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Sample records for secondary controlled industrial

  1. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  2. Secondary School Curriculum Guide: Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    The Cranston Secondary School Curriculum Guide (9-12) for Industrial Arts is intended to serve as a resource for teachers, students, department chairman, guidance personnel, curriculum planners, and others involved in present or future curriculum planning. At least one broadly stated major objective is provided for each section, encompassing the…

  3. Industrial linguistic control

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.E.; Karonis, F.

    1983-01-01

    The use of various types of controllers and control techniques for industrial process is discussed. An ongoing research and development project is reported on the application of intelligent linguistic controllers to processes in the cement industry in Greece which have, in the past, been controllable only by human operators. Prototype linguistic controllers using fuzzy logic have been implemented and tested on a rotary kiln precalciner flash furnace (3-input 3-output) and on a cement mill separator (3-input 2-output) with good results. Originally implemented on a supervisory minicomputer, the algorithms have been transferred to microcomputers which form the heart of this class of intelligent linguistic controllers. 6 references.

  4. Water Pollution Control Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  5. Industrial Education. Secondary School Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    The new style curriculum guidelines for industrial education courses in Canada are published in this book and are designed to be used in conjunction with supporting materials distributed by the Provincial Industrial Education Resource Centre. The introduction includes a description of the guide and explains this new approach to secondary…

  6. [Establishment of industry promotion technology system in Chinese medicine secondary exploitation based on "component structure theory"].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Feng, Liang; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Gu, Jun-Fei; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the secondary exploitation of Chinese medicine is to improve the quality of Chinese medicine products, enhance core competitiveness, for better use in clinical practice, and more effectively solve the patient suffering. Herbs, extraction, separation, refreshing, preparation and quality control are all involved in the industry promotion of Chinese medicine secondary exploitation of industrial production. The Chinese medicine quality improvement and industry promotion could be realized with the whole process of process optimization, quality control, overall processes improvement. Based on the "component structure theory", "multi-dimensional structure & process dynamic quality control system" and systematic and holistic character of Chinese medicine, impacts of whole process were discussed. Technology systems of Chinese medicine industry promotion was built to provide theoretical basis for improving the quality and efficacy of the secondary development of traditional Chinese medicine products.

  7. Complexity of the transcriptional network controlling secondary wall biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Secondary walls in the form of wood and fibers are the most abundant biomass produced by vascular plants, and are important raw materials for many industrial uses. Understanding how secondary walls are constructed is of significance in basic plant biology and also has far-reaching implications in genetic engineering of plant biomass better suited for various end uses, such as biofuel production. Secondary walls are composed of three major biopolymers, i.e., cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, the biosynthesis of which requires the coordinated transcriptional regulation of all their biosynthesis genes. Genomic and molecular studies have identified a number of transcription factors, whose expression is associated with secondary wall biosynthesis. We comprehensively review how these secondary wall-associated transcription factors function together to turn on the secondary wall biosynthetic program, which leads to secondary wall deposition in vascular plants. The transcriptional network regulating secondary wall biosynthesis employs a multi-leveled feed-forward loop regulatory structure, in which the top-level secondary wall NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) master switches activate the second-level MYB master switches and they together induce the expression of downstream transcription factors and secondary wall biosynthesis genes. Secondary wall NAC master switches and secondary wall MYB master switches bind to and activate the SNBE (secondary wall NAC binding element) and SMRE (secondary wall MYB-responsive element) sites, respectively, in their target gene promoters. Further investigation of what and how developmental signals trigger the transcriptional network to regulate secondary wall biosynthesis and how different secondary wall-associated transcription factors function cooperatively in activating secondary wall biosynthetic pathways will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional control of secondary wall biosynthesis.

  8. Evolution of Secondary Software Businesses: Understanding Industry Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrväinen, Pasi; Warsta, Juhani; Seppänen, Veikko

    Primary software industry originates from IBM's decision to unbundle software-related computer system development activities to external partners. This kind of outsourcing from an enterprise internal software development activity is a common means to start a new software business serving a vertical software market. It combines knowledge of the vertical market process with competence in software development. In this research, we present and analyze the key figures of the Finnish secondary software industry, in order to quantify its interaction with the primary software industry during the period of 2000-2003. On the basis of the empirical data, we present a model for evolution of a secondary software business, which makes explicit the industry dynamics. It represents the shift from internal software developed for competitive advantage to development of products supporting standard business processes on top of standardized technologies. We also discuss the implications for software business strategies in each phase.

  9. Model Spacecraft Construction, Units for Secondary School Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, C. Thomas; And Others

    This publication provides twelve model spacecraft construction plans for use by secondary school teachers in industrial arts classes. These models were adopted and developed from plans supplied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and are representative selections from the many spacecraft used in space exploration programs. Some…

  10. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighaman, Paul F.; Zimmerman, Earl R.

    Compiled in this guide are 23 previously published documents for use by secondary school industrial arts teachers who want to incorporate energy studies into their curricula. Over half of the entries describe energy-related projects such as fireplaces, solar water heaters, and solar ovens. Other materials presented address the place of energy in…

  11. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  12. Biotechnological and industrial significance of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be a rich source of novel metabolites of a great importance from a biotechnological and industrial point of view. Some cyanobacterial secondary metabolites (CSMs), exhibit toxic effects on living organisms. A diverse range of these cyanotoxins may have ecological roles as allelochemicals, and could be employed for the commercial development of compounds with applications such as algaecides, herbicides and insecticides. Recently, cyanobacteria have become an attractive source of innovative classes of pharmacologically active compounds showing interesting and exciting biological activities ranging from antibiotics, immunosuppressant, and anticancer, antiviral, antiinflammatory to proteinase-inhibiting agents. A different but not less interesting property of these microorganisms is their capacity of overcoming the toxicity of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by means of UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin. These last two compounds are true 'multipurpose' secondary metabolites and considered to be natural photoprotectants. In this sense, they may be biotechnologically exploited by the cosmetic industry. Overall CSMs are striking targets in biotechnology and biomedical research, because of their potential applications in agriculture, industry, and especially in pharmaceuticals.

  13. 14 CFR 25.405 - Secondary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary control system. 25.405 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.405 Secondary control system. Secondary controls, such as wheel brake, spoiler, and tab controls, must...

  14. 14 CFR 25.405 - Secondary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secondary control system. 25.405 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.405 Secondary control system. Secondary controls, such as wheel brake, spoiler, and tab controls, must...

  15. 14 CFR 23.405 - Secondary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary control system. 23.405 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 23.405 Secondary control system. Secondary controls, such as wheel brakes,...

  16. 14 CFR 23.405 - Secondary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secondary control system. 23.405 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 23.405 Secondary control system. Secondary controls, such as wheel brakes,...

  17. Secondary Work Force Movement into Energy Industry Employment in Areas Affected by "Boom Town" Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Eugene A.

    A labor market study of implications of rapid energy development in the West examined the dimensions of work force movement from secondary occupations to primary energy occupations in areas affected by "boom town" growth. (Secondary occupations were defined as those in all industries not categorized as primary energy industries.) Focus…

  18. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN-2050-AE78 Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials..., ``Regulation of Oil-Bearing ] Hazardous Secondary Materials from the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a... reconsider the final rule, ``Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials from the...

  19. Chemical Industry: A New Interdisciplinary Course for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nae, Nehemia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced high school course which incorporates an industrial approach into the chemistry curriculum. Presents three case studies as examples taken from the local chemistry industry--the production of copper, bromine, and plastics. (CS)

  20. Improvement of the SOFIA secondary mirror controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinacher, Andreas; Onillon, Emmanuel; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2010-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5m infrared telescope build into a Boeing 747SP. During observations the telescope will not only be subject to aircraft vibrations and maneuver loads - by opening a large door to give the observatory an unhindered view of the sky, there will also be aerodynamic and aeroacoustic disturbances. A critical factor in the overall telescope performance is the SOFIA Secondary Mirror Assembly. The 35cm silicon carbide mirror is mounted on the Secondary Mirror Mechanism, which has five degrees-of-freedom (rotation about line of sight is blocked) and consists of two parts: The slow moving base for focusing and centering, and on top of that the Tilt Chop Mechanism (TCM) for chopping with a frequency of up to 20Hz and a chop throw of up to 10arcmin. A new controller for the TCM is introduced in this paper in order to meet the stringent performance requirements for the chopper. A state space controller is chosen that combines a feedback path for steady state behavior with a model-based feed forward controller for improved settling time performance. The paper explains the modeling of the TCM via a grey box model approach optimized with system identification data and compares simulated with measured data. Then the structure of the controller is explained and Matlab/Simulink simulations are presented. The simulation results are compared to measurements taken with the real system on ground and finally flight test results with open and closed door are discussed.

  1. Direct Adaptive Control Of An Industrial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Lee, Thomas; Delpech, Michel

    1992-01-01

    Decentralized direct adaptive control scheme for six-jointed industrial robot eliminates part of overall computational burden imposed by centralized controller and degrades performance of robot by reducing sampling rate. Control and controller-adaptation laws based on observed performance of manipulator: no need to model dynamics of robot. Adaptive controllers cope with uncertainties and variations in robot and payload.

  2. A Secondary-Level Curriculum in Industrial Electronics and Robotics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besancon, Francis E.

    A curriculum was developed to provide the electromechanical skills necessary to operate and repair industrial robots to students at the secondary and adult vocational levels. To determine requirements for entry-level positions in the robotics industry, manufacturers and employers of industrial robots were contacted. No particular entry-level…

  3. Handbook for industrial noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The basic principles of sound, measuring techniques, and instrumentation associated with general purpose noise control are discussed. Means for identifying and characterizing a noise problem so that subsequent work may provide the most efficient and cost effective solution are outlined. A methodology for choosing appropriate noise control materials and the proper implementation of control procedures is detailed. The most significant NASA sponsored contributions to the state of the art development of optimum noise control technologies are described including cases in which aeroacoustics and related research have shed some light on ways of reducing noise generation at its source.

  4. Reviewing Canadian Post-Secondary Education: Post-Secondary Education Policy in Post-Industrial Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Since 2004, a number of Canadian provinces have initiated comprehensive reviews of their respective public post-secondary education systems. This paper examines the ways in which these provincial post-secondary education reviews are consistent with the pervasive influence of economic globalization on higher education and a more market-driven and…

  5. Continuities and Discontinuities in Economic and Industrial Understanding between the Primary and Secondary Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael; Jephcote, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The (British) National Curriculum Council emphasizes the importance of cross-phase curriculum continuity when students pass from primary to secondary learning stages. This article summarizes results of a survey examining how primary-secondary school liaisons handled one cross-curricular theme--economic and industrial understanding--across years…

  6. An econometric model of the U.S. secondary copper industry: Recycling versus disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model of secondary recovery is developed that integrates microeconomic theories of production and cost with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The model equations are estimated for the U.S. secondary copper industry and used to assess the impacts that various policies and future events have on copper recycling rates. The alternatives considered are: subsidies for secondary production, differing energy costs, and varying ore quality in primary production. ?? 1990.

  7. Adaptive Process Control in Rubber Industry.

    PubMed

    Brause, Rüdiger W; Pietruschka, Ulf

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the problems and an adaptive solution for process control in rubber industry. We show that the human and economical benefits of an adaptive solution for the approximation of process parameters are very attractive. The modeling of the industrial problem is done by the means of artificial neural networks. For the example of the extrusion of a rubber profile in tire production our method shows good resuits even using only a few training samples.

  8. Positive affect increases secondary control among causally uncertain individuals.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Stephanie J; George, Melanie P

    2015-01-01

    Secondary control (acceptance of and adjustment to negative events) is thought to promote positive affect. We examined the opposite path: could positive affect increase secondary control, particularly among individuals high in causal uncertainty, who stand to benefit from it the most? In two studies, participants completed a causal uncertainty scale, thought about a problem while listening to affect-inducing music or no music, and then completed items that assessed secondary control. In Study 1, the music induced positive or negative affect. In Study 2, the music induced affect that was high or low in activation and positive or negative in valence. In both studies, we found that positive affect-inducing music increased secondary control among high causal uncertainty participants. Furthermore, trait affect did not account for the effects of causal uncertainty, and music did not influence primary control. These findings show that secondary control can fluctuate as a function of state affect.

  9. Improved computed torque control for industrial robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uebel, Mark; Minis, Ioannis; Cleary, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The authors examine the computed torque control problem for a robot arm with flexible, geared, joint drive systems which are typical in many industrial robots. The standard computed torque algorithm is not directly applicable to this class of manipulators due to the dynamics introduced by the joint drive systems. The proposed approach overcomes this problem by combining a novel computed torque algorithm with simple torque controllers at each joint of the robot. The control scheme is applied to a seven degree-of-freedom industrial manipulator, and the system performance in standard tasks is evaluated using both dynamic simulation and actual experiments. The results show that the proposed controller leads to improved tracking performance over a conventional PD (proportional plus derivative) controller.

  10. Manual control models of industrial management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman, E. R. F. W.

    1972-01-01

    The industrial engineer is often required to design and implement control systems and organization for manufacturing and service facilities, to optimize quality, delivery, and yield, and minimize cost. Despite progress in computer science most such systems still employ human operators and managers as real-time control elements. Manual control theory should therefore be applicable to at least some aspects of industrial system design and operations. Formulation of adequate model structures is an essential prerequisite to progress in this area; since real-world production systems invariably include multilevel and multiloop control, and are implemented by timeshared human effort. A modular structure incorporating certain new types of functional element, has been developed. This forms the basis for analysis of an industrial process operation. In this case it appears that managerial controllers operate in a discrete predictive mode based on fast time modelling, with sampling interval related to plant dynamics. Successive aggregation causes reduced response bandwidth and hence increased sampling interval as a function of level.

  11. Ergonomic Redesign of an Industrial Control Panel.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, S; Osqueizadeh, R; Maghsoudipour, M; Jafarpisheh, A S

    2016-07-01

    Operator's role in industrial control centers takes place in time, which is one of the most important determinants of whether an expected action is going to be successful or not. In certain situations, due to the complex nature of the work, the existing interfaces and already prepared procedures do not meet the dynamic requirements of operator's cognitive demands, making the control tasks unnecessarily difficult. This study was conducted to identify ergonomic issues with a specific industrial control panel, and redesign its layout and elements to enhance its usability. Task and link analysis methodologies were implemented. All essential functions and supporting operations were identified at the required trivial levels. Next, the weight of any possible link between the elements of the panel was computed as a composite index of frequency and importance. Finally, all components were rearranged within a new layout, and a computerized mockup was generated. A total of 8 primary tasks was identified, including 4 system failure handling tasks, switching between manual and automated modes, and 3 types of routine vigilance and control tasks. These tasks were broken down into 28 functions and 145 supporting operations, accordingly. Higher link values were observed between hand rest position and 2 elements. Also, 6 other components showed robust linkages. In conclusion, computer modeling can reduce the likelihood of accidents and near misses in industrial control rooms by considering the operators' misperception or mental burden and correcting poor design of the panels and inappropriate task allocation.

  12. Industrial Arts--Woods and Wood Technology: A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Council for Industrial Arts Education.

    The curriculum outline is designed to aid the instructor in developing a more complete course of study in woods and wood technology for intermediate and secondary school students. The guide is introduced by a discussion of objectives fundamental to a sound program of industrial arts education, followed by an outline and objectives for the content…

  13. Secondary Particulate Matter Originating from an Industrial Source and Its Impact on Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Cristina; Cervino, Marco; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported adverse associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) and several health outcomes. One issue in this field is exposure assessment and, in particular, the role of secondary PM2.5, often neglected in environmental and health risk assessment. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term environmental and health impact of primary and secondary PM2.5 concentrations originating from a single industrial source. As a case study, we considered a coal power plant which is a large emitter of both primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors. PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using the Calpuff dispersion model. The health impact was expressed in terms of number of non-accidental deaths potentially attributable to the power plant. Results showed that the estimated secondary PM2.5 extended over a larger area than that related to primary PM2.5 with maximum concentration values of the two components well separated in space. Exposure to secondary PM2.5 increased significantly the estimated number of annual attributable non-accidental deaths. Our study indicates that the impact of secondary PM2.5 may be relevant also at local scale and ought to be considered when estimating the impact of industrial emissions on population health. PMID:26184247

  14. Secondary retention of rubber dam: effective moisture control access considerations.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1995-04-01

    Primary rubber dam retention affects attachment of the latex sheet to the anchor teeth bordering the isolated working field. Secondary rubber dam retention is the provision of an effective seal at the dam-tooth junction, which is essential to the maintenance of adequate access and moisture control within the working field. Practical hints are offered to optimize access and moisture control through well-planned and properly executed secondary retention of classic rubber dam applications. In addition, innovative solutions to the limitations of general field isolation, which pertain mostly to secondary retention of the unrestrained buccal and lingual curtains of the slit dam, are introduced.

  15. Regional secondary resource utilization parks: The industrial parks of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Beck, J.E.; Holter, G.M.

    1992-11-01

    Obstacles currently facing the solid waste recycling industry are often related to lack of public and investor confidence, issues of profitability and liability, and insufficient consumer identification with products made from recycled materials. Resolution of these issues may not be possible without major changes in the way the solid waste recycling business is structured. One potential solution takes the form of the secondary resource utilization park. The premise is simple: Provide a strategically located facility where a broad range of secondary resources are separated, refined or converted, and made into new products on the site. The secondary material resources would come from municipal solid waste, demolition waste, landscape trimmings, used tires, scrap metal, agricultural waste, food processing waste, and other non-hazardous forms. The park would consist of separation and conversion facilities, research and product standards laboratories, and industries that convert the materials into products and fuels. Energy conversion systems using some waste streams as fuel could be located at the park to supplement energy demands of the industrial operations. The strategic co-location of the resource providers and user industries would also minimize transportation costs and could provide a test case for an ``industrial ecology`` approach to sustainable economic development.

  16. Regional secondary resource utilization parks: The industrial parks of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Beck, J.E.; Holter, G.M.

    1992-11-01

    Obstacles currently facing the solid waste recycling industry are often related to lack of public and investor confidence, issues of profitability and liability, and insufficient consumer identification with products made from recycled materials. Resolution of these issues may not be possible without major changes in the way the solid waste recycling business is structured. One potential solution takes the form of the secondary resource utilization park. The premise is simple: Provide a strategically located facility where a broad range of secondary resources are separated, refined or converted, and made into new products on the site. The secondary material resources would come from municipal solid waste, demolition waste, landscape trimmings, used tires, scrap metal, agricultural waste, food processing waste, and other non-hazardous forms. The park would consist of separation and conversion facilities, research and product standards laboratories, and industries that convert the materials into products and fuels. Energy conversion systems using some waste streams as fuel could be located at the park to supplement energy demands of the industrial operations. The strategic co-location of the resource providers and user industries would also minimize transportation costs and could provide a test case for an industrial ecology'' approach to sustainable economic development.

  17. Assessing Secondary Control and Its Association with Youth Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; Francis, Sarah E.; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research has linked youth depression symptoms to low levels of perceived control, using measures that reflect "primary control" (i.e., influencing objective conditions to make them fit one's wishes). We hypothesized that depressive symptoms are also linked to low levels of "secondary control" (i.e., influencing the psychological impact…

  18. Individual control charts in paperboard industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Silva, Daniela S.; Nogueira, Isabel M.; Grilo, Helena L.; Oliveira, Teresa A.

    2016-12-01

    The stiffness of paperboard is an important continuous variable measured in the labs of paperboard industry to evaluate the quality of the final product. The variable is approximately normal distributed, in this case study, and individual control charts to monitor the stiffness are obtained based on average moving range. Since the available sample size is small we decide to estimate robust control limits using a non-parametric method based on empirical quantiles (that performs also well under the normality of the observations), with the bootstrap procedure. The comparison of the control limits should be made based on the required accuracy. We also compare the output of the stable process (i.e., in statistical control) with the process specifications and we conclude that it is not a capable process.

  19. The new secondary channel control system at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keitel, R.; Bishop, D.; Dale, D.; England, N.; Harrison, D.

    1990-08-01

    The control of the secondary channels at TRIUMF has been decentralized. Each channel is now controlled through a single CAMAC crate from an IBM PC in the experimental counting room. Intelligent motor controllers were developed to replace the ageing slit control system. Advanced features of the control software package TICS, such as computer optimization of channel parameters and high-voltage conditioning of the de separators, are described.

  20. Industrial application of fuzzy control in bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    In a bioprocess, for example a fermentation process, many biological reactions are always working in intracellular space and the control of such a process is very complicated. Bioprocesses have therefore been controlled by the judgment of the experts who are the skilled operators and have much experience in the control of such processes. Such experience is normally described in terms of linguistic IF-THEN rules. Fuzzy inference is a powerful tool for incorporating linguistic rules into computer control of such processes. Fuzzy control is divided into two types--direct fuzzy control of process variables, for example sugar feed rate and fermentation temperature, and indirect control via phase recognition. In bioprocess control the experts decide the value of controllable process variables such as sugar feed rate or temperature as output data from several state variables as input data. Fuzzy control is regarded as a computational algorithm in which the causal relationship between input and output data are incorporated. In Japan fuzzy control has already been applied to practical industrial processes such as production of pravastatin precursor and vitamin B2 and to the Japanese sake mashing process; these examples are reviewed. In addition, an advanced control tool developed from a study on fuzzy control, fuzzy neural networks (FNN), are introduced. FNN can involve complicated causality between input and output data in a network model. FNN have been proven to be applicable to a research in biomedicine, for example modeling of the complicated causality between electroencephalogram or gene expression profiling data and prognostic prediction. Successful results on this research will be also explained.

  1. Comparison of the secondary metabolites in Penicillium chrysogenum between pilot and industrial penicillin G fermentations.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Qiao, Bin; Lu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2011-02-01

    The disparity of secondary metabolites in Penicillium chrysogenum between two scales of penicillin G fermentation (50 L as pilot process and 150,000 L as industrial one) was investigated by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandemed with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In industrial process, the pools of intracellular L-α-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (LLD-ACV) and isopenicillin N (IPN) were remarkably less than that in the pilot one, which indicated that the productivity of penicillin G might be higher in the large scale of fermentation. This conclusion was supported by the higher intracellular penicillin G concentration as well as its higher yield per unit biomass in industrial cultivation. The different changing tendencies of IPN, 6-aminopenicillanic acid and 6-oxopiperide-2-carboxylic acid between two processes also suggested the same conclusion. The higher content of intracellular LLD-ACV in pilot process lead to a similarly higher concentration of bis-δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine, which had an inhibitory effect on ACV synthetase and also subdued the activity of IPN synthetase. The interconversion of secondary metabolites and the influence they put on enzymes would intensify the discrepancy between two fermentations more largely. These findings provided new insight into the changes and regulation of secondary metabolites in P. chrysogenum under different fermentation sizes.

  2. Omni-axis secondary injection thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkley, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The concept, development, design study and preliminary analysis and layout of the required digital logic scheme to be used for injection valve control are presented. An application and optimization study of an Omni-Axis Secondary Injection Control System applicable to the proposed Space Shuttle Pressure Fed Engine is reported. Technical definition and analysis control procedures and test routines, as well as a supporting set of drawing sketches and reference manual, are enclosed.

  3. [Atmospheric emission of PCDD/Fs from secondary aluminum metallurgy industry in the southwest area, China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Guo, Zhi-Shun; Jian, Chuan; Zhu, Ming-Ji; Deng, Li; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises in the southwest area of China were measured for emissions of PCDD/Fs. The results indicated that the emission levels of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) were 0.015-0.16 ng x m(-3), and the average was 0.093 ng x m(-3) from secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises. Emission factors of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) from the five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises varied between 0.041 and 4.68 microg x t(-1) aluminum, and the average was 2.01 microg x t(-1) aluminum; among them, PCDD/Fs emission factors from the crucible smelting furnace was the highest. Congener distribution of PCDD/F in stack gas from the five secondary aluminum metallurgies was very different from each other. Moreover, the R(PCDF/PCDD) was the lowest in the enterprise which was installed only with bag filters; the R(PCDF/PCDD) were 3.8-12.6 (the average, 7.7) in the others which were installed with water scrubbers. The results above indicated that the mechanism of PCDD/Fs formation was related to the types of exhaust gas treatment device. The results of this study can provide technical support for the formulation of PCDD/Fs emission standards and the best available techniques in the secondary aluminum metallurgy industry.

  4. Magnetic force control technique in industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, S.

    2010-11-01

    Techniques of the magnetic force control have been examined for industrial application. The problems and the technique are different in dispersion medium of gas and that of liquid. In addition, the method is different depending on the magnetic characteristic of the target objects. In case of the liquid, the dispersion medium having different viscosity was examined. The separation speed is decided with the magnitude of the magnetic force because a drag force increases with the viscosity. When the water is the dispersion medium, magnetic seeding is possible and hence the nonmagnetic materials can be separated and even the dissolved material could be separated. The separation technique has been used for purifying the waste water form paper mill or wash water of drum. On the other hand when the water is not dispersion medium, mainly the ferromagnetism particle becomes the target object because the magnetic seeding becomes difficult. The iron fragments have been separated from the slurry of slicing machine of solar battery. It has been clarified high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) can be applied for the viscous fluid of which viscosity was as high as 10 Pa s. When the dispersion medium is gaseous material, the air is important. The drag force from air depends greatly on Reynolds number. When speed of the air is small, the Reynolds number is small, and the drag force is calculated by the Stokes' law of resistance. The study with gaseous dispersion medium is not carried out much. The magnetic separation will discuss the possibility of the industrial application of this technique.

  5. Active optics control of VST telescope secondary mirror.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; D'Orsi, Sergio; Fierro, Davide; Marty, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In telescopes based on active optics, defocus and coma are usually compensated for by secondary mirror movements. They are performed at the Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) with a hexapod--a parallel robot with six degrees of freedom positioning capability. We describe the application of the two-mirror telescope theory to the VST case and the solutions adopted for the hexapod control. We present the results of performance and reliability tests performed both in the laboratory and at the telescope.

  6. Preparation of Secondary and Post-Secondary Students for Entry-Level Employment in the Shell Fishing Industry. Final Report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cape May County Vocational Schools, NJ.

    The Marine Science Aquaculture Project is a program designed (1) to provide secondary and postsecondary students with job entry-level skills for employment in the shell fisheries industry; (2) to give students instruction and hands-on experience in the fundamental processes of seeding shell beds, monitoring and recording growth, and harvesting and…

  7. Toward a Policy on Regulation of the Weight Control Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Eileen M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes fraud and health risks to consumers from the unregulated weight control industry, reviews safe weight loss guidelines, notes the role of health educators, and argues for increased regulatory control measures. (SM)

  8. An industrial sewing machine variable speed controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Christa; Spiggle, Charles; Swift, Shannon; Vangeffen, Stephen; Youngner, Frank

    1992-01-01

    The apparel industry is attempting to move in a new direction in the coming decade. Since the invention of an electrically powered sewing machine, the operator has been seated. Today, companies are switching from a sit down operation to a stand up operation involving modular stations. The old treadle worked well with the sitting operator, but problems have been found when trying to use the same treadle with a standing operator. This report details a new design for a treadle to operate an industrial sewing machine that has a standing operator. Emphasis is placed on the ease of use by the operator, as well as the ergonomics involved. Procedures for testing the design are included along with possible uses for the treadle in other applications besides an industrial sewing machine.

  9. An industrial sewing machine variable speed controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, Christa; Spiggle, Charles; Swift, Shannon; Vangeffen, Stephen; Youngner, Frank

    The apparel industry is attempting to move in a new direction in the coming decade. Since the invention of an electrically powered sewing machine, the operator has been seated. Today, companies are switching from a sit down operation to a stand up operation involving modular stations. The old treadle worked well with the sitting operator, but problems have been found when trying to use the same treadle with a standing operator. This report details a new design for a treadle to operate an industrial sewing machine that has a standing operator. Emphasis is placed on the ease of use by the operator, as well as the ergonomics involved. Procedures for testing the design are included along with possible uses for the treadle in other applications besides an industrial sewing machine.

  10. Comparison of predictive control methods for high consumption industrial furnace.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Goran; Stankovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn.

  11. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  12. Fly ash from cellulose industry as secondary raw material in autoclaved aerated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, A.; Eggenberger, U.; Mumenthaler, T.

    1999-03-01

    Because fly ash from cellulose industries contains considerable amounts of free lime and sulfate, they are potential secondary raw materials for the production of autoclaved aerated concrete. Laboratory experiments were performed by replacing lime and sulfate in conventional autoclaved aerated concrete mixtures by fly ash. Compared to a reference series, samples with even higher compressive strength could be produced with lime-sulfate ash. At higher proportions of fly ash, the formation of calcium silicate hydrate phases is delayed and the presence of unreacted portlandite and newly formed scawtite produce a drop in strength and an increase in shrinkage. Low strength resulted by using Al-bearing ash with a lower amount of free CaO, which makes this type of ash not applicable in practice.

  13. Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

  14. Neural network based dynamic controllers for industrial robots.

    PubMed

    Oh, S Y; Shin, W C; Kim, H G

    1995-09-01

    The industrial robot's dynamic performance is frequently measured by positioning accuracy at high speeds and a good dynamic controller is essential that can accurately compute robot dynamics at a servo rate high enough to ensure system stability. A real-time dynamic controller for an industrial robot is developed here using neural networks. First, an efficient time-selectable hidden layer architecture has been developed based on system dynamics localized in time, which lends itself to real-time learning and control along with enhanced mapping accuracy. Second, the neural network architecture has also been specially tuned to accommodate servo dynamics. This not only facilitates the system design through reduced sensing requirements for the controller but also enhances the control performance over the control architecture neglecting servo dynamics. Experimental results demonstrate the controller's excellent learning and control performances compared with a conventional controller and thus has good potential for practical use in industrial robots.

  15. Thermal hydrolysis of secondary scum for control of biological foam.

    PubMed

    Jolis, Domènec; Marneri, Matina

    2006-08-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of secondary scum at 9 bars and 170 degrees C was shown to completely destroy Gordonia sp. cells and reduce its foaming potential, so that it can be recycled to headworks or sent to the solids-handling side of the plant without the risk of causing foaming problems in the activated sludge system and anaerobic digesters. This process shows promise for biological foam control in wastewater treatment plants where solids retention time control and selective wasting cannot be applied and/or selector installation is not possible. An initial cost comparison of thermal hydrolysis and several widely accepted foam-management strategies shows it to be competitive; however, optimization of operating pressure and temperature is necessary.

  16. Pupil Control Behavior, Classroom Robustness, and Self-Control: Public and Military Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Mary Ann; Bauske, Terri; Lunenburg, Fred C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated students' perceptions of teachers pupil-control behavior, classroom robustness, and student self-control, highlighting possible differences between public and military secondary schools. Humanistic approaches had more positive, interrelated effects among these variables. Military (custodial) classrooms were perceived as less robust,…

  17. Superelevation and overspill control secondary flow dynamics in submarine channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, R. M.; Darby, S. E.; Peakall, J.; Sumner, E. J.; Parsons, D. R.; Wynn, R. B.

    2013-08-01

    In subaerial and submarine meander bends, fluid flow travels downstream in a helical spiral, the structure of which is determined by centrifugal, hydrostatic, baroclinic, and Coriolis forces that together balance frictional stresses generated by the flow. The sense of rotation of this helical flow, and in particular, whether the near bed flow is directed toward the inner bank, e.g., "river-normal," or outer bank, e.g., "river-reversed," is crucial to the morphodynamic evolution of the channel. However, in recent years, there has been a debate over the river-normal or river-reversed nature of submarine flows. Herein, we develop a novel three-dimensional closure of secondary flow dynamics, incorporating downstream convective material transport, to cast new light on this debate. Specifically, we show that the presence of net radial material transport, arising from flow superelevation and overspill, exerts a key control on the near bed orientation of secondary flow in submarine meanders. Our analysis implies that river-reversed flows are likely to be much more prevalent throughout submarine-canyon fan systems than prior studies have indicated.

  18. Numerical Control--An Industry View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward E.

    1975-01-01

    The author discusses rapid changes in the fields of numerical control (N/C) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) and offers suggestions for vocational educators in meeting the need for trained workers and technically educated professionals and managers. (EA)

  19. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  20. Power and control in interactions between journalists and health-related industries: the view from industry.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Bronwen; Lipworth, Wendy L; Forsyth, Rowena; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The mass media is a major source of health information for the public, and as such the quality and independence of health news reporting is an important concern. Concerns have been expressed that journalists reporting on health are increasingly dependent on their sources--including representatives of industries responsible for manufacturing health-related products--for story ideas and content. Many critics perceive an imbalance of power between journalists and industry sources, with industry being in a position of relative power, however the empirical evidence to support this view is limited. The analysis presented here--which is part of a larger study of industry-journalist relationships--draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives of health-related industries in Australia to inductively examine their perceptions of power relations between industry and journalists. Participants painted a picture in which journalists, rather than themselves, were in a position to control the nature, extent, and outcome of their interactions with industry sources. Our results resonate with the concept of "mediatisation" as it has been applied in the domain of political reporting. It appears that, from the perspective of industry representatives, the imposition of media logic on health-related industries may inappropriately influence the information that the public receives about health-related products.

  1. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s. Methods: Tobacco industry documents, which have been publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA, were analysed. Documents were sought by Finland and by names of organisations and tobacco control activists. Documents were accessed and assessed between September 2000 and November 2002. Tactics of the tobacco industry activities were categorised as presented by Saloojee and Dagli. Results: The international tobacco companies utilised similar strategies in Finland as in other industrial markets to fight tobacco control and legislation, the health advocacy movement, and litigation. These activities slowed down the development and implementation of the Tobacco Act in Finland. However, despite the extensive pressure, the industry was not able to prevent the most progressive tobacco legislation in Europe from being passed and coming into force in Finland in 1977 and in 1995. Conclusion: Denying the health hazards caused by tobacco—despite indisputable scientific evidence—decreased the credibility of the tobacco industry. Strategy of denial was falsely chosen, as health advocacy groups were active both in society and the parliamentary system. The strong influence of the tobacco industry may have in fact increased the visibility of tobacco control in Finland as the litigation process was also drawing attention to negative health effects of tobacco. Therefore the tobacco industry did not manage to convince public opinion. However, the tobacco industry did obtain experience in Finland in how to object to tobacco control measures. PMID:14660780

  2. EPICS: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epics Development Team

    2013-02-01

    EPICS is a set of software tools and applications developed collaboratively and used to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators and telescopes. Such distributed control systems typically comprise tens or even hundreds of computers, networked together to allow communication between them and to provide control and feedback of the various parts of the device from a central control room, or even remotely over the internet. EPICS uses Client/Server and Publish/Subscribe techniques to communicate between the various computers. A Channel Access Gateway allows engineers and physicists elsewhere in the building to examine the current state of the IOCs, but prevents them from making unauthorized adjustments to the running system. In many cases the engineers can make a secure internet connection from home to diagnose and fix faults without having to travel to the site. EPICS is used by many facilities worldwide, including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, Fermilab, Keck Observatory, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Australian Synchrotron, and Stanford Linear Accellerator Center.

  3. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  4. Termite Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)

  5. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  6. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  7. Tobacco industry interference with tobacco control policies in Poland: legal aspects and industry practices

    PubMed Central

    Balwicki, Łukasz; Stokłosa, Michał; Balwicka-Szczyrba, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Wioleta

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2006, when Poland ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), there have been efforts to improve tobacco control regulation in the country. At the same time, at the European Union level, Poland took part in discussions over revision of the Tobacco Tax Directive and the Tobacco Products Directive. This study aims to explore the tobacco industry's tactics to interfere with the creation of those policies. Methods Analysis of 257 documents obtained through freedom of information request. Results We identified three means that the tobacco industry used to interfere with tobacco control policies: creating a positive attitude, expressing a will to be a part of the policymaking process, and exerting pressure. We found that those tactics have often been used unethically, with the industry providing the government with ready legislation proposals, overstating its contribution to the economy and the government revenues, misrepresenting the illicit cigarette problem and misusing scientific evidence. The industry also used legal threats, including use of bilateral trade agreements, against implementation of tobacco control measures. The companies lobbied together directly and through third parties, with the cigarette excise tax structure being the only area of disagreement among the companies. The industry also pushed the Polish government to challenge tobacco control policies in countries with stronger public policy standards, including UK display bans and the Australian plain-packaging law. Conclusions From an object of regulation, the tobacco industry in Poland became a partner with the government in legislative work. Implementation of provisions of Article 5.3 of the WHO FCTC could prevent further industry interference. PMID:26418616

  8. Advantages of Laser Polarimetry Applied to Tequila Industrial Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajer, V.; Rodriguez, C.; Flores, R.; Naranjo, S.; Cossio, G.; Lopez, J.

    2002-03-01

    The development of a polarimetric method for crude and cooked agave juice quality control not only by direct polarimetric measurement also by means of laser polarimeter LASERPOL 101M used as a liquid chromatographic detector is presented. The viability and advantage of this method for raw material quality control and during Tequila industrial process is shown.

  9. Design and control considerations for industrial and space manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, D. E.; Book, W. J.; Lynch, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is a progress report summarizing theoretical and practical results concerning integration of design and control aspects of manipulator arms for industrial or space applications. The relationships between task specifications, gross motions, fine motions, actuator type and location, size and strength of structural members, control servos and strategies, and overall design evaluation are briefly discussed, with some technical examples.

  10. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  11. Breakthrough Control Technologies in the Japanese Steel Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamura, Tadaaki

    The Japanese steel industry started to progress in the 1950s and reached maximum production in the 1970s. In the 1980s it changed its policy of pursuing quantity in production to pursuing quality. A slight decrease in production levels at the beginning of 2000 followed, but the industry has recently recovered production quantity while maintaining quality. In the process it has developed and accumulated a variety of innovative technologies, called “Japan original technologies” which were exported around the world. These are highly advanced control technologies, including sensors, controllers and control logics, and other electrical and automated equipment. This paper introduces some of the technologies developed by the Japanese steel industry that ushered in a new era in steel making worldwide.

  12. 77 FR 22226 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System To Produce Synthesis Gas; Final... Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System To Produce Synthesis Gas,'' published in the... From the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System To Produce Synthesis...

  13. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sebrie, E; Barnoya, J; Perez-Stable, E; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Results: Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. Conclusions: The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope. PMID:16183967

  14. Fire Prevention and Control Training in the Oil Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edney, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    Training for fire prevention and control in the petroleum industry is vital for all personnel, clerical and management as well as operators, maintenance men, and drivers. Basic training practices in Britain stressing safety, vigilance, preparation, and realistic exercises are described. (MF)

  15. Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

  16. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    PubMed

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  17. Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hagelqvist, Alina

    2013-04-01

    Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 53±26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84±24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production.

  18. Stereo optical guidance system for control of industrial robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Bradley W. (Inventor); Rodgers, Mike H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for the generation of basic electrical signals which are supplied to a computerized processing complex for the operation of industrial robots. The system includes a stereo mirror arrangement for the projection of views from opposite sides of a visible indicia formed on a workpiece. The views are projected onto independent halves of the retina of a single camera. The camera retina is of the CCD (charge-coupled-device) type and is therefore capable of providing signals in response to the image projected thereupon. These signals are then processed for control of industrial robots or similar devices.

  19. Startup of the experimental physics industrial control system at NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Sichta, P.; Dong, J.

    1999-12-17

    The Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a set of software which is being used as the basis of the National Spherical Torus Experiment's (NSTX) Process Control System, a major element of the NSTX's Central Instrumentation and Control System. EPICS is a result of a co-development effort started by several US Department of Energy National Laboratories. EPICS is actively supported through an international collaboration made up of government and industrial users. EPICS' good points include portability, scalability, and extensibility. A drawback for small experiments is that a wide range of software skills are necessary to get the software tools running for the process engineers. The authors' experience in designing, developing, operating, and maintaining NSTX's EPICS (system) will be reviewed.

  20. Restructuring Secondary Education in the Netherlands: Between Control and Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veugelers, Wiel; Zijlstra, Henk

    This article analyzes the effects of senior secondary-education reform in The Netherlands and the effects that these changes have exerted on teachers. It focuses on the way that changes, such as profiles, new exam programs, and alterations in "study house," interacted with and influenced teachers' tasks. The paper provides an overview of…

  1. Direct adaptive control of a PUMA 560 industrial robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Lee, Thomas; Delpech, Michel

    1989-01-01

    The implementation and experimental validation of a new direct adaptive control scheme on a PUMA 560 industrial robot is described. The testbed facility consists of a Unimation PUMA 560 six-jointed robot and controller, and a DEC MicroVAX II computer which hosts the Robot Control C Library software. The control algorithm is implemented on the MicroVAX which acts as a digital controller for the PUMA robot, and the Unimation controller is effectively bypassed and used merely as an I/O device to interface the MicroVAX to the joint motors. The control algorithm for each robot joint consists of an auxiliary signal generated by a constant-gain Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID) controller, and an adaptive position-velocity (PD) feedback controller with adjustable gains. The adaptive independent joint controllers compensate for the inter-joint couplings and achieve accurate trajectory tracking without the need for the complex dynamic model and parameter values of the robot. Extensive experimental results on PUMA joint control are presented to confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, in spite of strong interactions between joint motions. Experimental results validate the capabilities of the proposed control scheme. The control scheme is extremely simple and computationally very fast for concurrent processing with high sampling rates.

  2. [Comparison Analysis of Economic and Engineering Control of Industrial VOCs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-fei; Liu, Chang-xin; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutant has become China's major air pollutant in key urban areas like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. It is mainly produced from industry sectors, and engineering control is one of the most important reduction measures. During the 12th Five-Year Plan, China decides to invest 40 billion RMB to build pollution control projects in key industry sectors with annual emission reduction of 605 000 t x a(-1). It shows that China attaches a great importance to emission reduction by engineering projects and highlights the awareness of engineering reduction technologies. In this paper, a macroeconomic model, namely computable general equilibrium model, (CGE model) was employed to simulate engineering control and economic control (imposing environmental tax). We aim to compare the pros and cons of the two reduction policies. Considering the economic loss of the whole country, the environmental tax has more impacts on the economy system than engineering reduction measures. We suggest that the central government provides 7 500 RMB x t(-1) as subsidy for enterprises in industry sectors to encourage engineering reduction.

  3. Assessment of industrial minerals and rocks in the controlled area

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, S.B.; Lock, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, is a potential site for a permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste in Miocene ash flow tuff. The Yucca Mountain controlled area occupies approximately 98 km{sup 2} that includes the potential repository site. The Yucca Mountain controlled area is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, a large area of Miocene volcanism that includes at least four major calderas or cauldrons. It is sited on a remnant of a Neogene volcanic plateau that was centered around the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The Yucca Mountain region contains many occurrences of valuable or potentially valuable industrial minerals, including deposits with past or current production of construction aggregate, borate minerals, clay, building stone, fluorspar, silicate, and zeolites. The existence of these deposits in the region and the occurrence of certain mineral materials at Yucca Mountain, indicate that the controlled area may have potential for industrial mineral and rock deposits. Consideration of the industrial mineral potential within the Yucca Mountain controlled area is mainly based on petrographic and lithologic studies of samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain. Clay minerals, zeolites, fluorite, and barite, as minerals that are produced economically in Nevada, have been identified in samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain.

  4. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Allendorf; D. K. Ottesen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1998-11-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom of line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  5. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  6. A mire of highly subjective and ineffective voluntary guidelines: tobacco industry efforts to thwart tobacco control in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe tobacco industry efforts in Malaysia to thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco promotion and health warnings. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement and secondary websites; relevant information from news articles and financial reports. Results: Commencing in the 1970s, the industry began to systematically thwart government tobacco control. Guidelines were successfully promoted in the place of legislation for over two decades. Even when the government succeeded in implementing regulations such as health warnings and advertising bans they were compromised and acted effectively to retard further progress for years to come. Conclusion: Counter-measures to delay or thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco were initiated by the industry. Though not unique to Malaysia, the main difference lies in the degree to which strategies were used to successfully counter stringent tobacco control measures between 1970 and 1995. PMID:15564220

  7. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  8. Industrial noise control: Some case histories, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, F. D.; Neal, C. L.; Smetana, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    A collection of solutions to industrial noise problems is presented. Each problem is described in simple terms, with noise measurements where available, and the solution is given, often with explanatory figures. Where the solution rationale is not obvious, an explanatory paragraph is usually appended. As a preface to these solutions, a short exposition is provided of some of the guiding concepts used by noise control engineers in devising their solutions.

  9. Combustion Control in Industrial Multi-Swirl Stabilized Spray Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-21

    driven mechanism for thermo-acoustic combustion dynamics can be categorized into two groups according to Mongia et al. (2003). First category, which...CONTRACT NUMBER Combustion Control in Industrial Multi-Swirl Stabilized Spray Combustor 02PR12898-01 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-02-1-0756 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...ABSTRACT The focus of this study is to investigate the emission characteristics and combustion dynamics of multiple swirl spray combustors either in

  10. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  11. Chemical dosing for sulfide control in Australia: An industry survey.

    PubMed

    Ganigue, Ramon; Gutierrez, Oriol; Rootsey, Ray; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2011-12-01

    Controlling sulfide (H(2)S) production and emission in sewer systems is critical due to the corrosion and malodour problems that sulfide causes. Chemical dosing is one of the most commonly used measures to mitigate these problems. Many chemicals have been reported to be effective for sulfide control, but the extent of success varies between chemicals and is also dependent on how they are applied. This industry survey aims to summarise the current practice in Australia with the view to assist the water industry to further improve their practices and to identify new research questions. Results showed that dosing is mainly undertaken in pressure mains. Magnesium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and nitrate are the most commonly used chemicals for sewers with low flows. In comparison, iron salts are preferentially used for sulfide control in large systems. The use of oxygen injection has declined dramatically in the past few years. Chemical dosing is mainly conducted at wet wells and pumping stations, except for oxygen, which is injected into the pipe. The dosing rates are normally linked to the control mechanisms of the chemicals and the dosing locations, with constant or profiled dosing rates usually applied. Finally, key opportunities for improvement are the use of mathematical models for the selection of chemicals and dosing locations, on-line dynamic control of the dosing rates and the development of more cost-effective chemicals for sulfide control.

