defect of the yeast mutant DEY 1453 (fet3fet4). Furthermore, fluorescence analysis indicated that a chimeric Mx IRT1-eGFP (enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) construct was translocated into the ER (Endoplasmic reticulum) for the PM sorting pathway. In contrast, the SP-deleted Mx DsIRT1 could not rescue either of the mutant phenotypes, nor direct transport of the GFP signal into the ER. Interestingly, immunoblot analysis indicated that the SP was not cleaved from the mature protein following transport into the ER. Taken together, data presented here provides strong evidence that an uncleaved SP determines ER-targeting of Mx IRT1 during the initial sorting stage, thereby enabling the subsequent transport and integration of this protein into the PM for its crucial role in iron uptake.

  4. Copper trafficking to the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2016-09-01

    Copper (Cu) is indispensible for growth and development of human organisms. It is required for such fundamental and ubiquitous processes as respiration and protection against reactive oxygen species. Cu also enables catalytic activity of enzymes that critically contribute to the functional identity of many cells and tissues. Pigmentation, production of norepinephrine by the adrenal gland, the key steps in the formation of connective tissue, neuroendocrine signaling, wound healing - all these processes require Cu and depend on Cu entering the secretory pathway. To reach the Cu-dependent enzymes in a lumen of the trans-Golgi network and various vesicular compartments, Cu undertakes a complex journey crossing the extracellular and intracellular membranes and staying firmly on course while traveling in a cytosol. The proteins that assist Cu in this journey by mediating its entry, distribution, and export, have been identified. The accumulating data also indicate that the current model of cellular Cu homeostasis is still a "skeleton" that has to be fleshed out with many new details. This review summarizes recent data on the mechanisms responsible for Cu transfer to the secretory pathway. The emerging new concepts and gaps in our knowledge are discussed. PMID:27603756

  5. The evolution of plant secretory structures and emergence of terpenoid chemical diversity.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Secretory structures in terrestrial plants appear to have first emerged as intracellular oil bodies in liverworts. In vascular plants, internal secretory structures, such as resin ducts and laticifers, are usually found in conjunction with vascular bundles, whereas subepidermal secretory cavities and epidermal glandular trichomes generally have more complex tissue distribution patterns. The primary function of plant secretory structures is related to defense responses, both constitutive and induced, against herbivores and pathogens. The ability to sequester secondary (or specialized) metabolites and defense proteins in secretory structures was a critical adaptation that shaped plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions. Although this review places particular emphasis on describing the evolution of pathways leading to terpenoids, it also assesses the emergence of other metabolite classes to outline the metabolic capabilities of different plant lineages. PMID:25621517

  6. Secretory vesicle swelling by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Joon; Jena, Bhanu P

    2006-01-01

    The swelling of secretory vesicles has been implicated in exocytosis, but the underlying mechanism of vesicle swelling remained unknown. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrated the association of the alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein G(alphai3) with zymogen granule membrane and implicated its involvement in vesicle swelling. Mas7, an active mastoparan analog known to stimulate Gi proteins, was found to stimulate the GTPase activity of isolated zymogen granules and cause swelling. Increase in vesicle size in the presence of GTP, NaF, and Mas7 were irreversible and found to be KCl sensitive. However, Ca2+ had no effect on zymogen granule size. Taken together, these results indicated that zymogen granules, the membrane-bound secretory vesicles in exocrine pancreas, swell in response to GTP mediated by a G(alphai3) protein. Subsequently, our studies demonstrated that the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is also present at the zymogen granule membrane and participates in rapid GTP-induced and G(alphai3)-mediated vesicular water gating and swelling. Isolated zymogen granules exhibit low basal water permeability. However, exposure of granules to GTP results in a marked potentiation of water entry. Treatment of zymogen granules with the known water channel inhibitor Hg2+ is accompanied by a reversible loss in both the basal and GTP-stimulable water entry and vesicle swelling. Introduction of AQP1-specific antibody raised against the carboxy-terminal domain of AQP1 blocked GTP-stimulable swelling of vesicles. Our results demonstrate that AQPI associated at the zymogen granule membrane is involved in basal GTP-induced and G(alphai3)-mediated rapid gating of water into zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas.

  7. The ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 coordinates gastrointestinal secretory cell maturation

    PubMed Central

    Capoccia, Benjamin J.; Jin, Ramon U.; Kong, Young-Yun; Peek, Richard M.; Fassan, Matteo; Rugge, Massimo; Mills, Jason C.

    2013-01-01

    After cell fate specification, differentiating cells must amplify the specific subcellular features required for their specialized function. How cells regulate such subcellular scaling is a fundamental unanswered question. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 (MIB1) is required for the apical secretory apparatus established by gastric zymogenic cells as they differentiate from their progenitors. When Mib1 was deleted, death-associated protein kinase–1 (DAPK1) was rerouted to the cell base, microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) was dephosphorylated, and the apical vesicles that normally support mature secretory granules were dispersed. Consequently, secretory granules did not mature. The transcription factor MIST1 bound the first intron of Mib1 and regulated its expression. We further showed that loss of MIB1 and dismantling of the apical secretory apparatus was the earliest quantifiable aberration in zymogenic cells undergoing transition to a precancerous metaplastic state in mouse and human stomach. Our results reveal a mechanistic pathway by which cells can scale up a specific, specialized subcellular compartment to alter function during differentiation and scale it down during disease. PMID:23478405

  8. The secretory pathway of protists: spatial and functional organization and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, B; Melkonian, M

    1996-01-01

    All cells secrete a diversity of macromolecules to modify their environment or to protect themselves. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a complex secretory pathway consisting of several membrane-bound compartments which contain specific sets of proteins. Experimental work on the secretory pathway has focused mainly on mammalian cell lines or on yeasts. Now, some general principles of the secretory pathway have become clear, and most components of the secretory pathway are conserved between yeast cells and mammalian cells. However, the structure and function of the secretory system in protists have been less extensively studied. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the secretory pathway of five different groups of protists: Giardia lamblia, one of the earliest lines of eukaryotic evolution, kinetoplastids, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and two lineages within the "crown" of eukaryotic cell evolution, the alveolates (ciliates and Plasmodium species) and the green algae. Comparison of these systems with the mammalian and yeast system shows that most elements of the secretory pathway were presumably present in the earliest eukaryotic organisms. However, one element of the secretory pathway shows considerable variation: the presence of a Golgi stack and the number of cisternae within a stack. We suggest that the functional separation of the plasma membrane from the nucleus-endoplasmic reticulum system during evolution required a sorting compartment, which became the Golgi apparatus. Once a Golgi apparatus was established, it was adapted to the various needs of the different organisms. PMID:8987360

  9. The secretory pathway of protists: spatial and functional organization and evolution.

    PubMed

    Becker, B; Melkonian, M

    1996-12-01

    All cells secrete a diversity of macromolecules to modify their environment or to protect themselves. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a complex secretory pathway consisting of several membrane-bound compartments which contain specific sets of proteins. Experimental work on the secretory pathway has focused mainly on mammalian cell lines or on yeasts. Now, some general principles of the secretory pathway have become clear, and most components of the secretory pathway are conserved between yeast cells and mammalian cells. However, the structure and function of the secretory system in protists have been less extensively studied. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the secretory pathway of five different groups of protists: Giardia lamblia, one of the earliest lines of eukaryotic evolution, kinetoplastids, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and two lineages within the "crown" of eukaryotic cell evolution, the alveolates (ciliates and Plasmodium species) and the green algae. Comparison of these systems with the mammalian and yeast system shows that most elements of the secretory pathway were presumably present in the earliest eukaryotic organisms. However, one element of the secretory pathway shows considerable variation: the presence of a Golgi stack and the number of cisternae within a stack. We suggest that the functional separation of the plasma membrane from the nucleus-endoplasmic reticulum system during evolution required a sorting compartment, which became the Golgi apparatus. Once a Golgi apparatus was established, it was adapted to the various needs of the different organisms.

  10. Excretory/secretory products from in vitro-cultured Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

    PubMed

    Virginio, Veridiana G; Monteiro, Karina M; Drumond, Fernanda; de Carvalho, Marcos O; Vargas, Daiani M; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2012-05-01

    Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus metacestodes and affects humans and livestock. Proteins secreted or excreted by protoscoleces, pre-adult worms found in the metacestode, are thought to play fundamental roles in the host-parasite relationship. In this work, we performed an LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products obtained from the first 48 h of an in vitro culture of the protoscoleces. We identified 32 proteins, including 18 that were never detected previously in metacestode proteomic studies. Among the novel identified excretory-secretory products are antigenic proteins, such as EG19 and P-29 and a calpain protease. We also identified other important protoscolex excretory-secretory products, such as thioredoxin peroxidase and 14-3-3 proteins, which are potentially involved in evasion mechanisms adopted by parasites to establish infection. Several intracellular proteins were found in the excretory-secretory products, revealing a set of identified proteins not previously thought to be exposed at the host-parasite interface. Additionally, immunological analyses established the antigenic profiles of the newly identified excretory-secretory products and revealed, for the first time, the in vitro secretion of the B antigen by protoscoleces. Considering that the excretory-secretory products obtained in vitro might reflect the products released and exposed to the host in vivo, our results provide valuable information on parasite survival strategies in adverse host environments and on the molecular mechanisms underpinning CHD immunopathology.

  11. Novel cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like cysteine protease of Naegleria fowleri excretory-secretory proteins and their biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yang, Hee-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Sun; Kim, Kyongmin; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2014-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes a lethal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals, which leads to death within 7-14 days. Cysteine proteases of parasites play key roles in nutrient uptake, excystment/encystment, host tissue invasion, and immune evasion. In this study, we cloned N. fowleri cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes from our cDNA library of N. fowleri. The full-length sequences of genes were 1,038 and 939 bp (encoded 345 and 313 amino acids), and molecular weights were 38.4 and 34 kDa, respectively. Also, nfcpb and nfcpb-L showed a 56 and 46 % identity to Naegleria gruberi cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like enzyme, respectively. Recombinant NfCPB (rNfCPB) and NfCPB-L (rNfCPB-L) proteins were expressed by the pEX5-NT/TOPO vector that was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21, and they showed 38.4 and 34 kDa bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis using their respective antibodies. Proteolytic activity of refolded rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L was maximum at a pH of 4.5, and the most effective substrate was Z-LR-MCA. rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L showed proteolytic activity for several proteins such as IgA, IgG, IgM, collagen, fibronectin, hemoglobin, and albumin. These results suggested that NfCPB and NfCPB-L cysteine protease are important components of the N. fowleri ESP, and they may play important roles in host tissue invasion and immune evasion as pathogens that cause N. fowleri PAM. PMID:24832815

  12. ECHIDNA protein impacts on male fertility in Arabidopsis by mediating trans-Golgi network secretory trafficking during anther and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-03-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-yellow fluorescent protein) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization.

  13. Novel cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like cysteine protease of Naegleria fowleri excretory-secretory proteins and their biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yang, Hee-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Sun; Kim, Kyongmin; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2014-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes a lethal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals, which leads to death within 7-14 days. Cysteine proteases of parasites play key roles in nutrient uptake, excystment/encystment, host tissue invasion, and immune evasion. In this study, we cloned N. fowleri cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes from our cDNA library of N. fowleri. The full-length sequences of genes were 1,038 and 939 bp (encoded 345 and 313 amino acids), and molecular weights were 38.4 and 34 kDa, respectively. Also, nfcpb and nfcpb-L showed a 56 and 46 % identity to Naegleria gruberi cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like enzyme, respectively. Recombinant NfCPB (rNfCPB) and NfCPB-L (rNfCPB-L) proteins were expressed by the pEX5-NT/TOPO vector that was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21, and they showed 38.4 and 34 kDa bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis using their respective antibodies. Proteolytic activity of refolded rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L was maximum at a pH of 4.5, and the most effective substrate was Z-LR-MCA. rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L showed proteolytic activity for several proteins such as IgA, IgG, IgM, collagen, fibronectin, hemoglobin, and albumin. These results suggested that NfCPB and NfCPB-L cysteine protease are important components of the N. fowleri ESP, and they may play important roles in host tissue invasion and immune evasion as pathogens that cause N. fowleri PAM.

  14. ECHIDNA protein impacts on male fertility in Arabidopsis by mediating trans-Golgi network secretory trafficking during anther and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-03-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-yellow fluorescent protein) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization. PMID:24424320

  15. Ionic, electrical, and secretory effects of protein kinase C activation in mouse pancreatic B-cells: studies with a phorbol ester

    SciTech Connect

    Bozem, M.; Nenquin, M.; Henquin, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was used to study the effects of protein kinase C activation on stimulus-secretion coupling in mouse pancreatic B-cells. At a nonstimulatory concentration of glucose (3 mM), 100 nM TPA, but not 10 nM TPA, slightly and slowly increased insulin release and /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux and decreased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux, but did not affect the membrane potential of B-cells. At a threshold concentration of glucose (7 mM), 100 nM TPA markedly increased insulin release without triggering electrical activity in B-cells. At a stimulatory concentration of glucose (10 mM), TPA caused a dose-dependent irreversible increase in insulin release, /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux, and /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux and slightly augmented islet cAMP levels. Omission of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ abolished the effects of 10 nM TPA and partially inhibited those of 100 nM TPA on insulin release and /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux. In contrast, their effect on /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux was paradoxically augmented. Glucose-induced electrical activity in B-cells was only marginally affected by TPA; the duration of the slow waves with spikes was not modified, but a small shortening of the polarized intervals raised their frequency and slightly increased the overall activity. This increase was significant only with 10 nM TPA, whereas only 100 nM TPA brought about a minute increase in /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ influx. These results thus show that TPA induces insulin release or potentiates glucose-induced insulin release without mimicking or amplifying the initial ionic and electrical signals triggered by glucose. They suggest that protein kinase C activation affects stimulus-secretion coupling by modulating intracellular and/or nonelectrogenic membrane events.

  16. Changes in gene expression of pancreatitis-associated protein and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors in experimental pancreatitis produced by pancreatic duct occlusion in rats: comparison with gene expression of cholecystokinin and secretin.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Jimi, A; Nakamura, E; Teraoka, H

    1995-08-01

    Pancreatic duct occlusion is known to produce a sustained increase in the plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentration and to affect the tissue content of CCK in the rat. The tissue content of CCK is correlated with regenerative changes in the pancreas after pancreatic duct occlusion. In the present study, we examined the changes in mRNA levels of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors (PSTIs), pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP), and amylase in the pancreas in comparison with changes in CCK and secretin mRNA levels in the intestine and the histological changes produced by pancreatic duct ligation. Rats with an internal bile fistula and with obstruction of pancreatic flow were prepared and were sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 28 days later. Then mRNA levels of CCK, secretin, PSTIs, PAP, and amylase were determined by slot-blot analysis. The CCK mRNA level gradually increased to a peak on day 10, was slightly lower on day 14, and returned to the control level on day 28. The level of secretin mRNA did not change. The mRNA levels of PSTIs increased significantly on day 3 after occlusion. PAP mRNA was detectable on days 1 and 3, being maximal on day 1. The mRNA level of amylase was markedly decreased on days 1 and 3, then remained lower than the control level. Histological examination showed acute inflammatory changes in the pancreas on days 1 and 3 and regenerative changes from day 7. These results suggest that a change in gene expression of PAP reflects acute inflammatory changes in the pancreas most sensitively.

  17. Sorting and storage during secretory granule biogenesis: looking backward and looking forward.

    PubMed Central

    Arvan, P; Castle, D

    1998-01-01

    Secretory granules are specialized intracellular organelles that serve as a storage pool for selected secretory products. The exocytosis of secretory granules is markedly amplified under physiologically stimulated conditions. While granules have been recognized as post-Golgi carriers for almost 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in their formation from the trans-Golgi network are only beginning to be defined. This review summarizes and evaluates current information about how secretory proteins are thought to be sorted for the regulated secretory pathway and how these activities are positioned with respect to other post-Golgi sorting events that must occur in parallel. In the first half of the review, the emerging role of immature secretory granules in protein sorting is highlighted. The second half of the review summarizes what is known about the composition of granule membranes. The numerous similarities and relatively limited differences identified between granule membranes and other vesicular carriers that convey products to and from the plasmalemma, serve as a basis for examining how granule membrane composition might be established and how its unique functions interface with general post-Golgi membrane traffic. Studies of granule formation in vitro offer additional new insights, but also important challenges for future efforts to understand how regulated secretory pathways are constructed and maintained. PMID:9620860

  18. Lipids implicated in the journey of a secretory granule: from biogenesis to fusion.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Emeline; Carmon, Ophélie; Wang, Qili; Jeandel, Lydie; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette; Montero-Hadjadje, Maité; Vitale, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The regulated secretory pathway begins with the formation of secretory granules by budding from the Golgi apparatus and ends by their fusion with the plasma membrane leading to the release of their content into the extracellular space, generally following a rise in cytosolic calcium. Generation of these membrane-bound transport carriers can be classified into three steps: (i) cargo sorting that segregates the cargo from resident proteins of the Golgi apparatus, (ii) membrane budding that encloses the cargo and depends on the creation of appropriate membrane curvature, and (iii) membrane fission events allowing the nascent carrier to separate from the donor membrane. These secretory vesicles then mature as they are actively transported along microtubules toward the cortical actin network at the cell periphery. The final stage known as regulated exocytosis involves the docking and the priming of the mature granules, necessary for merging of vesicular and plasma membranes, and the subsequent partial or total release of the secretory vesicle content. Here, we review the latest evidence detailing the functional roles played by lipids during secretory granule biogenesis, recruitment, and exocytosis steps. In this review, we highlight evidence supporting the notion that lipids play important functions in secretory vesicle biogenesis, maturation, recruitment, and membrane fusion steps. These effects include regulating various protein distribution and activity, but also directly modulating membrane topology. The challenges ahead to understand the pleiotropic functions of lipids in a secretory granule's journey are also discussed. This article is part of a mini review series on Chromaffin cells (ISCCB Meeting, 2015).

  19. Secretory breast cancer. Case report

    PubMed Central

    LOMBARDI, A.; MAGGI, S.; BERSIGOTTI, L.; LAZZARIN, G.; NUCCETELLI, E.; AMANTI, C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 – year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma. PMID:23660165

  20. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  1. Secretory function in subplate neurons during cortical development

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Shinichi; Al-Hasani, Hannah; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Wang, Wei Zhi; Molnár, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Subplate cells are among the first generated neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex and have been implicated in the establishment of cortical wiring. In rodents some subplate neurons persist into adulthood. Here we would like to highlight several converging findings which suggest a novel secretory function of subplate neurons during cortical development. Throughout the postnatal period in rodents, subplate neurons have highly developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are under an ER stress condition. By comparing gene expression between subplate and layer 6, we found that several genes encoding secreted proteins are highly expressed in subplate neurons. One of these secreted proteins, neuroserpin, encoded by the serpini1 gene, is localized to the ER in subplate cells. We propose that subplate might influence cortical circuit formation through a transient secretory function. PMID:25859180

  2. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the secretory process of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sandborg, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted.

  3. The secretory membrane system studied in real-time. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture, 2001.

    PubMed

    Lippincott-Schwartz, J

    2001-08-01

    The discovery and development of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, has revolutionized studies on protein localization and dynamics by allowing direct observation of a protein's life history and pathway in living cells, previously only deduced from genetic, biochemical, or immunolabeling studies. Applied to the secretory membrane system, which regulates delivery of newly synthesized proteins and lipids to the cell surface, GFP-based studies are providing important new insights into the maintenance and biogenesis of organelles, as well as the origin, pathway, and fate of secretory transport intermediates.

  4. The secretory membrane system studied in real-time. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture, 2001.

    PubMed

    Lippincott-Schwartz, J

    2001-08-01

    The discovery and development of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, has revolutionized studies on protein localization and dynamics by allowing direct observation of a protein's life history and pathway in living cells, previously only deduced from genetic, biochemical, or immunolabeling studies. Applied to the secretory membrane system, which regulates delivery of newly synthesized proteins and lipids to the cell surface, GFP-based studies are providing important new insights into the maintenance and biogenesis of organelles, as well as the origin, pathway, and fate of secretory transport intermediates. PMID:11685538

  5. Unremitting Cell Proliferation in the Secretory Phase of Eutopic Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Murillo, Yanira; Miranda-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Rendón-Huerta, Erika; Montaño, Luis F.; Cornejo, Gerardo Velázquez; Gómez, Lucila Poblano; Valdez-Morales, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Endometriosis is linked to altered cell proliferation and stem cell markers c-kit/stem cell factor (SCF) in ectopic endometrium. Our aim was to investigate whether c-kit/SCF also plays a role in eutopic endometrium. Design: Eutopic endometrium obtained from 35 women with endometriosis and 25 fertile eumenorrheic women was analyzed for in situ expression of SCF/c-kit, Ki67, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated RAC-alpha serine/threonin-protein kinase (pAkt), Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (pGSK3β), throughout the menstrual cycle. Results: Expression of Ki67 and SCF was higher in endometriosis than in control tissue (P < .05) and greater in secretory rather than proliferative (P < .01) endometrium in endometriosis. Expression of c-kit was also higher in endometriosis although similar in both phases. Expression of Akt and GSK3β was identical in all samples and cycle phases, whereas pAkt and pGSK3β, opposed to control tissue, remained overexpressed in the secretory phase in endometriosis. Conclusion: Unceasing cell proliferation in the secretory phase of eutopic endometriosis is linked to deregulation of c-kit/SCF-associated signaling pathways. PMID:25194152

  6. The Ypt1 GTPase is essential for the first two steps of the yeast secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Jedd, G; Richardson, C; Litt, R; Segev, N

    1995-11-01

    Small GTPases of the rab family are involved in the regulation of vesicular transport. The restricted distribution of each of these proteins in mammalian cells has led to the suggestion that different rab proteins act at different steps of transport (Pryer, N. K., L. J. Wuestehube, and R. Sheckman. 1992. Annu Rev. Biochem. 61:471-516; Zerial, M., and H. Stenmark. 1993. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 5:613-620). However, in this report we show that the Ypt1-GTPase, a member of the rab family, is essential for more than one step of the yeast secretory pathway. We determined the secretory defect conferred by a novel ypt1 mutation by comparing the processing of several transported glycoproteins in wild-type and mutant cells. The ypt1-A136D mutant has a change in an amino acid that is conserved among rab GTPases. This mutation leads to a rapid and tight secretory block upon a shift to the restrictive temperature, and allows for the identification of the specific steps in the secretory pathway that directly require Ypt1 protein (Ypt1p). The ypt1-A136D mutant exhibits tight blocks in two secretory steps, ER to cis-Golgi and cis- to medial-Golgi, but later steps are unaffected. Thus, it is unlikely that Ypt1p functions as the sole determinant of fusion specificity. Our results are more consistent with a role for Ypt1/rab proteins in determining the directionality or fidelity of protein sorting.

  7. A Highly Sensitive Assay for Monitoring the Secretory Pathway and ER Stress

    PubMed Central

    Breakefield, Xandra O.; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2007-01-01

    Background The secretory pathway is a critical index of the capacity of cells to incorporate proteins into cellular membranes and secrete proteins into the extracellular space. Importantly it is disrupted in response to stress to the endoplasmic reticulum that can be induced by a variety of factors, including expression of mutant proteins and physiologic stress. Activation of the ER stress response is critical in the etiology of a number of diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration, as well as cancer. We have developed a highly sensitive assay to monitor processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in real-time based on the naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase (Gluc). Methodology/Principle Findings An expression cassette for Gluc was delivered to cells, and its secretion was monitored by measuring luciferase activity in the conditioned medium. Gluc secretion was decreased down to 90% when these cells were treated with drugs that interfere with the secretory pathway at different steps. Fusing Gluc to a fluorescent protein allowed quantitation and visualization of the secretory pathway in real-time. Expression of this reporter protein did not itself elicit an ER stress response in cells; however, Gluc proved very sensitive at sensing this type of stress, which is associated with a temporary decrease in processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. The Gluc secretion assay was over 20,000-fold more sensitive as compared to the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), a well established assay for monitoring of protein processing and ER stress in mammalian cells. Conclusions/Significance The Gluc assay provides a fast, quantitative and sensitive technique to monitor the secretory pathway and ER stress and its compatibility with high throughput screening will allow discovery of drugs for treatment of conditions in which the ER stress is generally induced. PMID:17593970

  8. RNAi knockdown of parafusin inhibits the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Satir, Birgit H

    2011-10-01

    Several glycolytic enzymes and their isoforms have been found to be important in cell signaling unrelated to glycolysis. The involvement of parafusin (PFUS), a member of the phosphoglucomutase (PGM) superfamily with no phosphoglucomutase activity, in Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis has been controversial. This protein was first described in Paramecium tetraurelia, but is widely found. Earlier work showed that parafusin is a secretory vesicle scaffold component with unusual post-translational modifications (cyclic phosphorylation and phosphoglucosylation) coupled to stages in the exocytic process. Using RNAi, we demonstrate that parafusin synthesis can be reversibly blocked, with minor or no effect on other PGM isoforms. PFUS knockdown produces an inhibition of dense core secretory vesicle (DCSV) synthesis leading to an exo(-) phenotype. Although cell growth is unaffected, vesicle content is not packaged properly and no new DCSVs are formed. We conclude that PFUS and its orthologs are necessary for proper scaffold maturation. Because of this association, parafusin is an important signaling component for regulatory control of the secretory pathway.

  9. Secretory immunity and the bacterial IgA proteases.

    PubMed

    Kornfeld, S J; Plaut, A G

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics and functions of microbial IgA proteases are reviewed. These enzymes represent a structurally heterogeneous group of proteins that are secreted into the extracellular environment by bacteria capable of causing human disease. The IgA proteases, which vary in their requirements for metal ions, are neutral endopeptidases whose role in the infectious process is not known but whose pronounced substrate specificity for human proteins of the IgA1 subclass has repeatedly been demonstrated. As reagents, the IgA proteases are useful in cleaving IgA molecules to yield intact Fc alpha and Fab alpha fragments that will allow the study of the structure and function of the two large regions of IgA immunoglobulin proteins. The role, if any, of these enzymes in promoting infection by pathogenic members of the genera Neisseria, Hemophilus, and Streptococcus is not known, although the secretory immune system is primarily mediated by antibodies of the IgA isotype, among which are IgA1 subclass proteins, and these proteins are susceptible to cleavage by IgA protease. The determination of the role of these enzymes in the pathogenesis of human infection must await clearer understanding of antigenicity and antibody function at secretory sites and of the relative roles of the two subclasses of human IgA in immune defense.

  10. The challenge of improved secretory production of active pharmaceutical ingredients in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a case study on human insulin analogs.

    PubMed

    Kazemi Seresht, Ali; Palmqvist, Eva A; Schluckebier, Gerd; Pettersson, Ingrid; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2013-10-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has widely been used as a host for the production of heterologous proteins. Great attention has been put on improved secretory production of active pharmaceutical ingredients, and the secretory pathway of this eukaryotic host has been the playground of diverse strain engineering studies, aiming at enhanced cellular capacities for folding and trafficking of the target proteins. However, the cellular quality assessment for secretory proteins remains mostly unpredictable, and different target proteins often do not picture similar secretion yields, underlining the dependency of efficient secretion on the physicochemical properties of the protein of interest. In this study, two human insulin analog precursors (IAPs) with minor differences in their amino acid sequences were used as model secretory proteins. No differences between cells expressing these two proteins were found in the IAP transcript levels, gene copy numbers, or intra-cellularly accumulated proteins, yet a more than sevenfold difference in their secretion yields was found. Physiological characterization of cells expressing these proteins in batch processes revealed no significant difference in their specific growth rate, but an altered overflow metabolism. Global transcriptome analysis carried out in chemostat experiments pinpointed distinct steps during the protein maturation pathway to be differentially regulated and indicated an increased degradation of the IAP with the low secretion yield. In silico protein structure modeling of the IAPs suggested a difference in conformational stability, induced by the amino acid substitution, which most likely resulted in disparity in trafficking through the secretory pathway and thus a large difference in secretion yields. PMID:23592021

  11. AP-1 and clathrin are essential for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jason; Jauregui, Miluska; Tan, Julie; Rollins, Janet; Lallet, Sylvie; Leventis, Peter A.; Boulianne, Gabrielle L.; Chang, Henry C.; Le Borgne, Roland; Krämer, Helmut; Brill, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

     Regulated secretion of hormones, digestive enzymes, and other biologically active molecules requires the formation of secretory granules. Clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) are necessary for maturation of exocrine, endocrine, and neuroendocrine secretory granules. However, the initial steps of secretory granule biogenesis are only minimally understood. Powerful genetic approaches available in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were used to investigate the molecular pathway for biogenesis of the mucin-containing “glue granules” that form within epithelial cells of the third-instar larval salivary gland. Clathrin and AP-1 colocalize at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and clathrin recruitment requires AP-1. Furthermore, clathrin and AP-1 colocalize with secretory cargo at the TGN and on immature granules. Finally, loss of clathrin or AP-1 leads to a profound block in secretory granule formation. These findings establish a novel role for AP-1– and clathrin-dependent trafficking in the biogenesis of mucin-containing secretory granules. PMID:21490149

  12. HID-1 is required for homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules during maturation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen; Zhou, Maoge; Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Dongwan; Wang, Lifen; Lu, Jingze; Song, Eli; Feng, Wei; Xue, Yanhong; Xu, Pingyong; Xu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granules, also known as dense core vesicles, are generated at the trans-Golgi network and undergo several maturation steps, including homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules (ISGs) and processing of prehormones to yield active peptides. The molecular mechanisms governing secretory granule maturation are largely unknown. Here, we investigate a highly conserved protein named HID-1 in a mouse model. A conditional knockout of HID-1 in pancreatic β cells leads to glucose intolerance and a remarkable increase in the serum proinsulin/insulin ratio caused by defective proinsulin processing. Large volume three-dimensional electron microscopy and immunofluorescence imaging reveal that ISGs are much more abundant in the absence of HID-1. We further demonstrate that HID-1 deficiency prevented secretory granule maturation by blocking homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules. Our data identify a novel player during the early maturation of immature secretory granules. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18134.001 PMID:27751232

  13. Estradiol increases cAMP in the oviductal secretory cells through a nongenomic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Oróstica, María L; Lopez, John; Rojas, Israel; Rocco, Jocelyn; Díaz, Patricia; Reuquén, Patricia; Cardenas, Hugo; Parada-Bustamante, Alexis; Orihuela, Pedro A

    2014-09-01

    In the rat oviduct, estradiol (E2) accelerates egg transport by a nongenomic action that requires previous conversion of E2 to methoxyestrogens via catechol-O-methyltranferase (COMT) and activation of estrogen receptor (ER) with subsequent production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP3). However, the role of the different oviductal cellular phenotypes on this E2 nongenomic pathway remains undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of E2 on the levels of cAMP and IP3 in primary cultures of secretory and smooth muscle cells from rat oviducts and determine the mechanism by which E2 increases cAMP in the secretory cells. In the secretory cells, E2 increased cAMP but not IP3, while in the smooth muscle cells E2 decreased cAMP and increased IP3. Suppression of protein synthesis by actinomycin D did not prevent the E2-induced cAMP increase, but this was blocked by the ER antagonist ICI 182 780 and the inhibitors of COMT OR 486, G protein-α inhibitory (Gαi) protein pertussis toxin and adenylyl cyclase (AC) SQ 22536. Expression of the mRNA for the enzymes that metabolizes estrogens, Comt, Cyp1a1, and Cyp1b1 was found in the secretory cells, but this was not affected by E2. Finally, confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that E2 induced colocalization between ESR1 (ERα) and Gαi in extranuclear regions of the secretory cells. We conclude that E2 differentially regulates cAMP and IP3 in the secretory and smooth muscle cells of the rat oviduct. In the secretory cells, E2 increases cAMP via a nongenomic action that requires activation of COMT and ER, coupling between ESR1 and Gαi, and stimulation of AC.

  14. Coordinated activation of the secretory pathway during notochord formation in the Xenopus embryo

    PubMed Central

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Zhao, Hui; Rebbert, Martha L.; Dawid, Igor B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We compared the transcriptome in the developing notochord of Xenopus laevis embryos with that of other embryonic regions. A coordinated and intense activation of a large set of secretory pathway genes was observed in the notochord, but not in notochord precursors in the axial mesoderm at early gastrula stage. The genes encoding Xbp1 and Creb3l2 were also activated in the notochord. These two transcription factors are implicated in the activation of secretory pathway genes during the unfolded protein response, where cells react to the stress of a build-up of unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum. Xbp1 and Creb3l2 are differentially expressed but not differentially activated in the notochord. Reduction of expression of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 by injection of antisense morpholinos led to strong deficits in notochord but not somitic muscle development. In addition, the expression of some, but not all, genes encoding secretory proteins was inhibited by injection of xbp1 morpholinos. Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 in animal explants could activate a similar subset of secretory pathway genes. We conclude that coordinated activation of a battery of secretory pathway genes mediated by Xbp1 and Creb/ATF factors is a characteristic and necessary feature of notochord formation. PMID:19793890

  15. Porosome: The Universal Secretory Portal in Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Bhanu

    2012-10-01

    In the past 50 years it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the ``all or none'' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release. Moreover, it makes no sense for mammalian cells to possess such `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion, when even single-cell organisms have developed specialized and sophisticated secretory machinery, such as the secretion apparatus of Toxoplasma gondii, the contractile vacuoles in paramecium, or the various types of secretory structures in bacteria. Therefore, in 1993 in a News and Views article in Nature, E. Neher wrote ``It seems terribly wasteful that, during the release of hormones and neurotransmitters from a cell, the membrane of a vesicle should merge with the plasma membrane to be retrieved for recycling only seconds or minutes later.'' This conundrum in the molecular mechanism of cell secretion was finally resolved in 1997 following discovery of the ``Porosome,'' the universal secretory machinery in cells. Porosomes are supramolecular lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release inravesicular contents to the outside during cell secretion. In the past decade, the composition of the porosome, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have all been elucidated. Since porosomes in exocrine and neuroendocrine cells measure 100-180 nm

  16. Fluoride enhances intracellular degradation of amelogenins during secretory phase of amelogenesis of hamster teeth in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Bronckers, A L J J; Lyaruu, D M; Bervoets, T J M; Wöltgens, J H M

    2002-01-01

    Amelogenins are the major protein species synthesized by secretory ameloblasts and are believed to be involved in enamel mineralization. During enamel formation, amelogenins are progressively degraded into smaller fragments by protease activity. These amelogenin fragments are removed from the enamel extracellular space, thereby enabling full mineralization of the dental enamel. Enamel from fluorotic teeth is porous and contains more proteins and less mineral than sound enamel. In this study we examined the hypothesis that fluoride (F-) is capable of inhibiting the proteolysis of amelogenins in enamel being formed in organ culture. Hamster molar tooth germs in stages of secretory amelogenesis were pulse labeled in vitro with [3H]- or [14C] proline and subsequently pulse chased. The explants were exposed to F- at different days of chase (i.e., during secretory amelogenesis early after labeling, later after labeling or at stages just beyond secretory amelogenesis). Exposure of secretory stage explants to F- enhanced the release of radiolabeled fragments when F- was applied early after labeling but progressively less if applied later. In contrast, F- had no such effect in stages beyond secretion. The enhanced release of radiolabeled fragments in secretory stages was associated with a reduction of radioactivity in the soft tissue enamel organ indicating that fragmentation of enamel matrix proteins (mainly amelogenins) occurred intracellularly. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) demonstrated that the fluorotic enamel contained less radiolabeled parent amelogenins (M(r) 28 kD and 26 kD) but more low-molecular-mass fragments than enamel from control explants. Our data indicate that F- promotes intracellular degradation of the newly synthesized parent amelogenins during secretory stage. Our in vitro data do not support the concept that F- impairs extracellular proteolysis of amelogenins, either in the secretory phase or in the

  17. Characterization of a Secretory Annexin in Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Xingju; Hu, Dandan; Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tao; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is a widespread parasitic zoonosis causing economic loss and public health problems. Annexins are important proteins usually present in the plasma membrane, but previous studies have shown that an annexin B33 protein of E. granulosus (Eg-ANX) could be detected in the excretory/secretory products and cyst fluid. In this study, we cloned and characterized Eg-ANX. In silico analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of Eg-ANX was conserved and lacked any signal peptides. The phospholipid-binding activity of recombinant Eg-ANX (rEg-ANX) was tested; liposomes could bind to rEg-ANX only in the presence of Ca(2+). In addition, we performed western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses to further validate the secretory properties of Eg-ANX. The protein could be detected in the cyst fluid of E. granulosus and was also present in the intermediate host tissues, which suggested that Eg-ANX might play an important role in parasite-host interaction.

  18. Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Pacheco-Yépez, Judith; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Barbosa-Cabrera, Reyna Elizabeth; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a response of the central nervous system to environmental stimuli perceived as a threat to homeostasis. The stress response triggers the generation of neurotransmitters and hormones from the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic axis and brain gut axis, and in this way modulates the intestinal immune system. The effects of psychological stress on intestinal immunity have been investigated mostly with the restraint/immobilization rodent model, resulting in an up or down modulation of SIgA levels depending on the intensity and time of exposure to stress. SIgA is a protein complex formed by dimeric (dIgA) or polymeric IgA (pIgA) and the secretory component (SC), a peptide derived from the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). The latter receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral side of gut epithelial cells, where it uptakes dIgA or pIgA released by plasma cells in the lamina propria. As a result, the IgA-pIgR complex is formed and transported by vesicles to the apical side of epithelial cells. pIgR is then cleaved to release SIgA into the luminal secretions of gut. Down modulation of SIgA associated with stress can have negative repercussions on intestinal function and integrity. This can take the form of increased adhesion of pathogenic agents to the intestinal epithelium and/or an altered balance of inflammation leading to greater intestinal permeability. Most studies on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stress response have focused on systemic immunity. The present review analyzes the impact of stress (mostly by restraint/immobilization, but also with mention of other models) on the generation of SIgA, pIgR and other humoral and cellular components involved in the intestinal immune response. Insights into these mechanisms could lead to better therapies for protecting against pathogenic agents and avoiding epithelial tissue damage by modulating intestinal inflammation. PMID:24348350

  19. Modulation of dendritic cell function by Trichomonas vaginalis-derived secretory products.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Ji; Lee, Jong-Joo; Nam, Young Hee; Kim, Tae-Gyun; Chung, Youn Wook; Kim, Mikyoung; Choi, Ye-Eun; Shin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo

    2015-02-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells that initiate immune responses by directing the activation and differentiation of naïve T cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of Trichomonas vaginalis-derived Secretory Products on the differentiation and function of dendritic cells. Differentiation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the presence of T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Products resulted in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced maturation of dendritic cells, down-regulation of IL-12, and up-regulation of IL-10. The protein components of T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Products were shown to be responsible for altered function of bone marrow- derived dendritic cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that IL-12 expression was regulated at the chromatin level in T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Productstreated dendritic cells. Our results demonstrated that T. vaginalis- derived Secretory Products modulate the maturation and cytokine production of dendritic cells leading to immune tolerance.

