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Sample records for secondary standard laboratory

  1. Standardizing clinical laboratory data for secondary use

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical databases provide a rich source of data for answering clinical research questions. However, the variables recorded in clinical data systems are often identified by local, idiosyncratic, and sometimes redundant and/or ambiguous names (or codes) rather than unique, well-organized codes from standard code systems. This reality discourages research use of such databases, because researchers must invest considerable time in cleaning up the data before they can ask their first research question. Researchers at MIT developed MIMIC-II, a nearly complete collection of clinical data about intensive care patients. Because its data are drawn from existing clinical systems, it has many of the problems described above. In collaboration with the MIT researchers, we have begun a process of cleaning up the data and mapping the variable names and codes to LOINC codes. Our first step, which we describe here, was to map all of the laboratory test observations to LOINC codes. We were able to map 87% of the unique laboratory tests that cover 94% of the total number of laboratory tests results. Of the 13% of tests that we could not map, nearly 60% were due to test names whose real meaning could not be discerned and 29% represented tests that were not yet included in the LOINC table. These results suggest that LOINC codes cover most of laboratory tests used in critical care. We have delivered this work to the MIMIC-II researchers, who have included it in their standard MIMIC-II database release so that researchers who use this database in the future will not have to do this work. PMID:22561944

  2. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  3. An Australian secondary standard dosimetry laboratory participation in IAEA postal dose audits.

    PubMed

    Davies, J B; Izewska, J; Meriaty, H; Baldock, C

    2013-03-01

    For over 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have jointly monitored activities of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) through postal dose audits with the aim of achieving consistency in dosimetry throughout the world. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) maintains an SSDL and is a member of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. Postal dose audit results at this Australian SSDL from 2001 to 2011 demonstrate the consistency of absorbed dose to water measurements, underpinned by the primary standard maintained at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA).

  4. Implementation of ISO guide 25 in a medical dosimetry secondary standards calibration laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, there is a great deal of discussion among industry and government agencies about ISO 9000 accreditation. U.S. manufacturers with ISO 9000 accreditation are regarded more favorably by European countries. The principles behind the ISO 9000 accreditation are based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) principles that are being implemented in many U.S. industries. This paper will deal only with the calibration issue. There is a difference in the areas covered by ISO 9000 and ISO Guide 25 documents. ISO 9000, in particular ISO 9001 - ISO 9003, cover the {open_quotes}calibration{close_quotes} of inspection, measuring and test equipment. This equipment is basically used for {open_quotes}factory calibrations{close_quotes} to determine that equipment is performing within manufacturer specifications. ISO Guide 25 is specifically for {open_quotes}calibration and testing laboratories,{close_quotes} generally laboratories that have painstaking procedures to reduce uncertainties and establish high accuracy of the transfer of calibration. The experience of the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory in conforming to ISO Guide 25 will be outlined. The entire laboratory staff must become familiar with the process and an individual with direct authority must become the one to maintain the quality of equipment and calibrations in the role of {open_quotes}quality-assurance manager.{close_quotes}

  5. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  6. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  7. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  8. Standards for laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    1982-12-01

    After years of review by all of the CAP resource and other committees and councils, the Commission on Laboratory Accreditation developed a revised Standards for Accreditation of Medical Laboratories (Last revision, 1974). They were approved by the House of Delegates and, in the February issue of Pathologist '82, comments were solicited from the entire membership. Presented in the following pages are the final Standards for Laboratory Accreditation, which the Board of Governors adopted as CAP policy at its Sept. 2-4 meeting in Traverse City, Mich.

  9. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for 125I seeds used for prostate brachytherapy. National Physical Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Baker, M; Bass, G A; Woods, M J

    2002-01-01

    In the therapeutic use of radionuclides, by far the most rapid growth in recent years is that of 125I seeds used for the treatment of prostate cancer. Large numbers of these seeds are used in each treatment and there is a need for a simple but accurate means of confirming their dose rates. This mechanism requires a transfer device for which the calibration factors are traceable to national standards. The NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, because of its guaranteed reproducibility and traceable calibration procedure, is ideally suited for this purpose. A series of characterisation measurements have been performed on the NPL radionuclide calibrator in order to estimate the uncertainty levels that can be achieved and these are presented together with the relevant calibration factors for some typical seeds.

  10. Proficiency Testing as a tool to monitor consistency of measurements in the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Czap, Ladislav; Shortt, Ken

    2008-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (IAEA/WHO SSDL Network) in 1976. Through SSDLs designated by Member States, the Network provides a direct link of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Within this structure and through the proper calibration of field instruments, the SSDLs disseminate S.I. quantities and units. To ensure that the services provided by SSDL members to end-users follow internationally accepted standards, the IAEA has set up two different comparison programmes. One programme relies on the IAEA/WHO postal TLD service and the other uses comparisons of calibrated ionization chambers to help the SSDLs verify the integrity of their national standards and the procedures used for the transfer of the standards to the end-users. The IAEA comparisons include 60Co air kerma (NK) and absorbed dose to water (ND,W) coefficients. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy. This work describes the results of the IAEA programme comparing calibration coefficients for radiotherapy dosimetry, using ionization chambers. In this programme, ionization chambers that belong to the SSDLs are calibrated sequentially at the SSDL, at the IAEA, and again at the SSDL. As part of its own quality assurance programme, the IAEA has participated in several regional comparisons organized by Regional Metrology Organizations. The results of the IAEA comparison programme show that the majority of SSDLs are capable of providing calibrations that fall inside the acceptance level of 1.5% compared to the IAEA.

  11. NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator. Syringe calibration factors for radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. National Physical Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Tyler, D K; Baker, M; Woods, M J

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of the activity of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Although these radionuclides are normally measured initially in a standard glass vial, an aliquot of the solution is then usually withdrawn into a syringe prior to the administration. Both for general quality assurance good practice and for additional guarantees for patient safety, a confirmatory measurement of the syringe is almost obligatory Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. A variety of syringes typically used in hospital administrations, and covering a range of volumes and manufacturers, were obtained. The results obtained were compared to those for glass vials and show the large errors that can be produced by ignoring these differences in container format.

  12. Dental Laboratory Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide contains 45 program standards for the dental laboratory technology program conducted in technical institutes in Georgia. The dental laboratory technology program, either diploma or associate degree, is designed to ensure that students gain basic competence in the job skills needed for an entry-level employee in dental laboratory…

  13. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff.

  14. Essential Laboratory Activities Guide. Secondary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for use in junior and senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida, for the purpose of identifying those secondary science laboratory experiences which are essential to the development of science content knowledge and competency in handling science laboratory equipment and consumables. The guide…

  15. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program.

  16. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  17. Laboratory Course on "Streptomyces" Genetics and Secondary Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Vilja; Räty, Kaj; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The "'Streptomyces' genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria "Streptomyces" and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of "Streptomyces"; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid…

  18. Standardization of terminology in laboratory medicine II.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kap No; Yoon, Jong-Hyun; Min, Won Ki; Lim, Hwan Sub; Song, Junghan; Chae, Seok Lae; Jang, Seongsoo; Ki, Chang-Seok; Bae, Sook Young; Kim, Jang Su; Kwon, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang Kyu; Yoon, Soo-Young

    2008-08-01

    Standardization of medical terminology is essential in data transmission between health care institutes and in maximizing the benefits of information technology. The purpose of this study was to standardize medical terms for laboratory observations. During the second year of the study, a standard database of concept names for laboratory terms that covered those used in tertiary health care institutes and reference laboratories was developed. The laboratory terms in the Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) database were adopted and matched with the electronic data interchange (EDI) codes in Korea. A public hearing and a workshop for clinical pathologists were held to collect the opinions of experts. The Korean standard laboratory terminology database containing six axial concept names, components, property, time aspect, system (specimen), scale type, and method type, was established for 29,340 test observations. Short names and mapping tables for EDI codes and UMLS were added. Synonym tables were prepared to help match concept names to common terms used in the fields. We herein described the Korean standard laboratory terminology database for test names, result description terms, and result units encompassing most of the laboratory tests in Korea.

  19. Challenges of implementing Iranian national laboratory standards.

    PubMed

    Safadel, N; Dahim, P; Anjarani, S; Rahnamaye Farzami, M; Samiee, S Mirab; Amini, R; Farsi, Sh; Mahdavi, S; Khodaverdian, K; Rashed Marandi, F

    2013-01-01

    After four years of publishing the Iranian National Laboratory Standard and following a strategic plan to implement its requirements, it was decided to review the taken actions, evaluating the achievements and the failures, as well as analyzing the gaps and planning the interventional activities to resolve the problems. A thorough evaluation revealed that the progress of implementation process varies considerably in different provinces, as well as in laboratories in different public and private sectors. Diversity and heterogeneousity of laboratories throughout the country is one of unresolvable problems. Although we encounter shortage of resources in the country, improper allocation or distribution of resources and budgets make the problems more complicated. Inadequacy of academic training in laboratory sciences has resulted in necessity of holding comprehensive post-graduate training courses. Revising academic curriculum of laboratory sciences could be mostly helpful, moreover there should be organized, training courses with pre-determined practical topics. providing specific technical guidelines, to clarify the required technical details could temporarily fill the training gaps of laboratory staff. Inadequate number of competent auditors was one of the difficulties in universities. Another important challenge returns to laboratory equipment, developing the national controlling system to manage the laboratory equipment in terms of quality and accessibility has been planned in RHL. At last cultural problems and resistance to change are main obstacles that have reduced the pace of standardization, it needs to rationalize the necessity of establishing laboratory standards for all stakeholders.

  20. Certification standards transfer: from committee to laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H P

    1998-12-01

    The ISO 9000 Standards series were developed to provide the international manufacturing industry with a framework to ensure purchased products meet quality criteria. Section 4 of ISO 9001, Quality System Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation and Servicing, contains 20 aspects of a quality system that must be addressed by an organization in order to receive ISO 9001 certification. This concept is extended to the clinical laboratory, where a quality system program establishes for the customer (patient/clinician) that the purchased product (requested information on a submitted specimen-test result) meets established quality norms. In order to satisfy the customer, the providing organization must have policies and procedures in place that ensure a quality product, and be certified. To become certified the organization must, through an inspection process, demonstrate to an independent accrediting agency that it meets defined standards. In the United States, the government through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA) 1988 established quality standards for the clinical laboratory. The College of American Pathologists (CAP), through its Laboratory Accreditation Program (LAP), serves as an independent agency that certifies that laboratories meet standards. To demonstrate the applicability of an established clinical laboratory accreditation program to ISO 9001 certification, the standards and checklists of CLIA 1988 and the CAP LAP will be examined to determine their conformance to ISO 9001, Section 4.

  1. The Nature of Laboratory Learning Experiences in Secondary Science Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Archambault, Leanna M.; Kern, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching science to secondary students in an online environment is a growing international trend. Despite this trend, reports of empirical studies of this phenomenon are noticeably missing. With a survey concerning the nature of laboratory activities, this study describes the perspective of 35-secondary teachers from 15-different U.S. states who…

  2. Science Laboratory Learning Environments in Junior Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ping Wai

    2015-01-01

    A Chinese version of the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was used to study the students' perceptions of the actual and preferred laboratory learning environments in Hong Kong junior secondary science lessons. Valid responses of the SLEI from 1932 students of grade 7 to grade 9 indicated that an open-ended inquiry approach seldom…

  3. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  4. 42 CFR 493.1445 - Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1445 Standard; Laboratory...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1407 - Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1407 Standard; Laboratory...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1445 - Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1445 Standard; Laboratory...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1405 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Laboratory director qualifications. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1405 Standard; Laboratory...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1445 - Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1445 Standard; Laboratory...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1407 - Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1407 Standard; Laboratory...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1407 - Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1407 Standard; Laboratory...

  11. Criteria for the operation of federally-owned secondary calibration laboratories (ionizing radiation). Special pub. (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhower, E.H.

    1991-08-01

    The document contains standards of performance for laboratories that calibrate instrumentation used to measure ionizing radiation. Such standards are useful for the development of a secondary level of calibration laboratories that can provide a high-quality link between the National Institute of Standards and Technology and those who make routine measurements at the field level. The standards may also be used as criteria on which a decision is based regarding accreditation of a particular laboratory. They were developed by representatives of federally-owned laboratories that perform calibrations of the type addressed by the document. The first major part contains general criteria that must be satisfied by all laboratories seeking accreditation. It includes requirements relating to management and staff, physical aspects of the laboratory, calibrations facilities and equipment, operational procedures, accuracy and quality assurance, and records and reports. Five subsequent major parts establish criteria for calibration of survey instruments, irradiation of personnel dosimeters, calibration of sources, calibration of instruments for diagnostic levels, and calibration of reference-class instruments. The types of radiation covered include gamma rays, x rays, beta particles, neutrons, and alpha particles. An appendix describes the proficiency tests administered by NIST to secondary laboratories as a prerequisite for their accreditation.

  12. Farm Laboratory Aids Post-Secondary Instruction in Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statler, Larry L.; Juhl, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Reports a farm laboratory of 1500 swine, 40 beef cattle, 52 sheep, a 300-crop acres, and a full line of leased new farm machinery for post-secondary agricultural production students. A student board of directors manages the demonstration farm. (DM)

  13. The OSHA hazardous chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, D A

    1991-01-01

    OSHA's chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories is an outgrowth of the previously issued Hazard Communication Standard. The standard relieves laboratories from complying with general industry standards but does require compliance with specific laboratory guidelines. The heart of the standard is the creation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). The CHP addresses major issues such as safety equipment and procedures, work practices, training, the designation of a chemical hygiene officer, and the provision of medical consultation and examination for affected employees. This new standard, in full effect as of January 31, 1991, presents yet another regulatory challenge to laboratory managers but also ensures a safer environment for laboratory workers.

  14. HEW to Set Laboratory Safety Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) proposed guidelines for laboratories using chemical carcinogens. The guidelines are designed to provide protection for laboratory workers and their environment from exposure to all types of carcinogenic agents. (GA)

  15. Science, Levels 7-12. Secondary Core Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document presents the core science curriculum standards which must be completed by all students as a requisite for graduation from Utah's secondary schools. Contained within are the elementary and secondary school program of studies and high school graduation requirements. Each course entry for grades 7-12 contains: course title, unit of…

  16. 42 CFR 493.1359 - Standard; PPM laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; PPM laboratory director responsibilities... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1359...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1359 - Standard; PPM laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; PPM laboratory director responsibilities... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1359...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1359 - Standard; PPM laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; PPM laboratory director responsibilities... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1359...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1357 - Standard; laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; laboratory director qualifications. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1357...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1359 - Standard; PPM laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; PPM laboratory director responsibilities... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1359...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1357 - Standard; laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; laboratory director qualifications. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1357...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1357 - Standard; laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; laboratory director qualifications. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1357...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1357 - Standard; laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; laboratory director qualifications. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1357...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1357 - Standard; laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; laboratory director qualifications. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1357...

  5. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF BUILDING 125, THE STANDARDS LABORATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF BUILDING 125, THE STANDARDS LABORATORY. THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE STANDARDS LABORATORY WAS TO ENSURE AND IMPLEMENT A SYSTEM OF QUALITY CONTROL FOR INCOMING MATERIALS USED IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. SEVERAL ENGINEERING CONTROLS WERE USED TO ASSURE ACCURACY OF THE CALIBRATION PROCESSES INCLUDING: FLEX-FREE GRANITE TABLES, AIR LOCKED DOORS, TEMPERATURE CONTROLS, AND A SUPER-CLEAN ENVIRONMENT - Rocky Flats Plant, Standards Laboratory, Immediately north of 215A water tower & adjacent to Third Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  7. Precision Laboratory Standards of Mass and Laboratory Weights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1954-08-20

    Preferred denominations for laboratory weights Classes P. Q, and T Classes 11 and Q Class 1P Metric Avoirdupois Apothecary Troy Grain Carat kg l. 0Z 0...I g., or 500 ing 10 IngAvorduoi.--------------------------------------8, 4, 2, or 1 11), or S oz I j; oz5 Apothecary ...jeceiiUte Assay toni (29.1667 g) ----- ----- T’ Carat (200 nig) - - - - - - - - - - D~rain, apothecaries ’- -(-- ---- - Ir ap G rain

  8. Primary standards laboratory report, 1st half 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1994 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  9. Radioxenon standards used in laboratory inter-comparisons.