  12. Controlling defects and secondary phases of CZTS by surfactant Potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junyi; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Xiao, Xudong

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising photovoltaic absorber material with earth abundant and nontoxic elements. However, the detrimental native defects and secondary phases of CSTS will largely reduce the energy conversion efficiencies. To understand the origin of these problems during the growth of CZTS, we investigated the kinetic processes on CZTS (-1-1-2) surface, using first principles calculations. A surface Zn atom was found to occupy the subsurface Cu site easily due to a low reaction barrier, which may lead to a high ZnCu concentration and a secondary phase of ZnS. These n-type defects may create deep electron traps near the interface and become detrimental to device performance. To reduce the population of ZnCu and the secondary phase, we propose to use K as a surfactant to alter surface kinetic processes. Improvements on crystal quality and device performance based on this surfactant are consistent with early experimental observations. Computing resources were provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding at CUHK.

  13. An anatomy of industrial robots and their controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, J. Y. S.

    1983-02-01

    The modernization of manufacturing facilities by means of automation represents an approach for increasing productivity in industry. The three existing types of automation are related to continuous process controls, the use of transfer conveyor methods, and the employment of programmable automation for the low-volume batch production of discrete parts. The industrial robots, which are defined as computer controlled mechanics manipulators, belong to the area of programmable automation. Typically, the robots perform tasks of arc welding, paint spraying, or foundary operation. One may assign a robot to perform a variety of job assignments simply by changing the appropriate computer program. The present investigation is concerned with an evaluation of the potential of the robot on the basis of its basic structure and controls. It is found that robots function well in limited areas of industry. If the range of tasks which robots can perform is to be expanded, it is necessary to provide multiple-task sensors, or special tooling, or even automatic tooling.

  14. Industrial Arts--Metals Technology: A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Council for Industrial Arts Education.

    The curriculum outline is designed to aid the instructor in developing a more complete course of study, for intermediate and secondary school students, to give the student an understanding of some of the tools, materials, processes, products, occupational opportunities, requirements, and working conditions associated with the metal and metal…

  15. Secondary School, University, and Business/Industry Cooperation Yields Benefits to Technological Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Ann Marie

    2004-01-01

    Research about school and community cooperation to deliver technological education programs at both secondary school and teacher education levels in Ontario, Canada, has documented that such collaborative classroom practice is not only possible in technological education, but is highly desirable because many modern theories of learning are seen in…

  16. Control Techniques for Industrial Electrodeposition from Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T. N.; Kerby, R. C.; O'Keefe, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Over the years, the basic aspects of electrodeposition have remained relatively unchanged. However, the need to make improved and purer metals at a more competitive price is forcing reevaluation of many existing practices. The advantages offered by electrolysis are fully realized only if the process is optimized for maximum efficiency and the highest quality products. The critical factors in obtaining process improvements are (1) cathode quality and (2) the primary and secondary reactions occurring at the electrodes. Thus, monitoring these factors more effectively while comprehensively improving on-line control during processing have emerged as major challenges in electrometallurgy.

  17. Effects of wireless packet loss in industrial process control systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongkang; Candell, Richard; Moayeri, Nader

    2017-02-09

    Timely and reliable sensing and actuation control are essential in networked control. This depends on not only the precision/quality of the sensors and actuators used but also on how well the communications links between the field instruments and the controller have been designed. Wireless networking offers simple deployment, reconfigurability, scalability, and reduced operational expenditure, and is easier to upgrade than wired solutions. However, the adoption of wireless networking has been slow in industrial process control due to the stochastic and less than 100% reliable nature of wireless communications and lack of a model to evaluate the effects of such communications imperfections on the overall control performance. In this paper, we study how control performance is affected by wireless link quality, which in turn is adversely affected by severe propagation loss in harsh industrial environments, co-channel interference, and unintended interference from other devices. We select the Tennessee Eastman Challenge Model (TE) for our study. A decentralized process control system, first proposed by N. Ricker, is adopted that employs 41 sensors and 12 actuators to manage the production process in the TE plant. We consider the scenario where wireless links are used to periodically transmit essential sensor measurement data, such as pressure, temperature and chemical composition to the controller as well as control commands to manipulate the actuators according to predetermined setpoints. We consider two models for packet loss in the wireless links, namely, an independent and identically distributed (IID) packet loss model and the two-state Gilbert-Elliot (GE) channel model. While the former is a random loss model, the latter can model bursty losses. With each channel model, the performance of the simulated decentralized controller using wireless links is compared with the one using wired links providing instant and 100% reliable communications. The sensitivity of the

  18. Discrete Event Supervisory Control and Nonlinear Motion Control for DoD and Industrial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-17

    fault diagnosis in Industrial machines. We won the Best Application Paper Award at 2011 Asian Control Conference. Technology Transfer NAME Total Number... Automation , Shanghai, May 2011. [12] G. Gu, L. Marinovici, and F.L. Lewis, “Consensusability of discrete-time multi-agent systems under state feedback...Nonlinear Motion Control for DoD and Industrial Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 611102 6. AUTHORS 5d. PROJECT NUMBER FrankL

  19. Neural networks for process control and optimization: two industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Gérard; Denoeux, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The two most widely used neural models, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function network (RBFN), are presented in the framework of system identification and control. The main steps for building such nonlinear black box models are regressor choice, selection of internal architecture, and parameter estimation. The advantages of neural network models are summarized: universal approximation capabilities, flexibility, and parsimony. Two applications are described in steel industry and water treatment, respectively, the control of alloying process in a hot dipped galvanizing line and the control of a coagulation process in a drinking water treatment plant. These examples highlight the interest of neural techniques, when complex nonlinear phenomena are involved, but the empirical knowledge of control operators can be learned.

  20. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, Raisa; Korhonen, Tero; Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Kaartinen, Tommi; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Wahlström, Margareta; Venho, Antti; Ahoranta, Sarita; Nissilä, Marika; Puhakka, Jaakko

    2015-04-01

    In mining, quarrying and industrial minerals production arsenic is a common element, thus creating a challenge in mining processes. This project aimed to develop solutions to control and remove As-compounds in materials and effluents of beneficiation processes and other mining operations. Focus was on various technologies e.g. traditional mineral processing, bioprocessing, water treatment, as well as various materials such as gold ores and concentrates, industrial by-products, and mine waters. The results of suggest that by novel mineral processing and proper water treatment methods the amount of As-compounds in tailings and effluents can be reduced to levels that satisfy the regulations concerning mining waste management. According to the environmental research, mining activities tend to increase the proportion of potentially mobile and available elements in soil. The effect of mining activity on geogenic contamination needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  1. Industrial experiments for the application of ultrasound on scale control in the Chinese sugar industry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Aijun; Zheng, Jie; Qiu, Taiqiu

    2006-05-01

    The industrialized application of a technique of scale control by ultrasound was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that not only the viscosity of sugar solution was reduced, but also the heat transfer coefficient and evaporation intensity of the evaporation system were improved by 42.4% and 15.2% respectively, and the scale was removed remarkably with no significant effects on white sugar quality. In addition, chemical detergent was not necessary, so no chemical contamination existed and labour intensity was reduced in this technique. Furthermore, the ultrasonic equipment is easy to operate and has good performance in terms of high continuity and automisation.

  2. Evaluation of secondary coolant control design alternatives and their effects on heat removal performance

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, M.I.; Anderson, J.; Battle, R.; March-Leuba, J.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents a series of calculations that evaluate the performance of the core-inlet temperature controller under different transient conditions and design options. The present analyses show that the core-inlet temperature can be controlled at {approx}45{degrees}C under all transient conditions analyzed using the controller design described in the conceptual design report, which includes variable-speed secondary coolant pumps and variable-speed cooling tower fans. This study also shows that a constant-speed secondary pump would be sufficient to maintain core-inlet temperature <45{degrees}C if this temperature is allowed to drop below the set point during some demanding transients, such as normal startup. The use of secondary loop hot coolant to warm the reactor building was also evaluated; however, optimization of the secondary hot-leg temperature can only be achieved by trading off control of the primary side core-inlet temperature.

  3. A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs. Industrial Arts: Electricity-Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.

    Units of instruction at four levels are designed for use by teachers preparing industrial arts courses in electricity and electronics in junior high and high school. Exploring Electricity-Electronics introduces the subject with attention to circuits, laws, and applications. Basic Electricity-Electronics covers batteries, magnetism, transformers,…

  4. On Retention of Secondary Trade and Industrial Education Teachers: Voices from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Mary Jo Crawford

    The high national attrition rate among vocational education teachers (50 percent within 6 years) prompted a study to determine trade and industrial teachers' reasons for leaving and to make recommendations to increase teacher retention. Following a literature review of teachers' motivation and reasons for attrition, interviews were conducted with…

  5. Industrial Arts Electricity/Electronics. A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist administrators and teachers of industrial arts and vocational and technical school programs with the development of a meaningful curriculum in the area of electricity and electronics. Included in the volume are curriculum guides for the following courses: Self- and Career Awareness of Electricity and…

  6. Industrial Arts Education Guide for Curriculum and Program Planning, Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Guidelines for the development of courses and programs of industrial arts for local school districts in New York State are provided in this guide designed for administrators, curriculum personnel, supervisors, and teachers. Following a discussion of student program options, a basic series of suggested courses (titles and course topics) are…

  7. Vocational Education's Role in Establishing Secondary Students in Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healas, Donald V.

    Vocational education does not create jobs, but rather is a force in readiness, meeting the demand for workers by the business-industrial complex. At the heart of the process of providing job opportunities to urban youth in Cleveland are the vocational teachers and teacher coordinators who have the primary responsibility for placement and followup.…

  8. A general regression framework for a secondary outcome in case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Modern case-control studies typically involve the collection of data on a large number of outcomes, often at considerable logistical and monetary expense. These data are of potentially great value to subsequent researchers, who, although not necessarily concerned with the disease that defined the case series in the original study, may want to use the available information for a regression analysis involving a secondary outcome. Because cases and controls are selected with unequal probability, regression analysis involving a secondary outcome generally must acknowledge the sampling design. In this paper, the author presents a new framework for the analysis of secondary outcomes in case-control studies. The approach is based on a careful re-parameterization of the conditional model for the secondary outcome given the case-control outcome and regression covariates, in terms of (a) the population regression of interest of the secondary outcome given covariates and (b) the population regression of the case-control outcome on covariates. The error distribution for the secondary outcome given covariates and case-control status is otherwise unrestricted. For a continuous outcome, the approach sometimes reduces to extending model (a) by including a residual of (b) as a covariate. However, the framework is general in the sense that models (a) and (b) can take any functional form, and the methodology allows for an identity, log or logit link function for model (a).

  9. Adaptive-passive vibration control systems for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D.; Pfeiffer, T.; Vrbata, J.; Melz, T.

    2015-04-01

    Tuned vibration absorbers have become common for passive vibration reduction in many industrial applications. Lightly damped absorbers (also called neutralizers) can be used to suppress narrowband disturbances by tuning them to the excitation frequency. If the resonance is adapted in-operation, the performance of those devices can be significantly enhanced, or inertial mass can be decreased. However, the integration of actuators, sensors and control electronics into the system raises new design challenges. In this work, the development of adaptive-passive systems for vibration reduction at an industrial scale is presented. As an example, vibration reduction of a ship engine was studied in a full scale test. Simulations were used to study the feasibility and evaluate the system concept at an early stage. Several ways to adjust the resonance of the neutralizer were evaluated, including piezoelectric actuation and common mechatronic drives. Prototypes were implemented and tested. Since vibration absorbers suffer from high dynamic loads, reliability tests were used to assess the long-term behavior under operational conditions and to improve the components. It was proved that the adaptive systems are capable to withstand the mechanical loads in an industrial application. Also a control strategy had to be implemented in order to track the excitation frequency. The most mature concepts were integrated into the full scale test. An imbalance exciter was used to simulate the engine vibrations at a realistic level experimentally. The neutralizers were tested at varying excitation frequencies to evaluate the tracking capabilities of the control system. It was proved that a significant vibration reduction is possible.

  10. Pollution control of industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, S; Abdel-Shafy, M

    2002-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries represents a heavy pollution source on their receiving water body. This paper studies a case of pollution control at Tanta Soap and Oil Company, Banha Factory, Egypt. The factory production includes soap, edible oil, and animal fodder. About 4,347 m3/day of industrial wastewater effluent was discharged via gravity sewers to the public sewerage system. Most of the effluent was cooling water because the cooling process in the factory was open circle. In spite of the huge quantity of cooling water being disposed of, disposal of wastewater was violating pertinent legislation. Three procedures were used for controlling the pollution at the Banha Factory. Firstly, all open circuit cooling systems were converted to closed circuit thus reducing the quantity of the discharged wastewater down to 767 m3/day. Secondly, the heavily polluted oil and grease (O&G) wastewater from the refinery unit is treated via two gravity oil separator (GOS) units, dissolved air floatation (DAF), and biological units in order to reduce the high levels of O&G, BOD, COD, and SS to the allowable limits. Thirdly, the heavily polluted waste effluent from the 'red water' saponification unit is treated separately by acidification to convert the emulsified fatty acid to free form in order to be separated through an oil separation unit. The effluent is then passed to liming stage to neutralize excess acidity and precipitate some of the dissolved matters. The mixture is finally clarified and the pH is adjusted to the allowable limits. The effluent wastewater from the three processes is collected and mixed in a final equalization tank for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system. The characteristics of the effluent water are very good with respect to the allowable Egyptian limits for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system.

  11. Plastic optical fibre sensor for quality control in food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novo, C.; Bilro, L.; Ferreira, R.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Leitão, C.; Nogueira, R.; Pinto, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    The present work addresses the need for new devices felt in the context of quality control, especially in the food industry. Due to the spectral dependence of the attenuation coefficient, a novel dual-parameter sensor for colour and refractive index was developed and tested. The sensor employs plastic optical fibres to measure the transmitted optical power in three measurement cells each with a different incident wavelength. The performance of the sensor was tested using several dyes at different concentrations and aqueous solutions of glycerine and ethanol. Results show that this technique allows the monitoring of refractive index and colour without cross-sensitivity.

  12. An Improved Distributed Secondary Control Method for DC Microgrids With Enhanced Dynamic Current Sharing Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Panbao; Lu, Xiaonan; Yang, Xu; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dianguo

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an improved distributed secondary control scheme for dc microgrids (MGs), aiming at overcoming the drawbacks of conventional droop control method. The proposed secondary control scheme can remove the dc voltage deviation and improve the current sharing accuracy by using voltage-shifting and slope-adjusting approaches simultaneously. Meanwhile, the average value of droop coefficients is calculated, and then it is controlled by an additional controller included in the distributed secondary control layer to ensure that each droop coefficient converges at a reasonable value. Hence, by adjusting the droop coefficient, each participating converter has equal output impedance, and the accurate proportional load current sharing can be achieved with different line resistances. Furthermore, the current sharing performance in steady and transient states can be enhanced by using the proposed method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by detailed experimental tests based on a 3 × 1 kW prototype with three interface converters.

  13. Evolution of the VLT instrument control system toward industry standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Knudstrup, Jens; Popovic, Dan; Zins, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    The VLT control system is a large distributed system consisting of Linux Workstations providing the high level coordination and interfaces to the users, and VME-based Local Control Units (LCU's) running the VxWorks real-time operating system with commercial and proprietary boards acting as the interface to the instrument functions. After more than 10 years of VLT operations, some of the applied technologies used by the astronomical instruments are being discontinued making it difficult to find adequate hardware for future projects. In order to deal with this obsolescence, the VLT Instrumentation Framework is being extended to adopt well established Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components connected through industry standard fieldbuses. This ensures a flexible state of the art hardware configuration for the next generation VLT instruments allowing the access to instrument devices via more compact and simpler control units like PC-based Programmable Logical Controllers (PLC's). It also makes it possible to control devices directly from the Instrument Workstation through a normal Ethernet connection. This paper outlines the requirements that motivated this work, as well as the architecture and the design of the framework extension. In addition, it describes the preliminary results on a use case which is a VLTI visitor instrument used as a pilot project to validate the concepts and the suitability of some COTS products like a PC-based PLCs, EtherCAT8 and OPC UA6 as solutions for instrument control.

  14. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observed when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.

  15. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    DOE PAGES

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; ...

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observedmore » when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.« less

  16. Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J. M.

    2000-06-01

    The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep and 25 {micro

  17. Development of a process control sensor for the glass industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.; Candee, A.; Kramlich, J.; Koppang, R.

    1991-05-01

    This project was initiated to fill a need in the glass industry for a non-contact temperature sensor for glass melts. At present, the glass forming industry (e.g., bottle manufacture) consumes significant amounts of energy. Careful control of temperature at the point the bottle is molded is necessary to prevent the bottle from being rejected as out-of-specification. In general, the entire glass melting and conditioning process is designed to minimize this rejection rate, maximize throughput and thus control energy and production costs. This program focuses on the design, development and testing of an advanced optically based pyrometer for glass melts. The pyrometer operates simultaneously at four wavelengths; through analytical treatment of the signals, internal temperature profiles within the glass melt can be resolved. A novel multiplexer alloys optical signals from a large number of fiber-optic sensors to be collected and resolved by a single detector at a location remote from the process. This results in a significant cost savings on a per measurement point basis. The development program is divided into two phases. Phase 1 involves the construction of a breadboard version on the instrument and its testing on a pilot-scale furnace. In Phase 2, a prototype analyzer will be constructed and tested on a commercial forehearth. This report covers the Phase 1 activities.

  18. The Prevalence and Control of Bacillus and Related Spore-Forming Bacteria in the Dairy Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Nidhi; Hill, Colin; Ross, Paul R.; Beresford, Tom P.; Fenelon, Mark A.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Milk produced in udder cells is sterile but due to its high nutrient content, it can be a good growth substrate for contaminating bacteria. The quality of milk is monitored via somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts, with prescribed regulatory limits to ensure quality and safety. Bacterial contaminants can cause disease, or spoilage of milk and its secondary products. Aerobic spore-forming bacteria, such as those from the genera Sporosarcina, Paenisporosarcina, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Geobacillus and Bacillus, are a particular concern in this regard as they are able to survive industrial pasteurization and form biofilms within pipes and stainless steel equipment. These single or multiple-species biofilms become a reservoir of spoilage microorganisms and a cycle of contamination can be initiated. Indeed, previous studies have highlighted that these microorganisms are highly prevalent in dead ends, corners, cracks, crevices, gaskets, valves and the joints of stainless steel equipment used in the dairy manufacturing plants. Hence, adequate monitoring and control measures are essential to prevent spoilage and ensure consumer safety. Common controlling approaches include specific cleaning-in-place processes, chemical and biological biocides and other novel methods. In this review, we highlight the problems caused by these microorganisms, and discuss issues relating to their prevalence, monitoring thereof and control with respect to the dairy industry. PMID:26733963

  19. IIR filtering based adaptive active vibration control methodology with online secondary path modeling using PZT actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boz, Utku; Basdogan, Ipek

    2015-12-01

    Structural vibrations is a major cause for noise problems, discomfort and mechanical failures in aerospace, automotive and marine systems, which are mainly composed of plate-like structures. In order to reduce structural vibrations on these structures, active vibration control (AVC) is an effective approach. Adaptive filtering methodologies are preferred in AVC due to their ability to adjust themselves for varying dynamics of the structure during the operation. The filtered-X LMS (FXLMS) algorithm is a simple adaptive filtering algorithm widely implemented in active control applications. Proper implementation of FXLMS requires availability of a reference signal to mimic the disturbance and model of the dynamics between the control actuator and the error sensor, namely the secondary path. However, the controller output could interfere with the reference signal and the secondary path dynamics may change during the operation. This interference problem can be resolved by using an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter which considers feedback of the one or more previous control signals to the controller output and the changing secondary path dynamics can be updated using an online modeling technique. In this paper, IIR filtering based filtered-U LMS (FULMS) controller is combined with online secondary path modeling algorithm to suppress the vibrations of a plate-like structure. The results are validated through numerical and experimental studies. The results show that the FULMS with online secondary path modeling approach has more vibration rejection capabilities with higher convergence rate than the FXLMS counterpart.

  20. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  1. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  2. Beamline Control and Instrumentation System using Industrial Interface Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Enz, F.

    2010-06-23

    How should a beamline be designed, which satisfies the needs and requirements of scientists and is easy to build and operate? Today, most control and instrumentation systems for beamlines are based on scientific requirements. Scientific details of the beamline, e.g. vacuum and beam physics details; are usually extensively described. However, control system specifications are often reduced to few requirements, e.g. which beam-related device to use. Lots of these systems work perfectly from the physicist's point of view, but are hard to bring into service and operate and difficult to extend with additional equipment. To overcome this, the engineering company ENZ has developed components using industrial standard interfaces to guarantee high flexibility for equipment extension. Using special interface boards and galvanic isolation offers increased stability of motion control axes. This saves resources during commissioning and service. A control system was developed and installed at a Soft-X-ray beamline at ASP Melbourne. It is operated under EPICs on distributed embedded IOC's based on PC-hardware. Motion and vacuum systems, measurement devices, e.g. a Low-Current Monitor (LoCuM) for beam position monitoring, and parts of the equipment protection system were developed and most of them tested in cooperation with DELTA at the Technical University of Dortmund.

  3. Survey of Industrial, Agricultural, and Medical Applications of Radiometric Gauging and Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Hubbell, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Photon and particle radiations (gamma rays, x rays, brems-strahlung, electrons and other charged particles, and neutrons) from radioactive isotopes, x-ray tubes, and accelerators are now widely used in gauging, production control, and other monitoring and metrology devices where avoidance of mechanical contact is desirable. The general principles of radiation gauges, which rely on detection of radiation transmitted by the sample, or on detection of scattered or other secondary radiations produced in the sample, are discussed. Examples of such devices currently used or at least shown to be feasible in industrial, transportation, building, mining, agricultural, medical, and other metrology situations are presented, drawing from a total of 146 selected technical and review paper reference sources here cited. PMID:28179800

  4. Paradoxes of photoconductive target and optical control of secondary ion yield

    SciTech Connect

    Rokakh, A. G. Matasov, M. D.

    2010-01-15

    This study of the photoconductivity of semiconductors, in particular, cadmium chalcogenides as materials for targets of vacuum image converters followed the path of overcoming paradoxes. The concepts developed by the classics of photoelectricity also help to understand the paradoxes of the new secondary-ion photoelectric effect, especially, its spectral characteristic. The optical channel of secondary ion yield control via a photoconductive target opens the way to a new branch of nanotechnology, i.e., optoionics.

  5. Swift BAT Thermal Recovery After Loop Heat Pipe #0 Secondary Heater Controller Failure in October 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The Swift BAT LHP #0 primary heater controller failed on March 31, 2010. It has been disabled. On October 31, 2015, the secondary heater controller of this LHP failed. On November 1, 2015, the LHP #0 CC temperature increased to as 18.6 C, despite that the secondary heater controller set point was 8.8 C. It caused the average DM XA1 temperature to increase to 25.9 C, which was 5 C warmer than nominal. As a result, the detectors became noisy. To solve this problem, the LHP #1 secondary heater controller set point was decreased in 0.5 C decrements to 2.2 C. The set-point decrease restored the average DM XA1 temperature to a nominal value of 19.7 C on November 21.

  6. A review of secondary sludge reduction technologies for the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Talat; Elliott, Allan

    2006-06-01

    The broader application of the activated sludge process in pulp and paper mills, together with increased production, have amplified sludge management problems. With sludge management costs as high as 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant operating costs, and increasingly stringent environmental regulations, it is economically advantageous for pulp and paper mills to reduce their biosolids production. In order to provide a state-of-the-art review of secondary sludge reduction technologies, we have considered the scenarios of lower sludge production through process modifications, and waste-activated sludge reduction through post-treatment. A critical evaluation of all candidate reduction technologies indicates that sludge reduction through treatment process changes appears more appealing than post-treatment alternatives. The former approach offers a clear advantage over the latter in that the treatment process changes reduce sludge production in the first place, thus decreasing sludge management cost. Although it is technically feasible to eliminate the need for sludge disposal, it is unlikely to be economically feasible at this time.

  7. [Effectiveness of secondary preventive programs for patients with asthma and rhinitis in the baking industry].

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, R; Nolting, H D; Rosenau, C; Stauder, J; Vonier, J

    1998-11-01

    Since 1992 the German industrial professional association for the food industry and gastronomy (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gaststätten), which is responsible for statutory accident insurance has been offering a specific patient education programme to bakers suffering from occupationally induced obstructive pulmonary disease or allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, who do not quit their jobs and wish to continue working as bakers. The programme aims at preventing aggravation of the disease 74 male bakers with a mean duration of illness of 10 years on entering the programme were examined between 1 and 5 years (mean: 2.9) after participating in the patient education seminar. For a subpopulation of 55 of these patients spirometric measurements were available for the time before programme entry and at follow-up. Data on time spent at the bakehouse, prevalence of symptoms, frequency of symptoms at the site of working and during leisure hours, sleep disturbances and emergency situations were collected at the follow-up examination both for the time before programme entry and at follow-up, respectively. Direct ratings of the amount of changes in distress caused by the disease and of the quality of life were also obtained. The prevalence of 8 of the 9 most frequently reported symptoms decreased significantly, e.g. dysponoea from 70% to 42% and fear of suffocation from 30% to 3%. Participants reported on highly significant reductions in the frequency of disease-specific complaints during work and outside the working place, sleep disturbances and situations requiring immediate medical intervention. Between 64% and 85% of the patients experienced improvement of distress, physical and work performance, private and family life, and ability for self-management. Lung function did not deteriorate: mean FEV1 was 88% (+/- 23) at first and 90% (+/- 19) at second measurement. These results could not be explained by changes in medication. It is concluded that the programme is

  8. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals.

  9. Industrial web inspection for manufacturing process understanding and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenyuan; Floeder, Steven P.

    1999-03-01

    Many industrial manufacturing processes are not well understood and are treated as `black art' with few experts able to control the process and ensure product quality. However, modern manufacturing companies are finding it increasingly difficult to compete in the global marketplace without better process understanding and control. Automated inspection systems for general manufacturing have become more feasible through technical advances, primarily in sensor and computing technology. However, these systems have been used almost exclusively for the detection and subsequent removal of well defined, discrete defects from the product; thus guaranteeing high quality for the customer. This paper describes a larger opportunity to affect operations by employing web inspection techniques to dynamically analyze manufacturing conditions rather than just detecting the presence of defective material. One can then keep the process under better control, thereby eliminating defects, ensuring product quality, and optimizing manufacturing time on the production line. Specific image and data processing techniques will be illustrated including product uniformity metrics, automatic determination of thresholds for blob analysis, and localization of repeating defects within production data. The benefit of these techniques will be demonstrated through `real-world' examples of web-based manufactured products.

  10. Pollution-control equipment (Brazil). Industrial air-pollution-control equipment, March 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The market for air pollution control equipment in Brazil is expected to reach US $120 million in 1992, up 15% from 1991. Imports should also increase to US $17 million as local companies take advantage of the market opening policy implemented by the Brazilian government to raise industrial competitiveness.

  11. Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, Darryl D.

    1991-01-01

    A controller for automatically regulating the supply of secondary combustion air to woodstoves and small furnaces. The controller includes a movable air valve for controlling the amount of secondary air admitted into the chamber. A self powered means monitors the concentration of combustible gases and vapors and actuates the movable air valve to increase the supply of secondary air in response to increasing concentrations of the combustible gases and vapors. The self-powered means can be two fluid filled sensor bulbs, one of which has a coating of a combustion catalyst. Alternatively, the self powered means can be two metallic stripes laminated together, one of which is coated with a combustion catalyst, and when heated, causes the air valve to actuate.

  12. Interoperability for Space Mission Monitor and Control: Applying Technologies from Manufacturing Automation and Process Control Industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.

  13. Effects of secondary loudspeaker properties on broadband feedforward active duct noise control.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yum-Ji; Huang, Lixi; Lam, James

    2013-07-01

    Dependence of the performance of feedforward active duct noise control on secondary loudspeaker parameters is investigated. Noise reduction performance can be improved if the force factor of the secondary loudspeaker is higher. For example, broadband noise reduction improvement up to 1.6 dB is predicted by increasing the force factor by 50%. In addition, a secondary loudspeaker with a larger force factor was found to have quicker convergence in the adaptive algorithm in experiment. In simulations, noise reduction is improved in using an adaptive algorithm by using a secondary loudspeaker with a heavier moving mass. It is predicted that an extra broadband noise reduction of more than 7 dB can be gained using an adaptive filter if the force factor, moving mass and coil inductance of a commercially available loudspeaker are doubled. Methods to increase the force factor beyond those of commercially available loudspeakers are proposed.

  14. A process control sensor for the glass industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The detailed analysis and testing of the modified sensing system is summarized by the following conclusions: Analyzer long term drift and short term noise improvements have resulted in inherent accuracies of about {plus minus} 1/2{degrees}C, about equivalent to the black body calibration source. Four different concepts of heating elements were evaluated for use in an in-situ secondary calibration source. The use of a SiN igniter element shows some promise, but requires considerable development. The black body reference is the source of some of the apparent diurnal analyzer drift due to ambient temperature changes. The analyzer has strong ambient temperature sensitivities, specifically the detector and optical bench, which can be substantially mitigated with good internal temperature control (enclosure and detector). Pilot furnace tests using poorly degassed glasses resulted in data which makes conclusions regarding the effects of glass composition and gradient resolution impossible. The impact of bubble inclusions in the glass melt can yield a significant degradation in depth measurement capability as a result of Mei scattering from the bubbles. The degree of degradation depends on bubble size and number density. The above conclusions indicate the program has made significant progress towards correcting previously found deficiencies and has revealed the limitations of the pilot scale test program. Improvements in glass homogeneity, ambient temperature compensation and calibration techniques will offer a high probability of achievement of the accuracy goals in the Phase II program.

  15. Secure Data Transfer Guidance for Industrial Control and SCADA Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, Robert E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Tews, Cody W.; Burnette, John R.; Goranson, Craig A.; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-09-01

    This document was developed to provide guidance for the implementation of secure data transfer in a complex computational infrastructure representative of the electric power and oil and natural gas enterprises and the control systems they implement. For the past 20 years the cyber security community has focused on preventative measures intended to keep systems secure by providing a hard outer shell that is difficult to penetrate. Over time, the hard exterior, soft interior focus changed to focus on defense-in-depth adding multiple layers of protection, introducing intrusion detection systems, more effective incident response and cleanup, and many other security measures. Despite much larger expenditures and more layers of defense, successful attacks have only increased in number and severity. Consequently, it is time to re-focus the conventional approach to cyber security. While it is still important to implement measures to keep intruders out, a new protection paradigm is warranted that is aimed at discovering attempted or real compromises as early as possible. Put simply, organizations should take as fact that they have been, are now, or will be compromised. These compromises may be intended to steal information for financial gain as in the theft of intellectual property or credentials that lead to the theft of financial resources, or to lie silent until instructed to cause physical or electronic damage and/or denial of services. This change in outlook has been recently confirmed by the National Security Agency [19]. The discovery of attempted and actual compromises requires an increased focus on monitoring events by manual and/or automated log monitoring, detecting unauthorized changes to a system's hardware and/or software, detecting intrusions, and/or discovering the exfiltration of sensitive information and/or attempts to send inappropriate commands to ICS/SCADA (Industrial Control System/Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems.

  16. Assessing the Animal Science Technical Skills Needed by Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates for Employment in the Animal Industries: A Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education courses, such as agricultural education, exist, in part, to assist students in acquiring the competencies needed to achieve employability. However, whether the current secondary agricultural education curriculum meets the needs of industry leaders who employ high school graduates of agricultural education programs is…

  17. Impact of Nigerian Home Video/Movie Industry on the Moral Behaviours of Secondary School Students in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoku, Nkechi C.

    2016-01-01

    Impact of home video/movie industry on the moral behaviour of secondary school students is a search for the impact of home video in moral upbringing of school children. The study adopted a survey design approach of investigation: The area of study is Ebonyi State and the population comprised all the 322 CRS teachers in the state. 200 teachers were…

  18. 75 FR 47604 - Guidance for Industry on Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a guidance for industry 169 entitled ``Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information.'' This guidance provides recommendations on the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls...

  19. Adaptation of a Control Center Development Environment for Industrial Process Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Ronnie L.; Malik, James M.

    1994-01-01

    In the control center, raw telemetry data is received for storage, display, and analysis. This raw data must be combined and manipulated in various ways by mathematical computations to facilitate analysis, provide diversified fault detection mechanisms, and enhance display readability. A development tool called the Graphical Computation Builder (GCB) has been implemented which provides flight controllers with the capability to implement computations for use in the control center. The GCB provides a language that contains both general programming constructs and language elements specifically tailored for the control center environment. The GCB concept allows staff who are not skilled in computer programming to author and maintain computer programs. The GCB user is isolated from the details of external subsystem interfaces and has access to high-level functions such as matrix operators, trigonometric functions, and unit conversion macros. The GCB provides a high level of feedback during computation development that improves upon the often cryptic errors produced by computer language compilers. An equivalent need can be identified in the industrial data acquisition and process control domain: that of an integrated graphical development tool tailored to the application to hide the operating system, computer language, and data acquisition interface details. The GCB features a modular design which makes it suitable for technology transfer without significant rework. Control center-specific language elements can be replaced by elements specific to industrial process control.

  20. “APEC Blue”: Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61–67% and 51–57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2–3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as “APEC Blue”. We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution.

  1. “APEC Blue”: Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61–67% and 51–57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2–3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as “APEC Blue”. We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution. PMID:26891104

  2. Working memory and fluid intelligence: capacity, attention control, and secondary memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2014-06-01

    Several theories have been put forth to explain the relation between working memory (WM) and gF. Unfortunately, no single factor has been shown to fully account for the relation between these two important constructs. In the current study we tested whether multiple factors (capacity, attention control, and secondary memory) would collectively account for the relation. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of each construct and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. The results demonstrated that capacity, attention control, and secondary memory were uniquely related to WM storage, WM processing, and gF. Importantly, the three factors completely accounted for the relation between WM (both processing and storage) and gF. Thus, although storage and processing make independent contributions to gF, both of these contributions are accounted for by variation in capacity, attention control and secondary memory. These results are consistent with the multifaceted view of WM, suggesting that individual differences in capacity, attention control, and secondary memory jointly account for individual differences in WM and its relation with gF.

  3. Distributed joint power and access control algorithm for secondary spectrum sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Chen, Enqing; Fu, Hongliang

    2010-08-01

    Based on interference temperature model, the problem of efficient secondary spectrum sharing is formulated as a power optimization problem with some constraints at physical layer. These constraints and optimization objective limit a feasible power vector set which leads to the need of access control besides power control. In this paper, we consider the decentralized cognitive radio network scenario where short-term data service is required, and the problem of distributed joint power and access control is studied to maximize the total secondary system throughput, subject to Quality of Service (QoS) constraints from individual secondary users and interference temperature limit (ITL) from primary system. Firstly, a pricing-based game model was used to solve distributed power allocation optimization problem in both high and low signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) scenarios. Secondly, when not all the secondary links can be supported with their QoS requirement and ITL, a distributed joint power and access control algorithm was introduced to find the allowable links which results in maximum network throughput with all the constraints satisfied, and the convergence performance is tested by simulations.

  4. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  5. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  6. Erroneous gambling-related beliefs as illusions of primary and secondary control: a confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H; Navarro, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Different classification systems for erroneous beliefs about gambling have been proposed, consistently alluding to 'illusion of control' and 'gambler's fallacy' categories. None of these classification systems have, however, considered the how the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy might be interrelated. In this paper, we report the findings of a confirmatory factor analysis that examines the proposal that most erroneous gambling-related beliefs can be defined in terms of Rothbaum et al.'s (J Pers Soc Psychol, doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.5 , 1982) distinction between 'primary' and 'secondary' illusory control, with the former being driven to a large extent by the well-known gambler's fallacy and the latter being driven by a complex of beliefs about supernatural forces such as God and luck. A survey consisting of 100 items derived from existing instruments was administered to 329 participants. The analysis confirmed the existence of two latent structures (beliefs in primary and secondary control), while also offering support to the idea that gambler's fallacy-style reasoning may underlie both perceived primary control and beliefs about the cyclical nature of luck, a form of perceived secondary control. The results suggest the need for a greater focus on the role of underlying processes or belief structures as factors that foster susceptibility to specific beliefs in gambling situations. Addressing and recognising the importance of these underlying factors may also have implications for cognitive therapy treatments for problem gambling.

  7. Sexual function in women with primary and secondary infertility in comparison with controls.

    PubMed

    Davari Tanha, F; Mohseni, M; Ghajarzadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a distressing health condition that has diverse effects on couples' lives. One of the most affected aspects of life in infertile women is sexual function, which is a key factor in physical and marital health. The goal of this study was to evaluate sexual function according to the type of infertility in comparison with controls. In this study, 191 women with primary infertility and 129 with secondary infertility along with 87 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. They were asked to fill a valid and reliable FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index). Age, partner age and duration of marriage were significantly different between the primary and secondary infertility groups. The score of each FSFI domain was significantly higher in the control group, and the only significant difference between primary and secondary infertility groups was in the desire domain. Multiple linear regression analysis between the total FSFI score as a dependent variable and age, partner age, Body Mass Index and marriage duration as independent variables showed that age is a dependent predictor of FSFI in the primary group. We found significant negative correlation between total FSFI score and age, partner age and marriage duration (r1=-0.21 and P<0.001, r2=-0.14 and P=0.01, r3=-0.19 and P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction is high in all infertile women, and women with secondary infertility suffer more from impaired sexual function compared with those with primary infertility.

  8. [Emission control way of volatile organic compounds in industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zou, Lan; Zhang, Ming-Hui

    2011-12-01

    Due to the volatile nature, the way of controlling way of VOCs was different from other atmospheric pollutants. By analyzing the emission characteristics of VOCs, four kinds of control way were proposed, which were the source control, organized emission control, fugitive emission control and the total amount control, and the control modes of each control way were also analyzed and compared.

  9. Scaled multisensor inspection of extended surfaces for industrial quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayser, Daniel; Bothe, Thorsten; Osten, Wolfgang

    2002-06-01

    Reliable real-time surface inspection of extended surfaces with high resolution is needed in several industrial applications. With respect to an efficient application to extended technical components such as aircraft or automotive parts, the inspection system has to perform a robust measurement with a ratio of less then 10-6 between depth resolution and lateral extension. This ratio is at least one order beyond the solutions that are offered by existing technologies. The concept of scaled topometry consists of arranging different optical measurement techniques with overlapping ranges of resolution systematically in order to receive characteristic surface information with the required accuracy. In such a surface inspection system, an active algorithm combines measurements on several scales of resolution and distinguishes between local fault indicating structures with different extensions and global geometric properties. The first part of this active algorithm finds indications of critical surface areas in the data of every measurement and separates them into different categories. The second part analyses the detected structures in the data with respect to their resolution and decides whether a further local measurement with a higher resolution has to be performed. The third part positions the sensors and starts the refined measurements. The fourth part finally integrates the measured local data set into the overall data mesh. We have constructed a laboratory setup capable of measuring surfaces with extensions up to 1500mm x 1000mm x 500mm (in x-, y- and z-direction respectively). Using this measurement system we will be able to separate the fault indicating structures on the surface from the global shape and to classify the detected structures according to their extensions and characteristic shapes simultaneously. The level of fault detection probability will be applicable by input parameter control.

  10. Can Control Banding be better than traditional Industrial Hygiene?

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D

    2009-01-27

    The answer to this question should be 'no' if you can afford it and 'yes' if you cannot. However, Control Banding (CB) is proving itself in areas with uncertainties. This could be either a lack of knowledge--as with nanomaterials or when lacking an OEL--or with the lack or expertise, as can be seen with SMEs and in Economically Developing Countries (EDCs). Over 90% of the world's workers do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods to achieve prevention from acquiring work-related illness and injury. Although risk factors for work-related illness and disease are well known, until the recent growth of CB there had yet to be designed and implemented a comprehensive OSHH process that focuses on achieving minimization of these occupational risk factors for the vast majority of the global workforce. This problem exists for three primary reasons: (1) There are not a sufficient number of trained and qualified OSHH professionals worldwide to attempt to offer comparable levels of traditional services necessary to achieve prevention; (2) The vast majority of OSHH professionals, and the funds to afford their conventional approaches, are concentrated in Developed Countries, such as those in the EU and the US, whereas the greatest need for work-related disease, illness, and injury prevention lies within EDCs; and (3) Even within Developed Countries, the funding to acquire the services of OSHH professionals sits primarily within the largest of industries and governmental institutions. This problem renders a void of occupational risk management for the professions and trades within EDCs and similarly the SMEs within even the richest of Developed Countries. Further, conventional means to achieve such prevention rely heavily on exposure assessment sampling strategies that, although proven successful, are cost-prohibitive in these arenas.

  11. ADRC control of a 6-DOF parallel manipulator for telescope secondary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y.; Yue, Z.; Gu, B.

    2017-03-01

    In view of the special requirements of the secondary mirror control system on large aperture telescopes, an improved 6-DOF parallel manipulator is designed and used to replace the traditional hexapod used in telescope secondary mirror position dynamic compensation. A highly robust active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is designed, which consists of a nonlinear tracking differentiator (NTD), an extended state observer (ESO), a nonlinear state error feedback law (NLSEF), and disturbance compensation. The ESO can track the all-order state variables, as well as estimate and compensate for unmodeled dynamics and total external disturbance of the system. The results of simulation indicate that the ADRC can improve tracking precision and control performance when it is compared with the proportion integration differentiation (PID) controller. The test results show that the absolute accuracy of the three dimensional parallel motions is about ± 4 μm, and the two dimensional tilts' is about 10 μrad. The control precision meets the system design for a telescope secondary mirror.

  12. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  13. Maintenance of foals with combined immunodeficiency: causes and control of secondary infections.

    PubMed

    Perryman, L E; McGuire, T C; Crawford, T B

    1978-06-01

    Sixty-six cases of combined immunodeficiency (CID) in foals were studied to determine the most prevalent causes of infection and death. Lesions of the respiratory system were observed in 59 of the foals and were attributable to infection with equine adenovirus. Pneumocystis carinii, and bacteria. Significant lesions were also observed in liver, pancreas, intestines, heart, and kidneys. Maintenance of foals with CID for experimental purposes is directed at the prevention and control of these secondary infections. Adenovirus can be controlled by administration of horse plasma containing high titers of antiadenovirus antibody. Bacteria are controlled by appropriate antibiotic therapy. Pneumocystis carinii infection remains a significant problem in the maintenance of foals with CID.

  14. Controlling escape from a potential well by reshaping periodic secondary excitations.

    PubMed

    Chacón, R; Martínez, J A

    2011-01-01

    The role of the wave form of periodic secondary excitations at controlling (suppressing and enhancing) escape from a potential well is investigated. We demonstrate analytically (by Melnikov analysis) and numerically that a judicious choice of the excitation's wave form greatly improves the effectiveness of the escape-controlling excitations while keeping their amplitude and period fixed. These predictions are confirmed by an energy-based analysis that provides the same optimal values of the escape-controlling parameters. The example of a dissipative Helmholtz oscillator is used to illustrate the accuracy of these results.

  15. Analysis of secondary outcomes in nested case-control study designs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ryung S; Kaplan, Robert C

    2014-10-30

    One of the main perceived advantages of using a case-cohort design compared with a nested case-control design in an epidemiologic study is the ability to evaluate with the same subcohort outcomes other than the primary outcome of interest. In this paper, we show that valid inferences about secondary outcomes can also be achieved in nested case-control studies by using the inclusion probability weighting method in combination with an approximate jackknife standard error that can be computed using existing software. Simulation studies demonstrate that when the sample size is sufficient, this approach yields valid type 1 error and coverage rates for the analysis of secondary outcomes in nested case-control designs. Interestingly, the statistical power of the nested case-control design was comparable with that of the case-cohort design when the primary and secondary outcomes were positively correlated. The proposed method is illustrated with the data from a cohort in Cardiovascular Health Study to study the association of C-reactive protein levels and the incidence of congestive heart failure.

  16. Comparative study of low-energy ultrasonic and alkaline treatment on biosludge from secondary industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongzhe; Tan, Youming; Zhou, Yan; Pathak, Santosh; Sendjaja, Antonius Yudi; Abdul Majid, Maszenan; Chowdhury, Prannoy; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    In this study, low-energy ultrasonic (3 and 6 kJ/g volatile solids of feed biomass (FB) which was lower than the heat value of the FB), alkaline, and ultrasonic-alkaline pretreatments were applied on FB, a biosludge from secondary industrial wastewater treatment. Biochemical methane potential (BMP), particle size distribution, Biomass Stress Index (BSI™), soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), protein, carbohydrate, and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) fingerprints were used to comparatively study the mechanisms of these pretreatment methods. The results indicated that low-energy ultrasonication and alkali exhibited significantly different impacts on the FB. After ultrasonication with energy input of 6 kJ/g-VS, the average particle size of FB was reduced from 102.6 to 19.4 µm. However, ultrasonication had no obvious effect on microbial cells rupture, solubilization of protein and carbohydrate, and SEC fingerprint. Consequently, low-energy ultrasonication could not enhance methane generation. However, after alkaline pretreatment with dosage of 0.3 g-NaOH/g-VS, SCOD, soluble protein, and soluble carbohydrate concentration of FB increased from 0.66, 0.00, 0.07 to 2.83, 0.83, 0.47 g/L, respectively. At the same time, BSI™ increased from 5.3% to 96.8%, and the SEC fingerprint changed significantly. Consequently, the methane generation in the BMP test increased from 68.9 to 135.0 mL. Ultrasonic-alkaline pretreatment was similar to alkaline pretreatment in terms of methane generation. Based on this study, alkaline pretreatment is recommended over both low-energy ultrasonic and low-energy ultrasonic-alkaline pretreatment to enhance the biodegradability of FB.