  20. Insulin granules. Insulin secretory granules control autophagy in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Goginashvili, Alexander; Zhang, Zhirong; Erbs, Eric; Spiegelhalter, Coralie; Kessler, Pascal; Mihlan, Michael; Pasquier, Adrien; Krupina, Ksenia; Schieber, Nicole; Cinque, Laura; Morvan, Joëlle; Sumara, Izabela; Schwab, Yannick; Settembre, Carmine; Ricci, Romeo

    2015-02-20

    Pancreatic β cells lower insulin release in response to nutrient depletion. The question of whether starved β cells induce macroautophagy, a predominant mechanism maintaining energy homeostasis, remains poorly explored. We found that, in contrast to many mammalian cells, macroautophagy in pancreatic β cells was suppressed upon starvation. Instead, starved β cells induced lysosomal degradation of nascent secretory insulin granules, which was controlled by protein kinase D (PKD), a key player in secretory granule biogenesis. Starvation-induced nascent granule degradation triggered lysosomal recruitment and activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin that suppressed macroautophagy. Switching from macroautophagy to insulin granule degradation was important to keep insulin secretion low upon fasting. Thus, β cells use a PKD-dependent mechanism to adapt to nutrient availability and couple autophagy flux to secretory function.

  1. Amelogenins as Potential Buffers during Secretory-stage Amelogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, J.; Lyaruu, D.M.; Takano, Y.; Gibson, C.W.; DenBesten, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenins are the most abundant protein species in forming dental enamel, taken to regulate crystal shape and crystal growth. Unprotonated amelogenins can bind protons, suggesting that amelogenins could regulate the pH in enamel in situ. We hypothesized that without amelogenins the enamel would acidify unless ameloblasts were buffered by alternative ways. To investigate this, we measured the mineral and chloride content in incisor enamel of amelogenin-knockout (AmelX-/-) mice and determined the pH of enamel by staining with methyl-red. Ameloblasts were immunostained for anion exchanger-2 (Ae2), a transmembrane pH regulator sensitive for acid that secretes bicarbonate in exchange for chloride. The enamel of AmelX-/- mice was 10-fold thinner, mineralized in the secretory stage 1.8-fold more than wild-type enamel and containing less chloride (suggesting more bicarbonate secretion). Enamel of AmelX-/- mice stained with methyl-red contained no acidic bands in the maturation stage as seen in wild-type enamel. Secretory ameloblasts of AmelX-/- mice, but not wild-type mice, were immunopositive for Ae2, and stained more intensely in the maturation stage compared with wild-type mice. Exposure of AmelX-/- mice to fluoride enhanced the mineral content in the secretory stage, lowered chloride, and intensified Ae2 immunostaining in the enamel organ in comparison with non-fluorotic mutant teeth. The results suggest that unprotonated amelogenins may regulate the pH of forming enamel in situ. Without amelogenins, Ae2 could compensate for the pH drop associated with crystal formation. PMID:25535204

  2. Secretory immunity with special reference to the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Brandtzaeg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The two principal antibody classes present in saliva are secretory IgA (SIgA) and IgG; the former is produced as dimeric IgA by local plasma cells (PCs) in the stroma of salivary glands and is transported through secretory epithelia by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), also named membrane secretory component (SC). Most IgG in saliva is derived from the blood circulation by passive leakage mainly via gingival crevicular epithelium, although some may be locally produced in the gingiva or salivary glands. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) do not contribute equally to the pool of memory/effector B cells differentiating to mucosal PCs throughout the body. Thus, enteric immunostimulation may not be the best way to activate the production of salivary IgA antibodies although the level of specific SIgA in saliva may still reflect an intestinal immune response after enteric immunization. It remains unknown whether the IgA response in submandibular/sublingual glands is better related to B-cell induction in GALT than the parotid response. Such disparity is suggested by the levels of IgA in submandibular secretions of AIDS patients, paralleling their highly upregulated intestinal IgA system, while the parotid IgA level is decreased. Parotid SIgA could more consistently be linked to immune induction in palatine tonsils/adenoids (human NALT) and cervical lymph nodes, as supported by the homing molecule profile observed after immune induction at these sites. Several other variables influence the levels of antibodies in salivary secretions. These include difficulties with reproducibility and standardization of immunoassays, the impact of flow rate, acute or chronic stress, protein loss during sample handling, and uncontrolled admixture of serum-derived IgG and monomeric IgA. Despite these problems, saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid with interesting scientific and clinical potentials. PMID:23487566

  3. Phosphorylation of αSNAP is Required for Secretory Organelle Biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Rebecca J; Ferguson, David J P; Whitehead, Lachlan; Bradin, Clare H; Wu, Hong J; Tonkin, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Upon infection, apicomplexan parasites quickly invade host cells and begin a replicative cycle rapidly increasing in number over a short period of time, leading to tissue lysis and disease. The secretory pathway of these highly polarized protozoan parasites tightly controls, in time and space, the biogenesis of specialized structures and organelles required for invasion and intracellular survival. In other systems, regulation of protein trafficking can occur by phosphorylation of vesicle fusion machinery. Previously, we have shown that Toxoplasma gondii αSNAP - a protein that controls the disassembly of cis-SNARE complexes--is phosphorylated. Here, we show that this post-translational modification is required for the correct function of αSNAP in controlling secretory traffic. We demonstrate that during intracellular development conditional expression of a non-phosphorylatable form of αSNAP results in Golgi fragmentation and vesiculation of all downstream secretory organelles. In addition, we show that the vestigial plastid (termed apicoplast), although reported not to be reliant on Golgi trafficking for biogenesis, is also affected upon overexpression of αSNAP and is much more sensitive to the levels of this protein than targeting to other organelles. This work highlights the importance of αSNAP and its phosphorylation in Toxoplasma organelle biogenesis and exposes a hereto fore-unexplored mechanism of regulation of vesicle fusion during secretory pathway trafficking in apicomplexan parasites.

  4. Auxilin facilitates membrane traffic in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingzhen; Segarra, Verónica A; Chen, Shuliang; Cai, Huaqing; Lemmon, Sandra K; Ferro-Novick, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Coat protein complexes contain an inner shell that sorts cargo and an outer shell that helps deform the membrane to give the vesicle its shape. There are three major types of coated vesicles in the cell: COPII, COPI, and clathrin. The COPII coat complex facilitates vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while the COPI coat complex performs an analogous function in the Golgi. Clathrin-coated vesicles mediate traffic from the cell surface and between the trans-Golgi and endosome. While the assembly and structure of these coat complexes has been extensively studied, the disassembly of COPII and COPI coats from membranes is less well understood. We describe a proteomic and genetic approach that connects the J-domain chaperone auxilin, which uncoats clathrin-coated vesicles, to COPII and COPI coat complexes. Consistent with a functional role for auxilin in the early secretory pathway, auxilin binds to COPII and COPI coat subunits. Furthermore, ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi traffic is delayed at 15°C in swa2Δ mutant cells, which lack auxilin. In the case of COPII vesicles, we link this delay to a defect in vesicle fusion. We propose that auxilin acts as a chaperone and/or uncoating factor for transport vesicles that act in the early secretory pathway.

  5. PICK1 Deficiency Impairs Secretory Vesicle Biogenesis and Leads to Growth Retardation and Decreased Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Anna M.; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K.; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N.; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K.; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine

  6. Morphological docking of secretory vesicles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-dependent secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones is essential for brain function and neuroendocrine-signaling. Prior to exocytosis, neurotransmitter-containing vesicles dock to the target membrane. In electron micrographs of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, like chromaffin cells many synaptic vesicles (SVs) and large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are docked. For many years the molecular identity of the morphologically docked state was unknown. Recently, we resolved the minimal docking machinery in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells using embryonic mouse model systems together with electron-microscopic analyses and also found that docking is controlled by the sub-membrane filamentous (F-)actin. Currently it is unclear if the same docking machinery operates in synapses. Here, I will review our docking assay that led to the identification of the LDCV docking machinery in chromaffin cells and also discuss whether identical docking proteins are required for SV docking in synapses. PMID:20577884

  7. Secretory IgA synthesis in Kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Beatty, D W; Napier, B; Sinclair-Smith, C C; McCabe, K; Hughes, E J

    1983-09-01

    The synthesis of intestinal secretory IgA was studied in in vitro cultures of duodenal mucosal biopsies from children with Kwashiorkor. Production of secretory IgA was measured by the incorporation of radioactive label and visualized following PAGE and autoradiography. Results obtained before and after nutritional rehabilitation demonstrate an enhanced synthesis of sIgA in children with acute Kwashiorkor. Histological examination of plasma cells in the biopsy tissue confirms a twofold increase in IgA staining plasma cells in acute Kwashiorkor. Peripheral blood B lymphocytes in acute Kwashiorkor however, showed a reduction in IgA synthesis in the acute stage. These results suggest an effective mucosal sIgA response to the increased intestinal antigen load in Kwashiorkor.

  8. Structural Similarities and Differences between Two Functionally Distinct SecA Proteins, Mycobacterium tuberculosis SecA1 and SecA2

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Stephanie; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Rigel, Nathan W.; Miller, Brittany K.; Braunstein, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT While SecA is the ATPase component of the major bacterial secretory (Sec) system, mycobacteria and some Gram-positive pathogens have a second paralog, SecA2. In bacteria with two SecA paralogs, each SecA is functionally distinct, and they cannot compensate for one another. Compared to SecA1, SecA2 exports a distinct and smaller set of substrates, some of which have roles in virulence. In the mycobacterial system, some SecA2-dependent substrates lack a signal peptide, while others contain a signal peptide but possess features in the mature protein that necessitate a role for SecA2 in their export. It is unclear how SecA2 functions in protein export, and one open question is whether SecA2 works with the canonical SecYEG channel to export proteins. In this study, we report the structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis SecA2 (MtbSecA2), which is the first structure of any SecA2 protein. A high level of structural similarity is observed between SecA2 and SecA1. The major structural difference is the absence of the helical wing domain, which is likely to play a role in how MtbSecA2 recognizes its unique substrates. Importantly, structural features critical to the interaction between SecA1 and SecYEG are preserved in SecA2. Furthermore, suppressor mutations of a dominant-negative secA2 mutant map to the surface of SecA2 and help identify functional regions of SecA2 that may promote interactions with SecYEG or the translocating polypeptide substrate. These results support a model in which the mycobacterial SecA2 works with SecYEG. IMPORTANCE SecA2 is a paralog of SecA1, which is the ATPase of the canonical bacterial Sec secretion system. SecA2 has a nonredundant function with SecA1, and SecA2 exports a distinct and smaller set of substrates than SecA1. This work reports the crystal structure of SecA2 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the first SecA2 structure reported for any organism). Many of the structural features of SecA1 are conserved in the SecA2 structure

  9. The complete general secretory pathway in gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pugsley, A P

    1993-01-01

    The unifying feature of all proteins that are transported out of the cytoplasm of gram-negative bacteria by the general secretory pathway (GSP) is the presence of a long stretch of predominantly hydrophobic amino acids, the signal sequence. The interaction between signal sequence-bearing proteins and the cytoplasmic membrane may be a spontaneous event driven by the electrochemical energy potential across the cytoplasmic membrane, leading to membrane integration. The translocation of large, hydrophilic polypeptide segments to the periplasmic side of this membrane almost always requires at least six different proteins encoded by the sec genes and is dependent on both ATP hydrolysis and the electrochemical energy potential. Signal peptidases process precursors with a single, amino-terminal signal sequence, allowing them to be released into the periplasm, where they may remain or whence they may be inserted into the outer membrane. Selected proteins may also be transported across this membrane for assembly into cell surface appendages or for release into the extracellular medium. Many bacteria secrete a variety of structurally different proteins by a common pathway, referred to here as the main terminal branch of the GSP. This recently discovered branch pathway comprises at least 14 gene products. Other, simpler terminal branches of the GSP are also used by gram-negative bacteria to secrete a more limited range of extracellular proteins. PMID:8096622

  10. A highway for war and peace: the secretory pathway in plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Dong, Xinnian

    2011-07-01

    Secretion of proteins and other molecules is the primary means by which a cell interacts with its surroundings. The overall organization of the secretory system is remarkably conserved among eukaryotes, and many of the components have been investigated in detail in animal models. Plant cells, because of their sessile lifestyle, are uniquely reliant on the secretory pathway to respond to changes in their environments, either abiotic, such as the absence of nutrients, or biotic, such as the presence of predators or pathogens. In particular, most plant pathogens are extracellular, which demands a robust and efficient host secretory system directed at the site of attack. Here, we present a summary of recent advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the secretory pathway during plant-microbe interactions. Secretion is required not only for the delivery of antimicrobial molecules, but also for the biogenesis of cell surface sensors to detect microbes. The deposition of extracellular material is important in the defense against classical bacterial pathogens as well as in the so-called 'non-host' resistance. Finally, boosting the protein secretion capacity is vital for avoiding infection as well as for achieving symbiosis, even though in the latter case, the microbes are engulfed in intracellular compartments. The emerging evidence indicates that secretion provides an essential interface between plant hosts and their associated microbial partners.

  11. An Alternative Terminal Step of the General Secretory Pathway in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Craney, Arryn; Dix, Melissa M.; Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I signal peptidase (SPase) is essential for viability in wild-type bacteria because the terminal step of the bacterial general secretory pathway requires its proteolytic activity to release proteins from their membrane-bound N-terminal leader sequences after translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we identify the Staphylococcus aureus operon ayrRABC (SA0337 to SA0340) and show that once released from repression by AyrR, the protein products AyrABC together confer resistance to the SPase inhibitor arylomycin M131 by providing an alternate and novel method of releasing translocated proteins. Thus, the derepression of ayrRABC allows cells to bypass the essentiality of SPase. We demonstrate that AyrABC functionally complements SPase by mediating the processing of the normally secreted proteins, albeit in some cases with reduced efficiency and either without cleavage or via cleavage at a site N-terminal to the canonical SPase cleavage site. Thus, ayrRABC encodes a secretion stress-inducible alternate terminal step of the general secretory pathway. Importance  Addressing proteins for proper localization within or outside a cell in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes is often accomplished with intrinsic signals which mediate membrane translocation and which ultimately must be removed. The canonical enzyme responsible for the removal of translocation signals is bacterial type I signal peptidase (SPase), which functions at the terminal step of the general secretory pathway and is thus essential in wild-type bacteria. Here, we identify a four-gene operon in S. aureus that encodes an alternate terminal step of the general secretory pathway and thus makes SPase nonessential. The results have important implications for protein secretion in bacteria and potentially for protein trafficking in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in general. PMID:26286693

  12. Secretory organelles in ECL cells of the rat stomach: an immunohistochemical and electron-microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C M; Chen, D; Lintunen, M; Panula, P; Håkanson, R

    1999-12-01

    ECL cells are numerous in the rat stomach. They produce and store histamine and chromogranin-A (CGA)-derived peptides such as pancreastatin and respond to gastrin with secretion of these products. Numerous electron-lucent vesicles of varying size and a few small, dense-cored granules are found in the cytoplasm. Using confocal and electron microscopy, we examined these organelles and their metamorphosis as they underwent intracellular transport from the Golgi area to the cell periphery. ECL-cell histamine was found to occur in both cytosol and secretory vesicles. Histidine decarboxylase, the histamine-forming enzyme, was in the cytosol, while pancreastatin (and possibly other peptide products) was confined to the dense cores of granules and secretory vesicles. Dense-cored granules and small, clear microvesicles were more numerous in the Golgi area than in the docking zone, i.e. close to the plasma membrane. Secretory vesicles were numerous in both Golgi area and docking zone, where they were sometimes seen to be attached to the plasma membrane. Upon acute gastrin stimulation, histamine was mobilized and the compartment size (volume density) of secretory vesicles in the docking zone was decreased, while the compartment size of microvesicles was increased. Based on these findings, we propose the following life cycle of secretory organelles in ECL cells: small, electron-lucent microvesicles (pro-granules) bud off the trans Golgi network, carrying proteins and secretory peptide precursors (such as CGA and an anticipated prohormone). They are transformed into dense-cored granules (approximate profile diameter 100 nm) while still in the trans Golgi area. Pro-granules and granules accumulate histamine, which leads to their metamorphosis into dense-cored secretory vesicles. In the Golgi area the secretory vesicles have an approximate profile diameter of 150 nm. By the time they reach their destination in the docking zone, their profile diameter is between 200 and 500 nm

  13. Kinesin-related Smy1 enhances the Rab-dependent association of myosin-V with secretory cargo

    PubMed Central

    Lwin, Kyaw Myo; Li, Donghao; Bretscher, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which molecular motors associate with specific cargo is a central problem in cell organization. The kinesin-like protein Smy1 of budding yeast was originally identified by the ability of elevated levels to suppress a conditional myosin-V mutation (myo2-66), but its function with Myo2 remained mysterious. Subsequently, Myo2 was found to provide an essential role in delivery of secretory vesicles for polarized growth and in the transport of mitochondria for segregation. By isolating and characterizing myo2 smy1 conditional mutants, we uncover the molecular function of Smy1 as a factor that enhances the association of Myo2 with its receptor, the Rab Sec4, on secretory vesicles. The tail of Smy1—which binds Myo2—its central dimerization domain, and its kinesin-like head domain are all necessary for this function. Consistent with this model, overexpression of full-length Smy1 enhances the number of Sec4 receptors and Myo2 motors per transporting secretory vesicle. Rab proteins Sec4 and Ypt11, receptors for essential transport of secretory vesicles and mitochondria, respectively, bind the same region on Myo2, yet Smy1 functions selectively in the transport of secretory vesicles. Thus a kinesin-related protein can function intimately with a myosin-V and its receptor in the transport of a specific cargo. PMID:27307583

  14. Unique biological function of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for biosynthesis of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Funkelstein, Lydiane; Beinfeld, Margery; Minokadeh, Ardalan; Zadina, James; Hook, Vivian

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptides are essential for cell-cell communication in the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. Production of active neuropeptides requires proteolytic processing of proneuropeptide precursors in secretory vesicles that produce, store, and release neuropeptides that regulate physiological functions. This review describes recent findings indicating the prominent role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for production of neuropeptides from their protein precursors. The role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production was discovered using the strategy of activity-based probes for proenkephalin-cleaving activity for identification of the enzyme protein by mass spectrometry. The novel role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for neuropeptide production has been demonstrated in vivo by cathepsin L gene knockout studies, cathepsin L gene expression in neuroendocrine cells, and notably, cathepsin L localization in neuropeptide-containing secretory vesicles. Cathepsin L is involved in producing opioid neuropeptides consisting of enkephalin, β-endorphin, and dynorphin, as well as in generating the POMC-derived peptide hormones ACTH and α-MSH. In addition, NPY, CCK, and catestatin neuropeptides utilize cathepsin L for their biosynthesis. The neuropeptide-synthesizing functions of cathepsin L represent its unique activity in secretory vesicles, which contrasts with its role in lysosomes. Interesting evaluations of protease gene knockout studies in mice that lack cathepsin L compared to those lacking PC1/3 and PC2 (PC, prohormone convertase) indicate the key role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production. Therefore, dual cathepsin L and prohormone convertase protease pathways participate in neuropeptide production. Significantly, the recent new findings indicate cathepsin L as a novel 'proprotein convertase' for production of neuropeptides that mediate cell-cell communication in health and disease.

  15. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  16. Isotonic water transport in secretory epithelia.

    PubMed

    Swanson, C H

    1977-01-01

    The model proposed by Diamond and Bossert [1] for isotonic water transport has received wide acceptance in recent years. It assumes that the local driving force for water transport is a standing osmotic gradient produced in the lateral intercellular spaces of the epithelial cell layer by active solute transport. While this model is based on work done in absorptive epithelia where the closed to open direction of the lateral space and the direction of net transport are the same, it has been proposed that the lateral spaces could also serve as the site of the local osmotic gradients for water transport in secretory epithelia, where the closed to open direction of the lateral space and net transport are opposed, by actively transporting solute out of the space rather than into it. Operation in the backward direction, however, requires a lower than ambient hydrostatic pressure within the lateral space which would seem more likely to cause the space to collapse with loss of function. On the other hand, most secretory epithelia are characterized by transport into a restricted ductal system which is similar to the lateral intercellular space in the absorptive epithelia in that its closed to open direction is the same as that of net transport. In vitro micropuncture studies on the exocrine pancreas of the rabbit indicate the presence of a small but statistically significant increase in juice osmolality, 6 mOsm/kg H(2)O, at the site of electrolyte and water secretion in the smallest extralobular ducts with secretin stimulation which suggests that the ductal system in the secretory epithelia rather than the lateral intercellular space is the site of the local osmotic gradients responsible for isotonic water transport. PMID:331693

  17. A novel imaging method for quantitative Golgi localization reveals differential intra-Golgi trafficking of secretory cargoes

    PubMed Central

    Tie, Hieng Chiong; Mahajan, Divyanshu; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Li; VanDongen, Antonius M. J.; Lu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Cellular functions of the Golgi are determined by the unique distribution of its resident proteins. Currently, electron microscopy is required for the localization of a Golgi protein at the sub-Golgi level. We developed a quantitative sub-Golgi localization method based on centers of fluorescence masses of nocodazole-induced Golgi ministacks under conventional optical microscopy. Our method is rapid, convenient, and quantitative, and it yields a practical localization resolution of ∼30 nm. The method was validated by the previous electron microscopy data. We quantitatively studied the intra-Golgi trafficking of synchronized secretory membrane cargoes and directly demonstrated the cisternal progression of cargoes from the cis- to the trans-Golgi. Our data suggest that the constitutive efflux of secretory cargoes could be restricted at the Golgi stack, and the entry of the trans-Golgi network in secretory pathway could be signal dependent. PMID:26764092

  18. "Secretory" Carcinoma of the Skin Mimicking Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sixia; Liu, Yan; Su, Jing; Liu, Jianying; Guo, Xiaoning; Mei, Fang; Zheng, Jie; Liao, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    Secretory carcinoma is a unique kind of adenocarcinoma. It has distinct histological features and a special genetic change, that is, t (12; 15) (p13; q25) translocation which leads to the expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. Secretory carcinoma has been found to occur both in the breast and salivary gland. Here the authors present a case of 22-year-old woman with a unique cutaneous neoplasm located at the axilla. The tumor was characterized histologically with the formation of round to ovoid microcysts and papillary structure, which was similar to the secretory carcinoma of the breast and salivary gland. Furthermore, the gene sequence analysis of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction products demonstrated the expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of secretory carcinoma from the skin which has the same genetic change as those from the breast and salivary gland. Local excision was performed on this patient. She had been followed up for nearly 1 year. No recurrence or metastasis was found yet. PMID:26981741

  19. Genetic Evidence for the Role of the Vacuole in Supplying Secretory Organelles with Ca2+ in Hansenula polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Fokina, Anastasia V.; Chechenova, Maria B.; Karginov, Azamat V.; Ter-Avanesyan, Michael D.; Agaphonov, Michael O.

    2015-01-01

    Processes taking place in the secretory organelles require Ca2+ and Mn2+, which in yeast are supplied by the Pmr1 ion pump. Here we observed that in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha Ca2+ deficiency in the secretory pathway caused by Pmr1 inactivation is exacerbated by (i) the ret1-27 mutation affecting COPI-mediated vesicular transport, (ii) inactivation of the vacuolar Ca2+ ATPase Pmc1 and (iii) inactivation of Vps35, which is a component of the retromer complex responsible for protein transport between the vacuole and secretory organelles. The ret1-27 mutation also exerted phenotypes indicating alterations in transport between the vacuole and secretory organelles. These data indicate that ret1-27, pmc1 and vps35 affect a previously unknown Pmr1-independent route of the Ca2+ delivery to the secretory pathway. We also observed that the vacuolar protein carboxypeptidase Y receives additional modifications of its glycoside chains if it escapes the Vps10-dependent sorting to the vacuole. PMID:26717478

  20. Genetic Evidence for the Role of the Vacuole in Supplying Secretory Organelles with Ca2+ in Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Anastasia V; Chechenova, Maria B; Karginov, Azamat V; Ter-Avanesyan, Michael D; Agaphonov, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    Processes taking place in the secretory organelles require Ca2+ and Mn2+, which in yeast are supplied by the Pmr1 ion pump. Here we observed that in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha Ca2+ deficiency in the secretory pathway caused by Pmr1 inactivation is exacerbated by (i) the ret1-27 mutation affecting COPI-mediated vesicular transport, (ii) inactivation of the vacuolar Ca2+ ATPase Pmc1 and (iii) inactivation of Vps35, which is a component of the retromer complex responsible for protein transport between the vacuole and secretory organelles. The ret1-27 mutation also exerted phenotypes indicating alterations in transport between the vacuole and secretory organelles. These data indicate that ret1-27, pmc1 and vps35 affect a previously unknown Pmr1-independent route of the Ca2+ delivery to the secretory pathway. We also observed that the vacuolar protein carboxypeptidase Y receives additional modifications of its glycoside chains if it escapes the Vps10-dependent sorting to the vacuole.

  1. Serous cutaneous glands in anurans: Fourier transform analysis of the repeating secretory granule substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosi, D.; Delfino, G.; Quercioli, F.

    2013-03-01

    A combined transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform analysis has been performed on the secretory granules storing active peptides/proteins in serous cutaneous glands of n = 12 anuran species. Previous TEM investigation showed that the granules are provided with remarkable repeating substructures based on discrete subunits, arranged into a consistent framework. Furthermore, TEM findings revealed that this recurrent arrangement is acquired during a prolonged post-Golgian (or maturational) processing that affects the secretory product. Maturation leads to a variety of patterns depending on the degree of subunit clustering. This variety of recurrent patterns has been plotted into a range of frequency spectra. Through this quantitative approach, we found that the varying granule substructure can be reduced to a single mechanism of peptide/protein aggregation.

  2. Characterization of meFucoidan as a selective inhibitor for secretory phospholipase A2-IIA and the phosphorylation of meFucoidan-binding proteins by A-kinase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Suzuki, Kanzo; Miyai, Sayaka; Ohtsuki, Kenzo

    2008-04-01

    The direct interaction of Mekabu fucoidan (meFucoidan) with four functional basic proteins (sPLA2-IIA, bFGF, histone H2B and HBV core protein) and three synthetic FGF-BP peptides (sp5, GE13 and RS6) was characterized in vitro. It was found that (i) meFucoidan inhibited dose-dependently the activity of sPLA2-IIA, but not pPLA2, through its direct binding to the enzyme; (ii) sPLA2-IIA activity was sensitive to meFucoidan rather than heparin, but significantly stimulated by sulfatide; (iii) the A-kinase-mediated phosphorylation of these basic proteins, except sPLA2-IIA, and synthetic peptides, containing potent phosphorylation sites for A-kinase, was inhibited dose-dependently by meFucoidan; and (iv) two consensus meFucoidan-binding motifs (B-B-B-B-X and B-X-B-B-X; B, basic amino acid) in these basic proteins and synthetic peptides could be overlapping to the potent phosphorylation site (B-B-X-S/T) for the kinase in vitro. These results presented here suggest that meFucoidan functions as a selective inhibitor for sPLA2-IIA and the A-kinase-mediated phosphorylation of cellular meFucoidan-binding functional basic proteins in vitro. PMID:18379068

  3. Expression of calreticulin P-domain results in impairment of secretory pathway in Leishmania donovani and reduced parasite survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Debrabant, Alain; Lee, Nancy; Pogue, Gregory P; Dwyer, Dennis M; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2002-10-01

    The secretory proteins of Leishmania are thought to be involved in the parasite survival inside the insect vector or mammalian host. It is clear from studies in higher eukaryotes that proper folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and targeting out of the endoplasmic reticulum is critical for the function of secretory proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum chaperones such as calreticulin play an important role in the quality control of secretory proteins. However, very little is known about the secretory pathway of trypanosomatid parasites such as Leishmania. In the present study, we show that overexpression of the P-domain of Leishmania donovani calreticulin in transfected L. donovani resulted in a significant reduction in the secretion of the parasite secretory acid phosphatases. This effect is associated with an intracellular accumulation of active enzyme in these transfected parasites. In addition, parasites expressing the P-domain calreticulin showed a significant decrease in survival inside human macrophages. This study suggests that altering the function of an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone such as calreticulin in Leishmania may affect the targeting of proteins that are associated with the virulence of the parasite during their trafficking through the parasite secretory pathway. PMID:12350377

  4. Secretory pattern of canine growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    French, M.B.; Vaitkus, P.; Cukerman, E.; Sirek, A.; Sirek, O.V.

    1987-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to define the secretory pattern of growth hormone (GH) under basal conditions in fasted, conscious, male dogs accustomed to handling. Blood samples were withdrawn from a cephalic vein at 15-min intervals. In this way, any ultradian rhythms, if present, could be detected within the frequency range of 0.042-2 cycles/h. In addition, samples were drawn at either 1- or 2.5-min intervals for 2.5 or 5 h to determine whether frequency components greater than 2 cycles/h were present. GH was measured by radioimmunoassay and the raw data were submitted to time series analysis employing power spectral estimation by means of fast Fourier transformation techniques. Peak plasma levels were up to 12 times higher than the baseline concentration of approx. 1 ng/ml. Spectral analysis revealed an endogenous frequency of 0.22 cycles/h, i.e., a periodicity of 4.5 h/cycle. The results indicate that under basal conditions the secretory bursts of canine GH are limited to one peak every 4.5 h.

  5. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-07-12

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission.

  6. Spiperone: evidence for uptake into secretory granules.

    PubMed Central

    Dannies, P S; Rudnick, M S; Fishkes, H; Rudnick, G

    1984-01-01

    Spiperone, a dopamine antagonist widely used as a specific ligand for dopamine and serotonin receptors, is actively accumulated into the F4C1 strain of rat pituitary tumor cells. The accumulation of 10 nM [3H]spiperone was linear for 3 min and reached a steady state after 10 min. Spiperone accumulation was reduced 50% by preincubation with 5 microM reserpine, an inhibitor of biogenic amine transport into secretory granules, and was also blocked by monensin and ammonium chloride, both of which increase the pH of intracellular storage organelles. Uptake was not affected by replacing sodium in the buffer with lithium at equimolar concentrations. Spiperone at 1 microM inhibited by over 50% serotonin transport into membrane vesicles isolated from platelet dense granules; this concentration inhibited the Na+-dependent plasma membrane transport system less than 10%. The data indicate spiperone specifically interacts with the secretory granule amine transport system and suggest that this transport system is found in the F4C1 pituitary cell strain as well as in platelets and neurons. The data also suggest that experiments utilizing spiperone to measure dopamine and serotonin receptors be interpreted with caution. PMID:6584920

  7. Novel N-Benzoyl-2-Hydroxybenzamide Disrupts Unique Parasite Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fomovska, Alina; Huang, Qingqing; El Bissati, Kamal; Mui, Ernest J.; Witola, William H.; Cheng, Gang; Zhou, Ying; Sommerville, Caroline; Roberts, Craig W.; Bettis, Sam; Prigge, Sean T.; Afanador, Gustavo A.; Hickman, Mark R.; Lee, Patty J.; Leed, Susan E.; Auschwitz, Jennifer M.; Pieroni, Marco; Stec, Jozef; Muench, Stephen P.; Rice, David W.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can damage the human brain and eyes. There are no curative medicines. Herein, we describe our discovery of N-benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamides as a class of compounds effective in the low nanomolar range against T. gondii in vitro and in vivo. Our lead compound, QQ-437, displays robust activity against the parasite and could be useful as a new scaffold for development of novel and improved inhibitors of T. gondii. Our genome-wide investigations reveal a specific mechanism of resistance to N-benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamides mediated by adaptin-3β, a large protein from the secretory protein complex. N-Benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamide-resistant clones have alterations of their secretory pathway, which traffics proteins to micronemes, rhoptries, dense granules, and acidocalcisomes/plant-like vacuole (PLVs). N-Benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamide treatment also alters micronemes, rhoptries, the contents of dense granules, and, most markedly, acidocalcisomes/PLVs. Furthermore, QQ-437 is active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Our studies reveal a novel class of compounds that disrupts a unique secretory pathway of T. gondii, with the potential to be used as scaffolds in the search for improved compounds to treat the devastating diseases caused by apicomplexan parasites. PMID:22354304

  8. Novel N-benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamide disrupts unique parasite secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Fomovska, Alina; Huang, Qingqing; El Bissati, Kamal; Mui, Ernest J; Witola, William H; Cheng, Gang; Zhou, Ying; Sommerville, Caroline; Roberts, Craig W; Bettis, Sam; Prigge, Sean T; Afanador, Gustavo A; Hickman, Mark R; Lee, Patty J; Leed, Susan E; Auschwitz, Jennifer M; Pieroni, Marco; Stec, Jozef; Muench, Stephen P; Rice, David W; Kozikowski, Alan P; McLeod, Rima

    2012-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can damage the human brain and eyes. There are no curative medicines. Herein, we describe our discovery of N-benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamides as a class of compounds effective in the low nanomolar range against T. gondii in vitro and in vivo. Our lead compound, QQ-437, displays robust activity against the parasite and could be useful as a new scaffold for development of novel and improved inhibitors of T. gondii. Our genome-wide investigations reveal a specific mechanism of resistance to N-benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamides mediated by adaptin-3β, a large protein from the secretory protein complex. N-Benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamide-resistant clones have alterations of their secretory pathway, which traffics proteins to micronemes, rhoptries, dense granules, and acidocalcisomes/plant-like vacuole (PLVs). N-Benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamide treatment also alters micronemes, rhoptries, the contents of dense granules, and, most markedly, acidocalcisomes/PLVs. Furthermore, QQ-437 is active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Our studies reveal a novel class of compounds that disrupts a unique secretory pathway of T. gondii, with the potential to be used as scaffolds in the search for improved compounds to treat the devastating diseases caused by apicomplexan parasites.

  9. Are there salvage routes within the general secretory pathway in yeast?

    PubMed

    Gozalbo, D; Martínez, J P; Sentandreu, R

    1992-04-01

    It is generally accepted that both extracellular protein secretion and plasma membrane expansion in yeast occur basically as in higher eukaryotic cells. In addition to the constitutive (default) secretory pathway, some specialized mammalian cells possess a regulated route which at present has not been detected in yeast. However, there is a body of experimental results suggesting that under certain circumstances export of integral plasma membrane and exocellular proteins may take place through alternative (salvage) pathways. The existence of these latter routes would enable the yeast cell to adapt more efficiently to distinct or adverse conditions requiring the secretion of discrete amounts of specific sets of proteins.

  10. Redirection of peroxisomal alcohol oxidase of Hansenula polymorpha to the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Meis; Leão, Adriana N; Van der Klei, Ida J; Veenhuis, Marten

    2007-10-01

    We report on the rerouting of peroxisomal alcohol oxidase (AO) to the secretory pathway of Hansenula polymorpha. Using the leader sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating factor alpha (MFalpha) as sorting signal, AO was correctly sorted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which strongly proliferated in these cells. The MFalpha presequence, but not the prosequence, was cleaved from the protein. AO protein was present in the ER as monomers that lacked FAD, and hence was enzymatically inactive. Furthermore, the recombinant AO protein was subject to gradual degradation, possibly because the protein did not fold properly. However, when the S. cerevisiae invertase signal sequence (ISS) was used, secretion of AO protein was observed in conjunction with bulk of the protein being localized to the ER. The amount of secreted AO protein increased with increasing copy numbers of the AO expression cassette integrated into the genome. The secreted AO protein was correctly processed and displayed enzyme activity. PMID:17419772

  11. Neurexin-1α contributes to insulin-containing secretory granule docking.

    PubMed

    Mosedale, Merrie; Egodage, Sonya; Calma, Rei C; Chi, Nai-Wen; Chessler, Steven D

    2012-02-24

    Neurexins are a family of transmembrane, synaptic adhesion molecules. In neurons, neurexins bind to both sub-plasma membrane and synaptic vesicle-associated constituents of the secretory machinery, play a key role in the organization and stabilization of the presynaptic active zone, and help mediate docking of synaptic vesicles. We have previously shown that neurexins, like many other protein constituents of the neurotransmitter exocytotic machinery, are expressed in pancreatic β cells. We hypothesized that the role of neurexins in β cells parallels their role in neurons, with β-cell neurexins helping to mediate insulin granule docking and secretion. Here we demonstrate that β cells express a more restricted pattern of neurexin transcripts than neurons, with a clear predominance of neurexin-1α expressed in isolated islets. Using INS-1E β cells, we found that neurexin-1α interacts with membrane-bound components of the secretory granule-docking machinery and with the granule-associated protein granuphilin. Decreased expression of neurexin-1α, like decreased expression of granuphilin, reduces granule docking at the β-cell membrane and improves insulin secretion. Perifusion of neurexin-1α KO mouse islets revealed a significant increase in second-phase insulin secretion with a trend toward increased first-phase secretion. Upon glucose stimulation, neurexin-1α protein levels decrease. This glucose-induced down-regulation may enhance glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We conclude that neurexin-1α is a component of the β-cell secretory machinery and contributes to secretory granule docking, most likely through interactions with granuphilin. Neurexin-1α is the only transmembrane component of the docking machinery identified thus far. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of insulin granule docking and exocytosis.