    PubMed

    Gohla, H; Auer, M; Cassette, Ph; Hague, R K; Lechermann, M; Nadalut, B

    2016-03-01

    Preparation methods for (133)Xe standards of activity concentration and the results of the 2014 (133)Xe laboratory inter-comparison exercise are described. One element of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program for laboratories of the International Monitoring System (IMS) will be regular inter-comparison exercises. However, until recently, no activity concentration standards for benchmarking were available. Therefore, two (133)Xe activity concentration reference standards were produced independently by Idaho National Laboratory and Seibersdorf Laboratories and used for the 2014 laboratory inter-comparison exercise. The preparation of a complementary (127)Xe activity concentration standard as well as a (127)Xe laboratory inter-comparison exercise suggests (127)Xe as a suitable isotope for QA/QC of remote IMS noble gas stations.

  10. Standard terminology in the laboratory and classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the materials produced by modern technologists is associated with a family of immaterials--all the concepts of substance, process, and purpose. It is concepts that are essential to transfer knowledge. It is concepts that are the stuff of terminology. Terminology is standardized today by companies, standards organizations, governments, and other groups. Simply described, it is the pre-negotiation of the meanings of terms. Terminology has become a key issue in businesses, and terminology knowledge is essential in understanding the modern world. The following is a introductory workshop discussing the concepts of terminology and methods of its standardization.

  11. The Nature of Laboratory Learning Experiences in Secondary Science Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Archambault, Leanna M.; Kern, Cindy L.

    2013-06-01

    Teaching science to secondary students in an online environment is a growing international trend. Despite this trend, reports of empirical studies of this phenomenon are noticeably missing. With a survey concerning the nature of laboratory activities, this study describes the perspective of 35-secondary teachers from 15-different U.S. states who are teaching science online. The type and frequency of reported laboratory activities are consistent with the tradition of face-to-face instruction, using hands-on and simulated experiments. While provided examples were student-centered and required the collection of data, they failed to illustrate key components of the nature of science. The features of student-teacher interactions, student engagement, and nonverbal communications were found to be lacking and likely constitute barriers to the enactment of inquiry. These results serve as a call for research and development focused on using existing communication tools to better align with the activity of science such that the nature of science is more clearly addressed, the work of students becomes more collaborative and authentic, and the formative elements of a scientific inquiry are more accessible to all participants.

  12. [Accreditation of clinical laboratories based on ISO standards].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2004-11-01

    International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have published two international standards (IS) to be used for accreditation of clinical laboratories; ISO/IEC 17025:1999 and ISO 15189:2003. Any laboratory accreditation body must satisfy the requirements stated in ISO/IEC Guide 58. In order to maintain the quality of the laboratory accreditation bodies worldwide, the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) has established the mutual recognition arrangement (MRA). In Japan, the International Accreditation Japan (IAJapan) and the Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (JAB) are the members of the ILAC/MRA group. In 2003, the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS) and the JAB have established the Development Committee of Clinical Laboratory Accreditation Program (CLAP), in order to establish the CLAP, probably starting in 2005.

  13. Transfer Standard Uncertainty Can Cause Inconclusive Inter-Laboratory Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wright, John; Toman, Blaza; Mickan, Bodo; Wübbeler, Gerd; Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons use the best available transfer standards to check the participants' uncertainty analyses, identify underestimated uncertainty claims or unknown measurement biases, and improve the global measurement system. For some measurands, instability of the transfer standard can lead to an inconclusive comparison result. If the transfer standard uncertainty is large relative to a participating laboratory's uncertainty, the commonly used standardized degree of equivalence ≤ 1 criterion does not always correctly assess whether a participant is working within their uncertainty claims. We show comparison results that demonstrate this issue and propose several criteria for assessing a comparison result as passing, failing, or inconclusive. We investigate the behavior of the standardized degree of equivalence and alternative comparison measures for a range of values of the transfer standard uncertainty relative to the individual laboratory uncertainty values. The proposed alternative criteria successfully discerned between passing, failing, and inconclusive comparison results for the cases we examined.

  14. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE (NELAC): CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS, AND STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  15. Use and qualification of primary and secondary standards employed in quantitative ¹H NMR spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Torgny; McEwen, Ian; Johansson, Monika; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2014-05-01

    Standards are required in quantitative NMR (qNMR) to obtain accurate and precise results. In this study acetanilide was established and used as a primary standard. Six other chemicals were selected as secondary standards: 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethylterephthalate, maleic acid, 3-sulfolene, 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The secondary standards were quantified using the primary standard acetanilide. A protocol for qualification and periodic checks of these secondary standards was developed, and used for evaluation of the stability of the compounds. Periodic monitoring of purity was performed for several years. The purity was higher than 99% for all secondary standards. All standards maintained the initial purity during the time period of monitoring, with very small variations in purity (0.3-0.4%). The selected secondary standards were shown to be suitable qNMR standards and that periodic requalification of the standards by qNMR ensures reliable analytical results. These standards have been used in our laboratory for compliance testing of pharmaceutical active substances and approved medicinal products as well as for analysis of suspected illegal medicines. In total more than 1000 samples have been tested using both internal and external standardization and examples are given.

  16. Primary Standards Laboratory report, 2nd half 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) operates a system-wide primary standards and calibration program for the US Department of Energy, Albuquerque Field Office (DOE/AL). The PSL mission is as follows: to develop and maintain primary standards; to calibrate electrical, physical, and radiation reference standards for customer laboratories (DOE/AL nuclear weapon contractors); to conduct the technical surveys and measurement audits of these laboratories; and to recommend and implement system-wide improvements. This report summarizes activities of the PSL for the second half of 1993 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL Standards and Calibration Program. Specific areas covered include development projects, improvement projects, calibration and special measurements, surveys and audits, customer service, and significant events. Appendixes include certifications and reports;; a discussion about commercial calibration laboratories; PSL memoranda (PSLM); test numbers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), formerly the National Bureau of Standards (NBS); and DOE/PSL memoranda on the Standards and Calibration Program with emphasis on traceability of PSL calibrations.

  17. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Clinical Laboratory Science/Biotechnology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for clinical laboratory occupations programs. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the process used to develop the…

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Laboratory and Field Technician Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the agricultural laboratory and field technician cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for…

  19. Transfer standard uncertainty can cause inconclusive inter-laboratory comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, John; Toman, Blaza; Mickan, Bodo; Wübbeler, Gerd; Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons use the best available transfer standards to check the participants’ uncertainty analyses, identify underestimated uncertainty claims or unknown measurement biases, and improve the global measurement system. For some measurands, instability of the transfer standard can lead to an inconclusive comparison result. If the transfer standard uncertainty is large relative to a participating laboratory’s uncertainty, the commonly used standardized degree of equivalence  ⩽1 criterion does not always correctly assess whether a participant is working within their uncertainty claims. We show comparison results that demonstrate this issue and propose several criteria for assessing a comparison result as passing, failing, or inconclusive. We investigate the behavior of the standardized degree of equivalence and alternative comparison measures for a range of values of the transfer standard uncertainty relative to the individual laboratory uncertainty values. The proposed alternative criteria successfully discerned between passing, failing, and inconclusive comparison results for the cases we examined.

  20. DOE standard: The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program administration

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This technical standard describes the US Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP), organizational responsibilities, and the accreditation process. DOELAP evaluates and accredits personnel dosimetry and radiobioassay programs used for worker monitoring and protection at DOE and DOE contractor sites and facilities as required in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The purpose of this technical standard is to establish procedures for administering DOELAP and acquiring accreditation.

  1. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Professional Development Needs of Wyoming Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…

  2. Standards, Regulation and Registration of Dental Laboratories. An Industry Update.

    PubMed

    Giovannone, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    State dental associations are showing increased interest in maintaining current standards and regulations affecting the dental laboratory industry as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration. The domestic dental laboratory industry is being significantly stressed by foreign competition, rapid technology development and unprecedented consolidation, which are changing the way that prosthetic devices and restorations are manufactured and delivered to dentists. Of paramount importance to the prescribing dentist is the accurate documentation of the source and materials being used in prostheses being delivered to patients.

  3. Laboratory Skills and Competencies for Secondary Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Gerald; Dawson, Carolyn; Tripp, Brad; Pentecost, Tom; Chaloupka, Meg; Saunders, John

    The emphasis on laboratory activities for science students has increased. This paper describes research that sought to determine which laboratory skills and competencies are viewed by current teachers as necessary for the preservice teacher to develop. The skills and competencies survey included 145 items in three categories (general, biological…

  4. Immediate needs for MQA testing at state secondary calibration laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, R.

    1993-12-31

    The Calibration Laboratory attempts to provide services that satisfy the needs and requests for a variety of customers. New needs and requests have resulted in calibration of instrumentation outside the original laboratory designs. These tasks require several changes at the laboratory and a need for new support services, especially measurement quality assurance (MQA). The MQA tests are gamma (Cs-137) below 0.5 mrem (5{mu}Sv) per hour and x-ray kVp. Modification to the current gamma (Cs-137) MQA test is recommended because lower intensity fields are commonly measured.

  5. Standardizing intensive care device data to enable secondary usages.

    PubMed

    Ingenerf, Josef; Kock, Ann-Kristin; Poelker, Marcel; Seidl, Konrad; Zeplin, Georg; Mersmann, Stefan; Handels, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    To represent medical device observations in a format that is consumable by clinical software, standards like HL7v3 and ISO/IEEE 11073 should be used jointly. This is demonstrated in a project with Dräger Medical GmbH focusing on their Patient Data Management System (PDMS) in intensive care, called Integrated Care Manager (ICM). Patient and device data of interest should be mapped to suitable formats to enable data exchange and decision support. Instead of mapping device data to target formats bilaterally we use a generic HL7v3 Refined Message Information Model (RMIM) with device specific parts adapted to ISO/IEEE 11073 DIM. The generality of the underlying model (based on Yuksel et al. [1]) allows the flexible inclusion of IEEE 11073 conformant device models of interest on the one hand and the generation of needed artifacts for secondary usages on the other hand, e.g. HL7 V2 messages, HL7 CDA documents like the Personal Health Monitoring Report (PHMR) or web services. Hence, once the medical device data are obtained in the RMIM format, it can quite easily be transformed into HL7-based standard interfaces through XSL transformations because these interfaces all have their building blocks from the same RIM. From there data can be accessed uniformly, e.g. as needed by Dräger´s decision support system SmartCare [2] for automated control and optimization of weaning from mechanical ventilation.

  6. Molecular transformations accompanying the aging of laboratory secondary organic aerosol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aging of fresh secondary organic aerosol, generated by alpha-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor, was studied by passing it through a second reaction chamber where hydroxyl radicals were generated. Two types of experiments were performed: plug injection experiments where the particle mass a...

  7. A report from the AVS Standards Committee - Comparison of ion gauge calibrations by several standards laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, I.

    1982-01-01

    Calibrations by four U.S. laboratories of four hot-cathode ion gauges, in the range 0.07-13 mPa, showed systematic differences among laboratories that were much larger than the expected error of any one calibration. They also suggested that any of the four gauges tested, if properly packaged and shipped, was able to serve as a transfer standard with probable error of 2%. A second comparison was made of the calibrations by two U.S. laboratories of some other gauges that had also been calibrated by the National Physical Laboratory, England. Results did not permit conclusive determination of whether differences were due to the laboratories or to changes in the gauges.

  8. Laboratory Teaching: Implication on Students' Achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigation of the roles of the laboratory in students' academic achievement in chemistry in secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. A sample of 240 students selected through simple random sampling technique from ten secondary schools in the 3 Education Zones…

  9. [Development of laboratory information system--quality standards].

    PubMed

    Srenger, Vesna; Stavljenić-Rukavina, Ana; Cvorisćec, Dubravka; Brkljacić, Vera; Rogić, Dunja; Juricić, Ljiljana

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine structural modules of laboratory information system (LIS) for the application of new biomedical and information technologies by utilizing current organizational trends. The method used included definition of structural modules according to significant LIS properties, e.g., a large number of data, automation of analyses and rapid exchange of information, and according to the process of information establishment the collection, organization, selection, synthesis and distribution. Thus, outdated distributed software at the Clinical Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis has now been replaced by modular organization. Modules have been developed for the following: data input, online operation of laboratory instruments, preparation of results, compilation of medical documentation on quality assurance based on the application of quality standards, management of finances, and for point of care testing. The method of re-engineering as well as adherence to EN and ISO quality standards were utilized in planning the development of LIS based on the application of new information technologies and in shaping business processes. The application of re-engineering in LIS development results in quality improvement, reduces the cost and time necessary for performance of procedures, and improves relations in organizational structure.

  10. Consumer-Oriented Laboratory Activities: A Manual for Secondary Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jacqueline; McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.

    This document provides a laboratory manual for use by secondary level students in performing consumer-oriented laboratory experiments. Each experiment includes an introductory question outlining the purpose of the investigation, a detailed discussion, detailed procedures, questions to be answered upon completing the experiment, and information for…

  11. Saccharopolyspora Species: Laboratory Maintenance and Enhanced Production of Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Dipesh; Pokhrel, Anaya Raj; Jha, Amit Kumar; Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2017-02-06

    Saccharopolyspora spp. are aerobic, Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, and non-motile actinomycetes. Various species of the genus Saccharopolyspora have been reported with an ability to produce various bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical and agricultural uses. This unit includes general protocols for the laboratory maintenance of Saccharopolyspora species, including growth in liquid medium, growth on solid agar, long-term storage, and generation of a higher producer strain by mutagenesis. Saccharopolyspora spinosa ATCC 49460 is used as a prototype for explaining the considerations for efficient laboratory maintenance of Saccharopolyspora spp. Saccharopolyspora spinosa is a producer of spinosad, a prominent insecticide with selective activity against various insects. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  13. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  14. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  15. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  16. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  17. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  18. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  19. 46 CFR 159.010-3 - Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance. 159... Laboratory: Acceptance, Recognition, and Termination § 159.010-3 Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance. (a) To be accepted by the Coast Guard as an independent laboratory, a laboratory must— (1)...

  20. 46 CFR 159.010-3 - Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance. 159... Laboratory: Acceptance, Recognition, and Termination § 159.010-3 Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance. (a) To be accepted by the Coast Guard as an independent laboratory, a laboratory must— (1)...

  1. 46 CFR 159.010-3 - Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance. 159... Laboratory: Acceptance, Recognition, and Termination § 159.010-3 Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance. (a) To be accepted by the Coast Guard as an independent laboratory, a laboratory must— (1)...

  2. 46 CFR 159.010-3 - Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance. 159... Laboratory: Acceptance, Recognition, and Termination § 159.010-3 Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance. (a) To be accepted by the Coast Guard as an independent laboratory, a laboratory must— (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 262.103 - What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the scope of the laboratory... University Laboratories XL Project-Laboratory Environmental Management Standard § 262.103 What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard? The Laboratory Environmental Management...