  17. Curriculums in Industrial Technology. Plastics Technology. Industrial Maintenance. Computer Numerical Control. Teacher's Manuals and Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Paso Community Coll., TX.

    Curriculum guides are provided for plastics technology, industrial maintenance, and computer numerical control. Each curriculum is divided into a number of courses. For each course these instructor materials are presented in the official course outline: course description, course objectives, unit titles, texts and materials, instructor resources,…

  18. Strengths and limitations of industry vs. academic randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Laterre, P-F; François, B

    2015-10-01

    Clinical research has evolved substantially over the last two decades, but industry-sponsored research is still substantially superior to academic research in preparing, organizing and monitoring studies. Academics have to realize that conducting clinical research has become a real job with professionalism requirements. The primary objectives of research and development clearly differ between industry and academics. In the first case, new drug development is expected to generate profit, whereas in the latter case, research is aimed at understanding mechanisms of disease, promoting evidence-based medicine, and improving public health and care. However, a large number of clinical studies do not achieve their goals, and the reasons for failure may also differ between sponsored and academic studies. Industry and academics should develop better constructive partnerships and learn from each other. Academics should guide industry in study design and in investigator site selection, and academics should benefit from industry's expertise in improving monitoring and reporting processes. Finally, the existing database from former studies should be opened and shared with academics, to enable the exploration of additional scientific questions and the generation of new hypotheses. The two types of research should not be opposed, but should take the form of a constructive collaboration, increasing the chances of reaching each individual goal.

  19. Integrating science and business models of sustainability for environmentally-challenging industries such as secondary lead smelters: a systematic review and analysis of findings.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Wallace, S; Rinder, M

    2010-09-01

    Secondary lead smelters (SLS) represent an environmentally-challenging industry as they deal with toxic substances posing potential threats to both human and environmental health, consequently, they operate under strict government regulations. Such challenges have resulted in the significant reduction of SLS plants in the last three decades. In addition, the domestic recycling of lead has been on a steep decline in the past 10 years as the amount of lead recovered has remained virtually unchanged while consumption has increased. Therefore, one may wonder whether sustainable development can be achieved among SLS. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a roadmap for sustainable development can be established for SLS. The following aims were established in support of the study objective: (1) to conduct a systematic review and an analysis of models of sustainable systems with a particular emphasis on SLS; (2) to document the challenges for the U.S. secondary lead smelting industry; and (3) to explore practices and concepts which act as vehicles for SLS on the road to sustainable development. An evidence-based methodology was adopted to achieve the study objective. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted to implement the aforementioned specific aims. Inclusion criteria were established to filter out irrelevant scientific papers and reports. The relevant articles were closely scrutinized and appraised to extract the required information and data for the possible development of a sustainable roadmap. The search process yielded a number of research articles which were utilized in the systematic review. Two types of models emerged: management/business and science/mathematical models. Although the management/business models explored actions to achieve sustainable growth in the industrial enterprise, science/mathematical models attempted to explain the sustainable behaviors and properties aiming at predominantly ecosystem management. As such

  20. Nitrogen availability as a control mechanism of secondary succession within a semiarid shrubland ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Redente, E.F.; McLendon, T.

    1992-09-25

    Three experiments were conducted within a semiarid shrubland to test the role of nitrogen availability as a control mechanism in secondary succession. Secondary succession patterns were documented for seven years and effects of increased and decreased N availability levels, fumigation, and competition by early-seral species were tested. Differential responses by seral species were determined and related to successional patterns. Nitrogen availability was found to be a primary mechanism controlling the rate of succession. Relative growth rate was an important factor determining which species initially dominated and N availability became the primary control factor by the third year. As N availability increased, the rate of succession decreased. Conversely, as N availability was decreased, the rate of succession increased. The abundance of annuals was increased and abundance of perennials decreased by increased N availability. Tissue N concentration was related to lifeform and seral position, and these relationships were important in the transition from early- to mid-seral stages. Decomposer subsystem dynamics were correlated with seral community dynamics. The effect of fumigation was minimized by initially planting with late-seral species. A conceptual model of secondary succession is presented based on N availability, relative growth rate, lifeform, and decomposition dynamics.

  1. THE STATUS OF AND NEED FOR INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UTAH, A SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTEL, CARL R.; LOVELESS, AUSTIN G.

    TO ASCERTAIN THE PRESENT STATUS OF AND THE NEED FOR INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN THE 40 SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN UTAH, DATA WERE OBTAINED DURING THE 1964-65 SCHOOL YEAR FROM ALL EXCEPT THE MURRAY DISTRICT. INTERVIEWS AND QUESTIONNAIRES WERE USED TO COLLECT DATA FROM 81 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND 74 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS WITHOUT TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PROGRAMS, 20…

  2. Lithologic Control on Secondary Clay Mineral Formation in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Dhakal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transformation of rock to soil is central to landscape evolution and ecosystem function. The objective of this study was to examine controls on secondary mineral formation in a forested catchment in the Catalina-Jemez CZO. We hypothesized landscape position controls the type of secondary minerals formed in that well-drained hillslopes favor Si-poor secondary phases such as kaolinite, whereas poorly drained portions of the landscape that collect solutes from surrounding areas favor formation of Si-rich secondary phases such as smectite. The study focused on a catchment in Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico where soils are derived from a mix of rhyolitic volcanic material, vegetation includes a mixed conifer forest, and climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of ~800 mm yr-1 and mean annual temperature of 4.5°C. Soils were collected at the soil-saprolite boundary from three landscape positions, classified as well drained hillslope, poorly drained convergent area, and poorly drained hill slope. Clay fractions were isolated and analyzed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and thermal analysis. Quantitative XRD of random powder mounts indicated the presence of both primary phases such as quartz, and alkali and plagioclase feldspars, and secondary phases that include illite, Fe-oxyhydroxides including both goethite and hematite, kaolinite, and smectite. The clay fractions were dominated by smectite ranging from 36-42%, illite ranging from 21-35%, and kaolinite ranging from 1-8%. Qualitative XRD of oriented mounts confirmed the presence of smectite in all samples, with varying degrees of interlayering and interstratification. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicated that secondary mineral assemblage was not strongly controlled by landscape position, but rather varied with underlying variation in lithology. The catchment is underlain by a combination of porphorytic rhyolite and

  3. Small-mammal herbivore control of secondary succession in New England tidal marshes.

    PubMed

    Gedan, Keryn Bromberg; Crain, Caitlin M; Bertness, Mark D

    2009-02-01

    Secondary succession is impacted by both biotic and abiotic forces, but their relative importance varies due to environmental drivers. Across estuarine salinity gradients, physical stress increases with salinity, and biotic stresses are greater at lower salinities. In southern New England tidal marshes spanning a landscape-scale salinity gradient, we experimentally examined the effects of physical stress and consumer pressure by mammalian herbivores on secondary succession in artificially created bare patches. Recovery was slower in marshes exposed to full-strength seawater, where physical stress is high. Compared to full-strength salt marshes, recovery in low-salinity marshes was much faster and was influenced by small-mammal consumers. At lower salinities, small mammals selectively ate and prevented the establishment of several native and two invasive, nuisance species (Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis) but were unable to control the expansion of established P. australis stands. By controlling the establishment of competitively dominant species and the trajectory of secondary succession in low-salinity marshes, small mammals may play a cryptic keystone role in estuarine plant communities and are a critical, overlooked consideration in the conservation and management of estuarine marshes.

  4. [Control of industrial waste consumption residues: ecological and hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Solov'eva, A V; Shemiakina, Iu V

    2007-01-01

    The problem in the provision of safe handling of industrial waste and consumption residues is relatively current. According with the United Nations Organization's data, 25 to 33% of the world's notified diseases are directly associated with the low quality of the human environment. Up to now, a list of chemicals encountered in the waste and residues is unavailable in Russia and foreign countries. By keeping in mind the ubiquitous spread of industrial waste and consumption resides due to human vital activity, their huge formations and their very wide diversity in composition, type, and pattern of a possible dangerous effect, it is important to consider the problem associated with waste handling, by evaluating their environmental and hygienic hazard.

  5. Wood industrial application for quality control using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. J. O.; Neves, J. A. C.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes an application of image processing for the furniture industry. It uses an input data, images acquired directly from wood planks where defects were previously marked by an operator. A set of image processing algorithms separates and codes each defect and detects a polygonal approach of the line representing them. For such a purpose we developed a pattern classification algorithm and a new technique of segmenting defects by carving the convex hull of the binary shape representing each isolated defect.

  6. Defense Industrial Base Capabilities Study: Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Chris Warack, USAF, Rosemary Carpenter, Dawn Vehmeier, Gary Powell, and other Industrial Policy staff also had major roles in the production of this...technology (IT) products which are often foreign— products driven by the needs of the commercial marketplace and generally not by DoD requirements...However, as in all matters posing risks to the warfighter, the Department is committed to being vigilant in the use of these commercial products

  7. Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Impulse-induced optimum control of escape from a metastable state by periodic secondary excitations.

    PubMed

    Chacón, R; Martínez, J A; Miralles, J J

    2012-06-01

    We characterize the role of the impulse transmitted (time integral over a half-period) by resonant secondary excitations at controlling (suppressing and enhancing) escape from a potential well, which is induced by periodic primary excitations. By using the universal model of a dissipative Helmholtz oscillator, we demonstrate numerically that optimum control of escape occurs when the impulse transmitted by the chaos-controlling excitations is maximum while keeping their amplitude and period fixed. These findings are in complete agreement with analytical predictions from two independent methods: Melnikov analysis and energy-based analysis. Additional numerical results corresponding to other alternative escape-controlling excitations demonstrate the generality of the essential role of the excitation's impulse.

  9. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System architecture: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, L.R.; Hill, J.O.; Kraimer, M.; Lewis, S.; Murray, D.; Hunt, S.; Claussen, M.; Watson, W.; Dalesio, J.

    1993-11-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), has been used at a number of sites for performing data acquisition, supervisory control, closed-loop control, sequential control, and operational optimization. The EPICS architecture was originally developed by a group with diverse backgrounds in physics and industrial control. The current architecture represents one instance of the ``standard model.`` It provides distributed processing and communication from any LAN device to the front end controllers. This paper will present the genealogy, current architecture, performance envelope, current installations, and planned extensions for requirements not met by the current architecture.

  10. Industrial bioprocess control and optimization in the context of systems biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Wang, Yonghong; Xia, Jianye; Zhang, Siliang

    2009-01-01

    The developments of the systems biotechnology and its application in the industrial process open up new horizons to industrial biotechnology. The unprecedented understanding of the relationships between cellular behaviors and the surrounding environments during the bioprocess has been achieved. In this paper, we review new advances in the strain improvement, bioprocess control and optimization. The holistic viewpoints and ideas applied in industrial bioprocesses and their future prospects are discussed by illustrating some successful cases.

  11. Predicting the secondary dynamic mode interference phenomenon in thermoacoustic instability control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalluhoglu, Umut; Olgac, Nejat

    2016-07-01

    This paper brings a novel mathematical perspective in assessing the rise of the secondary dynamic modes to prominence during the suppression of thermoacoustic instability. This phenomenon is observed by many earlier investigators; however, without a complete analytical reasoning. We consider a Rijke tube with both a passive Helmholtz resonator and an active feedback control to suppress instabilities. The core dynamics is represented as a linear time-invariant multiple time-delay system of neutral type. Parametric stability of the resulting infinite-dimensional dynamics is investigated using a recent analytical tool: cluster treatment of characteristic roots paradigm. This tool reveals the stability outlook of such systems exhaustively and non-conservatively in the parameter space of the system. First, we examine the stability with and without the Helmholtz resonator. We then select an unstable operation for the resonator-mounted Rijke tube, impose a time-delayed integral feedback control over it and reveal the stabilizing controller parameters using the cluster treatment of characteristic roots methodology. When high control gains are inappropriately selected, the new analytical procedure declares how the secondary dynamic modes of the system exhibit instability although the initially unstable mode is now stabilized. All of these stability assessments are cross-validated using experimental results from a laboratory-scale Rijke tube set-up.

  12. Research on speed control of secondary regulation lifting system of parking equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Faye

    2005-12-01

    Hydrostatic transmission with secondary regulation is a new kind of hydrostatic transmission that can regenerate inertial and gravitational energy of load. On the basis of an in-depth analysis of the working principles and energy-saving mechanisms of the parking equipment lifting systems with, secondary regulating technology, this paper proposes a method of regenerating a lifting system's inertial energy by controlling rotational speed and reclaiming the gravitational energy by use of a constant rotational speed. Considering large changes of the parameters of lifting systems and then non-linearity, a fuzzy control was adopted to control the lifting system, and a mathematical model of the system was established. By simulation and experiment of the lifting system, the conclusion was reached a lifting system's braking achieved by controlling rotational speed is reliable and stable at a definite speed. It also permits changing the efficiency of recovery by changing the rotational speed. The design power of the lifting system can be chosen in terms of the system's average power, so the system's power can be reduced and energy savings achieved.

  13. Sharing control between humans and automation using haptic interface: primary and secondary task performance benefits.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Paul G; Gillespie, R Brent

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a paradigm for human/automation control sharing in which the automation acts through a motor coupled to a machine's manual control interface. The manual interface becomes a haptic display, continually informing the human about automation actions. While monitoring by feel, users may choose either to conform to the automation or override it and express their own control intentions. This paper's objective is to demonstrate that adding automation through haptic display can be used not only to improve performance on a primary task but also to reduce perceptual demands or free attention for a secondary task. Results are presented from three experiments in which 11 participants completed a lane-following task using a motorized steering wheel on a fixed-base driving simulator. The automation behaved like a copilot, assisting with lane following by applying torques to the steering wheel. Results indicate that haptic assist improves lane following by least 30%, p < .0001, while reducing visual demand by 29%, p < .0001, or improving reaction time in a secondary tone localization task by 18 ms, p = .0009. Potential applications of this research include the design of automation interfaces based on haptics that support human/automation control sharing better than traditional push-button automation interfaces.

  14. Regret in Later Life: Exploring Relationships between Regret Frequency, Secondary Interpretive Control Beliefs, and Health in Older Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newall, Nancy E.; Chipperfield, Judith G.; Daniels, Lia M.; Hladkyj, Steven; Perry, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined what older people regret, and the relationships between regret, health and life satisfaction. The study also explored the role of secondary interpretive control beliefs in relation to regret. Participants (N = 228; 79-98 years old) were asked to report on the content and frequency of their regret, secondary interpretive…

  15. Techniques Use by Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Teachers for Controlling Undesirable Classroom Behaviours in Anambra State Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinelo, Okigbo Ebele; Nwanneka, Okoli Josephine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the techniques used by secondary school Science Technology and Mathematics (STM) teachers in controlling undesirable behaviours in their classrooms. It adopted descriptive survey design in which 178 Anambra State teachers teaching STM subjects in senior secondary were involved in the research. Two sections of questionnaire…

  16. Analysis of the use of industrial control systems in simulators: state of the art and basic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Juan A; Dormido, Sebastián

    2006-04-01

    The use of industrial control systems in simulators facilitates the execution of engineering activities related with the installation and the optimization of the control systems in real plants. "Industrial control system" intends to be a valid term that would represent all the control systems which can be installed in an industrial plant, ranging from complex distributed control systems and SCADA packages to small single control devices. This paper summarizes the current alternatives for the development of simulators of industrial plants and presents an analysis of the process of integrating an industrial control system into a simulator, with the aim of helping in the installation of real control systems in simulators.

  17. A Control System for Tobacco Shred Production Line Based on Industrial Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Guang; Zhang, Xinfeng; Liu, Lei; Xi, Lei

    The Industrial Ethernet based on IP realizes interconnection of industrial network and information network, and it is the most potential technology in the new industrial net products. In this paper, the defects of the original control system for tobacco shred production line are analyzed, and the new design plan of control system based on EtherNet/IP is presented. The control net adopts redundant 1000M fiber optic ring network that consists of six managed Industrial Ethernet Switches, and they are distributed to the central control room, leaf processing line, shred processing line, mixed stem shred processing line, online mositure regain processing line and cut tobacco dryer control cabinet. The switch in the central control room works in the pattern of redundancy management, which can switch the link in the event of the failure in link of ring net, the recovery time of link line is less than 500ms, and each main PLC of control section has dual Network Adapters. The plan has been applied for reform of 5000kg/h Tobacco Primary Processing Line in Nanyang Cigarette Factory of China Tobacco Henan Industrial Corporation, and the configurable software and Industry Ethernet network which has been used promots the capability of automatic control system fundamentally, showing much better transmission efficiency and reliability, realizing the goal of high cost performance and making equipment's ability of handling grow fast.

  18. Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood Pulping Industry, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, E. R.; And Others

    Volume 3 contains chapters 9 through 13 of the final report on the control of atmospheric emissions in the wood pulping industry. These chapters deal with the following topics: sampling and analytical techniques; on-going research related to reduction of emissions; research and development recommendations; current industry investment and operating…

  19. Adopting Industry Standards for Control Systems Within Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, James Scott; Boulanger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a description of OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control) standards for process control and outlines the experiences at JSC with using these standards to interface with I/O hardware from three independent vendors. The I/O hardware was integrated with a commercially available SCADA/HMI software package to make up the control and monitoring system for the Environmental Systems Test Stand (ESTS). OPC standards were utilized for communicating with I/O hardware and the software was used for implementing monitoring, PC-based distributed control, and redundant data storage over an Ethernet physical layer using an embedded din-rail mounted PC.

  20. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  1. Wind farms providing secondary frequency regulation: Evaluating the performance of model-based receding horizon control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Carl R.; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles; Gayme, Dennice F.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the use of wind farms to provide secondary frequency regulation for a power grid. Our approach uses model-based receding horizon control of a wind farm that is tested using a large eddy simulation (LES) framework. In order to enable real-time implementation, the control actions are computed based on a time-varying one-dimensional wake model. This model describes wake advection and interactions, both of which play an important role in wind farm power production. This controller is implemented in an LES model of an 84-turbine wind farm represented by actuator disk turbine models. Differences between the velocities at each turbine predicted by the wake model and measured in LES are used for closed-loop feedback. The controller is tested on two types of regulation signals, “RegA” and “RegD”, obtained from PJM, an independent system operator in the eastern United States. Composite performance scores, which are used by PJM to qualify plants for regulation, are used to evaluate the performance of the controlled wind farm. Our results demonstrate that the controlled wind farm consistently performs well, passing the qualification threshold for all fastacting RegD signals. For the RegA signal, which changes over slower time scales, the controlled wind farm's average performance surpasses the threshold, but further work is needed to enable the controlled system to achieve qualifying performance all of the time.

  2. A microprocessor-based position control system for a telescope secondary mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Barrows, W. F.; Clappier, R. R.; Lee, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    The pointing requirements for the Shuttle IR Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which consists of an 0.85-m cryogenically cooled IR telescope, call for an image stability of 0.25 arcsec. Attention is presently given to a microprocessor-based position control system developed for the control of the SIRTF secondary mirror, employing a special control law (to minimize energy dissipation), a precision capacitive position sensor, and a specially designed power amplifier/actuator combination. The microprocessor generates the command angular position and rate waveforms in order to maintain a 90 percent dwell time/10 percent transition time ratio independently of chop frequency or amplitude. Performance and test results of a prototype system designed for use with a demonstration model of the SIRTF focal plane fine guidance sensor are presented.

  3. Estimating marginal causal effects in a secondary analysis of case-control data.

    PubMed

    Persson, Emma; Waernbaum, Ingeborg; Lind, Torbjörn

    2017-03-09

    When an initial case-control study is performed, data can be used in a secondary analysis to evaluate the effect of the case-defining event on later outcomes. In this paper, we study the example in which the role of the event is changed from a response variable to a treatment of interest. If the aim is to estimate marginal effects, such as average effects in the population, the sampling scheme needs to be adjusted for. We study estimators of the average effect of the treatment in a secondary analysis of matched and unmatched case-control data where the probability of being a case is known. For a general class of estimators, we show the components of the bias resulting from ignoring the sampling scheme and demonstrate a design-weighted matching estimator of the average causal effect. In simulations, the finite sample properties of the design-weighted matching estimator are studied. Using a Swedish diabetes incidence register with a matched case-control design, we study the effect of childhood onset diabetes on the use of antidepressant medication as an adult. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  5. Industrial-scale radio frequency treatments for insect control in lentils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency (RF) treatments are considered as a potential postharvest technology for disinfesting legumes. After treatment protocols are validated to control postharvest insects without significant quality degradation, it is important to scale-up laboratory RF treatments to industrial applicatio...

  6. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-09-01

    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes.

  7. Experimental study on direct adaptive control of a PUMA 560 industrial robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.; Lee, T.; Delpech, M.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation and experimental validation of a direct adaptive control scheme on a PUMA 560 industrial robot is discussed. The design theory for direct adaptive control of manipulators is outlined and the test facility and software are described. Results are presented from the experiments on the simultaneous control of all of the six joint angles and control of the end-effector position and orientation of the robot. Also, the possible applications of the direct adaptive control scheme are considered.

  8. Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Catherine A; Lehmann, Peter; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

    2008-04-01

    In an attempt to better understand the relationship between male use of the sex industry (i.e., pornography and strip clubs) and interpersonal violence (IPV), 2,135 female residents of an IPV shelter were surveyed regarding their batterer's use of both the sex industry and controlling behaviors in their relationship. Findings indicate that male domestic violence offenders who utilize the sex industry use more controlling behaviors than male domestic violence offenders who do not. Implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1583 - What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1583 What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a) The emission points and control requirements for an existing industrial POTW treatment plant are... control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1583 Section 63.1583 Protection...

  10. Using EPICS enabled industrial hardware for upgrading control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorkland, Eric A; Veeramani, Arun; Debelle, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with National Instruments (NI) and Cosy lab to implement EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) software that runs directly on NI CompactRIO Real Time Controller (RTC) and communicates with NI LabVIEW through a shared memory interface. In this presentation, we will discuss our current progress in upgrading the control system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre (LANSCE) and what we have learned about integrating CompactRIO into large experimental physics facilities. We will also discuss the implications of using Channel Access Server for LabVIEW which will enable more commercial hardware platforms to be used in upgrading existing facilities or in commissioning new ones.

  11. Autonomic Intelligent Cyber Sensor to Support Industrial Control Network Awareness

    DOE PAGES

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos; Linda, Ondrej

    2013-06-01

    The proliferation of digital devices in a networked industrial ecosystem, along with an exponential growth in complexity and scope, has resulted in elevated security concerns and management complexity issues. This paper describes a novel architecture utilizing concepts of Autonomic computing and a SOAP based IF-MAP external communication layer to create a network security sensor. This approach simplifies integration of legacy software and supports a secure, scalable, self-managed framework. The contribution of this paper is two-fold: 1) A flexible two level communication layer based on Autonomic computing and Service Oriented Architecture is detailed and 2) Three complementary modules that dynamically reconfiguremore » in response to a changing environment are presented. One module utilizes clustering and fuzzy logic to monitor traffic for abnormal behavior. Another module passively monitors network traffic and deploys deceptive virtual network hosts. These components of the sensor system were implemented in C++ and PERL and utilize a common internal D-Bus communication mechanism. A proof of concept prototype was deployed on a mixed-use test network showing the possible real world applicability. In testing, 45 of the 46 network attached devices were recognized and 10 of the 12 emulated devices were created with specific Operating System and port configurations. Additionally the anomaly detection algorithm achieved a 99.9% recognition rate. All output from the modules were correctly distributed using the common communication structure.« less

  12. Autonomic Intelligent Cyber Sensor to Support Industrial Control Network Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos; Linda, Ondrej

    2013-06-01

    The proliferation of digital devices in a networked industrial ecosystem, along with an exponential growth in complexity and scope, has resulted in elevated security concerns and management complexity issues. This paper describes a novel architecture utilizing concepts of Autonomic computing and a SOAP based IF-MAP external communication layer to create a network security sensor. This approach simplifies integration of legacy software and supports a secure, scalable, self-managed framework. The contribution of this paper is two-fold: 1) A flexible two level communication layer based on Autonomic computing and Service Oriented Architecture is detailed and 2) Three complementary modules that dynamically reconfigure in response to a changing environment are presented. One module utilizes clustering and fuzzy logic to monitor traffic for abnormal behavior. Another module passively monitors network traffic and deploys deceptive virtual network hosts. These components of the sensor system were implemented in C++ and PERL and utilize a common internal D-Bus communication mechanism. A proof of concept prototype was deployed on a mixed-use test network showing the possible real world applicability. In testing, 45 of the 46 network attached devices were recognized and 10 of the 12 emulated devices were created with specific Operating System and port configurations. Additionally the anomaly detection algorithm achieved a 99.9% recognition rate. All output from the modules were correctly distributed using the common communication structure.

  13. Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in California Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatikar, Girish; McKane, Aimee; Goli, Sasank; Therkelsen, Peter; Olsen, Daniel

    2012-01-18

    California's electricity markets are moving toward dynamic pricing models, such as real-time pricing, within the next few years, which could have a significant impact on an industrial facility's cost of energy use during the times of peak use. Adequate controls and automated systems that provide industrial facility managers real-time energy use and cost information are necessary for successful implementation of a comprehensive electricity strategy; however, little is known about the current control capacity of California industries. To address this gap, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in close collaboration with California industrial trade associations, conducted a survey to determine the current state of controls technologies in California industries. This,study identifies sectors that have the technical capability to implement Demand Response (DR) and Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In an effort to assist policy makers and industry in meeting the challenges of real-time pricing, facility operational and organizational factors were taken into consideration to generate recommendations on which sectors Demand Response efforts should be focused. Analysis of the survey responses showed that while the vast majority of industrial facilities have semi- or fully automated control systems, participation in Demand Response programs is still low due to perceived barriers. The results also showed that the facilities that use continuous processes are good Demand Response candidates. When comparing facilities participating in Demand Response to those not participating, several similarities and differences emerged. Demand Response-participating facilities and non-participating facilities had similar timings of peak energy use, production processes, and participation in energy audits. Though the survey sample was smaller than anticipated, the results seemed to support our preliminary assumptions. Demonstrations of Auto-Demand Response in industrial facilities with

  14. A water pumping control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless modules for industrial plants--an experimental setup.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Ramazan; Cetinceviz, Yucel

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a water pumping control system that is designed for production plants and implemented in an experimental setup in a laboratory. These plants contain harsh environments in which chemicals, vibrations or moving parts exist that could potentially damage the cabling or wires that are part of the control system. Furthermore, the data has to be transferred over paths that are accessible to the public. The control systems that it uses are a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless local area network (IWLAN) technologies. It is implemented by a PLC, an communication processor (CP), two IWLAN modules, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the water pump and sensors. Our system communication is based on an Industrial Ethernet and uses the standard Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol for parameterisation, configuration and diagnostics. The main function of the PLC is to send a digital signal to the water pump to turn it on or off, based on the tank level, using a pressure transmitter and inputs from limit switches that indicate the level of the water in the tank. This paper aims to provide a convenient solution in process plants where cabling is not possible. It also has lower installation and maintenance cost, provides reliable operation, and robust and flexible construction, suitable for industrial applications.

  15. Effects of UV-B on secondary metabolites of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) grown in controlled environments.

    PubMed

    Brechner, Melissa L; Albright, Louis D; Weston, Leslie A

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal plant industry is under increasing scrutiny due to wide variance in active ingredient (AI) concentration from values claimed on labels. Reasons for this disparity include environmental and genotypic variation which influence AI concentration. St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a popular herbal remedy which also exhibits marked variance in AI concentration among products. This study evaluated concentration changes of three biologically active metabolites of H. perforatum after exposure to UV light while plants were still vegetative. Treatments were performed with 55-day-old plants grown under 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) PAR for 16 h a day. Three UV light treatments were evaluated: a single dose, a daily dose and an increasing daily dose. Concentrations of hyperforin, pseudohypericin and hypericin were monitored for 7 days after each treatment. A daily dose and an increasing daily dose did not produce significantly greater increases in secondary metabolites compared to single dose treatments. These results suggest the small but significant transient metabolite concentration increases in H. perforatum can be induced by UV light exposure. Information from this study can be useful in optimizing total biomass and metabolite production in controlled environments.

  16. Interated Intelligent Industrial Process Sensing and Control: Applied to and Demonstrated on Cupola Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; roger Haggard; Wagdy Mahmoud; Kevin Moore; Denis Clark; Eric Larsen; Paul King

    2003-02-12

    The final goal of this project was the development of a system that is capable of controlling an industrial process effectively through the integration of information obtained through intelligent sensor fusion and intelligent control technologies. The industry of interest in this project was the metal casting industry as represented by cupola iron-melting furnaces. However, the developed technology is of generic type and hence applicable to several other industries. The system was divided into the following four major interacting components: 1. An object oriented generic architecture to integrate the developed software and hardware components @. Generic algorithms for intelligent signal analysis and sensor and model fusion 3. Development of supervisory structure for integration of intelligent sensor fusion data into the controller 4. Hardware implementation of intelligent signal analysis and fusion algorithms

  17. Flue gas treatability studies: a tool for techno-economic control of industrial air pollution.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Padma S; Rao, B Shrinivas; Manthapurwar, N S; Hasan, M Z

    2003-02-01

    Air pollution problems in developing countries have gained larger fraction in the last decade especially due to non functioning and non implementation of effective air pollution control devices in industries. In industrial wastewater management, adequate treatability studies are conducted to arrive at a techno-economic treatment option. However no such studies were done for reducing air pollution or emission from industries until now in India. Little information was available about such studies in other countries. This article provides information about a novel technique known as flue gas treatability studies and to undertake such studies, a pilot scale system is installed in Air Pollution Control Division of M/s National Environmental Engineering research Institute, NEERI, Nagpur-20, India. This study is a tool for techno-economic selection of air pollution control systems specially for small/medium scale industrial emissions.

  18. An industrial application of a performance assessment and retuning technique for PI controllers.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Massimiliano; Visioli, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we show how a simple methodology for the set-point following performance assessment and automatic tuning of a PI controller can be employed effectively in a real industrial application. In particular, a flow control loop in a pharmaceutical plant is considered. Practical issues related to the implementation in a Distributed Control System are discussed. Results show that the technique is capable of significantly improving the performance of the controller.

  19. Designing optimized industrial process analysers for closed loop control

    PubMed Central

    Grevesmuehl, Bernard; Kradjel, Cynthia; Kellner, Hanno

    1991-01-01

    Manufacturers are now looking closely at ways of optimizing ‘quality’ and increasing process efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs. Near infra-red (NIR) technology is a popular solution to this challenge: it provides manufacturers with rapid and reliable in-process analysis and thousands of systems have already been installed in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical and agricultural markets. For over 10 years, NIR has been successfully applied to at-line process analysis. Rugged and easy-to-operate filter analysers are traditionally located in the control room–process operators can then ‘grab samples’ and obtain results in less than a minute. There are many practical advantages to using at-line filter systems. Products from many lines can be run on one system, and, since there is no direct process interface, installation, operation and maintenance are quite simple. Many manufacturers, however, are now striving to achieve on-line closed loop control, in these cases the benefit of obtaining continuous measurement is well worth the effort required to automate the analysis. PMID:18924898

  20. Regenerated silk fibroin films with controllable nanostructure size and secondary structure for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Lijun; Zhong, Jian; Zhu, Jun; Yan, Juan; Wang, Ping; Cao, Chuanbao; He, Dannong

    2014-12-24

    The ability of drug release from SF materials was governed largely by their secondary structure. It is known that the breakage degree of the peptide chain during the silk fibroin (SF) dissolution can affect the structure, property, and applications of SF materials. To deeply understand this effect, we designed a reaction system based on CaCl2/H2O/C2H5OH ternary solvent with different ethanol content to obtain the regenerated SF films with different morphologies and secondary structures. The results showed that the globule-like nanostructure was observed in all regenerated SF films, and their size decreased significantly with reducing the ethanol content in the solvent. Correspondingly, the β-sheet structure content of the SF films increased. In addition, the contact angle and the elongation ratio increased, and water absorption decreased significantly with decreasing the ethanol content in the solvent. The accumulated release percents of doxorubicin from these SF films were significantly different with increasing the time. With smaller nanostructure size and more β-sheet content, the SF films had a slower drug release at the beginning. This study indicated the importance of the ethanol content in the solvent in controlling the structure and properties of the regenerated SF films, which would improve the application of SF in drug delivery.

  1. Thrust shock vector control of an axisymmetric conical supersonic nozzle via secondary transverse gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijanovic, V.; Lago, V.; Sellam, M.; Chpoun, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transverse secondary gas injection into the supersonic flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle is investigated to describe the effects of the fluidic thrust vectoring within the framework of a small satellite launcher. Cold-flow dry-air experiments are performed in a supersonic wind tunnel using two identical supersonic conical nozzles with the different transverse injection port positions. The complex three-dimensional flow field generated by the supersonic cross-flows in these test nozzles was examined. Valuable experimental data were confronted and compared with the results obtained from the numerical simulations. Different nozzle models are numerically simulated under experimental conditions and then further investigated to determine which parameters significantly affect thrust vectoring. Effects which characterize the nozzle and thrust vectoring performances are established. The results indicate that with moderate secondary to primary mass flow rate ratios, ranging around 5 %, it is possible to achieve pertinent vector side forces. It is also revealed that injector positioning and geometry have a strong effect on the shock vector control system and nozzle performances.

  2. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID

  3. At the intersection of culture and religion: a cultural analysis of religion's implications for secondary control and social affiliation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Kim, Heejung S

    2011-08-01

    Religion helps people maintain a sense of control, particularly secondary control-acceptance of and adjustment to difficult situations--and contributes to strengthening social relationships in a religious community. However, little is known about how culture may influence these effects. The current research examined the interaction of culture and religion on secondary control and social affiliation, comparing people from individualistic cultures (e.g., European Americans), who tend to be more motivated toward personal agency, and people from collectivistic cultures (e.g., East Asians), who tend to be more motivated to maintain social relationships. In Study 1, an analysis of online church mission statements showed that U.S. websites contained more themes of secondary control than did Korean websites, whereas Korean websites contained more themes of social affiliation than did U.S. websites. Study 2 showed that experimental priming of religion led to acts of secondary control for European Americans but not Asian Americans. Using daily diary methodology, Study 3 showed that religious coping predicted more secondary control for European Americans but not Koreans, and religious coping predicted more social affiliation for Koreans and European Americans. These findings suggest the importance of understanding sociocultural moderators for the effects of religion.

  4. Control of mineral scale deposition in cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. A prominent challenge for the successful use of MWW for cooling is potentially severe mineral deposition (scaling) on pipe surfaces. In this study, theoretical, laboratory, and field work was conducted to evaluate the mineral deposition potential of MWW and its deposition control strategies under conditions relevant to power plant cooling systems. Polymaleic acid (PMA) was found to effectively reduce scale formation when the makeup water was concentrated four times in a recirculating cooling system. It was the most effective deposition inhibitor of those studied when applied at 10 mg/L dosing level in a synthetic MWW. However, the deposition inhibition by PMA was compromised by free chlorine added for biogrowth control. Ammonia present in the wastewater suppressed the reaction of the free chlorine with PMA through the formation of chloramines. Monochloramine, an alternative to free chlorine, was found to be less reactive with PMA than free chlorine. In pilot tests, scaling control was more challenging due to the occurrence of biofouling even with effective control of suspended bacteria. Phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors are not appropriate due to their significant loss through precipitation reactions with calcium. Chemical equilibrium modeling helped with interpretation of mineral precipitation behavior but must be used with caution for recirculating cooling systems, especially with use of MWW, where kinetic limitations and complex water chemistries often prevail.

  5. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  6. A Robust Design Methodology for Optimal Microscale Secondary Flow Control in Compact Inlet Diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Keller, Dennis J.

    2001-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to develop an economical Robust design methodology for microscale secondary flow control in compact inlet diffusers. To illustrate the potential of economical Robust Design methodology, two different mission strategies were considered for the subject inlet, namely Maximum Performance and Maximum HCF Life Expectancy. The Maximum Performance mission maximized total pressure recovery while the Maximum HCF Life Expectancy mission minimized the mean of the first five Fourier harmonic amplitudes, i.e., 'collectively' reduced all the harmonic 1/2 amplitudes of engine face distortion. Each of the mission strategies was subject to a low engine face distortion constraint, i.e., DC60<0.10, which is a level acceptable for commercial engines. For each of these missions strategies, an 'Optimal Robust' (open loop control) and an 'Optimal Adaptive' (closed loop control) installation was designed over a twenty degree angle-of-incidence range. The Optimal Robust installation used economical Robust Design methodology to arrive at a single design which operated over the entire angle-of-incident range (open loop control). The Optimal Adaptive installation optimized all the design parameters at each angle-of-incidence. Thus, the Optimal Adaptive installation would require a closed loop control system to sense a proper signal for each effector and modify that effector device, whether mechanical or fluidic, for optimal inlet performance. In general, the performance differences between the Optimal Adaptive and Optimal Robust installation designs were found to be marginal. This suggests, however, that Optimal Robust open loop installation designs can be very competitive with Optimal Adaptive close loop designs. Secondary flow control in inlets is inherently robust, provided it is optimally designed. Therefore, the new methodology presented in this paper, combined array 'Lower Order' approach to Robust DOE, offers the aerodynamicist a very viable and

  7. Policy-based secure communication with automatic key management for industrial control and automation systems

    DOEpatents

    Chernoguzov, Alexander; Markham, Thomas R.; Haridas, Harshal S.

    2016-11-22

    A method includes generating at least one access vector associated with a specified device in an industrial process control and automation system. The specified device has one of multiple device roles. The at least one access vector is generated based on one or more communication policies defining communications between one or more pairs of devices roles in the industrial process control and automation system, where each pair of device roles includes the device role of the specified device. The method also includes providing the at least one access vector to at least one of the specified device and one or more other devices in the industrial process control and automation system in order to control communications to or from the specified device.

  8. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  9. An Educational Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Workforce: Opportunities to Redefine Secondary Career and Technical Education to Meet Food Industry Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoleon, Larry; Freedman, Debra; Seetharaman, Koushik; Sharma, Priya

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of a needs assessment concerning current training needs and performance targets for non-degreed employees in the food industry. Focus groups were used to gather data from 5 food-processing companies: a fresh vegetable company, a canned vegetable company, 2 snack food companies, and a meat company. Focus group…

  10. Camera-Based Control for Industrial Robots Using OpenCV Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Patrick A.; Böhnke, Kay

    This paper describes a control system for industrial robots whose reactions base on the analysis of images provided by a camera mounted on top of the robot. We show that such control system can be designed and implemented with an open source image processing library and cheap hardware. Using one specific robot as an example, we demonstrate the structure of a possible control algorithm running on a PC and its interaction with the robot.

  11. Kinematic equations for resolved-rate control of an industrial robot arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    An operator can use kinematic, resolved-rate equations to dynamically control a robot arm by watching its response to commanded inputs. Known resolved-rate equations for the control of a particular six-degree-of-freedom industrial robot arm and proceeds to simplify the equations for faster computations are derived. Methods for controlling the robot arm in regions which normally cause mathematical singularities in the resolved-rate equations are discussed.

  12. SOFIA's secondary mirror assembly: in-flight performance and control approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinacher, Andreas; Lammen, Yannick; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5m infrared telescope built into a Boeing 747 SP. In 2014 SOFIA reached its Full Operational Capability milestone and nowadays takes off about three times a week to observe the infrared sky from altitudes above most of the atmosphere's water vapor content. An actively controlled 352mm SiC secondary mirror is used for infrared chopping with peak-to-peak amplitudes of up to 10 arcmin and chop frequencies of up to 20Hz and also as actuator for fast pointing corrections. The Swiss-made Secondary Mirror Mechanism (SMM) is a complex, highly integrated and compact flexure based mechanism that has been performing with remarkable reliability during recent years. Above mentioned capabilities are provided by the Tilt Chopper Mechanism (TCM) which is one of the two stages of the SMM. In addition the SMM is also used to establish a collimated telescope and to adjust the telescope focus depending on the structure's temperature which ranges from about 40°C at takeoff in Palmdale, CA to about -40°C in the stratosphere. This is achieved with the Focus Center Mechanism (FCM) which is the base stage of the SMM on which the TCM is situated. Initially the TCM was affected by strong vibrations at about 300 Hz which led to unacceptable image smearing. After some adjustments to the PID-type controller it was finally decided to develop a completely new control algorithm in state space. This pole placement controller matches the closed loop system poles to those of a Bessel filter with a corner frequency of 120 Hz for optimal square wave behavior. To reduce noise present on the position and current sensors and to estimate the velocity a static gain Kalman Filter was designed and implemented. A system inherent delay is incorporated in the Kalman filter design and measures were applied to counteract the actuators' hysteresis. For better performance over the full operational temperature range and to represent an amplitude

  13. Decision support for environmental management of industrial non-hazardous secondary materials: New analytical methods combined with simulation and optimization modeling.

    PubMed

    Little, Keith W; Koralegedara, Nadeesha H; Northeim, Coleen M; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2017-03-08

    Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requires estimates of their probable environmental impacts among disposal as well as BU options. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently approved new analytical methods (EPA Methods 1313-1316) to assess leachability of constituents of potential concern in these materials. These new methods are more realistic for many disposal and BU options than historical methods, such as the toxicity characteristic leaching protocol. Experimental data from these new methods are used to parameterize a chemical fate and transport (F&T) model to simulate long-term environmental releases from flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) when disposed of in an industrial landfill or beneficially used as an agricultural soil amendment. The F&T model is also coupled with optimization algorithms, the Beneficial Use Decision Support System (BUDSS), under development by EPA to enhance INSM management.

  14. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-08-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry's goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  15. The impact of internet-connected control systems on the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Ruth T.

    In industry and infrastructure today, communication is a way of life. In the oil and gas industry, the use of devices that communicate with the network at large is both commonplace and expected. Unfortunately, security on these devices is not always best. Many industrial control devices originate from legacy devices not originally configured with security in mind. All infrastructure and industry today has seen an increase in attacks on their networks and in some cases, a very dramatic increase, which should be a cause for alarm and action. The purpose of this research was to highlight the threat that Internet-connected devices present to an organization's network in the oil and gas industry and ultimately, to the business and possibly even human life. Although there are several previous studies that highlight the problem of these Internet-connected devices, there remains evidence that security response has not been adequate. The analysis conducted on only one easily discovered device serves as an example of the ongoing issue of the security mindset in the oil and gas industry. The ability to connect to a network through an Internet-connected device gives a hacker an anonymous backdoor to do great damage in that network. The hope is that the approach to security in infrastructure and especially the oil and gas industry, changes before a major catastrophe occurs involving human life.

  16. How can measurement, monitoring, modeling and control advance cell culture in industrial biotechnology?

    PubMed

    Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Carinhas, Nuno; Glassey, Jarka; Hesse, Friedemann; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Micheletti, Martina; Noll, Thomas; Oliveira, Rui; Reichl, Udo; Staby, Arne; Teixeira, Ana P; Weichert, Henry; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2012-12-01

    This report highlights the potential of measurement, monitoring, modeling and control (M(3) C) methodologies in animal and human cell culture technology. In particular, state-of-the-art of M(3) C technologies and their industrial relevance of existing technology are addressed. It is a summary of an expert panel discussion between biotechnologists and biochemical engineers with both academic and industrial backgrounds. The latest ascents in M(3) C are discussed from a cell culture perspective for industrial process development and production needs. The report concludes with a set of recommendations for targeting M(3) C research toward the industrial interests. These include issues of importance for biotherapeutics production, miniaturization of measurement techniques and modeling methods.

  17. Applications of aerospace technology in industry, a technology transfer profile: Contamination control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The strong influence NASA-sponsored research has had on the development of solutions to difficult contamination problems is considered. The contamination control field is comprised of an industrial base, supplying the tools of control; a user base, adopting control techniques; and a technical base, expanding the concepts of control. Both formal and informal mechanisms used by NASA to communicate a variety of technical advances are reviewed and certain examples of the expansion of the user base through technology transfer are given. Issues related to transfer of NASA-generated contamination control technology are emphasized.

  18. Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  19. Control of industrial robots for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of satellite docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ou; Zebenay, Melak; Boge, Toralf

    2011-06-01

    One of the most challenging and risky missions for spacecraft is to perform Rendezvous and Docking (RvD) autonomously in space. To ensure a safe and reliable operation, such a mission must be carefully designed and thoroughly verified before a real space mission can be launched. This paper describes the impact-contact dynamics simulation capability of a new, robotics-based, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) RvD simulation facility which uses two industrial robots to simulate 6-DOF dynamic maneuvering of two docking satellites. The facility is capable of physically simulating the final approaching within 25-meter range and the entire docking/capturing process in a satellite on-orbit servicing mission. The paper briefly discusses the difficulties of using industrial robots for HIL contact dynamics simulation and how these problems are solved. Admittance control strategy is proposed to control the robotic system to make the robot dynamically behave like the spacecraft during a physical interception. The control strategy works as an outer loop on the top of the existing control system of the industrial robot and hence, it does not require altering the joint control hardware and software which are inaccessible for an industrial robot. A simulation study has shown that the methodology can accurately simulate the impact-contact dynamics behavior of the spacecraft in a docking operation.