  12. Ovarian serous carcinogenesis from tubal secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wei, Linxuan; Li, Lingmin; Yang, Binlie; Kong, Beihua; Yao, Guang; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-11-01

    Due to a poor understanding of tumorigenesis, ovarian cancers remain the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and cause horrific deaths. In the last decade, a new dualistic model for ovarian cancer was proposed, wherein ovarian serous cancers are classified as either high-grade or low-grade, with each having different tumorigenic processes, and pathologic and clinical features. Surprisingly, both high- and low-grade ovarian serous cancers were recently found to originate not in the ovaries, but rather from the secretory cells of the fallopian tube, mostly from the tubal fimbriated ends. In this article, we review the evidentiary basis for the aforementioned paradigm shift in the cell origin of ovarian serous cancers, as well as its potential clinical implications. PMID:26174492

  13. Secretory component: a glandular epithelial cell marker.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. P.; South, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Secretory component (SC) has been demonstrated to be produced by both normal and malignantly transformed glandular epithelial cells. By an indirect immunofluorescent technique, this study surveys tumors of varied cellular origin in order to determine the reliability of SC as a marker for tumor cells derived from glandular epithelium. Both primary and metastatic tumors of glandular epithelial origin demonstrated SC fluorescence, while nonglandular epithelial tumors did not. This observation was extended to live single-cell preparations, which demonstrated intense cell-surface fluorescence only when glandular epithelial tumors cells were examined. Additionally, fixed, cytocentrifuged, single-cell preparations of glandular epithelial tumors demonstrated cytoplasmic SC fluorescence. When breast carcinoma was examined, all cases demonstrated SC, regardless of the degree of differentiation. This assay appears to have useful clinical application in that the finding of SC provides indication of the glandular epithelial origin of a malignantly transformed cell. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6271014

  14. Growth hormone (GH) secretory dynamics in a case of acromegalic gigantism associated with hyperprolactinemia: nonpulsatile secretion of GH may induce elevated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Shimatsu, A; Sakane, N; Hizuka, N; Horikawa, R; Tanaka, T

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case of pituitary gigantism with low levels of growth hormone (GH), elevated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGF-BP-3). The patient had characteristic clinical features of gigantism and acromegaly. The basal serum GH levels ranged from 1.2-1.9 micrograms/L, which were considered to be within normal limits. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood samplings during daytime and at night showed nonpulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin, IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocryptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide and bromocryptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. GH bioactivity as measured by Nb2 cell proliferation assay was within reference range. In the present case, nonpulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and IGF-BP-3 and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism. PMID:8550769

  15. Characterization of excretory/secretory antigen from Toxocara vitulorum larvae.

    PubMed

    Starke-Buzetti, Wilma A; Ferreira, Fabiano P

    2004-10-01

    Toxocara vitulorum is a nematode parasite of the small intestine of cattle and water buffalo, particularly buffalo calves between one and three months of age, causing high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to characterize the excretory/secretory (ES) antigens of T. vitulorum larvae by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and Western blot (WB), using immune sera and colostrum of buffalo naturally infected by T. vitulorum. The parasitological status of the buffalo calves was also evaluated using sequential fecal examinations. The results showed that the ES antigen revealed eight (190, 150, 110, 90, 64, 56, 48, and 19 kDa) protein bands by SDS-PAGE. The majority of these bands were recognized in the sera and colostrum of infected buffalo with T. vitulorum when analyzed by WB. However, particularly fractions of high molecular weight (190, 150, 110, and 90 kDa) were represented in more prominent bands and persisted in the groups of buffalo calves at the peak of egg output, as well as during the period of rejection of T. vitulorum by the feces of the calves. During the period of post-rejection of the worms (between the day 118 and 210 of age) the serum antibodies did not react with any protein bands. On the other hand, sera from buffalo calves at one day of age (after suckling the colostrum and at the beginning of infection) reacted with the same bands detected in the serum and colostrum of the buffalo cows.

  16. Tracking individual secretory vesicles during exocytosis reveals an ordered and regulated process

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Post-Golgi secretory vesicle trafficking is a coordinated process, with transport and regulatory mechanisms to ensure appropriate exocytosis. While the contributions of many individual regulatory proteins to this process are well studied, the timing and dependencies of events have not been defined. Here we track individual secretory vesicles and associated proteins in vivo during tethering and fusion in budding yeast. Secretory vesicles tether to the plasma membrane very reproducibly for ∼18 s, which is extended in cells defective for membrane fusion and significantly lengthened and more variable when GTP hydrolysis of the exocytic Rab is delayed. Further, the myosin-V Myo2p regulates the tethering time in a mechanism unrelated to its interaction with exocyst component Sec15p. Two-color imaging of tethered vesicles with Myo2p, the GEF Sec2p, and several exocyst components allowed us to document a timeline for yeast exocytosis in which Myo2p leaves 4 s before fusion, whereas Sec2p and all the components of the exocyst disperse coincident with fusion. PMID:26169352

  17. Sorting sweet sorting. Protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Ponnambalam, S; Banting, G

    1996-09-01

    Membrane-spanning, lectin-like proteins in the eukaryotic secretory pathway seem to operate quality-control checkpoints by fine tuning protein exit or retention within each subcompartment. PMID:8805362

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of the endometrium during the secretory phase.

    PubMed Central

    Motta, P M; Andrews, P M

    1976-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the rabbit endometrium during the secretory phase of the oestrous cycle. The free surfaces of ciliated and of inactive active secretory cells are described. Changes in secretory cell surface morphology resulting from accumulation and secretion of material involve the apparent retraction of microvilli and the formation of one or more bulbous protrusions of the cell's apical surface. These protrusions may be relatively smooth surfaced or exhibit long slender micro-extensions. The protrusions grow in size and are eventually pinched off. Loss of the bulbous protrusions often leaves behind crater-like invaginations of the cell's surface. Secretory cells adjacent to the endometrial glands are the first to exhibit signs of mucin accumulation and secretion. The single cilium of a secretory cell is not apparently affected by the secretory process. Signs of ciliated and secretory cell degeneration, and possible sloughing, are also described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1033932

  19. Secretory phospholipase A2 in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; da Fonseca Neto, Cirilo Pereira; Garcia, José Carlos Faria; Sousa, Marinez Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the correlation of sPLA2 (secretory phospholipase A2) activity with the atheromatosis extent in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography. We analyzed 123 patients, including 35 subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries (controls), 31 with mild/moderate atheromatosis (stenosis of 30-70% of the luminal diameter in one or more coronary arteries) and 57 with severe atheromatosis (>70% stenosis). Plasma sPLA2 activity was significantly higher in subjects with severe [127.7 U/ml (102.3-162.7); p < 0.0001] and mild/moderate [112.0 U/ml (100.6-146.9); p < 0.0001] atheromatosis than in controls [19.8 U/ml (15.1-32.1)]. In a multiple logistic regression model, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, tabagism, hypertension, sedentarism, family history for coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, total cholesterol, HDLc, LDLc, triglycerides, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and phospholipase A2, only sPLA2 was observed to be independently associated with severe CAD (>70% of stenosis) (p < 0.0001). PMID:19449149

  20. A Novel Mutation of DAX-1 Associated with Secretory Azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lihua; Liu, Yuchen; Diao, Ruiying; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Honggang; Gui, Yaoting

    2015-01-01

    Secretory azoospermia is a severe form of male infertility caused by unknown factors. DAX-1 is predominantly expressed in mammalian reproductive tissues and plays an important role in spermatogenesis because Dax-1 knockout male mice show spermatogenesis defects. To examine whether DAX-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of secretory azoospermia in humans, we sequenced all of the exons of DAX-1 in 776 patients diagnosed with secretory azoospermia and 709 proven fertile men. A number of coding mutations unique to the patient group, including two synonymous mutations and six missense mutations, were identified. Of the missense mutations, our functional assay demonstrated that the V385L mutation caused the reduced functioning of DAX-1. This novel mutation (p. V385L) of DAX-1 is the first to be identified in association with secretory azoospermia, thereby highlighting the important role of DAX-1 in spermatogenesis. PMID:26207377

  1. A Novel Mutation of DAX-1 Associated with Secretory Azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Mou, Lisha; Xie, Nie; Yang, Lihua; Liu, Yuchen; Diao, Ruiying; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Honggang; Gui, Yaoting

    2015-01-01

    Secretory azoospermia is a severe form of male infertility caused by unknown factors. DAX-1 is predominantly expressed in mammalian reproductive tissues and plays an important role in spermatogenesis because Dax-1 knockout male mice show spermatogenesis defects. To examine whether DAX-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of secretory azoospermia in humans, we sequenced all of the exons of DAX-1 in 776 patients diagnosed with secretory azoospermia and 709 proven fertile men. A number of coding mutations unique to the patient group, including two synonymous mutations and six missense mutations, were identified. Of the missense mutations, our functional assay demonstrated that the V385L mutation caused the reduced functioning of DAX-1. This novel mutation (p. V385L) of DAX-1 is the first to be identified in association with secretory azoospermia, thereby highlighting the important role of DAX-1 in spermatogenesis. PMID:26207377

  2. Potential of yeast secretory vesicles in biodelivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kutralam-Muniasamy, Gurusamy; Flores-Cotera, Luis B; Perez-Guevara, Fermin

    2015-06-01

    Membranous vesicular organelles (MVOs), such as secretory vesicles and exosomes, perform a variety of biological functions ranging from secretion to cellular communication in eukaryotic cells. Exosomes, particularly those of mammalian cells, have been widely studied as potential carriers in human therapeutic applications. However, no study has yet demonstrated the use of yeast secretory vesicles for such applications. Therefore, we explore here the current state of knowledge on yeast secretory vesicles and their potential use in therapeutic delivery systems. We focus on the characteristics shared by exosomes and yeast secretory vesicles to provide insights into the use of the latter as delivery vehicles. From this perspective, we speculate on the potential application of post-Golgi vesicles (PGVs) in the biomedical field. PMID:25843637

  3. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  4. Augmentation of arginase Ⅱ expression in the human endometrial epithelium in the secretory phase.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Makiko; Harada, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Tomonori; Iwahara, Yuki; Kubota, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    L-arginine is the common substrate for arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Arginase converts L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine. L-Ornithine is the principal precursor for the production of polyamines and L-proline, which are required for cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Endothelial NOS is expressed in the human endometrial glandular epithelium, but the expression and physiological roles of arginase in the human endometrium are not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and distribution patterns of arginases Ⅰ (A-Ⅰ) and Ⅱ (A-Ⅱ) in the human endometrium by using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR), and western blotting. A-Ⅰ and A-Ⅱ were detected by immunohistochemistry in human endometrial epithelial cells during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. RT-PCR showed that A-Ⅰ and A-Ⅱ mRNA were expressed in human endometrial tissue. Western blotting analysis results showed the expression of A-Ⅱ protein. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting results showed that expression levels of A-Ⅱ were significantly higher in the secretory phase than in the proliferative phase. Increased A-Ⅱ levels in the secretory phase may be responsible for endometrial growth by increasing polyamines and proline products. PMID:23897115

  5. A pediatric case of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma within the parotid.

    PubMed

    Quattlebaum, S Craig; Roby, Brianne; Dishop, Megan K; Said, M Sherif; Chan, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described entity in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. It is notable for a characteristic t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation that results in a unique fusion protein, ETV6-NTRK3. While several studies have retrospectively identified this translocation in cases previously diagnosed as a different salivary malignancy, there have been relatively few cases where this translocation was identified on initial pathology results, and fewer still in a pediatric population. We present a case of a 15 year old female with a slowly enlarging, painless, left facial mass. MRI demonstrated a cystic mass extending into the deep lobe of the parotid, and she underwent parotidectomy. The tumor cells stained positive for S100 and CK19. ETV6 translocation was present, confirming the diagnosis. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently described tumor of the salivary glands, which often masquerades as more common primary salivary gland tumors and cysts. More research is needed to characterize the typical behavior of this neoplasm and the optimal treatment regimen. With identification of its characteristic translocation, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma can be easily differentiated from its more prevalent counterparts, and should therefore remain within the differential of the pathologist and head and neck surgeon. PMID:26545463

  6. Zinc in Specialized Secretory Tissues: Roles in the Pancreas, Prostate, and Mammary Gland12

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Shannon L.; McCormick, Nicholas H.; Velasquez, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient required for over 300 different cellular processes, including DNA and protein synthesis, enzyme activity, and intracellular signaling. Cellular Zn homeostasis necessitates the compartmentalization of Zn into intracellular organelles, which is tightly regulated through the integration of Zn transporting mechanisms. The pancreas, prostate, and mammary gland are secretory tissues that have unusual Zn requirements and thus must tightly regulate Zn metabolism through integrating Zn import, sequestration, and export mechanisms. Recent findings indicate that these tissues utilize Zn for basic cellular processes but also require Zn for unique cellular needs. In addition, abundant Zn is transported into the secretory pathway and a large amount is subsequently secreted in a tightly regulated manner for unique biological processes. Expression of numerous members of the SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (Zip) gene families has been documented in these tissues, yet there is limited understanding of their precise functional role in Zn metabolism or their regulation. Impairments in Zn secretion from the pancreas, prostate, and mammary gland are associated with disorders such as diabetes, infertility, and cancer, respectively. In this review, we will provide a brief summary of the specific role of Zn in each tissue and describe our current knowledge regarding how Zn metabolism is regulated. Finally, in each instance, we will reflect upon how this information shapes our current understanding of the role of Zn in these secretory tissues with respect to human health and disease. PMID:22332039

  7. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

    PubMed

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south

  8. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

    PubMed

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south

  9. CCN1 contributes to skin connective tissue aging by inducing age-associated secretory phenotype in human skin dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; Qin, Zhaoping; Robichaud, Patrick; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2011-08-01

    Dermal connective tissue collagen is the major structural protein in skin. Fibroblasts within the dermis are largely responsible for collagen production and turnover. We have previously reported that dermal fibroblasts, in aged human skin in vivo, express elevated levels of CCN1, and that CCN1 negatively regulates collagen homeostasis by suppressing collagen synthesis and increasing collagen degradation (Quan et al. Am J Pathol 169:482-90, 2006, J Invest Dermatol 130:1697-706, 2010). In further investigations of CCN1 actions, we find that CCN1 alters collagen homeostasis by promoting expression of specific secreted proteins, which include matrix metalloproteinases and proinflammatory cytokines. We also find that CCN1-induced secretory proteins are elevated in aged human skin in vivo. We propose that CCN1 induces an "Age-Associated Secretory Phenotype", in dermal fibroblasts, which mediates collagen reduction and fragmentation in aged human skin.

  10. Axons provide the secretory machinery for trafficking of voltage-gated sodium channels in peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    González, Carolina; Cánovas, José; Fresno, Javiera; Couve, Eduardo; Court, Felipe A; Couve, Andrés

    2016-02-16

    The regulation of the axonal proteome is key to generate and maintain neural function. Fast and slow axoplasmic waves have been known for decades, but alternative mechanisms to control the abundance of axonal proteins based on local synthesis have also been identified. The presence of the endoplasmic reticulum has been documented in peripheral axons, but it is still unknown whether this localized organelle participates in the delivery of axonal membrane proteins. Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for action potentials and are mostly concentrated in the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. Despite their fundamental role, little is known about the intracellular trafficking mechanisms that govern their availability in mature axons. Here we describe the secretory machinery in axons and its contribution to plasma membrane delivery of sodium channels. The distribution of axonal secretory components was evaluated in axons of the sciatic nerve and in spinal nerve axons after in vivo electroporation. Intracellular protein trafficking was pharmacologically blocked in vivo and in vitro. Axonal voltage-gated sodium channel mRNA and local trafficking were examined by RT-PCR and a retention-release methodology. We demonstrate that mature axons contain components of the endoplasmic reticulum and other biosynthetic organelles. Axonal organelles and sodium channel localization are sensitive to local blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. More importantly, secretory organelles are capable of delivering sodium channels to the plasma membrane in isolated axons, demonstrating an intrinsic capacity of the axonal biosynthetic route in regulating the axonal proteome in mammalian axons. PMID:26839409

  11. Axons provide the secretory machinery for trafficking of voltage-gated sodium channels in peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    González, Carolina; Cánovas, José; Fresno, Javiera; Couve, Eduardo; Court, Felipe A.; Couve, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of the axonal proteome is key to generate and maintain neural function. Fast and slow axoplasmic waves have been known for decades, but alternative mechanisms to control the abundance of axonal proteins based on local synthesis have also been identified. The presence of the endoplasmic reticulum has been documented in peripheral axons, but it is still unknown whether this localized organelle participates in the delivery of axonal membrane proteins. Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for action potentials and are mostly concentrated in the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. Despite their fundamental role, little is known about the intracellular trafficking mechanisms that govern their availability in mature axons. Here we describe the secretory machinery in axons and its contribution to plasma membrane delivery of sodium channels. The distribution of axonal secretory components was evaluated in axons of the sciatic nerve and in spinal nerve axons after in vivo electroporation. Intracellular protein trafficking was pharmacologically blocked in vivo and in vitro. Axonal voltage-gated sodium channel mRNA and local trafficking were examined by RT-PCR and a retention-release methodology. We demonstrate that mature axons contain components of the endoplasmic reticulum and other biosynthetic organelles. Axonal organelles and sodium channel localization are sensitive to local blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. More importantly, secretory organelles are capable of delivering sodium channels to the plasma membrane in isolated axons, demonstrating an intrinsic capacity of the axonal biosynthetic route in regulating the axonal proteome in mammalian axons. PMID:26839409

  12. The secretory membrane system in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm embryo exists as functionally compartmentalized units around individual nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Frescas, David; Mavrakis, Manos; Lorenz, Holger; DeLotto, Robert; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis begins with 13 nuclear division cycles within a syncytium. This produces >6,000 nuclei that, during the next division cycle, become encased in plasma membrane in the process known as cellularization. In this study, we investigate how the secretory membrane system becomes equally apportioned among the thousands of syncytial nuclei in preparation for cellularization. Upon nuclear arrival at the cortex, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi were found to segregate among nuclei, with each nucleus becoming surrounded by a single ER/Golgi membrane system separate from adjacent ones. The nuclear-associated units of ER and Golgi across the syncytial blastoderm produced secretory products that were delivered to the plasma membrane in a spatially restricted fashion across the embryo. This occurred in the absence of plasma membrane boundaries between nuclei and was dependent on centrosome-derived microtubules. The emergence of secretory membranes that compartmentalized around individual nuclei in the syncytial blastoderm is likely to ensure that secretory organelles are equivalently partitioned among nuclei at cellularization and could play an important role in the establishment of localized gene and protein expression patterns within the early embryo. PMID:16636144

  13. Cathepsin L in secretory vesicles functions as a prohormone-processing enzyme for production of the enkephalin peptide neurotransmitter

    PubMed Central

    Yasothornsrikul, Sukkid; Greenbaum, Doron; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Toneff, Thomas; Bundey, Richard; Miller, Ruthellen; Schilling, Birgit; Petermann, Ivonne; Dehnert, Jessica; Logvinova, Anna; Goldsmith, Paul; Neveu, John M.; Lane, William S.; Gibson, Bradford; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Bogyo, Matthew; Hook, Vivian

    2003-01-01

    Multistep proteolytic mechanisms are essential for converting proprotein precursors into active peptide neurotransmitters and hormones. Cysteine proteases have been implicated in the processing of proenkephalin and other neuropeptide precursors. Although the papain family of cysteine proteases has been considered the primary proteases of the lysosomal degradation pathway, more recent studies indicate that functions of these enzymes are linked to specific biological processes. However, few protein substrates have been described for members of this family. We show here that secretory vesicle cathepsin L is the responsible cysteine protease of chromaffin granules for converting proenkephalin to the active enkephalin peptide neurotransmitter. The cysteine protease activity was identified as cathepsin L by affinity labeling with an activity-based probe for cysteine proteases followed by mass spectrometry for peptide sequencing. Production of [Met]enkephalin by cathepsin L occurred by proteolytic processing at dibasic and monobasic prohormone-processing sites. Cellular studies showed the colocalization of cathepsin L with [Met]enkephalin in secretory vesicles of neuroendocrine chromaffin cells by immunofluorescent confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Functional localization of cathepsin L to the regulated secretory pathway was demonstrated by its cosecretion with [Met]enkephalin. Finally, in cathepsin L gene knockout mice, [Met]enkephalin levels in brain were reduced significantly; this occurred with an increase in the relative amounts of enkephalin precursor. These findings indicate a previously uncharacterized biological role for secretory vesicle cathepsin L in the production of [Met]enkephalin, an endogenous peptide neurotransmitter. PMID:12869695

  14. Stimulus-secretion coupling in the developing exocrine pancreas: secretory responsiveness to cholecystokinin

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the onset of secretory responsiveness to cholecystokinin (CCK) during development of the rat exocrine pancreas. Although acinar cells of the fetal pancreas (1 d before birth) are filled with zymogen granules containing the secretory protein, alpha- amylase, the rate of amylase secretion from pancreatic lobules incubated in vitro was not increased in response to CCK. In contrast, the rate of CCK-stimulated amylase discharge from the neonatal pancreas (1 d after birth) was increased four- to eightfold above that of the fetal gland. The postnatal amplification of secretory responsiveness was not associated with an increase in the number or cell surface expression of 125I-CCK binding sites. When 125I-CCK-33 binding proteins were analyzed by affinity crosslinking, two proteins of Mr 210,000 and 100,000-160,000 were labeled specifically in both fetal and neonatal pancreas. To determine if cell surface receptors for CCK in the fetal pancreas are functional and able to generate a rise in the cytosolic [Ca++], we measured 45Ca++ efflux from tracer-loaded lobules. 45Ca++ efflux from both fetal and neonatal pancreas was comparably increased by CCK, indicating CCK-induced Ca++ mobilization and elevated cytosolic [Ca++]. The Ca++ ionophore A23187 also stimulated the rate of 45Ca++ extrusion from pancreas of both ages. Increased amylase secretion occurred concurrently with A23187-stimulated 45Ca++ efflux in neonatal pancreas, but not in the fetal gland. A23187 in combination with dibutyryl cAMP potentiated amylase release from the neonatal gland, but not from fetal pancreas. Similarly, the protein kinase C activator, phorbol dibutyrate, did not increase the rate of secretion from the fetal gland when added alone or in combination with A23187 or CCK. We suggest that CCK-receptor interaction in the fetal pancreas triggers intracellular Ca++ mobilization. However, one or more signal transduction events distal to Ca++ mobilization have not yet matured. The onset of

  15. Bicarbonate transport in sheep parotid secretory cells.

    PubMed Central

    Steward, M C; Poronnik, P; Cook, D I

    1996-01-01

    1. Intracellular pH (pH1) was measured by microfluorimetry in secretory endpieces isolated from sheep parotid glands and loaded with the pH-sensitive fluoroprobe 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). 2. Stimulation with 1 microM acetylcholine (ACh) caused a large, transient decrease in pH1 of 0.37 +/- 0.02 pH units followed by a slower recovery. The transient, which was reduced by 60% in the absence of HCO3-, could be attributed mainly to HCO3- efflux. During sustained stimulation, pH1 increased to a value that exceeded the resting value by 0.083 +/- 0.023 pH units after 20 min. 3. The anion channel blocker NPPB (0.1 mM) reduced the transient acidification in response to ACh by 48% and raised pH1 during sustained stimulation. Simultaneous application of NPPB and ACh accelerated the re-alkalinization following the initial acidification, indicating that NPPB inhibits HCO3- efflux. 4. The stilbene derivative H2DIDS (0.5 mM) reduced the transient acidification in response to ACh by 76% but caused a marked decrease in pH1 during sustained stimulation. Simultaneous application of H2DIDS and ACh slowed the re-alkalinization following the initial acidification, indicating that the main effect of H2DIDS was to inhibit HCO3- accumulation. 5. In the absence of HCO3-, the recovery from an acid load was unaffected by ACh stimulation. Acid extrusion, although dependent on Na+, was not inhibited by amiloride (1 mM), clonidine (1 mM) or H2DIDS (0.5 mM) and was therefore provisionally attributed to a Na(+)-H+ exchanger isoform other than NHE1 or NHE2. 6. In the presence of HCO3-, the rate of recovery from an acid load was reduced during ACh stimulation, probably as a result of the increased efflux of HCO3-. Acid extrusion was dependent on Na+ and was significantly inhibited by H2DIDS. 7. We conclude that ACh-evoked HCO3- secretion in the sheep parotid gland differs from that in many other salivary glands by being driven predominantly by basolateral Na(+)-HCO3

  16. Short-term cholinergic desensitization of rat pancreatic secretory response

    SciTech Connect

    Asselin, J.; Larose, L.; Morisset, J.

    1987-03-01

    Dispersed pancreatic acini were first exposed to carbamylcholine (10/sup -7/-10/sup -4/ M) for 60 min, washed, and reexposed to this same agonist (10/sup -8/-10/sup -3/ M) for 15 min. During this second incubation, the functional secretory capacity of these acini was evaluated by measuring amylase release. Acini preexposed to concentrations of carbamylcholine of 10/sup -6/ M or greater showed shifts to the right in the subsequent carbamylcholine dose-response curves of amylase release. A 3-h recovery period (without carbamylcholine) did not restore the altered carbamylcholine dose-response curve. Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations of 10/sup -7/ M or 2.5 x 10/sup -3/ M instead of 0.5 x 10/sup -3/ M during the 60-min preincubation did not affect the desensitization process. With use of N-(/sup 3/H)methylscopolamine to evaluate muscarinic receptors, the only changes observed after desensitization were a significant decrease in the high-affinity and an equivalent increase in that of the low-affinity receptors. After cholinergic exposure amylase release stimulated by caerulein was only slightly modified, whereas amylase release in response to a phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and to the ionophore A23187 was not altered. These data indicate that short-term desensitization with a cholinergic agent is relatively specific to muscarinic agonists, causes changes in the muscarinic receptor high-and low-affinity concentration but does not alter intracellular steps after calcium mobilization or protein kinase C activation known to be involved in the secretion process.

  17. [Effect of plant hormones on the components of secretory pathway in human normal and tumor cells].

    PubMed

    Vil'danova, M S; Savitskaia, M A; Onishchenko, G E; Smirnova, E A

    2014-01-01

    Plant hormones play a key role in plant growth and differentiation. Many hormones are known as potential antitumor agents, yet others appear to affect the secretory activity and are produced by mammalian cells as pro-inflammatory cytokines. The goal of this research was to study the effect of abscisic and gibberellic acids on the secretory system of human cultured epidermoid carcinoma cells A431 and keratinocytes HaCat. Immunocytochemical and morphometric analysis demonstrated that subtoxic concentration of plant hormones induced the broadening of the ER network and increased the size of Golgi complex. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the hypertrophic changes of the Golgi apparatus, specifically, the swelling of cisternae in the trans-compartment of dictyosomes after exposure to abscisic acid, and swelling of cis- and trans-compartment of dictyosomes after exposure to abscisic acid, and swelling of cis- and trans-compartments of dictyosomes after exposure to gibberellic acid. Using of Click-iT technique allowed to detect the elevation of the total protein synthesis only in A431 cells exposed to abscisic acid. Cumulative data suggests that, under these conditions, the hypertrophy of Golgi apparatus may reflect the enhanced secretory activity of cells. In other experiments, the hypertrophy of Golgi is not related to increased protein synthesis and therefore may suggest the stress-related changes of ER and Golgi apparatus. Our results demonstrate that morphologically similar reaction of cellular organelles, such as hypertrophy of Golgi apparatus, is the result of different functional activities, and that molecular mechanisms underlying the changes induced in cells need further investigations. PMID:25696996

  18. Tubal function in chronic secretory otitis media in children.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, G; Tos, M

    1977-01-01

    In 100 children (150 ears) with chronic secretory otitis media the function of the Eustachian tube during treatment with grommet was investigated by air equalisation methods. Tubal function proved poor in the great majority at the beginning of the treatment, but towards its completion there was some improvement. After extrusion of the grommet, tubal function was investigated on the same material by tympanometry. 34% had normal middle-ear pressure initially, and 43% 12-18 months after closure of the perforation. There was no relation between tubal function shown by air equalisation methods and by tympanometry, and the air equalisation methods proved of less value than tympanometry in assessing the course and prognosis of secretory otitis. The pathogenetic theories - the ex vacuo and the secretory theory - are discussed in relation to the chronic tubal dysfunction found to be the most common direct cause of the disease.

  19. High Expression of Water-Soluble Recombinant Antigenic Domains of Toxoplasma gondii Secretory Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant antigenic proteins of Toxoplasma gondii are alternative source of antigens which are easily obtainable for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, highly antigenic secretory organellar proteins, dense granular GRA2 and GRA3, rhoptrial ROP2, and micronemal MIC2, were analyzed by bioinformatics approach to express as water-soluble forms of antigenic domains. The transmembrane region and disorder tendency of 4 secretory proteins were predicted to clone the genes into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS E. coli, and GST fusion proteins were expressed with IPTG. As a result, GST fusion proteins with GRA225-105, GRA339-138, ROP2324-561, and MIC21-284 domains had respectively higher value of IgG avidity. The rGST-GRA225-105 and rGST-GRA339-138 were soluble, while rGST-ROP2324-561 and rGST-MIC21-284 were not. GRA231-71, intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of GRA2, was used as a linker to enhance the solubility. The rGST-GRA231-71-ROP2324-561, a chimeric protein, appeared to be soluble. Moreover, rGST-GRA231-71-MIC21-284 was also soluble and had higher IgG avidity comparing to rGST-MIC21-284. These 4 highly expressed and water-soluble recombinant antigenic proteins may be promising candidates to improve the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in addition to the major surface antigen of SAG1. PMID:25246715

  20. Ultrastructural patterns of secretory activity in poison cutaneous glands of larval and juvenile Dendrobates auratus (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Angel, R; Delfino, G; Parra, G J

    2003-01-01

    A transmission electron-microscope study has been performed on larval and juvenile skin of the Central American arrow-frog Dendrobates auratus to investigate early secretory processes and maturational changes in the serous (poison) glands. Poison biosynthesis involves the endoplasmic reticulum (both smooth and rough types), as well as Golgi stacks which release early serous product as secretory vesicles (or pre-granules). These vesicles contain fine-grained material, along with single electron-opaque bodies, spheroidal in shape, that accompany the grained product throughout its post-Gogian, maturational change. The first steps of this process involve condensation and lead to the formation of secretory granules with a glomerular-like substructure, resulting from a thick, random aggregation of rods (secretory granule subunits). Advanced maturational activity causes the loss of peculiar granule substructure: the dense bodies split into fragments, whereas the thick glomerular arrangement becomes looser, until the secretory product changes into a dispersed material. This ultrastructural study revealed biosynthesis and maturation processes in close sequence, suggesting the poison of D. auratus contains proteins and/or peptides as well as lipophilic compounds. Molecules of both these classes are known to perform several roles relevant to survival strategies in extant anurans. Furthermore, the ephemeral granules with a glomerular-like substructure detected in tadpoles and froglets exhibit the complex patterns of mature poisons in adult specimens of other anurans: Hylidae and related families. This agrees with current trends in the taxonomy of these advanced frogs and underlines the pertinence of an ontogenetic approach in investigating anuran phylogenesis. PMID:12467659

  1. Cytoplasmic calcium stimulates exocytosis in a plant secretory cell

    PubMed Central

    Tester, Mark; Zorec, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Although exocytosis is likely to occur in plant cells, the control of this process is the subject of speculation, as no direct measurements of vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane have been made. We used the patch clamp technique to monitor the secretory activity of single aleurone protoplasts by measuring membrane capacitance (Cm), while dialyzing the cytosol with different Ca2+ containing solutions. Secretory activity increased with [Ca2+]i ∼ 1 μM. This demonstrates directly the existence of exocytosis in plant cells, and suggests that both plant and animal cells share common mechanisms (cytosolic Ca2+) for the control of exocytotic secretion. PMID:19431846

  2. Chemical Secretory Pathway Modulation in Plant Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Pompa, Andrea; Bellucci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The classical Golgi pathway is not the only mechanism for vacuolar protein transport in plants because alternative transport mechanisms have been described. The existence of these alternative pathways can be demonstrated using several chemicals and here we describe the use of brefeldin A (BFA), endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (Endo-H), and tunicamycin, on isolated tobacco leaf protoplasts. Two main methods are illustrated in this chapter, protoplast pulse-chase followed by protein immunoprecipitation, and protoplast immunofluorescence. PMID:27665551

  3. Proteomics of Secretory-Stage and Maturation-Stage Enamel of Genetically Distinct Mice.

    PubMed

    Charone, Senda; De Lima Leite, Aline; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Silva Fernandes, Mileni; Ferreira de Almeida, Lucas; Zardin Graeff, Marcia Sirlene; Cardoso de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Groisman, Sonia; Whitford, Gary Milton; Everett, Eric T; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which excessive ingestion of fluoride (F) during amelogenesis leads to dental fluorosis (DF) are still not precisely known. Inbred strains of mice vary in their susceptibility to develop DF, and therefore permit the investigation of underlying molecular events influencing DF severity. We employed a proteomic approach to characterize and evaluate changes in protein expression from secretory-stage and maturation-stage enamel in 2 strains of mice with different susceptibilities to DF (A/J, i.e. 'susceptible' and 129P3/J, i.e. 'resistant'). Weanling male and female susceptible and resistant mice fed a low-F diet were divided into 2 F-water treatment groups. They received water containing 0 (control) or 50 mg F/l for 6 weeks. Plasma and incisor enamel was analyzed for F content. For proteomic analysis, the enamel proteins extracted for each group were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and subsequently characterized by liquid-chromatography electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. F data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (p < 0.05). Resistant mice had significantly higher plasma and enamel F concentrations when compared with susceptible mice in the F-treated groups. The proteomic results for mice treated with 0 mg F/l revealed that during the secretory stage, resistant mice had a higher abundance of proteins than their susceptible counterparts, but this was reversed during the maturation stage. Treatment with F greatly increased the number of protein spots detected in both stages. Many proteins not previously described in enamel (e.g. type 1 collagen) as well as some uncharacterized proteins were identified. Our findings reveal new insights regarding amelogenesis and how genetic background and F affect this process. PMID:26820156

  4. Myosin Va Transports Dense Core Secretory Vesicles in Pancreatic MIN6 β-CellsV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Aniko; Tsuboi, Takashi; Rutter, Guy A.

    2005-01-01

    The role of unconventional myosins in neuroendocrine cells is not fully understood, with involvement suggested in the movement of both secretory vesicles and mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate colocalization of myosin Va (MyoVa) with insulin in pancreatic β-cells and show that MyoVa copurifies with insulin in density gradients and with the vesicle marker phogrin-enhanced green fluorescent protein upon fluorescence-activated sorting of vesicles. By contrast, MyoVa immunoreactivity was poorly colocalized with mitochondrial or other markers. Demonstrating an important role for MyoVa in the recruitment of secretory vesicles to the cell surface, a reduction of MyoVa protein levels achieved by RNA interference caused a significant decrease in glucose- or depolarization-stimulated insulin secretion. Similarly, expression of the dominant-negative–acting globular tail domain of MyoVa decreased by ∼50% the number of vesicles docked at the plasma membrane and by 87% the number of depolarization-stimulated exocytotic events detected by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that MyoVa-driven movements of vesicles along the cortical actin network are essential for the terminal stages of regulated exocytosis in β-cells. PMID:15788565

  5. Prospore membrane formation defines a developmentally regulated branch of the secretory pathway in yeast.

    PubMed

    Neiman, A M

    1998-01-12

    Spore formation in yeast is an unusual form of cell division in which the daughter cells are formed within the mother cell cytoplasm. This division requires the de novo synthesis of a membrane compartment, termed the prospore membrane, which engulfs the daughter nuclei. The effect of mutations in late-acting genes on sporulation was investigated. Mutation of SEC1, SEC4, or SEC8 blocked spore formation, and electron microscopic analysis of the sec4-8 mutant indicated that this inability to produce spores was caused by a failure to form the prospore membrane. The soluble NSF attachment protein 25 (SNAP-25) homologue SEC9, by contrast, was not required for sporulation. The absence of a requirement for SEC9 was shown to be due to the sporulation-specific induction of a second, previously undescribed, SNAP-25 homologue, termed SPO20. These results define a developmentally regulated branch of the secretory pathway and suggest that spore morphogenesis in yeast proceeds by the targeting and fusion of secretory vesicles to form new plasma membranes in the interior of the mother cell. Consistent with this model, the extracellular proteins Gas1p and Cts1p were localized to an internal compartment in sporulating cells. Spore formation in yeast may be a useful model for understanding secretion-driven cell division events in a variety of plant and animal systems.