  4. Iodine Standard Materials: Preparation and Inter-Laboratory Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    D D Jenson; M L Adamic; J E Olson; M G Watrous; C Vockenhuber

    2014-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is preparing to enter the community of AMS practioners who analyze for 129Iodine. We expect to take delivery of a 0.5 MV compact accelerator mass spectrometry system, built by NEC, in the early summer of 2014. The primary mission for this instrument is iodine; it is designed to analyze iodine in the +3 charge state. As part of the acceptance testing for this instrument, both at NEC and on-site in our laboratory, some sort of standard or reference material is needed to verify performance. Appropriate standard materials are not readily available in the commercial marketplace. Small quantities can sometimes be acquired from other laboratories already engaged in iodine analyses. In the longer-term, meaningful quantities of standard materials are needed for routine use in analyses, and for quality control functions1. We have prepared some standard materials, starting with elemental Woodward iodine and NIST SRM 3231 [Iodine-129 Isotopic Standard (high level)] 10-6 solution. The goal was to make mixtures at the 5x10-10, 5x10-11, 5x10-12 ratio levels, along with some unmodified Woodward, in the chemical form of silver iodide. Approximately twenty grams of each of these mixtures were prepared. The elemental Woodward iodine was dissolved in chloroform, then reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite in water. At this point the NIST spike material was added, in the form of sodium iodide. The mixed iodides were oxidized back to iodine in chloroform using hydrogen peroxide. This oxidation step was essential for isotopic equilibration of the 127 and 129 atoms. The iodine was reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite as before. Excess sulfites and sulfates were precipitated with barium nitrate. After decanting, silver nitrate was used to precipitate the desired silver iodide. Once the silver iodide was produced, the material was kept in darkness as much as possible to minimize photo-oxidation. The various mixtures were synthesized independently of each

  5. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16).

  6. Measurement of photoemission and secondary emission from laboratory dust grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelton, Robert C.; Yadlowsky, Edward J.; Settersten, Thomas B.; Spanjers, Gregory G.; Moschella, John J.

    1995-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is experimentally determine the emission properties of dust grains in order to provide theorists and modelers with an accurate data base to use in codes that predict the charging of grains in various plasma environments encountered in the magnetospheres of the planets. In general these modelers use values which have been measured on planar, bulk samples of the materials in question. The large enhancements expected due to the small size of grains can have a dramatic impact upon the predictions and the ultimate utility of these predictions. The first experimental measurement of energy resolved profiles of the secondary electron emission coefficient, 6, of sub-micron diameter particles has been accomplished. Bismuth particles in the size range of .022 to .165 micrometers were generated in a moderate pressure vacuum oven (average size is a function of oven temperature and pressure) and introduced into a high vacuum chamber where they interacted with a high energy electron beam (0.4 to 20 keV). Large enhancements in emission were observed with a peak value, delta(sub max) = 4. 5 measured for the ensemble of particles with a mean size of .022 micrometers. This is in contrast to the published value, delta(sub max) = 1.2, for bulk bismuth. The observed profiles are in general agreement with recent theoretical predictions made by Chow et al. at UCSD.

  7. A Discussion of the Draft Proposal for Data Exchange Standards for Clinical Laboratory Results

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Clement; Wiederhold, Gio; Simborg, Donald W.; Hammond, Ed; Jelovsek, Fredrick R.; Schneider, Ken

    1984-01-01

    A task force of AAMSI is developing standards for data exchange between laboratory and clinical practice. An early draft standard is presented. We look for criticism and comments from commercial laboratories, hospitals, system developers and other interested parties.

  8. Secondary Drinking Water Standards: Guidance for Nuisance Chemicals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about Secondary Drinking Water Regulations for nuisance chemicals contained in some drinking water. They are established only as guidelines to assist public water systems in managing their drinking water for aesthetic considerations.

  9. Standardization of pathology laboratories in Pakistan: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Farooq Ahmad; Ahmad, Sadia Atif

    2009-03-01

    A Total Quality Management System with an internationally recognized accreditation process is the only guarantee of a reliable pathology service. However in a developing country like Pakistan nearly 90% of labs are small and without adequate physical and man power infrastructures. A modified plan may have to be tailored for them. A two tier system has been formulated. Accreditation based on ISO 15189 is to be introduced on voluntary basis. The labs which do not qualify for international standardization would be brought into quality net through a registration process. All such labs will be initiated into a simplified quality management system. Participation in proficiency testing program will be mandatory. They will be provided education and training to become eligible for accreditation. It is hoped that this simplified system will provide an impetus for evolving a workable and comprehensive mechanism through which pathology laboratories in the country will be able to offer better and more reliable services.

  10. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Lead Smelting; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR...

  11. Laboratory studies on secondary organic aerosol formation from terpenes.

    PubMed

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Miao, Yunkun; Sierau, Berko; Gnauk, Thomas; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) following the ozonolysis of terpene has been investigated intensively in recent years. The enhancement of SOA yields from the acid catalysed reactions of organics on aerosol surfaces or in the bulk particle phase has been receiving great attention. Recent studies show that the presence of acidic seed particles increases the SOA yield significantly (M. S. Jang and R. M. Kamens, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2001, 35, 4758, ref. 1; M. S. Jang, N. M. Czoschke, S. Lee and R. M. Kamens, Science, 2002, 298, 814, ref. 2; N. M. Czoschke, M. Jang and R. M. Kamens, Atmos. Environ., 2003, 37, 4287, ref. 3; M. S. Jang, B. Carroll, B. Chandramouli and R. M. Kamens, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2003, 37, 3828, ref. 4; Y. Iinuma, O. Böge, T. Gnauk and H. Herrmann, Atmos. Environ., 2004, 38, 761, ref. 5; S. Gao, M. Keywood, N. L. Ng, J. Surratt, V. Varutbangkul, R. Bahreini, R. C. Flagan and J. H. Seinfeld, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2004, 108, 10147, ref. 6). More detailed studies report the formation of higher molecular weight products in SOA (refs. 5 and 6; M. P. Tolocka, M. Jang, J. M. Ginter, F. J. Cox, R. M. Kamens and M. V. Johnston, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2004, 38, 1428, ref. 7; S. Gao, N. L. Ng, M. Keywood, V. Varutbangkul, R. Bahreini, A. Nenes, J. He, K. Y. Yoo, J. L. Beauchamp, R. P. Hodyss, R. C. Flagan and J. H. Seinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2004, 38, 6582, ref. 8) which could result in a non-reversible uptake of organics into the particle phase. Most of the past studies concentrated on the characterisation of the yields of enhanced SOA and its composition from ozonolysis of terpenes in the presence or absence of acidic and neutral seed particles. Recent findings from cyclohexene ozonolysis show that the presence of OH scavengers can also significantly influence the SOA yield. Our new results from the IfT chemistry department aerosol chamber on terpene ozonolysis in the presence of OH scavengers show that the presence of hydroxyl

  12. Hydrogen Field Test Standard: Laboratory and Field Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Jodie G.; Wright, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed a prototype field test standard (FTS) that incorporates three test methods that could be used by state weights and measures inspectors to periodically verify the accuracy of retail hydrogen dispensers, much as gasoline dispensers are tested today. The three field test methods are: 1) gravimetric, 2) Pressure, Volume, Temperature (PVT), and 3) master meter. The FTS was tested in NIST's Transient Flow Facility with helium gas and in the field at a hydrogen dispenser location. All three methods agree within 0.57 % and 1.53 % for all test drafts of helium gas in the laboratory setting and of hydrogen gas in the field, respectively. The time required to perform six test drafts is similar for all three methods, ranging from 6 h for the gravimetric and master meter methods to 8 h for the PVT method. The laboratory tests show that 1) it is critical to wait for thermal equilibrium to achieve density measurements in the FTS that meet the desired uncertainty requirements for the PVT and master meter methods; in general, we found a wait time of 20 minutes introduces errors < 0.1 % and < 0.04 % in the PVT and master meter methods, respectively and 2) buoyancy corrections are important for the lowest uncertainty gravimetric measurements. The field tests show that sensor drift can become a largest component of uncertainty that is not present in the laboratory setting. The scale was calibrated after it was set up at the field location. Checks of the calibration throughout testing showed drift of 0.031 %. Calibration of the master meter and the pressure sensors prior to travel to the field location and upon return showed significant drifts in their calibrations; 0.14 % and up to 1.7 %, respectively. This highlights the need for better sensor selection and/or more robust sensor testing prior to putting into field service. All three test methods are capable of being successfully performed in the field and give

  13. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  14. Secondary Biology Textbooks and National Standards for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leigh K.; Hanks, Joseph H.; Erickson, Lynette B.

    2017-01-01

    Given secondary teachers' dependence on textbooks for curricular and instructional guidance, the challenges introduced by increasingly diverse classrooms in the United States, and national efforts to provide equitable access to science for all students, this study examined the alignment between three popular high school biology textbooks and the…

  15. Designing Experiments on Thermal Interactions by Secondary-School Students in a Simulated Laboratory Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkos, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of investigative activities with manipulations in a virtual laboratory on students' ability to design experiments. Sample: Fourteen students in a lower secondary school in Greece attended a teaching sequence on thermal phenomena based on the use of information and…

  16. Integrating standard operating procedures and industry notebook standards to evaluate students in laboratory courses.

    PubMed

    Wallert, Mark A; Provost, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the preparedness of graduates from the Biochemistry and Biotechnology (BCBT) Major at Minnesota State University Moorhead for employment in the bioscience industry we have developed a new Industry certificate program. The BCBT Industry Certificate was developed to address specific skill sets that local, regional, and national industry experts identified as lacking in new B.S. and B.A. biochemistry graduates. The industry certificate addresses concerns related to working in a regulated industry such as Good Laboratory Practices, Good Manufacturing Practices, and working in a Quality System. In this article we specifically describe how we developed a validation course that uses Standard Operating Procedures to describe grading policy and laboratory notebook requirements in an effort to better prepare students to transition into industry careers.

  17. Standards for thyroid laboratory testing, and cognitive functions after menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bejga, Przemysław; Witczak, Mariusz; Łyszcz, Robert; Makara-Studzinska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between normative and non-normative thyroid tests (TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR) and the level of cognitive functions in postmenopausal women. Material and methods The study group consisted of 383 women from south-eastern Poland, aged 50-65 years. The cognitive functions were evaluated using a diagnostic instrument – Central Nervous System – Vital Signs (CNS-VS). Blood was collected for determination of the following parameters: TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR. Results There were significant differences in NCI, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time, complex attention and cognitive flexibility, depending on the normative and non-normative level of TSH. Women whose level of FT3 was at the lower limit of the normal range obtained poorer results in psychomotor speed, while subjects with levels of FT4 below the standard achieved significantly lower scores for this function. The relationship between NCI and cognitive functions, and the normative and non-normative anti-TPO results, showed significant differences in verbal memory, visual memory, processing speed and reaction time. The level of AB-TSHR reported as normal or above the norm significantly differentiated from the results of NCI, processing speed, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Concentrations of laboratory parameters assessing the thyroid function located within the upper limits of the normal range showed a different relationship with the cognitive performance than concentrations located within the lower limits of the standard. PMID:26327860

  18. Development of a quality assurance program for ionizing radiation secondary calibration laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, H.T. II; Taylor, A.R. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    For calibration laboratories, routine calibrations of instruments meeting stated accuracy goals are important. One method of achieving the accuracy goals is to establish and follow a quality assurance program designed to monitor all aspects of the calibration program and to provide the appropriate feedback mechanism if adjustments are needed. In the United States there are a number of organizations with laboratory accreditation programs. All existing accreditation programs require that the laboratory implement a quality assurance program with essentially the same elements in all of these programs. Collectively, these elements have been designated as a Measurement Quality Assurance (MQA) program. This paper will briefly discuss the interrelationship of the elements of an MQA program. Using the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) as an example, it will focus on setting up a quality control program for the equipment in a Secondary Calibration Laboratory.

  19. Workshop on laboratory protocol standards for the Molecular Methods Database.

    PubMed

    Klingström, Tomas; Soldatova, Larissa; Stevens, Robert; Roos, T Erik; Swertz, Morris A; Müller, Kristian M; Kalaš, Matúš; Lambrix, Patrick; Taussig, Michael J; Litton, Jan-Eric; Landegren, Ulf; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2013-01-25

    Management of data to produce scientific knowledge is a key challenge for biological research in the 21st century. Emerging high-throughput technologies allow life science researchers to produce big data at speeds and in amounts that were unthinkable just a few years ago. This places high demands on all aspects of the workflow: from data capture (including the experimental constraints of the experiment), analysis and preservation, to peer-reviewed publication of results. Failure to recognise the issues at each level can lead to serious conflicts and mistakes; research may then be compromised as a result of the publication of non-coherent protocols, or the misinterpretation of published data. In this report, we present the results from a workshop that was organised to create an ontological data-modelling framework for Laboratory Protocol Standards for the Molecular Methods Database (MolMeth). The workshop provided a set of short- and long-term goals for the MolMeth database, the most important being the decision to use the established EXACT description of biomedical ontologies as a starting point.

  20. Standardized Laboratory Feeding of Larval Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bock, Friederike; Kuch, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Markus; Müller, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus, Theobald 1901) is an invasive culicid species which originates in Asia but is nowadays present in northern America and Europe. It is a competent vector for several human disease pathogens. In addition to the public health threat, this invasive species may also be an ecological threat for native container-breeding mosquitoes which share a similar larval habitat. Therefore, it is of importance to gain knowledge on ecological and eco-toxicological features of the Asian bush mosquito. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions have not yet been established. Standardized feeding methods will be needed in assessing the impact of insecticides or competitional strength of this species. To fill this gap, we performed experiments on food quality and quantity for Ae. j. japonicus larvae. We found out that the commercial fish food TetraMin (Tetra, Melle, Germany) in a dose of 10 mg per larva is the most suitable food tested. We also suggest a protocol with a feeding sequence of seven portions for all larval stages of this species.

  1. 42 CFR 493.1443 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... earned doctoral degree in a chemical, physical, biological, or clinical laboratory science from an... laboratory director under regulations at 42 CFR 493.1415, published March 14, 1990 at 55 FR 9538, on...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1443 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... earned doctoral degree in a chemical, physical, biological, or clinical laboratory science from an... laboratory director under regulations at 42 CFR 493.1415, published March 14, 1990 at 55 FR 9538, on...

  3. Evaluation of the Use of Remote Laboratories for Secondary School Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, David; Newcombe, Peter; Stumpers, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experimentation is generally considered central to science-based education. Allowing students to "experience" science through various forms of carefully designed practical work, including experimentation, is often claimed to support their learning and motivate their engagement while fulfilling specific curriculum requirements. However, logistical constraints (most especially related to funding) place significant limitations on the ability of schools to provide and maintain high-quality science laboratory experiences and equipment. One potential solution that has recently been the subject of growing interest is the use of remotely accessible laboratories to either supplant, or more commonly to supplement, conventional hands-on laboratories. Remote laboratories allow students and teachers to use high-speed networks, coupled with cameras, sensors, and controllers, to carry out experiments on real physical laboratory apparatus that is located remotely from the student. Research has shown that when used appropriately this can bring a range of potential benefits, including the ability to share resources across multiple institutions, support access to facilities that would otherwise be inaccessible for cost or technical reasons, and provide augmentation of the experimental experience. Whilst there has been considerable work on evaluating the use of remote laboratories within tertiary education, consideration of their role within secondary school science education is much more limited. This paper describes trials of the use of remote laboratories within secondary schools, reporting on the student and teacher reactions to their interactions with the laboratories. The paper concludes that remote laboratories can be highly beneficial, but considerable care must be taken to ensure that their design and delivery address a number of critical issues identified in this paper.

  4. 42 CFR 493.1407 - Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment programs are established and maintained to assure the quality of laboratory services provided and... developed and used for each of the tests performed in the laboratory provide quality laboratory services for... capability of providing the quality of results required for patient care; (ii) Verification procedures...