  20. Weighted pseudolikelihood for SNP set analysis with multiple secondary outcomes in case-control genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Tamar; Schifano, Elizabeth D; Christiani, David C; Lin, Xihong

    2017-03-27

    We propose a weighted pseudolikelihood method for analyzing the association of a SNP set, example, SNPs in a gene or a genetic pathway or network, with multiple secondary phenotypes in case-control genetic association studies. To boost analysis power, we assume that the SNP-specific effects are shared across all secondary phenotypes using a scaled mean model. We estimate regression parameters using Inverse Probability Weighted (IPW) estimating equations obtained from the weighted pseudolikelihood, which accounts for case-control sampling to prevent potential ascertainment bias. To test the effect of a SNP set, we propose a weighted variance component pseudo-score test. We also propose a penalized IPW pseudolikelihood method for selecting a subset of SNPs that are associated with the multiple secondary phenotypes. We show that the proposed variable selection procedure has the oracle properties and is robust to misspecification of the correlation structure among secondary phenotypes. We select the tuning parameter using a weighted Bayesian Information-like Criterion (wBIC). We evaluate the finite sample performance of the proposed methods via simulations, and illustrate the methods by the analysis of the multiple secondary smoking behavior outcomes in a lung cancer case-control genetic association study.

  1. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  2. Current market for industrial minerals in SO sub 2 emission control in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, G.R. Jr. )

    1989-01-01

    During 1989 and 1990 Congress is expected to consider proposed amendments of the Federal Clean Air Act. One proposal seeks to cut sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions by almost 50 percent from current levels. The enactment of more stringent SO{sub 2} emission standards would affect Kentucky's coal industry and many coal-fired plants in the state. Depending upon selected or legislated emission-control strategies, industrial mineral producers may experience an increased demand for limestone, lime and dolomite. This article outlines the current use of industrial minerals for SO{sub 2} emission control in Kentucky. Flue-gas desulfurization and atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion systems have been installed at 13 coal and gas-fired plants and one research laboratory in the state. Limestone, lime, and dolomite, produced in Kentucky and adjacent states, are the principal SO{sub 2} sorbents in these systems.

  3. Antimony and arsenic leaching from secondary lead smelter air-pollution-control residues.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej

    2010-07-01

    Environments in the vicinity of the lead (Pb) smelters are contaminated by emissions containing high concentrations of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As). Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from bag-type filters from a secondary Pb smelter were subjected to leaching experiments to elucidate the controlling mechanisms of Sb and As release. Kinetic batch leaching tests at a liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio of 10 L kg(- 1) within the time frame of 720 hours and batch leaching at various L/S ratios (ranging from 1 to 1000 L kg(-1)) were performed. In contrast to other inorganic contaminants (Pb, Cd, Zn), less than 1% of the total Sb and As content was leached from the residues. At a L/S ratio of 10, the As and Sb concentrations in the leachates exceeded the EU limit values for non-hazardous waste (0.2 and 0.07 mg L(-1) ). According to PHREEQC-2 calculations, the concentrations of As and Sb are controlled by the precipitation of complex arsenates and antimonates mainly at low L/S ratios. The washing and related chemical/mineralogical transformation of APC residues was suggested as a technological pre-treatment process before their re-smelting in a blast furnace. The Ferrox-like processing of the resulting contaminated process water/leachate was simulated using the PHREEQC-2 code. Significant reduction was obtained in the concentration of some key contaminants (As, Cu, Pb, Zn) related to sorption on newly formed hydrous ferric oxides, whereas Sb and Cd exhibited only limited attenuation.

  4. An economic and technical assessment of black-dross and salt-cake-recycling systems for application in the secondary aluminum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Karvelas, D.; Daniels, E.; Jody, B.; Bonsignore, P.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry annually disposes of large amounts of dross residues and salt cake, which are by-products from the processing of scrap aluminum for reuse. These wastes contain as much as 50% salts and are presently disposed of in conventional landfills. As the costs of landfill space increase and the availability of landfill space decreases, disposal of the residues will increasingly compromise the economics of recycling aluminum. Alternative processes exist by which the major constituents of the various drosses and salt cakes can be recovered for recycling. In this study, we review available recycling technologies and processes relevant to the recycling of black dross and salt cake and discuss new concepts that have the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of recycling technologies.

  5. A survey of food allergen control practices in the U.S. food industry.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M; Khan, Nazleen; Yajnik, Monali

    2013-02-01

    Despite awareness of the importance of food allergy as a public health issue, recalls and adverse reactions linked to undeclared allergens in foods continue to occur with high frequency. To reduce the overall incidence of such problems and to ensure that food-allergic consumers have the information they need to prevent adverse reactions, it is important to understand which allergen control practices are currently used by the food industry. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration carried out directed inspections of registered food facilities in 2010 to obtain a broader understanding of industry allergen control practices in the United States. The results of these inspections show that allergen awareness and the use of allergen controls have increased greatly in the last decade, but that small facilities lag in implementing allergen controls.

  6. ADDENDUM TO ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is an addendum to a 1996 report, Assessment of Styrene Emission Controls for FRP/C and Boat Building Industries. It presents additional evaluation of the biological treatment of styrene emissions, Dow Chemical Company's Sorbathene solvent vapor recovery system, Occupa...

  7. 76 FR 23823 - Guidance for Industry on Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls, Fourth Edition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... principles of HACCP. Fish and fishery products are adulterated under section 402(a)(4) of the Federal Food... chapter has been added containing guidance for the control of pathogen survival through processes designed... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Fish and Fishery Products...

  8. 78 FR 63477 - Guidance for Industry on Active Controls in Studies To Demonstrate Effectiveness of a New Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... investigators who conduct studies using active controls and have a basic understanding of statistical principles... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Active Controls in Studies To... the availability of a guidance for industry 204 entitled ``Active Controls in Studies to...

  9. Integrated pollution prevention and control for heavy ceramic industry in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Barros, M C; Bello, P; Roca, E; Casares, J J

    2007-03-22

    The heavy ceramic industry (building materials and refractory products manufacture) is an important source of pollutants to the environment. For this reason these industrial sub-sectors are included in prevention and control pollution policies, specifically those of the European Union. The IPPC Directive pays particular attention to the mineral industries, not least to the ceramic industry (epigraph 3.5, Annex I). In this paper, a methodology which is being applied to support IPPC installations and the competent administrative authority in Galicia (NW Spain) is presented. For that, the Galician heavy ceramic industry is analysed, as also are the ways to study the Best Available Techniques (BAT) with a view to establishing the emission limit values (ELV) for each specific case. Hence, a technological state of the art has been carried out for both sub-sectors, from the point of view of implementation of the IPPC in Galicia. Following this, the processes are described briefly and an analysis of the consumption and emission levels of the main pollutants is made. An inventory that includes the best environmental practices and the preventive and abatement candidate techniques as BAT was elaborated for both considered sub-sectors. An information data sheet for each candidate BAT is presented as a method to help both the industries and the competent authority to identify a candidate technique of the inventory as BAT. Three illustrative examples of the application of this procedure are presented for different emissions to environmental media for Galician installations.

  10. A case-control study of bladder cancer in the United States rubber and tyre industry.

    PubMed Central

    Checkoway, H; Smith, A H; McMichael, A J; Jones, F S; Monson, R R; Tyroler, H A

    1981-01-01

    A case-control study of bladder cancer was conducted in five United States rubber and tyre companies to determine if there were high-risk jobs and work areas within the industry. The study included 220 male cases of bladder cancer, of whom 107 were identified from hospital record reviews and 113 from death certificates. Each case was matched individually with two industry controls by sex, race, year of birth, and company. One control was matched additionally by year of hire and duration of employment. Comparisons of cases and controls not matched by year of hire and age of hire showed no differences for those variables, which suggests that age and calendar period of first exposure to the industry were not risk determinants. When the work histories of both cases and controls were contrasted it was found that cases were more likely than controls to have worked in milling (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91) and calender operation (OR = 2.21) jobs. The relative risk estimates for milling and calender operation both exhibited linear trends of increase with duration of exposure. Milling and calender operation jobs entail potential exposures to volatilised reaction products from heated rubber stock. A better understanding of aetiological associations with job type will require more detailed characterisation of the work environment with regard to the sources and levels of aromatic amines and other suspected bladder carcinogens. PMID:7272236

  11. Flight evaluation of the DEEC secondary control air-start capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. B.; Nelson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The air-start capability of a secondary engine control (SEC) was tested for a DEEC-equipped F100 engine and installed in an F-15 airplane. Two air-start schedules were tested. The first was referred to as the group I schedule; the second or revised schedule was the group II start schedule. Using the group I start schedule, an airspeed of 300 knots was required to ensure successful 40- and 25-percent SEC-mode air starts. If N2 were less than 40 percent, a stall would occur when the start bleeds closed 40 sec after initiation of the air start. All JFS-assisted air starts were successful with the group start schedule. For the group II schedule, the time between pressurization and start-bleed closure ranged between 50 and 72 sec depending on altitude. All air starts were successful above 225 knots givin a 75-knot reduction in required airspeed for a successful air start. Spooldown air starts of 40 percent were successful at 200 knots at altitudes up to 10,650 m and at 175 knots at altitudes up to 6100 m. Idle rpm was lower than the desired 65 percent for air starts at higher altitudes and lower airspeeds. All JSF-assisted air starts were successful.

  12. Small RNA-dependent expression of secondary metabolism is controlled by Krebs cycle function in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kasumi; Kiefer, Patrick; Reimmann, Cornelia; Keel, Christoph; Dubuis, Christophe; Rolli, Joëlle; Vorholt, Julia A; Haas, Dieter

    2009-12-11

    Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, an antagonist of phytopathogenic fungi in the rhizosphere of crop plants, elaborates and excretes several secondary metabolites with antibiotic properties. Their synthesis depends on three small RNAs (RsmX, RsmY, and RsmZ), whose expression is positively controlled by the GacS-GacA two-component system at high cell population densities. To find regulatory links between primary and secondary metabolism in P. fluorescens and in the related species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we searched for null mutations that affected central carbon metabolism as well as the expression of rsmY-gfp and rsmZ-gfp reporter constructs but without slowing down the growth rate in rich media. Mutation in the pycAB genes (for pyruvate carboxylase) led to down-regulation of rsmXYZ and secondary metabolism, whereas mutation in fumA (for a fumarase isoenzyme) resulted in up-regulation of the three small RNAs and secondary metabolism in the absence of detectable nutrient limitation. These effects required the GacS sensor kinase but not the accessory sensors RetS and LadS. An analysis of intracellular metabolites in P. fluorescens revealed a strong positive correlation between small RNA expression and the pools of 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, and fumarate. We conclude that Krebs cycle intermediates (already known to control GacA-dependent virulence factors in P. aeruginosa) exert a critical trigger function in secondary metabolism via the expression of GacA-dependent small RNAs.

  13. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuja Syed, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    The 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies (ICSICCST-2013), took place in Karachi, Pakistan, from 24-26 June 2013. It was organized by Indus University, Karachi, in collaboration with HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi. More than 80 abstracts were submitted to the conference and were double blind-reviewed by an international scientific committee. The topics of the Conference were: Video, Image & Voice Sensing Sensing for Industry, Environment, and Health Automation and Controls Laser Sensors and Systems Displays for Innovative Applications Emerging Technologies Unmanned, Robotic, and Layered Systems Sensing for Defense, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement The title of the conference, 'Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies' is very apt in capturing the main issues facing the industry of Pakistan and the world. We believe the sensing industry, particularly in Pakistan, is currently at a critical juncture of its development. The future of the industry will depend on how the industry players choose to respond to the challenge of global competition and opportunities arising from strong growth in the Asian region for which we are pleased to note that the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues with an international perspective. This will certainly assist industry players to make informed decisions in shaping the future of the industry. The conference gathered qualified researchers from developed countries like USA, UK, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, China, South Korea and Malaysia etc whose expertise resulting from the research can be drawn upon to build an exploitable area of new technology that has potential Defense, Homeland Security, and Military applicability. More than 250 researchers/students attended the event and made the event great success as the turnout was 100%. An exceptional line-up of speakers spoke at the occasion. We want

  14. Truancy in Late Elementary and Early Secondary Education: The Influence of Social Bonds and Self-Control--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Tinga, Frank; Ormel, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Some pupils already show unexcused, illegal, surreptitious absences in elementary education or the first years of secondary education. Are weak social bonds (see also Hirschi, 1969) and a lack of self-control (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990) indicative of truancy at an early age? Of the children in our sample, 5% were persistent truants in late…

  15. Secondary flow and heat transfer control in gas turbine inlet nozzle guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Steven Wayne

    1998-12-01

    Endwall heat transfer is a very serious problem in the inlet nozzle guide vane region of gas turbine engines. To resolve heat transfer concerns and provide the desired thermal protection, modern cooling flows for the vane endwalls tend to be excessive leading to lossy and inefficient designs. Coolant introduction is further complicated by the flow patterns along vane endwall surfaces. They are three-dimensional and dominated by strong, complex secondary flows. To achieve performance goals for next-generation engines, more aerodynamically efficient and advanced cooling concepts, including combustor bleed cooling, must be investigated. To this end, the overall performance characteristics of several combustor bleed flow designs are assessed in this experimental study. In particular, their contributions toward secondary flow control and component cooling are documented. Testing is performed in a large-scale, guide vane simulator comprised of three airfoils encased between one contoured and one flat endwall. Core flow is supplied to this simulator at an inlet chord Reynolds number of 350,000 and turbulence intensity of 9.5%. Combustor bleed cooling flow is injected through the contoured endwall via inclined slots. The slots vary in cross-sectional area, have equivalent slot widths, and are positioned with their leeward edges 10% of the axial chord ahead of the airfoil leading edges. Measurements with hot-wire anemometry characterize the inlet and exit flow fields of the cascade. Total and static pressure measurements document aerodynamic performance. Thermocouple measurements detail thermal fields and permit evaluation of surface adiabatic effectiveness. To elucidate the effects of bleed injection, data are compared to an experiment taken without bleed. The influence of bleed mass flow rate and slot geometry on the aerodynamic losses and thermal protection arc given. This study suggests that such combustor bleed flow cooling offers significant thermal protection without

  16. A case study of ISO 11064 in control centre design in the Norwegian petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Aas, Andreas Lumbe; Skramstad, Torbjørn

    2010-12-01

    In 2006-2008 we performed a case study for the purpose of assessing the industrial application of the seven part Control Centre (CC) design standard ISO 11064 to identify positive and negative experiences among stakeholders in the Norwegian petroleum sector. We mainly focussed on ISO 11064 Part 1, because this was the most commonly used among the identified stakeholders. ISO 11064 is generally appreciated and applied in the industry, but we did observe a significant variance in use between the different parts of the standard. We also identified potential areas for improvements, like scope and application adaptation. Thus we suggest a more goal-based approach based on one normative part only.

  17. Fuzzy Predictive Control Strategy in the Application of the Industrial Furnace Temperature Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Luping; Chen, Xingliang; Chen, Liu; Liu, Xia

    Ceramic kiln with large heat capacity, big lag and nonlinear characteristic, this paper proposes a combining fuzzy control and predictive control of the control algorithm, to enhance the tracking and anti-interference ability of the algorithm. The simulation results show, this method compared with the control of PID has the high steady precision and dynamic characteristic.

  18. Identification of a classical mutant in the industrial host Aspergillus niger by systems genetics: LaeA is required for citric acid production and regulates the formation of some secondary metabolites

    DOE PAGES

    Niu, Jing; Arentshorst, Mark; Nair, P. Deepa S.; ...

    2015-11-13

    The asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important industrial cell factory for citric acid production. In this study, we genetically characterized a UV-generated A. niger mutant that was originally isolated as a nonacidifying mutant, which is a desirable trait for industrial enzyme production. Physiological analysis showed that this mutant did not secrete large amounts of citric acid and oxalic acid, thus explaining the nonacidifying phenotype. As traditional complementation approaches to characterize the mutant genotype were unsuccessful, we used bulk segregant analysis in combination with high-throughput genome sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for the nonacidifying phenotype. Since A. nigermore » has no sexual cycle, parasexual genetics was used to generate haploid segregants derived from diploids by loss of whole chromosomes. We found that the nonacidifying phenotype was caused by a point mutation in the laeA gene. LaeA encodes a putative methyltransferase-domain protein, which we show here to be required for citric acid production in an A. niger lab strain (N402) and in other citric acid production strains. The unexpected link between LaeA and citric acid production could provide new insights into the transcriptional control mechanisms related to citric acid production in A. niger. Interestingly, the secondary metabolite profile of a ΔlaeA strain differed from the wild-type strain, showing both decreased and increased metabolite levels, indicating that LaeA is also involved in regulating the production of secondary metabolites. As a result, we show that our systems genetics approach is a powerful tool to identify trait mutations.« less

  19. Identification of a classical mutant in the industrial host Aspergillus niger by systems genetics: LaeA is required for citric acid production and regulates the formation of some secondary metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Jing; Arentshorst, Mark; Nair, P. Deepa S.; Dai, Ziyu; Baker, Scott E.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Punt, Peter J.; Ram, Arthur F. J.

    2015-11-13

    The asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important industrial cell factory for citric acid production. In this study, we genetically characterized a UV-generated A. niger mutant that was originally isolated as a nonacidifying mutant, which is a desirable trait for industrial enzyme production. Physiological analysis showed that this mutant did not secrete large amounts of citric acid and oxalic acid, thus explaining the nonacidifying phenotype. As traditional complementation approaches to characterize the mutant genotype were unsuccessful, we used bulk segregant analysis in combination with high-throughput genome sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for the nonacidifying phenotype. Since A. niger has no sexual cycle, parasexual genetics was used to generate haploid segregants derived from diploids by loss of whole chromosomes. We found that the nonacidifying phenotype was caused by a point mutation in the laeA gene. LaeA encodes a putative methyltransferase-domain protein, which we show here to be required for citric acid production in an A. niger lab strain (N402) and in other citric acid production strains. The unexpected link between LaeA and citric acid production could provide new insights into the transcriptional control mechanisms related to citric acid production in A. niger. Interestingly, the secondary metabolite profile of a ΔlaeA strain differed from the wild-type strain, showing both decreased and increased metabolite levels, indicating that LaeA is also involved in regulating the production of secondary metabolites. As a result, we show that our systems genetics approach is a powerful tool to identify trait mutations.

  20. Identification of a Classical Mutant in the Industrial Host Aspergillus niger by Systems Genetics: LaeA Is Required for Citric Acid Production and Regulates the Formation of Some Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jing; Arentshorst, Mark; Nair, P Deepa S; Dai, Ziyu; Baker, Scott E; Frisvad, Jens C; Nielsen, Kristian F; Punt, Peter J; Ram, Arthur F J

    2015-11-13

    The asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important industrial cell factory for citric acid production. In this study, we genetically characterized a UV-generated A. niger mutant that was originally isolated as a nonacidifying mutant, which is a desirable trait for industrial enzyme production. Physiological analysis showed that this mutant did not secrete large amounts of citric acid and oxalic acid, thus explaining the nonacidifying phenotype. As traditional complementation approaches to characterize the mutant genotype were unsuccessful, we used bulk segregant analysis in combination with high-throughput genome sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for the nonacidifying phenotype. Since A. niger has no sexual cycle, parasexual genetics was used to generate haploid segregants derived from diploids by loss of whole chromosomes. We found that the nonacidifying phenotype was caused by a point mutation in the laeA gene. LaeA encodes a putative methyltransferase-domain protein, which we show here to be required for citric acid production in an A. niger lab strain (N402) and in other citric acid production strains. The unexpected link between LaeA and citric acid production could provide new insights into the transcriptional control mechanisms related to citric acid production in A. niger. Interestingly, the secondary metabolite profile of a ΔlaeA strain differed from the wild-type strain, showing both decreased and increased metabolite levels, indicating that LaeA is also involved in regulating the production of secondary metabolites. Finally, we show that our systems genetics approach is a powerful tool to identify trait mutations.

  1. Identification of a Classical Mutant in the Industrial Host Aspergillus niger by Systems Genetics: LaeA Is Required for Citric Acid Production and Regulates the Formation of Some Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jing; Arentshorst, Mark; Nair, P. Deepa S.; Dai, Ziyu; Baker, Scott E.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Punt, Peter J.; Ram, Arthur F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important industrial cell factory for citric acid production. In this study, we genetically characterized a UV-generated A. niger mutant that was originally isolated as a nonacidifying mutant, which is a desirable trait for industrial enzyme production. Physiological analysis showed that this mutant did not secrete large amounts of citric acid and oxalic acid, thus explaining the nonacidifying phenotype. As traditional complementation approaches to characterize the mutant genotype were unsuccessful, we used bulk segregant analysis in combination with high-throughput genome sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for the nonacidifying phenotype. Since A. niger has no sexual cycle, parasexual genetics was used to generate haploid segregants derived from diploids by loss of whole chromosomes. We found that the nonacidifying phenotype was caused by a point mutation in the laeA gene. LaeA encodes a putative methyltransferase-domain protein, which we show here to be required for citric acid production in an A. niger lab strain (N402) and in other citric acid production strains. The unexpected link between LaeA and citric acid production could provide new insights into the transcriptional control mechanisms related to citric acid production in A. niger. Interestingly, the secondary metabolite profile of a ΔlaeA strain differed from the wild-type strain, showing both decreased and increased metabolite levels, indicating that LaeA is also involved in regulating the production of secondary metabolites. Finally, we show that our systems genetics approach is a powerful tool to identify trait mutations. PMID:26566947

  2. Working Memory Training in Post-Secondary Students with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Mawjee, Karizma; Woltering, Steven; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether standard-length computerized training enhances working memory (WM), transfers to other cognitive domains and shows sustained effects, when controlling for motivation, engagement, and expectancy. Methods 97 post-secondary students (59.8% female) aged 18–35 years with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, were randomized into standard-length adaptive Cogmed WM training (CWMT; 45-min/session), a shortened-length adaptive version of CWMT (15 min/session) that controlled for motivation, engagement and expectancy of change, or into a no training group (waitlist-control group). All three groups received weekly telephone calls from trained coaches, who supervised the CWMT and were independent from the research team. All were evaluated before and 3 weeks post-training; those in the two CWMT groups were also assessed 3 months post-training. Untrained outcome measures of WM included the WAIS-IV Digit Span (auditory-verbal WM), CANTAB Spatial Span (visual-spatial WM) and WRAML Finger Windows (visual-spatial WM). Transfer-of-training effects included measures of short-term memory, cognitive speed, math and reading fluency, complex reasoning, and ADHD symptoms. Results Performance on 5/7 criterion measures indicated that shortened-length CWMT conferred as much benefit on WM performance as did standard-length training, with both CWMT groups improving more than the waitlist-control group. Only 2 of these findings remained robust after correcting for multiple comparisons. Follow-up analyses revealed that post-training improvements on WM performance were maintained for at least three months. There was no evidence of any transfer effects but the standard-length group showed improvement in task-specific strategy use. Conclusions This study failed to find robust evidence of benefits of standard-length CWMT for improving WM in college students with ADHD and the overall pattern of findings raise questions about the specificity of training effects

  3. Uncertainty analysis of primary water pollutant control in China's pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zong-guo; Di, Jing-han; Zhang, Xue-ying

    2016-03-15

    The total emission control target of water pollutants (e.g., COD and NH4-N) for a certain industrial sector can be predicted and analysed using the popular technology-based bottom-up modelling. However, this methodology has obvious uncertainty regarding the attainment of mitigation targets. The primary uncertainty comes from macro-production, pollutant reduction roadmap, and technical parameters. This research takes the paper and pulp industry in China as an example, and builds 5 mitigation scenarios via different combinations of raw material structure, scale structure, procedure mitigation technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology. Using the methodology of uncertainty analysis via Monte Carlo, random sampling was conducted over a hundred thousand times. According to key parameters, sensitive parameters that impact total emission control targets such as industrial output, technique structure, cleaner production technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology are discussed in this article. It appears that scenario uncertainty has a larger influence on COD emission than NH4-N, hence it is recommended that a looser total emission control target for COD is necessary to increase its feasibility and availability while maintaining the status quo of NH4-N. Consequently, from uncertainty analysis, this research recognizes the sensitive products, techniques, and technologies affecting industrial water pollution.

  4. The infant formula industry, the Infant Formula Act of 1980, and quality control.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, R C

    1982-11-01

    Throughout the months following the discovery of the low-chloride problem in infant formula, the industry undertook independent and voluntary measures to ensure the compositional quality of formulas. Members of the Infant Formula Council reviewed industry procedures, practices, and policies, and submitted a detailed description of its quality control and clinical testing procedures to the Food and Drug Administration. New product concepts and product reformulation proposals are based on medical and nutritional findings, on changes in medical concepts for nutritional support, on availability of improved nutrient sources, or on improved ingredients or processing technologies. Quality control is maintained throughout the manufacturing process through inspection of raw materials, analysis of major and minor constituents, equipment and process controls, and continuous product monitoring. However, despite cooperation of the infant formula industry with FDA and Congress during the development of the infant formula bills, the proposed document was too rigid and did not take into account that manufacturing methods of a given manufacturer often vary for the same product, for different products, and on different production equipment. The statistical criteria established uneven and inconsistent requirements for various manufacturers. Congress did not forsee that the proposed regulatory procedures would significantly affect industry.

  5. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The Verbano Cusio Ossola province (VCO, Piedmont, north-western Italy) is one of the most important Italian quarrying districts, due to the peculiarity and variety of its exploited rock types, mainly orthogneisses such as Serizzo and Beola, and subordinately granites, marbles and other rocks. The most important and extensively exploited ornamental stone from the VCO province is surely the Serizzo, commercialized in four main varieties, and representing about 70% of all the stone production from the VCO area. The protholith of the Serizzo is a Permian granite - granodiorite metamorphosed during the alpine events, and the rock-forming minerals are mainly quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase (andesine), biotite, with variable amounts of muscovite and epidote (allanite). The other important ornamental stone of the VCO province is the Beola, a series of heterogeneous materials (mainly orthogneisses) with marked (mylonitic) foliation and strong mineralogical lineation, occurring in the median Ossola Valley; its production (15% of the whole stones of the VCO) is subordinated with respect to that of Serizzo. The mineralogical composition of the Beola varieties is similar to Serizzo, consisting of quite homogeneous quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline), plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. The main differences relate to the grain size, the rock fabric (generally mylonitic) and to the presence of accessory/secondary minerals. Recent regulatory developments and the growing environmental awareness, require an increasing reuse of wastes deriving from the extraction and processing of dimension stones (up to 50 % of the extracted gross volume). Granite wastes from the VCO (Baveno pink granite and Montorfano white granite), after specific industrial treatments (crushing, sieving, drying, magnetic separation of biotite and hornblende), are used successfully as quartz-feldspars mix in the ceramic industry, with very low FeOtot content. On the other hand, other quartzose

  6. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  7. Perceptions of industry responsibility and tobacco control policy by US tobacco company executives in trial testimony

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael; Ferrence, Roberta; LeGresley, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Objective Trial testimony from the United States provides a unique opportunity to examine strategies of the American tobacco industry. This paper examines congruence between the arguments for tobacco control policy presented by representatives of the American tobacco industry at trial and the stages of responsibility associated with corporate social responsibility principles in other industries. Data sources Trial testimony collected and coded by the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA). Study selection All available testimony was gathered from representative senior staff from major tobacco companies: Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, and Liggett. Data extraction Transcripts from each witness selected were collected and imported in text format into WinMax, a qualitative data program. The documents were searched for terms relating to tobacco control policies, and relevant terms were extracted. A hand search of the documents was also conducted by reading through the testimony. Inferred responsibility for various tobacco control policies (health information, second‐hand smoking, youth smoking) was coded. Data synthesis The level of responsibility for tobacco control policy varied according to the maturity of the issue. For emerging issues, US tobacco company representatives expressed defensiveness while, for more mature issues, such as youth smoking, they showed increased willingness to deal with the issue. This response to social issues is consistent with corporate social responsibility strategies in other industries. Conclusion While other industries use corporate social responsibility programmes to address social issues to protect their core business product, the fundamental social issue with tobacco is the product itself. As such, the corporate nature of tobacco companies is a structural obstacle to reducing harm caused by tobacco use. PMID:17130631

  8. Enhancement of the 77 K critical currents on thin textured Bi-2212 rods by controlled distribution of secondary phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natividad, E.; Angurel, L. A.; Díez, J. C.; Navarro, R.; Martínez, E.; Yang, Y.; Beduz, C.

    2002-08-01

    Long and thin Bi-2212 rods textured by laser induced zone melting show inhomogeneous radial distribution of secondary phases and Bi concentration in transverse cross-sections. The microstructure inhomogeneity, which depends on the growth conditions, is reflected in the physical properties of the samples. We have estimated the radial distribution of Jc (77 K) in different samples using destructive and non-destructive approaches, correlating these results with the microstructure variations. Using this knowledge, the conductor performance at 77 K has been optimised by controlling the distribution of secondary phases.

  9. Analog-model simulations for secondary canal controls and forward pumping water-management schemes in southeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordes, E.H.; Gardner, Richard Alfred

    1976-01-01

    The analog model of the Biscayne aquifer of southeast Florida was used to approximate the effects of two proposed water-management schemes. One involved adding a secondary control structure in a major canal which is controlled near the coast. In the model the controls were operated in accordance with canal water level both above and below the secondary control. Although the model could not differentiate between control openings of 1 foot or 5 feet, it showed that the secondary control is a viable method of conserving ground water. The second scheme involved pumping ground water ('forward pumping') from the Biscayne aquifer in inland areas during the dry season to: (1) augment canal flows toward the coast to sustain ground-water levels there, and (2) generate additional ground-water storage space for recharge in the wet season. Several sites on the model were programmed for forward pumping wells and the storage change was noted as a percentage of the ground-water withdrawal. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Lessons learned in over 100 zebra mussel control applications at industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    McGough, C.M.; Gilland, P.H.; Muia, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    Since their introduction into US waterways, Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorphae) have spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes and Mississippi regions. These mussels have continued to colonize the intake pipes of industrial water supplies and water distribution systems throughout the affected areas. Their colonization has compromised plant safety and production efficiency, and steadily increased costs to water users. The design of each industrial plant water distribution system is unique. A comprehensive zebra mussel control strategy using the best available options must be considered in each specific situation. This paper discusses the successful use of one strategy (a quaternary ammonia-based molluscicide) in the battle against zebra mussels. The commercial life cycle of an industrial molluscicide began with initial toxicity screening in the laboratory. The evaluation continued at plant sites through field trials and applications. Lessons learned from these experiences helped direct the efforts toward the development of a second generation program.

  11. Teaching earth sciences: should we implement teacher-directed or student-controlled CAI in the secondary classroom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2003-04-01

    While previous studies and meta analyses have primarily focused on the comparative efficacy of computer assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction, there have been relatively fewer examples of research exploring how various teaching formats of CAI influence student science learning outcomes in the secondary classroom. In this paper this issue is addressed by comparing teacher-directed CAI (TDCAI) and student-controlled CAI (SCCAI) in a compulsory earth science course in a secondary school in Taiwan. Data collection instruments included the Earth Science Achievement Test and the Attitudes Toward Earth Science Inventory. A multivariate analysis of covariance suggested that TDCAI students had significantly higher score gains than SCCAI students on the set of achievement and attitude measures. It is therefore suggested that TDCAI-based instruction is an alternative in teaching basic science concepts in the secondary classroom.

  12. Comparison of two approaches to automated PI controller tuning for an industrial weigh belt feeder.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanan; Collins, Emmanuel G

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, two advanced PI controller tuning methods, unfalsified control and fuzzy control, are applied to an industrial weigh belt feeder that has significant nonlinearities. Both methods do not require an explicit plant model. The advantage of the unfalsified PI control design method is that it is able to directly incorporate multiple performance criteria, while the advantage of fuzzy logic is that it is able to directly incorporate human reasoning in the design process. Experimental results exhibit the effectiveness of both control methods. A detailed comparison of the two approaches is given in the areas of allowed design specifications, process knowledge requirements, computational requirements, controller development effort, transient performance, and the ability to handle motor saturation.

  13. Mineralogy of air-pollution-control residues from a secondary lead smelter: environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtech; Johan, Zdenek; Baronnet, Alain; Jankovsky, Filip; Gilles, Christian; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej; Strnad, Ladislav; Bezdicka, Petr

    2005-12-01

    The mineralogy and solubility of air-pollution-control (APC) residues from a secondary lead (Pb) smelter have been studied on samples from the Príbram smelter, Czech Republic, recycling car batteries, with the emphasis on their potential environmental effect. The presence of dominant anglesite (PbSO4) and laurionite (Pb(OH)Cl) was observed in a sintered residue from after-burning chambers (800-1000 degrees C). In contrast, low-temperature Pb-bearing phases, such as KCl x 2PbCl2 and caracolite (Na3Pb2(SO4)3Cl), were detected in the major APC residue from bag-type fabric filters. Metallic elements, zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and tin (Sn) were found homogeneously distributed within this residue. The formation of anglesite, cotunnite (PbCl2), (Zn,Cd)2SnO4, and (Sb,As)2O3 was observed during the sintering of this APC residue at 500 degrees C in a rotary furnace. The 168 h leaching test on filter residue, representing the fraction that may escape the flue gas treatment system, indicated rapid release of Pb and other contaminants. Caracolite and KCl x 2PbCl2 are significantly dissolved, and anglesite and cotunnite form the alteration products, as was confirmed by mineralogical analysis and PHREEQC-2 modeling. The observed Pb-bearing chlorides have significantly higher solubility than anglesite and, following emission from the smelter stack, can readily dissolve, transferring Pb into the environmental milieu (soils, water, inhabited areas).

  14. Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hickey-Schultz, Lynn; Cohen, Deborah; Steiner, Naomi; Cope, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate potential mental health benefits of yoga for adolescents in secondary school. Students were randomly assigned to either regular physical education classes or to 11 weeks of yoga sessions based upon the Yoga Ed program over a single semester. Students completed baseline and end-program self-report measures of mood, anxiety, perceived stress, resilience, and other mental health variables. Independent evaluation of individual outcome measures revealed that yoga participants showed statistically significant differences over time relative to controls on measures of anger control and fatigue/inertia. Most outcome measures exhibited a pattern of worsening in the control group over time, whereas changes in the yoga group over time were either minimal or showed slight improvements. These preliminary results suggest that implementation of yoga is acceptable and feasible in a secondary school setting and has the potential of playing a protective or preventive role in maintaining mental health.

  15. Assessment Study on Sensors and Automation in the Industries of the Future. Reports on Industrial Controls, Information Processing, Automation, and Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Bonnie; Boddy, Mark; Doyle, Frank; Jamshidi, Mo; Ogunnaike, Tunde

    2004-11-01

    This report presents the results of an expert study to identify research opportunities for Sensors & Automation, a sub-program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). The research opportunities are prioritized by realizable energy savings. The study encompasses the technology areas of industrial controls, information processing, automation, and robotics. These areas have been central areas of focus of many Industries of the Future (IOF) technology roadmaps. This report identifies opportunities for energy savings as a direct result of advances in these areas and also recognizes indirect means of achieving energy savings, such as product quality improvement, productivity improvement, and reduction of recycle.

  16. Identification of Immune Effectors Essential to the Control of Primary and Secondary Intranasal Infection with Brucella melitensis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Machelart, Arnaud; Potemberg, Georges; De Trez, Carl; Ryffel, Bernhard; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2016-05-01

    The mucosal immune system represents the first line of defense against Brucella infection in nature. We used genetically deficient mice to identify the lymphocytes and signaling pathways implicated in the control of primary and secondary intranasal infection with B. melitensis Our analysis of primary infection demonstrated that the effectors implicated differ at the early and late stages and are dependent on the organ. TCR-δ, TAP1, and IL-17RA deficiency specifically affects early control of Brucella in the lungs, whereas MHC class II (MHCII) and IFN-γR deficiency impairs late control in the lungs, spleen, and liver. Interestingly, IL-12p35(-/-) mice display enhanced Brucella growth in the spleen but not in the lungs or liver. Secondary intranasal infections are efficiently contained in the lung. In contrast to an i.p. infectious model, in which IL-12p35, MHCII, and B cells are strictly required for the control of secondary infection, we observed that only TCR-β deficiency or simultaneous neutralization of IL-12p35- and IL-17A-dependent pathways impairs the memory protective response against a secondary intranasal infection. Protection is not affected by TCR-δ, MHCII, TAP1, B cell, IL-17RA, or IL-12p35 deficiency, suggesting that CD4(+) and CD8(+) α/β(+) T cells are sufficient to mount a protective immune response and that an IL-17A-mediated response can compensate for the partial deficiency of an IFN-γ-mediated response to control a Brucella challenge. These findings demonstrate that the nature of the protective memory response depends closely on the route of infection and highlights the role of IFN-γ-and IL-17RA-mediated responses in the control of mucosal infection by Brucella.

  17. Tackling optimization challenges in industrial load control and full-duplex radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholian, Armen

    In price-based demand response programs in smart grid, utilities set the price in accordance with the grid operating conditions and consumers respond to price signals by conducting optimal load control to minimize their energy expenditure while satisfying their energy needs. Industrial sector consumes a large portion of world electricity and addressing optimal load control of energy-intensive industrial complexes, such as steel industry and oil-refinery, is of practical importance. Formulating a general industrial complex and addressing issues in optimal industrial load control in smart grid is the focus of the second part of this dissertation. Several industrial load details are considered in the proposed formulation, including those that do not appear in residential or commercial load control problems. Operation under different smart pricing scenarios, namely, day-ahead pricing, time-of-use pricing, peak pricing, inclining block rates, and critical peak pricing are considered. The use of behind-the-meter renewable generation and energy storage is also considered. The formulated optimization problem is originally nonlinear and nonconvex and thus hard to solve. However, it is then reformulated into a tractable linear mixed-integer program. The performance of the design is assessed through various simulations for an oil refinery and a steel mini-mill. In the third part of this dissertation, a novel all-analog RF interference canceler is proposed. Radio self-interference cancellation (SIC) is the fundamental enabler for full-duplex radios. While SIC methods based on baseband digital signal processing and/or beamforming are inadequate, an all-analog method is useful to drastically reduce the self-interference as the first stage of SIC. It is shown that a uniform architecture with uniformly distributed RF attenuators has a performance highly dependent on the carrier frequency. It is also shown that a new architecture with the attenuators distributed in a clustered

  18. Advanced approach to information security management system model for industrial control system.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Kyungho

    2014-01-01

    Organizations make use of important information in day-to-day business. Protecting sensitive information is imperative and must be managed. Companies in many parts of the world protect sensitive information using the international standard known as the information security management system (ISMS). ISO 27000 series is the international standard ISMS used to protect confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information. While an ISMS based on ISO 27000 series has no particular flaws for general information systems, it is unfit to manage sensitive information for industrial control systems (ICSs) because the first priority of industrial control is safety of the system. Therefore, a new information security management system based on confidentiality, integrity, and availability as well as safety is required for ICSs. This new ISMS must be mutually exclusive of an ICS. This paper provides a new paradigm of ISMS for ICSs, which will be shown to be more suitable than the existing ISMS.

  19. Advanced Approach to Information Security Management System Model for Industrial Control System

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Organizations make use of important information in day-to-day business. Protecting sensitive information is imperative and must be managed. Companies in many parts of the world protect sensitive information using the international standard known as the information security management system (ISMS). ISO 27000 series is the international standard ISMS used to protect confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information. While an ISMS based on ISO 27000 series has no particular flaws for general information systems, it is unfit to manage sensitive information for industrial control systems (ICSs) because the first priority of industrial control is safety of the system. Therefore, a new information security management system based on confidentiality, integrity, and availability as well as safety is required for ICSs. This new ISMS must be mutually exclusive of an ICS. This paper provides a new paradigm of ISMS for ICSs, which will be shown to be more suitable than the existing ISMS. PMID:25136659

  20. The method providing fault-tolerance for information and control systems of the industrial mechatronic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, E. V.; Klimenko, A. B.; Korobkin, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the provision of information and control system fault-tolerance. Nowadays, a huge quantity of industrial mechatronic objects operate within hazardous environments, where the human is not supposed to be. So the question of fault-tolerant information and control system design and development becomes the cornerstone of a large amount of industrial mechatronic objects. Within this paper, a new complex method of providing the reconfigurable systems fault-tolerance is represented. It bases on performance redundancy and decentralized dispatching principles. The key term within the method presented is a ‘configuration’, so the model of the configuration forming problem is represented too, and simulation results are given and discussed briefly.

  1. Process control monitoring systems, industrial plants, and process control monitoring methods

    DOEpatents

    Skorpik, James R [Kennewick, WA; Gosselin, Stephen R [Richland, WA; Harris, Joe C [Kennewick, WA

    2010-09-07

    A system comprises a valve; a plurality of RFID sensor assemblies coupled to the valve to monitor a plurality of parameters associated with the valve; a control tag configured to wirelessly communicate with the respective tags that are coupled to the valve, the control tag being further configured to communicate with an RF reader; and an RF reader configured to selectively communicate with the control tag, the reader including an RF receiver. Other systems and methods are also provided.

  2. Enzymatic approaches in paper industry for pulp refining and biofilm control.

    PubMed

    Torres, C E; Negro, C; Fuente, E; Blanco, A

    2012-10-01

    The use of enzymes has a high potential in the pulp and paper industry to improve the economics of the paper production process and to achieve, at the same time, a reduced environmental impact. Specific enzymes contribute to reduce the amount of chemicals and energy required for the modification of fibers and helps to prevent the formation or development of biofilms. This review is aimed at presenting the latest progresses made in the application of enzymes as refining aids and biofilm control agents.

  3. Earthquake Damage to Industrial Facilities and Development of Seismic and Vibration Control Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kohei

    This paper reviews the situations and features of earthquake damage to industrial facilities, manufacturing companies, energy supply facilities, and mechanical structures and installations in Japan, and traces trends of countermeasure technology developed focusing on earthquake resistance and vibration control. In Japan, with the 1964 Niigata earthquake as the turning point, earthquake damage to industrial facilities became a social problem. With power stations being constructed in the 1960s, it also became an important technological policy to establish seismic design method for nonbuilding structures such as equipment and piping systems related to nuclear power. The Kobe earthquake in 1995 damaged production companies including leading manufacturers so extensively that it brought a new focus to seismic considerations. We studied the damage to typical equipment and installations and, based on this experience, investigated the features of damage modes to industrial facilities and machinery and considered corresponding technical measures. We present some examples and discuss progressive trends in seismic and vibration control technology following the Kobe earthquake. In particular, we focus on the new seismic design code for high-pressure gas facilities and the development of seismic and vibration control dampers and their applications.

  4. Birth Control in Clinical Trials: Industry Survey of Current Use Practices, Governance, and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J; Breslin, W J; Beyer, B K; Chadwick, K; De Schaepdrijver, L; Desai, M; Enright, B; Foster, W; Hui, J Y; Moffat, G J; Tornesi, B; Van Malderen, K; Wiesner, L; Chen, C L

    2016-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee sponsored a pharmaceutical industry survey on current industry practices for contraception use during clinical trials. The objectives of the survey were to improve our understanding of the current industry practices for contraception requirements in clinical trials, the governance processes set up to promote consistency and/or compliance with contraception requirements, and the effectiveness of current contraception practices in preventing pregnancies during clinical trials. Opportunities for improvements in current practices were also considered. The survey results from 12 pharmaceutical companies identified significant variability among companies with regard to contraception practices and governance during clinical trials. This variability was due primarily to differences in definitions, areas of scientific uncertainty or misunderstanding, and differences in company approaches to enrollment in clinical trials. The survey also revealed that few companies collected data in a manner that would allow a retrospective understanding of the reasons for failure of birth control during clinical trials. In this article, suggestions are made for topics where regulatory guidance or scientific publications could facilitate best practice. These include provisions for a pragmatic definition of women of childbearing potential, guidance on how animal data can influence the requirements for male and female birth control, evidence-based guidance on birth control and pregnancy testing regimes suitable for low- and high-risk situations, plus practical methods to ascertain the risk of drug-drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives.

  5. Force Sensor-less Workspace Virtual Impedance Control Considering Resonant Vibration for Industrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungpataratanawong, Somsawas; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa; Katsura, Seiichiro

    The motion control paradigm provides sufficient performance in many elementary industrial tasks. However, only stiff motion the robot cannot accommodate the interaction force under constrained motion. In such situation, the robot is required to perform interaction behavior with the environment. The conventional impedance control schemes require force-sensing devices to feedback force signals to the controllers. The force-sensing device is therefore indispensable and the performance of the system also depends on the quality of this device. This paper proposes a novel strategy for force sensor-less impedance control using disturbance observer and dynamic model of the robot to estimate the external force. In motion task, the robust D-PD (derivative-PD) control is used with feedforward inverse-dynamic torque compensation to ensure robustness and high-speed response with flexible joint model. When robot is in contact with environment, the proposed force sensor-less scheme impedance control with inner-loop D-PD control is utilized. D-PD control uses both position and speed as the references to implement the damping and stiffness characteristic of the virtual impedance model. In addition, the gravity and friction force-feedback compensation is computed by the same dynamic model, which is used in external force estimation. The flexible-joint robot model is utilized in both disturbance observer and motion control design. The workspace impedance control for robot interaction with human operator is implemented on the experimental setup three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) robot manipulator to assure the ability and performance of the proposed force sensor-less scheme for flexible-joint industrial robot.