  6. Ovulation in Drosophila is controlled by secretory cells of the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianjun; Spradling, Allan C

    2013-01-01

    How oocytes are transferred into an oviduct with a receptive environment remains poorly known. We found that glands of the Drosophila female reproductive tract, spermathecae and/or parovaria, are required for ovulation and to promote sperm storage. Reducing total secretory cell number by interferring with Notch signaling during development blocked ovulation. Knocking down expression after adult eclosion of the nuclear hormone receptor Hr39, a master regulator of gland development, slowed ovulation and blocked sperm storage. However, ovulation (but not sperm storage) continued when only canonical protein secretion was compromised in adult glands. Our results imply that proteins secreted during adulthood by the canonical secretory pathway from female reproductive glands are needed to store sperm, while a non-canonical glandular secretion stimulates ovulation. Our results suggest that the reproductive tract signals to the ovary using glandular secretions, and that this pathway has been conserved during evolution. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00415.001. PMID:23599892

  7. Characterisation of a secretory serine protease inhibitor (SjB6) from Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteins belonging to the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily play essential physiological roles in many organisms. In pathogens, serpins are thought to have evolved specifically to limit host immune responses by interfering with the host immune-stimulatory signals. Serpins are less well characterised in parasitic helminths, although some are thought to be involved in mechanisms associated with host immune modulation. In this study, we cloned and partially characterised a secretory serpin from Schistosoma japonicum termed SjB6, these findings provide the basis for possible functional roles. Methods SjB6 gene was identified through database mining of our previously published microarray data, cloned and detailed sequence and structural analysis and comparative modelling carried out using various bioinformatics and proteomics tools. Gene transcriptional profiling was determined by real-time PCR and the expression of native protein determined by immunoblotting. An immunological profile of the recombinant protein produced in insect cells was determined by ELISA. Results SjB6 contains an open reading frame of 1160 base pairs that encodes a protein of 387 amino acid residues. Detailed sequence analysis, comparative modelling and structural-based alignment revealed that SjB6 contains the essential structural motifs and consensus secondary structures typical of inhibitory serpins. The presence of an N-terminal signal sequence indicated that SjB6 is a secretory protein. Real-time data indicated that SjB6 is expressed exclusively in the intra-mammalian stage of the parasite life cycle with its highest expression levels in the egg stage (p < 0.0001). The native protein is approximately 60 kDa in size and recombinant SjB6 (rSjB6) was recognised strongly by sera from rats experimentally infected with S. japonicum. Conclusions The significantly high expression of SjB6 in schistosome eggs, when compared to other life cycle stages, suggests a possible

  8. A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in…

  9. Clinical applications of the radioimmunoassay of secretory tuberculoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, E; Wu, N; Quraishi, M A; Levine, S

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay that measures a specific secretory tuberculoprotein was used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 9 of 30 liquid cultures of sputum. The accumulation of immunoreactive material in liquid cultures containing isoniazid was shown to reflect in vitro susceptibility of mycobacteria to the antibiotic effects of the drug. PMID:6789332

  10. Interactions of pathogen-containing compartments with the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Canton, Johnathan; Kima, Peter E

    2012-11-01

    A subgroup of intracellular pathogens reside and replicate within membrane-bound compartments often termed pathogen-containing compartments (PCC). PCCs navigate around a wide range of host cell vesicles and organelles. In light of the perils of engaging with vesicles of the endocytic pathway, most PCCs modulate their interactions with endocytic vesicles while a few avoid those interactions. The secretory pathway constitutes another important grouping of vesicles and organelles in host cells. Although the negative consequences of engaging with the secretory pathway are not known, there is evidence that PCCs interact differentially with vesicles and organelles in this pathway as well. In this review, we consider three prokaryote pathogens and two protozoan parasites for which there is information on the interactions of their PCCs with the secretory pathway. Current understandings of the molecular interactions as well as the metabolic benefits that accompany those interactions are discussed. Not unexpectedly, our understanding of the extent of these interactions is variable. An underlying theme that is brought to the fore is that PCCs establish preferential interactions with distinct compartments of the secretory pathway.

  11. Separation of rat pituitary secretory granules by continuous flow electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel; Exton, Carrie; Salada, Thomas; Shellenberger, Kathy; Waddle, Jenny; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The separation of growth hormone-containing cytoplasmic secretory granules from the rat pituitary gland by continuous flow electrophoresis is described. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that granule subpopulations can be separated due to differences in surface charge; these, in turn, may be related to the oligomeric state of the hormone.

  12. Medical management of secretory syndromes related to gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Weickert, Martin O; Randeva, Harpal S; Kaltsas, Gregory; Grossman, Ashley

    2016-09-01

    Although recent epidemiological evidence indicates that the prevalence of non-functioning gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) is rising, a significant number of GEP-NETs still present with symptoms related to the secretion of biologically active substances leading to the development of distinct clinical syndromes. In the past, these syndromes were associated with substantial morbidity and mortality due to the lack of specific therapies; however, since the introduction of long-acting somatostatin analogues and medications such as proton pump inhibitors, their control has been greatly improved. As a result, nowadays, the main cause of morbidity and mortality in GEP-NETs is mostly directly related to tumour growth and the extent of metastatic disease. However, in some patients with functioning tumours and extensive disease, control of the secretory syndrome still remains problematic, necessitating the employment of several cytoreductive techniques, which may not always be sufficient. Recently, new agents directed against tumour growth, or exerting increased binding activity to receptors expressed in these tumours, or interfering with the synthetic pathway of some of the compounds secreted by these tumours, have been developed. Since there are no specific guidelines addressing the totality of the management of the secretory syndromes related to GEP-NETs, this review aims at critically analysing the medical management of previously recognised secretory syndromes; it also addresses areas of uncertainty, assesses the newer therapeutic developments and also addresses recently described but poorly characterised secretory syndromes related to GEP-NETs. PMID:27461388

  13. Levels of lactoferrin, secretory IgA and serum albumin in the tear film of people with keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sivaraman Arumugam; Pye, David Cecil; Willcox, Mark Duncan Perry

    2012-03-01

    Keratoconus is a degenerating disease of the eye which causes an irregularly shaped cornea leading to severe impairment of vision. Tear proteomics in keratoconus has been a topic of substantial discussion and speculation over many years. This study was designed to examine the levels of total protein, lactoferrin, secretory IgA and serum albumin in the tear film of people with keratoconus. Basal tears were collected using a capillary tube and corneal curvature was mapped using a topographer. Total protein in tears was estimated. The amount of regulated protein lactoferrin, constitutive protein sIgA and serum protein albumin was measured using specific ELISAs. The changes in protein concentrations in tears were correlated to the degree of corneal asphericity. There was a two-fold (p<0.0001) decrease in total protein levels between keratoconus (3.86 ± 1.62 mg/ml) and normal (7.00 ± 1.58 mg/ml) tears. The amount of lactoferrin (0.67 ± 0.28 vs. 1.13 ± 0.29 mg/ml) and secretory IgA (0.78 ± 0.36 vs. 1.70 ± 0.66 mg/ml) were significantly (p<0.0001) reduced in keratoconus tears. Variation in serum albumin levels between keratoconus (8.18 ± 4.72 μg/ml) and normal tears (11.66 ± 8.20 μg/ml) were not significant. The differences in total protein, lactoferrin and secretory IgA were not associated with contact lens wear, age, gender or atopy of subjects. The keratometry reading was negatively correlated to tear levels of total protein (r = -0.59, p < 0.01) lactoferrin (r = -0.40, p < 0.05) and secretory IgA (r = -0.34, p < 0.05). The tears of keratoconus subjects appear to have an altered protein profile, and one that might change with the severity of the disease. These findings may lead the way to understanding or monitoring disease progression.

  14. Insulin-degrading enzyme secretion from astrocytes is mediated by an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Son, Sung Min; Cha, Moon-Yong; Choi, Heesun; Kang, Seokjo; Choi, Hyunjung; Lee, Myung-Shik; Park, Sun Ah; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2016-05-01

    The secretion of proteins that lack a signal sequence to the extracellular milieu is regulated by their transition through the unconventional secretory pathway. IDE (insulin-degrading enzyme) is one of the major proteases of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), a presumed causative molecule in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. IDE acts in the extracellular space despite having no signal sequence, but the underlying mechanism of IDE secretion extracellularly is still unknown. In this study, we found that IDE levels were reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AD and in pathology-bearing AD-model mice. Since astrocytes are the main cell types for IDE secretion, astrocytes were treated with Aβ. Aβ increased the IDE levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, IDE secretion was associated with an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway, and depended on the activity of RAB8A and GORASP (Golgi reassembly stacking protein). Finally, mice with global haploinsufficiency of an essential autophagy gene, showed decreased IDE levels in the CSF in response to an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ. These results indicate that IDE is secreted from astrocytes through an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway in AD conditions, and that the regulation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic target in addressing Aβ pathology.

  15. The murine cytomegalovirus immunoevasin gp40 binds MHC class I molecules to retain them in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Janßen, Linda; Ramnarayan, Venkat Raman; Aboelmagd, Mohamed; Iliopoulou, Maro; Hein, Zeynep; Majoul, Irina; Fritzsche, Susanne; Halenius, Anne; Springer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of the murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) gp40 (m152) protein, murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules do not reach the cell surface but are retained in an early compartment of the secretory pathway. We find that gp40 does not impair the folding or high-affinity peptide binding of the class I molecules but binds to them, leading to their retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and the cis-Golgi, most likely by retrieval from the cis-Golgi to the ER. We identify a sequence in gp40 that is required for both its own retention in the early secretory pathway and for that of class I molecules.

  16. Enhanced cell-surface display and secretory production of cellulolytic enzymes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sed1 signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Ishii, Jun; Ito, Yoichiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant yeast strains displaying aheterologous cellulolytic enzymes on their cell surfaces using a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring system are a promising strategy for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. A crucial step for cell wall localization of the enzymes is the intracellular transport of proteins in yeast cells. Therefore, the addition of a highly efficient secretion signal sequence is important to increase the amount of the enzymes on the yeast cell surface. In this study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel signal peptide (SP) sequence derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SED1 gene for cell-surface display and secretory production of cellulolytic enzymes. Gene cassettes with SP sequences derived from S. cerevisiae SED1 (SED1SP), Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (GLUASP), and S. cerevisiae α-mating pheromone (MFα1SP) were constructed for cell-surface display of Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase (BGL1) and Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II (EGII). These gene cassettes were integrated into the S. cerevisiae genome. The recombinant strains with the SED1SP showed higher cell-surface BGL and EG activities than those with the conventional SP sequences (GLUASP and MFα1SP). The novel SP sequence also improved the secretory production of BGL and EG in S. cerevisiae. The extracellular BGL activity of the recombinant strains with the SED1SP was 1.3- and 1.9-fold higher than the GLUASP and MFα1SP strains, respectively. Moreover, the utilization of SED1SP successfully enhanced the secretory production of BGL in Pichia pastoris. The utilization of the novel SP sequence is a promising option for highly efficient cell-surface display and secretory production of heterologous proteins in various yeast species. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2358-2366. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27183011

  17. Subcellular localization and trafficking of phytolongins (non-SNARE longins) in the plant secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    de Marcos Lousa, Carine; Soubeyrand, Eric; Bolognese, Paolo; Wattelet-Boyer, Valerie; Bouyssou, Guillaume; Marais, Claireline; Boutté, Yohann; Filippini, Francesco; Moreau, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    SNARE proteins are central elements of the machinery involved in membrane fusion of eukaryotic cells. In animals and plants, SNAREs have diversified to sustain a variety of specific functions. In animals, R-SNARE proteins called brevins have diversified; in contrast, in plants, the R-SNARE proteins named longins have diversified. Recently, a new subfamily of four longins named ‘phytolongins’ (Phyl) was discovered. One intriguing aspect of Phyl proteins is the lack of the typical SNARE motif, which is replaced by another domain termed the ‘Phyl domain’. Phytolongins have a rather ubiquitous tissue expression in Arabidopsis but still await intracellular characterization. In this study, we found that the four phytolongins are distributed along the secretory pathway. While Phyl2.1 and Phyl2.2 are strictly located at the endoplasmic reticulum network, Phyl1.2 associates with the Golgi bodies, and Phyl1.1 locates mainly at the plasma membrane and partially in the Golgi bodies and post-Golgi compartments. Our results show that export of Phyl1.1 from the endoplasmic reticulum depends on the GTPase Sar1, the Sar1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec12, and the SNAREs Sec22 and Memb11. In addition, we have identified the Y48F49 motif as being critical for the exit of Phyl1.1 from the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results provide the first characterization of the subcellular localization of the phytolongins, and we discuss their potential role in regulating the secretory pathway. PMID:26962210

  18. SORCS1 is necessary for normal insulin secretory granule biogenesis in metabolically stressed β cells.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Melkam A; Oler, Angie T; Gregg, Trillian; Balloon, Allison J; Johnson, Adam; Mitok, Kelly; Rabaglia, Mary; Schueler, Kathryn; Stapleton, Donald; Thorstenson, Candice; Wrighton, Lindsay; Floyd, Brendan J; Richards, Oliver; Raines, Summer; Eliceiri, Kevin; Seidah, Nabil G; Rhodes, Christopher; Keller, Mark P; Coon, Joshua L; Audhya, Anjon; Attie, Alan D

    2014-10-01

    We previously positionally cloned Sorcs1 as a diabetes quantitative trait locus. Sorcs1 belongs to the Vacuolar protein sorting-10 (Vps10) gene family. In yeast, Vps10 transports enzymes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the vacuole. Whole-body Sorcs1 KO mice, when made obese with the leptin(ob) mutation (ob/ob), developed diabetes. β Cells from these mice had a severe deficiency of secretory granules (SGs) and insulin. Interestingly, a single secretagogue challenge failed to consistently elicit an insulin secretory dysfunction. However, multiple challenges of the Sorcs1 KO ob/ob islets consistently revealed an insulin secretion defect. The luminal domain of SORCS1 (Lum-Sorcs1), when expressed in a β cell line, acted as a dominant-negative, leading to SG and insulin deficiency. Using syncollin-dsRed5TIMER adenovirus, we found that the loss of Sorcs1 function greatly impairs the rapid replenishment of SGs following secretagogue challenge. Chronic exposure of islets from lean Sorcs1 KO mice to high glucose and palmitate depleted insulin content and evoked an insulin secretion defect. Thus, in metabolically stressed mice, Sorcs1 is important for SG replenishment, and under chronic challenge by insulin secretagogues, loss of Sorcs1 leads to diabetes. Overexpression of full-length SORCS1 led to a 2-fold increase in SG content, suggesting that SORCS1 is sufficient to promote SG biogenesis. PMID:25157818

  19. Identification and Functional Characterization of Leishmania donovani Secretory Peroxidase: Delineating Its Role in NRAMP1 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania silently evades host immune system and establish in the hostile environment of host macrophage phagolysosomes. For differentiation, growth and division parasite acquires divalent cations especially iron from the host nutritive pool. Natural resistance associated with macrophage protein1 (NRAMP1), a cation transporter that effluxes out divalent cations specifically iron from phagosomal milieu to the cytosol, to create ions deprived status for pathogenic microorganisms. The mechanisms of NRAMP1 regulation are largely unknown in leishmanial infections. In the present study, we identified a secretory Leishmania donovani peroxidase (Prx) that showed peroxidoxin like peroxidase activity and significantly reduced H2O2, O2.− and NO levels in LPS activated macrophages. Further, we also observed down regulated Nramp1 expression and concomitantly declined labile iron pool in activated macrophages treated with identified peroxidase. Prx also decreased levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-12 in LPS activated macrophages. These observations indicate a bifunctional protective role of secretory Prx; first it reduces redox activation of macrophages, and secondly it allows iron access to Leishmania by down regulating NRAMP1 expression. PMID:23326430

  20. SORCS1 is necessary for normal insulin secretory granule biogenesis in metabolically stressed β cells

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Melkam A.; Oler, Angie T.; Gregg, Trillian; Balloon, Allison J.; Johnson, Adam; Mitok, Kelly; Rabaglia, Mary; Schueler, Kathryn; Stapleton, Donald; Thorstenson, Candice; Wrighton, Lindsay; Floyd, Brendan J.; Richards, Oliver; Raines, Summer; Eliceiri, Kevin; Seidah, Nabil G.; Rhodes, Christopher; Keller, Mark P.; Coon, Joshua L.; Audhya, Anjon; Attie, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    We previously positionally cloned Sorcs1 as a diabetes quantitative trait locus. Sorcs1 belongs to the Vacuolar protein sorting-10 (Vps10) gene family. In yeast, Vps10 transports enzymes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the vacuole. Whole-body Sorcs1 KO mice, when made obese with the leptinob mutation (ob/ob), developed diabetes. β Cells from these mice had a severe deficiency of secretory granules (SGs) and insulin. Interestingly, a single secretagogue challenge failed to consistently elicit an insulin secretory dysfunction. However, multiple challenges of the Sorcs1 KO ob/ob islets consistently revealed an insulin secretion defect. The luminal domain of SORCS1 (Lum-Sorcs1), when expressed in a β cell line, acted as a dominant-negative, leading to SG and insulin deficiency. Using syncollin-dsRed5TIMER adenovirus, we found that the loss of Sorcs1 function greatly impairs the rapid replenishment of SGs following secretagogue challenge. Chronic exposure of islets from lean Sorcs1 KO mice to high glucose and palmitate depleted insulin content and evoked an insulin secretion defect. Thus, in metabolically stressed mice, Sorcs1 is important for SG replenishment, and under chronic challenge by insulin secretagogues, loss of Sorcs1 leads to diabetes. Overexpression of full-length SORCS1 led to a 2-fold increase in SG content, suggesting that SORCS1 is sufficient to promote SG biogenesis. PMID:25157818

  1. Amyloid formation of growth hormone in presence of zinc: Relevance to its storage in secretory granules

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Reeba S.; Das, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Saikat; Anoop, Arunagiri; Jha, Narendra Nath; Khan, Tuhin; Singru, Praful; Kumar, Ashutosh; Maji, Samir K.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are cross-β-sheet fibrillar aggregates, associated with various human diseases and native functions such as protein/peptide hormone storage inside secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. In the current study, using amyloid detecting agents, we show that growth hormone (GH) could be stored as amyloid in the pituitary of rat. Moreover, to demonstrate the formation of GH amyloid in vitro, we studied various conditions (solvents, glycosaminoglycans, salts and metal ions) and found that in presence of zinc metal ions (Zn(II)), GH formed short curvy fibrils. The amyloidogenic nature of these fibrils was examined by Thioflavin T binding, Congo Red binding, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our biophysical studies also suggest that Zn(II) initiates the early oligomerization of GH that eventually facilitates the fibrillation process. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence study of pituitary tissue, we show that GH in pituitary significantly co-localizes with Zn(II), suggesting the probable role of zinc in GH aggregation within secretory granules. We also found that GH amyloid formed in vitro is capable of releasing monomers. The study will help to understand the possible mechanism of GH storage, its regulation and monomer release from the somatotrophs of anterior pituitary. PMID:27004850

  2. Aquaporin 1 regulates GTP-induced rapid gating of water in secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Joon; Sattar, A K M Abdus; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Satchi, Mylan; Cho, Jin Ah; Dash, Sudhansu; Mayes, Mary Sue; Stromer, Marvin H; Jena, Bhanu P

    2002-04-01

    The swelling of secretory vesicles has been implicated in exocytosis, but the underlying mechanism of vesicle swelling remains largely unknown. Zymogen granules (ZGs), the membrane-bound secretory vesicles in exocrine pancreas, swell in response to GTP mediated by a G(alpha)i3 protein. Evidence is presented here that the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is present in the ZG membrane and participates in rapid GTP-induced vesicular water gating and swelling. Isolated ZGs exhibit low basal water permeability. However, exposure of granules to GTP results in a marked potentiation of water entry. Treatment of ZGs with the known water channel inhibitor Hg2+ is accompanied by a reversible loss in both the basal and GTP-stimulatable water entry and vesicle swelling. Introduction of AQP1-specific antibody raised against the carboxyl-terminal domain of AQP1 blocks GTP-stimulable swelling of vesicles. Our results demonstrate that AQP1 associated at the ZG membrane is involved in basal as well as GTP-induced rapid gating of water in ZGs of the exocrine pancreas.

  3. The electrostatic basis for the interfacial binding of secretory phospholipases A2.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D L; Mandel, A M; Sigler, P B; Honig, B

    1994-01-01

    Biochemical and structural data suggest that electrostatic forces play a critical role in the binding of secretory phospholipases A2 to substrate aggregates (micelles, vesicles, monolayers, and membranes). This initial binding (adsorption) of the enzyme to the interface is kinetically distinct from the subsequent binding of substrate to the buried active site. Thus, in the absence of specific active-site interactions, electrostatic forces operating at the molecular surface may orient and hold the enzyme at the interface. We have calculated the electrostatic potentials for 10 species of secretory phospholipases A2 whose atomic coordinates have been determined by x-ray crystallography. Most of these enzymes show a marked electrostatic sidedness that is accentuated to a variable degree by the presence of the essential cofactor calcium ion. This asymmetry suggests a discrete interfacial binding region on the protein's surface, the location of which is in general agreement with proposals derived from the results of chemical modification, mutational, and crystallographic experiments. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 5 PMID:7948668

  4. Purification and characterization of a secretory lipolytic enzyme, MgLIP2, from Malassezia globosa.

    PubMed

    Juntachai, Weerapong; Oura, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2011-12-01

    Malassezia globosa is a lipid-dependent yeast that is found on the human skin and is associated with various skin disorders, including dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD). Despite its important role in skin diseases, the molecular basis for its pathogenicity is poorly understood. The current hypothesis is that dandruff and SD are linked to fatty acid metabolism and secretory lipolytic enzymes, which hydrolyse sebaceous lipids and release irritating free fatty acids. A previous genomic analysis of M. globosa identified a family of 13 homologous genes predicted to encode secreted lipases. We have also reported that M. globosa had significantly higher extracellular lipase activity compared with other species. To identify the major secretory lipases of this yeast during its growth, we successfully purified and characterized an extracellular lipase MgLIP2. Based on MALDI-TOF MS, the peptide mass fingerprint of a tryptically digested protein MgLIP2 corresponded to ORF MGL_4054 of M. globosa. This lipase showed high esterase activity against 4-nitrophenyl palmitate and 1-naphthyl palmitate but not 1-naphthyl acetate. This enzyme had optimal activity at 30 °C and pH 5.0. Furthermore, the activity significantly increased in the presence of Triton X-100 and was partially inhibited by PMSF but was unaffected by univalent and divalent metal ions. PMID:22016565

  5. Mouse Paneth Cell Secretory Responses to Cell Surface Glycolipids of Virulent and Attenuated Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hiroki; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Bainbridge, Brian; Guina, Tina; Ernst, Robert K.; Darveau, Richard P.; Miller, Samuel I.; Ouellette, Andre J.

    2005-01-01

    Mouse Paneth cells respond to bacteria and bacterial cell surface antigens by discharging secretory granules into the lumen of small intestinal crypts (T. Ayabe et al., Nat. Immunol. 1:113-118, 2000). To investigate mechanisms regulating these responses, purified surface glycolipid molecules with known acyl chain modifications and attenuated properties were tested for the ability to stimulate Paneth cell secretion. The antigens included lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from wild-type and msbB-null Escherichia coli and phoP-null and phoP-constitutive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains, as well as LPS, lipid A, and lipoteichoic acid from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes grown in Mg2+-limited media. Measurements of total secreted protein, secreted lysozyme, and the bactericidal peptide activities of collected secretions showed that the purified antigens elicited similar secretory responses from Paneth cells in mouse crypts ex vivo, regardless of glycolipid acyl chain modification. Despite their impaired Tlr4 pathway, Paneth cells in ex vivo C3H/HeJ mouse crypts released equivalent amounts of bactericidal peptide activity in response to purified bacterial antigens, including lipid A. Thus, mouse Paneth cells respond equivalently to purified bacterial cell envelope glycolipids, regardless of functional Tlr4, the structural properties of glycolipid acyl chains, or their association with virulence in humans. PMID:15784576

  6. Modeling F-actin cortex influence on the secretory properties of neuroendocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    Chromaffin cells are considered as one of the most valuable models to study regulated exocytosis. In these cells, like in other neuroendocrine systems, an intricate cortical cytoskeleton acts as a retentive network impeding vesicle access to plasma membrane. Therefore, during stimulation this structure suffers a transient reorganization allowing active transport of vesicles toward secretory sites. Interestingly, a combination of confocal microscopy studies and mathematical modeling is showing us new aspects of the influence of cortical cytoskeleton in shaping the secretory properties of excitable cells. In this new vision the F-actin-myosin II cortical cytoskeleton is organized forming polygonal cages with the molecular machinery of exocytosis composed by SNARE proteins and voltage-dependent calcium channels associating with its border. In this way the cytoskeleton not only holds together the essential elements acting during secretion, but we proposed that could also act as a structural factor opposing to the free diffusion of the calcium signal and therefore sustains high levels of the intracellular signal triggering exocytosis. PMID:21966558

  7. Abnormal apocrine secretory cell mitochondria in a Huntington disease patient.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, Christos; LeWitt, Peter; Hashimoto, Ken

    2012-12-15

    Over two decades, a 42-year old woman experienced the gradual onset of choreic involuntary movements, dystonia, and tics. Decreased caudate nucleus metabolism on 2-deoxyglucose PET scan and a heterozygous 49-CAG repeat expansion within the HTT gene established the diagnosis of HD, although no other family history was known. An axillary skin biopsy revealed a distinctive abnormality of mitochondria limited to the apocrine secretory cells on electron microscopy. All mitochondria were transformed into rounded structures with disrupted cristae and prominent myelin figures; many were enlarged up to 4 times the normal. Cytoplasm of apocrine secretory cells showed an abundance of lipid vacuoles, empty vesicles, and dense bodies. Biopsied skeletal muscle histology (light microscopy) was normal, as was a mitochondrial metabolism study. Biopsies from other HD patients have shown similar mitochondrial changes in cerebral neurons, muscle, fibroblasts, and lymphoblasts, adding to evidence for a systemic disturbance of mitochondria in HD.

  8. Novelties in secretory structures and anatomy of Rhynchosia (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    De Vargas, Wanderleia; Sartori, Ângela L B; Dias, Edna S

    2015-03-01

    A comparative anatomical study was carried out on the secretory structures of leaflets from taxa belonging to the genus Rhynchosia - taxa difficult to delimit because of uncertain interspecific relations - in order to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of these anatomical traits for taxonomic assignment. A further objective was to establish consensual denomination for these secretory structures. The new anatomical features found in these taxa were sufficiently consistent to separate the species evaluated. The presence and localization of glandular-punctate structures bulbous-based trichomes, the number of layers in the palisade parenchyma and the arrangement of vascular units distinguish the taxa investigated and these characteristics can be extended to other species of Papilionoideae. The trichomes analyzed were described and classified into five types. Depicted in diagrams, photomicrographs, and by scanning electron microscopy, and listed for the first time at the genus and species levels. The information obtained served to effectively distinguish the taxa investigated among species of Papilonoideae.

  9. Production of Secretory and Extracellular N-Linked Glycoproteins in Escherichia coli▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Adam C.; Haitjema, Charles H.; Guarino, Cassandra; Çelik, Eda; Endicott, Christine E.; Reading, Craig A.; Merritt, Judith H.; Ptak, A. Celeste; Zhang, Sheng; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    The Campylobacter jejuni pgl gene cluster encodes a complete N-linked protein glycosylation pathway that can be functionally transferred into Escherichia coli. In this system, we analyzed the interplay between N-linked glycosylation, membrane translocation and folding of acceptor proteins in bacteria. We developed a recombinant N-glycan acceptor peptide tag that permits N-linked glycosylation of diverse recombinant proteins expressed in the periplasm of glycosylation-competent E. coli cells. With this “glycosylation tag,” a clear difference was observed in the glycosylation patterns found on periplasmic proteins depending on their mode of inner membrane translocation (i.e., Sec, signal recognition particle [SRP], or twin-arginine translocation [Tat] export), indicating that the mode of protein export can influence N-glycosylation efficiency. We also established that engineered substrate proteins targeted to environments beyond the periplasm, such as the outer membrane, the membrane vesicles, and the extracellular medium, could serve as substrates for N-linked glycosylation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the C. jejuni N-glycosylation machinery is compatible with distinct secretory mechanisms in E. coli, effectively expanding the N-linked glycome of recombinant E. coli. Moreover, this simple glycosylation tag strategy expands the glycoengineering toolbox and opens the door to bacterial synthesis of a wide array of recombinant glycoprotein conjugates. PMID:21131519

  10. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h), with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain. PMID:20807444

  11. Secretory pattern and regulatory mechanism of growth hormone in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The ultradian rhythm of growth hormone (GH) secretion has been known in several animal species for years and has recently been observed in cattle. Although the physiological significance of the rhythm is not yet fully understood, it appears essential for normal growth. In this review, previous studies concerning the GH secretory pattern in cattle, including its ultradian rhythm, are introduced and the regulatory mechanism is discussed on the basis of recent findings. PMID:26260675

  12. Limonene Synthase, the Enzyme Responsible for Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Peppermint, Is Localized to Leucoplasts of Oil Gland Secretory Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Glenn; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Nielson, Erik E.; Froehlich, John E.; Croteau, Rodney

    1999-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence based on ultrastructural correlation, specific labeling, and subcellular fractionation studies indicates that at least the early steps of monoterpene biosynthesis occur in plastids. (4S)-Limonene synthase, which is responsible for the first dedicated step of monoterpene biosynthesis in mint species, appears to be translated as a preprotein bearing a long plastidial transit peptide. Immunogold labeling using polyclonal antibodies raised to the native enzyme demonstrated the specific localization of limonene synthase to the leucoplasts of peppermint (Mentha × piperita) oil gland secretory cells during the period of essential oil production. Labeling was shown to be absent from all other plastid types examined, including the basal and stalk cell plastids of the secretory phase glandular trichomes. Furthermore, in vitro translation of the preprotein and import experiments with isolated pea chloroplasts were consistent in demonstrating import of the nascent protein to the plastid stroma and proteolytic processing to the mature enzyme at this site. These experiments confirm that the leucoplastidome of the oil gland secretory cells is the exclusive location of limonene synthase, and almost certainly the preceding steps of monoterpene biosynthesis, in peppermint leaves. However, succeeding steps of monoterpene metabolism in mint appear to occur outside the leucoplasts of oil gland cells. PMID:10398724

  13. Intestinal microbiota and secretory immunoglobulin A in feces of exclusively breast-fed infants with blood-streaked stools.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hideki; Maisawa, Shun-ichi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Takahashi, Motomichi; Takasago, Yuhei; Nishijima, Asaka; Watanabe, Shuhka

    2012-10-01

    Episodes of blood-streaked stools are not uncommon in exclusively breast-fed infants under 6 months of age. Such bleeding is thought to be associated with food protein-induced proctocolitis, however the pathomechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate intestinal microbiota and secretory immunoglobulin A in the feces of exclusively breast-fed infants with blood-streaked stools. Fecal specimens from 15 full-term infants with blood-streaked stools and 15 breast-fed healthy infants were studied and the results compared. All infants had been delivered vaginally and exclusively breast-fed. The fecal microbiota were investigated by phylogenetic analysis combined with culture methods for some bacterial species, and feces were assessed for the presence of fecal secretory immunoglobulin A by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Phylogenetic cluster analysis revealed four major clusters of fecal bacteria, cluster A being found only in healthy infants. The Bacteroides fragilis group was observed more frequently in controls than in patients (P < 0.05). In the controls, the predominant species belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae group was Escherichia coli, whereas in the patients it was Klebsiella (P < 0.05). Concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A were high in one third of the healthy controls. In conclusion, the pathomechanism of rectal bleeding in exclusively breast-fed infants may be related to differences in the composition of their intestinal flora.

  14. SLAH3-type anion channel expressed in poplar secretory epithelia operates in calcium kinase CPK-autonomous manner.

    PubMed

    Jaborsky, Mario; Maierhofer, Tobias; Olbrich, Andrea; Escalante-Pérez, María; Müller, Heike M; Simon, Judy; Krol, Elzbieta; Cuin, Tracey Ann; Fromm, Jörg; Ache, Peter; Geiger, Dietmar; Hedrich, Rainer

    2016-05-01

    Extrafloral nectaries secrete a sweet sugar cocktail that lures predator insects for protection from foraging herbivores. Apart from sugars and amino acids, the nectar contains the anions chloride and nitrate. Recent studies with Populus have identified a type of nectary covered by apical bipolar epidermal cells, reminiscent of the secretory brush border epithelium in animals. Border epithelia operate transepithelial anion transport, which is required for membrane potential and/or osmotic adjustment of the secretory cells. In search of anion transporters expressed in extrafloral nectaries, we identified PttSLAH3 (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides SLAC1 Homologue3), an anion channel of the SLAC/SLAH family. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, PttSLAH3 displayed the features of a voltage-dependent anion channel, permeable to both nitrate and chloride. In contrast to the Arabidopsis SLAC/SLAH family members, the poplar isoform PttSLAH3 is independent of phosphorylation activation by protein kinases. To understand the basis for the autonomous activity of the poplar SLAH3, we generated and expressed chimera between kinase-independent PttSLAH3 and kinase-dependent Arabidopsis AtSLAH3. We identified the N-terminal tail and, to a lesser extent, the C-terminal tail as responsible for PttSLAH3 kinase-(in)dependent action. This feature of PttSLAH3 may provide the secretory cell with a channel probably controlling long-term nectar secretion. PMID:26831448

  15. Interactions between spontaneous and provoked cortisol secretory episodes in man.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, G; Follénius, M; Muzet, A

    1984-09-01

    This study describes the interactions between cortisol peaks due to spontaneous episodic release and peaks provoked by external stimuli. Successive and equidistant transitory rises of similar amplitude and duration were produced either by muscular exercise (30 min, 75% VO2max) or by injecting ACTH1-24 (Synacthen: 250 ng) before and after the midday meal-related peak. ACTH1-24 was also injected during sleep before the nocturnal sequence of the major secretory episodes. In all instances, cortisol levels had reverted to basal levels when the second stimulus was applied. ACTH-induced cortisol peaks depressed the subsequent meal-related peaks, the exercise-induced peaks, and the spontaneous secretory episodes at the end of the night, and thus had a strong depressor capacity. When exercise was the prior stimulus, the subsequent meal-related peaks were depressed, but the response to later exercise was not affected. Meal-related peaks and the spontaneous diurnal or nocturnal peaks did not depress the subsequent secretory episodes. These quantitatively comparable cortisol episodes were preceded by ACTH rises whose amplitude and duration were not identical: spontaneous and meal-related ACTH peaks were smaller than the provoked one; exercise-induced ACTH peaks were of longer duration than those after ACTH1-24 injection. The different depressor capacities of similar sized cortisol episodes and the lack of proportionality between spontaneous and provoked ACTH and cortisol peaks suggest that there are separate adrenocortical activation channels, which depend on the origin of the stimulation.

  16. Souffle/Spastizin Controls Secretory Vesicle Maturation during Zebrafish Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Dietmar; Schomburg, Christoph; Cerdà, Joan; Vollack, Nadine; Dosch, Roland

    2014-01-01

    During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf) mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15). We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research. PMID:24967841

  17. Alterations in hepatic pericanalicular cytoplasm during enhanced bile secretory activity.

    PubMed

    Jones, A L; Schmucker, D L; Mooney, J S; Ockner, R K; Adler, R D

    1979-04-01

    In an attempt to demonstrate the morphology of the bile secretory apparatus, male rats were restrained and maintained on an isocaloric diet with (experimental) and without (control) taurocholate, which was continuously infused via a duodenal cannula. This method of taurocholate administration promotes a 2-fold increase in the bile acid pool size and bile secretory rate and increases the transport maximum of taurocholate by approximately 50%. After 48 hours, the livers from both the control and experimental animals were perfusion-fixed and whole hepatocytes as well as pericanalicular cytoplasm (defined as a 1-micron. wide zone of cytoplasm adjacent to the bile canaliculus) in both centrolobular and periportal cells were subjected to a stereologic analysis. Although taurocholate infusion produced relatively few changes in the amounts of organelles or inclusionswithin hepatocytes, it caused highly significant increases in the amount ofGolgi-rich area, Golgi membranes, and the number of vesicles with diameters greater than 1000 A in the pericanalicular area of cytoplasm. In addition to these changes, which occurred in both central and periportal zones, decreases in the volume of lysosomes and the surface area of smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum were observed. These data provide new evidence that the "bile secretory apparatus" may encompass several hepatocellular components which include the Golgi complex and a vesicular transport system.

  18. Release of an acid phosphatase activity during lily pollen tube growth involves components of the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hala; Pertl, Heidi; Pittertschatscher, Klaus; Fadl-Allah, Ezzat; el-Shahed, Ahmed; Bentrup, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    An acid phosphatase (acPAse) activity was released during germination and tube growth of pollen of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. By inhibiting components of the secretory pathway, the export of the acPase activity was affected and tube growth stopped. Brefeldin A (1 microM) and cytochalasin D (1 microM), which block the production and transport of secretory vesicles, respectively, inhibited the acPase secretion. The Ca2+ channel blocker gadolinium (100 microM Gd3+) also inhibited acPase secretion and tube growth, whereas 3 mM caffeine, another Ca2+ uptake inhibitor, stimulated the acPase release, while tube growth was inhibited. The Yariv reagent (beta-D-glucosyl)3 Yariv phenylglycoside stopped tube growth by binding to arabinogalactan proteins of the tube tip cell wall but did not affect acPase secretion. A strong correlation between tube growth and acPase release was detected. The secreted acPase activity had a pH optimum at pH 5.5, a KM of 0.4 mM for p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and was inhibited by zinc, molybdate, phosphate, and fluoride ions, but not by tartrate. In electrophoresis gels the main acPase activity was detected at 32 kDa. The conspicuous correlation between activity of the secretory pathway and acPase secretion during tube elongation strongly indicates an important role of the acPase during pollen tube growth and the secreted acPase activity may serve as a useful marker enzyme assay for secretory activity in pollen tubes.

  19. Inhibition of intestinal chloride secretion by piperine as a cellular basis for the anti-secretory effect of black peppers.

    PubMed

    Pongkorpsakol, Pawin; Wongkrasant, Preedajit; Kumpun, Saowanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2015-10-01

    Piperine is the principal alkaloid in black peppers (Piper nigrum L.), which is a commonly included spice in anti-diarrheal formulations. Piperine has antispasmodic activities, but its anti-secretory effect is not known. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-secretory effect of piperine and its underlying mechanism. Piperine inhibited cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells, similar to black pepper extract. Intraluminal administration of piperine (2 μg/loop) suppressed cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation by ∼85% in mice. The anti-secretory mechanism of piperine was investigated by evaluating its effects on the activity of transport proteins involved in cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion. Notably, piperine inhibited CFTR Cl- channel activity (IC50#8'6#10 μM) without affecting intracellular cAMP levels. The mechanisms of piperine-induced CFTR inhibition did not involve MRP4-mediated cAMP efflux, AMPK or TRPV1. Piperine also inhibited cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channels, but it had no effect on Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporters or Na+-K+ ATPases. Piperine suppressed Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCC) without affecting intracellular Ca2+ concentrations or Ca2+-activated basolateral K+ channels. Collectively, this study indicates that the anti-secretory effect of piperine involves the inhibition of CFTR, CaCC and cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channels. Piperine represents a novel class of drug candidates for the treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by the intestinal hypersecretion of Cl-. PMID:26297981

  20. Characterization of a secretory proteinase of Candida parapsilosis and evidence for the absence of the enzyme during infection in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Rüchel, R; Böning, B; Borg, M

    1986-01-01

    The opportunistic yeastlike fungi of the genus Candida comprise three species which are proteolytic in vitro. Among them, C. albicans and C. tropicalis are of foremost medical importance. However, a strict correlation between extracellular proteolytic activity and virulence is opposed by the low virulence of the third proteolytic species, C. parapsilosis. We purified the secretory acid proteinase of C. parapsilosis (clinical isolate 265). The enzyme is a carboxyl proteinase (EC 3.4.23) like all other secretory Candida proteinases handled so far. Proteinase 265 is distinguished by a lower molecular weight (approximately 33,000); it has increased hydrophobicity, which accounts for inhibition of the enzyme by hemin, and required the presence of nonionic detergent in the initial steps of purification. The enzyme already undergoes alkaline denaturation at neutrality. Its activity is thus confined to the acid microenvironment of the fungal cell wall. Within this range, the enzyme may degrade immunoglobulins like immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), IgA2, and secretory IgA. No indication was found for glycosylation of proteinase 265 and the related enzyme of C. albicans CBS 2730. However, the comparable proteinase of C. tropicalis 293 was identified as a manno protein. Antiserum against proteinase 265 cross-reacted strongly with corresponding enzymes from other Candida species. Antisera against proteinases of C. albicans and C. tropicalis reacted only weakly with proteinase 265. Thus, secretory Candida proteinases are likely to possess common and species-specific antigenic sites. In contrast to C. albicans, infection of phagocytes by C. parapsilosis 265 was not accompanied by secretion of fungal proteinase. This lack of induction of the enzyme under conditions of infection may account for the low virulence of most isolates of C. parapsilosis. Images PMID:3525413

  1. Inhibition of intestinal chloride secretion by piperine as a cellular basis for the anti-secretory effect of black peppers.