  5. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Time Commitment When Addressing the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William Benedict, III

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were officially released in America for mathematics and English language arts and soon adopted by 45 of the 50 states. However, within the English langue arts domain there were standards intended for secondary social studies teachers under the title, Common Core State Standards for English Language…

  6. Electrolysis of Water in the Secondary School Science Laboratory with Inexpensive Microfluidics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, T. A.; Athey, S. L.; Vandevender, M. L.; Crihfield, C. L.; Kolanko, C. C. E.; Shao, S.; Ellington, M. C. G.; Dicks, J. K.; Carver, J. S.; Holland, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This activity allows students to visualize the electrolysis of water in a microfluidic device in under 1 min. Instructional materials are provided to demonstrate how the activity meets West Virginia content standards and objectives. Electrolysis of water is a standard chemistry experiment, but the typical laboratory apparatus (e.g., Hoffman cell)…

  7. Improving Consistency in Large Laboratory Courses: A Design for a Standardized Practical Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinnian; Graesser, Donnasue; Sah, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory courses serve as important gateways to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. One of the challenges in assessing laboratory learning is to conduct meaningful and standardized practical exams, especially for large multisection laboratory courses. Laboratory practical exams in life sciences courses are frequently…

  8. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Experiences Implementing Common Core State Literacy Standards: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Krista Faith Huskey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the experiences of secondary social studies teachers who implemented Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in history/social studies, science and technical subjects in social studies courses requiring End of Course Tests at secondary schools in one suburban…

  9. Facilities Potentially Subject to the Secondary Aluminum National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a September 2001 list of sources potentially subject to the secondary aluminum production national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). This list does not include auto salvage i.e. sweat furnaces.

  10. FCS National Standards: Do They Underpin Secondary Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bettye P.; Hall, Helen C.; Jones, Karen H.

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the seven standards that are included in a comprehensive (family-oriented) FCS program: (1) Family; (2) Nutrition and Wellness; (3) Human Development; (4) Interpersonal relationships; (5) Career, Community, and Family Connections; (6) Parenting; and (7) Family and Community Services. The study was conducted to better…

  11. Setting the Standard: Role Definition for a Secondary Literacy Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMeglio, Rachele A.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2010-01-01

    This case introduces Karen, a middle school literacy coach attempting to navigate the myriad tasks she performs. As she aims to satisfy everyone's needs Karen struggles to prioritize and focus her work. The accompanying teaching notes utilize the International Reading Association's "Standards for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches" to…

  12. 42 CFR 493.1445 - Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment programs are established and maintained to assure the quality of laboratory services provided and... quality laboratory services for all aspects of test performance, which includes the preanalytic, analytic... methodologies selected have the capability of providing the quality of results required for patient care;...

  13. Identifying the Clinical Laboratory Tests from Unspecified “Other Lab Test” Data for Secondary Use

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical laboratory results are stored in electronic health records (EHRs) as structured data coded with local or standard terms. However, laboratory tests that are performed at outside laboratories are often simply labeled “outside test” or something similar, with the actual test name in a free-text result or comment field. After being aggregated into clinical data repositories, these ambiguous labels impede the retrieval of specific test results. We present a general multi-step solution that can facilitate the identification, standardization, reconciliation, and transformation of such test results. We applied our approach to data in the NIH Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS) to identify laboratory tests, map comment values to the LOINC codes that will be incorporated into our Research Entities Dictionary (RED), and develop a reference table that can be used in the EHR data extract-transform-load (ETL) process. PMID:26958239

  14. Identifying the Clinical Laboratory Tests from Unspecified "Other Lab Test" Data for Secondary Use.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical laboratory results are stored in electronic health records (EHRs) as structured data coded with local or standard terms. However, laboratory tests that are performed at outside laboratories are often simply labeled "outside test" or something similar, with the actual test name in a free-text result or comment field. After being aggregated into clinical data repositories, these ambiguous labels impede the retrieval of specific test results. We present a general multi-step solution that can facilitate the identification, standardization, reconciliation, and transformation of such test results. We applied our approach to data in the NIH Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS) to identify laboratory tests, map comment values to the LOINC codes that will be incorporated into our Research Entities Dictionary (RED), and develop a reference table that can be used in the EHR data extract-transform-load (ETL) process.

  15. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments

    PubMed Central

    Makowska, I. Joanna; Weary, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals’ anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a) reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b) before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further scientific support for

  16. 42 CFR 493.1443 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... laboratory director must— (1)(i) Be a doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy licensed to practice...; or (2) Be a doctor of medicine, a doctor of osteopathy or doctor of podiatric medicine licensed...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1443 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... laboratory director must— (1)(i) Be a doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy licensed to practice...; or (2) Be a doctor of medicine, a doctor of osteopathy or doctor of podiatric medicine licensed...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1405 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; and (b) The laboratory director must— (1) (i) Be a doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy licensed... certification; or (2)(i) Be a doctor of medicine, doctor of osteopathy, or doctor of podiatric medicine...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1443 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... laboratory director must— (1)(i) Be a doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy licensed to practice...; or (2) Be a doctor of medicine, a doctor of osteopathy or doctor of podiatric medicine licensed...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1405 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; and (b) The laboratory director must— (1) (i) Be a doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy licensed... certification; or (2)(i) Be a doctor of medicine, doctor of osteopathy, or doctor of podiatric medicine...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1405 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; and (b) The laboratory director must— (1) (i) Be a doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy licensed... certification; or (2)(i) Be a doctor of medicine, doctor of osteopathy, or doctor of podiatric medicine...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1405 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., physical, or biological science or medical technology from an accredited institution; (ii) Have at least 2... medical education credit hours in laboratory practice commensurate with the director responsibilities... obtained during medical residency. (For example, physicians certified either in hematology or...

  3. 77 FR 16551 - Standards for Private Laboratory Analytical Packages and Introduction to Laboratory Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Introduction to Laboratory Related Portions of the Food Modernization Safety Act for Private Laboratory... and Introduction to Laboratory Related Portions of the Food Modernization Safety Act for Private... and an introduction to sections of the Food Safety Modernization Act of January 6, 2011, that...

  4. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No... RIN 2060-AO72 Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur... nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. Based on its review, EPA proposes to retain the current nitrogen dioxide...

  5. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  6. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  7. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  8. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  9. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  10. Status of Biology Laboratory and Practical Activities in Some Selected Secondary and Preparatory Schools of Borena Zone, South Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daba, Tolessa Muleta; Anbassa, Baressa; Oda, Bula Kere; Degefa, Itefa

    2016-01-01

    Science laboratory is a very important resource input for teaching science. Learning science is enhanced and the understanding level is improved when students are engaged in science laboratory for practical experiments. The current study aimed to assess the status of Biology laboratory and practical activities in some selected secondary and…

  11. Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Neu, Alexander; Epstein, Scott A.; MacMillan, Amanda; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2014-06-17

    The size and thickness of organic aerosol particles collected by impaction in five field campaigns were compared to those of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) was used to measure the total carbon absorbance (TCA) by individual particles as a function of their projection areas on the substrate. Because they flatten less upon impaction, particles with higher viscosity and surface tension can be identified by a steeper slope on a plot of TCA vs. size. The slopes of the ambient data are statistically similar indicating a small range of average viscosities and surface tensions across five field campaigns. Steeper slopes were observed for the plots corresponding to ambient particles, while smaller slopes were indicative of the laboratory generated SOA. This comparison indicates that ambient organic particles have higher viscosities and surface tensions than those typically generated in laboratory SOA studies.

  12. 42 CFR 493.1407 - Standard; Laboratory director responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing; (2) Ensure that the physical plant and environmental conditions of the laboratory are appropriate... physical, chemical, and biological hazards; (3) Ensure that— (i) The test methodologies selected have the... functioning properly; (8) Ensure that reports of test results include pertinent information required...

  13. Frequency standards from government laboratories over the next 25 years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a number of considerations including projected needs, current status, future trends, and status of key technologies, an attempt is made to project the future of government supported frequency standards development in the next 25 years.

  14. A comparison of two microscale laboratory reporting methods in a secondary chemistry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Lance Michael

    This study attempted to determine if there was a difference between the laboratory achievement of students who used a modified reporting method and those who used traditional laboratory reporting. The study also determined the relationships between laboratory performance scores and the independent variables score on the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test, chronological age in months, gender, and ethnicity for each of the treatment groups. The study was conducted using 113 high school students who were enrolled in first-year general chemistry classes at Pueblo South High School in Colorado. The research design used was the quasi-experimental Nonequivalent Control Group Design. The statistical treatment consisted of the Multiple Regression Analysis and the Analysis of Covariance. Based on the GALT, students in the two groups were generally in the concrete and transitional stages of the Piagetian cognitive levels. The findings of the study revealed that the traditional and the modified methods of laboratory reporting did not have any effect on the laboratory performance outcome of the subjects. However, the students who used the traditional method of reporting showed a higher laboratory performance score when evaluation was conducted using the New Standards rubric recommended by the state. Multiple Regression Analysis revealed that there was a significant relationship between the criterion variable student laboratory performance outcome of individuals who employed traditional laboratory reporting methods and the composite set of predictor variables. On the contrary, there was no significant relationship between the criterion variable student laboratory performance outcome of individuals who employed modified laboratory reporting methods and the composite set of predictor variables.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Sample Project: Performance Evaluation of Analytical Laboratories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, H. Keith; Daddow, Richard L.; Farrar, Jerry W.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1962, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated the Standard Reference Sample Project to evaluate the performance of USGS, cooperator, and contractor analytical laboratories that analyze chemical constituents of environmental samples. The laboratories are evaluated by using performance evaluation samples, called Standard Reference Samples (SRSs). SRSs are submitted to laboratories semi-annually for round-robin laboratory performance comparison purposes. Currently, approximately 100 laboratories are evaluated for their analytical performance on six SRSs for inorganic and nutrient constituents. As part of the SRS Project, a surplus of homogeneous, stable SRSs is maintained for purchase by USGS offices and participating laboratories for use in continuing quality-assurance and quality-control activities. Statistical evaluation of the laboratories results provides information to compare the analytical performance of the laboratories and to determine possible analytical deficiences and problems. SRS results also provide information on the bias and variability of different analytical methods used in the SRS analyses.

  16. Environmental standards for primary and secondary containment systems and transfer stations

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, D.M.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Standards for Primary and Secondary Containment Systems and Transfer Stations will supersede all previous requirements for design of dikes, storage tanks, and transfer stations in order to maintain consistency throughout the Y-12 Plant. This document is organized into six distinct sections, each with a specific purpose. Section I outlines the objectives of the document along with its applications and limitations; this section should be of interest to all readers for essential background information. Section II lists all definitions and is consistent with definitions outlined by environmental regulations. Section III discusses primary containment standards. Section IV outlines secondary containment standards; this section contains the actual standards for the diking of storage tanks and storage containers. Section V discusses transfer station standards. Section VI of this document outlines how exemptions may be granted for specific cases.

  17. Inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage using a standard comet assay protocol.

    PubMed

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Ersson, Clara; Loft, Steffen; Möller, Lennart; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Jones, George D D; Higgins, Jennifer A; Cooke, Marcus; Mistry, Vilas; Karbaschi, Mahsa; Collins, Andrew R; Azqueta, Amaya; Phillips, David H; Sozeri, Osman; Routledge, Michael N; Nelson-Smith, Kirsty; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa; Matullo, Giuseppe; Allione, Alessandra; Stępnik, Maciej; Steepnik, Maciej; Komorowska, Magdalena; Teixeira, João Paulo; Costa, Solange; Corcuera, Laura-Ana; López de Cerain, Adela; Laffon, Blanca; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Møller, Peter

    2012-11-01

    There are substantial inter-laboratory variations in the levels of DNA damage measured by the comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adherence to a standard comet assay protocol would reduce inter-laboratory variation in reported values of DNA damage. Fourteen laboratories determined the baseline level of DNA strand breaks (SBs)/alkaline labile sites and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites in coded samples of mononuclear blood cells (MNBCs) from healthy volunteers. There were technical problems in seven laboratories in adopting the standard protocol, which were not related to the level of experience. Therefore, the inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage was only analysed using the results from laboratories that had obtained complete data with the standard comet assay protocol. This analysis showed that the differences between reported levels of DNA SBs/alkaline labile sites in MNBCs were not reduced by applying the standard assay protocol as compared with the laboratory's own protocol. There was large inter-laboratory variation in FPG-sensitive sites by the laboratory-specific protocol and the variation was reduced when the samples were analysed by the standard protocol. The SBs and FPG-sensitive sites were measured in the same experiment, indicating that the large spread in the latter lesions was the main reason for the reduced inter-laboratory variation. However, it remains worrying that half of the participating laboratories obtained poor results using the standard procedure. This study indicates that future comet assay validation trials should take steps to evaluate the implementation of standard procedures in participating laboratories.

  18. [STandardized Reporting Of Secondary data Analyses (STROSA)—a recommendation].

    PubMed

    Swart, Enno; Schmitt, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Secondary data analyses will play an increasingly important role in health services research. But to date, there is no guideline for the systematic, transparent and complete reporting of secondary data. We investigated whether the STROBE statement, i.e., the recommendations for reporting observational studies, satisfies the specific characteristics of secondary data analyses and whether any specifications/modifications and extensions are necessary. For the majority of the 22 STROBE criteria, specifications and extensions are needed to meet the requirements of systematic, transparent and complete reporting of secondary data analysis. Seven aspects of secondary data analysis not covered by STROBE (legal aspects, data flow, protocol, unit of analysis, internal validations/definitions, advantages of secondary data utilisation, role of data owners) should be considered as a specific complement to STROBE. The so called STROSA (STandardized Reporting Of Secondary data Analyses) checklist therefore includes 29 items that relate to the title/abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. The STROSA checklist is intended to support authors and readers in the critical appraisal of secondary data analyses. This proposal will now be subject to continued scientific discussions.

  19. Influence of vapor wall loss in laboratory chambers on yields of secondary organic aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; McVay, Renee C.; Ensberg, Joseph J.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitutes a major fraction of submicrometer atmospheric particulate matter. Quantitative simulation of SOA within air-quality and climate models—and its resulting impacts—depends on the translation of SOA formation observed in laboratory chambers into robust parameterizations. Worldwide data have been accumulating indicating that model predictions of SOA are substantially lower than ambient observations. Although possible explanations for this mismatch have been advanced, none has addressed the laboratory chamber data themselves. Losses of particles to the walls of chambers are routinely accounted for, but there has been little evaluation of the effects on SOA formation of losses of semivolatile vapors to chamber walls. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that such vapor losses can lead to substantially underestimated SOA formation, by factors as much as 4. Accounting for such losses has the clear potential to bring model predictions and observations of organic aerosol levels into much closer agreement. PMID:24711404

  20. The Status of Secondary School Science Laboratory Activities for Quality Education in Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zengele, Ashebir Gogile; Alemayehu, Bereket

    2016-01-01

    A high quality science education in primary and secondary schools contributes to developing scientific literacy and would be expected to predispose students to study the enabling sciences at university. The major purpose of this study was to assess the practice and problems in science laboratory activities in the secondary school of Wolaita Zone,…

  1. The US radiation dosimetry standards for 60Co therapy level beams, and the transfer to the AAPM accredited dosimetry calibration laboratories.

    PubMed

    Minniti, R; Chen-Mayer, H; Seltzer, S M; Huq, M Saiful; Bryson, L; Slowey, T; Micka, J A; DeWerd, L A; Wells, N; Hanson, W F; Ibbott, G S

    2006-04-01

    This work reports the transfer of the primary standard for air kerma from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to the secondary laboratories accredited by the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM). This transfer, performed in August of 2003, was motivated by the recent revision of the NIST air-kerma standards for 60Co gamma-ray beams implemented on July 1, 2003. The revision involved a complete recharacterization of the two NIST therapy-level 60Co gamma-ray beam facilities, resulting in new values for the air-kerma rates disseminated by the NIST. Some of the experimental aspects of the determination of the new air-kerma rates are briefly summarized here; the theoretical aspects have been described in detail by Seltzer and Bergstrom ["Changes in the U.S. primary standards for the air-kerma from gamma-ray beams," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 359-381 (2003)]. The standard was transferred to reference-class chambers submitted by each of the AAPM Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories (ADCLs). These secondary-standard instruments were then used to characterize the 60Co gamma-ray beams at the ADCLs. The values of the response (calibration coefficient) of the ADCL secondary-standard ionization chambers are reported and compared to values obtained prior to the change in the NIST air-kerma standards announced on July 1, 2003. The relative change is about 1.1% for all of these chambers, and this value agrees well with the expected change in chambers calibrated at the NIST or at any secondary-standard laboratory traceable to the new NIST standard.