  6. The Upper Midwest Health Study: Industry and Occupation of Glioma Cases and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Avima M.; Waters, Martha A.; Carreón, Tania; Butler, Mary A.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.; Davis-King, Karen E.; Waters, Kathleen M.; Schulte, Paul A.; Mandel, Jack S.; Morton, Roscoe F.; Reding, Douglas J.; Rosenman, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding glioma etiology requires determining which environmental factors are associated with glioma. Upper Midwest Health Study case–control participant work histories collected 1995–1998 were evaluated for occupational associations with glioma. “Exposures of interest” from our study protocol comprise our a priori hypotheses. Materials and Methods Year-long or longer jobs for 1,973 participants were assigned Standard Occupational Classifications (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC). The analysis file includes 8,078 SIC- and SOC-coded jobs. For each individual, SAS 9.2 programs collated employment with identical SIC-SOC coding. Distributions of longest “total employment duration” (total years worked in jobs with identical industry and occupation codes, including multiple jobs, and non-consecutive jobs) were compared between cases and controls, using an industrial hygiene algorithm to group occupations. Results Longest employment duration was calculated for 780 cases and 1,156 controls. More case than control longest total employment duration was in the “engineer, architect” occupational group [16 cases, 10 controls, odds ratio (OR) 2.50, adjusted for age group, sex, age and education, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12–5.60]. Employment as a food processing worker [mostly butchers and meat cutters] was of borderline significance (27 cases, 21 controls, adjusted OR: 1.78, CI: 0.99–3.18). Conclusions Among our exposures of interest work as engineers or as butchers and meat cutters was associated with increased glioma risk. Significant associations could be due to chance, because of multiple comparisons, but similar findings have been reported for other glioma studies. Our results suggest some possible associations but by themselves could not provide conclusive evidence. PMID:22715102

  7. A case–control study of occupation/industry and renal cell carcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of occupation in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is unclear. Here, we investigated associations between employment in specific occupations and industries and RCC, and its most common histologic subtype, clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Methods Between 2002 and 2007, a population-based case–control study of Caucasians and African Americans (1,217 cases; 1,235 controls) was conducted within the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas to investigate risk factors for RCC. As part of this study, occupational histories were ascertained through in-person interviews. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating occupation and industry to RCC risk using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. Results Employment in the agricultural crop production industry for five years or more was associated with RCC (OR = 3.3 [95% CI = 1.0-11.5]) and ccRCC in particular (OR = 6.3 [95% CI = 1.7-23.3], P for trend with duration of employment = 0.0050). Similarly, RCC risk was elevated for employment of five years or longer in non-managerial agricultural and related occupations (ORRCC = 2.1 [95% CI = 1.0-4.5]; ORccRCC = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4-6.8]). Employment in the dry-cleaning industry was also associated with elevated risk (ORRCC = 2.0 [95% CI = 0.9-4.4], P for trend = 0.093; ORccRCC = 3.0 [95% CI = 1.2-7.4], P for trend = 0.031). Suggestive elevated associations were observed for police/public safety workers, health care workers and technicians, and employment in the electronics, auto repair, and cleaning/janitorial services industries; protective associations were suggested for many white-collar jobs including computer science and administrative occupations as well employment in the business, legislative, and education industries. Conclusions Our findings provide support for an elevated risk of RCC in the agricultural and dry-cleaning industries and suggest that these

  8. Validation and implementation of model based control strategies at an industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Demey, D; Vanderhaegen, B; Vanhooren, H; Liessens, J; Van Eyck, L; Hopkins, L; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the practical implementation and validation of advanced control strategies, designed using model based techniques, at an industrial wastewater treatment plant is demonstrated. The plant under study is treating the wastewater of a large pharmaceutical production facility. The process characteristics of the wastewater treatment were quantified by means of tracer tests, intensive measurement campaigns and the use of on-line sensors. In parallel, a dynamical model of the complete wastewater plant was developed according to the specific kinetic characteristics of the sludge and the highly varying composition of the industrial wastewater. Based on real-time data and dynamic models, control strategies for the equalisation system, the polymer dosing and phosphorus addition were established. The control strategies are being integrated in the existing SCADA system combining traditional PLC technology with robust PC based control calculations. The use of intelligent control in wastewater treatment offers a wide spectrum of possibilities to upgrade existing plants, to increase the capacity of the plant and to eliminate peaks. This can result in a more stable and secure overall performance and, finally, in cost savings. The use of on-line sensors has a potential not only for monitoring concentrations, but also for manipulating flows and concentrations. This way the performance of the plant can be secured.

  9. Control of cell morphology of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus for enhanced cell stability during industrial processing.

    PubMed

    Senz, Martin; van Lengerich, Bernhard; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-01-02

    The viability of bacteria during industrial processing is an essential quality criterion for bacterial preparations, such as probiotics and starter cultures. Therefore, producing stable microbial cultures during proliferation is of great interest. A strong correlation between the culture medium and cellular morphology was observed for the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which is commonly used in the dairy industry as a probiotic supplement and as a starter culture. The cell shapes ranged from single short rods to long filamentous rods. The culture medium composition could control this phenomenon of pleomorphism, especially the use of peptone in combination with an adequate heating of the medium during preparation. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the cell size and stability of the microorganisms during industrial processing steps, such as freeze-drying, extrusion encapsulation and storage following dried preparations. The results revealed that short cells are more stable than long cells during each of the industrially relevant processing steps. As demonstrated for L. acidophilus NCFM, the adaptation of the medium composition and optimized medium preparation offer the possibility to increase the concentration of viable cells during up- and survival rate during down-stream processing.

  10. Controlling for "Ability": A Conceptual and Empirical Study of Primary and Secondary Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Roy

    2006-01-01

    Although Boudons distinction between primary and secondary effects, and its associated rational action models of inequality of educational opportunity, have been more influential in the field of social stratification and mobility than in the sociology of education, there is good reason to reconsider the theoretical and practical implications of…

  11. Behaviour, Classroom Management and Student "Control": Enacting Policy in the English Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Meg; Ball, Stephen; Braun, Annette

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on an ESRC-funded study of policy enactments in English secondary schools (RES-062-23-1484) based on case-study work in four similar "ordinary" schools. The study has two main objectives; to develop a theory of policy enactment and to explore empirically the differences in the enactment of policy in similar contexts.…

  12. Pesticides used against Cydia pomonella disrupt biological control of secondary pests of apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of codling moth management programs on secondary pests of apple were examined from 2008 to 2011 in five replicated large-plot trials. The orchards were chosen for a history of Eriosoma lanigerum and tetranychid mite outbreaks. Programs covered the first, second, or both generations of C....

  13. [Study on control and management for industrial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Nei, Lei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from industrial sources account for a large percent of total anthropogenic VOCs. In this paper, VOCs emission characterization, control technologies and management were discussed. VOCs from industrial emissions were characterized by high intensity, wide range and uneven distribution, which focused on Bejing-Tianjin Joint Belt, Shangdong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. The current technologies for VOCs treatment include adsorption, catalytic combustion, bio-degradation and others, which were applied in petrochemical, oil vapor recovery, shipbuilding, printing, pharmaceutical, feather manufacturing and so on. The scarcity of related regulations/standards plus ineffective supervision make the VOCs management difficult. Therefore, it is suggested that VOCs treatment be firstly performed from key areas and industries, and then carried out step by step. By establishing of actual reducing amount control system and more detailed VOCs emission standards and regulations, applying practical technologies together with demonstration projects, and setting up VOCs emission registration and classification-related-charge system, VOCs could be reduced effectively.

  14. Influence of controlled inoculation of malolactic fermentation on the sensory properties of industrial cider.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ainoa; de Revel, Gilles; Antalick, Guillaume; Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Given the lack of research in the traditional cider making field when compared to the efforts devoted to winemaking, this work focused on the effects of controlled inoculation of the malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the sensory properties of cider. MLF develops spontaneously in cider making at industrial level. In this work, industrial cider samples were inoculated with selected indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains and the benefits on the aroma and flavour in cider production compared to non-inoculated ciders were evaluated. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR was used to monitor strain colonization ability, outnumbering the indigenous microbiota, after completion of the alcoholic fermentation at industrial scale (20,000 l). Aroma-active compounds of experimentally inoculated ciders were analysed by HPLC and GC-MS, and sensory profiles were determined by fractioning aroma extracts using reversed-phase HPLC. Principal component analysis allowed the identification of relationships and differences among ciders with or without inoculation, including several highly appreciated commercial ones obtained under spontaneous conditions. Under controlled inoculation conditions, not only could MLF be shortened by half but, interestingly, enhancement of aroma complexity and flavour resulted in ciders enriched with a higher fruity note. In addition, important aromatic groups analysed here had not been previously described, thus affording deeper knowledge on aroma characterization of apple cider.

  15. Effect of valdecoxib pretreatment on pain and secondary hyperalgesia: a randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers [ISRCTN05282752, NCT00260325

    PubMed Central

    Burns, David; Hill, Lindsay; Essandoh, Michael; Jarzembowski, Tomasz M; Schuler, H Gregg; Janicki, Piotr K

    2006-01-01

    Background Induction of the COX-2 isoenzyme appears to play a major role in the genesis of central sensitization after nociceptive stimulation. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single, oral dose of the specific COX-2 inhibitor-valdecoxib in attenuating the central sensitization – induced secondary hyperalgesia in a heat/capsaicin pain model in healthy volunteers. Methods The study was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover, single dose efficacy trial using 20 healthy volunteers. Two hours following placebo or 40 mg, PO valdecoxib, participants underwent skin sensitization with heat/capsaicin, as well as supra-threshold pain and re-kindling measurements according to an established, validated pain model. Subjects rated pain intensity and unpleasantness on a visual analog scale and the area of secondary hyperalgesia was serially mapped. Results The area of secondary hyperalgesia produced after 40 mg of valdecoxib was no different than that after placebo. Furthermore, there were no significantly relevant differences when volunteers were treated with valdecoxib or placebo in relation to either cold- or hot pain threshold or the intensity of pain after supra-threshold, thermal pain stimulation. Conclusion We demonstrated that a single, oral dose of valdecoxib when does not attenuate secondary hyperalgesia induced by heat/capsaicin in a cutaneous sensitization pain model in healthy volunteers. PMID:16529650

  16. Vision Based Inspection And Quality Control For Use In Industrial Laundries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neldam, Birger

    1989-02-01

    In production systems it is often necessary to use visual control of the produced units. Nowadays, such control is carried out by trained operators. For Ejnar Jensen & Son, TI/Industrial Automation has developed a line-scan vision in-spection unit, Jenscan, which enables automatic, contact-free, quality control of linen. Ejnar Jensen & Son, Roenne, Denmark is a large manufacturer and exporter of folders and stackers for use in industrial laundries. With a speed of 30 metres per minute sheets and tea towels are inspected in order to reveal spots and holes. Depending on previous sorting criterias the sheets and towels will be approved or sorted out, folded and stacked. The resolution of the system is 3x3 mm with a scanning width of 4 metres. The detection width can be divided into 1 to 6 parallel running lanes. The detection area for spots and holes can be adjusted individually for each lane, from the minimum level upwards. The paper attaches importance to the experience made from specifying, developing and testing the system. Trends of development according to knowledge based vision systems for on line quality control will be discussed.

  17. Tobacco industry marketing, population-based tobacco control, and smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P

    2007-12-01

    Two of the major influences of cigarette smoking behavior are tobacco industry marketing and public health tobacco-control activities. These vie with each other to influence the proportion of each generation who initiate smoking, the intensity level reached by smokers, and the time before smokers are able to quit successfully. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence associating tobacco marketing practices (organized under the four "Ps" of marketing), with smoking behavior. The evidence for causality in this association is considered convincing. Publicly funded, comprehensive, statewide tobacco-control programs were introduced into the United States in the late 1980s, with money either from tobacco taxes or from legal settlements of states with the tobacco industry. These programs use organized statewide approaches to implement current recommendations on "best practices" to discourage tobacco use, recommendations that have changed over time. During the 1990s, "best practices" evolved to include protection against secondhand smoke, sale of cigarettes to minors, and restrictions on tobacco advertising. Evaluations have been published on four statewide tobacco-control programs (Sydney/Melbourne, California, Massachusetts, and Florida) and a national program aimed at youth (American Legacy Program). For each program, there was a positive association with reduced smoking. The evidence supporting the conclusion that tobacco-control programs reduce smoking behavior is evaluated as strong.

  18. Utilization of industrial by-products for the production of controlled low strength materials (CLSM).

    PubMed

    Katz, Amnon; Kovler, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Industrial by-products were used for the production of controlled low-strength material (CLSM). CLSM, also known as 'flowable fill' is used as a replacement of compacted soil in cases where the application of the latter is difficult or impossible. The low mechanical requirements (compared with structural concrete) enable the use of industrial by-products for the production of CLSM. In this study cement kiln dust, asphalt dust, coal fly ash, coal bottom ash and quarry waste were tested for the possibility of producing CLSM with large proportions of those wastes. The results showed that in most cases, CLSM with good properties could be made with significant amounts of dust (25-50%w), especially when the dust has some cementing or pozzolanic potential as do fly ash and cement kiln dust.

  19. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  20. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  1. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL, STATIC CONTROL SERIES. MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS. UNIT 9 B, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING STATIC CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER OPERATION. EACH OF THE 12 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS CONTAINS THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  2. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL, STATIC CONTROL SERIES. MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS, UNIT 9B, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT STUDY OF STATIC CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE UNIT OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS. EACH OF THE 12 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY…

  3. Micrometeorological and Edaphic Controls on Soil CO2 Efflux During Secondary Succession in Virginia Old-Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunker, S.; Epstein, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    The area of land in the eastern United States undergoing secondary succession following agriculture abandonment is large and growing. As plant communities change from short statured herbaceous vegetation to taller statured closed canopy forests in many of these fields, the micrometorological and edaphic variables that control soil respiration (RS) can be expected to change. Constraining the dynamics of RS and its controls during secondary succession is important because RS, as a component of ecosystem respiration, can influence the dynamics of net ecosystem production. We are currently studying changes in soil CO2 efflux and its controls during secondary succession using a chronosequence approach at Blandy Experimental Farm near Boyce, VA. The six study fields (two each in early, mid, and late stages of secondary succession) range in age from 8 years to >100 years old. In each field are six 1 m2 plots, half of which are amended with 20 g ammonium-nitrate-N m-2 yr-1. We have measured soil CO2 efflux, soil volumetric water content (VWC) and soil temperature at 5 cm, both during the day and at night, year round since June 2009. Total soil organic matter content was determined by the loss-on-ignition method. Multiple regression of soil CO2 efflux against Julian day, year, nitrogen fertilization level, soil organic matter content, time of day of measurement, soil temperature, VWC, and field age resulted in only soil temperature, VWC and time of day of measurement exerting significant control on soil CO2 efflux (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.0041 for soil temperature, VWC, and time of day, respectively). Soil temperature exerted the greatest control over soil CO2 efflux (R2partial = 0.2590, 0.0555, and 0.0046 for soil temperature, VWC, and time of day, respectively). Soil temperature decreases significantly with field age (p = 0.0288), but the effect is very slight (Tsoil = -0.00985(age) + 18.311). VWC does not change significantly with field age. The result that age

  4. "A phony way to show sincerity, as we all well know": tobacco industry lobbying against tobacco control in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Knight, J; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's efforts to influence public policy and block the legislative process on tobacco control in Hong Kong, 1973 to 1997. Method: Systematic review of relevant tobacco industry documents made public via the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The tobacco industry in Hong Kong has sought to manipulate the policymaking process and delay the introduction of tobacco control legislation in Hong Kong from at least 1973. The industry ensured that each of the government's initial meagre steps toward tobacco control were delayed and thwarted by drawn out "cooperation" followed by voluntary concessions on issues the industry regarded as minor. By the 1980s the government had became increasingly active in tobacco control and introduced a number of initiatives, resulting in some of the tightest legislative restrictions on smoking in Asia. The tobacco industry was successful in thwarting only one of these initiatives. Conclusions: Throughout the 1980s and 1990s two factors played a significant role in hindering the tobacco industry from successfully blocking policy initiatives: a growing political imperative, and an active and sophisticated tobacco control movement. Political will to promote public health and a strong tobacco control advocacy presence can enable governments to resist the enormous pressure exerted upon them by multinational tobacco companies. PMID:15564215

  5. The role of industry in the development of a product for control of mycoplasmal plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Carroll, V J

    1982-01-01

    A number of mycoplasmal or mycoplasma-like diseases of plants have been treated with an oxytetracycline-based product. Remission of symptoms has generally resulted, and in some instances the local use of this product under temporary governmental registrations has been approved. The use of oxytetracycline for control of many such diseases is not commercially feasible because the potential market is relatively small and the costs of development are relatively high. However, oxytetracycline products may be useful when a disease problem becomes sufficiently serious to arouse academic attention and agricultural or public concern. The commercial use of oxytetracycline hydrochloride for remission and prevention of lethal yellowing of coconut palm was begun in 1974. Use of this product for control of pear decline disease followed shortly thereafter. To date, joint participation and cooperation of the drug and agricultural industries have also resulted in the control of two important mycoplasma-like diseases of peach trees in the United States.

  6. Control of development and secondary metabolite production in streptomycetesand its possible importance in lignocellulose utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogell, B. M.

    1982-12-01

    Large scale fermentations for production of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites have focused on two groups of microorganisms: the streptomycetes, which are highly developed procaryotes, and fungi, eucaryotic organisms which go through a similar developmental cycle. Interestingly, these organisms provided the most active known degraders of lignocellulose. Examples include Streptomyces badius and the white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Since cellulose is ubiquitously found in nature linked with lignin, microorganisms that can simultaneously degrade both of these bipolymers are ideal for utilization of biomass for production of fuels, chemicals, and foodstuffs. The role of extrachromosomal DNA (plasmids) and specific endogenous effectors in the regulation of development and other secondary metabolite production in streptomycetes is of great interest. Approaches for engineering improved strains for biomass utilization are presented.

  7. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Fleißner, André

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi.

  8. Control of secondary electrons from ion beam impact using a positive potential electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, T. P.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P. J.

    2016-11-01

    Secondary electrons emitted when an ion beam impacts a detector can amplify the ion beam signal, but also introduce errors if electrons from one detector propagate to another. A potassium ion beam and a detector comprised of ten impact wires, four split-plates, and a pair of biased electrodes were used to demonstrate that a low-voltage, positive electrode can be used to maintain the beneficial amplification effect while greatly reducing the error introduced from the electrons traveling between detector elements.

  9. Provision of Controlled Motion Accuracy of Industrial Robots and Multiaxis Machines by the Method of Integrated Deviations Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakhmalev, O. N.; Petreshin, D. I.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    There is a developed method of correction of the integrated motion deviations of industrial robots and multiaxis machines, which are caused by the primary geometrical deviations of their segments. This method can be used to develop a control system providing the motion correction for industrial robots and multiaxis machines.

  10. Risk assessment for Industrial Control Systems quantifying availability using mean failure cost (MFC)

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Qian; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2015-09-23

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are commonly used in industries such as oil and natural gas, transportation, electric, water and wastewater, chemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, as well as discrete manufacturing (e.g., automotive, aerospace, and durable goods.) SCADA systems are generally used to control dispersed assets using centralized data acquisition and supervisory control. Originally, ICS implementations were susceptible primarily to local threats because most of their components were located in physically secure areas (i.e., ICS components were not connected to IT networks or systems). The trend toward integrating ICS systems with IT networks (e.g., efficiency and the Internetmore » of Things) provides significantly less isolation for ICS from the outside world thus creating greater risk due to external threats. Albeit, the availability of ICS/SCADA systems is critical to assuring safety, security and profitability. Such systems form the backbone of our national cyber-physical infrastructure. We extend the concept of mean failure cost (MFC) to address quantifying availability to harmonize well with ICS security risk assessment. This new measure is based on the classic formulation of Availability combined with Mean Failure Cost (MFC). The metric offers a computational basis to estimate the availability of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security violations or breakdowns (e.g., deliberate malicious failures).« less

  11. Risk assessment for Industrial Control Systems quantifying availability using mean failure cost (MFC)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qian; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2015-09-23

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are commonly used in industries such as oil and natural gas, transportation, electric, water and wastewater, chemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, as well as discrete manufacturing (e.g., automotive, aerospace, and durable goods.) SCADA systems are generally used to control dispersed assets using centralized data acquisition and supervisory control. Originally, ICS implementations were susceptible primarily to local threats because most of their components were located in physically secure areas (i.e., ICS components were not connected to IT networks or systems). The trend toward integrating ICS systems with IT networks (e.g., efficiency and the Internet of Things) provides significantly less isolation for ICS from the outside world thus creating greater risk due to external threats. Albeit, the availability of ICS/SCADA systems is critical to assuring safety, security and profitability. Such systems form the backbone of our national cyber-physical infrastructure. We extend the concept of mean failure cost (MFC) to address quantifying availability to harmonize well with ICS security risk assessment. This new measure is based on the classic formulation of Availability combined with Mean Failure Cost (MFC). The metric offers a computational basis to estimate the availability of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security violations or breakdowns (e.g., deliberate malicious failures).

  12. The inherent weaknesses in industrial control systems devices; hacking and defending SCADA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Louis J.

    The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) is about to enforce their NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Version Five and Six requirements on July 1st 2016. The NERC CIP requirements are a set of cyber security standards designed to protect cyber assets essential the reliable operation of the electric grid. The new Version Five and Six requirements are a major revision to the Version Three (currently enforced) requirements. The new requirements also bring substations into scope alongside Energy Control Centers. When the Version Five requirements were originally drafted they were vague, causing in depth discussions throughout the industry. The ramifications of these requirements has made owners look at their systems in depth, questioning how much money it will take to meet these requirements. Some owners saw backing down from routable networks to non-routable as a means to save money as they would be held to less requirements within the standards. Some owners saw removing routable connections as a proper security move. The purpose of this research was to uncover the inherent weaknesses in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) devices; to show how ICS devices can be hacked and figure out potential protections for these Critical Infrastructure devices. In addition, this research also aimed to validate the decision to move from External Routable connectivity to Non-Routable connectivity, as a security measure and not as a means of savings. The results reveal in order to ultimately protect Industrial Control Systems they must be removed from the Internet and all bi-directional external routable connections must be removed. Furthermore; non-routable serial connections should be utilized, and these non-routable serial connections should be encrypted on different layers of the OSI model. The research concluded that most weaknesses in SCADA systems are due to the inherent weaknesses in ICS devices and because of these weaknesses, human intervention is

  13. Legislative proposals for reversing the cancer epidemic and controlling run-away industrial technologies.

    PubMed

    Epstein, S S

    2000-01-01

    An interlocking legislative complex is proposed for the control of carcinogenic and other adverse impacts of established run-away petrochemical and radionuclear technologies, with particular reference to winning the losing war against cancer. These proposals are also applicable to the poorly recognized, potentially adverse public health and environmental hazards of emerging technologies, particularly genetically engineered food production. The proposals embody fundamental democratic rights--the right to know and balanced and transparent decision making--the "Precautionary Principle," reduction in the use of toxics, incentives for the development of safe industrial technologies, and criminal sanctions for suppression or manipulation of information.

  14. An Overview on Aerospatiale Magnetic Bearing Products for Spacecraft Attitude Control and for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, Alain; Lechable, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    Aerospatiale magnetic bearings are based on the use of permanent magnets and on the control of the rotor around a zero force equilibrium point. The present developments of magnetic bearing wheels for space applications focus on the versatility of a basic design which leads to a family of reaction and momentum wheels with tailored torque and kinetic momentum, leading to competitive mass and cost. The present industrial applications concern kinetic energy accumulators, medical x-ray rotating devices, avionics equipment, cryotechnic compressors and vacuum pumps.

  15. A Machine Vision Quality Control System for Industrial Acrylic Fibre Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heleno, Paulo; Davies, Roger; Correia, Bento A. Brázio; Dinis, João

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes the implementation of INFIBRA, a machine vision system used in the quality control of acrylic fibre production. The system was developed by INETI under a contract with a leading industrial manufacturer of acrylic fibres. It monitors several parameters of the acrylic production process. This paper presents, after a brief overview of the system, a detailed description of the machine vision algorithms developed to perform the inspection tasks unique to this system. Some of the results of online operation are also presented.

  16. The money laundering control act and proposed amendments: Its impact on the casino industry.

    PubMed

    Mills, J

    1991-12-01

    In their efforts to track unreported income, Congress passed the Money Laundering Control Act in 1985. Because they are often involved in large cash transactions, casinos were required to report on cash transactions in amounts of $10,000 or more in much the same manner as banks and other financial institutions. However, because of the unique nature of cash and chip transactions within modern casinos, the Act, or state variants of it, have created significant compliance costs for casinos. This analysis examines the implications of the Act for the casino gaming industry, and evaluates some of the recent suggested Amendments to the Act.

  17. In situ control of industrial processes using laser light scattering and optical rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Sanchez, Patricia Judith; López Echevarria, Daniel; Huerta Ruelas, Jorge Adalberto

    2006-02-01

    We present results of optical measurements in products or processes usually found in industrial processes, which can be used to control them. Laser light scattering was employed during semiconductor epitaxial growth by molecular beam epitaxy. With this technique, it was possible to determine growth rate, roughness and critical temperatures related to substrate degradation. With the same scattering technique, oil degradation as function of temperature was monitored for different automotive lubricants. Clear differences can be studied between monograde and multigrade oils. Optical rotation measurements as function of temperature were performed in apple juice in a pasteurization process like. Average variations related to optical rotation dependence of sugars were measured and monitored during heating and cooling process, finding a reversible behavior. As opposite behavior, sugar-protein solution was measured in a similar heating and cooling process. Final result showed a non-reversible behavior related to protein denaturation. Potential applications are discussed for metal-mechanic, electronic, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Future improvements in optical systems to make them more portable and easily implemented under typical industry conditions are mentioned.

  18. [Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not.

  19. Politics of corporate social control: the federal response to industrial water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    In the annals of criminology and the sociology of law, the phenomenon of corporate illegalities has been seriously neglected. Moreover, the relatively few social scientific studies of illegal corporate behavior have often approached the subject from limited theoretical perspectives. These studies have generally overlooked a critical element in criminological understanding; the role of law and its administration in generating violation rates that may be said to be characteristic of the prevailing social structure. This dissertation develops an integrated theoretical approach to a type of corporate illegality, environmental pollution. In this approach, law is seen as integral to the understanding of crime, and both are situated within the broad socio-economic structure of the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. This research first reviews and analyzes the history of the federal government's efforts to control industrial water pollution, seeking to identify the social structural limits on regulatory activity. Statistical analyses of data on the federal processing of industrial pollution violations are then presented, with a view toward analyzing the correlates of both business behavior and the federal response. The analyses test a proposed model of industrial regulation, and provide important support for the perspective linking law and crime.

  20. Performance of industrial by-products in controlled low-strength materials (CLSM).

    PubMed

    Nataraja, M C; Nalanda, Y

    2008-01-01

    As the construction industry continues to recognise the importance of sustainable development, technologies such as controlled low-strength material (CLSM) have come to the forefront as viable means of safely and efficiently using by-product and waste materials in infrastructure applications. CLSM, also known as flowable fill, can be defined as an engineered backfill material containing fine aggregates, Portland cement, water and a by-product material. CLSM can provide an economically and technically feasible alternative to conventional fill materials because of potential cost savings related to its unique and often superior technical properties. In this present experimental study, three industrial by-products, namely fly ash (FA), rice husk ash (RHA) and quarry dust (QD), were used as constituent materials in CLSM. Mixture proportions were developed for CLSM containing these industrial by-products and were tested in the laboratory for various properties, such as flowability, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), stress-strain behaviour, density, water absorption and volume changes. Comparison between the two pozzolanic materials, namely FA and RHA, for their potential to produce an effective CLSM has been made. It can be observed from the results that by-product materials such as FA, RHA and QD can be successfully used in CLSM. This successful utilization of by-product materials is important to sustainable development and is the focus of this research.

  1. The control of biofilm formation by hydrodynamics of purified water in industrial distribution system.

    PubMed

    Florjanič, Maja; Kristl, Julijana

    2011-02-28

    Systems for storage and distribution of purified water at ambient temperature are highly susceptible to microbial contamination. The water flow, microbial content and chemical quality of the purified water in an industrial water system have been simulated in a biofilm annular reactor (BAR) to study the impact of different hydrodynamic conditions on biofilm development. Our results reveal the potential of stagnant purified water at total organic compounds (TOC) below 50ppb to develop biofilm that allows detachment of planktonic bacteria and colonization of new surfaces within 24h. However, under constant water flow over 7 days, the growth of initial biofilm was 40 times less, fewer bacteria were detached, and new surfaces were colonized to a lesser extent. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) in biofilm were highly positively correlated with numbers of detached planktonic bacteria in effluent water. The study shows that the hydrodynamic conditions and level of planktonic HPC in water are critical for the development of biofilm at very low TOC. The results in the BAR agreed well with those from regular industrial microbial monitoring of purified water. To conclude, the BAR successfully simulates biofilm growth and can be used to establish an effective biofilm control strategy. However, the microbial quality of purified water in industrial system is a constant challenge; any increase of HPC in effluent water is a sign to take steps against excessive microbial growth.

  2. Neural network and fuzzy logic based secondary cells charging algorithm development and the controller architecture for implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Muhammed Zafar

    Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic are the two key technologies that have recently received growing attention in solving real world, nonlinear, time variant problems. Because of their learning and/or reasoning capabilities, these techniques do not need a mathematical model of the system, which may be difficult, if not impossible, to obtain for complex systems. One of the major problems in portable or electric vehicle world is secondary cell charging, which shows non-linear characteristics. Portable-electronic equipment, such as notebook computers, cordless and cellular telephones and cordless-electric lawn tools use batteries in increasing numbers. These consumers demand fast charging times, increased battery lifetime and fuel gauge capabilities. All of these demands require that the state-of-charge within a battery be known. Charging secondary cells Fast is a problem, which is difficult to solve using conventional techniques. Charge control is important in fast charging, preventing overcharging and improving battery life. This research work provides a quick and reliable approach to charger design using Neural-Fuzzy technology, which learns the exact battery charging characteristics. Neural-Fuzzy technology is an intelligent combination of neural net with fuzzy logic that learns system behavior by using system input-output data rather than mathematical modeling. The primary objective of this research is to improve the secondary cell charging algorithm and to have faster charging time based on neural network and fuzzy logic technique. Also a new architecture of a controller will be developed for implementing the charging algorithm for the secondary battery.

  3. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-03-31

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. "PPRT"] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough 2-4 billions euro, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies.

  4. Engineering of Secondary Metabolism.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Secondary (specialized) metabolites, produced by bacteria, fungi, plants, and other organisms, exhibit enormous structural variation, and consequently display a wide range of biological activities. Secondary metabolism improves and modulates the phenotype of the host producer. Furthermore, these biological activities have resulted in the use of secondary metabolites in a variety of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Metabolic engineering presents a powerful strategy to improve access to these valuable molecules. A critical overview of engineering approaches in secondary metabolism is presented, both in heterologous and native hosts. The recognition of the increasing role of compartmentalization in metabolic engineering is highlighted. Engineering approaches to modify the structure of key secondary metabolite classes are also critically evaluated.

  5. Case-control study of skin cancer in the rubber industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bourguet, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    A case-control study of non-melanoma skin cancer was conducted in two companies of the American rubber manufacturing industry. The study goal was to examine the association of basal and squamous cell carcinoma with seven raw materials: carbon black, dustless, extender, and lubricating oils, waxes, solvents, and the rubber stock itself. Study members were white males belonging to predefined cohorts of rubber workers. Cases were identified from hospital pathology department records. Each case was matched with four controls of the same company, and year of birth and hire (+/- one year). Company A provided 31 cases (22 squamous cell carcinoma cases) and 118 controls. Company B provided 55 cases (43 squamous cell cases) and 216 controls. Exposure was estimated using employee personnel records. In Company A, squamous cell carcinoma was associated with rubber stock, lubricating oils, and non-polycyclic chemicals. Ten years of moderate rubber stock exposure multiplied the existing relative risk by 2.96 (95% CL: 1.06-8.23). Exposure to non-polycyclic chemicals carried a relative risk of 5.5 (1.28-23.48). These chemicals are used as accelerators, antioxidants, and antiozonants. Disease was negatively associated with extender oil exposure. In Company B, jobs with heat exposure (milling, extruding, and curing) were associated with disease. Using a second control group, matched on year of birth, there was no convincing evidence that cases had longer employment duration than controls. This does not suggest an overall skin cancer risk among rubber workers.

  6. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Norovirus Serological Reagents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  7. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)).

  8. Double-Blind Controlled Randomized Trial of Cyclophosphamide versus Methylprednisolone in Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brochet, Bruno; Deloire, Mathilde S. A.; Perez, Paul; Loock, Timothé; Baschet, Louise; Debouverie, Marc; Pittion, Sophie; Ouallet, Jean-Christophe; Clavelou, Pierre; de Sèze, Jérôme; Collongues, Nicolas; Vermersch, Patrick; Zéphir, Hélène; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Labauge, Pierre; Lebrun, Christine; Cohen, Mikael; Ruet, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Background Therapeutic options are limited in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Open-label studies suggested efficacy of monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CPM) without induction for delaying progression but no randomized trial was conducted so far. Objective To compare CPM to methylprednisolone (MP) in SPMS. Methods Randomized, double-blind clinical trial on two parallel groups. Patient with SPMS, with a documented worsening of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score during the last year and an EDSS score between 4·0 and 6·5 were recruited and received one intravenous infusion of treatment (CPM: 750 mg /m2 body surface area—MP: 1g) every four weeks for one year, and every eight weeks for the second year. The primary endpoint was the time to EDSS deterioration, when confirmed sixteen weeks later, analyzed using a Cox model. Results Due to recruitment difficulties, the study was terminated prematurely after 138 patients were included (CPM, n = 72; MP, n = 66). In the CPM group, 33 patients stopped treatment prematurely, mainly due to tolerability, compared with 22 in the MP group. Primary endpoint: the hazard ratio for EDSS deterioration in the CPM in comparison with the MP group was 0.61 [95% CI: 0·31–1·22](p = 0·16). According to the secondary multistate model analysis, patients in the CPM group were 2.2 times more likely ([1·14–4.29]; p = 0.02) to discontinue treatment than those in the MP group and 2.7 times less likely (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.17–0.84; p = 0.02) to experience disability progression when they did not stop treatment prematurely. Safety profile was as expected. Conclusion Although the primary end-point was negative, secondary analysis suggested that CPM decreases the risk of progression in SPMS, but its use may be limited by low tolerability. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00241254 PMID:28045953

  9. Control of biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using treated secondary effluent as makeup water with monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Chowdhury, Indranil; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2012-12-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater, an abundant and widely distributed impaired water source, is a promising alternative water source for thermoelectric power plant cooling. However, excessive biological growth is a major challenge associated with wastewater reuse in cooling systems as it can interfere with normal system operation as well as enhance corrosion and scaling problems. Furthermore, possible emission of biological aerosols (e.g., Legionella pneumophila) with the cooling tower drift can lead to public health concerns within the zone of aerosol deposition. In this study, the effectiveness of pre-formed and in-situ-formed monochloramine was evaluated for its ability to control biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater as the only makeup water source. Bench-scale studies were compared with pilot-scale studies for their ability to predict system behavior under realistic process conditions. Effectiveness of the continuous addition of pre-formed monochloramine and monochloramine formed in-situ through the reaction of free chlorine with ammonia in the incoming water was evaluated in terms of biocide residual and its ability to control both planktonic and sessile microbial populations. Results revealed that monochloramine can effectively control biofouling in cooling systems employing secondary-treated municipal wastewater and has advantages relative to use of free chlorine, but that bench-scale studies seriously underestimate biocide dose and residual requirements for proper control of biological growth in full-scale systems. Pre-formed monochloramine offered longer residence time and more reliable performance than in-situ-formed monochloramine due to highly variable ammonia concentration in the recirculating water caused by ammonia stripping in the cooling tower. Pilot-scale tests revealed that much lower dosing rate was required to maintain similar total chlorine residual when pre-formed monochloramine

  10. The secondary structure control of silk fibroin thin films by post treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, I.; Nakayama, S.; Nagare, S.; Senna, M.

    2005-05-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) thin film was prepared via colloid chemical routes (CC) and by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Secondary structure of the CC film, as examined by FT-IR, was random coil. By a post treatment with methanol, it transforms to β-sheet. As for PLD films, the β-sheet structure of SF powder was mostly preserved as deposited. This suggests that the post treatment is effective to restore the original β-sheet structure in the thin films. Transformation from random coil to β-sheet is easier in the film on the substrate of polyethylene than Si(1 0 0) due to weaker affinity to silk fibroin.

  11. Status of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System at NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sichta; J. Dong

    2002-01-28

    The NSTX achieved first plasma in 1999. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is used to provide data-integration services for monitoring and control of all NSTX engineering subsystems. EPICS is a set of software initially developed at U.S. DOE laboratories. It is currently used and maintained through a global collaboration of hundreds of scientists and engineers. This paper will relate some of our experiences using and supporting the EPICS software. Topics include reliability and maintainability, lessons learned, recently added engineering subsystems, new EPICS software tools, and a review of our first EPICS software upgrade. Steps to modernize the technical infrastructure of EPICS to ensure effective support for NSTX will also be described.

  12. Industrial solutions trends for the control of HiRes spectrograph@E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Baldini, V.; Calderone, G.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.

    Starting a few years ago, ESO initiated a number of projects aiming to explore the possible adoption of industrial standards and commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS) for the control of future VLT and E-ELT instrumentations. In this context, ESPRESSO, the next generation high-stability spectrograph for the VLT and to a certain extent, a precursor of HiRes, has adopted since the preliminary design phase those solutions. Based on the ESPRESSO experience and taking into account the requirements inferred from the preliminary Hi-Res studies in terms of both high-level operations as well as low-level control, I will present in this paper the current proposal for the HiRes hardware architecture.

  13. Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the metal industry: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Comba, P; Barbieri, P G; Battista, G; Belli, S; Ponterio, F; Zanetti, D; Axelson, O

    1992-03-01

    The association between nasal cancer and work in the metal industry was investigated in a case-control study located in the province of Brescia, north eastern Italy. Thirty five cases of malignant epithelial neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who were resident in the province of Brescia and diagnosed or treated by the ear, nose, and throat department and the radiotherapy unit (Centro Alte Energie) of the Brescia Hospital in the years 1980-9 were included in the study. Controls (102) were patients affected by benign and malignant neoplasms of the head and neck who were resident in the Brescia Province and matched the cases by age and sex. All the subjects were interviewed by telephone. Metal workers showed an increased risk of nasal cancer (odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.48-20); a higher risk was associated with work in foundries (OR 5.9; 90 CI 0.77-46). Work in wood, leather, and textile industries was also associated with increased risk of nasal cancer.

  14. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was selected from the list of standards identified

  15. Paricalcitol capsules for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Steven; Coyne, Daniel

    2006-04-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of patients with chronic kidney disease. Treatment with calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, reduces parathyroid hormone levels, but may result in elevations in serum calcium and phosphorus. New vitamin D analogues have been developed to reduce parathyroid hormone secretion without concomitant hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia. Recent data from studies with paricalcitol capsules, the oral formulation of 19-nor-1,25(OH)2D2, show a significant reduction in parathyroid hormone levels with no change in calcium and phosphorus levels when compared with placebo. Paricalcitol also compares favourably to other oral vitamin D analogues, effectively decreasing parathyroid secretion with less hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria than other agents.

  16. Creation of a Hyponatremia Registry Supported by an Industry-Derived Quality Control Methodology

    PubMed Central

    D., Giunta; N., Fuentes; V., Pazo; M. L., Posadas-Martínez; H., Michellangelo; G., Waisman; F., González Bernaldo De Quirós

    2010-01-01

    Background A clinical registry encompasses a selective set of rigorously collected and stored clinical data focused on a specific condition. Hyponatremia has multiple, complex underlying causes and is one of the most frequent laboratory abnormalities. No systematic registries of hyponatremic patients have been reported in the medical literature. The purpose of this project was to create a registry for hyponatremia in order to obtain epidemiological data that will help to better understand this condition. Objective This paper describes the creation of a registry for hyponatremia within a single institution that employs industry-based approaches for quality management to optimize data accuracy and completeness. Methods A prospective registry of incident hyponatremia cases was created for this study. A formalized statistically based quality control methodology was developed and implemented to analyze and monitor all the process indicators that were developed to ensure data quality. Results Between December 2006 and April 2009, 2443 episodes of hyponatremia were included. Six process indicators that reflect the integrity of the system were evaluated monthly, looking for variation that would suggest systematic problems. The graphical representation of the process measures through control charts allowed us to identify and subsequently address problems with maintaining the registry. Conclusion In this project we have created a novel hyponatremia registry. To ensure the quality of the data in this registry we have implemented a quality control methodology based on industrial principles that allows us to monitor the performance of the registry over time through process indicators in order to detect systematic problems. We postulate that this approach could be reproduced for other registries. PMID:23616856

  17. Industrial Control Systems/SCADA systems risk assessment in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falodun, Babatunde

    The energy sector is one of the most critical components of our national infrastructure. It not only provides the electrical power and petroleum required to run day-to-day operations and mechanisms in society, it's also an important element that directly impacts the economy with regard to growth and stability. Industrial Control Systems (ICS) /Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) are computerized mechanisms, they are both software and hardware that are used to control real time processes and operations in power plants and oil production facilities. A significant attack on these control systems that leads to widespread disruption of energy could result in catastrophic consequences for any major city and even the nation. This research paper explores cyber threats and vulnerabilities faced by ICS/SCADA systems in the energy sector and also highlights possible outcomes of a successful breach. Furthermore, the research underscores mitigation strategies that could be used to prevent and respond to an attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, SCADA, Cyber Attacks, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Risk Assessment, Dr. Albert Orbinati.

  18. A case-control study of mesothelioma and employment in the Hawaii sugarcane industry.

    PubMed

    Sinks, T; Goodman, M T; Kolonel, L N; Anderson, B

    1994-07-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 93 mesothelioma cases and 281 cancer controls to determine whether sugarcane workers exposed to biogenic silica fibers were at increased risk of mesothelioma. We found no important excess risk of mesothelioma in sugarcane workers [odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4-3.8] when we excluded all control subjects with cancer of sites suspected of being associated with asbestos exposure. We could not identify any sugarcane workers who developed mesothelioma and worked in jobs where high exposure levels of biogenic silica fibers have been measured. We did confirm that mesothelioma risk in Hawaii is associated with probable occupational asbestos exposure. Work at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard was associated with a 10-fold increase in mesothelioma when we excluded controls with cancer of sites related to asbestos exposure (OR = 10.1; 95% CI = 2.6-56.6). Work in the medical industry was also associated with an unexpected increased risk for mesothelioma (OR = 4.2; 95% CI = 1.2-15.5).

  19. Improving industrial full-scale production of baker's yeast by optimizing aeration control.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Rayo, Julia; Giralda, José M

    2008-01-01

    This work analyzes the control of optimum dissolved oxygen of an industrial fed-batch procedure in which baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is grown under aerobic conditions. Sugar oxidative metabolism was controlled by monitoring aeration, molasses flows, and yeast concentration in the propagator along the later stage of the propagation, and keeping pH and temperature under controlled conditions. A large number of fed-batch growth experiments were performed in the tank for a period of 16 h, for each of the 3 manufactured commercial products. For optimization and control of cultivations, the growth and metabolite formation were quantified through measurement of specific growth and ethanol concentration. Data were adjusted to a model of multiple lineal regression, and correlations representing dissolved oxygen as a function of aeration, molasses, yeast concentration in the broth, temperature, and pH were obtained. The actual influence of each variable was consistent with the mathematical model, further justified by significant levels of each variable, and optimum aeration profile during the yeast propagation.

  20. Analysis of Affordance, Time, and Adaptation in the Assessment of Industrial Control System Cybersecurity Risk.

    PubMed

    Busby, J S; Green, B; Hutchison, D

    2017-01-17

    Industrial control systems increasingly use standard communication protocols and are increasingly connected to public networks-creating substantial cybersecurity risks, especially when used in critical infrastructures such as electricity and water distribution systems. Methods of assessing risk in such systems have recognized for some time the way in which the strategies of potential adversaries and risk managers interact in defining the risk to which such systems are exposed. But it is also important to consider the adaptations of the systems' operators and other legitimate users to risk controls, adaptations that often appear to undermine these controls, or shift the risk from one part of a system to another. Unlike the case with adversarial risk analysis, the adaptations of system users are typically orthogonal to the objective of minimizing or maximizing risk in the system. We argue that this need to analyze potential adaptations to risk controls is true for risk problems more generally, and we develop a framework for incorporating such adaptations into an assessment process. The method is based on the principle of affordances, and we show how this can be incorporated in an iterative procedure based on raising the minimum period of risk materialization above some threshold. We apply the method in a case study of a small European utility provider and discuss the observations arising from this.

  1. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A. K.; Dickschat, Jeroen S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi. PMID:25888553

  2. Locus of Control, Attributional Style and Discipline Problems in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tony, Tam Shui Kee

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study hypothesizing that school discipline problems are a maladaptive response to the demand of the school environment as a result of deficits in the area of locus of control and attributional style. The findings indicate that an external orientation of locus of control and a passive pattern of attribution…

  3. Secondary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Secondary hypertension Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your ...

  4. Optimal Micro-Scale Secondary Flow Control for the Management of High Cycle Fatigue and Distortion in Compact Inlet Diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Keller, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study on micro-scale secondary flow control (MSFC) is to study the aerodynamic behavior of micro-vane effectors through their factor (i.e., the design variable) interactions and to demonstrate how these statistical interactions, when brought together in an optimal manner, determine design robustness. The term micro-scale indicates the vane effectors are small in comparison to the local boundary layer height. Robustness in this situation means that it is possible to design fixed MSFC robust installation (i.e.. open loop) which operates well over the range of mission variables and is only marginally different from adaptive (i.e., closed loop) installation design, which would require a control system. The inherent robustness of MSFC micro-vane effector installation designs comes about because of their natural aerodynamic characteristics and the manner in which these characteristics are brought together in an optimal manner through a structured Response Surface Methodology design process.