    PubMed

    Pongkorpsakol, Pawin; Wongkrasant, Preedajit; Kumpun, Saowanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2015-10-01

    Piperine is the principal alkaloid in black peppers (Piper nigrum L.), which is a commonly included spice in anti-diarrheal formulations. Piperine has antispasmodic activities, but its anti-secretory effect is not known. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-secretory effect of piperine and its underlying mechanism. Piperine inhibited cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells, similar to black pepper extract. Intraluminal administration of piperine (2 μg/loop) suppressed cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation by ∼85% in mice. The anti-secretory mechanism of piperine was investigated by evaluating its effects on the activity of transport proteins involved in cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion. Notably, piperine inhibited CFTR Cl- channel activity (IC50#8'6#10 μM) without affecting intracellular cAMP levels. The mechanisms of piperine-induced CFTR inhibition did not involve MRP4-mediated cAMP efflux, AMPK or TRPV1. Piperine also inhibited cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channels, but it had no effect on Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporters or Na+-K+ ATPases. Piperine suppressed Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCC) without affecting intracellular Ca2+ concentrations or Ca2+-activated basolateral K+ channels. Collectively, this study indicates that the anti-secretory effect of piperine involves the inhibition of CFTR, CaCC and cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channels. Piperine represents a novel class of drug candidates for the treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by the intestinal hypersecretion of Cl-.

  2. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor inhibits expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshikazu; Iwase, Takashi; Komiyama, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Oki, Hidero; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) plays an important role in mucosal immune systems. Secretory immunoglobulin A, composed of secretory component of pIgR and a dimeric form of immunoglobulin A, is secreted on mucosal surfaces and serves as a biological defense factor. pIgR gene expression is reportedly induced by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB. On the other hand, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a glycoprotein that functions as a serine protease inhibitor. In alveolar epithelial cells, SLPI increases the level of IκBβ, which indicates that it is an inhibitor of NF-κB at the protein level. Taken together, SLPI may regulate pIgR expression; however, the specific mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidatethe influence of SLPI on pIgR expression.SLPI and pIgR localized in goblet cells and ciliated epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. No cells were detected in which SLPI and pIgR were co-expressed. In addition, recombinant human SLPI stimulation of an epithelial cell line (HT-29) decreased the pIgR expression. The pIgR expression was also higher in SLPI-deficient Ca9-22 cells than in wild-type Ca9-22 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase assay using a NF-κB reporter plasmid and real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that when SLPI was present, the transcriptional activity of NF-κB protein was suppressed, which was accompanied by anincrease in the protein, but not the mRNA,expression of IκBβ. These results demonstrate that SLPI down-regulates pIgR expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway by inhibiting degradation of IκBβ protein. PMID:26239418

  3. Analysis of Arf1 GTPase-dependent membrane binding and remodeling using the exomer secretory vesicle cargo adaptor

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowski, Jon E.; Fromme, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Summary Protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions play a critical role in shaping biological membranes through direct physical contact with the membrane surface. This is particularly evident in many steps of membrane trafficking, in which proteins deform the membrane and induce fission to form transport carriers. The small GTPase Arf1 and related proteins have the ability to remodel membranes by insertion of an amphipathic helix into the membrane. Arf1 and the exomer cargo adaptor coordinate cargo sorting into subset of secretory vesicle carriers in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we detail the assays we used to explore the cooperative action of Arf1 and exomer to bind and remodel membranes. We expect these methods are broadly applicable to other small GTPase/effector systems where investigation of membrane binding and remodeling is of interest. PMID:27632000

  4. Analysis of Arf1 GTPase-Dependent Membrane Binding and Remodeling Using the Exomer Secretory Vesicle Cargo Adaptor.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, Jon E; Fromme, J Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions play a critical role in shaping biological membranes through direct physical contact with the membrane surface. This is particularly evident in many steps of membrane trafficking, in which proteins deform the membrane and induce fission to form transport carriers. The small GTPase Arf1 and related proteins have the ability to remodel membranes by insertion of an amphipathic helix into the membrane. Arf1 and the exomer cargo adaptor coordinate cargo sorting into subset of secretory vesicle carriers in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we detail the assays we used to explore the cooperative action of Arf1 and exomer to bind and remodel membranes. We expect these methods are broadly applicable to other small GTPase/effector systems where investigation of membrane binding and remodeling is of interest. PMID:27632000

  5. A senescence secretory switch mediated by PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation controls chemoprotective endothelial secretory responses.

    PubMed

    Bent, Eric H; Gilbert, Luke A; Hemann, Michael T

    2016-08-15

    Cancer therapy targets malignant cells that are surrounded by a diverse complement of nonmalignant stromal cells. Therapy-induced damage of normal cells can alter the tumor microenvironment, causing cellular senescence and activating cancer-promoting inflammation. However, how these damage responses are regulated (both induced and resolved) to preserve tissue homeostasis and prevent chronic inflammation is poorly understood. Here, we detail an acute chemotherapy-induced secretory response that is self-limiting in vitro and in vivo despite the induction of cellular senescence. We used tissue-specific knockout mice to demonstrate that endothelial production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 promotes chemoresistance and show that the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin induces acute IL-6 release through reactive oxygen species-mediated p38 activation in vitro. Doxorubicin causes endothelial senescence but, surprisingly, without a typical senescence secretory response. We found that endothelial cells repress senescence-associated inflammation through the down-regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and that reactivation of this pathway restores senescence-associated inflammation. Thus, we describe a mechanism by which damage-associated paracrine secretory responses are restrained to preserve tissue homeostasis and prevent chronic inflammation. PMID:27566778

  6. Ivermectin disrupts the function of the excretory-secretory apparatus in microfilariae of Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Yovany; Nabhan, Joseph F; Solomon, Jonathan; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2010-11-16

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic used in filariasis control programs. By binding to nematode glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls), IVM disrupts neurotransmission processes regulated by GluCl activity. IVM treatment of filarial infections is characterized by an initial dramatic drop in the levels of circulating microfilariae, followed by long-term suppression of their production, but the drug has little direct effect on microfilariae in culture at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. We localized Brugia malayi GluCl expression solely in a muscle structure that surrounds the microfilarial excretory-secretory (ES) vesicle, which suggests that protein release from the ES vesicle is regulated by GluCl activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure to IVM in vitro decreased the amount of protein released from microfilariae. To better understand the scope of IVM effects on protein release by the parasite, three different expression patterns were identified from immunolocalization assays on a representative group of five microfilarial ES products. Patterns of expression suggest that the ES apparatus is the main source of regulated ES product release from microfilariae, as it is the only compartment that appears to be under neuromuscular control. Our results show that IVM treatment of microfilariae results in a marked reduction of protein release from the ES apparatus. Under in vivo conditions, the rapid microfilarial clearance induced by IVM treatment is proposed to result from suppression of the ability of the parasite to secrete proteins that enable evasion of the host immune system.

  7. Inhibitory effect of polyozellin on secretory group IIA phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kang, Hyejin; Jung, Byeongjin; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-02-01

    The expression of secretory group IIA phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is enhanced by development of inflammatory disorders. In this study, sPLA2-IIA expression was induced in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and mice to evaluate the effect of polyozellin. Polyozellin, a major constituent of a Korea edible mushroom Polyozellus multiplex, has been known to exhibit the biological activities such as anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyozellin remarkably suppressed the LPS-mediated protein expression and activity of sPLA2-IIA via inhibition of phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. These results demonstrated that polyozellin might play an important role in the modulation of sPLA2-IIA expression and activity in response to the inflammatory diseases.

  8. Calcineurin is universally involved in vesicle endocytosis at neuronal and nonneuronal secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Luo, Fujun; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-05-22

    Calcium influx triggers and accelerates endocytosis in nerve terminals and nonneuronal secretory cells. Whether calcium/calmodulin-activated calcineurin, which dephosphorylates endocytic proteins, mediates this process is highly controversial for different cell types, developmental stages, and endocytic forms. Using three preparations that previously produced discrepant results (i.e., large calyx-type synapses, conventional cerebellar synapses, and neuroendocrine chromaffin cells containing large dense-core vesicles), we found that calcineurin gene knockout consistently slowed down endocytosis, regardless of cell type, developmental stage, or endocytic form (rapid or slow). In contrast, calcineurin and calmodulin blockers slowed down endocytosis at a relatively small calcium influx, but did not inhibit endocytosis at a large calcium influx, resulting in false-negative results. These results suggest that calcineurin is universally involved in endocytosis. They may also help explain the discrepancies among previous pharmacological studies. We therefore suggest that calcineurin should be included as a key player in mediating calcium-triggered and -accelerated vesicle endocytosis.

  9. Selachian tooth development: III. Ultrastructural features of secretory amelogenesis in Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Nanci, A; Bringas, P; Samuel, N; Slavkin, H C

    1983-01-01

    Ultrastructural features of secretory amelogenesis during selachian tooth development show several similarities to mammalian amelogenesis. However, the following critical differences were noticed: 1) subcellular organelles associated with merocrine-type protein synthesis and secretion were located in both the infranuclear as well as supranuclear regions of the selachian ameloblasts; 2) no evidence for Tomes process formation was found; 3) the basal lamina was not removed during epithelial differentiation into ameloblasts in the selachian model, and the structural features of the basal lamina were significantly altered during amelogenesis in rows III, IV, and VI; and 4) no dentine-enameloid junction was detected. It is suggested that enameloid is an extracellular matrix which is derived from the selachian inner enamel epithelium and appears to be secreted from both the lateral and apical surfaces of ameloblasts.

  10. ER to Golgi-Dependent Protein Secretion: The Conventional Pathway.

    PubMed

    Viotti, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    Secretion is the cellular process present in every organism that delivers soluble proteins and cargoes to the extracellular space. In eukaryotes, conventional protein secretion (CPS) is the trafficking route that secretory proteins undertake when are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus (GA), and subsequently to the plasma membrane (PM) via secretory vesicles or secretory granules. This book chapter recalls the fundamental steps in cell biology research contributing to the elucidation of CPS; it describes the most prominent examples of conventionally secreted proteins in eukaryotic cells and the molecular mechanisms necessary to regulate each step of this process. PMID:27665548

  11. Alteration of Bile Canalicular Enzymes in Cholestasis. A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF BILE SECRETORY FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Francis R.; Arias, Irwin M.

    1973-01-01

    Bile secretory failure (cholestasis) may result from several possible mechanisms involved in bile secretion. We have examined the possibility that abnormalities in enzyme content, composition, and turnover of liver plasma membrane constituents are altered in cholestasis. Severe and mild cholestasis were produced by 5 days of bile duct ligation and ethinyl estradiol administration, respectively. Bile duct ligation but not ethinyl estradiol treatments was associated with elevations of the serum bilirubin level and 5′-nucleotidase activity. However, basal bile flow and bilirubin transport maximum (Tm) were significantly reduced after ethinyl estradiol treatment. Liver plasma membrane fractions rich in canalicular membranes were prepared from groups of rats in each of three categories; normal, after bile duct ligation, or ethinyl estradiol administration, and their respective controls. Electron microscopy and enzyme marker studies demonstrated plasma membrane fractions free of significant contamination. Plasma membrane fractions prepared from mild as well as severe cholestasis had increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and reduced 5′-nucleotidase and Mg2+-ATPase activities. Co2+-CMPase activity was unchanged. Kinetic analysis of 5′-nucleotidase and Mg2+-ATPase activities in plasma membrane fractions demonstrated reduced Vmaz (but unaltered Km). Reducted Vmaz was unrelated to addition in vitro of di-or trihydroxy bile salts or ethinyl estradiol and, therefore, suggests that reduced activities in cholestasis are due to decreased enzyme content. Cholestasis was not associated with changes in the synthesis or degradation rate of pulse-labeled plasma membrane proteins or alterations in the major protein bands separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Plasma membrane cholesterol, phospholipid, and neutral sugar content was unaltered, but sialic acid content was significantly increased in both forms of cholestasis. Alterations in

  12. Prohormone processing in the trans-Golgi network: endoproteolytic cleavage of prosomatostatin and formation of nascent secretory vesicles in permeabilized cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Many peptide hormones are synthesized as larger precursors which undergo endoproteolytic cleavage at paired basic residues to generate a bioactive molecule. Morphological evidence from several laboratories has implicated either the TGN or immature secretory granules as the site of prohormone cleavage. To identify the site where prohormone cleavage is initiated, we have used retrovirally infected rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells which express high levels of prosomatostatin (proSRIF) (Stoller, T. J., and D. Shields. J. Cell Biol. 1988. 107:2087- 2095). By incubating these cells at 20 degrees C, a temperature that prevents exit from the Golgi apparatus, proSRIF accumulated quantitatively in the TGN and no proteolytic processing was evident; processing resumed upon shifting the cells back to 37 degrees C. After the 20 degrees C block, the cells were mechanically permeabilized and pro-SRIF processing determined. Cleavage of proSRIF to the mature hormone was approximately 35-50% efficient, required incubation at 37 degrees C and ATP hydrolysis, but was independent of GTP or cytosol. The in vitro ATP-dependent proSRIF processing was inhibited by inclusion of chloroquine, a weak base, CCCP, a protonophore, or by preincubating the permeabilized cells with low concentrations of N- ethylmaleimide, an inhibitor of vacuolar-type ATP-dependent proton pumps. These data suggest that: (a) proSRIF cleavage is initiated in the TGN, and (b) this reaction requires an acidic pH which is facilitated by a Golgi-associated vacuolar-type ATPase. A characteristic feature of polypeptide hormone-producing cells is their ability to store the mature hormone in dense core secretory granules. To investigate the mechanism of protein sorting to secretory granules, the budding of nascent secretory vesicles from the TGN was determined. No vesicle formation occurred at 20 degrees C; in contrast, at 37 degrees C, the budding of secretory vesicles was approximately 40% efficient and was dependent on ATP

  13. Unbiased analysis of senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) to identify common components following different genotoxic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Servet; Alessio, Nicola; Acar, Mustafa B.; Mert, Eda; Omerli, Fatih; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) proteins to carry out several functions, such as sensitizing surrounding cells to senesce; immunomodulation; impairing or fostering cancer growth; and promoting tissue development. Identifying secreted factors that achieve such tasks is a challenging issue since the profile of secreted proteins depends on genotoxic stress and cell type. Currently, researchers are trying to identify common markers for SASP. The present investigation compared the secretome composition of five different senescent phenotypes in two different cell types: bone marrow and adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). We induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, doxorubicin treatment, X-ray irradiation, and replicative exhaustion. We took advantage of LC-MS/MS proteome identification and subsequent gene ontology (GO) evaluation to perform an unbiased analysis (hypothesis free manner) of senescent secretomes. GO analysis allowed us to distribute SASP components into four classes: extracellular matrix/cytoskeleton/cell junctions; metabolic processes; ox-redox factors; and regulators of gene expression. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to determine common pathways among the different senescent phenotypes. This investigation, along with identification of eleven proteins that were exclusively expressed in all the analyzed senescent phenotypes, permitted the identification of three key signaling paths: MMP2 - TIMP2; IGFBP3 - PAI-1; and Peroxiredoxin 6 - ERP46 - PARK7 - Cathepsin D - Major vault protein. We suggest that these paths could be involved in the paracrine circuit that induces senescence in neighboring cells and may confer apoptosis resistance to senescent cells. PMID:27288264

  14. Unbiased analysis of senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) to identify common components following different genotoxic stresses.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Servet; Alessio, Nicola; Acar, Mustafa B; Mert, Eda; Omerli, Fatih; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    Senescent cells secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) proteins to carry out several functions, such as sensitizing surrounding cells to senesce; immunomodulation; impairing or fostering cancer growth; and promoting tissue development. Identifying secreted factors that achieve such tasks is a challenging issue since the profile of secreted proteins depends on genotoxic stress and cell type. Currently, researchers are trying to identify common markers for SASP. The present investigation compared the secretome composition of five different senescent phenotypes in two different cell types: bone marrow and adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). We induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, doxorubicin treatment, X-ray irradiation, and replicative exhaustion. We took advantage of LC-MS/MS proteome identification and subsequent gene ontology (GO) evaluation to perform an unbiased analysis (hypothesis free manner) of senescent secretomes. GO analysis allowed us to distribute SASP components into four classes: extracellular matrix/cytoskeleton/cell junctions; metabolic processes; ox-redox factors; and regulators of gene expression. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to determine common pathways among the different senescent phenotypes. This investigation, along with identification of eleven proteins that were exclusively expressed in all the analyzed senescent phenotypes, permitted the identification of three key signaling paths: MMP2 - TIMP2; IGFBP3 - PAI-1; and Peroxiredoxin 6 - ERP46 - PARK7 - Cathepsin D - Major vault protein. We suggest that these paths could be involved in the paracrine circuit that induces senescence in neighboring cells and may confer apoptosis resistance to senescent cells. PMID:27288264

  15. Cutis laxa: intersection of elastic fiber biogenesis, TGFβ signaling, the secretory pathway and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Urban, Zsolt; Davis, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    Cutis laxa (CL), a disease characterized by redundant and inelastic skin, displays extensive locus heterogeneity. Together with geroderma osteodysplasticum and arterial tortuosity syndrome, which show phenotypic overlap with CL, eleven CL-related genes have been identified to date, which encode proteins within 3 groups. Elastin, fibulin-4, fibulin-5 and latent transforming growth factor-β-binding protein 4 are secreted proteins which form elastic fibers and are involved in the sequestration and subsequent activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ). Proteins within the second group, localized to the secretory pathway, perform transport and membrane trafficking functions necessary for the modification and secretion of elastic fiber components. Key proteins include a subunit of the vacuolar-type proton pump, which ensures the efficient secretion of tropoelastin, the precursor or elastin. A copper transporter is required for the activity of lysyl oxidases, which crosslink collagen and elastin. A Rab6-interacting goglin recruits kinesin motors to Golgi-vesicles facilitating the transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. The Rab and Ras interactor 2 regulates the activity of Rab5, a small guanosine triphosphatase essential for the endocytosis of various cell surface receptors, including integrins. Proteins of the third group related to CL perform metabolic functions within the mitochondria, inhibiting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Two of these proteins catalyze subsequent steps in the conversion of glutamate to proline. The third transports dehydroascorbate into mitochondria. Recent studies on CL-related proteins highlight the intricate connections among membrane trafficking, metabolism, extracellular matrix assembly, and TGFβ signaling. PMID:23954411

  16. Cutis laxa: intersection of elastic fiber biogenesis, TGFβ signaling, the secretory pathway and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Urban, Zsolt; Davis, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    Cutis laxa (CL), a disease characterized by redundant and inelastic skin, displays extensive locus heterogeneity. Together with geroderma osteodysplasticum and arterial tortuosity syndrome, which show phenotypic overlap with CL, eleven CL-related genes have been identified to date, which encode proteins within 3 groups. Elastin, fibulin-4, fibulin-5 and latent transforming growth factor-β-binding protein 4 are secreted proteins which form elastic fibers and are involved in the sequestration and subsequent activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ). Proteins within the second group, localized to the secretory pathway, perform transport and membrane trafficking functions necessary for the modification and secretion of elastic fiber components. Key proteins include a subunit of the vacuolar-type proton pump, which ensures the efficient secretion of tropoelastin, the precursor or elastin. A copper transporter is required for the activity of lysyl oxidases, which crosslink collagen and elastin. A Rab6-interacting goglin recruits kinesin motors to Golgi-vesicles facilitating the transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. The Rab and Ras interactor 2 regulates the activity of Rab5, a small guanosine triphosphatase essential for the endocytosis of various cell surface receptors, including integrins. Proteins of the third group related to CL perform metabolic functions within the mitochondria, inhibiting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Two of these proteins catalyze subsequent steps in the conversion of glutamate to proline. The third transports dehydroascorbate into mitochondria. Recent studies on CL-related proteins highlight the intricate connections among membrane trafficking, metabolism, extracellular matrix assembly, and TGFβ signaling.

  17. Secretory prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 sensitizes multicellular spheroids (MCS) of glioblastoma multiforme cells to tamoxifen-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Jayashree C.; Parveen, D.; Shah, Reecha D.; Desai, Aarti; Bhosale, Dipali; Chugh, Ashish; Ranade, Deepak; Karnik, Swapnil; Khedkar, Bhushan; Mathur, Aaishwarya; Natesh, Kumar; Chandrika, Goparaju; Shastry, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of brain tumor and is associated with resistance to conventional therapy and poor patient survival. Prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4, a tumor suppressor, is expressed as both an intracellular and secretory/extracellular protein. Though secretory Par-4 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, its potential in drug-resistant tumors remains to be fully explored. Multicellular spheroids (MCS) of cancer cells often acquire multi-drug resistance and serve as ideal experimental models. We investigated the role of Par-4 in Tamoxifen (TAM)-induced cell death in MCS of human cell lines and primary cultures of GBM tumors. TCGA and REMBRANT data analysis revealed that low levels of Par-4 correlated with low survival period (21.85 ± 19.30 days) in GBM but not in astrocytomas (59.13 ± 47.26 days) and oligodendrogliomas (58.04 ± 59.80 days) suggesting low PAWR expression as a predictive risk factor in GBM. Consistently, MCS of human cell lines and primary cultures displayed low Par-4 expression, high level of chemo-resistance genes and were resistant to TAM-induced cytotoxicity. In monolayer cells, TAM-induced cytotoxicity was associated with enhanced expression of Par-4 and was alleviated by silencing of Par-4 using specific siRNA. TAM effectively induced secretory Par-4 in conditioned medium (CM) of cells cultured as monolayer but not in MCS. Moreover, MCS were rendered sensitive to TAM-induced cell death by exposure to conditioned medium (CM)-containing Par-4 (derived from TAM-treated monolayer cells). Also TAM reduced the expression of Akt and PKCζ in GBM cells cultured as monolayer but not in MCS. Importantly, combination of TAM with inhibitors to PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or PKCζ resulted in secretion of Par-4 and cell death in MCS. Since membrane GRP78 is overexpressed in most cancer cells but not normal cells, and secretory Par-4 induces apoptosis by binding to membrane GRP78, secretory Par-4 is an

  18. Illuminating cellular structure and function in the early secretory pathway by multispectral 3D imaging in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Jens; Stephens, David J.; Squire, Anthony; Simpson, Jeremy; Shima, David T.; Paccaud, Jean-Pierre; Bastiaens, Philippe I.; Pepperkok, Rainer

    2000-04-01

    Membrane traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex is regulated by two vesicular coat complexes, COPII and COPI. COPII has been implicated in selective packaging of anterograde cargo into coated transport vesicles budding from the ER. COPI-coated vesicles are proposed to mediate recycling of proteins from the Golgi complex to the ER. We have used multi spectral 3D imaging to visualize COPI and COPII behavior simultaneously with various GFP-tagged secretory markers in living cells. This shows that COPII and COPI act sequentially whereby COPI association with anterograde transport complexes is involved in microtubule-based transport and the en route segregation of ER recycling molecules from secretory cargo within TCS in transit to the Golgi complex. We have also investigated the possibility to discriminate spectrally GFP fusion proteins by fluorescence lifetime imaging. This shows that at least two, and possibly up to three GFP fusion proteins can be discriminated and localized in living cells using a single excitation wavelength and a single broad band emission filter.

  19. Regulation of chloride transport in parotid secretory granules by membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Gasser, K W; Goldsmith, A; Hopfer, U

    1990-08-01

    Zymogen granule membranes contain Cl- conductance and Cl/anion exchange activities that become important for primary fluid production after fusion with the apical plasma membrane of the acinar cell. We have used steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene derivatives and measurements of Cl- transport in isolated secretory granules to determine the contribution of membrane fluidity to the regulation of transport across the granule membrane. Secretory granules from several unstimulated glands (rat pancreas and parotid, rabbit gastric glands) were shown to have low membrane fluidity compared to plasma membranes. In addition, Cl- transport activity in different granule preparations showed a strong correlation to the membrane fluidity when measured with 1-[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene p-toluenesulfonate (TMA-DPH), but not with 3-[p-(6-phenyl)-1,3,5-hexatrienyl)-phenyl]propionic acid (PA-DPH). These data suggest that TMA-DPH preferentially partitions into a specific lipid environment associated with, or which exerts an influence on, the Cl- transport proteins and that increases in the fluidity of this environment are associated with higher transport rates. Data from other types of plasma membranes indicate that TMA-DPH partitions much more than PA-DPH into the cytoplasmic leaflet, suggesting that this part of the granule membrane is involved in the observed fluidity changes. Furthermore, increasing the bulk membrane fluidity with the local anesthetics benzyl alcohol and n-alkanols increased the Cl- transport rates up to 10-fold. This increase was apparently through specific transporters as anion selectivity was maintained in spite of the higher absolute rates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Lactoferrin and free secretory component of human milk inhibit the adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Andréa Nascimento; Giugliano, Loreny Gimenes

    2001-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea caused by Escherichia coli is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is considered one of the major causes of diarrhoea in children living in developing countries. The ability of diarrhoeagenic strains of E. coli to adhere to and colonize the intestine is the first step towards developing the disease. EPEC strains adhere to enterocytes and HeLa cells in a characteristic pattern known as localized adherence. Many epidemiological studies of diarrhoea have shown that breast-feeding protects infants from intestinal infections. Both immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin elements of human milk are thought to contribute to the protection from diarrhoeal agents. Results The effects of human milk and its protein components on the localized adherence of EPEC were investigated. Non-immunoglobulin components of human milk responsible for the inhibition of EPEC adhesion to HeLa cells were isolated by chromatographic fractionation of human whey proteins. Besides secretory immunoglobulin A, which has been previously reported to affect the adhesion of EPEC, free secretory component (fSC) and lactoferrin (Lf) were isolated. Even in concentrations lower than those usually found in whole milk, fSC and Lf were able to inhibit the adhesion of EPEC. α-lactalbumin was also isolated, but showed no activity on EPEC adhesion. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the immunoglobulin fraction, the free secretory component and lactoferrin of human milk inhibit EPEC adhesion to HeLa cells. These results indicate that fSC and Lf may be important non-specific defence factors against EPEC infections. PMID:11690544

  1. Calcium dynamics in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Cellular Ca(2+)signaling results from a complex interplay among a variety of Ca(2+) fluxes going across the plasma membrane and across the membranes of several organelles, together with the buffering effect of large numbers of Ca(2+)-binding sites distributed along the cell architecture. Endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and even nucleus have all been involved in cellular Ca(2+) signaling, and the mechanisms for Ca(2+) uptake and release from these organelles are well known. In neuroendocrine cells, the secretory granules also constitute a very important Ca(2+)-storing organelle, and the possible role of the stored Ca(2+) as a trigger for secretion has attracted considerable attention. However, this possibility is frequently overlooked, and the main reason for that is that there is still considerable uncertainty on the main questions related with granular Ca(2+) dynamics, e.g., the free granular [Ca(2+)], the physical state of the stored Ca(2+) or the mechanisms for Ca(2+) accumulation and release from the granules. This review will give a critical overview of the present state of knowledge and the main conflicting points on secretory granule Ca(2+) homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells.

  2. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  3. Acid-induced secretory cell metaplasia in hamster bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T.G.; Lucey, E.C.; Breuer, R.; Snider, G.L.

    1988-02-01

    Hamsters were exposed to an intratracheal instillation of 0.5 ml of 0.08 N nitric, hydrochloric, or sulfuric acid to determine their airway epithelial response. Three weeks after exposure, the left intrapulmonary bronchi in Alcian blue/PAS-strained paraffin sections were evaluated for the amount of secretory product in the airway epithelium as a measure of secretory cell metaplasia (SCM). Compared to saline-treated control animals, all three acids caused statistically significant SCM. In addition to the bronchial lesion, all three acids caused similar interstitial fibrosis, bronchiolectasis, and bronchiolization of alveoli that varied in individual animals from mild to severe. In a separate experiment to study the persistence of the SCM, hamsters treated with a single instillation of 0.1 N nitric acid showed significant SCM 3, 7, and 17 weeks after exposure. There was a high correlation (r = 0.96) between a subjective assessment of SCM and objective assessment using a digital image-analysis system. We conclude that protons induce SCM independently of the associated anion; the SCM persists at least 17 weeks. Sulfuric acid is an atmospheric pollutant and nitric acid may form locally on the mucosa of lungs exposed to nitrogen dioxide. These acids may contribute to the development of maintenance of the SCM seen in the conducting airways of humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  4. Widespread Occurrence of Expressed Fungal Secretory Peroxidases in Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J.; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R.; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation. PMID:24763280

  5. Aging and secretory reserve capacity of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, E M; Ship, J A

    2003-10-01

    A loss of acinar cells occurs with aging, while salivary production remains age-stable in healthy adults. It is hypothesized that a secretory reserve exists to preserve function despite a loss of acinar cells in normal aging. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was to determine age-related differences in salivary response to an anti-sialogogue (glycopyrrolate). Thirty-six healthy subjects (18 young--20-38 yrs; 18 older--60-77 yrs) received 4.0 microg/kg i.v. glycopyrrolate. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples and xerostomia questionnaire responses were collected. Variables calculated for each subject were: times to initial and maximum suppression and xerostomic complaint; time to recovery; and durations of suppression and complaint. Salivary function was more adversely affected in older persons. There were no consistent age-associated questionnaire response differences. These findings suggest that salivary gland output is more adversely affected by an anti-sialogogue in healthy older vs. younger adults, supporting the secretory reserve hypothesis of salivary function. PMID:14514768

  6. Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. Their prevalence and negative effects on the patient's quality of life oblige the clinician to confront the issue. Aim: To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. Methods: In this article, a literature search of these dysfunctions was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database. Results: Xerostomia, or dry mouth syndrome, can be caused by medication, systemic diseases such as Sjögren's Syndrome, glandular pathologies, and radiotherapy of the head and neck. Treatment of dry mouth is aimed at both minimizing its symptoms and preventing oral complications with the employment of sialogogues and topical acting substances. Sialorrhea and drooling, are mainly due to medication or neurological systemic disease. There are various therapeutic, pharmacologic, and surgical alternatives for its management. The pharmacology of most of the substances employed for the treatment of salivary disorders is well-known. Nevertheless, in some cases a significant improvement in salivary function has not been observed after their administration. Conclusion: At present, there are numerous frequently prescribed drugs whose unwanted effects include some kind of salivary disorder. In addition, the differing pathologic mechanisms, and the great variety of existing treatments hinder the clinical management of these patients. The authors have designed an algorithm to facilitate the decision making process when physicians, oral surgeons, or dentists face these salivary dysfunctions. PMID:26516310

  7. Use of SNAREs for the immobilization of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate polymerase type II of Pseudomonas putida CA-3 in secretory vesicles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763.

    PubMed

    Muniasamy, Gurusamy; Pérez-Guevara, Fermín

    2014-02-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase, the key enzyme in polyester biosynthesis of bacteria, has been targeted to various organelles in yeasts and plants using respective signal peptides. Here, we report that the sequences derived from SNARE domains efficiently target and integrate the PHA synthase from Pseudomonas putida CA-3 to the membrane of secretory vesicles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The studies with the enhanced green fluorescent protein confirm the localization of synthase enzyme in the vesicles of S. cerevisiae. PMID:24368219

  8. A light-triggered protein secretion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2013-05-13

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points.

  9. Function of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) in Odontoblast During Mouse Tooth Development.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Je-O; Wang, Guanlin; Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Choi, Baik-Dong; Lee, Hye-Yon; Jeong, Moon-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Secretory leuckocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is thought as a regulating protein on the synthesis and degradation of matrix proteins. But there was no report of expression and function of SLPI on the tooth development, especially on the odontoblasts. As observed by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis, SLPI was expressed in odontoblasts and predentin on post-natal day 4 (PN4). On PN10, SLPI was observed under the dentin and apical region including odontoblasts processes. Further, on PN15, expression of SLPI was the same pattern compared to PN10. SLPI was expressed under layer of the odontoblasts and in odontoblasts on PN20. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 levels in SLPI/MDPC-23 cells were higher than that of the MDPC-23 cells. The gene expression of SLPI, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), osteonectin (ON), and collagen type I (Col I) was higher in SLPI/MDPC-23 than that of MDPC-23 cells and the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) was lower in SLPI/MDPC-23. Taken together, our results suggest that SLPI may be a MMP-2 and -9 regulating molecule in odontoblasts during dentin matrix formation and acts as a signaling molecule for dentin matrix related proteins during odontoblasts differentiation and mineralization.

  10. Xbp1-based engineering of secretory capacity enhances the productivity of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Tigges, Marcel; Fussenegger, Martin

    2006-05-01

    A variety of successful transcription and translation engineering strategies implemented during the past decade have driven the specific productivity of mammalian cells to an apparent limit. Restricted post-translation competence has since been considered the major bottleneck preventing mammalian cells from fully exploiting their physiologic production capacity in a biopharmaceutical manufacturing scenario. Through ectopic expression of the human transcription factor Xbp1 (X-box-binding-protein 1), evolved to manage plasma cell differentiation and coordinate the unfolded protein response, we have specifically expanded the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi of transgenic Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1)-derived cell lines with a resulting increase in overall production capacity. Xbp-1-based engineering of secretory bottlenecks was compatible with a variety of different promoter–product gene configurations suggesting that Xbp-1 induces generic production increases in CHO-K1 cell derivatives. Secretion engineering, illustrated here by Xbp1-based reprogramming of the post-translational processing machinery, provides a first insight into mastering a major system bottleneck which impacts biopharmaceutical manufacturing of secreted protein therapeutics.

  11. Structure and Switch Cycle of SRβ as Ancestral Eukaryotic GTPase Associated with Secretory Membranes.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Bhalchandra; Wild, Klemens; Pool, Martin R; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-10-01

    G proteins of the Ras-family of small GTPases trace the evolution of eukaryotes. The earliest branching involves the closely related Arf, Sar1, and SRβ GTPases associated with secretory membranes. SRβ is an integral membrane component of the signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor that targets ribosome-nascent chain complexes to the ER. How SRβ integrates into the regulation of SRP-dependent membrane protein biogenesis is not known. Here we show that SRβ-GTP interacts with ribosomes only in presence of SRα and present crystal structures of SRβ in complex with the SRX domain of SRα in the GTP-bound state at 3.2 Å, and of GDP- and GDP · Mg(2+)-bound SRβ at 1.9 Å and 2.4 Å, respectively. We define the GTPase switch cycle of SRβ and identify specific differences to the Arf and Sar1 families with implications for GTPase regulation. Our data allow a better integration of SRβ into the scheme of protein targeting.

  12. Regulation and activity of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is altered in smokers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N; Letang, Blanche D; Brighton, Luisa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Simmen, Rosalia C M; Bonner, James; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-02-01

    A hallmark of cigarette smoking is a shift in the protease/antiprotease balance, in favor of protease activity. However, it has recently been shown that smokers have increased expression of a key antiprotease, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), yet the mechanisms involved in SLPI transcriptional regulation and functional activity of SLPI remain unclear. We examined SLPI mRNA and protein secretion in differentiated nasal epithelial cells (NECs) and nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from nonsmokers and smokers and demonstrated that SLPI expression is increased in NECs and NLF from smokers. Transcriptional regulation of SLPI expression was confirmed using SLPI promoter reporter assays followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The role of STAT1 in regulating SLPI expression was further elucidated using WT and stat1(-/-) mice. Our data demonstrate that STAT1 regulates SLPI transcription in epithelial cells and slpi protein in the lungs of mice. Additionally, we reveal that NECs from smokers have increased STAT1 mRNA/protein expression. Finally, we demonstrate that SLPI contained in the nasal mucosa of smokers is proteolytically cleaved but retains functional activity against neutrophil elastase. These results demonstrate that smoking enhances expression of SLPI in NECs in vitro and in vivo, and that this response is regulated by STAT1. In addition, despite posttranslational cleavage of SLPI, antiprotease activity against neutrophil elastase is enhanced in smokers. Together, our findings show that SLPI regulation and activity is altered in the nasal mucosa of smokers, which could have broad implications in the context of respiratory inflammation and infection.