  2. Virtual Global Transplant Laboratory Standard Operating Protocol for Donor Alloantigen-specific Interferon-gamma ELISPOT Assay

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Robert; Troelnikov, Alexander; Chong, Anita S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The quantification of frequency of IFN-γ–producing T cells responding to donor alloantigen using the IFN-γ enzyme linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) holds potential for pretransplant and posttransplant immunological risk stratification. The effectiveness of this assay, and the ability to compare results generated by different studies, is dependent on the utilization of a standardized operating procedure (SOP). Key factors in assay standardization include the identification of primary and secondary antibody pairs, and the reading of the ELISPOT plate with a standardized automated algorithm. Here, we describe in detail, an SOP that should provide low coefficient of variation results. For multicenter trials, it is recommended that groups perform the ELISPOT assays locally but use a centralized ELISPOT reading facility, as this has been shown to be beneficial in reducing coefficient of variation between laboratories even when the SOP is strictly adhered to. PMID:27826604

  3. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  4. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  5. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  6. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  7. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  8. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  9. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  10. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  11. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  12. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  13. A Pilot Standard National Course Classification System for Secondary Education, 1995. [Diskette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malitz, Gerald; And Others

    Presents an "infobase" version of "A Pilot Standard National Course Classification System for Secondary Education" to allow users to browse, search, annotate, print, and export information electronically. This publication is the culmination of a major effort to help establish common terminology, descriptions, and a coding…

  14. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  15. State Secondary CTE Standards: Developing a Framework out of a Patchwork of Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Harrison, Linda; Schneider, Sherrie

    2007-01-01

    Many state educational administrators are currently working to define secondary career and technical education (CTE) content standards that specify the knowledge and skills students are expected to master in CTE program areas. The two-phase project on which this report is based explored (a) the progress and status of states in developing statewide…

  16. 76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...EPA is proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting to address the results of the residual risk and technology review that EPA is required to conduct by the Clean Air Act. These proposed amendments include revisions to the stack emissions limits for lead; revisions to the fugitive dust emissions control requirements; the......

  17. SECONDARY STANDARD CALIBRATION, MEASUREMENT AND IRRADIATION CAPABILITIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL MONITORING SERVICE AT THE HELMHOLTZ ZENTRUM MÜNCHEN: ASPECTS OF UNCERTAINTY AND AUTOMATION.

    PubMed

    Greiter, M B; Denk, J; Hoedlmoser, H

    2016-09-01

    The individual monitoring service at the Helmholtz Zentrum München has adopted the recommendations of the ISO 4037 and 6980 standards series as base of its dosimetric systems for X-ray, gamma and beta dosimetry. These standards define technical requirements for radiation spectra and measurement processes, but leave flexibility in the implementation of irradiations as well as in the resulting uncertainty in dose or dose rate. This article provides an example for their practical implementation in the Munich IAEA/WHO secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. It focusses on two aspects: automation issues and uncertainties in calibration.

  18. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE; CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS AND STANDARDS: APPROVED MAY 25, 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  19. Report on the Project for Establishment of the Standardized Korean Laboratory Terminology Database, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kap-No

    2017-01-01

    The National Health Information Standards Committee was established in 2004 in Korea. The practical subcommittee for laboratory test terminology was placed in charge of standardizing laboratory medicine terminology in Korean. We aimed to establish a standardized Korean laboratory terminology database, Korea-Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (K-LOINC) based on former products sponsored by this committee. The primary product was revised based on the opinions of specialists. Next, we mapped the electronic data interchange (EDI) codes that were revised in 2014, to the corresponding K-LOINC. We established a database of synonyms, including the laboratory codes of three reference laboratories and four tertiary hospitals in Korea. Furthermore, we supplemented the clinical microbiology section of K-LOINC using an alternative mapping strategy. We investigated other systems that utilize laboratory codes in order to investigate the compatibility of K-LOINC with statistical standards for a number of tests. A total of 48,990 laboratory codes were adopted (21,539 new and 16,330 revised). All of the LOINC synonyms were translated into Korean, and 39,347 Korean synonyms were added. Moreover, 21,773 synonyms were added from reference laboratories and tertiary hospitals. Alternative strategies were established for mapping within the microbiology domain. When we applied these to a smaller hospital, the mapping rate was successfully increased. Finally, we confirmed K-LOINC compatibility with other statistical standards, including a newly proposed EDI code system. This project successfully established an up-to-date standardized Korean laboratory terminology database, as well as an updated EDI mapping to facilitate the introduction of standard terminology into institutions. PMID:28244299

  20. Report on the Project for Establishment of the Standardized Korean Laboratory Terminology Database, 2015.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bo Kyeung; Kim, Jeeyong; Cho, Chi Hyun; Kim, Ju Yeon; Nam, Myung Hyun; Shin, Bong Kyung; Rho, Eun Youn; Kim, Sollip; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Shinyoung; Ki, Chang Seok; Park, Min Jung; Lee, Kap No; Yoon, Soo Young

    2017-04-01

    The National Health Information Standards Committee was established in 2004 in Korea. The practical subcommittee for laboratory test terminology was placed in charge of standardizing laboratory medicine terminology in Korean. We aimed to establish a standardized Korean laboratory terminology database, Korea-Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (K-LOINC) based on former products sponsored by this committee. The primary product was revised based on the opinions of specialists. Next, we mapped the electronic data interchange (EDI) codes that were revised in 2014, to the corresponding K-LOINC. We established a database of synonyms, including the laboratory codes of three reference laboratories and four tertiary hospitals in Korea. Furthermore, we supplemented the clinical microbiology section of K-LOINC using an alternative mapping strategy. We investigated other systems that utilize laboratory codes in order to investigate the compatibility of K-LOINC with statistical standards for a number of tests. A total of 48,990 laboratory codes were adopted (21,539 new and 16,330 revised). All of the LOINC synonyms were translated into Korean, and 39,347 Korean synonyms were added. Moreover, 21,773 synonyms were added from reference laboratories and tertiary hospitals. Alternative strategies were established for mapping within the microbiology domain. When we applied these to a smaller hospital, the mapping rate was successfully increased. Finally, we confirmed K-LOINC compatibility with other statistical standards, including a newly proposed EDI code system. This project successfully established an up-to-date standardized Korean laboratory terminology database, as well as an updated EDI mapping to facilitate the introduction of standard terminology into institutions.

  1. 46 CFR 159.010-3 - Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance. 159.010-3 Section 159.010-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT... (5) Not advertise or promote the manufacturer's equipment or material that the laboratory...

  2. 7 CFR 91.37 - Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services. 91.37 Section 91.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Fees...

  3. 7 CFR 91.37 - Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services. 91.37 Section 91.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Fees...

  4. Inter-laboratory validation of standardized method to determine permeability of plastic films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support regulations controlling soil fumigation, we are standardizing the laboratory method we developed to measure the permeability of plastic films to fumigant vapors. The method was validated using an inter-laboratory comparison with 7 participants. Each participant evaluated the mass transfer...

  5. Profile of laboratory instruction in secondary school level chemistry and indication for reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei

    This study is a profile of the laboratory component of instruction in secondary school level chemistry. As one of several companion studies, the purpose of the study is to investigate present practices related to instruction as a means of producing reform that improve cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes. Five hundred-forty students, from 18 chemistry classes taught by 12 teachers in ten high schools were involved in this study. Three schools included public and private schools, urban school, suburban schools, and rural schools. Three levels or types of chemistry courses were offered in these schools: school regular chemistry for college bound students, Chemistry in the Community or "ChemCom" for non-college bound students, and a second year of chemistry or advanced placement chemistry. Laboratory sessions in each of these three levels of courses were observed, videotaped, and later analyzed using the Modified Revised Science Teachers Behaviors Inventory (MR-STBI). The 12 chemistry teachers, eight science supervisors, and selected students were interviewed to determine their professional backgrounds and other factors that might influence how they teach, how they think, and how they learn. The following conclusions developed from the research are: (1) The three levels of chemistry courses are offered across high schools of varying sizes and locations. (2) Teachers perceive that students come to chemistry classes poorly prepared to effectively carry out laboratory experiences and/or investigations. (3) While students indicated that they are able to effectively use math skills in analyzing the results of chemistry laboratory experiments, teachers, in general, are not satisfied with the level at which students are prepared to use these skills, or to use writing skills. (4) Students working in pairs, is the typical approach. Group cooperation is sometimes used in carrying out the laboratory component of chemistry instruction in the ChemCom and AP chemistry

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory standard nuclear material container

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    The shut down of United States (U.S.) nuclear-weapons production activities in the early 1990s left large quantities of nuclear materials throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex in forms not intended for long-term storage. In May 1994, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 94-1, which called for the stabilization and disposition of 'thousands of containers of plutonium-bearing liquids and solids' in the DOE complex, including LANL in the nuclear-weapons-manufacturing pipeline when manufacturing ended. This resulted in the development of the 3013 standard with container requirements for long term storage (up to 50 years). A follow on was the Criteria For Interim Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials, Charles B. Curtis, in 1996 to address storage other than the 3013 standard for shorter time frames. In January 2000, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2000-1, which stated the need for LANL to repackage 'about one ton of plutonium metal and oxide,' declared excess to Defense Program (DP) needs. The DNFSB recommended that LANL 'stabilize and seal within welded containers with an inert atmosphere the plutonium oxides ... which are not yet in states conforming to the long-term storage envisaged by DOE-STD-3013,' and that they '... enclose existing and newly-generated legacy plutonium metal in sealed containers with an inert atmosphere,' and 'remediate and/or safely store the various residues.' Recommendation 2000-1, while adding to the number of items needing remediation, also reiterated the need to address remaining items from 1994-1 in a timely fashion. Since timetables slipped, the DNFSB recommended that the Complex 'prioritize and schedule tasks according to the consideration of risks.' In March 2005, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2005-1. This recommendation addresses the need for a consistent set of criteria across the DOE complex for the interim storage of nuclear material packaged outside an engineered barrier. The

  7. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Travis A.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  8. Establishing equivalence for activity standards of short-lived radionuclides using the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator.

    PubMed

    Woods, M J; Baker, M

    2004-01-01

    Conventional comparison techniques used between National Metrology Institutes are not practicable for short-lived radionuclides because of geographical separations and transport difficulties. The NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator provides an alternative approach and a comparison was conducted with 18F to investigate its feasibility. The exercise was successful and the paper details the protocol used, the quality assurance mechanisms introduced to underpin the comparison and an analysis of the results. It was also demonstrated that this approach could be linked to the BIPM SIR system. Recommendations are presented for the extension of this work to other suitable, short-lived radionuclides.

  9. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

  10. Laboratory-scale evaluation of secondary alkaline zinc batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striebel, Kathryn A.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    Two types of secondary zinc cell have been evaluated in our laboratory to assess their suitability to power an electric van. Single cells were charged and discharged with constant-current cycles as well as with controlled-power discharge profiles, scaled to the predicted mass of a full-size battery. Both cells were able to meet the requirements for power discharge specified by the so-called Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS) early in life (the first 15 cycles). The Zn/air cell achieved an average of 72 SFUDS repetions (7.2 h) per discharge. The Zn/NiOOH cell achieved an average of 51 SFUDS repetitions (5.1 h) per discharge. The bifunctional air electrodes did not reach oxygen-evolution potentials during the 8-s regenerative breaking portions of the SFUDS cycle.

  11. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  12. 40 CFR 262.103 - What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard? 262.103 Section 262.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  13. Creating Cost-Effective DNA Size Standards for Use in Teaching and Research Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    I have devised a method with which a molecular size standard can be readily manufactured using Lambda DNA and PCR. This method allows the production of specific sized DNA fragments and is easily performed in a standard molecular biology laboratory. The material required to create these markers can also be used to provide a highly robust and…

  14. 40 CFR 262.103 - What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard? 262.103 Section 262.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  15. 40 CFR 262.103 - What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard? 262.103 Section 262.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  16. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Announcement... titled ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' which was... ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should...

  17. Migration to new ampoule types for the NPL secondary standard ionisation chambers.

    PubMed

    Baker, M; Fenwick, A; Ferreira, K; Keightley, J; Johansson, L; Collins, S

    2014-05-01

    As the pre-calibrated sample containers used for activity assay in the two NPL secondary standards ionisation chambers are being phased out, suitable replacements have been identified. Characterisation checks have been carried out on the new ISO ampoules and a long-term recalibration schedule has been devised. Around 40 calibration factors have been determined so far and comparison of ion chamber responses for the two ampoule types showed variations of up to 7% for low energy photon emitting radionuclides.

  18. The evaluation of hospital laboratory information management systems based on the standards of the American National Standard Institute

    PubMed Central

    Isfahani, Sakineh Saghaeiannejad; Khajouei, Reza; Jahanbakhsh, Maryan; Mirmohamadi, Mahboubeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, modern laboratories are faced with a huge volume of information. One of the goals of the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) is to assist in the management of the information generated in the laboratory. This study intends to evaluate the LIMS based on the standards of the American National Standard Institute (ANSI). Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive–analytical study, which had been conducted in 2011, on the LIMSs in use, in the teaching and private hospitals in Isfahan. The data collecting instrument was a checklist, which was made by evaluating three groups of information components namely: ‘System capabilities’, ‘work list functions,’ and ‘reporting’ based on LIS8-A. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20. Data were analyzed using (relative) frequency, percentage. To compare the data the following statistical tests were used: Leven test, t-test, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results: The results of the study indicated that the LIMS had a low conformity (30%) with LIS8-A (P = 0.001), with no difference between teaching and private hospitals (P = 0.806). The ANOVA revealed that in terms of conformity with the LIS8-A standard, there was a significant difference between the systems produced by different vendors (P = 0.023). According to the results, a Kowsar system with more than %57 conformity in the three groups of information components had a better conformity to the standard, compared to the other systems. Conclusions: This study indicated that none of the LIMSs had a good conformity to the standard. It seems that system providers did not pay sufficient attention to many of the information components required by the standards when designing and developing their systems. It was suggested that standards from certified organizations and institutions be followed in the design and development process of health information systems. PMID:25077154

  19. Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of common reference intervals to the Croatian population

    PubMed Central

    Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of reference value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated reference intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients’ care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization processes of analytical methods the ability to create unique reference intervals is achieved. Such reference intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same reference measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization processes in Croatia in the field of population based reference intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:27019800

  20. Evaporation kinetics and phase of laboratory and ambient secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Timothy D; Imre, Dan; Beránek, Josef; Shrivastava, Manish; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-02-08

    Field measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) find significantly higher mass loads than predicted by models, sparking intense effort focused on finding additional SOA sources but leaving the fundamental assumptions used by models unchallenged. Current air-quality models use absorptive partitioning theory assuming SOA particles are liquid droplets, forming instantaneous reversible equilibrium with gas phase. Further, they ignore the effects of adsorption of spectator organic species during SOA formation on SOA properties and fate. Using accurate and highly sensitive experimental approach for studying evaporation kinetics of size-selected single SOA particles, we characterized room-temperature evaporation kinetics of laboratory-generated α-pinene SOA and ambient atmospheric SOA. We found that even when gas phase organics are removed, it takes ∼24 h for pure α-pinene SOA particles to evaporate 75% of their mass, which is in sharp contrast to the ∼10 min time scale predicted by current kinetic models. Adsorption of "spectator" organic vapors during SOA formation, and aging of these coated SOA particles, dramatically reduced the evaporation rate, and in some cases nearly stopped it. Ambient SOA was found to exhibit evaporation behavior very similar to that of laboratory-generated coated and aged SOA. For all cases studied in this work, SOA evaporation behavior is nearly size-independent and does not follow the evaporation kinetics of liquid droplets, in sharp contrast with model assumptions. The findings about SOA phase, evaporation rates, and the importance of spectator gases and aging all indicate that there is need to reformulate the way SOA formation and evaporation are treated by models.