  5. Springback Control in Industrial Bending Operations: Assessing the Accuracy of Three Commercial FEA Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welo, Torgeir; Granly, Bjørg M.; Elverum, Christer; Søvik, Odd P.; Sørbø, Steinar

    2011-05-01

    Over the past two decades, a quantum leap has been made in FE technology for metal forming applications, including methods, algorithms, models and hardware capabilities. A myriad of research articles reports on methodologies that provide excellent capabilities in reproducing springback obtained from physical experiments. However, it is felt that we are not yet to the point where current modeling practice provides satisfactory value to tool designers and manufacturing engineers, particularly when the results have to be available before the first piece of tool steel has been cut; the main reasons being lack of accuracy in predicting elastic springback. The main objective of the present work is to validate springback capabilities using a strategy that integrates industrial tool simulation practice with carefully controlled physical experiments conducted in an academic setting. An industry-like (rotary) draw bending machine has been built and equipped with advanced measurement capabilities. Extruded rectangular, hollow aluminum alloy AA6060 sections were heat treated to two different tempers to produce a range of material properties prior to forming into two different bending angles. The selected set-up represents a challenging benchmark due to tight-radius bending and complex contact conditions, meaning that elastic springback is resulting from interaction effects between excessive local cross-sectional distortions and global bending mechanisms. The material properties were obtained by tensile testing, curve-fitting data to a conventional isotropic Ludwik-type material model. The bending process was modeled in three different commercial FE codes following best practice, including LS-Dyna, Stampack and Abaqus (explicit). The springback analyses were done prior to bending tests as would be done in an industrial tool design process. After having completed the bending tests and carefully measured the released bend angle for the different combinations, the results were

  6. Factors influencing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions and control in major industrial sectors: case evidence from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Gosens, Jorrit; Ni, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Analyzing determinants that influence polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions is helpful for decision-makers to find effective and efficient ways to mitigate PCDD/F emissions. The PCDD/F emissions and the contributions of the scale effect, structure effect and technology effect to emissions from eight main industrial sectors in 2006, 2008 and 2010 in Shandong Province, were calculated in this article. Total PCDD/F emissions in Shandong increased by 52.8% in 2008 (614.1g I-TEQ) and 49.7% in 2010 (601.8 g I-TEQ) based on 2006 (401.9 g I-TEQ). According to the decomposition method, the largest influencing factor on PCDD/F emission changes was the composition effect (contributed 43.4% in 2008 and 120.6% in 2010 based on 2006), which was also an emission-increasing factor. In this case, the present industrial restructuring policy should be adjusted to control the proportion of production capacities with high emission factors, such as iron ore sintering and steel making and the secondary non-ferrous metal sector. The scale effect increased the emissions in 2008 (contributed 21.9%) and decreased the emissions in 2010 (contributed -28.0%). However, as a source control measure, the excess capacity control policy indeed had a significant role in emission reduction. The main reason for the technology effect (contributed 34.7% in 2008 and 7.4% in 2010 based on 2006) having an emission-increasing role was the weakness in implementing policies for restricting industries with outdated facilities. Some specific suggestions were proposed on PCDD/F reduction for local administrators at the end.

  7. Restenosis after carotid artery stenting and endarterectomy: a secondary analysis of CREST, a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Brajesh K.; Beach, Kirk W.; Roubin, Gary S.; Lutsep, Helmi L.; Moore, Wesley S.; Malas, Mahmoud B.; Chiu, David; Gonzales, Nicole R.; Burke, J. Lee; Rinaldi, Michael; Elmore, James R.; Weaver, Fred A.; Narins, Craig R.; Foster, Malcolm; Hodgson, Kim J.; Shepard, Alexander D.; Meschia, James F.; Bergelin, Robert O.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Howard, George; Brott, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST), the composite primary endpoint of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during the periprocedural period or ipsilateral stroke thereafter did not differ between carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis. A secondary aim of this randomised trial was to compare the composite endpoint of restenosis or occlusion. Methods Patients with stenosis of the carotid artery who were asymptomatic or had had a transient ischaemic attack, amaurosis fugax, or a minor stroke were eligible for CREST and were enrolled at 117 clinical centres in the USA and Canada between Dec 21, 2000, and July 18, 2008. In this secondary analysis, the main endpoint was a composite of restenosis or occlusion at 2 years. Restenosis and occlusion were assessed by duplex ultrasonography at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months and were defined as a reduction in diameter of the target artery of at least 70%, diagnosed by a peak systolic velocity of at least 3·0 m/s. Studies were done in CREST-certified laboratories and interpreted at the Ultrasound Core Laboratory (University of Washington). The frequency of restenosis was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and was compared during a 2-year follow-up period. We used proportional hazards models to assess the association between baseline characteristics and risk of restenosis. Analyses were per protocol. CREST is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00004732. Findings 2191 patients received their assigned treatment within 30 days of randomisation and had eligible ultrasonography (1086 who had carotid artery stenting, 1105 who had carotid endarterectomy). In 2 years, 58 patients who underwent carotid artery stenting (Kaplan-Meier rate 6·0%) and 62 who had carotid endarterectomy (6·3%) had restenosis or occlusion (hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·63–1·29; p=0·58). Female sex (1·79, 1·25–2

  8. Fine-Motion-Control Method for Realizing High-Accuracy and High-Speed Contact Motion of Industrial Robots by Employing Sensorless Force Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Naoki; Yoshioka, Takashi; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa

    This paper proposes a new fine-motion-control method for realizing high-accuracy and high-speed contact motion of industrial robots by employing sensorless force control. Today, although industrial robots have become considerably important in the modern industrial society, their functions are limited. A typical limited function is the positioning motion control of robots used in the manufacturing industry. Contact motion is necessary for almost all new applications. In this study, by employing the proposed motion control, smooth and quick contact motion of industrial robots is realized by using a sensorless I-P (Integral-Proportional) force feedback controller. The proposed method is simple and effective, takes into account both the inertia of a robot and the behavior of the I-P force controller. In the experiments, a three-degree-of-freedom robot is brought into contact with an object (a concrete block or a rubber board) by the I-P force control using the proposed method. Further, in the experiment, the motion of the robot's end-effector was considered. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by using a six-axis force sensor and an acceleration sensor in the contact motion experiments.

  9. Control of VOC emissions from a flexographic printing facility using an industrial biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Sempere, F; Martínez-Soria, V; Penya-Roja, J M; Waalkens, A; Gabaldón, C

    2012-01-01

    The study of an industrial unit of biotrickling filter for the treatment of the exhaust gases of a flexographic facility was investigated over a 2-year period with the objective to meet the volatile organic compound (VOC) regulatory emission limits. Increasing the water flow rate from 2 to 40 m(3) h(-1) improved the performance of the process, meeting the VOC regulation when 40 m(3) h(-1) were used. An empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 36 s was used when the inlet air temperature was 18.7 °C, and an EBRT as low as 26 s was set when the inlet temperature was 26.8 °C. During this long-term operation, the pressure drop over the column of the bioreactor was completely controlled avoiding clogging problems and the system could perfectly handle the non-working periods without VOC emission, demonstrating its robustness and feasibility to treat the emission of the flexographic sector.

  10. Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: creating a new industry and a health market.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    When Pasteur and Chamberland hastily set up their small biological industry to meet the agricultural demand for the anthrax vaccine, their methods for preparation and production had not yet been stabilized. The process of learning how to standardize biological products was accelerated in 1882 when vaccination accidents required the revision of production norms as the first hypotheses on fixity, inalterability, and transportability of vaccines were invalidated and replaced by procedures for continuous monitoring of the calibration of vaccines and the renewal of vaccine strains. Initially, the incompleteness and ongoing development of production standards justified Pasteur's monopoly on the production of the anthrax vaccine under his immediate supervision. Later on, the Pasteur Institute maintained control of these standards in the framework of a commercial monopoly that it established on the veterinary vaccines first sent and then cultivated abroad by the Société de Vulgarisation du Vaccin Charbonneux Pasteur, founded in 1886.

  11. Guidelines for the quality control of population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Bonate, P L; Strougo, A; Desai, A; Roy, M; Yassen, A; van der Walt, J S; Kaibara, A; Tannenbaum, S

    2012-12-01

    Quality population modeling and simulation analyses and reports are something every modeler desires. However, little attention in the literature has been paid to what constitutes quality regarding population analyses. Very rarely do published manuscripts contain any statement about quality assurance of the modeling results contained therein. The purpose of this manuscript is to present guidelines for the quality assurance of population analyses, particularly with regards to the use of NONMEM from an industrial perspective. Quality guidelines are developed for the NONMEM installation itself, NONMEM data sets, control streams, output listings, output data files and resultant post-processing, reporting of results, and the review processes. These guidelines were developed to be thorough yet practical, though are not meant to be completely comprehensive. It is our desire to ensure that what is reported accurately reflects the collected data, the modeling process, and model outputs for a modeling project.

  12. Control of campylobacter in poultry industry from farm to poultry processing unit: A review.

    PubMed

    Umaraw, Pramila; Prajapati, A; Verma, Akhilesh K; Pathak, V; Singh, V P

    2017-03-04

    Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic bacterial threat in the poultry industry. Most of the human cases of campylobacteriosis recorded have revealed their poultry origins. Various control measures have been employed both at the farm and processing levels to combat with it. The antibiotic treatment, phage therapy, competitive exclusion, and vaccination have been adapted at the farm level to reduce colonization of Campylobacter in poultry gut. While prevention of intestinal spillage, scheduled slaughter, logistic slaughter, chemical decontamination of carcasses are recommended to reduce contamination during processing. The postharvest interventions such as heat treatment, freezing, irradiation of contaminated carcass can effectively reduce Campylobacter contamination. Thus, integrated approaches are required to tackle infection of Campylobacter in humans.

  13. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  14. Radiation exposure control from the application of nuclear gauges in the mining industry in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Darko, E O; Awudu, A R; Schandorf, C; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Glover, E T; Kattah, V K

    2010-05-01

    The use of nuclear gauges for process control and elemental analysis in the mining industry in Ghana, West Africa, is wide spread and on the increase in recent times. The Ghana Radiation Protection Board regulates nuclear gauges through a system of notification and authorization by registration or licensing, inspection, and enforcement. Safety assessments for authorization and enforcement have been established to ensure the safety and security of radiation sources as well as protection of workers and the general public. Appropriate training of mine staff is part of the efforts to develop the necessary awareness about the safety and security of radiation sources. The knowledge and skills acquired will ensure the required protection and safety at the workplaces. Doses received by workers monitored over a period between 1998 and 2007 are well below the annual dose limit of 20 mSv recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  15. Project Cerberus: Tobacco Industry Strategy to Create an Alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  16. Control of predators in industrial scale microalgae cultures with Pulsed Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Rego, D; Redondo, L M; Geraldes, V; Costa, L; Navalho, J; Pereira, M T

    2015-06-01

    This work describes the utilization of Pulsed Electric Fields to control the protozoan contamination of a microalgae culture, in an industrial 2.7 m(3) microalgae photobioreactor. The contaminated culture was treated with Pulsed Electric Fields, PEF, for 6h with an average of 900 V/cm, 65 μs pulses of 50 Hz. Working with recirculation, all the culture was uniformly exposed to the PEF throughout the assay. The development of the microalgae and protozoan populations was followed and the results showed that PEF is effective on the selective elimination of protozoa from microalgae cultures, inflicting on the protozoa growth halt, death or cell rupture, without affecting microalgae productivity. Specifically, the results show a reduction of the active protozoan population of 87% after 6h treatment and 100% after few days of normal cultivation regime. At the same time, microalgae growth rate remained unaffected.

  17. Cyber-Physical System Security With Deceptive Virtual Hosts for Industrial Control Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos

    2014-05-01

    A challenge facing industrial control network administrators is protecting the typically large number of connected assets for which they are responsible. These cyber devices may be tightly coupled with the physical processes they control and human induced failures risk dire real-world consequences. Dynamic virtual honeypots are effective tools for observing and attracting network intruder activity. This paper presents a design and implementation for self-configuring honeypots that passively examine control system network traffic and actively adapt to the observed environment. In contrast to prior work in the field, six tools were analyzed for suitability of network entity information gathering. Ettercap, an established network security tool not commonly used in this capacity, outperformed the other tools and was chosen for implementation. Utilizing Ettercap XML output, a novel four-step algorithm was developed for autonomous creation and update of a Honeyd configuration. This algorithm was tested on an existing small campus grid and sensor network by execution of a collaborative usage scenario. Automatically created virtual hosts were deployed in concert with an anomaly behavior (AB) system in an attack scenario. Virtual hosts were automatically configured with unique emulated network stack behaviors for 92% of the targeted devices. The AB system alerted on 100% of the monitored emulated devices.

  18. Cyber-Physical System Security With Deceptive Virtual Hosts for Industrial Control Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos

    2014-05-01

    A challenge facing industrial control network administrators is protecting the typically large number of connected assets for which they are responsible. These cyber devices may be tightly coupled with the physical processes they control and human induced failures risk dire real-world consequences. Dynamic virtual honeypots are effective tools for observing and attracting network intruder activity. This paper presents a design and implementation for self-configuring honeypots that passively examine control system network traffic and actively adapt to the observed environment. In contrast to prior work in the field, six tools were analyzed for suitability of network entity information gathering. Ettercap, anmore » established network security tool not commonly used in this capacity, outperformed the other tools and was chosen for implementation. Utilizing Ettercap XML output, a novel four-step algorithm was developed for autonomous creation and update of a Honeyd configuration. This algorithm was tested on an existing small campus grid and sensor network by execution of a collaborative usage scenario. Automatically created virtual hosts were deployed in concert with an anomaly behavior (AB) system in an attack scenario. Virtual hosts were automatically configured with unique emulated network stack behaviors for 92% of the targeted devices. The AB system alerted on 100% of the monitored emulated devices.« less

  19. Locally optimal control under unknown dynamics with learnt cost function: application to industrial robot positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, Joris; Gibaru, Olivier; Thiery, Stéphane; Nyiri, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Recent methods of Reinforcement Learning have enabled to solve difficult, high dimensional, robotic tasks under unknown dynamics using iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian control theory. These algorithms are based on building a local time-varying linear model of the dynamics from data gathered through interaction with the environment. In such tasks, the cost function is often expressed directly in terms of the state and control variables so that it can be locally quadratized to run the algorithm. If the cost is expressed in terms of other variables, a model is required to compute the cost function from the variables manipulated. We propose a method to learn the cost function directly from the data, in the same way as for the dynamics. This way, the cost function can be defined in terms of any measurable quantity and thus can be chosen more appropriately for the task to be carried out. With our method, any sensor information can be used to design the cost function. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method through simulating, with the V-REP software, the learning of a Cartesian positioning task on several industrial robots with different characteristics. The robots are controlled in joint space and no model is provided a priori. Our results are compared with another model free technique, consisting in writing the cost function as a state variable.

  20. Industry Speed Bumps on Local Tobacco Control in Japan? The Case of Hyogo

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Keiko; Mori, Nagisa; Kashiwabara, Mina; Yasuda, Sakiko; Horie, Rumi; Yamato, Hiroshi; Garçon, Loic; Armada, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment. Methods Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews. Results Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions. Conclusions The analysis of Hyogo’s SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry. PMID:26155758

  1. Feeding horses with industrially manufactured pellets with fungal spores to promote nematode integrated control.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José Ángel; Arroyo, Fabián Leonardo; Suárez, José; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana Filipa; Romasanta, Ángel; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Pedreira, José; de Carvalho, Luis Manuel Madeira; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Arias, María Sol; de Gives, Pedro Mendoza; Paz-Silva, Adolfo

    2016-10-15

    The usefulness of pellets industrially manufactured with spores of parasiticide fungi as a contribution to integrated nematode control was assessed in grazing horses throughout sixteen months. Two groups of 7 Pura Raza Galega autochthonous horses (G-T and G-P) were dewormed pour-on (1mg Ivermectin/kg bw) at the beginning of the trial, and other group (G-C) remained untreated. The G-P was provided daily with commercial pellets to which was added a mixture of fungal spores during the industrial manufacturing (2×10(6) spores of Mucor circinelloides and same dose of Duddingtonia flagrans/kg), and G-T and G-C received pellets without spores. The efficacy of the parasiticidal strategy was assessed by estimating the reduction in the faecal egg counts (FECR) and in the number of horses shedding eggs in the faeces (PHR), and also the egg reappearance periods (ERP). Blood analyses were performed to identify the changes in the red and white cell patterns. To ascertain if horses developed an IgG humoral response against the fungi, antigenic products collected from M. circinelloides and D. flagrans were exposed to the horse sera by using an ELISA. The faecal elimination of eggs of Parascaris equorum and strongyles ceased 2 weeks after treatment in G-T and G-P, thus the values of FECR and PHR were 100%. No P. equorum-eggs were detected later, and the strongyle egg reappearance period was 28 weeks in G-P, and 8 weeks in G-T. Strongyle egg-output values remained lower than 300 eggs per gram of faeces in the G-P, whereas numbers between 330 and 772 in G-C and G-T were recorded. Normal values for the erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit in horses consuming pellets with spores were recorded, and lower than normal in the other groups. Sensitization of horses to the fungal species was disproven. It is concluded that feeding horses with pellets industrially manufactured with fungal spores represents a very useful tool to implement an integrated control of helminths affecting

  2. Industrial Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phaff, Herman J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes industrially important yeasts, molds, bacteria, and actinomycetes. Discussed in detail are microbial products, such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, enzymes, and capsular polysaccharides. Traces the historical background of human cell culture, mentioning recombinant DNA research and hybridization of normal mammalian cells…

  3. Reactive transport modeling of geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C.; Amos, Richard T.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of organic amendments and contaminants in aquifers can trigger secondary water quality impacts that impair groundwater resources. Reactive transport models help elucidate how diverse geochemical reactions control the spatiotemporal evolution of these impacts. Using extensive monitoring data from a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota (USA), we implemented a comprehensive model that simulates secondary plumes of depleted dissolved O2 and elevated concentrations of Mn2+, Fe2+, CH4, and Ca2+ over a two-dimensional cross section for 30 years following the spill. The model produces observed changes by representing multiple oil constituents and coupled carbonate and hydroxide chemistry. The model includes reactions with carbonates and Fe and Mn mineral phases, outgassing of CH4 and CO2 gas phases, and sorption of Fe, Mn, and H+. Model results demonstrate that most of the carbon loss from the oil (70%) occurs through direct outgassing from the oil source zone, greatly limiting the amount of CH4 cycled down-gradient. The vast majority of reduced Fe is strongly attenuated on sediments, with most (91%) in the sorbed form in the model. Ferrous carbonates constitute a small fraction of the reduced Fe in simulations, but may be important for furthering the reduction of ferric oxides. The combined effect of concomitant redox reactions, sorption, and dissolved CO2 inputs from source-zone degradation successfully reproduced observed pH. The model demonstrates that secondary water quality impacts may depend strongly on organic carbon properties, and impacts may decrease due to sorption and direct outgassing from the source zone.

  4. Reactive transport modeling of geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C.; Amos, Richard T.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of organic amendments and contaminants in aquifers can trigger secondary water quality impacts that impair groundwater resources. Reactive transport models help elucidate how diverse geochemical reactions control the spatiotemporal evolution of these impacts. Using extensive monitoring data from a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota (USA), we implemented a comprehensive model that simulates secondary plumes of depleted dissolved O2 and elevated concentrations of Mn2+, Fe2+, CH4, and Ca2+ over a two-dimensional cross section for 30 years following the spill. The model produces observed changes by representing multiple oil constituents and coupled carbonate and hydroxide chemistry. The model includes reactions with carbonates and Fe and Mn mineral phases, outgassing of CH4 and CO2 gas phases, and sorption of Fe, Mn, and H+. Model results demonstrate that most of the carbon loss from the oil (70%) occurs through direct outgassing from the oil source zone, greatly limiting the amount of CH4 cycled down-gradient. The vast majority of reduced Fe is strongly attenuated on sediments, with most (91%) in the sorbed form in the model. Ferrous carbonates constitute a small fraction of the reduced Fe in simulations, but may be important for furthering the reduction of ferric oxides. The combined effect of concomitant redox reactions, sorption, and dissolved CO2 inputs from source-zone degradation successfully reproduced observed pH. The model demonstrates that secondary water quality impacts may depend strongly on organic carbon properties, and impacts may decrease due to sorption and direct outgassing from the source zone.

  5. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  6. Content Analysis of Primary and Secondary School Textbooks Regarding Malaria Control: A Multi-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Jun; Yasuoka, Junko; Ayi, Irene; Jayatilleke, Achini C.; Shrestha, Sabina; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Haque, Syed E.; Yi, Siyan

    2012-01-01

    Background In tropical settings, malaria education at school is potentially useful, but textbook content related to malaria education has so far received little attention. This study aimed to examine whether school textbooks contain sufficient knowledge and skills to help children in primary and lower secondary schools and their family members to cope with malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a descriptive, cross-country study. We collected textbooks that were used by children in grades one to nine from nine countries endemic for malaria: Laos, Cambodia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Zambia, Niger, Benin, and Ghana. Two reviewers per country identified descriptions about malaria by seeking the term “malaria” or a local word that corresponds to malaria in languages other than English. The authors categorized the identified descriptions according to the content of the descriptions. Additionally, the authors examined whether the identified contents addressed life skill messages. Of a total of 474 textbooks collected, 35 contained descriptions about malaria. The most commonly included content was transmission mode/vector (77.1%), followed by preventive measures (60.0%), epidemiology (57.1%), cause/agent (54.3%), signs/symptoms (37.1%) and treatment (22.9%). Treatment-related content was not included in any textbooks from four countries and textbooks failed to recommend the use of insecticide-treated bed nets in five countries. Very few textbooks included content that facilitated prompt treatment, protection of risk groups, and use of recommended therapy. Conclusion/Significance Textbooks rarely included knowledge and skills that are crucial to protect schoolchildren and their families from malaria. This study identified the need for improvement to textbook contents regarding malaria. PMID:22574203

  7. Dual control by a single gene of secondary sexual characters and mating preferences in medaka

    PubMed Central

    Fukamachi, Shoji; Kinoshita, Masato; Aizawa, Kouichi; Oda, Shoji; Meyer, Axel; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Animals utilize a wide variety of tactics to attract reproductive partners. Behavioral experiments often indicate an important role for visual cues in fish, but their molecular basis remains almost entirely unknown. Studies on model species (such as zebrafish and medaka) allow investigations into this fundamental question in behavioral and evolutionary biology. Results Through mate-choice experiences using several laboratory strains of various body colors, we successfully identified one medaka mutant (color interfere; ci) that is distinctly unattractive to reproductive partners. This unattractiveness seems to be due to reduced orange pigment cells (xanthophores) in the skin. The ci strain carries a mutation on the somatolactin alpha (SLa) gene, therefore we expected over-expression of SLa to make medaka hyper-attractive. Indeed, extremely strong mating preferences were detected in a choice between the ci and SLa-transgenic (Actb-SLa:GFP) medaka. Intriguingly, however, the strains showed opposite biases; that is, the mutant and transgenic medaka liked to mate with partners from their own strain, similar to becoming sexually isolated. Conclusion This study spotlighted SLa as a novel mate-choice gene in fish. In addition, these results are the first demonstration of a single gene that can pleiotropically and harmoniously change both secondary sexual characters and mating preferences. Although theoretical models have long suggested joint evolution of linked genes on a chromosome, a mutation on a gene-regulatory region (that is, switching on/off of a single gene) might be sufficient to trigger two 'runaway' processes in different directions to promote (sympatric) speciation. PMID:19788724

  8. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... stamped and returned to the commenter. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH...

  9. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Application of deformable mirrors in industrial CO2 lasers. II. Intracavity power control and repetitively pulsed modulation of output radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinevich, B. S.; Evdokimovich, L. N.; Safronov, A. G.; Smirnov, S. N.

    2004-04-01

    Industrial CO2 lasers of various types with stable cavities, which contain deformable mirrors with a controllable curvature of the reflecting surface, are studied experimentally. Stable and reproducible control of the output power of industrial CO2 lasers is achieved in both single-mode and multimode regimes until the complete lasing quenching. Stable repetitively pulsed lasing regimes with a pulse repetition rate varied from a few to several hundred hertz are obtained in cw CO2 lasers. The shapes of the output laser pulses and the dependence of the mean output power on the frequency — time parameters of the control voltage applied to the intracavity deformable mirror are studied.

  10. Pleiotropic Control of Secondary Metabolism and Morphological Development by KsbC, a Butyrolactone Autoregulator Receptor Homologue in Kitasatospora setae

    PubMed Central

    Aroonsri, Aiyada; Kitani, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Junko; Kosone, Ikuko; Izumikawa, Miho; Komatsu, Mamoru; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Yoko; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Ikeda, Haruo

    2012-01-01

    The γ-butyrolactone autoregulator signaling cascades have been shown to control secondary metabolism and/or morphological development among many Streptomyces species. However, the conservation and variation of the regulatory systems among actinomycetes remain to be clarified. The genome sequence of Kitasatospora setae, which also belongs to the family Streptomycetaceae containing the genus Streptomyces, has revealed the presence of three homologues of the autoregulator receptor: KsbA, which has previously been confirmed to be involved only in secondary metabolism; KsbB; and KsbC. We describe here the characterization of ksbC, whose regulatory cluster closely resembles the Streptomyces virginiae barA locus responsible for the autoregulator signaling cascade. Deletion of the gene ksbC resulted in lowered production of bafilomycin and a defect of aerial mycelium formation, together with the early and enhanced production of a novel β-carboline alkaloid named kitasetaline. A putative kitasetaline biosynthetic gene cluster was identified, and its expression in a heterologous host led to the production of kitasetaline together with JBIR-133, the production of which is also detected in the ksbC disruptant, and JBIR-134 as novel β-carboline alkaloids, indicating that these genes were biosynthetic genes for β-carboline alkaloid and thus are the first such genes to be discovered in bacteria. PMID:22961899

  11. Costa Rica’s implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control. PMID:26879509

  12. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, J.; Pao, L. Y.; Fleming, P.; Ela, E.

    2015-02-01

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC tracking performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there is sufficient wind resource available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.

  13. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Jacob; Pao, Lucy Y.; Fleming, Paul; Ela, Erik

    2014-11-13

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC tracking performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there are insufficient wind resources available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.

  14. Nonproliferation vs. Industrial Competitiveness: U.S. Export Controls and the Dual-Use Machine Tool Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    Professor Kamil T. Said for his unparalleled insights concerning the situation in Iraq. xiii I. INTRODUCTION A central goal of our national security...French and German technologies. Financially, Iraq was helped by the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) members and by the Atlanta office of the Banca ...to common export control policies for nuclear and 52"Meeting On Rocket Technology, Dual-Purpose Knowledge Export," Central Eurasia, January 4, 1993

  15. A process control sensor for the glass industry. Phase 1, Extended development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The detailed analysis and testing of the modified sensing system is summarized by the following conclusions: Analyzer long term drift and short term noise improvements have resulted in inherent accuracies of about {plus_minus} 1/2{degrees}C, about equivalent to the black body calibration source. Four different concepts of heating elements were evaluated for use in an in-situ secondary calibration source. The use of a SiN igniter element shows some promise, but requires considerable development. The black body reference is the source of some of the apparent diurnal analyzer drift due to ambient temperature changes. The analyzer has strong ambient temperature sensitivities, specifically the detector and optical bench, which can be substantially mitigated with good internal temperature control (enclosure and detector). Pilot furnace tests using poorly degassed glasses resulted in data which makes conclusions regarding the effects of glass composition and gradient resolution impossible. The impact of bubble inclusions in the glass melt can yield a significant degradation in depth measurement capability as a result of Mei scattering from the bubbles. The degree of degradation depends on bubble size and number density. The above conclusions indicate the program has made significant progress towards correcting previously found deficiencies and has revealed the limitations of the pilot scale test program. Improvements in glass homogeneity, ambient temperature compensation and calibration techniques will offer a high probability of achievement of the accuracy goals in the Phase II program.

  16. Controlling health risks from workplace exposure to metalworking fluids in the United Kingdom engineering industry.

    PubMed

    Stear, Martin A

    2003-11-01

    On October 15, 2002, the United Kingdom (UK) Health and Safety Executive (HSE) launched new guidance for the engineering industry, aimed at reducing health risks from metalworking fluids (MWFs). This guidance was the culmination of many years of work on this subject. In the early 1990s, the UK occupational exposure standards (OES) for oil mist were 5 mg/m(-3) 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA), and 10 mg/m(-3) short-term exposure limit (STEL). This was only applicable to highly refined mineral oil mists and there was no exposure limit for water-mix MWFs (emulsions, semi-synthetics, and synthetics). HSE therefore undertook to review the existing exposure limit for neat mineral oil mists (neat oils are fluids that contain highly refined mineral oils and additives, and are used neat without mixing with water) and consider developing one for water-mix MWFs. This led to the development of new air-sampling methods, a comprehensive survey, and the development of new good practice guidance in the place of statutory exposure limits. This new good practice guidance has been endorsed and launched with the help of relevant industry supplier, employer, and employee associations. The guidance builds on the philosophy of tackling health risks as a holistic approach; for example, not just tackling mist control through the use of ventilation, but also fluid selection, fluid delivery, and fluid management (fluid management means to effectively manage all aspects of the fluid, from storage and stock preparation to sump cleaning and fluid disposal, etc.). Tools, such as laminated task sheets, are provided to make it user friendly. It also demonstrates the business benefits from this approach, that managing your MWFs effectively can reduce the incidence of ill health, reduce fluid and disposal costs, increase tool life, and improve machining performance.

  17. Pet killing as a manifestation of impulse control disorder secondary to pramipexol.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Federico; Pellene, Alejandro; Arcushin, Daniela; Calzinari, Aldo; Farret, Michel Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Impulse control disorders are frequent in Parkinson disease and are commonly associated with dopamine agonists intake. Typical manifestations include punding, hypersexuality, pathological gambling, and other compulsive behaviors. Symptoms often promptly disappear when dopamine agonists are discontinued, but if the origin is misinterpreted, symptoms may become a problem. We here report the case of a patient with juvenile Parkinson disease treated with 4.5 mg/d of pramipexol, who developed the need to adopt cats. He adopted almost 50 of them, but after he adopted them, he felt the need to kill them. The case became well known, and he became depressed and isolated. He was admitted to a psychiatric hospital and thought that he was a psychotic. However, when pramipexol was replaced by levodopa, the symptoms disappeared. This case illustrates the wide range of manifestations of impulse control disorders and warrants the inclusion of violent behaviors among them.

  18. Forging Links for the Future: Secondary, Post-Secondary, and Business/Industry Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Northwest Regional Articulation Conference (Farmington, New Mexico, November 8-10, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Juan Coll., Farmington, NM.

    This report is a summary of presentations and recommendations made by representatives of area public school districts, postsecondary institutions, and businesses who met at San Juan College to engage in an extended discussion about the articulation of mathematics and language arts instruction at secondary and postsecondary institutions in…

  19. Activity and characterization of secondary metabolites produced by a new microorganism for control of plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Hsiung; Tsou, Yi-Jung; Lin, Mei-Ju; Chern, Lih-Ling

    2010-09-30

    Microorganisms capable of utilizing vegetable tissues for growth in soils were isolated and their vegetable broth cultures were individually sprayed directly on leaves to test their ability to control Phytophthora blight of bell pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici. Liquid culture of Streptomyces strain TKA-5, a previously undescribed species obtained in this study, displayed several desirable disease control characteristics in nature, including high potency, long lasting and ability to control also black leaf spot of spoon cabbage caused by Alternaria brassicicolca. The extract was fungicidal to P. capsici but fungistatic to A. brassicicola. It was stable at high temperature and high pH. However, after exposure to pH 2 for 24h, the extract was no longer inhibitory to P. capsici although it was still strongly inhibitory to A. brassicicola. After treatment with cation or anion exchange resins, the extract lost its inhibitory effect against P. capsici but not A. brassicicola. The results suggest that the extract contained two different kinds of inhibitory metabolites, one against P. capsici with both positive and negative charges on its molecule and another against A. brassicicola with no charges on its molecule. The inhibitory metabolites were soluble in ethanol or methanol but not in water, ether or chloroform. They were dialyzable in the membrane tubing with molecular weight cut-off of 10,000, 1000 or 500 but not 100, indicating that the inhibitors have a molecular weight between 500 and 100. Results also showed that both inhibitors are not proteins.

  20. IECON '87: Industrial applications of control and simulation; Proceedings of the 1987 International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control, and Instrumentation, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 3, 4, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in control-system design and simulation are discussed in reviews and reports. Among the topics considered are fast algorithms for generating near-optimal binary decision programs, trajectory control of robot manipulators with compensation of load effects via a six-axis force sensor, matrix integrators for real-time simulation, a high-level control language for an autonomous land vehicle, and a practical engineering design method for stable model-reference adaptive systems. Also addressed are the identification and control of flexible-limb robots with unknown loads, adaptive control and robust adaptive control for manipulators with feedforward compensation, adaptive pole-placement controllers with predictive action, variable-structure strategies for motion control, and digital signal-processor-based variable-structure controls.

  1. A general theory of secondary recrystallization in grain oriented Fe-Si: Metallurgical parameters controlling the microstructural evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbruzzese, G.; Campopiano, A.

    1994-05-01

    The secondary recrystallization (SR) process and the related effects on the magnetic properties of silicon-iron are discussed in the framework of the general statistical theory of grain growth including texture and Zener drag influence. It has been shown that SR in silicon-iron is related to a selective growth process experienced by Goss grains due to specific grain boundary conditions generated by the surrounding grains (texture). In this paper some examples showing the specific role of various microstructural parameters influencing the selectivity of SR (such as Zener drag intensity and its drop rate, initial grain size, etc.), are discussed and related to the magnetic properties, which are mainly controlled by the final average grain size and orientation.

  2. Genetic Control of the Secondary Modification of Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Mamelak, Linda; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1970-01-01

    The wild-type restriction and modification alleles of Escherichia coli K-12 and B were found to have no measurable effect on the patterns of methylated bases in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of these strains. The genetic region controlling the methylation of cytosine in E. coli K-12 was mapped close to his, and the presence or absence of this gene in E. coli B or E. coli K had no effect on the restriction and modification properties of these strains. Thus, only a few of the methylated bases in the DNA of these strains are involved in host modification, and the biological role of the remainder remains obscure. PMID:4919756

  3. Predicting the host range of Nystalea ebalea: secondary plant chemistry and host selection by a surrogate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The safety of weed biological control depends upon the selection and utilization of the target weed by the agent while causing minimal harm to non-target species. Selection of weed species by biological control agents is determined by the presence of behavioral cues, generally host secondary plant c...

  4. Effect of Instruction in Emotional Intelligence Skills on Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Junior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…

  5. Modeling of fugitive dust emission and control measures in stone crushing industry.

    PubMed

    Sivacoumar, R; Mohan Raj, S; Chinnadurai, S Jeremiah; Jayabalou, R

    2009-05-01

    Stone crushing in India is a small scale industry, where most of the operations are performed manually. A cluster of 72 stone crushing units located at Trisoolam in Chennai is a source of high levels of dust generation in the vicinity of the crushers and in the communities surrounding them. An ambient air quality monitoring network was designed and operated over 3 months (June-August, 2006) at 17 sites across the Trisoolam area. Wind speed and direction were monitored continuously every 1 hour to determine the upwind and downwind directions for the air quality monitoring program. The TSPM concentration at the source varied 1268-4108 microg/m(3) with a mean of 2759 microg/m(3), whereas in ambient air varied 65-417 microg/m(3) with a mean of 190 microg/m(3). The percentage of particulate fractions PM(2.5), PM(10), PM(15), and PM(30) was 14.3, 36.6, 45 and 73.5% of the total dust respectively. The settleable particulate matter was found to be 45% and the maximum percent of particles is in the range of 3-5 microm (8 %). Both ambient dust concentration and occupational exposure level exceeded Indian National Standards at most of the locations. Mathematical models viz., FDM, ISCST3 and AERMOD were employed for prediction of dust emission from stone crushers on the surrounding areas. The impact zone for measured concentration varied 211-1350 m with a mean of 784 m. The impact zone for predicted concentrations of FDM, ISCST3 and AERMOD varied 153-2650 m, 143-1056 m, 135-1225 m with a mean of 1335 m, 501 m and 679 m respectively. The control measures adopted at these stone crushing units are not sufficient enough to bring down the concentration within the stipulated limits. There is a scope for further improvement of control measures at these stone crushing units.

  6. Oriented nanofibrous membranes for tissue engineering applications: Electrospinning with secondary field control.

    PubMed

    Walser, Jochen; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning is an electrical field driven method to produce polymer fibre membranes by deposition of a charged polymer jet onto a grounded collector. Fibre alignment within these mats is usually achieved by a fast collector movement, which is not feasible for all collector geometries, such as small diameter tubes or free-form moulds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of charged deflector plates to apply a dynamic, alternating electrical field perpendicular to the spinning direction, in order to directly control the fibre trajectory. Different field signal types, deflector plate voltages and deflection frequency ranges have been investigated. 210 poly(ɛ)caprolactone (PCL) membranes were electrospun. SEM images of each membrane were analysed using ImageJ. Main fibre diameter and orientation, as well as the degree of fibre alignment, were calculated, while a subset of the spun scaffolds were tested for their tensile properties. Higher deflector plate voltage amplitude resulted in a better fibre alignment. The best alignment was observed in a low deflection frequency range from 2 to 10 Hz. Mean main fibre direction was 87±18°, relative to the deflection axis, while fibre alignment had only a minor effect on the average fibre diameter. Young's modulus and yield stress increased with the ratio of the parallel fibre component. The feasibility of the described method to achieve fibre alignment was demonstrated. However, the main fibre direction is not aligned with the deflection axis, but consistently perpendicular to it, which is also reflected in the tensile properties of spun samples.

  7. Secondary amenorrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... of periods - secondary Images Secondary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. Physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  8. On the Application of Different Event-Based Sampling Strategies to the Control of a Simple Industrial Process

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, José; Guarnes, Miguel Ángel; Dormido, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an experimental study of the utilization of different event-based strategies for the automatic control of a simple but very representative industrial process: the level control of a tank. In an event-based control approach it is the triggering of a specific event, and not the time, that instructs the sensor to send the current state of the process to the controller, and the controller to compute a new control action and send it to the actuator. In the document, five control strategies based on different event-based sampling techniques are described, compared, and contrasted with a classical time-based control approach and a hybrid one. The common denominator in the time, the hybrid, and the event-based control approaches is the controller: a proportional-integral algorithm with adaptations depending on the selected control approach. To compare and contrast each one of the hybrid and the pure event-based control algorithms with the time-based counterpart, the two tasks that a control strategy must achieve (set-point following and disturbance rejection) are independently analyzed. The experimental study provides new proof concerning the ability of event-based control strategies to minimize the data exchange among the control agents (sensors, controllers, actuators) when an error-free control of the process is not a hard requirement. PMID:22399975

  9. 76 FR 64228 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: External Pacemaker Pulse Generator; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  10. 76 FR 16425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... document is immediately in effect as the special control for the ovarian adnexal mass assessment score...

  11. 76 FR 28688 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Bacillus Species Detection AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. Performance of a Dynamically Controlled Inverter in a Photovoltaic System Interconnected with a Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M. H.; Kroposki, B. D.; Basso, T.; Berger, D.; Crowell, K.; Hayes, J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, a 300 kW{sub peak} photovoltaic (PV) system was installed on the rooftop of the Colorado Convention Center (CCC). The installation was unique for the electric utility, Xcel Energy, as it had not previously permitted a PV system to be interconnected on a building served by the local secondary network distribution system (network). The PV system was installed with several provisions; one to prevent reverse power flow, another called a dynamically controlled inverter (DCI), that curtails the output of the PV inverters to maintain an amount of load supplied by Xcel Energy at the CCC. The DCI system utilizes current transformers (CTs) to sense power flow to insure that a minimum threshold is maintained from Xcel Energy through the network transformers. The inverters are set to track the load on each of the three phases and curtail power from the PV system when the generated PV system current reaches 95% of the current on any phase. This is achieved by the DCI, which gathers inputs from current transformers measuring the current from the PV array, Xcel, and the spot network load. Preventing reverse power flow is a critical technical requirement for the spot network which serve this part of the CCC. The PV system was designed with the expectation that the DCI system would not curtail the PV system, as the expected minimum load consumption was historically higher than the designed PV system size. However, the DCI system has operated many days during the course of a year, and the performance has been excellent. The DCI system at the CCC was installed as a secondary measure to insure that a minimum level of power flows to the CCC from the Xcel Energy network. While this DCI system was intended for localized control, the system could also reduce output percent if an external smart grid control signal was employed. This paper specifically focuses on the performance of the innovative design at this installation; however, the DCI system could also be used for new s- art

  13. A Comparison of Industrial and Academic Perceptions of Quality Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, R. Neal; Strong, Shawn D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of both industry professionals and faculty members of technology-based programs concerning the preparedness of recent graduates as they began a quality related position. To gain this information, surveys were administered among managers and technical leaders in industry and compared with…

  14. 76 FR 72087 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA...: Final special conditions. SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft...: Background On May 11, 2010, Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH applied for an ] amendment to Type Certificate...

  15. Career Education: Learning with a Purpose. Secondary Guide-Vol. 1. Art, English, Industrial Arts, Physical Education, Science, Field Trips and Guest Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Marilyn; And Others

    The guide offers a compilation of teacher developed career education materials which may be integrated with secondary level curriculum and, in some cases, complete unit or course outlines are included. Suggested activities and ideas are presented for the following five subject areas and their related units: art, English (activity suggestions for…

  16. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE. PMID:27483327

  17. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-07-30

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE.

  18. Application of online UV absorption measurements for ozone process control in secondary effluent with variable nitrite concentration.

    PubMed

    Stapf, Michael; Miehe, Ulf; Jekel, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Ozone process control in secondary effluent used for elimination of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) requires the use of surrogates, such as the relative reduction of UV absorption at 254 nm (ΔUVA254) to adapt the ozone dose to a varying water quality. In the present study, a closed-loop process control based on two online UVA254 measurements was successfully implemented and tested under realistic conditions with ozone doses from 0.2 to 1.05 mg-O3/mg-DOC at a pilot scale ozonation system with subsequent coagulation filtration at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (DOC ∼ 13 mg/L, UVA254 ∼ 27 m(-1), and nitrite peaks of up to 1.6 mg-N/L). It could be shown that measuring the UVA254 at the ozonation effluent was superior to the measurement of UVA254 at the filter effluent in terms of response time due to changes in water quality, whereas online measurement at the filter effluent showed a better agreement with laboratory data and a reduced maintenance interval due to less particles. Additional online nitrite measurement is not necessary as the ozone consumption by nitrite directly impacts ΔUVA254.

  19. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  20. Association of Industry Funding with the Outcome and Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials of Drug Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nasim A.; Lombeida, Juan I.; Singh, Manisha; Spencer, Horace J.; Torralba, Karina D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of industry funding with the characteristics, outcome, and reported quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of drug therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched to identify original RA drug therapy RCTs published in 2002–3 & 2006–7. Two reviewers independently assessed each RCT for the funding source, characteristics, outcome [positive (statistically significant result favoring experimental drug for the primary outcome) or not positive], and reporting of methodological measures whose inadequate performance may bias treatment effect assessment. RCTs registered at ClinicalTrials.gov and completed in the study years were assessed for publication bias. Results 103 eligible RCTs were identified with following funding sources: 58 (56.3%) industry; 19 (18.4%) non-profit; 6 (5.8%) mixed; and 20 (19.4%) unspecified. Industry funded RCTs had significantly more study centers and subjects; while non-profit funded RCTs had longer duration, and were more likely to study different treatment strategies. Outcome could be assessed for 86 (83.5%) RCTs. Funding source was not associated with higher likelihood of positive outcomes favoring the sponsored experimental drug [industry (75.5%), non-profit (68.8%), mixed (40%), and unspecified (81.2%); p = 0.37]. Industry funded RCTs had trend towards higher likelihood of non-publication (38.6% versus 16.7%, p = 0.093). Industry-funded RCTs reported more frequent performance of double-blinding, adequate participant flow description, and intention-to-treat analysis. Conclusion Industry funding was not associated with higher likelihood of positive outcomes of published drug therapy RCTs for RA, and reported better on some key RCT quality measures. PMID:22275179

  1. Explosion safety in industrial electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, S. V.; Kiss, I.; Berta, I.

    2011-01-01

    Complicated industrial systems are often endangered by electrostatic hazards, both from atmospheric (lightning phenomenon, primary and secondary lightning protection) and industrial (technological problems caused by static charging and fire and explosion hazards.) According to the classical approach protective methods have to be used in order to remove electrostatic charging and to avoid damages, however no attempt to compute the risk before and after applying the protective method is made, relying instead on well-educated and practiced expertise. The Budapest School of Electrostatics - in close cooperation with industrial partners - develops new suitable solutions for probability based decision support (Static Control Up-to-date Technology, SCOUT) using soft computing methods. This new approach can be used to assess and audit existing systems and - using the predictive power of the models - to design and plan activities in industrial electrostatics.

  2. A prototype forensic toolkit for industrial-control-systems incident response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Nickolas B.; Rowe, Neil C.

    2015-05-01

    Industrial control systems (ICSs) are an important part of critical infrastructure in cyberspace. They are especially vulnerable to cyber-attacks because of their legacy hardware and software and the difficulty of changing it. We first survey the history of intrusions into ICSs, the more serious of which involved a continuing adversary presence on an ICS network. We discuss some common vulnerabilities and the categories of possible attacks, noting the frequent use of software written a long time ago. We propose a framework for designing ICS incident response under the constraints that no new software must be required and that interventions cannot impede the continuous processing that is the norm for such systems. We then discuss a prototype toolkit we built using the Windows Management Instrumentation Command-Line tool for host-based analysis and the Bro intrusion-detection software for network-based analysis. Particularly useful techniques we used were learning the historical range of parameters of numeric quantities so as to recognize anomalies, learning the usual addresses of connections to a node, observing Internet addresses (usually rare), observing anomalous network protocols such as unencrypted data transfers, observing unusual scheduled tasks, and comparing key files through registry entries and hash values to find malicious modifications. We tested our methods on actual data from ICSs including publicly-available data, voluntarily-submitted data, and researcher-provided "advanced persistent threat" data. We found instances of interesting behavior in our experiments. Intrusions were generally easy to see because of the repetitive nature of most processing on ICSs, but operators need to be motivated to look.