  13. Continued functioning of the secretory pathway is essential for ribosome synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuta, K; Warner, J R

    1994-01-01

    To explore the regulatory elements that maintain the balanced synthesis of the components of the ribosome, we isolated a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which transcription both of rRNA and of ribosomal protein genes is defective at the nonpermissive temperature. Temperature sensitivity for growth is recessive and segregates 2:2. A gene that complements the ts phenotype was cloned from a genomic DNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene is SLY1, encoding a protein essential for protein and vesicle transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. In the strain carrying our ts allele of SLY1, accumulation of the carboxypeptidase Y precursor was detected at the nonpermissive temperature, indicating that the secretory pathway is defective. To ask whether the effect of the ts allele on ribosome synthesis was specific for sly1 or was a general result of the inactivation of the secretion pathway, we assayed the levels of mRNA for several ribosomal proteins in cells carrying ts alleles of sec1, sec7, sec11, sec14, sec18, sec53, or sec63, representing all stages of secretion. In each case, the mRNA levels were severely depressed, suggesting that this is a common feature in mutants of protein secretion. For the mutants tested, transcription of rRNA was also substantially reduced. Furthermore, treatment of a sensitive strain with brefeldin A at a concentration sufficient to block the secretion pathway also led to a decrease of the level of ribosomal protein mRNA, with kinetics suggesting that the effect of a secretion defect is manifest within 15 to 30 min. We conclude that the continued function of the entire secretion pathway is essential for the maintenance of ribosome synthesis. The apparent coupling of membrane synthesis and ribosome synthesis suggest the existence of a regulatory network that connects the production of the various structural elements of the cell. Images PMID:8139552

  14. Discovery and characterization of secretory IgD in rainbow trout: secretory IgD is produced through a novel splicing mechanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramirez-Gomez, F.; Greene, W.; Rego, K.; Hansen, J.D.; Costa, G.; Kataria, P.; Bromage, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The gene encoding IgH δ has been found in all species of teleosts studied to date. However, catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the only species of fish in which a secretory form of IgD has been characterized, and it occurs through the use of a dedicated δ-secretory exon, which is absent from all other species examined. Our studies have revealed that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) use a novel strategy for the generation of secreted IgD. The trout secretory δ transcript is produced via a run-on event in which the splice donor site at the end of the last constant domain exon (D7) is ignored and transcription continues until a stop codon is reached 33 nt downstream of the splice site, resulting in the production of an in-frame, 11-aa secretory tail at the end of the D7 domain. In silico analysis of several published IgD genes suggested that this unique splicing mechanism may also be used in other species of fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Alternative splicing of the secretory δ transcript resulted in two δ-H chains, which incorporated Cμ1 and variable domains. Secreted IgD was found in two heavily glycosylated isoforms, which are assembled as monomeric polypeptides associated with L chains. Secretory δ mRNA and IgD+ plasma cells were detected in all immune tissues at a lower frequency than secretory IgM. Our data demonstrate that secretory IgD is more prevalent and widespread across taxa than previously thought, and thus illustrate the potential that IgD may have a conserved role in immunity.

  15. Pathways for protein disulphide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Frand, A R; Cuozzo, J W; Kaiser, C A

    2000-05-01

    The folding of many secretory proteins depends upon the formation of disulphide bonds. Recent advances in genetics and cell biology have outlined a core pathway for disulphide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. In this pathway, oxidizing equivalents flow from the recently identified ER membrane protein Ero1p to secretory proteins via protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). Contrary to prior expectations, oxidation of glutathione in the ER competes with oxidation of protein thiols. Contributions of PDI homologues to the catalysis of oxidative folding will be discussed, as will similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic disulphide-bond-forming systems. PMID:10754564

  16. Secretory production of an FAD cofactor-containing cytosolic enzyme (sorbitol-xylitol oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor) using the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Scheele, Sandra; Oertel, Dan; Bongaerts, Johannes; Evers, Stefan; Hellmuth, Hendrik; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Bott, Michael; Freudl, Roland

    2013-03-01

    Carbohydrate oxidases are biotechnologically interesting enzymes that require a tightly or covalently bound cofactor for activity. Using the industrial workhorse Corynebacterium glutamicum as the expression host, successful secretion of a normally cytosolic FAD cofactor-containing sorbitol-xylitol oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor was achieved by using the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) protein export machinery for protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results demonstrate for the first time that, also for cofactor-containing proteins, a secretory production strategy is a feasible and promising alternative to conventional intracellular expression strategies.

  17. Secretory production of an FAD cofactor-containing cytosolic enzyme (sorbitol-xylitol oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor) using the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Scheele, Sandra; Oertel, Dan; Bongaerts, Johannes; Evers, Stefan; Hellmuth, Hendrik; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Bott, Michael; Freudl, Roland

    2013-03-01

    Carbohydrate oxidases are biotechnologically interesting enzymes that require a tightly or covalently bound cofactor for activity. Using the industrial workhorse Corynebacterium glutamicum as the expression host, successful secretion of a normally cytosolic FAD cofactor-containing sorbitol-xylitol oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor was achieved by using the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) protein export machinery for protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results demonstrate for the first time that, also for cofactor-containing proteins, a secretory production strategy is a feasible and promising alternative to conventional intracellular expression strategies. PMID:23163932

  18. 21 CFR 866.5380 - Free secretory component immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. 866.5380 Section 866.5380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5380 Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A...

  19. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity

    PubMed Central

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results.

  20. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity.

    PubMed

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-08-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results. PMID:27483184

  1. Necator americanus secretory acetylcholinesterase and its purification from excretory-secretory products by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D I; Leggett, K V; Rogan, M T; McKean, P G; Brown, A

    1991-03-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) secretion by adult N. americanus was enhanced in vitro by incorporating insoluble collagen rafts into culture dishes. Enzyme produced in this way had preferential substrate specificity for acetylthiocholine iodide (ATC), and its activity was inhibited by eserine (1.1 x 10(-8) M). Ancylostoma ceylanicum, another hookworm species, failed to produce comparable amounts of AChE in culture. AChE was efficiently purified from culture medium by affinity chromatography on edrophonium sepharose; 81% of the AChE activity was retained by the affinity matrix, although this fraction contained only 4.3% of the protein loaded. Antisera raised against purified AChE in rabbits immunohistochemically stained the oesophageal glands of the parasite, and reacted with molecules of 32, 60, 80, 140 and 220 kDa in reduced adult ES products on Western blotting, although differential activity was observed against worm homogenates and earlier developmental stages. On IEF, purified AChE resolved predominantly with a pl of 3.55; proteins with a similar pl were recognized by rabbit anti-AChE. IgG preparations of this antiserum inhibited AChE activity in ES products, and inhibited AChE secretion by adult worms in culture. The availability of this immunological probe will allow definitive experiments to be conducted on the role of this enigmatic enzyme in the host-parasite relationship. PMID:2052405

  2. Dark matter in archaeal genomes: a rich source of novel mobile elements, defense systems and secretory complexes.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Forterre, Patrick; Prangishvili, David; Krupovic, Mart; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-09-01

    Microbial genomes encompass a sizable fraction of poorly characterized, narrowly spread fast-evolving genes. Using sensitive methods for sequences comparison and protein structure prediction, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of clusters of such genes, which we denote "dark matter islands", in archaeal genomes. The dark matter islands comprise up to 20% of archaeal genomes and show remarkable heterogeneity and diversity. Nevertheless, three classes of entities are common in these genomic loci: (a) integrated viral genomes and other mobile elements; (b) defense systems, and (c) secretory and other membrane-associated systems. The dark matter islands in the genome of thermophiles and mesophiles show similar general trends of gene content, but thermophiles are substantially enriched in predicted membrane proteins whereas mesophiles have a greater proportion of recognizable mobile elements. Based on this analysis, we predict the existence of several novel groups of viruses and mobile elements, previously unnoticed variants of CRISPR-Cas immune systems, and new secretory systems that might be involved in stress response, intermicrobial conflicts and biogenesis of novel, uncharacterized membrane structures.

  3. Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, K. V.; Kjonaas, Robert; Croteau, Rodney

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663786

  4. Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, K.V.; Kjonaas, R.; Croteau, R.

    1984-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. 21 references, 2 figures.

  5. Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, K V; Kjonaas, R; Croteau, R

    1984-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. PMID:16663786

  6. Effect of phosphorus levels on the protein profiles of secreted protein and root surface protein of rice.

    PubMed

    Shinano, Takuro; Yoshimura, Tomoko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Unno, Yusuke; Osaki, Mitsuru; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-11-01

    Plant roots are complicated organs that absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Roots also play an essential role in protecting plants from attack by soil pathogens and develop a beneficial role with some soil microorganisms. Plant-derived rhizosphere proteins (e.g., root secretory proteins and root surface binding proteins) are considered to play important roles in developing mutual relationships in the rhizosphere. In the rhizosphere, where plant roots meet the surrounding environment, it has been suggested that root secretory protein and root surface binding protein are important factors. Furthermore, it is not known how the physiological status of the plant affects the profile of these proteins. In this study, rice plants were grown aseptically, with or without phosphorus nutrition, and proteins were obtained from root bathing solution (designated as root secretory proteins) and obtained using 0.2 M CaCl2 solution (designated as root surface binding proteins). The total number of identified proteins in the root bathing solution was 458, and the number of root surface binding proteins was 256. More than half of the proteins were observed in both fractions. Most of the proteins were categorized as either having signal peptides or no membrane transport helix sites. The functional categorization suggested that most of the proteins seemed to have secretory pathways and were involved in defense/disease-related functions. These characteristics seem to be unique to rhizosphere proteins, and the latter might be part of the plants strategy to defeat pathogens in the soil. The low phosphorus treatment significantly increased the number of pathogenesis-related proteins in the root secretory proteins, whereas the change was small in the case of the root surface binding proteins. The results suggested that the roots are actively and selectively secreting protein into the rhizosphere. PMID:24083427

  7. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells vary with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (p < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers. PMID:27069556

  8. Secretory IgA: Arresting Microbial Pathogens at Epithelial Borders

    PubMed Central

    Mantis, Nicholas J.; Forbes, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA), the predominant class of antibody found in intestinal secretions. While SIgA’s role in protecting the intestinal epithelium from the enteric pathogen and toxins has long been recognized, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which this is achieved. The present review summarizes the current understanding of how SIgA functions to prevent microbial pathogens and toxins from gaining access to the intestinal epithelium. We also discuss recent work from our laboratory examining the interaction of a particular protective monoclonal IgA with Salmonella and propose, based on this work, that SIgA has a previously unrecognized capacity to directly interfere with microbial virulence at mucosal surfaces. PMID:20450284

  9. Dynamin-2 Function and Dysfunction Along the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    González-Jamett, Arlek M.; Momboisse, Fanny; Haro-Acuña, Valentina; Bevilacqua, Jorge A.; Caviedes, Pablo; Cárdenas, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    Dynamin-2 is a ubiquitously expressed mechano-GTPase involved in different stages of the secretory pathway. Its most well-known function relates to the scission of nascent vesicles from the plasma membrane during endocytosis; however, it also participates in the formation of new vesicles from the Golgi network, vesicle trafficking, fusion processes and in the regulation of microtubule, and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Over the last 8 years, more than 20 mutations in the dynamin-2 gene have been associated to two hereditary neuromuscular disorders: Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy and centronuclear myopathy. Most of these mutations are grouped in the pleckstrin homology domain; however, there are no common mutations associated with both disorders, suggesting that they differently impact on dynamin-2 function in diverse tissues. In this review, we discuss the impact of these disease-related mutations on dynamin-2 function during vesicle trafficking and endocytotic processes. PMID:24065954

  10. Characterization of Mast Cell Secretory Granules and Their Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Azouz, Nurit Pereg; Hammel, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Exocytosis and secretion of secretory granule (SG) contained inflammatory mediators is the primary mechanism by which mast cells exert their protective immune responses in host defense, as well as their pathological functions in allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Despite their central role in mast cell function, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and secretion of mast cell SGs remain largely unresolved. Early studies have established the lysosomal nature of the mast cell SGs and implicated SG homotypic fusion as an important step occurring during both their biogenesis and compound secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms that account for key features of this process largely remain to be defined. A novel high-resolution imaging based methodology allowed us to screen Rab GTPases for their phenotypic and functional impact and identify Rab networks that regulate mast cell secretion. This screen has identified Rab5 as a novel regulator of homotypic fusion of the mast cell SGs that thereby regulates their size and cargo composition. PMID:24988214

  11. Secretory expression of a heterologous nattokinase in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Lixin; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Liandong

    2007-05-01

    Nattokinase has been reported as an oral health product for the prevention of atherosclerosis. We developed a novel strategy to express a nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis in a live delivery vehicle, Lactococcus lactis. Promoter P( nisZ) and signal peptide SP(Usp) were used for inducible and secretory expression of nattokinase in L. lactis. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that nattokinase was successfully expressed, and about 94% of the enzyme was secreted to the culture. The recombinant nattokinase showed potent fibrinolytic activity, equivalent to 41.7 urokinase units per milliliter culture. Expression and delivery of such a fibrinolytic enzyme in the food-grade vehicle L. lactis would facilitate the widespread application of nattokinase in the control and prevention of thrombosis diseases.

  12. Spontaneous decrease in gastric secretory response to humoral stimuli.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, W

    1969-11-22

    The gastric response to pentagastrin was studied over a period of seven months in a healthy 25-year-old man without symptoms or history of gastrointestinal disease. An abrupt impairment of the gastric response to several stimulants was observed one month after starting the tests. Periodic testing since that time has shown no reversion to the type of response seen during the initial period of testing. A second subject with proved chronic duodenal ulceration presented an identical change in pattern of gastric response to stimulants.This study suggests that such a variation in the response to gastric stimulation in a subject with a normal stomach should be borne in mind when interpreting results of gastric secretory studies.

  13. Secretory otitis media and phonology when starting school.

    PubMed

    Lous, J

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between previous middle ear disease, the presence of secretory otitis media, and phonology was investigated in 99% of a cohort of 387 unselected 7-year-old children from two Danish municipalities. All the pupils were tested with a phonological sentence repetition test called SITO, when starting school. The social and otological backgrounds were obtained from the parents. When using an analysis of variance, there was an association between phonology and tympanogram type in the better ear. No association with otological history or pure-tone screening was found. The correlation between tympanogram type and phonology was confirmed in a stepwise multiple regression analysis with nine possible confounding variables. In the statistical model, the tympanogram type could 'explain' 2-3% of the variation in phonology compared with the most important background variable, the social group of the mothers 'explaining' about 4-5% of the variation. About 15% of the variation could be 'explained' by the included variables.

  14. Silent reading and secretory otitis media in school children.

    PubMed

    Lous, J

    1993-01-01

    In an unselected cohort of 366 8-year-old children, the relationship between secretory otitis media and reading achievement was investigated. The children underwent 10 impedance audiometries and 5 pure tone audiometries during their first year at school. At the beginning of the second grade they all had a Silent Reading Word Test (OS-400). The background parameters were recorded by an interview with one of the parents. There was a significant but small correlation between type B tympanograms in the first grade and silent word reading. No association between silent reading score and otological history or pure tone screening was found. In a stepwise multiple regression model, 37% of the variance could be 'explained' by the included variables. The 'classroom factor' could 'explain' about 17% of the variance, followed by phonology at the start of school (6%), gender (5%), social group of the mother (4%), type B tympanogram (2%), absence from school (2%) and allergy (1%).

  15. Effect of 24 hours light on circadian rhythms of secretory enzymes and morphology of rat von Ebner's glands.

    PubMed

    Field, R B; Redman, R S; Calloway, A M; Goldberg, W J

    1999-11-01

    Von Ebner's glands of the rat are minor salivary serous glands in the posterior portion of the tongue. They secrete two digestive enzymes, lingual lipase and amylase. In this investigation, circadian rhythm in feeding was established under a normal 12 h light/12 h dark cycle, with the rats eating primarily during the dark period. At lights on, the size of the acinar cells and the area of the inclusive secretory granules, and the amount of digestive enzyme activity (lingual lipase and amylase) remaining in the gland was significantly less than in the mid-afternoon, after very little daylight food consumption. However, after 7 days of continuous light the circadian rhythm was altered: the food consumption during the normal night-time hours (5 p.m. to 8 a.m.) went from 88% of total 24 h food consumption to 45%, and during normal daylight hours (8 a.m. to 5 p.m.) from 12% to 55%. These changes were correlated with histometric findings of a near reversal of the areas of acinar cells and secretory granules of a.m. and p.m. samples under continuous light. Lingual lipase activity in the glands went from 35% under 12 h light to 61% under continuous light in the a.m. and from 65% to 39% in the p.m. Amylase activity also showed nearly a reversal in activity remaining in the gland, from 36% at 12 h light to 58% at 24 h light in the a.m. and 64% to 41% for the p.m. samples. These results indicate that the von Ebner's glands of the rat have a circadian rhythm of secretion and storage of secretory proteins that is subject to light entrainment similar to that seen in other exocrine glands such as the parotid and pancreas.

  16. Progressive enhancement in the secretory functions of the digestive system of the rat in the course of cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Kanno, T

    1976-09-01

    1. The secretory function of the exocrine pancreas and the stomach have been studied in the course of cold acclimation of rats that had been fed at an ambient temperature of 1 degree C in a climatic room. 2. The secretory responses of pancreatic enzymes evoked by continuous infusion of pancreozymin (PZ, 2-5 mu./kg. hr) and a rapid single injection of PZ (1.7 mu./kg) reached a maximum in the group of rats fed at 1 degree C for 4 weeks, and fell to the control levels after 8 weeks. The increase in the flow of pancreatic juice evoked by single injection of PZ was maximal at 4 weeks and slightly decreased after 8 weeks. 3. The insulin (3-0 i.u./kg) evoked secretion of pancreatic enzymes gradually increased after cold exposure, reached a maximum at 4 weeks and fell to the control levels after 8 weeks. The flow of pancreatic juice after insulin injection was almost the same in every group throughout the course of cold exposure. 4. The ratio of amylase to the total amount of the protein in the pancreatic juice decreased abruptly, in contrast to an increase in the ratio of protease in the process of cold acclimation. The change in the ratio of enzyme activity in the pancreatic juice may reflect parallel changes in enzyme activity in the exocrine pancreas. 5. The gastric secretion in response to insulin and bile secretion in the group fed at 1 degree C for 7 weeks was significantly higher than that in the control group. 6. It was thus concluded that the secretory activities of digestive system were enhanced by prolonged cold exposure and then returned to control level, and that the activites of the pancreatic enzymes were altered in the process of cold acclimation in rats.

  17. OKT3-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with release of group II secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Wever, P C; Roest, R W; Wolbink-Kamp, A M; Wolbink, G J; Weening, J J; Hack, C E; ten Berge, J M

    1996-10-01

    Administration of the murine IgG2a CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3 exerts a transient nephrotoxic effect. Increased levels of group II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-II) might account for this nephrotoxicity as sPLA2-II induces the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, vasoactive lipid mediators that influence glomerular haemodynamics and renal function. Furthermore, extracellular phospholipases seem to be involved in proximal tubular cell injury. We studied plasma sPLA2-II levels in relation to circulating creatinine, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein levels in 15 renal allograft recipients receiving rejection treatment with OKT3. As a control group, we studied 15 renal allograft recipients receiving rejection treatment with methylprednisolone. A maximal fourfold increase in sPLA2-II levels was observed 48 h after the first OKT3 administration, preceded by increased tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 levels and accompanied by increased C-reactive protein levels. Creatinine levels reached a maximal increase 72 h after initiation of treatment. During methylprednisolone treatment no increase in any of the studied parameters was observed. Thus, administration of OKT3 induces increased sPLA2-II levels, presumably via generation of cytokines. We hypothesize that sPLA2-II may contribute to the nephrotoxic effect of OKT3 by inducing vasoconstrictive prostaglandins and renal tubular cell injury.

  18. SNAP23 is selectively expressed in airway secretory cells and mediates baseline and stimulated mucin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Binhui; Azzegagh, Zoulikha; Jaramillo, Ana M.; Zhu, Yunxiang; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Bagirzadeh, Rustam; Flores, Jose R.; Han, Wei; Tang, Yong-jun; Tu, Jing; Alanis, Denise M.; Evans, Christopher M.; Guindani, Michele; Roche, Paul A.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Chen, Jichao; Davis, C. William; Tuvim, Michael J.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2015-01-01

    Airway mucin secretion is important pathophysiologically and as a model of polarized epithelial regulated exocytosis. We find the trafficking protein, SNAP23 (23-kDa paralogue of synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa), selectively expressed in secretory cells compared with ciliated and basal cells of airway epithelium by immunohistochemistry and FACS, suggesting that SNAP23 functions in regulated but not constitutive epithelial secretion. Heterozygous SNAP23 deletant mutant mice show spontaneous accumulation of intracellular mucin, indicating a defect in baseline secretion. However mucins are released from perfused tracheas of mutant and wild-type (WT) mice at the same rate, suggesting that increased intracellular stores balance reduced release efficiency to yield a fully compensated baseline steady state. In contrast, acute stimulated release of intracellular mucin from mutant mice is impaired whether measured by a static imaging assay 5 min after exposure to the secretagogue ATP or by kinetic analysis of mucins released from perfused tracheas during the first 10 min of ATP exposure. Together, these data indicate that increased intracellular stores cannot fully compensate for the defect in release efficiency during intense stimulation. The lungs of mutant mice develop normally and clear bacteria and instilled polystyrene beads comparable to WT mice, consistent with these functions depending on baseline secretion that is fully compensated. PMID:26182382

  19. Sensitive and convenient yeast reporter assay for high-throughput analysis by using a secretory luciferase from Cypridina noctiluca.

    PubMed

    Tochigi, Yuki; Sato, Natsuko; Sahara, Takehiko; Wu, Chun; Saito, Shinya; Irie, Tsutomu; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Goda, Takako; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Ohgiya, Satoru

    2010-07-01

    The yeast reporter assay has been widely used in various applications such as detection of endocrine disruptors and analysis of protein-protein interactions by the yeast two-hybrid system. The molecular characteristics of the reporter enzyme are critical determinants for this assay. We herein report the establishment of a novel yeast reporter assay using a secretory luciferase, Cypridina noctiluca luciferase (CLuc), as an alternative to the conventional beta-galactosidase. The CLuc reporter assay in yeast is more sensitive and convenient than the conventional assay. A yeast high-throughput reporter assay was established with a laboratory automation system, and the transcriptional activity of hundreds of yeast promoter fragments was comprehensively determined. Our results indicate that the yeast CLuc reporter assay is a promising tool for large-scale and sensitive analysis in the development of new drugs and in various fields of biotechnology research.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii: molecular cloning and characterization of a novel 18-kDa secretory antigen, TgMIC10.

    PubMed

    Hoff, E F; Cook, S H; Sherman, G D; Harper, J M; Ferguson, D J; Dubremetz, J F; Carruthers, V B

    2001-02-01

    Hoff, E. F., Cook, S. H., Sherman, G. D., Harper, J. M., Ferguson, D. J. P., Dubremetz, J. F., and Carruthers, V. B. 2001. Toxoplasma gondii: Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel 18-kDa secretory antigen, TgMIC10. Experimental Parasitology, 97, 77-88. During host cell invasion, Toxoplasma gondii secretes proteins from specialized organelles (micronemes and rhoptries) located at the apical end of the parasite. The contents of the micronemes appear to be crucial to T. gondii invasion, as inhibition of microneme secretion prevents parasite entry into host cells. Here we describe a new T. gondii microneme protein, TgMIC10. Molecular characterization of a full-length TgMIC10 cDNA revealed that TgMIC10 lacks homology to any previously characterized proteins, although a homologue, NcMIC10, was identified in a closely related parasite, Neospora caninum. TgMIC10 has an unusually long secretory leader sequence of 58 amino acids; the mature TgMIC10 is 18 kDa, possesses nine diglutamic acid repeats and an imperfect repeat sequence (RK(R/Y)HEEL), and is entirely devoid of cysteines. Antibodies raised against recombinant TgMIC10 recognized the native TgMIC10 and localized the protein to the micronemes in indirect immunofluorescence and immunoEM experiments. Comparison of immunofluorescence images indicates that TgMIC10 expression is higher in T. gondii tachyzoites, which are responsible for active infection, than in bradyzoites, which are responsible for latent infection.

  1. Isolation and characterization of multivesicular bodies from rat hepatocytes: an organelle distinct from secretory vesicles of the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hornick, C A; Hamilton, R L; Spaziani, E; Enders, G H; Havel, R J

    1985-05-01

    Hepatocytes of estradiol-treated rats, which express many low density lipoprotein receptors, rapidly accumulate intravenously injected low density lipoprotein in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). We have isolated MVBs and Golgi apparatus fractions from livers of estradiol-treated rats. MVB fractions were composed mainly of large vesicles, approximately 0.55 micron diam, filled with remnantlike very low density lipoproteins, known to be taken up into hepatocytes by receptor-mediated endocytosis. MVBs also contained numerous small vesicles, 0.05-0.07 micron in diameter, and had two types of appendages: one fingerlike and electron dense and the other saclike and electron lucent. MVBs contained little galactosyltransferase or arylsulfatase activity, and content lipoproteins were largely intact. Very low density lipoproteins from Golgi fractions, which are derived to a large extent from secretory vesicles, were larger than those of MVB fractions and contained newly synthesized triglycerides. Membranes of MVBs contained much more cholesterol and less protein than did Golgi membranes. We conclude that two distinct lipoprotein-filled organelles are located in the bile canalicular pole of hepatocytes. MVBs, a major prelysosomal organelle of low density in the endocytic pathway, contain remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, whereas secretory vesicles of the Golgi apparatus contain nascent very low density lipoproteins.

  2. siRNA knock-down of mutant torsinA restores processing through secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, Jeffrey W.; Nery, Flávia C.; Niland, Brian; Ge, Pei; Tan, Pamela; Hadwiger, Philipp; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Sah, Dinah W.Y.; Breakefield, Xandra O.

    2008-01-01

    Most cases of the dominantly inherited movement disorder, early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1) are caused by a mutant form of torsinA lacking a glutamic acid residue in the C-terminal region (torsinAΔE). TorsinA is an AAA+ protein located predominantly in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope apparently involved in membrane structure/movement and processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. A reporter protein Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) shows a reduced rate of secretion in primary fibroblasts from DYT1 patients expressing endogenous levels of torsinA and torsinAΔE when compared with control fibroblasts expressing only torsinA. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides were identified, which downregulate the levels of torsinA or torsinAΔE mRNA and protein by over 65% following transfection. Transfection of siRNA for torsinA message in control fibroblasts expressing Gluc reduced levels of luciferase secretion compared with the same cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Transfection of siRNA selectively inhibiting torsinAΔE message in DYT fibroblasts increased luciferase secretion when compared with cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Further, transduction of DYT1 cells with a lentivirus vector expressing torsinA, but not torsinB, also increased secretion. These studies are consistent with a role for torsinA as an ER chaperone affecting processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and indicate that torsinAΔE acts to inhibit this torsinA activity. The ability of allele-specific siRNA for torsinAΔE to normalize secretory function in DYT1 patient cells supports its potential role as a therapeutic agent in early onset torsion dystonia. PMID:18258738

  3. Regulation and activity of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is altered in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Letang, Blanche D.; Brighton, Luisa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Bonner, James

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of cigarette smoking is a shift in the protease/antiprotease balance, in favor of protease activity. However, it has recently been shown that smokers have increased expression of a key antiprotease, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), yet the mechanisms involved in SLPI transcriptional regulation and functional activity of SLPI remain unclear. We examined SLPI mRNA and protein secretion in differentiated nasal epithelial cells (NECs) and nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from nonsmokers and smokers and demonstrated that SLPI expression is increased in NECs and NLF from smokers. Transcriptional regulation of SLPI expression was confirmed using SLPI promoter reporter assays followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The role of STAT1 in regulating SLPI expression was further elucidated using WT and stat1−/− mice. Our data demonstrate that STAT1 regulates SLPI transcription in epithelial cells and slpi protein in the lungs of mice. Additionally, we reveal that NECs from smokers have increased STAT1 mRNA/protein expression. Finally, we demonstrate that SLPI contained in the nasal mucosa of smokers is proteolytically cleaved but retains functional activity against neutrophil elastase. These results demonstrate that smoking enhances expression of SLPI in NECs in vitro and in vivo, and that this response is regulated by STAT1. In addition, despite posttranslational cleavage of SLPI, antiprotease activity against neutrophil elastase is enhanced in smokers. Together, our findings show that SLPI regulation and activity is altered in the nasal mucosa of smokers, which could have broad implications in the context of respiratory inflammation and infection. PMID:24285265

  4. Weight Loss Improves the Adipogenic Capacity of Human Preadipocytes and Modulates Their Secretory Profile

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeislová, Lenka; Mališová, Lucia; Kračmerová, Jana; Tencerová, Michaela; Kováčová, Zuzana; Koc, Michal; Šiklová-Vítková, Michaela; Viquerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique; Štich, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Calorie restriction–induced weight loss is accompanied by profound changes in adipose tissue characteristics. To determine the effect of weight loss on differentiation of preadipocytes and secretory capacity of in vitro differentiated adipocytes, we established cultures of these cells from paired subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies obtained before and at the end of weight-reducing dietary intervention (DI) in 23 obese women. Based on lipid accumulation and the expression of differentiation markers, in vitro adipogenesis increased after weight loss and it was accompanied by enhanced expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. This effect of weight loss was not driven by changes of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ sensitivity to rosiglitazone. Weight loss also enhanced the expression of adiponectin and leptin while reducing that of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin-8 by cultured adipocytes. Thus, the weight-reducing (DI) increased adipogenic capacity of preadipocytes and shifted their secretion toward lower inflammatory profile. Reprogramming of preadipocytes could represent an adaptation to weight loss leading to partial restoration of preobese adipose tissue traits and thus contribute to the improvement of metabolic status. However, enhanced adipogenesis could also contribute to the unwanted weight regain after initial weight loss. PMID:23378611

  5. Mycoplasma bovis MBOV_RS02825 Encodes a Secretory Nuclease Associated with Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Gang; Guo, Yusi; Menghwar, Harish; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the activity of one Mycoplasma bovis nuclease encoded by MBOV_RS02825 and its association with cytotoxicity. The bioinformatics analysis predicted that it encodes a Ca(2+)-dependent nuclease based on existence of enzymatic sites in a TNASE_3 domain derived from a Staphylococcus aureus thermonuclease (SNc). We cloned and purified the recombinant MbovNase (rMbovNase), and demonstrated its nuclease activity by digesting bovine macrophage linear DNA and RNA, and closed circular plasmid DNA in the presence of 10 mM Ca(2+) at 22-65 °C. In addition, this MbovNase was localized in membrane and rMbovNase able to degrade DNA matrix of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). When incubated with macrophages, rMbovNase bound to and invaded the cells localizing to both the cytoplasm and nuclei. These cells experienced apoptosis and the viability was significantly reduced. The apoptosis was confirmed by activated expression of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 and Bax, and inhibition of Iκβα and Bcl-2. In contrast, rMbovNase(Δ181-342) without TNASE_3 domain exhibited deficiency in all the biological functions. Furthermore, rMbovNase was also demonstrated to be secreted. In conclusion, it is a first report that MbovNase is an active nuclease, both secretory and membrane protein with ability to degrade NETs and induce apoptosis. PMID:27136546

  6. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Novel Factor Required for Secretory Granule Maturation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Kontur, Cassandra; Kumar, Santosh; Lan, Xun; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Turkewitz, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Unbiased genetic approaches have a unique ability to identify novel genes associated with specific biological pathways. Thanks to next generation sequencing, forward genetic strategies can be expanded to a wider range of model organisms. The formation of secretory granules, called mucocysts, in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila relies, in part, on ancestral lysosomal sorting machinery, but is also likely to involve novel factors. In prior work, multiple strains with defects in mucocyst biogenesis were generated by nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, and characterized using genetic and cell biological approaches, but the genetic lesions themselves were unknown. Here, we show that analyzing one such mutant by whole genome sequencing reveals a novel factor in mucocyst formation. Strain UC620 has both morphological and biochemical defects in mucocyst maturation—a process analogous to dense core granule maturation in animals. Illumina sequencing of a pool of UC620 F2 clones identified a missense mutation in a novel gene called MMA1 (Mucocyst maturation). The defects in UC620 were rescued by expression of a wild-type copy of MMA1, and disrupting MMA1 in an otherwise wild-type strain phenocopies UC620. The product of MMA1, characterized as a CFP-tagged copy, encodes a large soluble cytosolic protein. A small fraction of Mma1p-CFP is pelletable, which may reflect association with endosomes. The gene has no identifiable homologs except in other Tetrahymena species, and therefore represents an evolutionarily recent innovation that is required for granule maturation. PMID:27317773

  7. The golgin GMAP-210 is required for efficient membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Roboti, Peristera; Sato, Keisuke; Lowe, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi complex. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular trafficking and Golgi organization. However, the degree to which individual golgins contribute to these processes is poorly defined, and it has been proposed that golgins act in a largely redundant manner. Previous studies on the golgin GMAP-210 (also known as TRIP11), which is mutated in the rare skeletal disorder achondrogenesis type 1A, have yielded conflicting results regarding its involvement in trafficking. Here, we re-investigated the trafficking role of GMAP-210, and found that it is indeed required for efficient trafficking in the secretory pathway. GMAP-210 acts at both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex during anterograde trafficking, and is also required for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Using co-depletion experiments, we also found that GMAP-210 acts in a partially redundant manner with the golgin GM130 to ensure efficient anterograde cargo delivery to the cis-Golgi. In summary, our results indicate a role for GMAP-210 in several trafficking steps at the ER–Golgi interface, some of which are partially redundant with another golgin, namely GM130 (also known as GOLGA2). PMID:25717001

  8. The golgin GMAP-210 is required for efficient membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Roboti, Peristera; Sato, Keisuke; Lowe, Martin

    2015-04-15

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi complex. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular trafficking and Golgi organization. However, the degree to which individual golgins contribute to these processes is poorly defined, and it has been proposed that golgins act in a largely redundant manner. Previous studies on the golgin GMAP-210 (also known as TRIP11), which is mutated in the rare skeletal disorder achondrogenesis type 1A, have yielded conflicting results regarding its involvement in trafficking. Here, we re-investigated the trafficking role of GMAP-210, and found that it is indeed required for efficient trafficking in the secretory pathway. GMAP-210 acts at both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex during anterograde trafficking, and is also required for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Using co-depletion experiments, we also found that GMAP-210 acts in a partially redundant manner with the golgin GM130 to ensure efficient anterograde cargo delivery to the cis-Golgi. In summary, our results indicate a role for GMAP-210 in several trafficking steps at the ER-Golgi interface, some of which are partially redundant with another golgin, namely GM130 (also known as GOLGA2). PMID:25717001

  9. Mycoplasma bovis MBOV_RS02825 Encodes a Secretory Nuclease Associated with Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Gang; Guo, Yusi; Menghwar, Harish; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the activity of one Mycoplasma bovis nuclease encoded by MBOV_RS02825 and its association with cytotoxicity. The bioinformatics analysis predicted that it encodes a Ca2+-dependent nuclease based on existence of enzymatic sites in a TNASE_3 domain derived from a Staphylococcus aureus thermonuclease (SNc). We cloned and purified the recombinant MbovNase (rMbovNase), and demonstrated its nuclease activity by digesting bovine macrophage linear DNA and RNA, and closed circular plasmid DNA in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+ at 22–65 °C. In addition, this MbovNase was localized in membrane and rMbovNase able to degrade DNA matrix of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). When incubated with macrophages, rMbovNase bound to and invaded the cells localizing to both the cytoplasm and nuclei. These cells experienced apoptosis and the viability was significantly reduced. The apoptosis was confirmed by activated expression of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 and Bax, and inhibition of Iκβα and Bcl-2. In contrast, rMbovNaseΔ181–342 without TNASE_3 domain exhibited deficiency in all the biological functions. Furthermore, rMbovNase was also demonstrated to be secreted. In conclusion, it is a first report that MbovNase is an active nuclease, both secretory and membrane protein with ability to degrade NETs and induce apoptosis. PMID:27136546

  10. mTOR regulates MAPKAPK2 translation to control the senescence-associated secretory phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Herranz, Nicolás; Gallage, Suchira; Mellone, Massimiliano; Wuestefeld, Torsten; Klotz, Sabrina; Hanley, Christopher J.; Raguz, Selina; Acosta, Juan Carlos; Innes, Andrew J; Banito, Ana; Georgilis, Athena; Montoya, Alex; Wolter, Katharina; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Faull, Peter; Carroll, Thomas; Martínez-Barbera, Juan Pedro; Cutillas, Pedro; Reisinger, Florian; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Miller, Richard A.; Withers, Dominic; Zender, Lars; Thomas, Gareth J.; Gil, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Senescent cells secrete a combination of factors collectively known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP reinforces senescence and activates an immune surveillance response but it can also display pro-tumorigenic properties and contribute to age-related pathologies. In a drug screen to find novel SASP regulators, we uncovered the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin as a potent SASP suppressor. Here we report a mechanism by which mTOR controls the SASP by differentially regulating the translation of the MK2/MAPKAPK2 kinase through 4EBP1. In turn, MAPKAPK2 phosphorylates the RNA binding protein ZFP36L1 during senescence, inhibiting its ability to degrade the transcripts of numerous SASP components. Consequently, mTOR inhibition or constitutive activation of ZFP36L1 impairs the non-cell-autonomous effects of senescent cells both in tumour-suppressive and promoting-promoting contexts. Altogether, our results place regulation of the SASP as a key mechanism by which mTOR could influence cancer, age-related diseases and immune responses. PMID:26280535

  11. The application of mass spectrometry to identify immunogenic components of excretory/secretory products from adult Dictyocaulus viviparus.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J B; Davidson, A J; Beynon, R J

    2004-01-01

    Proteomics has come to the forefront in the post-genomic era. The ability to compare and identify proteins expressed in a particular cell type under specific physiological or pathological states requires a range of technologies, including separation of complex protein or peptide mixtures, densitometry-based or isotope-coded methods for comparison of multiple proteomes, and mass spectrometric methods for identification of individual low abundance proteins. Although an emergent technology, thus far, proteomics has provided new perspectives on many problems in biomedical science. In parasitology, proteomics has been used to answer specific biological questions relating to survival and development, and also to identify candidates for vaccines. Here, we describe an ongoing research programme in which proteomics is being used to identify potential vaccine candidates for the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus. This work is focusing on antibody responses to the adult parasite excretory/secretory (ES) products, with selection of candidate antigens based on differential screening with serum from immune versus non-immune animals to simplify the proteome and the ensuing analytical challenges. Thus far, we have identified seven candidate proteins using this strategy. Of these, one protein showed significant identity to a previously cloned gene from D. viviparus, whilst the other six proteins have shown no significant identities. Isolation of further peptide sequences is now warranted to facilitate cloning of the genes encoding these antigens.