  1. Evaporation kinetics and phase of laboratory and ambient secondary organic aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Vaden, Timothy D.; Imre, Dan; Beránek, Josef; Shrivastava, Manish; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Field measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) find significantly higher mass loads than predicted by models, sparking intense effort focused on finding additional SOA sources but leaving the fundamental assumptions used by models unchallenged. Current air-quality models use absorptive partitioning theory assuming SOA particles are liquid droplets, forming instantaneous reversible equilibrium with gas phase. Further, they ignore the effects of adsorption of spectator organic species during SOA formation on SOA properties and fate. Using accurate and highly sensitive experimental approach for studying evaporation kinetics of size-selected single SOA particles, we characterized room-temperature evaporation kinetics of laboratory-generated α-pinene SOA and ambient atmospheric SOA. We found that even when gas phase organics are removed, it takes ∼24 h for pure α-pinene SOA particles to evaporate 75% of their mass, which is in sharp contrast to the ∼10 min time scale predicted by current kinetic models. Adsorption of “spectator” organic vapors during SOA formation, and aging of these coated SOA particles, dramatically reduced the evaporation rate, and in some cases nearly stopped it. Ambient SOA was found to exhibit evaporation behavior very similar to that of laboratory-generated coated and aged SOA. For all cases studied in this work, SOA evaporation behavior is nearly size-independent and does not follow the evaporation kinetics of liquid droplets, in sharp contrast with model assumptions. The findings about SOA phase, evaporation rates, and the importance of spectator gases and aging all indicate that there is need to reformulate the way SOA formation and evaporation are treated by models. PMID:21262848

  2. The relationship of students' self-efficacy, attitudes toward science, perceptions of the laboratory environment, and achievement with respect to the secondary science laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Deborah Ann

    This study examined affective aspects of the secondary science laboratory and added to the emerging literature on the role of self-efficacy in the laboratory teaching environment. Measures of students' self-efficacy, attitudes toward science, and perceptions of the science laboratory environment were correlated with achievement and further examined with multiple regression, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. One-way ANOVA measured the differences between science courses (Honors Biology, College Prep Biology, and Chemistry) and gender. Science grade self-efficacy and science laboratory skill self efficacy proved to be separate constructs, with science grade self-efficacy having a direct effect on the science grade, while mediating the effect of science laboratory self-efficacy on the grade earned by the student. The Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was used to gauge students' views of the science laboratory environment. All observed variables (student cohesiveness, open-endedness, integration, rule clarity, and material environment) of the SLEI were found to be part of the same construct except open-endedness. Science laboratory environment perceptions had a direct effect on science laboratory self-efficacy. Attitude toward science was measured using the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA). Factor analysis demonstrated the presence of factors: attitude toward the "doing" of science and attitude toward "thinking" about science. "Thinking about science" had a direct effect on the attitude toward "doing" science, which in turn had a direct effect on students' perceptions of the science laboratory environment. Science course differences were manifested by greater cohesiveness and clearer interpretation of laboratory rules for Chemistry students. Biology Honors students experienced a greater connection between the lecture and laboratory and had greater laboratory grade self-efficacy than Biology CP students; they also had greater

  3. A gender analysis of secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostas, Nancy Ann

    Secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals were evaluated for gender balance. The textbooks and manuals evaluated were all current editions available at the time of the study with copyrights of 1988 to 1992. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were judged gender balanced based on the number of men and women, boys and girls shown in both active and passive roles. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were also evaluated by the number of male and female scientists identified by name. The curricular content of the textbooks was analyzed for gender balance by three criteria: the number of named male and female scientists whose accomplishments were described in the text; the number of careers assigned to men and women; and the number of verbal analogies assigned to girls interests, boys interests or neutral interests. The laboratory activities in the manuals were categorized as demonstrations, experiments and observations. Three of each of these types of activities from each manual were analyzed for skills and motivating factors important to girls as identified by Potter and Rosser (1992). Data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics of frequencies, means and chi-square goodness of fit. The.05 level of significance was applied to all analyses based upon an expected frequency of 50 - 50 percentage of men and women and a 4.5 percent for women scientists to 95.5 percent for men scientists. The findings were as follows. None of the textbooks had a balance of men/women, boys/girls in the illustrations, drawings and photographs. The Hewitt (Scott-Foresman, 1989) textbook was the only textbook with no significant difference. Using the expected frequency for male and female scientists, two textbooks were gender balanced for illustrations, drawings and photographs while all textbooks were gender balanced for described accomplishments of scientists. The Hewitt (Scott Foresman, 1989) textbook had the only gender balanced representation of careers

  4. Relationship between aerosol oxidation level and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Williams, L. R.; Ehn, M.; Mikkilä, J.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Brune, W. H.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A.; Kolb, C. E.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory experiments investigated the relationship between oxidation level and hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles generated via OH radical oxidation in an aerosol flow reactor. The hygroscopic growth factor at 90% RH (HGF90%), the CCN activity ($\\kappa$ORG,CCN) and the level of oxidation (atomic O:C ratio) of the SOA particles were measured. Both HGF90% and $\\kappa$ORG,CCN increased with O:C; the HGF90% varied linearly with O:C, while $\\kappa$ORG,CCN mostly followed a nonlinear trend. An average HGF90% of 1.25 and $\\kappa$ORG,CCN of 0.19 were measured for O:C of 0.65, in agreement with results reported for ambient data. The $\\kappa$ORG values estimated from the HGF90% ($\\kappa$ORG,HGF) were 20 to 50% lower than paired $\\kappa$ORG,CCN values for all SOA particles except 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), the least hygroscopic of the SOA systems. Within the limitations of instrumental capabilities, we show that differences in hygroscopic behavior among the investigated SOA systems may correspond to differences in elemental composition.

  5. Relationship between aerosol oxidation level and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Lambe, A.; Ahern, A.; Williams, L. R.; Ehn, M.; Mikkila, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Brune, W. H.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J.; Petdjd, T. T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Laaksonen, A.; Kolb, C. E.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory experiments investigated the relationship between degree of oxidation and hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles. The hygroscopic growth factor (HGF), the CCN activity (κCCN) and the degree of aerosol oxidation (represented by the atomic O:C ratio) were measured for α-pinene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), m-xylene and α pinene/m-xylene mixture SOA generated via OH radical oxidation in an aerosol flow reactor. Our results show that both HGF and κCCN increase with O:C. The TMB and m-xylene SOA were, respectively, the least and most hygroscopic of the system studied. An average HGF of 1.25 and a κCCN of 0.2 were measured at O:C of 0.65, in agreement with results reported for ambient data. The HGF based κ(κHGF) under predicted the κCCN values of 20 to 50% for all but the TMB SOA. Within the limitations of instrumental capabilities, we define the extent to which the hygroscopic properties of SOA particles can be predicted from their oxidation level and provide parameterizations suitable for interpreting ambient data.

  6. 42 CFR 493.1777 - Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of compliance. 493.1777 Section 493.1777 Public Health CENTERS... CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection § 493.1777 Standard: Inspection of laboratories that...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1777 - Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of compliance. 493.1777 Section 493.1777 Public Health CENTERS... CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection § 493.1777 Standard: Inspection of laboratories that...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1777 - Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of compliance. 493.1777 Section 493.1777 Public Health CENTERS... CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection § 493.1777 Standard: Inspection of laboratories that...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1777 - Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of compliance. 493.1777 Section 493.1777 Public Health CENTERS... CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection § 493.1777 Standard: Inspection of laboratories that...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1777 - Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Inspection of laboratories that have requested or have been issued a certificate of compliance. 493.1777 Section 493.1777 Public Health CENTERS... CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection § 493.1777 Standard: Inspection of laboratories that...

  11. DOE standard: The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for radiobioassay

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This technical standard describes the US Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for Radiobioassay, for use by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE Contractor radiobioassay programs. This standard is intended to be used in conjunction with the general administrative technical standard that describes the overall DOELAP accreditation process--DOE-STD-1111-98, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program Administration. This technical standard pertains to radiobioassay service laboratories that provide either direct or indirect (in vivo or in vitro) radiobioassay measurements in support of internal dosimetry programs at DOE facilities or for DOE and DOE contractors. Similar technical standards have been developed for other DOELAP dosimetry programs. This program consists of providing an accreditation to DOE radiobioassay programs based on successful completion of a performance-testing process and an on-site evaluation by technical experts. This standard describes the technical requirements and processes specific to the DOELAP Radiobioassay Accreditation Program as required by 10 CFR 835 and as specified generically in DOE-STD-1111-98.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  17. 76 FR 59599 - Extension of Comment Period for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... comment period for the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur... Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should be addressed to Rich Scheffe, U.S....

  18. Observations of secondary spectrophotometric standards in the wavelength range between 5840 and 10800 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-three stars that are suitable for use as secondary spectrophotometric standards are compared with Alpha Lyrae in the wavelength range between 5840 A and 1.1 microns. The consistency of the present data with previously existing measurements is discussed, along with the reliability of the present data. It is found that there is good agreement with previous data in some cases, but moderate or substantial discrepancies are exhibited in others. It is suggested that extinction variation is the most probable cause of the discrepancies, and observational procedures that may improve the situation with regard to the discrepancies are proposed.

  19. Preparation, control, and use of standard operating procedures in a space simulation laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, R. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of success in the operation of a space simulation laboratory is a direct function of the role of its standard operating procedures. Their proper use in a thermal vacuum test effects a wellrun test program. Preparation and procedure control are discussed.

  20. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE: CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS AND STANDARDS; APPROVED JUNE 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    As Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's National Environmental
    Laboratory Accreditation Program (NELAP), I offer my sincere appreciation to the many individuals who worked on the 2000 revision of the NELAC standards. I would like to give special recognition to th...

  1. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  2. Update on current concepts and meanings in laboratory medicine --Standardization, traceability and harmonization.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Neil

    2014-05-15

    An increasingly important quality objective in laboratory medicine is ensuring the equivalence of test results among different measurement procedures, different laboratories and health care systems, over time. In recent years, interest in sharing a single patient's clinical laboratory data, regardless of where the measurements are performed, has moved out of the domain of the scientific community and spilled over into the domain of regulators, lawmakers and the general population in many parts of the world. For all parties involved in the dialog, establishing and maintaining a clear understanding of the essential concepts that are vital to achieving global equivalence among clinical laboratory measurements have therefore become a priority. Concepts that are critical to this discussion include standardization, traceability and harmonization. This report provides an updated discussion and practical definitions for these terms and others that are linked to metrological principles.

  3. Laboratory robotics -- An automated tool for preparing ion chromatography calibration standards

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the use of a laboratory robot as an automated tool for preparing multi-level calibration standards for On-Line Ion Chromatography (IC) Systems. The robot is designed for preparation of up to six levels of standards, with each level containing up to eleven ionic species in aqueous solution. The robot is required to add the standards` constituents as both a liquid and solid additions and to keep a record of exactly what goes into making up every standard. Utilizing a laboratory robot to prepare calibration standards provides significant benefits to the testing environment. These benefits include: accurate and precise calibration standards in individually capped containers with preparation traceability; automated and unattended multi-specie preparation for both anion and cation analytical channels; the ability to free up a test operator from a repetitive routine and re-apply those efforts to test operations; The robot uses a single channel IC to analyze each prepared standard for specie content and concentration. Those results are later used as a measure of quality control. System requirements and configurations, robotic operations, manpower requirements, analytical verification, accuracy and precision of prepared solutions, and robotic downtime are discussed in detail.

  4. [Implementation of the technical requirements of the UNE-EN-ISO 15189 quality standard in a mycobacterial laboratory].

    PubMed

    Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Ocete Mochón, M Dolores; Lahiguera, M José; Bresó, M Carmen; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The UNE-EN-ISO 15189:2007 standard defines the requirements for quality and competence that must be met by medical laboratories. These laboratories should use this international standard to develop their own quality management systems and to evaluate their own competencies; in turn, this standard will be used by accreditation bodies to confirm or recognize the laboratories' competence. In clinical microbiology laboratories, application of the standard implies the implementation of the technical and specific management requirements that must be met to achieve optimal quality when carrying out microbiological tests. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body (Entidad Nacional de Acreditación). This review aims to discuss the practical application of the standard's technical requirements in mycobacterial laboratory. Firstly, we define the scope of accreditation. Secondly, we specify how the items of the standard on personnel management, control of equipment, environmental facilities, method validation, internal controls and customer satisfaction surveys were developed and implemented in our laboratory.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  10. Groove depth measurements on roughness reference standards of the Croatian National Laboratory for Length (LFSB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baršić, Gorana; Mahović, Sanjin; Bartolo Picotto, Gian; Amer, Mohamed A.; Runje, Biserka

    2011-09-01

    In the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, LFSB, which is now the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique roughness reference standards were developed in the year 1986. Because of the world-class quality of those standards and their measuring features, the same were sold in several European countries, and today they, among others, are used as roughness reference standards in Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. However, especially in the last decade, there was significant progress in the field of nanotechnology that led to the development of new measuring equipment. The above-mentioned standards due to their size, production technology and measuring features cannot fully meet metrological requirements in the field of nanometrology, i.e. they are not compatible with scanning probe microscopes. Therefore, it was decided to search for possible limitations in the procedure of groove depth measurements on the LFSB standards. In order to include as many measuring devices as possible, i.e. measurement methods, in this research, in 2008 the LFSB launched EURAMET Project 1012 'Limitations of methods for measuring the depth of the groove' in collaboration with national metrology institutes of Italy and Egypt. In this paper the results of measurements performed within the project are presented, and based on the obtained results, the advantages and limitations of the LFSB standards have been discussed, with recommendations for their improvement.

  11. Current practices and challenges in the standardization and harmonization of clinical laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Vesper, Hubert W; Myers, Gary L; Miller, W Greg

    2016-09-01

    Effective patient care, clinical research, and public health efforts require comparability of laboratory results independent of time, place, and measurement procedure. Comparability is achieved by establishing metrological traceability, which ensures that measurement procedures measure the same quantity and that the calibration of measurement procedures is traceable to a common reference system consisting of reference methods and materials. Whereas standardization ensures traceability to the International System of Units, harmonization ensures traceability to a reference system agreed on by convention. This article provides an overview of standardization and harmonization with an emphasis on commutability as an important variable that affects testing accuracy. Commutability of reference materials is required to ensure that traceability is established appropriately and that laboratory results are comparable. The use of noncommutable reference materials leads to inaccurate results. Whereas procedures and protocols for standardizing measurements are established and have been successfully applied in efforts such as the Hormones Standardization Program of the CDC, harmonization activities require new, more complex procedures and approaches. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, together with its domestic and international partners, formed the International Consortium for Harmonization of Clinical Laboratory Results to coordinate harmonization efforts. Reference systems, as well as procedures and protocols to establish traceability of clinical laboratory tests, have been established and continue to be developed by national and international groups and organizations. Serum tests of thyroid function, including those for the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, are among the clinical procedures for which standardization efforts are well under way. Approaches to the harmonization of measurement procedures for serum concentrations of thyroid

  12. Coupled Pendulums: A Physical System for Laboratory Investigations at Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picciarelli, Vittorio; Stella, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The topic of coupled oscillations is rich in physical content which is both interesting and complex. The study of the time evolution of coupled oscillator systems involves a mathematical formalization beyond the level of the upper secondary school student's competence. Here, we present an original approach, suitable even for secondary students, to…

  13. Food intake in laboratory rats provided standard and fenbendazole-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Megan E; Martin, Lisa Be; Daniels, Derek

    2008-11-01

    The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly.