  3. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  4. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  5. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  6. Design of RTDA controller for industrial process using SOPDT model with minimum or non-minimum zero.

    PubMed

    Anbarasan, K; Srinivasan, K

    2015-07-01

    This research paper focuses on the design and development of simplified RTDA control law computation formulae for SOPDT process with minimum or non-minimum zero. The design of RTDA control scheme consists of three main components namely process output prediction, model prediction update and control action computation. The systematic approach for computation of the above three components for SOPDT process with minimum or non-minimum zero is developed in this paper. The design, implementation and performance evaluation of the developed controller is demonstrated via simulation examples. The closed loop equation, block diagram representation and theoretical stability derivation for RTDA controller are developed. The performance of proposed controller is compared with IMC, SPC, MPC and PID controller and it is demonstrated on Industrial non-linear CSTR process.

  7. Control of industrial VOC (volatile organic compound) emissions by catalytic incineration. volume 5. catalytic incinerator performance at industrial site c-3. Final report, May 1982-August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Blacksmith, J.R.; Randall, J.L.

    1984-07-01

    The report is part of a two-phase EPA effort to assess the performance, suitability, and costs of various technologies to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In Phase 1, information was assembled from the literature on the use and cost of using catalytic incineration for VOC control. Results included: (1) a review of current and developing catalytic incineration technology, (2) an assessment of the overall performance of catalytic incinerators, (3) a review of applications where catalytic incinerators are used, (4) a comparative analysis of catalytic incineration with other competing VOC controls, (5) an examination of available methods for emission testing catalytic incinerators, and (6) an assessment of the need for additional performance test data. Phase 2 was a test program designed to increase the catalytic incinerator performance data base. It resulted in reports documenting the performance of eight catalytic incinerators at six industrial sites. The incinerators were used to control VOC emissions from solvent evaporation processes at can coating, coil coating, magnet wire, and graphic arts printing plants. Performance was measured at several process conditions at each site. Incinerator performance was characterized in terms of destruction efficiency, outlet solvent concentration, and energy usage. Design and operating data were collected. This report preseents test resultls and data evaluation for the testing conducted at the third test site, which involved the testing of two catalytic incinerators at Plant C-3, a graphic arts printing establishment.

  8. PREFACE: International Symposium on Ultrasound in the Control of Industrial Processes (UCIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, Luis Elvira; Resa López, Pablo; Salazar, Jordi; Benedito Fort, José Javier; Martínez Graullera, Óscar

    2012-12-01

    The following describes most of the presentations (both oral and poster) given at the International Symposium of Ultrasound in the Control of Industrial Processes (UCIP 2012) celebrated in Madrid between 18 and 20 April 2012. This event was intended to be a meeting point for scientists, engineers and professionals from all over the world in the field of ultrasonics applied to the characterization and control of materials and processes in the industry. More precisely, the topics included were: 1. Novel applications of ultrasound in the industry (including high-power ultrasound) Food science Biotechnology and microbiology Pharmaceutics and cosmetics Petrochemistry and civil engineering 2. New insights in the ultrasonic characterization of media: Fluids and emulsions Nano- and micro-particle dispersions Soft materials Porous bodies and inhomogeneous materials 3. New developments in ultrasonic measuring techniques: Acoustic microscopy Piezoelectric sensors Ultrasonic imaging Signal processing The symposium was organized by the Centro de Acústica Aplicada y Evaluación No Destructiva (CAEND, UPM-CSIC) in collaboration with the Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and the University of Leeds. During the conference, 32 posters and 33 oral communications were presented. In addition, 4 invited lectures were imparted: 'Acoustic microscopy, spectroscopy and nanoparticle detection' by Dr Malcolm Povey; 'Acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy' by Dr Andrei Dukhin; 'High-Resolution Ultrasonic Spectroscopy and its application for material analysis by Dr Vitaly Buckin; 'Ultrasonic sensors for process applications - state of the art' by Dr Bern Henning; and three tutorials were given: 'PZFlex - Finite Element Analysis for Virtual Prototyping' by Weidlinger Associates; 'SITAU - A flexible architecture controlled by MATLAB for the development of ultrasonic applications' by DASEL; 'Ultra-SCATTERERTM (Acoustics Suite) - The R&D Tool for

  9. Industry-Grade Seismic Processing System for Controlled- (and Passive-) Source Research in Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubak, G.; Morozov, I.

    2004-05-01

    to be initiated and controlled from a single interface. Jobs may be executed either locally or on a single or multiple remote systems in a heterogeneous computing environment. The GUI includes tools for run-time control of both local and remote processes.. The GUI also includes provisions for cluster scheduling, allowing processes to be executed on Beowulf clusters. Depending on their design, individual tools or flows can be parallelized using either PVM or MPI (Message Passing Interface). With the decentralized processing concept implemented in SIA, grid computing and seamless data exchange could become a reality without any effort from the users. In passive-source work, which is quickly adopting reflection processing techniques, this industry-style processing could provide sophisticated, inexpensive, and high performance approaches to data retrieval and access to hundreds of signal enhancement tools developed in reflection seismics.

  10. Hyperspectral imaging for diagnosis and quality control in agri-food and industrial sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Allende, P. Beatriz; Conde, Olga M.; Mirapeix, Jesus; Cobo, Adolfo; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.

    2010-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been utilized in various fields of science, industry and medicine, since each substance is discernible from all others by its spectral properties. However, optical spectroscopy traditionally generates information on the bulk properties of the whole sample, and mainly in the agri-food industry some product properties result from the heterogeneity in its composition. This monitoring is considerably more challenging and can be successfully achieved by the so-called hyperspectral imaging technology, which allows the simultaneous determination of the optical spectrum and the spatial location of an object in a surface. In addition, it is a nonintrusive and non-contact technique which gives rise to a great potential for industrial applications and it does not require any particular preparation of the samples, which is a primary concern in food monitoring. This work illustrates an overview of approaches based on this technology to address different problems in agri-food and industrial sectors. The hyperspectral system was originally designed and tested for raw material on-line discrimination, which is a key factor in the input stages of many industrial sectors. The combination of the acquisition of the spectral information across transversal lines while materials are being transported on a conveyor belt, and appropriate image analyses have been successfully validated in the tobacco industry. Lastly, the use of imaging spectroscopy applied to online welding quality monitoring is discussed and compared with traditional spectroscopic approaches in this regard.

  11. Improvement of Orthography Test Performance by Relaxation Exercises: Results of a Controlled Field Experiment in Basic Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krampen, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    The effects of relaxation exercises on orthography performance in language arts education of fifth to seventh graders were experimentally tested. Participants were 399 basic secondary school students and their language arts teachers from the Hauptschule, a German type of secondary education covering grades five to nine that leads to a basic…

  12. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  13. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  14. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  15. Local exhaust ventilation for the control of welding fumes in the construction industry--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2012-08-01

    Arc welding is a common unit operation in the construction industry, where frequent changes in location and welding position make it more difficult to control fume exposures than in industries where fixed locations are the norm. Welders may be exposed to a variety of toxic airborne contaminants including manganese (Mn) and hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is a well-known engineering control for welding fumes but has not been adopted widely in the construction industry. This literature review presents data on the performance of a variety of LEV systems for welding fume control from the construction (five references), shipyard (five references), and other industries. The studies indicate that LEV can reduce fume exposures to total particulate, Mn, and CrVI to levels below currently relevant standards. Field studies suggest that 40-50% or more reduction in exposure is possible with portable or fixed LEV systems relative to natural ventilation but that correct positioning of the hood and adequate exhaust flow rates are essential. Successful implementation of extraction guns for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and flux core arc welding has been demonstrated, indicating that a successful balance between extraction airflow and shielding gas requirements is possible. Work practices are an important part of achieving successful control of fume exposures; in particular, positioning the hood close to the arc, checking exhaust flow rates, and avoiding the plume. Further research is needed on hood size effects for controlling welding fume with portable LEV systems and identifying and overcoming barriers to LEV use in construction.

  16. A case-control study of carcinomas of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the woolen textile manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Magnani, C; Comba, P; Ferraris, F; Ivaldi, C; Meneghin, M; Terracini, B

    1993-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Biella, which is located in northwestern Italy, to investigate the reported association between sinonasal carcinomas and woolen fabrics production. The study included 33 cases diagnosed during 1976-1988 (14 adenocarcinomas, 11 epidermoid carcinomas, 3 other specified carcinomas, 1 unspecified carcinoma, and 4 cases without histologic confirmation) and 131 controls. No association was found with smoking. As reported previously, excess risks were observed in wood and furniture workers (odds ratio [OR] = 4.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.41-13.4) and in the leather industry (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 0.6-20.3). Odds ratios in the wood and furniture industry were 22.0 (95% CI = 4.4-124.0) for adenocarcinomas and 0.9 (95% CI = 0.4-8.3) for epidermoid carcinomas. No association was found with the woolen textile or garment industries (OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.2-2.8), nor with farming, construction, metal works, and transport. Odds ratios for the textile industry did not vary with length of exposure or histologic type. Power for detecting an odds ratio of 3.0 at the 95% level of significance was 40%.

  17. The development of Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam: stakeholder tensions over tobacco control legislation in a state owned industry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Building on its National Tobacco Control Policy initiated in 2000, Vietnam is currently considering introducing a comprehensive law to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policy. This study analyses the positions of key stakeholders in the development of tobacco control legislation in the context of a largely state-owned industry, and discusses their implications for the policy process. Methods Several qualitative methods were employed for the study including: literature review and documentary analysis; key informant interview; focus groups discussion; and key stakeholders survey. Findings The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Ministry of Finance are key players in the tobacco control policy and legislation, representing competing bureaucratic interests over health, macro-economy and revenue. High-ranking officials, including the Communist Party and National Assembly members, take a rather relaxed position reflecting the low political stakes placed on tobacco issues. The state-owned tobacco industry is regarded as an important contributor to the government revenue and gross domestic product, and the relative weight on health and socioeconomic issues placed by stakeholders determine their positions on tobacco control. Overall, short-term economic interests have more immediate influence in setting policy directions, with the consequences of health gains perceived as relegated to a distant future. This was reflected in the position of tobacco control advocates, including MOH, that presented with reluctance in insisting on some tobacco control strategies revealing a mixture attitude of concessions to the socioeconomic uncertainties and a sense of bargaining to win the strategies that are more likely to be accepted. Conclusion The state-ownership of tobacco industry poses a major paradox within the government that benefits from manufacturing of tobacco products and is also responsible for controlling tobacco consumption. The

  18. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-08-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs.

  19. Forcing the Navy to sell cigarettes on ships: how the tobacco industry and politicians torpedoed Navy tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Offen, Naphtali; Arvey, Sarah R; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-03-01

    In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships' stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces.

  20. Forcing the Navy to Sell Cigarettes on Ships: How the Tobacco Industry and Politicians Torpedoed Navy Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Arvey, Sarah R.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships’ stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces. PMID:21233435

  1. How the Pill Became a Lifestyle Drug: The Pharmaceutical Industry and Birth Control in the United States Since 1960

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-01-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs. PMID:22698049

  2. Risk assessment and suicide by patients with schizophrenia in secondary mental healthcare: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Morinigo, Javier-David; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Torres-Romano, Beatriz; Fernandes, Andrea C; Shetty, Hitesh; Broadbent, Matthew; Dominguez-Ballesteros, Maria-Encarnacion; Stewart, Robert; David, Anthony S; Dutta, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of risk assessment in predicting suicide in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) receiving secondary mental healthcare. We postulated that risk assessment plays a limited role in predicting suicide in these patients. Design Retrospective case–control study. Setting Anonymised electronic mental health record data from the South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (SLaM) (London, UK) linked with national mortality data. Participants In 242 227 SLaM service users up to 31 December 2013, 635 suicides were identified. 96 (15.1%) had a SSD diagnosis. Those who died before 1 January 2007 (n=25) were removed from the analyses. Thus, 71 participants with SSD who died from suicide over the study period (cases) were compared with 355 controls. Main outcome measure Risk of suicide in relation to risk assessment ratings. Results Cases were younger at first contact with services (mean±SD 34.5±12.6 vs 39.2±15.2) and with a higher preponderance of males (OR=2.07, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.65, p=0.01) than controls. Also, suicide occurred within 10 days after last contact with services in half of cases, with the most common suicide methods being hanging (14) and jumping (13). Cases were more likely to have the following ‘risk assessment’ items previously recorded: suicidal history (OR=4.42, 95% CI 2.01 to 9.65, p<0.001), use of violent method (OR=3.37, 95% CI 1.47 to 7.74, p=0.01), suicidal ideation (OR=3.57, 95% CI 1.40 to 9.07, p=0.01) and recent hospital discharge (OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.17 to 6.28, p=0.04). Multiple regression models predicted only 21.5% of the suicide outcome variance. Conclusions Predicting suicide in schizophrenia is highly challenging due to the high prevalence of risk factors within this diagnostic group irrespective of outcome, including suicide. Nevertheless, older age at first contact with mental health services and lack of suicidal history and suicidal ideation are useful

  3. Real-time networked control of an industrial robot manipulator via discrete-time second-order sliding modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimiliano Capisani, Luca; Facchinetti, Tullio; Ferrara, Antonella

    2010-08-01

    This article presents the networked control of a robotic anthropomorphic manipulator based on a second-order sliding mode technique, where the control objective is to track a desired trajectory for the manipulator. The adopted control scheme allows an easy and effective distribution of the control algorithm over two networked machines. While the predictability of real-time tasks execution is achieved by the Soft Hard Real-Time Kernel (S.Ha.R.K.) real-time operating system, the communication is established via a standard Ethernet network. The performances of the control system are evaluated under different experimental system configurations using, to perform the experiments, a COMAU SMART3-S2 industrial robot, and the results are analysed to put into evidence the robustness of the proposed approach against possible network delays, packet losses and unmodelled effects.

  4. DOE/DHS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY PROGRAMS: A MODEL FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Many critical infrastructure sectors have been investigating cyber security issues for several years especially with the help of two primary government programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program have both implemented activities aimed at securing the industrial control systems that operate the North American electric grid along with several other critical infrastructure sectors (ICS). These programs have spent the last seven years working with industry including asset owners, educational institutions, standards and regulating bodies, and control system vendors. The programs common mission is to provide outreach, identification of cyber vulnerabilities to ICS and mitigation strategies to enhance security postures. The success of these programs indicates that a similar approach can be successfully translated into other sectors including nuclear operations, safeguards, and security. The industry regulating bodies have included cyber security requirements and in some cases, have incorporated sets of standards with penalties for non-compliance such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection standards. These DOE and DHS programs that address security improvements by both suppliers and end users provide an excellent model for nuclear facility personnel concerned with safeguards and security cyber vulnerabilities and countermeasures. It is not a stretch to imagine complete surreptitious collapse of protection against the removal of nuclear material or even initiation of a criticality event as witnessed at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl in a nuclear ICS inadequately protected against the cyber threat.

  5. Walk-through survey report: control technology for fermentation processes at Novo Biochemical Industries, Inc. , Franklinton, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, K.F.

    1983-09-01

    A walkthrough survey of control technology for fermentation processes at Novo Biochemical Industries, Incorporated (SIC-2869), Franklinton, North Carolina was conducted in June, 1983. The company produced two industrial enzymes, alpha-amylase and amyl glucosidase, from microbial strains of Bacillus and Aspergillus. Engineering controls included enclosure of the production process and local exhaust ventilation of all bag dumping stations. Employee contact with the production process was minimal except for equipment maintenance and manual broth sample extraction. The majority of the large scale processes were computer controlled or monitored. All employees were required to maintain a clean work environment. The company used a computerized preventive-maintenance program. Routine industrial hygiene monitoring for active aerosilized liquid enzymes was conducted. The company had a relatively complete medical and biological monitoring program. Appropriate personal-protective equipment was required in all departments of the facility. The company employed a standardized procedure for entering a deep tank reactor vessel. The author concludes that the company employs state of the art technology and provides a work environment that minimizes potential exposure to microorganisms, process chemical intermediates, and biological products. An indepth survey of the facility is recommended.

  6. Assessing the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of secondary metabolites produced by several fungal biological control agents with the Ames assay and the VITOTOX(®) test.

    PubMed

    Kouvelis, Vassili N; Wang, Chengshu; Skrobek, Anke; Pappas, Katherine M; Typas, Milton A; Butt, Tariq M

    2011-05-18

    The potential genotoxic effects of several pure secondary metabolites produced by fungi used as biological control agents (BCAs) were studied with the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay and the Vitotox test, with and without metabolic activation. A complete set of Salmonella tester strains was used to avoid false negative results. To detect possible mutagenic and/or cytotoxic effects of fungal secondary metabolites due to synergistic action, crude extracts and fungal cell extracts of the BCAs were also examined. Although the sensitivity of the methods varied depending on the metabolite used, clearly no genotoxicity was observed in all cases. The results of the two assays are discussed in the light of being used in a complementary fashion for a convincing risk-assessment evaluation of fungal BCAs and their secondary metabolites.

  7. New Weapons to Fight Old Enemies: Novel Strategies for the (Bio)control of Bacterial Biofilms in the Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. Biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. Pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem for the healthcare and food industries, as their biofilm-forming ability protects them from common cleaning processes and allows them to remain in the environment post-sanitation. In the food industry, persistent bacteria colonize the inside of mixing tanks, vats and tubing, compromising food safety and quality. Strategies to overcome bacterial persistence through inhibition of biofilm formation or removal of mature biofilms are therefore necessary. Current biofilm control strategies employed in the food industry (cleaning and disinfection, material selection and surface preconditioning, plasma treatment, ultrasonication, etc.), although effective to a certain point, fall short of biofilm control. Efforts have been explored, mainly with a view to their application in pharmaceutical and healthcare settings, which focus on targeting molecular determinants regulating biofilm formation. Their application to the food industry would greatly aid efforts to eradicate undesirable bacteria from food processing environments and, ultimately, from food products. These approaches, in contrast to bactericidal approaches, exert less selective pressure which in turn would reduce the likelihood of resistance development. A particularly interesting strategy targets quorum sensing systems, which regulate gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density governing essential cellular processes including biofilm formation. This review article discusses the problems associated

  8. New Weapons to Fight Old Enemies: Novel Strategies for the (Bio)control of Bacterial Biofilms in the Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Laura M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. Biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. Pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem for the healthcare and food industries, as their biofilm-forming ability protects them from common cleaning processes and allows them to remain in the environment post-sanitation. In the food industry, persistent bacteria colonize the inside of mixing tanks, vats and tubing, compromising food safety and quality. Strategies to overcome bacterial persistence through inhibition of biofilm formation or removal of mature biofilms are therefore necessary. Current biofilm control strategies employed in the food industry (cleaning and disinfection, material selection and surface preconditioning, plasma treatment, ultrasonication, etc.), although effective to a certain point, fall short of biofilm control. Efforts have been explored, mainly with a view to their application in pharmaceutical and healthcare settings, which focus on targeting molecular determinants regulating biofilm formation. Their application to the food industry would greatly aid efforts to eradicate undesirable bacteria from food processing environments and, ultimately, from food products. These approaches, in contrast to bactericidal approaches, exert less selective pressure which in turn would reduce the likelihood of resistance development. A particularly interesting strategy targets quorum sensing systems, which regulate gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density governing essential cellular processes including biofilm formation. This review article discusses the problems associated

  9. Defusing the Toxics Threat: Controlling Pesticides and Industrial Waste. Worldwatch Paper 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra

    The use of pesticides in agriculture and the discarding of industrial chemical waste into the air, soil, and water constitute two major pathways of human exposure to toxic substances. It is argued that these practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. Speculation continues into…

  10. 75 FR 36421 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... adverse effect on the identity, strength, quality, purity, or potency of the drug product and, therefore... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  11. Pattern recognition analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of Crocus sativus L. secondary metabolites towards source identification and quality control.

    PubMed

    Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Sereshti, Hassan; Parastar, Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Chromatographic fingerprinting is an effective methodology for authentication and quality control of herbal products. In the presented study, a chemometric strategy based on multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and multivariate pattern recognition methods was used to establish a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprint of saffron. For this purpose, the volatile metabolites of 17 Iranian saffron samples, collected from different geographical regions, were determined using the combined method of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UASE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), coupled with GC-MS. The resolved elution profiles and the related mass spectra obtained by an extended MCR-ALS algorithm were then used to estimate the relative concentrations and to identify the saffron volatile metabolites, respectively. Consequently, 77 compounds with high reversed match factors (RMFs > 850) were successfully determined. The relative concentrations of these compounds were used to generate a new data set which was analyzed by multivariate data analysis methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means. Accordingly, the saffron samples were categorized into five classes using these techniques. The results revealed that 11 compounds, as biomarkers of saffron, contributed to the class discrimination and characterization. Eleven biomarkers including nine secondary metabolites of saffron (safranal, α- and β-isophorone, phenylethyl alcohol, ketoisophorone, 2,2,6-trimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-carbaldehyde, 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-carboxaldehyde-5-hydroxy-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one, and 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-hydroxy-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HTCC)), a primary metabolite (linoleic acid), and a long chain fatty alcohol (nanocosanol) were distinguished as the saffron fingerprint. Finally, the individual contribution of each biomarker to the classes was determined by the

  12. Key parameters controlling OH-initiated formation of secondary organic aerosol in the aqueous phase (aqSOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervens, Barbara; Sorooshian, Armin; Lim, Yong B.; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2014-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol formation in the aqueous phase of cloud droplets and aerosol particles (aqSOA) might contribute substantially to the total SOA burden and help to explain discrepancies between observed and predicted SOA properties. In order to implement aqSOA formation in models, key processes controlling formation within the multiphase system have to be identified. We explore parameters affecting phase transfer and OH(aq)-initiated aqSOA formation as a function of OH(aq) availability. Box model results suggest OH(aq)-limited photochemical aqSOA formation in cloud water even if aqueous OH(aq) sources are present. This limitation manifests itself as an apparent surface dependence of aqSOA formation. We estimate chemical OH(aq) production fluxes, necessary to establish thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases (based on Henry's law constants) for both cloud and aqueous particles. Estimates show that no (currently known) OH(aq) source in cloud water can remove this limitation, whereas in aerosol water, it might be feasible. Ambient organic mass (oxalate) measurements in stratocumulus clouds as a function of cloud drop surface area and liquid water content exhibit trends similar to model results. These findings support the use of parameterizations of cloud-aqSOA using effective droplet radius rather than liquid water volume or drop surface area. Sensitivity studies suggest that future laboratory studies should explore aqSOA yields in multiphase systems as a function of these parameters and at atmospherically relevant OH(aq) levels. Since aerosol-aqSOA formation significantly depends on OH(aq) availability, parameterizations might be less straightforward, and oxidant (OH) sources within aerosol water emerge as one of the major uncertainties in aerosol-aqSOA formation.

  13. A mass balance approach to investigating geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN.

    PubMed

    Ng, G-H Crystal; Bekins, Barbara A; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C; Amos, Richard T

    2014-08-01

    Secondary water quality impacts can result from a broad range of coupled reactions triggered by primary groundwater contaminants. Data from a crude-oil spill research site near Bemidji, MN provide an ideal test case for investigating the complex interactions controlling secondary impacts, including depleted dissolved oxygen and elevated organic carbon, inorganic carbon, CH4, Mn, Fe, and other dissolved ions. To better understand these secondary impacts, this study began with an extensive data compilation of various data types, comprising aqueous, sediment, gas, and oil phases, covering a 260m cross-sectional domain over 30years. Mass balance calculations are used to quantify pathways that control secondary components, by using the data to constrain the sources and sinks for the important redox processes. The results show that oil constituents other than BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylenes), including n-alkanes and other aromatic compounds, play significant roles in plume evolution and secondary water quality impacts. The analysis underscores previous results on the importance of non-aqueous phases. Over 99.9% of the Fe(2+) plume is attenuated by immobilization on sediments as Fe(II) and 85-95% of the carbon biodegradation products are outgassed. Gaps identified in carbon and Fe mass balances and in pH buffering mechanisms are used to formulate a new conceptual model. This new model includes direct out-gassing of CH4 and CO2 from organic carbon biodegradation, dissolution of directly produced CO2, and sorption with H(+) exchange to improve pH buffering. The identification of these mechanisms extends understanding of natural attenuation of potential secondary impacts at enhanced reductive dechlorination sites, particularly for reduced Fe plumes, produced CH4, and pH perturbations.

  14. A mass balance approach to investigating geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, G.-H. Crystal; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C.; Amos, Richard T.

    2014-08-01

    Secondary water quality impacts can result from a broad range of coupled reactions triggered by primary groundwater contaminants. Data from a crude-oil spill research site near Bemidji, MN provide an ideal test case for investigating the complex interactions controlling secondary impacts, including depleted dissolved oxygen and elevated organic carbon, inorganic carbon, CH4, Mn, Fe, and other dissolved ions. To better understand these secondary impacts, this study began with an extensive data compilation of various data types, comprising aqueous, sediment, gas, and oil phases, covering a 260 m cross-sectional domain over 30 years. Mass balance calculations are used to quantify pathways that control secondary components, by using the data to constrain the sources and sinks for the important redox processes. The results show that oil constituents other than BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylenes), including n-alkanes and other aromatic compounds, play significant roles in plume evolution and secondary water quality impacts. The analysis underscores previous results on the importance of non-aqueous phases. Over 99.9% of the Fe2 + plume is attenuated by immobilization on sediments as Fe(II) and 85-95% of the carbon biodegradation products are outgassed. Gaps identified in carbon and Fe mass balances and in pH buffering mechanisms are used to formulate a new conceptual model. This new model includes direct out-gassing of CH4 and CO2 from organic carbon biodegradation, dissolution of directly produced CO2, and sorption with H+ exchange to improve pH buffering. The identification of these mechanisms extends understanding of natural attenuation of potential secondary impacts at enhanced reductive dechlorination sites, particularly for reduced Fe plumes, produced CH4, and pH perturbations.

  15. A mass balance approach to investigating geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C.; Amos, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary water quality impacts can result from a broad range of coupled reactions triggered by primary groundwater contaminants. Data from a crude-oil spill research site near Bemidji, MN provide an ideal test case for investigating the complex interactions controlling secondary impacts, including depleted dissolved oxygen and elevated organic carbon, inorganic carbon, CH4, Mn, Fe, and other dissolved ions. To better understand these secondary impacts, this study began with an extensive data compilation of various data types, comprising aqueous, sediment, gas, and oil phases, covering a 260 m cross-sectional domain over 30 years. Mass balance calculations are used to quantify pathways that control secondary components, by using the data to constrain the sources and sinks for the important redox processes. The results show that oil constituents other than BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylenes), including n-alkanes and other aromatic compounds, play significant roles in plume evolution and secondary water quality impacts. The analysis underscores previous results on the importance of non-aqueous phases. Over 99.9% of the Fe2+ plume is attenuated by immobilization on sediments as Fe(II) and 85–95% of the carbon biodegradation products are outgassed. Gaps identified in carbon and Fe mass balances and in pH buffering mechanisms are used to formulate a new conceptual model. This new model includes direct out-gassing of CH4 and CO2 from organic carbon biodegradation, dissolution of directly produced CO2, and sorption with H+ exchange to improve pH buffering. The identification of these mechanisms extends understanding of natural attenuation of potential secondary impacts at enhanced reductive dechlorination sites, particularly for reduced Fe plumes, produced CH4, and pH perturbations.

  16. The Model and Control Methods of Access to Information and Technology Resources of Automated Control Systems in Water Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytov, M. Yu; Spichyack, S. A.; Fedorov, V. P.; Petreshin, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a formalized control model of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. The given model considers the availability of various communication links with information systems and technological equipment. There are also studied control methods of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. On the basis of the formalized control model and appropriate methods there was developed a software-hardware complex for rapid access to information and technological resources of automated control systems, which contains an administrator’s automated workplace and ultimate users.

  17. Mapping of genomic regions (quantitative trait loci) controlling production and quality in industrial cultures of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Larraya, Luis M; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Ramírez, Lucía

    2003-06-01

    Industrial production of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is based on a solid fermentation process in which a limited number of selected strains are used. Optimization of industrial mushroom production depends on improving the culture process and breeding new strains with higher yields and productivities. Traditionally, fungal breeding has been carried out by an empirical trial and error process. In this study, we used a different approach by mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling culture production and quality within the framework of the genetic linkage map of P. ostreatus. Ten production traits and four quality traits were studied and mapped. The production QTLs identified explain nearly one-half of the production variation. More interestingly, a single QTL mapping to the highly polymorphic chromosome VII appears to be involved in control of all the productivity traits studied. Quality QTLs appear to be scattered across the genome and to have less effect on the variation of the corresponding traits. Moreover, some of the new hybrid strains constructed in the course of our experiments had production or quality values higher than those of the parents or other commercial strains. This approach opens the possibility of marker-assisted selection and breeding of new industrial strains of this fungus.

  18. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  19. Mapping of Genomic Regions (Quantitative Trait Loci) Controlling Production and Quality in Industrial Cultures of the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2003-01-01

    Industrial production of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is based on a solid fermentation process in which a limited number of selected strains are used. Optimization of industrial mushroom production depends on improving the culture process and breeding new strains with higher yields and productivities. Traditionally, fungal breeding has been carried out by an empirical trial and error process. In this study, we used a different approach by mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling culture production and quality within the framework of the genetic linkage map of P. ostreatus. Ten production traits and four quality traits were studied and mapped. The production QTLs identified explain nearly one-half of the production variation. More interestingly, a single QTL mapping to the highly polymorphic chromosome VII appears to be involved in control of all the productivity traits studied. Quality QTLs appear to be scattered across the genome and to have less effect on the variation of the corresponding traits. Moreover, some of the new hybrid strains constructed in the course of our experiments had production or quality values higher than those of the parents or other commercial strains. This approach opens the possibility of marker-assisted selection and breeding of new industrial strains of this fungus. PMID:12788770

  20. [Scientific and applied aspects of veterinary ecological control over the industrial technologies in animal husbandry].

    PubMed

    Petkov, G; Baĭkov, B D

    1981-01-01

    In connection with the transformation of animal breeding and putting it on an industrial base ecologization becomes a strategic trend in this branch of national economy too. Ecologization of industrial stock breeding is associated with the solution of two basic groups of problems: --autoecologic. Measures to optimize the abiotic and biotic ecologic factors in view of the maximum and paying substantiation of the genetic potential of productivity of breeds on the industrial complexes. --biocenologic. Developments that lead to the limitation of contamination of the biosphere with waste products, reducing the lines of the technologic processes on the animal breeding complexes. The characteristic features on the animal breeding complexes are referred to as an artificial ecosystem: limited number of populations and reduced componency, leading role of the antropogenic factors, incomplete turnover and intensive use of substance and energy 'taken' from other natural ecosystems, and necessity of energy input. On such base an evaluation is made of the technologic designs and the need is stated to optimize all ecologic factors. Good results are stated with the optimization of the electric properties of the air. A reassessment is made of the existing technologic designs concerning the disposal of manure. Motivation is the necessity of producing biogas from FYM obtained in raising animals and birds without litter.

  1. A Feasibility Study on the Application of the ScriptGenE Framework as an Anomaly Detection System in Industrial Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    Hines. Anomaly-based intrusion detection for SCADA systems . In 5th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation , Control, and Human...A FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF THE SCRIPTGENE FRAMEWORK AS AN ANOMALY DETECTION SYSTEM IN INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS THESIS Charito M...FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF THE SCRIPTGENE FRAMEWORK AS AN ANOMALY DETECTION SYSTEM IN INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS THESIS Presented to the

  2. Tolerance and efficacy of a low dose of the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet in controlling moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Salah O; Omer, Hayder A; Aamer, Mahmoud A; Somialy, Rashid; Morsy, Mohamed D

    2015-11-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is almost a constant feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients maintained on hemodialysis (HD). Calcimimetic agents appear to offer an alternative to surgery in controlling secondary hyperparathyroidism in these patients. Recent studies provide conflicting data on the benefits, efficacy and tolerance of cinacalcet as first-line therapy for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerance of a low dose of the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet in patients on long-term HD having moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty five adult male patients on HD for more than three years were included in the study. All had moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism with serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) >50 pmol/L, resistant to conventional treatment. We used the targets of Chronic Kidney Disease: Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical guidelines as optimal target of serum iPTH, calcium and phosphate. Patients were administered cinacalcet as a single oral daily dose of 30 mg and were followed-up for six months. Cinacalcet treatment for six months resulted in a significant reduction in the serum phosphate and iPTH levels while the serum calcium levels remained unchanged. Thirty-six percent of the patients attained the recommended serum iPTH levels, 40% achieved significant reduction of the serum iPTH levels and 24% showed no favorable response. Only one patient dropped out because of severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Our results suggest that treatment of CKD patients, having moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, with low-dose cinacalcet is effective and well tolerated.

  3. Decomposition and control of complex systems - Application to the analysis and control of industrial and economic systems /energy production/ with limited supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coligny, M.

    Optimized control strategies are developed for industrial installations where many variables of energy supply and storage are involved, with a particular focus on characteristics of a solar central tower power plant. It is shown that optimal regulation resides in controlling all disturbances which occur in a limited domain of the entire system, using robust control schemes. Choosing a command is then dependent on defining precise operational limits as constraints on the machines' performances. Attention is given to the development of variational principles used for the elements of the command logic. Particular consideration is given to a limited supply in storage in spatial and temporal terms. Commands for alterations in functions are then available on-line, and discontinuities are not a feature of the control system. The strategy is applied to the case of a field of heliostats and a central tower themal receiver showing that management is possible on the basis of a sliding horizon.

  4. Therapeutic Alliance With a Fully Automated Mobile Phone and Web-Based Intervention: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Fogarty, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of Internet-delivered psychotherapies suggest that clients report development of a therapeutic alliance in the Internet environment. Because a majority of the interventions studied to date have been therapist-assisted to some degree, it remains unclear whether a therapeutic alliance can develop within the context of an Internet-delivered self-guided intervention with no therapist support, and whether this has consequences for program outcomes. Objective This study reports findings of a secondary analysis of data from 90 participants with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety, and/or stress who used a fully automated mobile phone and Web-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention called “myCompass” in a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods Symptoms, functioning, and positive well-being were assessed at baseline and post-intervention using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). Therapeutic alliance was measured at post-intervention using the Agnew Relationship Measure (ARM), and this was supplemented with qualitative data obtained from 16 participant interviews. Extent of participant engagement with the program was also assessed. Results Mean ratings on the ARM subscales were above the neutral midpoints, and the interviewees provided rich detail of a meaningful and collaborative therapeutic relationship with the myCompass program. Whereas scores on the ARM subscales did not correlate with treatment outcomes, participants’ ratings of the quality of their emotional connection with the program correlated significantly and positively with program logins, frequency of self-monitoring, and number of treatment modules completed (r values between .32-.38, P≤.002). The alliance (ARM) subscales measuring perceived empowerment (r=.26, P=.02) and perceived freedom to self-disclose (r=.25, P=.04) also correlated significantly

  5. Modeling anthropogenically-controled secondary organic aerosols in a megacity: a simplified framework for global and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-04-01

    A simplified parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass burning smoke is tested and optimized in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass burning SOA in global and climate models. A regional chemistry-transport model is used as the testbed for the parameterization, which is compared against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan area during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment. The empirical parameterization is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass. The approach consists in emitting an organic gas as lumped SOA precursor surrogate proportional to anthropogenic or biomass burning CO emissions according to the observed ratio between SOA and CO in aged air, and reacting this surrogate with OH into a single non-volatile species that condenses to form SOA. An emission factor of 0.08 g of the lumped SOA precursor per g of CO and a rate constant with OH of 1.25 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 reproduce the observed average SOA mass within 30% in the urban area and downwind. When a 2.5 times slower rate is used (5 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) the predicted SOA amount and temporal evolution is nearly identical to the results obtained with SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic vapors according to the Robinson et al. (2007) formulation. Our simplified method has the advantage of being much less computationally expensive than Robinson-type methods, and can be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. As the aged pollution SOA/ΔCO ratios are rather consistent globally, this parameterization could be reasonably tested in and applied to other regions. The potential enhancement of biogenic SOA by anthropogenic pollution, which has been suggested to play a major role in global SOA formation, is also tested using two simple

  6. Modeling anthropogenically controlled secondary organic aerosols in a megacity: a simplified framework for global and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-10-01

    A simplified parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass burning smoke is tested and optimized in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass burning SOA mass and hygroscopicity in global and climate models. A regional chemistry-transport model is used as the testbed for the parameterization, which is compared against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan area during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment. The empirical parameterization is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass. The approach consists in emitting an organic gas as lumped SOA precursor surrogate proportional to anthropogenic or biomass burning CO emissions according to the observed ratio between SOA and CO in aged air, and reacting this surrogate with OH into a single non-volatile species that condenses to form SOA. An emission factor of 0.08 g of the lumped SOA precursor per g of CO and a rate constant with OH of 1.25 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 reproduce the observed average SOA mass within 30 % in the urban area and downwind. When a 2.5 times slower rate is used (5 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) the predicted SOA amount and temporal evolution is nearly identical to the results obtained with SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic vapors according to the Robinson et al. (2007) formulation. Our simplified method has the advantage of being much less computationally expensive than Robinson-type methods, and can be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. As the aged SOA/ΔCO ratios are rather consistent globally for anthropogenic pollution, this parameterization could be reasonably tested in and applied to other regions. The evolution of oxygen-to-carbon ratio was also empirically modeled and the predicted levels were found to be in reasonable agreement

  7. Press Releases Issued by Supplements Industry Organisations and Non-Industry Organisations in Response to Publication of Clinical Research Findings: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael T. M.; Gamble, Greg; Bolland, Mark J.; Grey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use is increasing despite lack of evidence of benefits, or evidence of harm. Press releases issued by the supplements industry might contribute to this situation by using ‘spin’ (strategies to hype or denigrate findings) to distort the results of clinical studies. We assessed press releases issued in response to publication of clinical studies on dietary supplements. Methods and Findings We analyzed 47 supplements industry press releases and 91 non-industry press releases and news stories, generated in response to 46 clinical studies of dietary supplements published between 1/1/2005 and 5/31/2013. The primary outcome was ‘spin’ content and direction. We also assessed disposition towards use of dietary supplements, reporting of study information, and dissemination of industry press releases. More supplements industry press releases (100%) contained ‘spin’ than non-industry media documents (55%, P<0.001). Hyping ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting benefit of supplements (median ‘spin’ score 3.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.5 vs 0.5, 0–1.0; P<0.001). Denigratory ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting no effect (6.0, 5.0–7.0 vs 0, 0–0; P<0.001) or harm (6.0, 5.5–7.5 vs 0, 0–0.5; P<0.001) from a supplement. Industry press releases advocated supplement use in response to >90% of studies that reported no benefit, or harm, of the supplement. Industry press releases less frequently reported study outcomes, sample size, and estimates of effect size than non-industry media documents (all P<0.001), particularly for studies that reported no benefit of supplements. Industry press releases were referenced by 148 news stories on the websites of 6 organizations that inform manufacturers, retailers and consumers of supplements. Conclusions Dietary supplements industry press releases issued in response to clinical research

  8. Nitrogen availability as a control mechanism of secondary succession within a semiarid shrubland ecosystem. Final report, October 1, 1990--June 27, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Redente, E.F.; McLendon, T.

    1992-09-25

    Three experiments were conducted within a semiarid shrubland to test the role of nitrogen availability as a control mechanism in secondary succession. Secondary succession patterns were documented for seven years and effects of increased and decreased N availability levels, fumigation, and competition by early-seral species were tested. Differential responses by seral species were determined and related to successional patterns. Nitrogen availability was found to be a primary mechanism controlling the rate of succession. Relative growth rate was an important factor determining which species initially dominated and N availability became the primary control factor by the third year. As N availability increased, the rate of succession decreased. Conversely, as N availability was decreased, the rate of succession increased. The abundance of annuals was increased and abundance of perennials decreased by increased N availability. Tissue N concentration was related to lifeform and seral position, and these relationships were important in the transition from early- to mid-seral stages. Decomposer subsystem dynamics were correlated with seral community dynamics. The effect of fumigation was minimized by initially planting with late-seral species. A conceptual model of secondary succession is presented based on N availability, relative growth rate, lifeform, and decomposition dynamics.

  9. Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS): Application source/release control for EPICS R3.11.6

    SciTech Connect

    Zieman, B.; Kraimer, M.

    1994-03-25

    This manual describes a set of tools that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. It provides the following features: Multiple applications; the entire system is composed of an arbitrary number of applications: Source/Release Control; all files created or modified by the applications developers can be put under sccs (a UNIX Source/Release control utility): Multiple Developers; it allows a number of applications developers to work separately during the development phase but combine their applications for system testing and for a production system; Makefiles: makefiles are provided to automatically rebuild various application components. For C and state notation programs, Imagefiles are provided.

  10. The Impact of Numerical Control Technology and Computer Aided Manufacturing on Curriculum Development in Industrial Education and Technology. A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Klaus Dieter

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of Numerical Control Technology and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (NC/CAM) in American industry on industrial education and engineering technology education. The specific purpose was to identify a data base and rationale for curriculum development in NC/CAM through a comparison of views by…

  11. Improvement of depth resolution and detection efficiency by control of secondary-electrons in single-event three-dimensional time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, Satoshi; Hamada, Yasuhisa; Seidl, Albert; Wakaya, Fujio; Takai, Mikio

    2015-04-01

    An improvement of a depth resolution and a detection efficiency in single-event three-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is discussed on both simulation and experiment by control of secondary electron trajectories using sample bias voltage. The secondary electron, used for a start signal in single-event TOF-RBS, flies more directly to a secondary electron detector with the positive sample bias voltage of several tens of volt than that without sample bias voltage in the simulation. The simulated collection efficiency of the secondary electrons also increases with the positive sample bias voltage of several tens of volt. These simulation results indicate the possibility of a smaller depth resolution and a shorter measurement time in single-event TOF-RBS with positive sample bias voltage. The measurement time for the Pt-stripe sample using single-event three-dimensional TOF-RBS with the sample bias voltage of +100 V is 65% shorter than that without sample bias voltage, resulting in a less sample damage by a probe beam. The depth resolution for the Pt stripes under the 50-nm-thick SiO2 cover-layer with the sample bias voltage of +100 V is 4 nm smaller than that without sample bias voltage. Positive sample bias voltage improves the depth resolution and the detection efficiency in single-event three-dimensional TOF-RBS without an influence on the beam focusing.

  12. Integrated process control for recirculating cooling water treatment in the coal chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y S; Guo, W; Yang, Z F

    2011-01-01

    This work focused on the integrated process of the recirculating cooling water (RCW) treatment to achieve approximate zero emission in the coal chemical industry. The benefits of fractional and comprehensive RCW treatment were quantified and qualified by using a water and mass balance approach. Limits of cycle of concentrations and some encountered bottlenecks were used to ascertain set target limits for different water sources. Makeup water was mixed with water produced from reverse osmosis (RO) in the proportion of 6:4, which notably reduced salts discharge. Side infiltration, which settled down suspended solids, can reduce energy consumption by over 40%. An automated on-line monitoring organic phosphorus inhibitor feed maintains the RCW system stability in comparison to the manual feed. Two-step electrosorb technology (EST) instead of an acid feed can lead cycle of concentration of water to reach 7.0. The wastewater from RO, EST and filter was transferred into a concentration treatment system where metallic ions were adsorbed by permanent magnetic materials. Separation of water and salts was completed by using a magnetic disc separator. Applying the integrated process in a coal chemical industry, a benefit of 1.60 million Yuan annually in 2 years was gained and approximate zero emission was achieved. Moreover, both technical and economic feasibility were demonstrated in detail.

  13. 23 CFR 750.706 - Sign control in zoned and unzoned commercial and industrial areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... back-to-back or “V” type signs. (c) Where the agreement and State law permits control by local zoning... agreement, subject to the following: (1) The local zoning authority's controls must include the regulation... zones. (2) The regulations established by local zoning authority may be either more restrictive or...

  14. A Robust and Powerful Set-Valued Approach to Rare Variant Association Analyses of Secondary Traits in Case-Control Sequencing Studies.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guolian; Bi, Wenjian; Zhang, Hang; Pounds, Stanley; Cheng, Cheng; Shete, Sanjay; Zou, Fei; Zhao, Yanlong; Zhang, Ji-Feng; Yue, Weihua

    2017-03-01

    In many case-control designs of genome-wide association (GWAS) or next generation sequencing (NGS) studies, extensive data on secondary traits that may correlate and share the common genetic variants with the primary disease are available. Investigating these secondary traits can provide critical insights into the disease etiology or pathology, and enhance the GWAS or NGS results. Methods based on logistic regression (LG) were developed for this purpose. However, for the identification of rare variants (RVs), certain inadequacies in the LG models and algorithmic instability can cause severely inflated type I error, and significant loss of power, when the two traits are correlated and the RV is associated with the disease, especially at stringent significance levels. To address this issue, we propose a novel set-valued (SV) method that models a binary trait by dichotomization of an underlying continuous variable, and incorporate this into the genetic association model as a critical component. Extensive simulations and an analysis of seven secondary traits in a GWAS of benign ethnic neutropenia show that the SV method consistently controls type I error well at stringent significance levels, has larger power than the LG-based methods, and is robust in performance to effect pattern of the genetic variant (risk or protective), rare or common variants, rare or common diseases, and trait distributions. Because of the SV method's striking and profound advantage, we strongly recommend the SV method be employed instead of the LG-based methods for secondary traits analyses in case-control sequencing studies.