  12. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation. PMID:24489879

  13. Cytodiagnosis of secretory carcinoma of the breast: a report on two cases.

    PubMed

    Jena, Madhusmita; Shariff, Shameem

    2010-12-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare (<1%) low grade breast carcinoma which shows distinct features at histology. Diagnosis of this carcinoma at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is difficult. Two cases of secretory carcinoma of the breast presenting as a breast mass, one in a 24-year-old female and the other in a 40-year-old female are reported, highlighting their appearance at FNAC. In both the cases the aspirates were cellular and consisted of clusters and single cells with uniform round nuclei showing minimal nuclear atypia. Most of the cells had moderate to abundant cytoplasm with prominent intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Many cells showed a plasmacytoid appearance and others were binucleate. A typical amphophilic bubbly cytoplasm of the tumor cells was observed. Both cases were confirmed as secretory carcinoma on histology. The differences in cell morphology at FNAC of secretory carcinoma of the breast from other breast carcinomas, and its utility of making a preoperative diagnosis are discussed.

  14. Observing secretory granules with a multiangle evanescent wave microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbach, A

    2000-01-01

    In total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), fluorophores near a surface can be excited with evanescent waves, which decay exponentially with distance from the interface. Penetration depths of evanescent waves from 60 nm to 300 nm were generated by varying the angle of incidence of a laser beam. With a novel telecentric multiangle evanescent wave microscope, we monitored and investigated both single secretory granules and pools of granules in bovine chromaffin cells. By measuring the fluorescence intensity as a function of penetration depth, it is possible through a Laplace transform to obtain the fluorophore distribution as a function of axial position. We discuss the extent to which it is possible to determine distances and diameters of granules with this microscopy technique by modeling the fluorescent volumes of spheres in evanescent fields. The anisotropic near-field detection of fluorophores and the influence of the detection point-spread function are considered. The diameters of isolated granules between 70 nm and 300 nm have been reconstructed, which is clearly beyond the resolution limit of a confocal microscope. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates how evanescent waves propagate along surfaces and scatter at objects with a higher refractive index. TIRFM will have a limited applicability for quantitative measurements when the parameters used to define evanescent waves are not optimally selected. PMID:10777760

  15. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induces Senescence with a Distinct Secretory Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Christopher D; Velarde, Michael C; Lecot, Pacome; Liu, Su; Sarnoski, Ethan A; Freund, Adam; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Lim, Hyung W; Davis, Sonnet S; Ramanathan, Arvind; Gerencser, Akos A; Verdin, Eric; Campisi, Judith

    2016-02-01

    Cellular senescence permanently arrests cell proliferation, often accompanied by a multi-faceted senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Loss of mitochondrial function can drive age-related declines in the function of many post-mitotic tissues, but little is known about how mitochondrial dysfunction affects mitotic tissues. We show here that several manipulations that compromise mitochondrial function in proliferating human cells induce a senescence growth arrest with a modified SASP that lacks the IL-1-dependent inflammatory arm. Cells that underwent mitochondrial dysfunction-associated senescence (MiDAS) had lower NAD+/NADH ratios, which caused both the growth arrest and prevented the IL-1-associated SASP through AMPK-mediated p53 activation. Progeroid mice that rapidly accrue mtDNA mutations accumulated senescent cells with a MiDAS SASP in vivo, which suppressed adipogenesis and stimulated keratinocyte differentiation in cell culture. Our data identify a distinct senescence response and provide a mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction can drive aging phenotypes. PMID:26686024

  16. Gut Microbial Succession Follows Acute Secretory Diarrhea in Humans

    PubMed Central

    David, Lawrence A.; Weil, Ana; Ryan, Edward T.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Chowdhury, Fahima; Begum, Yasmin; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Disability after childhood diarrhea is an important burden on global productivity. Recent studies suggest that gut bacterial communities influence how humans recover from infectious diarrhea, but we still lack extensive data and mechanistic hypotheses for how these bacterial communities respond to diarrheal disease and its treatment. Here, we report that after Vibrio cholerae infection, the human gut microbiota undergoes an orderly and reproducible succession that features transient reversals in relative levels of enteric Bacteroides and Prevotella. Elements of this succession may be a common feature in microbiota recovery from acute secretory diarrhea, as we observed similar successional dynamics after enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. Our metagenomic analyses suggest that multiple mechanisms drive microbial succession after cholera, including bacterial dispersal properties, changing enteric oxygen and carbohydrate levels, and phage dynamics. Thus, gut microbiota recovery after cholera may be predictable at the level of community structure but is driven by a complex set of temporally varying ecological processes. Our findings suggest opportunities for diagnostics and therapies targeting the gut microbiota in humans recovering from infectious diarrhea. PMID:25991682

  17. Role of NBCe1 and AE2 in Secretory Ameloblasts

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Michael L.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Wang, HongJun; Abuladze, Natalia; Pushkin, Alexander; Liu, Weixin; Kao, Li Yo; Wall, Susan M.; Kim, Young-Hee; Kurtz, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The H+/base transport processes that control the pH of the microenvironment adjacent to ameloblasts are not currently well understood. Mice null for the AE2 anion exchanger have abnormal enamel. In addition, patients with mutations in the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 and mice lacking NBCe1 have enamel abnormalities. These observations suggest that AE2 and NBCe1 play important roles in amelogenesis. The present study aimed to understand the roles of AE2 and NBC1 in ameloblasts. The data showed that NBCe1 is expressed at the basolateral membrane of secretory ameloblasts, whereas AE2 is expressed at the apical membrane. Transcripts for AE2a and NBCe1-B were detected in RNA isolated from cultured ameloblast-like LS8 cells. Our data are the first evidence that AE2 and NBCe1 are expressed in ameloblasts in vivo in a polarized fashion thereby providing a mechanism for ameloblast transcellular bicarbonate secretion in the process of enamel formation and maturation. PMID:18362326

  18. Small molecules intercept Notch signaling and the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Andreas; Mentrup, Torben; Kleizen, Bertrand; Rivera-Milla, Eric; Reichenbach, Daniela; Enzensperger, Christoph; Nohl, Richard; Täuscher, Eric; Görls, Helmar; Ploubidou, Aspasia; Englert, Christoph; Werz, Oliver; Arndt, Hans-Dieter; Kaether, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Notch signaling has a pivotal role in numerous cell-fate decisions, and its aberrant activity leads to developmental disorders and cancer. To identify molecules that influence Notch signaling, we screened nearly 17,000 compounds using automated microscopy to monitor the trafficking and processing of a ligand-independent Notch-enhanced GFP (eGFP) reporter. Characterization of hits in vitro by biochemical and cellular assays and in vivo using zebrafish led to five validated compounds, four of which induced accumulation of the reporter at the plasma membrane by inhibiting γ-secretase. One compound, the dihydropyridine FLI-06, disrupted the Golgi apparatus in a manner distinct from that of brefeldin A and golgicide A. FLI-06 inhibited general secretion at a step before exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which was accompanied by a tubule-to-sheet morphological transition of the ER, rendering FLI-06 the first small molecule acting at such an early stage in secretory traffic. These data highlight the power of phenotypic screening to enable investigations of central cellular signaling pathways. PMID:24077179

  19. Secretory immunity in defense against cariogenic mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Russell, M W; Hajishengallis, G; Childers, N K; Michalek, S M

    1999-01-01

    Specific immune defense against cariogenic mutans streptococci is provided largely by salivary secretory IgA antibodies, which are generated by the common mucosal immune system. This system is functional in newborn infants, who develop salivary IgA antibodies as they become colonized by oral microorganisms. The mechanisms of action of salivary IgA antibodies include interference with sucrose-independent and sucrose- dependent attachment of mutans streptococci to tooth surfaces, as well as possible inhibition of metabolic activities. The goal of protecting infants against colonization by mutans streptococci might be accomplished by applying new strategies of mucosal immunization that would induce salivary IgA antibodies without the complications of parenteral immunization. Strategies of mucosal immunization against mutans streptococci currently under development include the use of surface adhesins and glucosyltransferase as key antigens, which are being incorporated into novel mucosal vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants. The oral application of preformed, genetically engineered antibodies to mutans streptococcal antigens also offers new prospects for passive immunization against dental caries. PMID:9831775

  20. Secretory phospholipase A2 induces dendritic cell maturation

    PubMed Central

    Perrin-Cocon, Laure; Agaugué, Sophie; Coutant, Frédéric; Masurel, Aurélie; Bezzine, Sofiane; Lambeau, Gérard; André, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    High level of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity is found in serum and biological fluids during the acute phase response (APR). Extracellular PLA2 in fluids of patients with inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, acute pancreatitis or rheumatoid arthritis is also associated with propagation of inflammation. PLA2 activity is involved in the release of both pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators from phospholipids of cellular membranes or circulating lipoproteins. PLA2 may thus generate signals that influence immune responses. Here, group III secretory PLA2s were tested for their ability to promote generation of functionally mature human dendritic cells (DC). PLA2 treatment of differentiating monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 yielded cells with phenotypical and functional characteristics of mature DC. This maturation was dependent on the dose of PLA2 and PLA2-generated DC stimulated interferon gamma secretion by allogeneic T cells. The effects of PLA2 on DC maturation was mainly dependent on enzyme activity and correlated with the activation of NF-κB, AP-1 and NFAT. The data suggest that transient increase in PLA2 activity generates signals that promote transition of innate to adaptive immunity during the APR. PMID:15259027

  1. In situ localization of gene transcriptions for monoterpene synthesis in irregular parenchymic cells surrounding the secretory cavities in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri).

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yumiko; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2007-11-01

    A cDNA (RlemispF) encoding 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase, an enzyme of the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, and two homologs (RlemTPS1 and RlemTPS2) of citrus monoterpene synthase cDNA were isolated from the rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri). Transient localization of all or a part of RlemispF fused to a green fluorescence protein using particle gun-mediated DNA delivery localized RlemispF in the chloroplast. Transcripts of RlemispF and other monoterpene synthase genes are constitutively expressed in leaves of rough lemon. Transcript accumulations of RlemispF and RlemTPS1 were not induced by microbe attacks, but microbe attack weakly induced RlemTPS2 expression. Wounding decreased RlemispF expression. RlemispF and two different monoterpene synthase genes were specifically expressed in the epithelial tissue cells with dense cytoplasm that surround secretory cavities, which form a broadly round package containing a large volume of essential oils composed of monoterpenes. Interestingly, although expressions of RlemTPS1 and RlemTPS2 were detected at both mature and developing secretory cavities, the RlemispF-expressing cells were found more at around developing secretory cavities.

  2. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs. PMID:26936790

  3. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs.

  4. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms. PMID:23484122

  5. The organization of the secretory machinery in chromaffin cells as a major factor in modeling exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, José; Torregrosa-Hetland, Cristina J.; Gil, Amparo; González-Vélez, Virginia; Segura, Javier; Viniegra, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    The organization of cytoplasm in excitable cells was a largely ignored factor when mathematical models were developed to understand intracellular calcium and secretory behavior. Here we employed a combination of fluorescent evanescent and transmitted light microscopy to explore the F-actin cytoskeletal organization in the vicinity of secretory sites in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. This technique and confocal fluorescent microscopy show chromaffin granules associated with the borders of cortical cytoskeletal cages forming an intricate tridimensional network. Furthermore, the overexpression of SNAP-25 in these cells also reveals the association of secretory machinery clusters with the borders of these cytoskeletal cages. The importance of these F-actin cage borders is stressed when granules appear to interact and remain associated during exocytosis visualized in acridin orange loaded vesicles. These results will prompt us to propose a model of cytoskeletal cages, where the secretory machinery is associated with its borders. Both the calcium level and the secretory response are enhanced in this geometrical arrangement when compared with a random distribution of the secretory machinery that is not restricted to the borders of the cage. PMID:20885775

  6. Excretory-secretory products from Paragonimus westermani increase nitric oxide production in microglia in PKC-dependent and -independent manners.

    PubMed

    Jin, Youngnam; Choi, In Young; Kim, Chunsook; Hong, Suyoung; Kim, Won-Ki

    2009-10-01

    Excretory-secretory products (ESP) from helminthic parasites may play pivotal roles in the immune regulation in hosts. Previously, we reported that ESP produced from Paragonimus westermani induced morphological activation of microglial cells and markedly stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In the present study, we investigated the role of protein kinase C and protein kinase A in MAPKs-dependent NO production by ESP. We found that treatment with protein kinase C inhibitor Go6976 strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but not ERK, of MAPKs and decreased the production of NO in ESP-stimulated microglial cells. Inhibition of ERK, p38 or PKC decreased the ESP-induced activation of NF-kappaB, an important transcription factor for iNOS expression. Furthermore, ESP increased the level of p-CREB in microglial cells. However, adenylyl cyclase activator (forskolin), adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536), cAMP analogue (db-cAMP) or protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) was not able to change iNOS expression and NO production in ESP-treated microglial cells. It implies that the cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway is not implicated in the ESP-evoked NO production in microglial cells. Thus, our results indicate that ESP stimulates microglial expression of iNOS via both PKC-dependent and -independent MAPKs phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation.

  7. Isolation of a sesquiterpene synthase expressing in specialized epithelial cells surrounding the secretory cavities in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri).

    PubMed

    Uji, Yuya; Ozawa, Rika; Shishido, Hodaka; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Takabayashi, Junji; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2015-05-15

    Volatile terpenoids such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes play multiple roles in plant responses and are synthesized by terpene synthases (TPSs). We have previously isolated a partial TPS gene, RlemTPS4, that responds to microbial attack in rough lemon. In this study, we isolated a full length RlemTPS4 cDNA from rough lemon. RlemTPS4 localized in the cytosol. The recombinant RlemTPS4 protein was obtained using a prokaryotic expression system and GC-MS analysis of the terpenes produced by the RlemTPS4 enzymatic reaction determined that RlemTPS4 produces some sesquiterpenes such as δ-elemene. The RlemTPS4 gene was specifically expressed in specialized epithelial cells surrounding the oil secretory cavities in rough lemon leaf tissue.

  8. The granin VGF promotes genesis of secretory vesicles, and regulates circulating catecholamine levels and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fargali, Samira; Garcia, Angelo L.; Sadahiro, Masato; Jiang, Cheng; Janssen, William G.; Lin, Wei-Jye; Cogliani, Valeria; Elste, Alice; Mortillo, Steven; Cero, Cheryl; Veitenheimer, Britta; Graiani, Gallia; Pasinetti, Giulio M.; Mahata, Sushil K.; Osborn, John W.; Huntley, George W.; Phillips, Greg R.; Benson, Deanna L.; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Salton, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of proteins and neurotransmitters from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) is a highly regulated process. Adrenal LDCV formation involves the granin proteins chromogranin A (CgA) and chromogranin B (CgB); CgA- and CgB-derived peptides regulate catecholamine levels and blood pressure. We investigated function of the granin VGF (nonacronymic) in LDCV formation and the regulation of catecholamine levels and blood pressure. Expression of exogenous VGF in nonendocrine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts resulted in the formation of LDCV-like structures and depolarization-induced VGF secretion. Analysis of germline VGF-knockout mouse adrenal medulla revealed decreased LDCV size in noradrenergic chromaffin cells, increased adrenal norepinephrine and epinephrine content and circulating plasma epinephrine, and decreased adrenal CgB. These neurochemical changes in VGF-knockout mice were associated with hypertension. Germline knock-in of human VGF1–615 into the mouse Vgf locus rescued the hypertensive knockout phenotype, while knock-in of a truncated human VGF1–524 that lacks several C-terminal peptides, including TLQP-21, resulted in a small but significant increase in systolic blood pressure compared to hVGF1–615 mice. Finally, acute and chronic administration of the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 to rodents decreased blood pressure. Our studies establish a role for VGF in adrenal LDCV formation and the regulation of catecholamine levels and blood pressure.—Fargali, S., Garcia, A. L., Sadahiro, M., Jiang, C., Janssen, W. G., Lin, W.-J., Cogliani, V., Elste, A., Mortillo, S., Cero, C., Veitenheimer, B., Graiani, G., Pasinetti, G. M., Mahata, S. K., Osborn, J. W., Huntley, G. W., Phillips, G. R., Benson, D. L., Bartolomucci, A., Salton, S. R. The granin VGF promotes genesis of secretory vesicles, and regulates circulating catecholamine levels and blood pressure. PMID:24497580

  9. Sensitive detection and monitoring of senescence-associated secretory phenotype by SASP-RAP assay.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liubao; Kitamura, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is characterized by abundant secretion of various proteins in senescent cells and implicated in tumor progression and inflammatory responses. However, the profile of secreted proteins in SASP is different from cell type to cell type, and currently, universal markers for SASP have not been reported. In the present investigation, we show that SASP-responsive alkaline phosphatase (SASP-RAP) serves as a sensitive, general and convenient marker for SASP. Etoposide-treated cells exhibited a senescent phenotype characterized by senile morphology, positive staining for senescence-associated β-galactosidase, growth arrest and induction of p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1). In SASP-RAP-transfected cells, exposure to etoposide increased secretion of SASP-RAP time-dependently. The kinetics of secretion was closely correlated with that of activation of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter and the p16(INK4a) promoter. The enhanced secretion of SASP-RAP by senescence was also observed in cells treated with other senescence inducers such as trichostatin A, doxorubicin and 4-phenylbutylic acid. The induction of SASP-RAP by senescence was similarly observed in natural replicative senescence. To confirm selectivity of the SASP-RAP response, cells were treated with senescence-related and -unrelated stimuli (IL-1β, LPS, TNF-α and TGF-β), and induction of senescence markers and activity of SASP-RAP were evaluated in parallel. Unlike etoposide, senescence-unrelated stimuli did not induce p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1), and it was correlated with lack of induction of SASP-RAP. In contrast, senescence-unrelated stimuli up-regulated conventional indicators for SASP, e.g., MMP-3, IL-6 and TIMP, without induction of senescence. SASP-RAP thus serves as a selective, convenient and general marker for detection and monitoring of SASP during cellular senescence.

  10. Analysis of Occludin Trafficking, Demonstrating Continuous Endocytosis, Degradation, Recycling and Biosynthetic Secretory Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Sarah J.; Iqbal, Mudassar; Jabbari, Sara; Stekel, Dov; Rappoport, Joshua Z.

    2014-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) link adjacent cells and are critical for maintenance of apical-basolateral polarity in epithelial monolayers. The TJ protein occludin functions in disparate processes, including wound healing and Hepatitis C Virus infection. Little is known about steady-state occludin trafficking into and out of the plasma membrane. Therefore, we determined the mechanisms responsible for occludin turnover in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial monolayers. Using various biotin-based trafficking assays we observed continuous and rapid endocytosis of plasma membrane localised occludin (the majority internalised within 30 minutes). By 120 minutes a significant reduction in internalised occludin was observed. Inhibition of lysosomal function attenuated the reduction in occludin signal post-endocytosis and promoted co-localisation with the late endocytic system. Using a similar method we demonstrated that ∼20% of internalised occludin was transported back to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, significant co-localisation between internalised occludin and recycling endosomal compartments was observed. We then quantified the extent to which occludin synthesis and transport to the plasma membrane contributes to plasma membrane occludin homeostasis, identifying inhibition of protein synthesis led to decreased plasma membrane localised occludin. Significant co-localisation between occludin and the biosynthetic secretory pathway was demonstrated. Thus, under steady-state conditions occludin undergoes turnover via a continuous cycle of endocytosis, recycling and degradation, with degradation compensated for by biosynthetic exocytic trafficking. We developed a mathematical model to describe the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of occludin, utilising experimental data to provide quantitative estimates for the rates of these processes. PMID:25422932

  11. Regulation of secretory granule size by the precise generation and fusion of unit granules

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, Ilan; Lagunoff, David; Galli, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Morphometric evidence derived from studies of mast cells, pancreatic acinar cells and other cell types supports a model in which the post-Golgi processes that generate mature secretory granules can be resolved into three steps: (1) fusion of small, Golgi-derived progranules to produce immature secretory granules which have a highly constrained volume; (2) transformation of such immature granules into mature secretory granules, a process often associated with a reduction in the maturing granule’s volume, as well as changes in the appearance of its content and (3) fusion of secretory granules of the smallest size, termed ‘unit granules’, forming granules whose volumes are multiples of the unit granule’s volume. Mutations which perturb this process can cause significant pathology. For example, Chediak–Higashi syndrome / lysosomal trafficking regulator (CHS)/(Lyst) mutations result in giant secretory granules in a number of cell types in human beings with the Chediak–Higashi syndrome and in ‘beige’ (Lystbg/Lystbg) mice. Analysis of the secretory granules of mast cells and pancreatic acinar cells in Lyst-deficient beige mice suggests that beige mouse secretory granules retain the ability to fuse randomly with other secretory granules no matter what the size of the fusion partners. By contrast, in normal mice, the pattern of granule–granule fusion occurs exclusively by the addition of unit granules, either to each other or to larger granules. The normal pattern of fusion is termed unit addition and the fusion evident in cells with CHS/Lyst mutations is called random addition. The proposed model of secretory granule formation has several implications. For example, in neurosecretory cells, the secretion of small amounts of cargo in granules constrained to a very narrow size increases the precision of the information conveyed by secretion. By contrast, in pancreatic acinar cells and mast cells, large granules composed of multiple unit granules

  12. Myosin Vc Is Specialized for Transport on a Secretory Superhighway.

    PubMed

    Sladewski, Thomas E; Krementsova, Elena B; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2016-08-22

    A hallmark of the well-studied vertebrate class Va myosin is its ability to take multiple steps on actin as a single molecule without dissociating, a feature called "processivity." Therefore, it was surprising when kinetic and single-molecule assays showed that human myosin Vc (MyoVc) was not processive on single-actin filaments [1-3]. We explored the possibility that MyoVc is processive only under conditions that resemble its biological context. Recently, it was shown that zymogen vesicles are transported on actin "superhighways" composed of parallel actin cables nucleated by formins from the plasma membrane [4]. Loss of these cables compromises orderly apical targeting of vesicles. MyoVc has been implicated in transporting secretory vesicles to the apical membrane [5]. We hypothesized that actin cables regulate the processive properties of MyoVc. We show that MyoVc is unique in taking variable size steps, which are frequently in the backward direction. Results obtained with chimeric constructs implicate the lever arm/rod of MyoVc as being responsible for these properties. Actin bundles allow single MyoVc motors to move processively. Remarkably, even teams of MyoVc motors require actin bundles to move continuously at physiological ionic strength. The irregular stepping pattern of MyoVc, which may result from flexibility in the lever arm/rod of MyoVc, appears to be a unique structural adaptation that allows the actin track to spatially restrict the activity of MyoVc to specialized actin cables in order to co-ordinate and target the final stages of vesicle secretion. PMID:27498562

  13. Myosin Vc Is Specialized for Transport on a Secretory Superhighway.

    PubMed

    Sladewski, Thomas E; Krementsova, Elena B; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2016-08-22

    A hallmark of the well-studied vertebrate class Va myosin is its ability to take multiple steps on actin as a single molecule without dissociating, a feature called "processivity." Therefore, it was surprising when kinetic and single-molecule assays showed that human myosin Vc (MyoVc) was not processive on single-actin filaments [1-3]. We explored the possibility that MyoVc is processive only under conditions that resemble its biological context. Recently, it was shown that zymogen vesicles are transported on actin "superhighways" composed of parallel actin cables nucleated by formins from the plasma membrane [4]. Loss of these cables compromises orderly apical targeting of vesicles. MyoVc has been implicated in transporting secretory vesicles to the apical membrane [5]. We hypothesized that actin cables regulate the processive properties of MyoVc. We show that MyoVc is unique in taking variable size steps, which are frequently in the backward direction. Results obtained with chimeric constructs implicate the lever arm/rod of MyoVc as being responsible for these properties. Actin bundles allow single MyoVc motors to move processively. Remarkably, even teams of MyoVc motors require actin bundles to move continuously at physiological ionic strength. The irregular stepping pattern of MyoVc, which may result from flexibility in the lever arm/rod of MyoVc, appears to be a unique structural adaptation that allows the actin track to spatially restrict the activity of MyoVc to specialized actin cables in order to co-ordinate and target the final stages of vesicle secretion.

  14. Postnatal development of bile secretory physiology in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Tavoloni, N.; Jones, M.J.; Berk, P.D.

    1985-04-01

    To determine whether bile formation in the dog is an immature process at birth, several determinants of bile secretion were studied in anesthetized, bile duct-cannulated puppies of 0-42 days of age and adult dogs. Basal canalicular bile flow rate, estimated by /sup 14/C-erythritol biliary clearance, averaged 0.182 microliter/min/g liver in 0-3 day-old puppies and increased to 0.324 and 0.461 microliter/min/g in puppies 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. Calculated ductular bile water reabsorption (/sup 14/C-erythritol biliary clearance-bile flow) was virtually absent in 0-3 day-old puppies, and averaged 0.017 and 0.092 microliter/min/g in puppies of 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. In adult dogs, ductular bile water reabsorption was 0.132 microliter/min/g. These functional deficiencies of the newborn dog were associated with an increased biliary permeability to /sup 3/H-inulin which could not be accounted for solely by an increased solute diffusion due to the lower rate of canalicular bile flow. Administration of taurocholate up to 2000 nmol/min/kg produced in all animals a similar increase in canalicular bile flow and bile acid excretion, and was not associated with changes in ductular bile water reabsorption rate. These findings are interpreted to indicate that, in the dog, bile secretory function is immature at birth and develops during postnatal life.

  15. Secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase isoform 2 and lactation: specific localization of plasmalemmal and secretory pathway Ca2+ pump isoforms in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2008-04-09

    The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.

  16. Control of Amino Acid Permease Sorting in the Late Secretory Pathway of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae by Sec13, Lst4, Lst7 and Lst8

    PubMed Central

    Roberg, K. J.; Bickel, S.; Rowley, N.; Kaiser, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The SEC13 gene was originally identified by temperature-sensitive mutations that block all protein transport from the ER to the Golgi. We have found that at a permissive temperature for growth, the sec13-1 mutation selectively blocks transport of the nitrogen-regulated amino acid permease, Gap1p, from the Golgi to the plasma membrane, but does not affect the activity of constitutive permeases such as Hip1p, Can1p, or Lyp1p. Different alleles of SEC13 exhibit different relative effects on protein transport from the ER to the Golgi, or on Gap1p activity, indicating distinct requirements for SEC13 function at two different steps in the secretory pathway. Three new genes, LST4, LST7, and LST8, were identified that are also required for amino acid permease transport from the Golgi to the cell surface. Mutations in LST4 and LST7 reduce the activity of the nitrogen-regulated permeases Gap1p and Put4p, whereas mutations in LST8 impair the activities of a broader set of amino acid permeases. The LST8 gene encodes a protein composed of WD-repeats and has a close human homologue. The LST7 gene encodes a novel protein. Together, these data indicate that SEC13, LST4, LST7, and LST8 function in the regulated delivery of Gap1p to the cell surface, perhaps as components of a post-Golgi secretory-vesicle coat. PMID:9409822

  17. Characterization of excretory-secretory products from protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus and evaluation of their potential for immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Carmena, D; Martínez, J; Benito, A; Guisantes, J A

    2004-09-01

    This study describes, for the first time, the characterization of excretory-secretory antigens (ES-Ag) from Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces, evaluating their usefulness in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis. ES-Ag were obtained from the first 50 h maintenance of protoscoleces in vitro. This preparation contained over 20 major protein components which could be distinguished by 1-dimensional SDS-PAGE with apparent masses between 9 and 300 kDa. The culture of of protoscoleces from liver produced a greater variety of excretory-secretory protein components than those from lung. Determination of enzymatic activities of secreted proteins revealed the presence of phosphatases, lipases and glucosidases, but no proteases. These findings were compared to those obtained from somatic extracts of protoscoleces and hydatid cyst fluid products. Immunochemical characterization was performed by immunoblotting with sera from individuals infected by cystic echinococcosis (n = 15), non-hydatidic parasitoses (n = 19), various liver diseases (n = 24), lung neoplasia (n = 16), and healthy donors (n = 18). Antigens with apparent masses of 89, 74, 47/50, 32, and 20 kDa showed specificity for immunodiagnosis of human hydatidosis. The 89 and 74 kDa components corresponded to antigens not yet described in E. granulosus, whereas proteins of 41-43 kDa and 91-95 kDa were recognized by the majority of the non-hydatid sera studied.

  18. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  19. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  20. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging shows spatial segregation of secondary metabolites in Eucalyptus secretory cavities.

    PubMed

    Heskes, A M; Lincoln, C N; Goodger, J Q D; Woodrow, I E; Smith, T A

    2012-07-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging provides an excellent tool for imaging deep within plant tissues while providing a means to distinguish between fluorophores with high spatial and temporal resolution. Ideal candidates for the application of multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to plants are the embedded secretory cavities found in numerous species because they house complex mixtures of secondary metabolites within extracellular lumina. Previous investigations of this type of structure have been restricted by the use of sectioned material resulting in the loss of lumen contents and often disorganization of the delicate secretory cells; thus it is not known if there is spatial segregation of secondary metabolites within these structures. In this paper, we apply multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate the spatial arrangement of metabolites within intact secretory cavities isolated from Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker leaves. The secretory cavities of this species are abundant (up to 10 000 per leaf), large (up to 6 nL) and importantly house volatile essential oil rich in the monoterpene 1,8-cineole, together with an immiscible, non-volatile component comprised largely of autofluorescent oleuropeic acid glucose esters. We have been able to optically section into the lumina of secretory cavities to a depth of ∼80 μm, revealing a unique spatial organization of cavity metabolites whereby the non-volatile component forms a layer between the secretory cells lining the lumen and the essential oil. This finding could be indicative of a functional role of the non-volatile component in providing a protective region of low diffusivity between the secretory cells and potentially autotoxic essential oil.

  1. MicroRNA-34a Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Senescence by SIRT1 Downregulation and Promotes the Expression of Age-Associated Pro-inflammatory Secretory Factors.

    PubMed

    Badi, Ileana; Burba, Ilaria; Ruggeri, Clarissa; Zeni, Filippo; Bertolotti, Matteo; Scopece, Alessandro; Pompilio, Giulio; Raucci, Angela

    2015-11-01

    Arterial aging is a major risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aged artery is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular smooth muscle cells altered physiology together with low-grade chronic inflammation. MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) has been recently implicated in cardiac, endothelial, and endothelial progenitor cell senescence; however, its contribution to aging-associated vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype has not been explored so far. We found that miR-34a was highly expressed in aortas isolated from old mice. Moreover, its well-known target, the longevity-associated protein SIRT1, was significantly downregulated during aging in both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Increased miR-34a as well as decreased SIRT1 expression was also observed in replicative-senescent human aortic smooth muscle cells. miR-34a overexpression in proliferative human aortic smooth muscle cells caused cell cycle arrest along with enhanced p21 protein levels and evidence of cell senescence. Furthermore, miR-34a ectopic expression induced pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype molecules. Finally, SIRT1 protein significantly decreased upon miR-34a overexpression and restoration of its levels rescued miR-34a-dependent human aortic smooth muscle cells senescence, but not senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors upregulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that aging-associated increase of miR-34a expression levels, by promoting vascular smooth muscle cells senescence and inflammation through SIRT1 downregulation and senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors induction, respectively, may lead to arterial dysfunctions.

  2. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1β (IL-1β) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1β and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1β receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. PMID:26037125

  3. Regulation of membrane fusion and secretory events in the sea urchin embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Membrane fusion and secretory events play a key role in fertilization and early development in the sea urchin embryo. To investigate the mechanism of membrane fusion, the effect of inhibitors of metalloendoprotease activity was studied on two model systems of cell fusion; fertilization and spiculogenesis by primary mesenchyme cells in the embryo. Both the zinc chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline, and peptide metalloprotease substrates were found to inhibit both fertilization and gamete fusion, while peptides that are not substrates of metalloproteases did not affect either process. Primary mesenchyme cells form the larval skeleton in the embryo by deposition of mineral and an organic matrix into a syncytial cavity formed by fusion of filopodia of these cells. Metalloprotease inhibitors were found to inhibit spiculogenesis both in vivo and in cultures of isolated primary mesenchyme cells, and the activity of a metalloprotease of the appropriate specificity was found in the primary mesenchyme cells. These two studies implicate the activity of a metalloprotease in a necessary step in membrane fusion. Following fertilization, exocytosis of the cortical granules results in the formation of the fertilization envelope and the hyaline layer, that surround the developing embryo. The hatching enzyme is secreted by the blastula stage sea urchin embryo, which proteolyzes the fertilization envelope surrounding the embryo, allowing the embryo to hatch. Using an assay that measures {sup 125}I-fertilization envelope degradation, the hatching enzyme was identified as a 33 kDa metalloprotease, and was purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from the hatching media of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos. The hatching enzyme showed a substrate preference for only a minor subset of fertilization envelope proteins.

  4. Dynamics of peptidergic secretory granule transport are regulated by neuronal stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Peptidergic neurons store and secrete the contents of large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) from axon terminals and from dendrites. Secretion of peptides requires a highly regulated exocytotic mechanism, plus coordinated synthesis and transport of LDCVs to their sites of release. Although these trafficking events are critical to function, little is known regarding the dynamic behavior of LDCVs and the mechanisms by which their transport is regulated. Sensory neurons also package opiate receptors in peptide-containing LDCVs, which is thought to be important in pain sensation. Since peptide granules cannot be refilled locally after their contents are secreted, it is particularly important to understand how neurons support regulated release of peptides. Results A vector encoding soluble peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase fused to green fluorescent protein was constructed to address these questions in cultured primary peptidergic neurons of the trigeminal ganglion using time lapse confocal microscopy. The time course of release differs with secretagogue; the secretory response to depolarization with K+ is rapid and terminates within 15 minutes, while phorbol ester stimulation of secretion is maintained over a longer period. The data demonstrate fundamental differences between LDCV dynamics in axons and growth cones under basal conditions. Conclusions Under basal conditions, LDCVs move faster away from the soma than toward the soma, but fewer LDCVs travel anterograde than retrograde. Stimulation decreased average anterograde velocity and increases granule pausing. Data from antibody uptake, quantification of enzyme secretion and appearance of pHluorin fluorescence demonstrate distributed release of peptides all along the axon, not just at terminals. PMID:20202202

  5. Herpes simplex virus downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor enhances human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    PubMed

    Skeate, Joseph G; Porras, Tania B; Woodham, Andrew W; Jang, Julie K; Taylor, Julia R; Brand, Heike E; Kelly, Thomas J; Jung, Jae U; Da Silva, Diane M; Yuan, Weiming; Kast, W Martin

    2016-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was originally implicated in the aetiology of cervical cancer, and although high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is now the accepted causative agent, the epidemiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers persists. The annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t) has been shown to mediate infectious HPV type 16 (HPV16) uptake by human keratinocytes, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an endogenous A2t ligand, inhibits HPV16 uptake and infection. Interestingly, HSV infection induces a sustained downregulation of SLPI in epithelial cells, which we hypothesized promotes HPV16 infection through A2t. Here, we show that in vitro infection of human keratinocytes with HSV-1 or HSV-2, but not with an HSV-1 ICP4 deletion mutant that does not downregulate SLPI, leads to a >70% reduction of SLPI mRNA and a >60% decrease in secreted SLPI protein. Consequently, we observed a significant increase in the uptake of HPV16 virus-like particles and gene transduction by HPV16 pseudovirions (two- and 2.5-fold, respectively) in HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected human keratinocyte cell cultures compared with uninfected cells, whereas exogenously added SLPI reversed this effect. Using a SiMPull (single-molecule pulldown) assay, we demonstrated that endogenously secreted SLPI interacts with A2t on epithelial cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. These results suggested that ongoing HSV infection and resultant downregulation of local levels of SLPI may impart a greater susceptibility for keratinocytes to HPV16 infection through the host cell receptor A2t, providing a mechanism that may, in part, provide an explanation for the aetiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers.

  6. Identification of a secretory phospholipase A2 from Papaver somniferum L. that transforms membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Jablonická, Veronika; Mansfeld, Johanna; Heilmann, Ingo; Obložinský, Marek; Heilmann, Mareike

    2016-09-01

    The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue. Furthermore, the PsPLA2 sequence contains 12 conserved cysteine residues to form 6 structural disulfide bonds. The calculated molecular weight of the mature PsPLA2 is 14.0 kDa. Based on the primary structure PsPLA2 belongs to the XIB group of PLA2s. Untagged recombinant PsPLA2 obtained by expression in Escherichia coli, renaturation from inclusion bodies and purification by cation-exchange chromatography was characterized in vitro. The pH optimum for activity of PsPLA2 was found to be pH 7, when using mixed micelles of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and Triton X-100. PsPLA2 specifically cleaves fatty acids from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and shows a pronounced preference for PC over phosphatidyl ethanolamine, -glycerol and -inositol. The active recombinant enzyme was tested in vitro against natural phospholipids isolated from poppy plants and preferably released the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, from the naturally occurring mixture of substrate lipids.

  7. Identification of a secretory phospholipase A2 from Papaver somniferum L. that transforms membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Jablonická, Veronika; Mansfeld, Johanna; Heilmann, Ingo; Obložinský, Marek; Heilmann, Mareike

    2016-09-01

    The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue. Furthermore, the PsPLA2 sequence contains 12 conserved cysteine residues to form 6 structural disulfide bonds. The calculated molecular weight of the mature PsPLA2 is 14.0 kDa. Based on the primary structure PsPLA2 belongs to the XIB group of PLA2s. Untagged recombinant PsPLA2 obtained by expression in Escherichia coli, renaturation from inclusion bodies and purification by cation-exchange chromatography was characterized in vitro. The pH optimum for activity of PsPLA2 was found to be pH 7, when using mixed micelles of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and Triton X-100. PsPLA2 specifically cleaves fatty acids from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and shows a pronounced preference for PC over phosphatidyl ethanolamine, -glycerol and -inositol. The active recombinant enzyme was tested in vitro against natural phospholipids isolated from poppy plants and preferably released the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, from the naturally occurring mixture of substrate lipids. PMID:27473012

  8. Prognostic Utility of Secretory Phospholipase A2 in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Donoghue, Michelle; Mallat, Ziad; Morrow, David A; Benessiano, Joelle; Sloan, Sarah; Omland, Torbjørn; Solomon, Scott D.; Braunwald, Eugene; Tedgui, Alain; Sabatine, Marc S

    2011-01-01

    Background Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) may contribute to atherogenesis. To date, few prospective studies have examined the utility of sPLA2 for risk stratification in coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Plasma sPLA2 activity was measured at baseline in 3708 subjects in the PEACE randomized trial of trandolapril versus placebo in stable CAD. Median follow-up was 4.8 years. Cox regression was used to adjust for demographics, clinical risk factors, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A1, and medications. Results After multivariable adjustment, sPLA2 was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke (adjusted hazard ratio quartile 4:quartile 1 1.55, 95% CI 1.13–2.14) and cardiovascular death or heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio quartile 4:quartile 1 1.91, 95% CI 1.20–3.03). In further multivariable assessment, increased activities of sPLA2 were associated with the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke (adjusted hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.06–2.04) independent of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and C-reactive protein, and modestly improved the area under the curve (AUC) beyond established clinical risk factors (AUC 0.668 to 0.675, P=0.01). sPLA2, NT-pro B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T were all independently associated with cardiovascular death or heart failure and each improved risk discrimination (P=0.02, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion sPLA2 activity provides independent prognostic information beyond established risk markers in patients with stable CAD. These data are encouraging for studies designed to evaluate the role of sPLA2 as a therapeutic target. PMID:21784767

  9. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Arévalo, Mónica L; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 Candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), Acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm.