  14. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing.

    PubMed

    Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S

    2012-03-28

    Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).

  15. Services of the CDRH X-ray calibration laboratory and their traceability to National Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T.

    1993-12-31

    The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards.

  16. The Implementation of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation in Vietnamese Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Dong Thap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a critical area of concern in Vietnamese education. Recently, new professional standards for teachers in secondary schools have been developed, piloted, and implemented. This study explores the perceptions of teachers, school principals, and other administrators about the new teacher professional standards, the…

  17. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  18. An investigation of the use of microcomputer-based laboratory simulations in promoting conceptual understanding in secondary physics instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomshaw, Stephen G.

    Physics education research has shown that students bring alternate conceptions to the classroom which can be quite resistant to traditional instruction methods (Clement, 1982; Halloun & Hestenes, 1985; McDermott, 1991). Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) experiments that employ an active-engagement strategy have been shown to improve student conceptual understanding in high school and introductory university physics courses (Thornton & Sokoloff, 1998). These (MBL) experiments require a specialized computer interface, type-specific sensors (e.g. motion detectors, force probes, accelerometers), and specialized software in addition to the standard physics experimental apparatus. Tao and Gunstone (1997) have shown that computer simulations used in an active engagement environment can also lead to conceptual change. This study investigated 69 secondary physics students' use of computer simulations of MBL activities in place of the hands-on MBL laboratory activities. The average normalized gain in students' conceptual understanding was measured using the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE). Student attitudes towards physics and computers were probed using the Views About Science Survey (VASS) and the Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). While it may be possible to obtain an equivalent level of conceptual understanding using computer simulations in combination with an active-engagement environment, this study found no significant gains in students' conceptual understanding ( = -0.02) after they completed a series of nine simulated experiments from the Tools for Scientific Thinking curriculum (Thornton & Sokoloff, 1990). The absence of gains in conceptual understanding may indicate that either the simulations were ineffective in promoting conceptual change or problems with the implementation of the treatment inhibited its effectiveness. There was a positive shift in students' attitudes towards physics in the VASS dimensions of structure and reflective thinking

  19. Towards the development of a fossil bone geochemical standard: an inter-laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Chavagnac, V; Milton, J A; Green, D R H; Breuer, J; Bruguier, O; Jacob, D E; Jong, T; Kamenov, G D; Le Huray, J; Liu, Y; Palmer, M R; Pourtalès, S; Roduhskin, I; Soldati, A; Trueman, C N; Yuan, H

    2007-09-19

    Ten international laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory comparison of a fossil bone composite with the objective of producing a matrix and structure-matched reference material for studies of the bio-mineralization of ancient fossil bone. We report the major and trace element compositions of the fossil bone composite, using in-situ method as well as various wet chemical digestion techniques. For major element concentrations, the intra-laboratory analytical precision (%RSD(r)) ranges from 7 to 18%, with higher percentages for Ti and K. The %RSD(r) are smaller than the inter-laboratory analytical precision (%RSD(R); <15-30%). Trace element concentrations vary by approximately 5 orders of magnitude (0.1 mg kg(-1) for Th to 10,000 mg kg(-1) for Ba). The intra-laboratory analytical precision %RSD(r) varies between 8 and 45%. The reproducibility values (%RSD(R)) range from 13 to <50%, although extreme value >100% was found for the high field strength elements (Hf, Th, Zr, Nb). The rare earth element (REE) concentrations, which vary over 3 orders of magnitude, have %RSD(r) and %RSD(R) values at 8-15% and 20-32%, respectively. However, the REE patterns (which are very important for paleo-environmental, taphonomic and paleo-oceanographic analyses) are much more consistent. These data suggest that the complex and unpredictable nature of the mineralogical and chemical composition of fossil bone makes it difficult to set-up and calibrate analytical instruments using conventional standards, and may result in non-spectral matrix effects. We propose an analytical protocol that can be employed in future inter-laboratory studies to produce a certified fossil bone geochemical standard.

  20. Microfluidic cartridges for DNA purification and genotyping processed in standard laboratory instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, Maximilian; Mark, Daniel; Stumpf, Fabian; Müller, Martina; Roth, Günter; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2011-06-01

    Two microfluidic cartridges intended for upgrading standard laboratory instruments with automated liquid handling capability by use of centrifugal forces are presented. The first microfluidic cartridge enables purification of DNA from human whole blood and is operated in a standard laboratory centrifuge. The second microfluidic catridge enables genotyping of pathogens by geometrically multiplexed real-time PCR. It is operated in a slightly modified off-the-shelf thermal cycler. Both solutions aim at smart and cost-efficient ways to automate work flows in laboratories. The DNA purification cartridge automates all liquid handling steps starting from a lysed blood sample to PCR ready DNA. The cartridge contains two manually crushable glass ampoules with liquid reagents. The DNA yield extracted from a 32 μl blood sample is 192 +/- 30 ng which corresponds to 53 +/- 8% of a reference extraction. The genotyping cartridge is applied to analyse isolates of the multi-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) by real-time PCR. The wells contain pre-stored dry reagents such as primers and probes. Evaluation of the system with 44 genotyping assays showed a 100% specificity and agreement with the reference assays in standard tubes. The lower limit of detection was well below 10 copies of DNA per reaction.

  1. 40 CFR 262.206 - Labeling and management standards for containers of unwanted material in the laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.206 Labeling and management standards for containers of unwanted material in the laboratory. An eligible academic entity must manage... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling and management standards...

  2. 75 FR 5088 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance... Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its Laboratory Accreditation Program for Substance...

  3. Applying IEEE storage system management standards at the National Storage Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, S.; Hyer, S.W.

    1992-12-04

    Since its inception in 1990, the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group has identified storage-system management as an area in need of further development The pressing need for standards in storage-system management arises from the requirement to exchange management information and to provide control in a consistent predictable manner between the components of a storage system. An appropriate set of management standards will allow multiple vendors to supply storage management subsystems or applications that are integral to or compatible with new storage systems conforming to future IEEE standards. An early, practical application of IEEE storage-system-management work is being pursued at the National Storage Laboratory (NSL), a recently-formed industrial collaboration at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NSL`s purpose is to develop advanced hardware and software technologies for high-performance, distributed storage systems. Since storage system management is of critical concern, it is being explored in depth at the NSL. Work was initiated to define basic management requirements and develop generalized graphical-user-interface tools using remote-procedure-call mechanisms to implement the NSL`s conceptual management framework. Several constraints were imposed on the development of early versions of this work to maintain compatibility with the NSL`s underlying UniTree-based software architecture and to provide timely prototypes and proof of concept. The project leverages the on-going standards work of the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group (SSSWG) and also explores some of the relationships and interactions between IEEE storage-system management and more well known management methods for distributed systems and networks. It will have long term benefits by providing ``real-life`` storage-system-management requirements to the IEEE SSSWG for validation of evolving standards.

  4. Accuracy of the Clinical Diagnosis of Vaginitis Compared to a DNA Probe Laboratory Standard

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Nancy K.; Neal, Jeremy L.; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of the three most common causes of acute vulvovaginal symptoms (bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis vaginitis, and trichomoniasis vaginalis) using a traditional, standardized clinical diagnostic protocol compared to a DNA probe laboratory standard. Methods This prospective clinical comparative study had a sample of 535 active duty United States military women presenting with vulovaginal symptoms. Clinical diagnoses were made by research staff using a standardized protocol of history, physical examination including pelvic examination, determination of vaginal pH, vaginal fluid amines test, and wet-prep microscopy. Vaginal fluid samples were obtained for DNA analysis. The research clinicians were blinded to the DNA results. Results The participants described a presenting symptom of abnormal discharge (50%), itching/irritation (33%), malodor (10%), burning (4%), or others such as vulvar pain and vaginal discomfort. According to laboratory standard, there were 225 cases (42%) of bacterial vaginosis 76 cases (14%) of candidiasis vaginitis, 8 cases (1.5%) of trichomoniasis vaginalis, 87 cases of mixed infections (16%), and 139 negative cases (26%). For each single infection, the clinical diagnosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 80.8% and 70.0% for bacterial vaginosis; 83.8% and 84.8% for candidiasis vaginitis; and 84.6% and 99.6% for trichomoniasis vaginalis when compared to the DNA probe standard. Conclusion Compared to a DNA probe standard, clinical diagnosis is 81-85% sensitive and 70- 99% specific for bacterial vaginosis, candida vaginitis, and trichomoniasis. Even under research conditions that provided clinicians with sufficient time and materials to conduct a thorough and standardized clinical evaluation, the diagnosis and therefore, subsequent treatment of these common vaginal problems remains difficult. PMID:19104364

  5. Important considerations for establishing a secondary ozone standard to protect vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Lefohn, A.S. ); Runeckles, V.C. ); Krupa, S.V. ); Shadwick, D.S. )

    1989-08-01

    Based on recent evidence published in the literature, as well as retrospective studies using data from the National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN), cumulative indices can be used to describe exposures of ozone for predicting agricultural crop effects. However, the mathematical form of the standard that may be proposed to protect crops does not necessarily have to be of the same form as that used in the statistical or process oriented mathematical models that relate ambient ozone exposures with vegetation effects. This paper discusses the limitations associated with applying a simple statistic that may take the place of a more biologically meaningful exposure parameter. While the NCLAN data have been helpful in identifying identifying indices that may be appropriate for establishing exposure-response relationships, the limitations associated with the NCLAN protocol need to be considered when attempting to apply these relationships in the establishment of a secondary national ambient air quality standard. The Weibull model derived from NCLAN experiments must demonstrate its generality and universal applicability. Furthermore, its predictive power must be tested using independent sets of field data.

  6. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology for Upper Elementary and Secondary School Grades, Teachers Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    Designed to assist the teacher who wishes to use marine organisms for biological laboratory investigations, this manual includes general information on maintaining marine aquaria and collecting marine organisms as well as five tested laboratory exercises. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen consumption (giving techniques for…

  7. [Law, guidelines and standards relevant to laboratory animals and animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Takagaki, Y

    1982-04-01

    Presently available laws guidelines and standards relevant to laboratory animals and animal experimentation are reviewed. In Japan there exist Animal Protection and Management Act, and the Guideline for Animal Care and Management which was later prepared in accordance with the former act. These are comparable in quality to those seen in foreign countries such as the Cruelty to Animals Act of Great Britain or the Animal Welfare Act of U.S.A. As for laboratory animals, however, only basic matters appear there, and that is why the Japanese National Academy of Science in 1980 proposed legislation of a guideline for animal experimentation to the government. It is awaited to legislate sooner the one comparable to the Guidelines for the Regulation of Animal Experimentation prepared by ICLA in 1974. Other laws and regulations referred and discussed here are: *standards and guidelines for breeding, care and management of laboratory animals *veterinary laws and regulations which should be referred when domestic or wild animals are to be used for experiments *laws and regulations for general housing construction and environmental protection *regulations for particular experiments where radioisotopes, microbial infections or recombinant DNA are in use

  8. Towards the Standardization of a MATLAB-Based Control Systems Laboratory Experience for Undergraduate Students

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, W.E.

    2001-03-15

    This paper seeks to begin a discussion with regard to developing standardized Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD) tools that are typically utilized in an undergraduate controls laboratory. The advocated CACSD design tools are based on the popular, commercially available MATLAB environment, the Simulink toolbox, and the Real-Time Workshop toolbox. The primary advantages of the proposed approach are as follows: (1) the required computer hardware is low cost, (2) commercially available plants from different manufacturers can be supported under the same CACSD environment with no hardware modifications, (3) both the Windows and Linux operating systems can be supported via the MATLAB based Real-Time Windows Target and the Quality Real Time Systems (QRTS) based Real-Time Linux Target, and (4) the Simulink block diagram approach can be utilized to prototype control strategies; thereby, eliminating the need for low level programming skills. It is believed that the above advantages related to standardization of the CACSD design tools will facilitate: (1) the sharing of laboratory resources within each university (i.e., between departments) and (2) the development of Internet laboratory experiences for students (i.e., between universities).

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Specific Standard for Nonnuclear Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R; Beach, D R; Brereton, S; Hildum, J S; Ingram, C; Spagnolo, S; Van Warmerdam, C

    2003-05-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NNSA Livermore Site Office teamed up to prepare a site specific work smart standard setting requirements for preparation of safety basis documents for LLNL non-nuclear operations and facilities. This standard documents how all hazards (biological, chemical, explosive, industrial, and radiological) shall be evaluated, classified, analyzed, and controls developed. This standard was developed to evaluate hazards at the facility level to mesh with LLNL's ISM system for reviewing hazards at the activity level. This standard presents an approach to establishing safety basis for non-nuclear operations and activities, taking a graded approach based on the potential for impacts to the health of collocated workers and the public. Direct worker safety is covered by LLNL's work activity level reviews and requirements. This standard includes streamlined mechanisms for classifying hazards based upon the unmitigated potential for human health impacts. A review or practices at several private industries, government laboratories, and DOE complex sites provided a benchmark and comparison of safety analysis processes. These approaches were compared with LLNL's existing systems, leading to a determination that facility specific safety basis documents added value to a rapid authorization for new work activities in LLNL facilities. A process for hazard classification that would be viewed as more credible than the previous facility classification system was developed, including a method allowing correlation of chemical inventories with TEEL* concentrations. A graded approach for classification of explosive hazards, consistent with the DOE Explosive Safety Manual, was included. The standard was designed to be complementary with LLNL's existing work smart standards covering the hazards identified in a facility. A standard for LLNL's Work Smart Standard set was prepared that will assure all hazards are covered with appropriate levels of

  10. Canadian multicenter laboratory study for standardized second-line antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meenu; Thibert, Louise; Chedore, Pamela; Shandro, Cary; Jamieson, Frances; Tyrrell, Gregory; Christianson, Sara; Soualhine, Hafid; Wolfe, Joyce

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a standardized protocol for second-line antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in Canadian laboratories. Four Canadian public health laboratories compared the susceptibility testing results of 9 second-line antimicrobials between the Bactec 460 and Bactec MGIT 960 systems. Based on the data generated, we have established that the Bactec MGIT 960 system provides results comparable to those obtained with the previous Bactec 460 method. The critical concentrations established for the testing of the antimicrobials used are as follows: amikacin, 1 μg/ml; capreomycin, 2.5 μg/ml; ethionamide, 5 μg/ml; kanamycin, 2.5 μg/ml; linezolid, 1 μg/ml; moxifloxacin, 0.25 μg/ml; ofloxacin, 2 μg/ml; p-aminosalicylic acid, 4 μg/ml; rifabutin, 0.5 μg/ml.

  11. Realization of the scale of high fiber optic power at three national standards laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Envall, Jouni; Andersson, Anne; Petersen, Jan C.; Kaerhae, Petri

    2005-08-20

    Nowadays the transmission powers in optical telecommunication networks are often hundreds of milliwatts. Such high power levels are known to cause several nonlinear effects, thus affecting data transfer. Therefore, accurate measurements of such high power levels are required. The general issues that are to be considered when one is realizing a scale for high fiber optic power are discussed. The scales of the national standards laboratories in Finland, Sweden, and Denmark are described, and the results of a trilateral comparison of these scales are presented. The power range of the comparison was 1-200 mW. The results show that the stated measurement uncertainties of the three laboratories (1.3%-2.9%,k=2) are applicable over this power range.