  15. The Effect of Vitamin C on Parathyroid Hormone in Patients on Hemodialysis With Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Biniaz, Vajihe; Nemati, Eghlim; Tayebi, Ali; Sadeghi Shermeh, Mehdi; Ebadi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a prevalent disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is proffered that there is a contradictory relation between serum level of vitamin C and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Objectives The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the supplemental vitamin C on parathyroid hormone among hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Patients and Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and parallel-group trial was conducted on 82 hemodialysis patients with serum levels of PTH more than 200 pg/mL. In intervention group, 250 mg vitamin C was injected three times a week for 8 weeks in a row immediately at the end of each dialysis session via the intravenous route. In the control group, same term of placebo saline was injected. Results The mean of serum PTH was 699.81 (± 318.8) and 596.03 (± 410.7) pg/mL in intervention and control groups respectively at baseline (reference range, 6 to 66 pg/mL), and at the end of study it changed to 441.4 and 424.6 in these groups. The values of serum Calcium and Phosphate did not significantly change during the study (8.4 ± 0.6 mg/dL versus 8.1 ± 0.8 mg/dL, P = 0.39; 5.89 ± 1.7 mg/dL versus 5.9 ± 1.9 mg/dL, P = 0.08, respectively). Conclusions This study finding does not warranted therapeutic effect of vitamin C on secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:24693502

  16. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

    2007-05-02

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant.

  17. A New Flow Control Technique Using Diluted Epinephrine in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Embolization of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Sato, Hideki; Taniguchi, Fumihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2012-08-15

    Although n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) has been used as an effective liquid embolization material, its indication for pseudoaneurysms has seemingly been limited because of the technical difficulties of using NBCA, such as reflux to the parent artery and causing significant infarction. Thus, considerable skill in using NBCA or a device to control blood flow during its polymerization is required to achieve embolization without severe complications. We report our new technique for controlling blood flow using diluted epinephrine in transcatheter arterial NBCA embolization of five pseudoaneurysms in four cases secondary to hemosuccus pancreaticus.

  18. The Future of Visual BASIC.NET Based Simulation for Industrial Automation: Distributed Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tun, Hla Myo

    2008-10-01

    Visual Basic.net (VB.net) based simulation presents a unique opportunity for revolutionary changes in the process of developing simulation models and in the mission of the simulation software firms that provide tools to support the model development process. VB.net enables a new version of a simulation industry populated by application-specific simulation specialists who generate compatible and reusable simulation component. These object-oriented components can be developed using inexpensive and professional quality VB.net development environments. This discussion is an overview of the features and future benefits of VB.net based simulation. It is targeted at experienced simulation practitioners who understand the limitations of existing tools and the need for object-oriented, standardized and reusable modeling software.

  19. Low-field permanent magnets for industrial process and quality control.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Gladden, L F; Chandrasekera, T C; Fordham, E J

    2014-01-01

    In this review we focus on the technology associated with low-field NMR. We present the current state-of-the-art in low-field NMR hardware and experiments, considering general magnet designs, rf performance, data processing and interpretation. We provide guidance on obtaining the optimum results from these instruments, along with an introduction for those new to low-field NMR. The applications of lowfield NMR are now many and diverse. Furthermore, niche applications have spawned unique magnet designs to accommodate the extremes of operating environment or sample geometry. Trying to capture all the applications, methods, and hardware encompassed by low-field NMR would be a daunting task and likely of little interest to researchers or industrialists working in specific subject areas. Instead we discuss only a few applications to highlight uses of the hardware and experiments in an industrial environment. For details on more particular methods and applications, we provide citations to specialized review articles.

  20. [Submitting to disease, controlling disease, industrialization and medical technology: the case of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Thebaud, A; Lert, F

    1985-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the research work undertaken in France and Algeria on tuberculosis and the application of tuberculosis treatments. Tuberculosis is one of the best medical pointers to social inequality. The disease is seen here as typical of the links between industrialization and health, with regard to the evolution of the epidemiological model and the influence of innovational+ treatments, based on chemotherapy, on the organization of care for tubercular patients, together with the socio-economic and cultural changes that have affected both French and Algerian society during the twentieth century. The first part of the article shows how the epidemiology of tuberculosis tends to vary in accordance with the dynamic evolution of social relationships as industrialization occurs in each country, and how world-wide epidemiological trends are one of the best medical pointers to the North-South divide. The second part of the article is given over to a study of the way in which the application of tuberculosis treatments in both France and Algeria is a function of the organization of the health system in each country, of the status and power of the medical profession within society, and of the impact of technical innovations on the changing forms of care for tubercular patients in both countries. In France, it can be seen that the structure of the system set up to combat tuberculosis in the inter-war years has tended to remain unchanged, despite the opportunities for re-organization of tuberculosis treatment and for making therapy less onerous which have arisen as the incidence of the disease has dropped and antibiotics have been introduced. This resistance to change seems due primarily to the difficulty of achieving redeployment of medical staff, and the inertia caused by the rigid structure of tuberculosis care within the French socio-medical system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Population size drives industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation and is under genetic control.

    PubMed

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement.

  2. Industrial implementation of spatial variability control by real-time SPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roule, O.; Pasqualini, F.; Borde, M.

    2016-10-01

    Advanced technology nodes require more and more information to get the wafer process well setup. The critical dimension of components decreases following Moore's law. At the same time, the intra-wafer dispersion linked to the spatial non-uniformity of tool's processes is not capable to decrease in the same proportions. APC systems (Advanced Process Control) are being developed in waferfab to automatically adjust and tune wafer processing, based on a lot of process context information. It can generate and monitor complex intrawafer process profile corrections between different process steps. It leads us to put under control the spatial variability, in real time by our SPC system (Statistical Process Control). This paper will outline the architecture of an integrated process control system for shape monitoring in 3D, implemented in waferfab.

  3. Quality control in the meat industry: application of the HACCP system to a slaughterhouse of ostriches.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Heras, J M; Alvarruiz-Bermejo, A; Pérez-Sempere Matarredona, J I; Pardo-González, J E

    2002-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a preventive system that tries to guarantee the safety and food innocuousness, anticipating the protection and correction of failures, improving the quality costs for faults of microbiological, physical and chemical type, and saving almost the final super control, which though it allows a relative guarantee of the product, its consequence will be the destruction of the product in case of detection of the failure too much late, with the consequent incremental cost. In this work, the specific hazards which can be found in the slaughter line of ostriches, the preventive measurements that can be applied in the slaughterhouse, the surveillance systems to implement, the corrective actions foreseen and the control records to be kept by the plant are described in detail. Putting in practice these knowledge will allow, to any slaughterhouse of ostriches, a self-control of its productions based on the HACCP system.

  4. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  5. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  8. Dung-inhabiting fungi: a potential reservoir of novel secondary metabolites for the control of plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sarrocco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Coprophilous fungi are a large group of saprotrophic fungi mostly found in herbivore dung. The number of these fungi undergoing investigation is continually increasing, and new species and genera continue to be described. Dung-inhabiting fungi play an important ecological role in decomposing and recycling nutrients from animal dung. They produce a large array of bioactive secondary metabolites and have a potent enzymatic arsenal able to utilise even complex molecules. Bioactive secondary metabolites are actively involved in interaction with and defence against other organisms whose growth can be inhibited, resulting in an enhanced ecological fitness of producer strains. Currently, these antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites are of interest in medicine in particular, while very little information is available concerning their potential use in agriculture. This review introduces the ecology of dung-inhabiting fungi, with particular emphasis on the production of antibiotic compounds as a means to compete with other microorganisms. Owing to the fast pace of technological progress, new approaches to predicting the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites are proposed. Coprophilous fungi should be considered as elite candidate organisms for the discovery of novel antifungal compounds, above all in view of their exploitation for crop protection.

  9. Identifying and Mitigating the Impact of the Budget Control Act on High Risk Sectors and Tiers of the Defense Industrial Base: Assessment Approach to Industrial Base Risks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    design and manufacturing skills, loss of innovation, loss of competition, and loss of infrastructure. In addition , potential DoD steps to sustain high...Postgraduate School. To request defense acquisition research, to become a research sponsor, or to print additional copies of reports, please contact... Manufacturing and Industrial Base Policy (ODASD[MIBP]). In this role, Avilés advises the DASD on all matters relating to the defense industrial base

  10. Applications of dielectric analysis for cure monitoring and control in the polyester SMC/BMC molding industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, David D.; Day, David R.; Craven, Kelly J.

    1995-03-01

    Dielectric analysis is routinely used for monitoring the cure of thermosetting resins. Implantable, disposable sensors allow measurements of the curing process to be made in various locations throughout a part. Permanent, reusable sensors flush mounted in the mold allow the measurements to be made automatically during each molding cycle. This paper discusses process development, QA/QC, and production control in the polyester SMC/BMC industry. The curing rate through the cross-section of SMC parts of thicknesses up to 3/4 of an inch is examined. The effect of aging temperature on the reactivity of BMC demonstrates the use of dielectric analysis as a QA/QC test. Finally, it is shown that overall cycle times can be reduced by real time identification of the part-to-part variability in cure times during production molding. This allows closed-loop feedback to the press controller as to the proper time to demold each part.

  11. Secondary erythromelalgia successfully treated with patient-controlled epidural analgesia and interferon α-2b: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LI, XINGZHI; LI, YAOMIN; QU, YAO; LU, LAIJIN

    2016-01-01

    Erythromelalgia (EM) is a debilitating neurovascular disease that is refractory to numerous treatment modalities. The present study reported the case of a 72-year-old woman diagnosed with EM secondary to polycythemia vera (PV), who was effectively treated with the use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and interferon α-2b therapy. The study aimed to provide clinical information on this condition based on the findings of the present case and previously-reported cases. PCEA containing local anesthetics and dexamethasone or fentanyl resulted in nearly complete relief of symptoms. Furthermore, continuous use of interferon α-2b for the treatment of the PV completely relieved the EM symptoms. In conclusion, PCEA and interferon α-2b may be promising treatments for EM secondary to PV. PMID:27168811

  12. Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic File with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains a minimum of 125 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Transfer of control system interface solutions from other domains to the thermal power industry.

    PubMed

    Bligård, L-O; Andersson, J; Osvalder, A-L

    2012-01-01

    In a thermal power plant the operators' roles are to control and monitor the process to achieve efficient and safe production. To achieve this, the human-machine interfaces have a central part. The interfaces need to be updated and upgraded together with the technical functionality to maintain optimal operation. One way of achieving relevant updates is to study other domains and see how they have solved similar issues in their design solutions. The purpose of this paper is to present how interface design solution ideas can be transferred from domains with operator control to thermal power plants. In the study 15 domains were compared using a model for categorisation of human-machine systems. The result from the domain comparison showed that nuclear power, refinery and ship engine control were most similar to thermal power control. From the findings a basic interface structure and three specific display solutions were proposed for thermal power control: process parameter overview, plant overview, and feed water view. The systematic comparison of the properties of a human-machine system allowed interface designers to find suitable objects, structures and navigation logics in a range of domains that could be transferred to the thermal power domain.

  15. RACT (Reasonably Available Control Technology) determination for five industry categories in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Hawks, R.L.; Schlesser, S.P.; Loudin, D.L.; Pfetzing, E.A.

    1980-11-01

    Section 172(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act as amended August 1977, requires that SIP revisions 'provide for the implementation of all reasonably available control measures as expeditiously as practicable.' The use of RACT for stationary sources is defined as the lowest emission limit that a particular source is capable of meeting by the application of control technology that is reasonably available considering technological and economic feasibility. The purpose of this report has been to identify control techniques that best represent RACT for particular emission sources in TSP nonattainment areas in the State of Florida. These sources include phosphate process operations; portland cement plants; electric arc furnaces; sweat or pot furnaces; materials handling, sizing, screening, crushing, and grinding operations.

  16. Overview of implementing a project control system in the nuclear utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cooprider, D.H. )

    1994-03-01

    During the late 1980s, a metamorphosis began at Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). A strategic step in nuclear engineering's efforts to become more cost effective began in January 1990. A project control department was formed. The initial mission was to provide support for nuclear engineering design activities associated with FPL's two twin-unit nuclear power generation facilities - Turkey Point and St. Lucie. Later, the goal expanded to include the division's materials management, nuclear licensing, and information management departments. The project control group was organized along the lines of the organizations served. Separate dedicated groups were established for each plant. Since most engineering activity was based at the Juno Beach headquarters, the project control staff also was based there.

  17. Smart Multifunctional Coatings for Corrosion Detection and Control in the Aerospace Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  18. Computer-vision-based gob inspection system for monitoring and control in the glass industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laizola, Eskarne; Jimenez, Antonio R.; Morgado, Fernando; Calvache, Mar; Seco, Fernando

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a computer vision system for measuring the weight of gobs during a glass forming process, and a control strategy to correct automatically any weight deviation from a given set-point. During the formation of molten glass gobs, several noise sources can cause a deviation in the weight from a predefined reference value. Among them, there is a random white-noise disturbance caused by the lack of synchronisation of mechanical devices, the periodic disturbances due to changes in the spinning direction of the tube inside the feeder, and some long-term drifts caused by variations in temperature and viscosity of the raw glass material. The gob weight measurement system developed is based on a monochrome CCD high-resolution camera and photo-detector for synchronizing the frame acquisition. The molten glass provides the illumination, so a high contrast image is obtained with a bright object and dark background. Several image-processing algorithms are presented for reliable area estimation. Assuming that the gob is a symmetric geometry of revolution and uniform mass density, the proposed system estimates the weight of gobs with an accuracy better than +/-0.75%. A learning weight control strategy is proposed based on a PI-repetitive control scheme. The weight deviation from a set point is used as a control signal to adjust the glass flow into the feeder. This regulation scheme allows effective weight control, canceling mid and long-term effects. The tracking error, +/-1.5%, means a reduction of 40% when compared with a traditional PI controller.

  19. Optical method for controlling emissions of heavy metals of industrial enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Tregub, N. V.; Selezneva, E. A.

    2016-04-01

    In this research carried out control of heavy metals on the territory of a large aviation company using an optical method of control. As the biological indicators of heavy metals were used the leaves of plants. As a result of research was performed bivariate analysis entered the optical coefficients at wavenumbers 1150 cm-1, 1547 cm-1 and 1600 cm-1, on the basis of which the identified zones aircraft factory exposed most contaminated with manganese and copper. The research of results are confirmed by chemical analysis of the soil.

  20. [Application of analytical pyrolysis in air pollution control for green sand casting industry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-jue; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Ying; Wang, Cheng-wen

    2010-02-01

    Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that the raw materials of green sand would experience during metal casting process. The volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from analytical pyrolysis were analyzed by gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). The emissions from analytical pyrolysis exhibited some similarity in the compositions and distributions with those from actual casting processes. The major compositions of the emissions included benzene, toluene and phenol. The relative changes of emission levels that were observed in analytical pyrolysis of the various raw materials also showed similar trends with those observed in actual metal casting processes. The emission testing results of both analytic pyrolysis and pre-production foundry have shown that compared to the conventional phenolic urethane binder, the new non-naphthalene phenolic urethane binder diminished more than 50% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions, and the protein-based binder diminished more than 90% of HAP emissions. The similar trends in the two sets of tests offered promise that analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a fast and accurate way to establish the emission inventories, and to evaluate the relative emission levels of various raw materials of casting industry. The results of analytical pyrolysis could provide useful guides for the foundries to select and develop proper clean raw materials for the casting production.

  1. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Food Safety Controls by the Mexican Meat Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Simán, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José

    Food marketing at international and domestic markets has focused on processing systems that improve food safety. The objective of this research is to determine the factors influencing the implementation of the HACCP system in the Mexican meat industry, and to identify the main marketing destination of their products. Only 18.5% of enterprises reports fully operational HACCP in their plants. The main destination of their production in the domestic market is supermarkets, suppliers and distributors and specific niches of the domestic market. Exports are to USA, Japan, Korea and Central America and some niches of the domestic market with requirements of higher quality. The four principal factors that motivate enterprises to adopt HACCP are associated with improvement of plant efficiency and profitability, adoption of good practices, improvement of product quality and waste reduction. It is concluded that Mexican enterprises adopt HACCP to successfully remain and face competition by foreign enterprises in the domestic market and to a lesser extent to compete in the international market.

  2. Vapor-phase biofilters make bid for VOC control in industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.C.; Thom, R.R.

    1996-09-01

    Biofiltration of contaminated air streams containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a relatively new application of biotechnology in the waste management industry. The primary stimulus for development of vapor-phase biofiltration in Europe is its capability for efficient and reliable VOC destruction without forming hazardous by-products, coupled with low operating and life-cycle costs compared to conventional physical-chemical alternatives. The filters operate by passing the contaminated air stream through a bed of compost, peat, soil or other permeate material, which acts as an attachment site for rich microbial fauna. After the VOCs have been sorbed from the air stream while passing through the bed, the microorganisms use the sorbed organics as a food source, converting the pollutant into carbon dioxide and water vapor. As the organic pollutant is metabolized, the binding site to which it was attached again becomes available to strip additional VOC molecules from the incoming air stream. Thus, the biofilters reach a steady state, and sorption and biological destruction is followed by re-sorption of fresh volatile pollutants. Under proper conditions, this sequence of reactions occurs quite rapidly.

  3. Anti-Reflective Coating On Borosilicate Long Tubes Industrial Process And Quality Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, N.; Ben-Dor, Y.; Warschawski, J. P.

    1989-07-01

    It has been shown that in order to improve the optical efficiency of a solar trough evacuated pipe used for Luz solar electricity generating systems, an appropriate low cost anti-reflective coating process should be implemented in the solar collector production line, and that a dip process is the optimal choice for this application. It is shown in this paper that pumping the coating solution out of the coating container rather than withdrawing the tubes is the most appropriate coating process for Luz's needs. The same method was employed for the second coating solution which was used both for mechanical abrasion resistance improvement and for increasing optical transmissivity. The measuring procedure for quality insurance of the coated tube was investigated thoroughly and an "in-house" technique, including solar simulation and spiral movement of the tested tube, was chosen in preference to the other standard procedures (spectrophotometry, reflectometry). The complete AR coating facility and production procedure is described and the results of the industrial process are analyzed.

  4. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  5. Study of industry information requirements for flight control and navigation systems of STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Answers to specific study questions are used to ascertain the data requirements associated with a guidance, navigation and control system for a future civil STOL airplane. Results of the study were used to recommend changes for improving the outputs of the STOLAND flight experiments program.

  6. New technical facilities for equipping power industry plants with automatic control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviderskii, A. G.; Herpel, H.

    2008-10-01

    The specific features of SPPA-T3000, a new instrumentation and control system intended for automation of processes in power engineering, are briefly described. Distinctive features of the system architecture, central to which is using the model of web systems, are singled out.

  7. [Establishment and improvement of emission control standard system of volatile organic compounds in industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Ming-Hui

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has become one of the priority control pollutants, due to the regional compound pollution problem represented by atmospheric haze. Through the analysis of the present situation for current national and local emission standards of VOCs, the pollution characteristics and the emission inventory of VOCs, a basic standard system of VOCs has been proposed and improved.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of several conventional and novel emission control technologies that have been used or could be used to treat styrene emissions from open molding processes in fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building ...

  9. Preliminary survey report: control technology for the ceramic industry at Acme Brick Company, Malvern, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.

    1983-06-01

    Health-hazard control methods, work processes, and existing control technologies used in the manufacture of brick were surveyed at Acme Brick Company, Malvern, Arkansas in June, 1983. The company employed about 32 workers to produce structural brick from alluvial clay, free clay, shale, and aggregate. A potential hazard existed from silica exposure since the clays contained about 20% quartz. Raw materials were transported in a cab-enclosed front-end loader to feeders that delivered the materials to a crusher. Blended coarsely crushed material was moved by conveyor to a hammer mill for fine crushing. Production-size product was transported by overhead conveyor to storage silos in the production building. The entire material particle-size reduction process was completely automated. The clay-preparation building and raw-material storage area were isolated from the production building, and only two workers performed the crushing and grinding operations. Material transfer points had removable covers, and a water-mist spray was used on one conveyor of each line. The operation was monitored from a totally enclosed air-conditioned control room. Head and eye protection were required. The author does not recommend an in-depth study of control technologies of the company.

  10. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  11. Learning Control: Sense-Making, CNC Machines, and Changes in Vocational Training for Industrial Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Boel

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores how novices in school-based vocational training make sense of computerized numerical control (CNC) machines. Based on two ethnographic studies in Swedish schools, one from the early 1980s and one from 2006, it analyses change and continuity in the cognitive, social, and emotional processes of learning how to become a machine…

  12. Industrial-scale radio frequency treatments for insect control in lentils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency (RF) treatments are considered to be a potential postharvest technology for disinfesting legumes of internal seed pests such as the cowpea weevil. After treatment protocols are shown to control postharvest insects without significant quality degradation, it is important to scale-up l...

  13. Industry/Government Teleconference on Pollution Control. Proceedings National Telecast and Local Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY.

    Proceedings of the closed-circuit Teleconference on Pollution Control conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers on May 26, 1971 are supplied in this compendium. Edited transcripts are provided for the national programs and local panel sessions. Seeking to bring business and government together for cooperative problem solving, the…

  14. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  15. [Secondary rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Duron, J-B; Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Secondary rhinoplasty is very usual. Some patients are not satisfied by the previous surgery because the result is poor with obvious defaults but, sometimes, the result is good but the patient expects perfection. These two different situations will not lead to the same answer from the surgeon. Techniques of secondary rhinoplasty are the same than primary, but are often more difficult to perform because of scar tissue, retraction and loss of lining. The authors analyse the more frequent deformities in secondary rhinoplasty and the way they fix them.

  16. Algorithms and theory for the design and programming of industrial control systems materialized with PLC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya Villena, Rafael

    According to its title, the general objective of the Thesis consists in developing a clear, simple and systematic methodology for programming type PLC devices. With this aim in mind, we will use the following elements: Codification of all variables types. This section is very important since it allows us working with little information. The necessary rules are given to codify all type of phrases produced in industrial processes. An algorithm that describes process evolution and that has been called process D.F. This is one of the most important contributions, since it will allow us, together with information codification, representing the process evolution in a graphic way and with any design theory used. Theory selection. Evidently, the use of some kind of design method is necessary to obtain logic equations. For this particular case, we will use binodal theory, an ideal theory for wired technologies, since it can obtain highly reduced schemas for relatively simple automatisms, which means a minimum number of components used. User program outline algorithm (D.F.P.). This is another necessary contribution and perhaps the most important one, since logic equations resulting from binodal theory are compatible with process evolution if wired technology is used, whether it is electric, electronic, pneumatic, etc. On the other hand, PLC devices performance characteristics force the program instructions order to validate or not the automatism, as we have proven in different articles and lectures at congresses both national and international. Therefore, we will codify any information concerning the automating process, graphically represent its temporal evolution and, applying binodal theory and D.F.P (previously adapted), succeed in making logic equations compatible with the process to be automated and the device in which they will be implemented (PLC in our case)

  17. Evaluation of cleaning procedures for allergen control in a food industry environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Young, O A; Karl, D P

    2010-01-01

    The hygiene of chicken processing surfaces and retention of the wheat protein gliadin and of protein in general on those surfaces were compared in 15 trials after 3 increasingly rigorous cleaning steps. Eleven different chicken products with wheat derivatives as a batter were prepared on 3 processing lines in 15 production runs selected at random over 6 mo (5 runs were thus replicates). Using surface swabs, surface hygiene was monitored by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence, gliadin by immunoassay, and protein by the Coomassie dye method. Gliadin was monitored in 14 trials, protein in 5, and all trials were monitored by ATP bioluminescence. In a typical trial, gliadin values normalized to uncleaned values fell from 100000 arbitrary units, to 6000 after rinsing, to 30 (foam, rinse), to not detected (sanitize, rinse). Parallel ATP bioluminescence values also decreased, but crucially, the relative gliadin value was less than the relative ATP value after foam and rinse in all 14 trials, a result unchanged after sanitize and rinse. In trials comparing ATP and protein, the relative ATP values exceeded the relative protein values in 4 of 5 trials after foaming and after sanitizing. Thus, for these 11 products, ATP bioluminescence was a surrogate indicator of residual gliadin and probably of residual protein. Absolute gliadin concentration on an uncleaned processing line was also the basis of modeling the risk of cross-contamination of gliadin in follow-up product, where the line was hypothetically left uncleaned between production runs. The results show that all follow-up product could be declared "gluten-free" under proposed legislation, and suggest that some industrial cross-contamination risks are currently overestimated.

  18. Use of a bacteriophage cocktail to control Salmonella in food and the food industry.

    PubMed

    Spricigo, Denis Augusto; Bardina, Carlota; Cortés, Pilar; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2013-07-15

    The use of lytic bacteriophages for the biocontrol of food-borne pathogens in food and in the food industry is gaining increasing acceptance. In this study, the effectiveness of a bacteriophage cocktail composed of three different lytic bacteriophages (UAB_Phi 20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87) was determined in four different food matrices (pig skin, chicken breasts, fresh eggs, and packaged lettuce) experimentally contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. A significant bacterial reduction (>4 and 2 log/cm(2) for S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively; p≤0.005) was obtained in pig skin sprayed with the bacteriophage cocktail and then incubated at 33 °C for 6h. Significant decreases in the concentration of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis were also measured in chicken breasts dipped for 5 min in a solution containing the bacteriophage cocktail and then refrigerated at 4 °C for 7 days (2.2 and 0.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively; p≤0.0001) as well as in lettuce similarly treated for 60 min at room temperature (3.9 and 2.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively; p≤0.005). However, only a minor reduction of the bacterial concentration (0.9 log10 cfu/cm(2) of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium; p≤0.005) was achieved in fresh eggs sprayed with the bacteriophage cocktail and then incubated at 25 °C for 2 h. These results show the potential effectiveness of this bacteriophage cocktail as a biocontrol agent of Salmonella in several food matrices under conditions similar to those used in their production.

  19. Industrial market for sulfur dioxide emission-control systems. Final report. [Forecasting to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Under the postulated EIA medium world oil price scenario, in which oil prices are projected to rise at a real rate of 2.2% per year, coal will represent from 78 to 91% of MFBI fuel consumption by the year 2000, up from the present 16%. This increase would occur even in the absence of FUA, because the cost of coal is substantially lower than the cost of oil or gas. Much of this market will develop in the relatively near to intermediate term (before 1990). Annual installations will be much lower (by about 40%) after that period, reflecting a lower overall steam demand growth rate and the fact that much of the discretionary conversion of gas and oil boilers to coal will have been completed. About 22% of the sales will be for discretionary conversion of oil and gas boilers still having some useful life; the rest will be for nondiscretionary expansion or replacement of worn-out boilers. Under the postulated cost and performance estimates for the competing coal-burning technologies, we expect that AFB combustors and lime spray dryer FGD systems will dominate the market, with 42% of the market in our base case scenario. If the attitudes of the industrial decision-makers are factored into the analyses, particularly their aversion to FGD systems with wet wastes, the AFB and lime spray dryer technologies will capture as much as 73% of the coal-burning market. Costs for the various flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies were projected to be sufficiently close that the selection of one over another will depend on site-specific factors such as the availability of waste disposal facilities, the demonstrated reliability of the particular systems, and the vendor's reputation.

  20. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3

    PubMed Central

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Methods Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. Results The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. Conclusions This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. PMID:25908597

  1. High-precision control of LSRM based X-Y table for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, J F; Cheung, Norbert C; Zou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The design of an X-Y table applying direct-drive linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) principle is proposed in this paper. The proposed X-Y table has the characteristics of low cost, simple and stable mechanical structure. After the design procedure is introduced, an adaptive position control method based on online parameter identification and pole-placement regulation scheme is developed for the X-Y table. Experimental results prove the feasibility and its priority over a traditional PID controller with better dynamic response, static performance and robustness to disturbances. It is expected that the novel two-dimensional direct-drive system find its applications in high-precision manufacture area.

  2. Control schemes for an industrial rotary calciner with a heat shield around the combustion zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, S.; Kim, N.K.

    1999-03-01

    Soda ash (sodium carbonate) is produced by calcining natural trona ore (sodium sesquicarbonate) in rotary calciners. Shell overheating, the consequent deformation of the calciner shell, and heat loss are frequently encountered problems during this operation. Installation of a concentric, metallic heat shield around the calciner`s combustion zone can help to reduce the shell temperature and recover some of the energy that would otherwise be lost. Another problem often encountered is the deterioration of product quality when the system inputs deviate from their design rates. A mathematical model of the calciner with a heat shield is used to design different control schemes in order to maintain the product quality. Performance of the designed control schemes is demonstrated via computer simulation.

  3. Network Analysis of Reconnaissance and Intrusion of an Industrial Control System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    simulated a plant engineer using the engineering workstation web browser to authenticate to the vegetable cooker HMI. While the engineer established the...observed the vegetable cooker HMI web display, the attacker stopped capturing network traffic. Acting as the attacker, we searched the attacker’s pcap...manually controlled by human activity. In this testbed network, only web browser traffic (HTTP) is created by an operator to view an HMI status

  4. Stability of Paprika without supplementary antioxidants during storage under industrial controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

    2009-06-10

    Different quality parameters of paprika samples stored under controlled conditions (temperature 4 degrees C and relative humidity 70%) and without reconstitution of the antioxidant levels were analyzed. These included carotenoid composition, ASTA values (as specified by the American Spice Trade Association), fatty acid composition, and peroxide index, in order to determine the progress of autoxidative reactions and directly correlate the loss of carotenoid fraction with the development of prooxidative processes. Evolution of the carotenoid content indicated that autoxidative reactions minimally took place and that coloring capacity was maintained. Peroxide values were very low (1 mequiv/kg) and reached values of 3 mequiv/kg at the end of the storage period. Control of microbial flora during storage also showed how the storage conditions preserved quality of the paprika, as the flora was kept at levels similar to those of the beginning. Therefore, controlled storage conditions were enough to preserve and keep the overall quality of paprika without reconstitution or addition of antioxidants to the product.

  5. Splenectomy versus Partial Splenic Embolization for Massive Splenomegaly Secondary to Hepatitis B-Related Liver Cirrhosis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Both splenectomy (SP) and partial splenic embolization (PSE) are used to treat massive splenomegaly (MSM) secondary to hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis (HB-LC). This retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare the effects of SP and PSE on these patients. Methods. From July 2004 to January 2012, patients with MSM secondary to HB-LC who underwent SP or PSE were 1 : 1 : 1 matched with similar nonsurgery patients, respectively. Intraoperative situation, hematological indices, liver function, HBV DNA level, HBeAg seroconversion rate, morbidity, and mortality at 6 months postoperatively were compared. Results. Operative time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion rate, severe pain, postoperative stay, and portal vein thrombosis (PVT) rate in the PSE group were significantly superior to the SP group, although SP and PSE were similar in liver function improvement, HBV suppression, morbidity, and mortality at 6 months postoperatively, and SP even improved WBC and PLT counts higher than PSE. Conclusion. Both SP and PSE are effective in improving liver function, increasing WBC and PLT counts, and suppressing replication of HBV for MSM secondary to HB-LC. Although postoperative improvement in WBC and PLT counts by SP can be higher than PSE, PSE is simple and minimally invasive and has a lower incidence of PVT. PMID:27418925

  6. A longitudinal study of self-control at the transition to secondary school: Considering the role of pubertal status and parenting.

    PubMed

    Ng-Knight, Terry; Shelton, Katherine H; Riglin, Lucy; McManus, I C; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-07-01

    Higher self-control in children and adolescents is associated with a range of positive outcomes in adulthood. However, little is known about the naturalistic development of self-control during early adolescence and the factors that affect this. We examined the role of puberty and parenting style as theoretically important influences on stability and change in self-control. A longitudinal (3 waves), multiple-informant dataset of children entering early adolescence (M = 11 years) was used to explore longitudinal change in self-control using latent growth curve modelling. Children's self-control declined during the one-year study period and declines were associated with children's behavioural and social functioning. Associations with self-control were found for pubertal status and parental warmth and hostility, but not for parental discipline. The findings suggest that during early adolescence, when children make the transition to secondary school, self-control declines. This is particularly the case for those experiencing puberty earlier than their peers. Parent warmth influences the trajectory of self-control during this period.

  7. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, Paola; Ricci, Paolo; Bovo, Emanuela; Casula, Alessandro; Gattolin, Massimo; Fiore, Anna Rita; Chiosi, Francesco; Guzzinati, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy), where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry – RTV) has been active since 1987. Methods Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs). The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3), was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address) and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. Results The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval – 95% CI: 1.24 – 8.76) among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04 – 5.59) and for cancers of the connective

  8. Primary and Secondary Controls on Measurements of Forest Height Using Large-Footprint Lidar at the Hubbard Brook LTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Robert G.; Blair, J. Bryan; Schwarz, Paul A.; Hofton, Michelle A.; Dubayah, Ralph; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    On September 26, 1999, we mapped canopy structure over 90% of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire, using the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This airborne instrument was configured to emulate data expected from the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) space mission. We compared above ground heights of the tallest surfaces detected by lidar with average forest canopy heights estimated from tree-based measurements in or near 346 0.05 ha plots (made in autumn of 1997 and 1998). Vegetation heights had by far the predominant influence on lidar top heights, but with this large data set we were able to measure two significant secondary effects: those of steepness or slope of the underlying terrain and of tree crown form. The size of the slope effect was intermediate between that expected from models of homogeneous canopy layers and for solitary tree crowns. The first detected surfaces were also proportionately taller for plots with more basal area in broad leaved northern hardwoods than for mostly coniferous plots. We expected this because of the contrast between the shapes of cumulative distributions of surface area for elliptical or hemi-elliptical tree crowns and those for conical crowns. Correcting for these secondary effects, when appropriate data are available for calibration, may improve vegetation structure estimates in regional studies using VCL or similar lidar data sources.

  9. Control of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms on industrial surfaces by the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ibarreche, Mariana; Castellano, Patricia; Leclercq, Alexandre; Vignolo, Graciela

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862 and its bacteriocin in the control of Listeria biofilm formation on industrial surfaces at 10°C was investigated. A screening among different Listeria species was performed allowing selecting L. monocytogenes FBUNT for its use as a biofilm producer on stainless steel (SS) and polytetrafluoroe-thylene (PTFE) surfaces. Three conditions were simulated to evaluate the ability of the bacteriocinogenic strain to displace, exclude and compete pathogen biofilm formation. Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862 effectively inhibited biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes FBUNT through the three assayed mechanisms, pathogen inhibition being more efficient on PTFE than on SS surface. Moreover, co-culture of L. monocytogenes FBUNT with the bacteriocin-producer displayed the highest efficacy reducing the pathogen by 5.54 ± 0.12 and 4.52 ± 0.01 on PTFE and SS, respectively. Industrially, the pre-treatment with L. sakei CRL1862 or its bacteriocin (exclusion) constitutes the most realistic way to prevent pathogen biofilm settlement. The use of bacteriocins and/or the bacteriocin-producer strain represents a safe and environmentally-friendly sanitation method to mitigate post-processing food contamination.

  10. From lab to industrial: PZT nanoparticles synthesis and process control for application in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsien-Lin

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) nanoparticles hold many promising current and future applications, such as PZT ink for 3-D printing or seeds for PZT thick films. One common method is hydrothermal growth, in which temperature, duration time, or mineralizer concentrations are optimized to produce PZT nanoparticles with desired morphology, controlled size and size distribution. A modified hydrothermal process is used to fabricate PZT nanoparticles. The novelty is to employ a high ramping rate (e.g., 20 deg C/min) to generate abrupt supersaturation so as to promote burst nucleation of PZT nanoparticles as well as a fast cooling rate (e.g., 5 deg C/min) with a controlled termination of crystal growth. As a result, PZT nanoparticles with a size distribution ranging from 200 nm to 800 nm are obtained with cubic morphology and good crystallinity. The identification of nanoparticles is confirmed through use of X-ray diffractometer (XRD). XRD patterns are used to compare sample variations in their microstructures such as lattice parameter. A cubic morphology and particle size are also examined via SEM images. The hydrothermal process is further modified with excess lead (from 20% wt. to 80% wt.) to significantly reduce amorphous phase and agglomeration of the PZT nanoparticles. With a modified process, the particle size still remains within the 200 nm to 800 nm. Also, the crystal structures (microstructure) of the samples show little variations. Finally, a semi-continuous hydrothermal manufacturing process was developed to substantially reduce the fabrication time and maintained the same high quality as the nanoparticles prepared in an earlier stage. In this semi-continuous process, a furnace is maintained at the process temperature (200 deg C), whereas autoclaves containing PZT sol are placed in and out of the furnace to control the ramp-up and cooling rates. This setup eliminates an extremely time-consuming step of cooling down the furnace, thus saving tremendous amount of

  11. Relationship of Industrial Noise to Hearing Acuity in a Controlled Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-01

    8S 9a okdteJL;5 0 202! 0 22 LEGEND 9 2 PLANT IN OPERATION INARNEMEN AUG.𔃻 DURING PLANT SHUT-DOWN 15~~l~lhUI~l 199 20 toG 9o 3 0 AE 262 JUJLY 7T 2...todehnea sae envronmet. Tere ae li-si’i iilmint~itolis. This is the moiist rigorous goal soicietycon~sidlerablle diftferencies between these criteria...measuremenits of the expo.sed and control griuips wvere smnaller. Further, nois orlienri ig.but lise ae fr fom bingthe the hearing levels for the spleech

  12. Standardization of automated industrial test equipment for mass production of control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voto, A.; Dai, I.; Oleniuk, P.; Todd, B.

    2016-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. They must be designed to achieve a high Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and hardware reliability must be ensured by board level testing before hardware is assembled and installed. In this framework, the National Instrument PCI extension for Instrumentation (PXI) was chosen as standard platform for the development of testers. This paper reports on the design strategy and approach used focusing on the tester hardware, firmware and software development.

  13. Putative methyltransferase LaeA and transcription factor CreA are necessary for proper asexual development and controlling secondary metabolic gene cluster expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiujun; Zhu, Yingying; Bao, Longfei; Gao, Liwei; Yao, Guangshan; Li, Yanan; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Zhonghai; Zhong, Yaohua; Li, Fuli; Yin, Heng; Qu, Yinbo; Qin, Yuqi

    2016-09-01

    The morphological development of fungi is a complex process and is often coupled with secondary metabolite production. In this study, we assessed the function of putative methyltransferase LaeA and transcription factor CreA in controlling asexual development and secondary metabolic gene cluster expression in Penicillium oxalicum. The deletion of laeA (ΔlaeA) impaired the conidiation in P. oxalicum, with a downregulated expression of brlA. Overexpression of P. oxalicum brlA in ΔlaeA could upregulate brlA and abaA remarkably, but could not rescue the conidiation defect; therefore, brlA and abaA expression were necessary but not sufficient for conidiation. Deletion of creA in ΔlaeA background (ΔlaeAΔcreA) blocked conidiation with a white fluffy phenotype. Nutrient-rich medium could not rescue developmental defects in ΔlaeAΔcreA mutant but could rescue defects in ΔlaeA. Expression of 10 genes, namely, albA/wA, abrB/yA, arpA, aygA, arpA-like, arpB, arpB-like, rodA, rodA-like, and rodB, for pigmentation and spore wall protein genes was silenced in ΔlaeAΔcreA, whereas only six of them were downregulated in ΔlaeA. Among the 28 secondary metabolism gene clusters in P. oxalicum, four secondary metabolism gene clusters were silenced in ΔlaeA and two were also silenced in ΔbrlA mutant. A total of 10 physically linked and coregulated genes were distributed over five chromosomes in ΔlaeA. Six of these genes were located in subtelomeric regions, thus demonstrating a positional bias for LaeA-regulated clusters toward subtelomeric regions. All of silenced clusters located in subtelomeric regions were derepressed in ΔlaeAΔcreA, hence showing that lack of CreA could remediate the repression of gene clusters in ΔlaeA background. Results show that both putative methyltransferase LaeA and transcription factor CreA are necessary for proper asexual development and controlling secondary metabolic gene cluster expression.

  14. The two-component PhoR-PhoP system controls both primary metabolism and secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces lividans

    PubMed Central

    Sola-Landa, A.; Moura, R. S.; Martín, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The biosynthesis of most secondary metabolites in different bacteria is strongly depressed by inorganic phosphate. The two-component phoR-phoP system of Streptomyces lividans has been cloned and characterized. PhoR showed all of the characteristics of the membrane-bound sensor proteins, whereas PhoP is a member of the DNA-binding OmpR family. Deletion mutants lacking phoP or phoR-phoP, were unable to grow in minimal medium at low phosphate concentration (10 μM). Growth was fully restored by complementation with the phoR-phoP genes. Both S. lividans ΔphoP and ΔphoR-phoP deletion mutants were unable to synthesize extracellular alkaline phosphatase (AP) as shown by immunodetection with anti-AP antibodies and by enzymatic analysis, suggesting that the PhoR-PhoP system is required for expression of the AP gene (phoA). Synthesis of AP was restored by complementation of the deletion mutants with phoR-phoP. The biosynthesis of two secondary metabolites, actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin, was significantly increased in both solid and liquid medium in the ΔphoP or ΔphoR-phoP deletion mutants. Negative phosphate control of both secondary metabolites was restored by complementation with the phoR-phoP cluster. These results prove that expression of both phoA and genes implicated in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in S. lividans is regulated by a mechanism involving the two-component PhoR-PhoP system. PMID:12730372

  15. Generation and control of a powerful electron-beam current in an accelerator based on a secondary-emission source and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizatsky, N. I.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Zakutin, V. V.; Reshetnyak, N. G.; Romas'ko, V. P.; Chertishchev, I. A.; Boriskin, V. N.; Dovbnya, N. A.

    2014-09-01

    An electron accelerator in which magnetron guns with secondary-emission cathodes of two types are used as a particle source is described. The electron-beam parameters are investigated in an electron energy range of 20-150 keV at a pulse length of 10-50 μs. Results of target irradiation by an electron beam are represented. The target surface structure is studied by the metallographic method, and the microhardness and strength of zirconium materials are measured. The possibility of beam current control by factors of 2.5-3.5 with various methods is shown.

  16. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  17. Integration of computer vision onto weavers for quality control in the textile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huart, J.; Postaire, Jack-Gerard

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents an automated system for quality control of fabrics. It is based on a linear vision machine designed to be integrated on to weavers. The aim is to detect and identify, in real time, faults in the fabric in order to perform on-line diagnosis of the weavers. A solution based on a high-resolution linear multisensor device is proposed in order to cope with the small size of the flaws which occur on wide fabrics. A front processor integrated on the acquisition board performs local operations on the successive line images as they are captured by the multisensor device. Flaws are discriminated using a set of local detection operators and adaptive models. These models are used to extrapolate the image of the fabric, so that any flaw can be detected by comparing the actual image to this theoretical model. The detected flaws are identified by means of morphological filtering and a syntactic classification scheme that discriminates the flaws.

  18. Industrial application of Raman spectroscopy for control and optimization of vinyl acetate resin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Frauendorfer, Eric; Hergeth, Wolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and control of resin polymerizations is essential for high process safety, high product quality, and competitive production costs. Vinyl acetate resins created by bulk and solution polymerization usually have a high molecular weight and viscosity, making sample extraction for analysis a cumbersome process. In-process analytical methods, like Raman spectroscopy, enable not only the measurement of monomer and polymer composition during the reaction without complex mathematical calibrations but also the determination of final product properties. The latter is also possible in conjunction with other process data like temperatures and feed rates and with a multivariate approach. An overview of challenges, necessary considerations, and results is given. Graphical abstract Prediction of product quality parameter viscosity using online-Raman spectroscopy data vs. reference data (Hoeppler viscosity measured in the lab after sample extraction) using partial least squares modelling.

  19. Operator-centered control of a semi-autonomous industrial robot

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Jones, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents work done by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Remotec, Inc., to develop a new operator-centered control system for Remotec`s Andros telerobot. Andros robots are presently used by numerous electric utilities, the armed forces, and numerous law enforcement agencies to perform tasks which are hazardous for human operators. This project has automated task components and enhanced the video graphics display of the robot`s position in the environment to significantly reduce operator workload. The procedure of automating a telerobot requires the addition of computer power to the robot, along with a variety of sensors and encoders to provide information about the robots performance in and relationship to its environment The resulting vehicle serves as a platform for research on strategies to integrate automated tasks with those performed by a human operator. The addition of these capabilities will greatly enhance the safety and efficiency of performance in hazardous environments.

  20. In-depth survey report: Control technology for metal reclamation industries at East Penn Manufacturing Company Inc., Lyon Station, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.M.; Earnest, G.S.; Jensen, P.A.; Zimmer, A.T.

    1996-06-03

    In an effort to identify effective hazard control methods and work practices, an in depth evaluation was conducted at the East Penn Manufacturing Company Inc. (SIC-3341), Lyon Station, Pennsylvania, which had previously been identified as having the lowest air lead (7439921) concentrations in lead smelter areas during a previous survey. This facility was primarily involved in lead reclamation from recycled automobile and industrial batteries. Control methods employed included automation, local exhaust ventilation, partial enclosures, and enclosed ventilation systems in the reverberatory and blast furnaces, and in casting and refinery areas. Employees in production areas also wore filtered half mask respirators, adhered to strict company policies on personal hygiene, and participated in incentive programs designed to reduce blood lead levels and encourage good personal hygiene and work practices. The authors noted that there was a potential for significant lead exposure in the blast furnace area, reverberatory furnace area, refinery area, and front end load operations. The authors recommend that efforts be made to improve controls in these areas.