  10. Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, Fred E.; Gooding, Karen M.

    Because of the complexity of cellular material and body fluids, it is seldom possible to analyze a natural product directly. Qualitative and quantitative analyses must often be preceded by some purification step that separates the molecular species being examined from interfering materials. In the case of proteins, column liquid chromatography has been used extensively for these fractionations. With the advent of gel permeation, cation exchange, anion exchange, hydrophobic, and affinity chromatography, it became possible to resolve proteins through their fundamental properties of size, charge, hydrophobicity, and biological affinity. The chromatographic separations used in the early isolation and characterization of many proteins later became analytical tools in their routine analysis. Unfortunately, these inherently simple and versatile column chromatographic techniques introduced in the 50s and 60s have a severe limitation in routine analysis-separation time. It is common to encounter 1-24 h separation times with the classical gel-type supports.

  11. [Histochemical properties of secretory granules and fine structure of terminal portion in the Japanese Macaque labial gland].

    PubMed

    Tsutusumi, T; Kurabuchi, S; Aiyama, S

    1989-06-01

    The terminal portion of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) labial gland was examined ultrastructurally and histochemically. The results obtained are as follows. 1) The Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata has the upper and the lower labial glands, which can be described as a compound tubulo-acinar gland. 2) The terminal portion of the labial gland appears to be consisted of the mucous acini and the demilunes when examined with the light microscope. 3) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of the mucous acini and the demilunes are negative with napthol yellow S, ninhydrin-Schiff and DMAB nitrite. 4) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of mucous acini stain intensely with PAS, alcian blue (pH1.0, 2.5, 3.5), colloidal iron and PA-methenamine silver, while those of demilunes are negative with alcian blue (pH1.0). The glandular cells of demilune with the PA-methenamine silver method shows weak positive granules and positive granules which are limited to the hallo of them. 5) In the mucous acini the mucous granules are ejected from glandular cells by the process of exocytosis. 6) The myoepithelial cell can be seen in the terminal portion. This cell surrounds the acini with long processes. These findings suggest that the glandular cells of the demilune have the granules containing mucopoly saccharides and a small quantity of protein in addition to the mucous granules, although the terminal portion of the Japanese macaque labial gland is nearly composed of mucous cells.

  12. Preservation of Facial Nerve With Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Recurrent Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shufang; Ma, Hailong; He, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands harbors the recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion because of the translocation t (12; 15) (p13; q25) and resembles breast secretory carcinoma. This tumor composed of papillary, cystic, solid, and cribriform patterns. Immunohistochemically, the tumors are positive for mammaglobin, CK7, CK8, STAT5a, vimentin, and S100. In this report, the authors presented a patient of recurrent parotid gland mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman. The patient received extended parotidectomy with partial adhesive masseter surgery. The facial nerve was preserved during the surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy was performed postoperation. The patient did not suffer local recurrence and facial paralysis in the 18 months follow-up period. PMID:27192652

  13. Decrease in an Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Conductance in Mouse Mammary Secretory Cells after Forced Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Akihiro; Sugimoto, Shota; Ichii, Osamu; Kondoh, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Mammary glands are physiologically active in female mammals only during nursing. Immediately after weaning, most lactation-related genes are downregulated and milk production ceases. In our previous study, we have detected an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 2.1-like current in mammary secretory (MS) cells freshly isolated from lactating mice. This current is highly sensitive to external Ba2+. The potassium permeability of the Kir channels may contribute to the secretion and/or preservation of ions in milk. We hypothesized that the functions of the Kir channels in MS cells are regulated after weaning. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of forced weaning on the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current and Kir2.1 expression in the mouse mammary glands. Twenty-four hours after weaning, the lumina of mammary acini were histologically enlarged by milk accumulation. The whole-cell patch-clamp analyses showed that the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current in the post-weaning MS cells was smaller than in the lactating MS cells. The inward conductances of the current in the lactating and post-weaning cells were 4.25 ± 0.77 and 0.93 ± 0.34 nS, respectively. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analyses showed that Kir2.1 mRNA and protein expression decreased in the post-weaning mammary gland (mRNA, 90% reduction; protein, 47% reduction). Moreover, the local milk accumulation caused by teat sealing decreased Kir conductance in MS cells (2.74 ± 0.45 and 0.36 ± 0.27 nS for control and sealed mammary glands, respectively). This was concomitant with the reduction in the Kir2.1 mRNA expression. Our results suggest that milk stasis after weaning immediately decreases the Kir conductance in MS cells. This decrease in the Kir conductance may be partly caused by the reduction in the Kir2.1 mRNA and protein expression. These alterations during the post-weaning period may be involved in the cessation of ion secretion and/or preservation in the milk. PMID:26484867

  14. Assembly and function of type III secretory systems.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, G R; Van Gijsegem, F

    2000-01-01

    Type III secretion systems allow Yersinia spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Bordetella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli adhering at the surface of a eukaryotic cell to inject bacterial proteins across the two bacterial membranes and the eukaryotic cell membrane to destroy or subvert the target cell. These systems consist of a secretion apparatus, made of approximately 25 proteins, and an array of proteins released by this apparatus. Some of these released proteins are "effectors," which are delivered into the cytosol of the target cell, whereas the others are "translocators," which help the effectors to cross the membrane of the eukaryotic cell. Most of the effectors act on the cytoskeleton or on intracellular-signaling cascades. A protein injected by the enteropathogenic E. coli serves as a membrane receptor for the docking of the bacterium itself at the surface of the cell. Type III secretion systems also occur in plant pathogens where they are involved both in causing disease in susceptible hosts and in eliciting the so-called hypersensitive response in resistant or nonhost plants. They consist of 15-20 Hrp proteins building a secretion apparatus and two groups of effectors: harpins and avirulence proteins. Harpins are presumably secreted in the extracellular compartment, whereas avirulence proteins are thought to be targeted into plant cells. Although a coherent picture is clearly emerging, basic questions remain to be answered. In particular, little is known about how the type III apparatus fits together to deliver proteins in animal cells. It is even more mysterious for plant cells where a thick wall has to be crossed. In spite of these haunting questions, type III secretion appears as a fascinating trans-kingdom communication device. PMID:11018143

  15. Multistep processing of the secretion leader of the extracellular protein Epx1 in Pichia pastoris and implications for protein localization.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Silvia; Puxbaum, Verena; Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Mattanovich, Diethard; Gasser, Brigitte

    2015-07-01

    Secretion leaders are required to direct nascent proteins to the secretory pathway. They are of interest in the study of intracellular protein transport, and are required for the production of secretory recombinant proteins. Secretion leaders are processed in two steps in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Although yeast cells typically contain about 150 proteins entering the secretory pathway, only a low number of proteins are actually secreted to the cell supernatant. Analysis of the secretome of the yeast Pichia pastoris revealed that the most abundant secretory protein, which we named Epx1, belongs to the cysteine-rich secretory protein family CRISP. Surprisingly, the Epx1 secretion leader undergoes a three-step processing on its way to the cell exterior instead of the usual two-step processing. The Kex2 cleavage site within the P. pastoris Epx1 leader is not conserved in the homologues of most other yeasts. We studied the effect of exchanging the Kex2-cleavage motif on the secretory behaviour of reporter proteins fused to variants of the Epx1 leader sequence, and observed mistargeting for some but not all of the variants using fluorescence microscopy. By targeting several recombinant human proteins for secretion, we revealed that a short variant of the leader sequence, as well as the Epx1 signal sequence alone, resulted in the correct N-termini of the secreted proteins. Both leader variants proved to be very efficient, even exceeding the secretion levels obtained with commonly used secretion leaders. Taken together, the novel Epx1 secretion leader sequences are a valuable tool for recombinant protein production as well as basic research of intracellular transport.

  16. Secretory end-feet, extracerebral cells, and cerebral sense organs in certain limicole oligochaete annelids.

    PubMed

    Golding, D W; Whittle, A C

    1975-01-01

    Secretory end-feet (or SEF) systems are present in Limnodrilus and Stylodrilus but are less highly organized than those of polychaetes. SEF contain secretory vesicles and abundant mitochondria. Typical neurosecretory terminals are not found within the brain although "neurosecretory" perikarya are present in all four species studied. In Limnodrilus, Stylodrilus and Enchytraeus extracerebral cells, of probable neurosecretory function, are invested by the pericapsular epithelium. Characteristically such cells bear several cilia. In these species and in Stylaria a pair of sensory cell groups is located anteriorly within the brain. These cells are ciliated but lack associated supporting cells. PMID:170709

  17. A rare case of secretory breast carcinoma in a male adult with axillary lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinhua; Jiang, Li; Gan, Yongli; Wu, Weizhu

    2015-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is a rare tumor originally described in children but occurring equally in adult population, especially in women. This unusual subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases even death. So far, merely ten cases of secretory breast carcinoma with metastatic axillary lymph node in male were reported. Here, we describe the eleventh case, a 24-years-old male who presented with a painless mass in the right breast was diagnosed to be "secretary breast carcinoma", and subsequently underwent modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.

  18. Unconventional secretory processing diversifies neuronal ion channel properties

    PubMed Central

    Hanus, Cyril; Geptin, Helene; Tushev, Georgi; Garg, Sakshi; Alvarez-Castelao, Beatriz; Sambandan, Sivakumar; Kochen, Lisa; Hafner, Anne-Sophie; Langer, Julian D; Schuman, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    N-glycosylation – the sequential addition of complex sugars to adhesion proteins, neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels and secreted trophic factors as they progress through the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus – is one of the most frequent protein modifications. In mammals, most organ-specific N-glycosylation events occur in the brain. Yet, little is known about the nature, function and regulation of N-glycosylation in neurons. Using imaging, quantitative immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, we show that hundreds of neuronal surface membrane proteins are core-glycosylated, resulting in the neuronal membrane displaying surprisingly high levels of glycosylation profiles that are classically associated with immature intracellular proteins. We report that while N-glycosylation is generally required for dendritic development and glutamate receptor surface expression, core-glycosylated proteins are sufficient to sustain these processes, and are thus functional. This atypical glycosylation of surface neuronal proteins can be attributed to a bypass or a hypo-function of the Golgi apparatus. Core-glycosylation is regulated by synaptic activity, modulates synaptic signaling and accelerates the turnover of GluA2-containing glutamate receptors, revealing a novel mechanism that controls the composition and sensing properties of the neuronal membrane. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20609.001 PMID:27677849

  19. Bioinformatic identification of cytochrome b5 homologues from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans highlights the crucial role of A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b₅ in parasitic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Yokota, Takehiro; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that adult Ascaris suum possesses NADH-metmyoglobin and NADH-methaemoglobin reductase systems that are located in the cells of the body wall and in the extracellular perienteric fluid, respectively, which helps them adapt to environmental hypoxia by recovering the differential functions of myoglobin and haemoglobin. A. suum cytochrome b5, an adult-specific secretory protein and an essential component of the NADH-metmyo (haemo) globin reductase system, has been extensively studied, and its unique nature has been determined. However, the relationship between A. suum cytochrome b5 and the canonical cytochrome b5 proteins, from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unclear. Here, we have characterised four cytochrome b5-like proteins from C. elegans (accession numbers: CAB01732, CCD68984, CAJ58492, and CAA98498) and three from A. suum (accession numbers: ADY48796, ADY46277, and ADY48338) and compared them with A. suum cytochrome b5 in silico. Bioinformatic and molecular analyses showed that CAA98498 from C. elegans is equivalent of A. suum cytochrome b5, which was not expressed as a mature mRNA. Further, the CAA98498 possessed no secretory signal peptide, which occurs in A. suum cytochrome b5 precursor. These results suggest that this free-living nematode does not need a haemoprotein such as the A. suum cytochrome b5 and highlight the crucial function of this A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b5 in parasitic adaptation.

  20. Enhanced production of secretory glycoprotein VSTM1-v2 with mouse IgGκ signal peptide in optimized HEK293F transient transfection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Zou, Xiajuan; Li, Ting; Wang, Xiaolin; Yuan, Wanqiong; Chen, Yingyu; Han, Wenling

    2016-02-01

    VSTM1-v2 is a secretory glycoprotein identified by our laboratory. Our previous study revealed that VSTM1-v2 could promote differentiation and activation of Th17 cells. To explore the role of VSTM1-v2 in the immune system further, a source of abundant high-quality recombinant protein is warranted. However, high-level expression of bioactive VSTM1-v2 is difficult due to its weak secretion capacity. To obtain sufficient recombinant VSTM1-v2, we developed an improved expression and purification system by replacing the native signal peptide with a mouse IgGκ signal peptide that did not alter the protein cleavage site. We also optimized parameters for a transient gene expression system in HEK293F cells suspended in serum-free media with polyethyleneimine. Finally, 3.6 mg/L recombinant VSTM1-v2 protein with N-glycosylation and no less than 95% purity was obtained through one-step purification with Ni affinity chromatography. The final yield after purification was increased by more than 7-fold compared to the yield from our previously reported HEK293T system (from 0.5 mg/L to 3.6 mg/L). More importantly, VSTM1-v2 protein exhibited excellent bioactivity. In conclusion, the improved system is not only a dependable source of abundant bioactive VSTM1-v2 for functional studies but also demonstrates a highly efficient approach for enhancing the production of proteins in a short time period, especially for secretory proteins with poor yields.

  1. An early secretory pathway mediated by GNOM-LIKE 1 and GNOM is essential for basal polarity establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Siamsa M; Haeger, Ash; Vain, Thomas; Rigal, Adeline; Viotti, Corrado; Łangowska, Małgorzata; Ma, Qian; Friml, Jiří; Raikhel, Natasha V; Hicks, Glenn R; Robert, Stéphanie

    2015-02-17

    Spatial regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, or auxin) is essential for plant development. Auxin gradient establishment is mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters, including PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Their localization and abundance at the plasma membrane are tightly regulated by endomembrane machinery, especially the endocytic and recycling pathways mediated by the ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) GNOM. We assessed the role of the early secretory pathway in establishing PIN1 polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana by pharmacological and genetic approaches. We identified the compound endosidin 8 (ES8), which selectively interferes with PIN1 basal polarity without altering the polarity of apical proteins. ES8 alters the auxin distribution pattern in the root and induces a strong developmental phenotype, including reduced root length. The ARF-GEF-defective mutants gnom-like 1 (gnl1-1) and gnom (van7) are significantly resistant to ES8. The compound does not affect recycling or vacuolar trafficking of PIN1 but leads to its intracellular accumulation, resulting in loss of PIN1 basal polarity at the plasma membrane. Our data confirm a role for GNOM in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi trafficking and reveal that a GNL1/GNOM-mediated early secretory pathway selectively regulates PIN1 basal polarity establishment in a manner essential for normal plant development.

  2. An early secretory pathway mediated by GNOM-LIKE 1 and GNOM is essential for basal polarity establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Siamsa M.; Haeger, Ash; Vain, Thomas; Rigal, Adeline; Viotti, Corrado; Łangowska, Małgorzata; Ma, Qian; Friml, Jiří; Raikhel, Natasha V.; Hicks, Glenn R.; Robert, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, or auxin) is essential for plant development. Auxin gradient establishment is mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters, including PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Their localization and abundance at the plasma membrane are tightly regulated by endomembrane machinery, especially the endocytic and recycling pathways mediated by the ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) GNOM. We assessed the role of the early secretory pathway in establishing PIN1 polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana by pharmacological and genetic approaches. We identified the compound endosidin 8 (ES8), which selectively interferes with PIN1 basal polarity without altering the polarity of apical proteins. ES8 alters the auxin distribution pattern in the root and induces a strong developmental phenotype, including reduced root length. The ARF-GEF–defective mutants gnom-like 1 (gnl1-1) and gnom (van7) are significantly resistant to ES8. The compound does not affect recycling or vacuolar trafficking of PIN1 but leads to its intracellular accumulation, resulting in loss of PIN1 basal polarity at the plasma membrane. Our data confirm a role for GNOM in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi trafficking and reveal that a GNL1/GNOM-mediated early secretory pathway selectively regulates PIN1 basal polarity establishment in a manner essential for normal plant development. PMID:25646449

  3. Killing of Plasmodium falciparum by eosinophil secretory products.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, L S; Taverne, J; Tai, P C; Spry, C J; Targett, G A; Playfair, J H

    1987-01-01

    The multiplication of two strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture, as measured by [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by granule proteins secreted by purified eosinophils obtained from patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Morphological examination revealed the presence of abnormal parasites inside erythrocytes, indicating that they were killed in situ, and the later stages of the developmental cycle were found to be most susceptible to these toxic effects. A monoclonal antibody against eosinophil cationic protein partially blocked the inhibitory effect, suggesting that it was caused by more than one of the eosinophil granule proteins. Thus some of the antimalarial effects of molecules such as the tumor necrosis factor, which activates eosinophils, may be mediated through the enhanced production of eosinophil secretion products. PMID:3549562

  4. Heterologous processing of rat prosomatostatin to somatostatin-14 by PC2: requirement for secretory cell but not the secretion granule.

    PubMed Central

    Galanopoulou, A S; Seidah, N G; Patel, Y C

    1995-01-01

    The role of PC2 in prosomatostatin (PSS) processing was investigated in GH3/GH4C1 pituitary cells. These cells are sparsely granulated, express different amounts of PC2 and no PC1. We described heterologous processing of rat PSS (rPSS) co-expressed with PC2 in stably transfected cells, correlate PC2 protein levels under different conditions of transfection with efficiency of PSS processing to somatostatin-14 (SS-14), determine the effect of modulating cell granularity on enzyme expression and PSS processing, and compare the relative potency of PC2 with that of PC1, PSS and cleavage products were monitored by HPLC and radioimmunoassay of SS-like immunoreactivity (SSLI). Radioimmunoassay analysis of N-terminal PC2-like immunoreactivity (PC2 LI) in GH4C1:rPSS, GH4C1:rPSS + PC2 and GH3:rPSS transfectants showed a gradient of PC2 protein of 1:2.6:3.4 in cell extracts and 1:4.7:9 in secretion media from these cells respectively. The concentration of PC2 protein correlated with SS-14 conversion efficiency was 36 +/- 3% in GH4C1:rPSS cells, 56 +/- 7% in GH4C1:rPSS-PC2 cells and 100% in GH3:rPSS cells. Treatment of GH4C1:rPSS + PC2 cells with epidermal growth factor, insulin, and beta-estradiol to induce granules, significantly increased basal and forskolin-stimulated co-release of SS LI and PC2 LI, but had no influence on SS-14 processing efficiency. Hormone treatment led to a small increase in the ratio of mature PC2 (68 kDa) to proPC2 (75 kDa) forms. PC1 stably transfected in GH4C1 cells produced significantly greater SS-14 conversion (62% in cells, 66% in media) compared with PC2 transfectants (53% in cells, 47% in media) These results provide the first proof that PC2 can effect dibasic processing of mammalian PSS, and, along with PC1, qualifies as an authentic SS-14 convertase. The activity of PC2 requires the milieu of the secretory cell but not the secretory granule. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:7575441

  5. [Immunochemical properties of the excretory-secretory antigen of Trichinella spiralis].

    PubMed

    Akibekov, O S; Lider, L A; Odoevskiĭ, I M; Tokpan, S S; Ospanova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultivation of Trichinella spiralis provided data on the structure of somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of T. spiralis larvae, their immunochemical properties were studied. The findings suggest that work should be continued to produce monoclonal antibodies and to develop highly sensitive and specific ELISA test systems for the diagnosis of human and animal trichinosis. PMID:25850317

  6. 21 CFR 866.5380 - Free secretory component immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5380 Section 866.5380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5380 Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5380 - Free secretory component immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5380 Section 866.5380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5380 Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A...

  8. Intracellular calcium signalling in rat parotid acinar cells that lack secretory vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, P; Scott, J; Smith, P M

    1998-01-01

    Secretory vesicles from pancreatic acinar cells have recently been shown to release Ca2+ after stimulation with Ins(1,4,5)P3 [Gerasimenko, Gerasimenko, Belan and Petersen, (1996) Cell 84, 473-480]. These observations have been used in support of the hypothesis that Ca2+ release from secretory vesicles could be an important component of stimulus secretion coupling in exocrine acinar cells. In the rat, ligation of the parotid duct causes a reversible atrophy of the parotid gland. Most notably, after atrophy the acinar cells are reduced in size and no longer contain secretory vesicles [Liu, Smith, and Scott (1996) J. Dent. Res. 74, 900]. We have measured cytosolic free-Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in single, acutely isolated, rat parotid acinar cells, and compared Ca2+ mobilization in response to acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation in cells obtained from control animals to that in cells lacking secretory vesicles obtained after atrophy of the parotid gland. Application of 50-5000 nM ACh to control cells gave rise to a typical, dose-dependent, biphasic increase in [Ca2+]i, of which the later, plateau, phase was acutely dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. An identical pattern of response was observed with cells obtained from atrophic glands. Low concentrations of ACh (10-100 nM) occasionally produced [Ca2+]i oscillations of a similar pattern in cells from both control and atrophic glands. We were able to show that Ca2+ rises first in the apical pole of the cell and the increase then spreads to the rest of the cell in cells from control glands but not in cells from atrophic glands. However, at present we are unable to determine whether this is due to the lack of secretory vesicles or whether the separation is too small to measure in the smaller acinar cells obtained from atrophic glands. We conclude therefore, that secretory vesicles make no significant contribution to overall Ca2+ mobilization in rat parotid acinar cells, nor are they required for oscillatory

  9. Production of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 2 (GalNAc-T2) fused with secretory signal Igκ in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Horynová, Milada; Takahashi, Kazuo; Hall, Stacy; Renfrow, Matthew B; Novak, Jan; Raška, Milan

    2012-02-01

    The human UDP-N-acetyl-α-d-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 2 (GalNAc-T2) is one of the key enzymes that initiate synthesis of hinge-region O-linked glycans of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1). We designed secreted soluble form of human GalNAc-T2 as a fusion protein containing mouse immunoglobulin light chain kappa secretory signal and expressed it using baculovirus and mammalian expression vectors. The recombinant protein was secreted by insect cells Sf9 and human HEK 293T cells in the culture medium. The protein was purified from the media using affinity Ni-NTA chromatography followed by stabilization of purified protein in 50mM Tris-HCl buffer at pH 7.4. Although the purity of recombinant GalNAc-T2 was comparable in both expression systems, the yield was higher in Sf9 insect expression system (2.5mg of GalNAc-T2 protein per 1L culture medium). The purified soluble recombinant GalNAc-T2 had an estimated molecular mass of 65.8kDa and its amino-acid sequence was confirmed by mass-spectrometric analysis. The enzymatic activity of Sf9-produced recombinant GalNAc-T2 was determined by the quantification of enzyme-mediated attachment of GalNAc to synthetic IgA1 hinge-region peptide as the acceptor and UDP-GalNAc as the donor. In conclusion, murine immunoglobulin kappa secretory signal was used for production of secreted enzymatically active GalNAc-T2 in insect baculovirus expression system.

  10. Secretion of Polypeptide Crystals from Tetrahymena thermophila Secretory Organelles (Mucocysts) Depends on Processing by a Cysteine Cathepsin, Cth4p.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Briguglio, Joseph S; Turkewitz, Aaron P

    2015-08-01

    In many organisms, sophisticated mechanisms facilitate release of peptides in response to extracellular stimuli. In the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, efficient peptide secretion depends on specialized vesicles called mucocysts that contain dense crystalline cores that expand rapidly during exocytosis. Core assembly depends of endoproteolytic cleavage of mucocyst proproteins by an aspartyl protease, cathepsin 3 (CTH3). Here, we show that a second enzyme identified by expression profiling, Cth4p, is also required for processing of proGrl proteins and for assembly of functional mucocysts. Cth4p is a cysteine cathepsin that localizes partially to endolysosomal structures and appears to act downstream of, and may be activated by, Cth3p. Disruption of CTH4 results in cells (Δcth4) that show aberrant trimming of Grl proproteins, as well as grossly aberrant mucocyst exocytosis. Surprisingly, Δcth4 cells succeed in assembling crystalline mucocyst cores. However, those cores do not undergo normal directional expansion during exocytosis, and they thus fail to efficiently extrude from the cells. We could phenocopy the Δcth4 defects by mutating conserved catalytic residues, indicating that the in vivo function of Cth4p is enzymatic. Our results indicate that as for canonical proteins packaged in animal secretory granules, the maturation of mucocyst proproteins involves sequential processing steps. The Δcth4 defects uncouple, in an unanticipated way, the assembly of mucocyst cores and their subsequent expansion and thereby reveal a previously unsuspected aspect of polypeptide secretion in ciliates.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Excretory-Secretory Products of Mesocestoides corti Metacestodes Reveals Potential Suppressors of Dendritic Cell Functions

    PubMed Central

    Vendelova, Emilia; Camargo de Lima, Jeferson; Lorenzatto, Karina Rodrigues; Monteiro, Karina Mariante; Mueller, Thomas; Veepaschit, Jyotishman; Grimm, Clemens; Brehm, Klaus; Hrčková, Gabriela; Lutz, Manfred B.; Ferreira, Henrique B.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have assigned a central role to parasite-derived proteins in immunomodulation. Here, we report on the proteomic identification and characterization of immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products from the metacestode larva (tetrathyridium) of the tapeworm Mesocestoides corti (syn. M. vogae). We demonstrate that ES products but not larval homogenates inhibit the stimuli-driven release of the pro-inflammatory, Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12p70 by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Within the ES fraction, we biochemically narrowed down the immunosuppressive activity to glycoproteins since active components were lipid-free, but sensitive to heat- and carbohydrate-treatment. Finally, using bioassay-guided chromatographic analyses assisted by comparative proteomics of active and inactive fractions of the ES products, we defined a comprehensive list of candidate proteins released by M. corti tetrathyridia as potential suppressors of DC functions. Our study provides a comprehensive library of somatic and ES products and highlight some candidate parasite factors that might drive the subversion of DC functions to facilitate the persistence of M. corti tetrathyridia in their hosts. PMID:27736880

  12. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Anisakis simplex (Nematoda) on immune gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-09-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) products are molecules produced by parasitic nematodes, including larval Anisakis simplex, a parasite occurring in numerous marine fish hosts. The effects of these substances on host physiology have not been fully described. The present work elucidates the influence of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in immunomodulation. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase/lipase, valine and cysteine arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and α-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution. This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. In addition, based on the notion that A. simplex ES products may have an immune-depressive effect (by minimizing immune gene expression) it could also be suggested that worm enzymes directly target host immune molecules which would add to a decreased host immune response and increased worm survival.

  13. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions. PMID:3189886

  14. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions.

  15. Secretory Pathway Research: The More Experimental Systems the Better

    PubMed Central

    Denecke, Jurgen; Aniento, Fernando; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Hawes, Chris; Hwang, Inhwan; Mathur, Jaideep; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Robinson, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Transient gene expression, in plant protoplasts or specific plant tissues, is a key technique in plant molecular cell biology, aimed at exploring gene products and their modifications to examine functional subdomains, their interactions with other biomolecules, and their subcellular localization. Here, we highlight some of the major advantages and potential pitfalls of the most commonly used transient gene expression models and illustrate how ectopic expression and the use of dominant mutants can provide insights into protein function. PMID:22523202

  16. Transcriptome Profiles of the Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus Reveal that Excretory-Secretory Products Are Essential to Metabolic Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wei; Shen, Yujuan; Han, Xiuming; Wang, Ying; Liu, Hua; Jiang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Yanjuan; Xu, Yuxin; Cao, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Background Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is caused by the larval stages of the cestode and affects humans and domestic animals worldwide. Protoscoleces (PSCs) are one component of the larval stages that can interact with both definitive and intermediate hosts. Previous genomic and transcriptomic data have provided an overall snapshot of the genomics of the growth and development of this parasite. However, our understanding of how PSCs subvert the immune response of hosts and maintains metabolic adaptation remains unclear. In this study, we used Roche 454 sequencing technology and in silico secretome analysis to explore the transcriptome profiles of the PSCs from E. granulosus and elucidate the potential functions of the excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) released by the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings A large number of nonredundant sequences as unigenes were generated (26,514), of which 22,910 (86.4%) were mapped to the newly published E. granulosus genome and 17,705 (66.8%) were distributed within the coding sequence (CDS) regions. Of the 2,280 ESPs predicted from the transcriptome, 138 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, while 124 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of protein. Eleven ESPs were identified as intracellular enzymes that regulate glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (GL/GN) pathways, while a further 44 antigenic proteins, 25 molecular chaperones and four proteases were highly represented. Many proteins were also found to be significantly enriched in development-related signaling pathways, such as the TGF-β receptor pathways and insulin pathways. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on the metabolic adaptation of parasites to their hosts that can be used to aid the development of novel intervention targets for hydatid treatment and control. PMID:25500817

  17. Type II secretory pathway for surface secretion of DraD invasin from the uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dr+ strain.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Piatek, Beata; Bury, Katarzyna; Piatek, Rafal; Bruzdziak, Piotr; Kur, Józef

    2008-07-01

    The virulence of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dr(+) IH11128 strain is associated with the presence of Dr fimbrial structures and a DraD invasin which can act as a fimbrial capping domain at the bacterial cell surface. However, a recent study suggests that the DraD protein is surface exposed in two forms: fimbria associated and fimbria nonassociated (prone to interaction with the N-terminal extension of the DraE protein located on the fimbrial tip). The actual mechanism of DraD surface secretion is presently unknown. We identified a previously unrecognized type II secretory pathway (secreton) in the uropathogenic E. coli Dr(+) strain which is well conserved among gram-negative bacteria and used mainly for secretion of virulence determinants. An active secreton is composed of 12 to 15 different proteins, among which GspD functions as an outer-membrane channel to permit extrusion of proteins in a folded state. Therefore, we inactivated the pathway by inserting the group II intron into a gspD gene of the type II secretion machinery by site-specific recombination. DraD secretion by the E. coli Dr(+) and gspD mutant strains was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy (with antibodies raised against DraD) and an assay of cell binding between bacteria and HeLa cells. The specificity of DraD-mediated bacterial binding for the integrin receptor was confirmed by examination of the adhesion of DraD-coated beads to HeLa cells in the presence and absence of alpha(5)beta(1) monoclonal antibodies. The investigations that we performed showed that type II secretion in E. coli Dr(+) strains leads to DraD translocation at the bacterial cell surfaces.

  18. Proteomic identification of potential Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products capable of binding and activating human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Hu, Fengyu; Hu, Xuchu; Chen, Wenjun; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence demonstrated that Clonorchis sinensis is an important risk factor of hepatic fibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma. C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (CsESPs) are protein complex including proteases, antioxidant enzymes, and metabolic enzymes, which may contribute to pathogenesis of liver fluke-associated hepatobiliary diseases. However, potential CsESP candidates involved into hepatic fibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma still remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we performed proteomic identification of CsESP candidates capable of binding and activating human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the interaction of CsESPs with LX-2 cell membrane. LX-2 cells could be stimulated by CsESPs from 24 h post incubation (p < 0.05). Specifically, 50 μg/ml of CsESPs showed the strongest effect on cell proliferation in methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay which could also be demonstrated by flow cytometry analysis (p < 0.01). Furthermore, expression level of human type III collagen in LX-2 cells treated with CsESPs was significantly higher than that in control cells measured by molecular beacon and semiquantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR approaches (p < 0.01). Finally, CsESPs before and after incubation with LX-2 cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis and matrix associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis. Nine proteins with abundance change above threefold were Rho GTPase-activating protein, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va, α-enolase, phospholipase C, interleukin-15, insect-derived growth factor, cytochrome c oxidase subunit VI, DNAH1 protein, and kinesin light chain. Taken together, we identified potential CsESP candidates capable of binding and activating human hepatic stellate cells, providing more direct evidences that are previously unknown to accelerate strategies

  19. Effects of mastoparan upon the late stages of the ACTH secretory pathway of AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    McFerran, B. W.; Guild, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    1. The mouse AtT-20/D16-16 anterior pituitary tumour cell line was used as a model system for the study of the effects of mastoparan upon the late stages of the adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretory pathway. 2. Mastoparan (10(-8)-10(-5) M), an activator of heterotrimeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate binding proteins (G-proteins), stimulated ACTH secretion from electrically-permeabilized AtT-20 cells in a concentration-dependent manner in the effective absence of calcium ions with a threshold of 10(-6) M. Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S) (10(-8)-10(-4) M) also stimulated ACTH secretion from electrically-permeabilized AtT-20 cells in a concentration-dependent manner in the effective absence of calcium ions with a threshold of 10(-6) M. This GTP-gamma-S-evoked secretion is consistent with previous studies which demonstrated that a G-protein, termed GE, mediates calcium evoked ACTH secretion from AtT-20 cells. GTP-gamma-S-evoked secretion however was not as great as that obtained in response to mastoparan. 3. Both mastoparan (10(-5) M) and GTP-gamma-S (10(-4) M) stimulated ACTH secretion from electrically-permeabilized AtT20 cells in a time-dependent manner. A time of 30 min was adopted as the standard incubation period for the study of both mastoparan and GTP-gamma-S-stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells. 4. Mastoparan (10(-8)-10(-5) M) stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells to the same extent in the presence and absence of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride (10(-5) M).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582493

  20. Structural evolution and tissue-specific expression of tetrapod-specific second isoform of secretory pathway Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pestov, Nikolay B.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Kostina, Maria B.; Korneenko, Tatyana V.; Shakhparonov, Mikhail I.; Modyanov, Nikolai N.

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full-length secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2) cloned from rat duodenum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP2C2 gene (encoding SPCA2) exists only in genomes of Tetrapoda. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rat and pig SPCA2 are expressed in intestines, lung and some secretory glands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subcellular localization of SPCA2 may depend on tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In rat duodenum, SPCA2 is localized in plasma membrane-associated compartments. -- Abstract: Secretory pathway Ca-ATPases are less characterized mammalian calcium pumps than plasma membrane Ca-ATPases and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPases. Here we report analysis of molecular evolution, alternative splicing, tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of the second isoform of the secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2), the product of the ATP2C2 gene. The primary structure of SPCA2 from rat duodenum deduced from full-length transcript contains 944 amino acid residues, and exhibits 65% sequence identity with known SPCA1. The rat SPCA2 sequence is also highly homologous to putative human protein KIAA0703, however, the latter seems to have an aberrant N-terminus originating from intron 2. The tissue-specificity of SPCA2 expression is different from ubiquitous SPCA1. Rat SPCA2 transcripts were detected predominantly in gastrointestinal tract, lung, trachea, lactating mammary gland, skin and preputial gland. In the newborn pig, the expression profile is very similar with one remarkable exception: porcine bulbourethral gland gave the strongest signal. Upon overexpression in cultured cells, SPCA2 shows an intracellular distribution with remarkable enrichment in Golgi. However, in vivo SPCA2 may be localized in compartments that differ among various tissues: it is intracellular in epidermis, but enriched in plasma membranes of the intestinal epithelium. Analysis of SPCA2 sequences from various vertebrate species argue that ATP2C2

  1. Cooperative Functions of ZnT1, Metallothionein and ZnT4 in the Cytoplasm Are Required for Full Activation of TNAP in the Early Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Tokuji; Anan, Yasumi; Tsuji, Natsuko; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Kimura, Tomoki; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Kambe, Taiho

    2013-01-01

    The activation process of secretory or membrane-bound zinc enzymes is thought to be a highly coordinated process involving zinc transport, trafficking, transfer and coordination. We have previously shown that secretory and membrane-bound zinc enzymes are activated in the early secretory pathway (ESP) via zinc-loading by the zinc transporter 5 (ZnT5)-ZnT6 hetero-complex and ZnT7 homo-complex (zinc transport complexes). However, how other proteins conducting zinc metabolism affect the activation of these enzymes remains unknown. Here, we investigated this issue by disruption and re-expression of genes known to be involved in cytoplasmic zinc metabolism, using a zinc enzyme, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), as a reporter. We found that TNAP activity was significantly reduced in cells deficient in ZnT1, Metallothionein (MT) and ZnT4 genes (ZnT1−/−MT−/−ZnT4−/− cells), in spite of increased cytosolic zinc levels. The reduced TNAP activity in ZnT1−/−MT−/−ZnT4−/− cells was not restored when cytosolic zinc levels were normalized to levels comparable with those of wild-type cells, but was reversely restored by extreme zinc supplementation via zinc-loading by the zinc transport complexes. Moreover, the reduced TNAP activity was adequately restored by re-expression of mammalian counterparts of ZnT1, MT and ZnT4, but not by zinc transport-incompetent mutants of ZnT1 and ZnT4. In ZnT1−/−MT−/−ZnT4−/− cells, the secretory pathway normally operates. These findings suggest that cooperative zinc handling of ZnT1, MT and ZnT4 in the cytoplasm is required for full activation of TNAP in the ESP, and present clear evidence that the activation process of zinc enzymes is elaborately controlled. PMID:24204829

  2. Molecular characterization of Clonorchis sinensis secretory myoglobin: Delineating its role in anti-oxidative survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clonorchiasis is a globally important, neglected food-borne disease caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), and it is highly related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Increased molecular evidence has strongly suggested that the adult worm of C. sinensis continuously releases excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs), which play important roles in the parasite-h