  12. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  13. Nanotechnology Laboratory Continues Partnership with FDA and National Institute of Standards and Technology | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI-funded Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL)—a leader in evaluating promising nanomedicines to fight cancer—recently renewed its collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to continue its groundbreaking work on characterizing nanomedicines and moving them toward the clinic. In partnership with NIST and the FDA, NCL has laid a solid, scientific foundation for using the power of nanotechnology to increase the potency and target the delivery

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  15. Syringe calibration factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator for selected medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tyler, D K; Woods, M J

    2003-01-01

    Before a radiopharmaceutical is administered to a patient, its activity needs to be accurately assayed. This is normally done via a radionuclide calibrator, using a glass vial as the calibration device. The radionuclide is then transferred to a syringe and it is now becoming common practice to re-measure the syringe and use this value as the activity administered to the patient. Due to elemental composition and geometrical differences, etc. between the glass vial and the syringe, the calibration factors are different for the two containers and this can lead to an incorrect activity being given to the patient unless a correction is applied for these differences. To reduce the uncertainty on syringe measurements, syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator have been derived by NPL for several medically important radionuclides. It was found that the differences between the calibration factors for the syringes and glass vials depend on the energies of the photon emissions from the decay of the radionuclides; the lower the energy, the greater the difference. As expected, large differences were observed for 125I (70%) and only small differences for 131I. However, for radionuclides such as 99mTc and 67Ga, differences of up to 30% have been observed. This work has shown the need for the use of specifically derived syringe calibration factors as well as highlighting the complexity of the problem with regard to syringe types, procurement, etc.

  16. Guideline on the prevention of secondary central nervous system lymphoma: British Committee for Standards in Haematology.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Andrew; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cwynarski, Kate; Lyttelton, Matthew; McKay, Pam; Montoto, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and NCBI Pubmed were searched systematically for publications in English from 1980 to 2012 using the MeSH subheading 'lymphoma, CNS', 'lymphoma, central nervous system', 'lymphoma, high grade', 'lymphoma, Burkitt's', 'lymphoma, lymphoblastic' and 'lymphoma, diffuse large B cell' as keywords, as well as all subheadings. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemato-oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of ~50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found in Appendix I. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the optimal prevention of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients of all lymphoma sub-types and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Acronyms are defined at time of first use.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  2. Pain management standards in the eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Larry

    2012-05-01

    The eighth edition Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals sets standards for diverse laboratory animal care and use practices. It frames its standards as performance, engineering, and practice standards, with a strong emphasis on performance standards, allowing for multiple routes to clearly defined outcomes. Standards intended to be upheld rigorously are indicated through the use of must in the description, and those accommodating more flexibility are indicated through may and should statements. With respect to pain management standards, a fourth type of standard-the jurisdictional standard-has been prevalent through all 8 editions of the Guide. Under jurisdictional standards, specific methods and outcomes for measuring, preventing, or alleviating pain are not detailed, but the various jurisdictions of veterinarian, investigator, and IACUC are elaborated. Although data on pain management in laboratory animals has expanded greatly since the 1996 Guide, the eighth (2011) edition does not contain major new standards or guidance regarding animal pain management. Requirements for veterinary and IACUC involvement remain as in prior editions, and the duty of veterinarians and scientists to stay abreast of new developments is expected to drive refinement of animal pain management institution by institution. The current article details selected specific pain management standards in the 2011 Guide, lists topics in pain management for which the Guide does not set clear standards, and suggests possible standards for those topics.

  3. Design and verification of the shielding around the new Neutron Standards Laboratory (LPN) at CIEMAT.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Villafañe, R; Guerrero, J E; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Grandio, R; Pérez-Cejuela, P; Márquez, J L; Alvarez, F; Ortego, P

    2014-10-01

    The construction of the new Neutron Standards Laboratory at CIEMAT (Laboratorio de Patrones Neutrónicos) has been finalised and is ready to provide service. The facility is an ∼8 m×8 m×8 m irradiation vault, following the International Organization for Standardization 8529 recommendations. It relies on several neutron sources: a 5-GBq (5.8× 10(8) s(-1)) (252)Cf source and two (241)Am-Be neutron sources (185 and 11.1 GBq). The irradiation point is located 4 m over the ground level and in the geometrical centre of the room. Each neutron source can be moved remotely from its storage position inside a water pool to the irradiation point. Prior to this, an important task to design the neutron shielding and to choose the most appropriate materials has been developed by the Radiological Security Unit and the Ionizing Radiations Metrology Laboratory. MCNPX was chosen to simulate the irradiation facility. With this information the walls were built with a thickness of 125 cm. Special attention was put on the weak points (main door, air conditioning system, etc.) so that the ambient dose outside the facility was below the regulatory limits. Finally, the Radiation Protection Unit carried out a set of measurements in specific points around the installation with an LB6411 neutron monitor and a Reuter-Stokes high-pressure ion chamber to verify experimentally the results of the simulation.

  4. The Relationship between Computer and Internet Use and Performance on Standardized Tests by Secondary School Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Li; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Banda, Devender R.; Lan, William Y.; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here explored the relationship between computer and Internet use and the performance on standardized tests by secondary school students with visual impairments. Methods: With data retrieved from the first three waves (2001-05) of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the correlational study focused on…

  5. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  6. Bypass, Augment, or Integrate: How Secondary Mathematics Teachers Address the Literacy Demands of Standards-Based Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Doerr, Helen M.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Masingila, Joanna O.

    2015-01-01

    This 3-year qualitative study examined how 26 teachers in four U.S. secondary schools addressed the literacy demands of curriculum materials based on standards from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. It was grounded in sociocultural perspectives that encourage study of language in local contexts, including classrooms, communities,…

  7. The effects of calculator-based laboratories on standardized test scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Charlotte Bethany Rains

    Nationwide, the goal of providing a productive science and math education to our youth in today's educational institutions is centering itself around the technology being utilized in these classrooms. In this age of digital technology, educational software and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) have become significant devices in the teaching of science and math for many states across the United States. Among the technology, the Texas Instruments graphing calculator and Vernier Labpro interface, are among some of the calculator-based laboratories becoming increasingly popular among middle and high school science and math teachers in many school districts across this country. In Tennessee, however, it is reported that this type of technology is not regularly utilized at the student level in most high school science classrooms, especially in the area of Physical Science (Vernier, 2006). This research explored the effect of calculator based laboratory instruction on standardized test scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of traditional teaching methods versus graphing calculator teaching methods on the state mandated End-of-Course (EOC) Physical Science exam based on ability, gender, and ethnicity. The sample included 187 total tenth and eleventh grade physical science students, 101 of which belonged to a control group and 87 of which belonged to the experimental group. Physical Science End-of-Course scores obtained from the Tennessee Department of Education during the spring of 2005 and the spring of 2006 were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings of this research study suggested the type of teaching method, traditional or calculator based, did not have an effect on standardized test scores. However, the students' ability level, as demonstrated on the End-of-Course test, had a significant effect on End-of-Course test scores. This study focused on a limited population of high school physical science students in the middle Tennessee

  8. Preservice Middle and Secondary School Teachers' Misconceptions about Making Measurements Using Laboratory Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Hall, Alfred L., II

    This study was conceived when it was observed that in the laboratory, with few exceptions, college freshmen chemistry students did not know how to make accurate measurements. Once the students were made aware of this, they easily learned how. From this experience and in the interest of breaking the cycle, it was decided to assess the ability of…

  9. Evaluation of the Use of Remote Laboratories for Secondary School Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, David; Newcombe, Peter; Stumpers, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experimentation is generally considered central to science-based education. Allowing students to "experience" science through various forms of carefully designed practical work, including experimentation, is often claimed to support their learning and motivate their engagement while fulfilling specific curriculum requirements. However,…

  10. Student Perceptions of Chemistry Laboratory Learning Environments, Student-Teacher Interactions and Attitudes in Secondary School Gifted Education Classes in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Quek Choon; Wong, Angela F. L.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the chemistry laboratory classroom environment, teacher-student interactions and student attitudes towards chemistry among 497 gifted and non-gifted secondary-school students in Singapore. The data were collected using the 35-item Chemistry Laboratory Environment Inventory (CLEI), the 48-item Questionnaire on Teacher…

  11. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haydary, J.; Susa, D.; Dudáš, J.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ► Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ► Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ► Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ► Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  12. Laboratory Experiments and Modeling for Interpreting Field Studies of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Using an Oxidation Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    2016-02-01

    This grant was originally funded for deployment of a suite of aerosol instrumentation by our group in collaboration with other research groups and DOE/ARM to the Ganges Valley in India (GVAX) to study aerosols sources and processing. Much of the first year of this grant was focused on preparations for GVAX. That campaign was cancelled due to political reasons and with the consultation with our program manager, the research of this grant was refocused to study the applications of oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) for investigating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic aerosol (OA) processing in the field and laboratory through a series of laboratory and modeling studies. We developed a gas-phase photochemical model of an OFR which was used to 1) explore the sensitivities of key output variables (e.g., OH exposure, O3, HO2/OH) to controlling factors (e.g., water vapor, external reactivity, UV irradiation), 2) develop simplified OH exposure estimation equations, 3) investigate under what conditions non-OH chemistry may be important, and 4) help guide design of future experiments to avoid conditions with undesired chemistry for a wide range of conditions applicable to the ambient, laboratory, and source studies. Uncertainties in the model were quantified and modeled OH exposure was compared to tracer decay measurements of OH exposure in the lab and field. Laboratory studies using OFRs were conducted to explore aerosol yields and composition from anthropogenic and biogenic VOC as well as crude oil evaporates. Various aspects of the modeling and laboratory results and tools were applied to interpretation of ambient and source measurements using OFR. Additionally, novel measurement methods were used to study gas/particle partitioning. The research conducted was highly successful and details of the key results are summarized in this report through narrative text, figures, and a complete list of publications acknowledging this grant.

  13. Exposure to hazardous substances in a standard molecular biology laboratory environment: evaluation of exposures in IARC laboratories.

    PubMed

    Chapot, Brigitte; Secretan, Béatrice; Robert, Annie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Working in a molecular biology laboratory environment implies regular exposure to a wide range of hazardous substances. Several recent studies have shown that laboratory workers may have an elevated risk of certain cancers. Data on the nature and frequency of exposures in such settings are scanty. The frequency of use of 163 agents by staff working in molecular biology laboratories was evaluated over a period of 4 years by self-administered questionnaire. Of the agents listed, ethanol was used by the largest proportion of staff (70%), followed by ethidium bromide (55%). Individual patterns of use showed three patterns, namely (i) frequent use of a narrow range of products, (ii) occasional use of a wide range of products, and (iii) frequent and occasional use of an intermediate range of products. Among known or suspected carcinogens (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 and 2A, respectively), those most frequently used included formaldehyde (17%), oncogenic viruses (4%), and acrylamide (32%). The type of exposure encountered in research laboratories is extremely diverse. Few carcinogenic agents are used frequently but many laboratory workers may be exposed occasionally to known human carcinogens. In addition, many of the chemicals handled by staff represent a health hazard. The results enabled the staff physician to develop an individual approach to medical surveillance and to draw a personal history of occupational exposures for laboratory staff.

  14. Disease surveillance system evaluation as a model for improved integration and standardization of the laboratory component in the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) curriculum worldwide.

    PubMed

    Rush, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Integration of laboratory training into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) began in 2004 and has advanced the training of laboratory scientists worldwide on the basic principles of epidemiology, disease surveillance, and outbreak investigation. The laboratory component of the FE(L)TP training has traditionally been disease specific, revolving around classroom and bench training on laboratory methods, and field placement in areas where services are needed. There is however a need to improve the integration of epidemiology elements used in surveillance, outbreak investigation, and evaluation activities with specific measurable laboratory activities that could in turn impact the overall disease surveillance and response. A systematic and clear evaluation guideline for the laboratory components of disease surveillance systems alongside the corresponding epidemiological indicators can better identify, address, and mitigate weaknesses that may exist in the entire surveillance system, and also help to integrate and standardize the FE(L)TP curriculum content. The institution of laboratory Quality Management System principles linked to a comprehensive surveillance evaluation scheme will result in improved disease surveillance, response, and overall laboratory capacity over time.

  15. Evaporation Kinetics and Phase of Laboratory and Ambient Secondary Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Vaden, Timothy D.; Imre, Dan G.; Beranek, Josef; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-02-08

    Field measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) find higher mass loads than predicted by models, sparking intense efforts to find additional SOA sources but leaving the assumption of rapid SOA evaporation unchallenged. We characterized room-temperature evaporation of pure SOA and SOA formed in the presence of spectator organic vapors with and without aging. We find that it takes ~24 hrs for pure SOA particles to evaporate 75% of their mass, which is in sharp contrast to the ~10 minutes timescales predicted by models. The presence of spectator organic vapors and aging dramatically reduces the evaporation, and in some cases nearly stops it. For all cases, SOA evaporation behavior is size independent and does not follow the liquid droplet evaporation kinetics assumed by models.

  16. 76 FR 38550 - Technical Standard DOE-STD-1095-2011, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation for External...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is issuing Technical Standard DOE-STD-1095-2011, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation for External Dosimetry, January 2011. This standard provides updated technical criteria for performance testing for, and provides a requirement for onsite quality assurance assessments of, whole body and extremity dosimetry programs in use at DOE......

  17. ISO 18812--a worldwide standard for the online-connection of analytical instruments to laboratory information systems.

    PubMed

    Fraterman, Arno

    2004-01-01

    In the past there were many attempts to standardize the interface from analytical instruments to laboratory-information-systems. Most of these attempts were national. The international standardisation bodies CEN and ISO have now developed an international standard that is presented here.

  18. Rain simulator as a standardized laboratory measurement of soil structural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Luz; Cancelo González, Javier; Benito, Elena; Álvarez, Manuel; Barral, Maria Teresa; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulations are used since the 30's by scientist and technicians to study the soil erosion and soil hydrology. The basis of the rainfall simulation is that can reproduce the natural soil degradation processes, more accurately than the traditional methods used for the determination of structural stability. A rainfall simulator was built in 2006 based on those made by Guitián and Méndez (1961), and Morin (1967), to obtain standardized laboratory measurements of soil structural stability and a final implementation were made in the rainfall simulator to incorporate a intermittent fan-like water yet system with four sieves of 250 micrometres where the soil samples can be placed, and allow the simultaneous measurement of soil losses in the samples. Data obtained in the rainfall simulator, using different soils of the study basins, are related with the Ig Henin index and the results of the Emerson structural stability test. At the same time with the laboratory test, 10 water sampling surveys were carried out during the hydrological years 2004/05 and 2005/06, in two basins located in the humid region of NW Spain belonging to the Anllons River basin, one of the main basins of Galicia-Costa, that has been subject of detailed hydrological studies since 2000 (Rial, M., 2007 and Devesa, R., 2009) and had continuous records of streamflow. The selected subbasins have 57,62 and 50,05 square kilometres respectively, and presents significative geological differences; being one of them formed, mainly, by schists and a lower area with granites and, the other one formed mainly by gabbros. The suspended sediments in the samples were separated by centrifugation and weighted in the laboratory to study the possible relationship between soil losses in the rainfall simulations and the sediment fluxes in the river. The analysis revealed a good relationship between the sediments delivery to the streams and soil losses measured in the rainfall simulations.

  19. Standard Hydrogen Test Protocols for the NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This brochure summarizes the test protocols used in the NREL Hydrogen Sensor Test Laboratory for the quantitative assessment of critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Researchers at the NREL Hydrogen Safety Sensor Test Laboratory developed a variety of test protocols to quantitatively assess critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Many are similar to, but typically more rigorous than, the test procedures mandated by ISO Standard 26142 (Hydrogen Detector for Stationary Applications). Specific protocols were developed for linear range, short-term stability, and the impact of fluctuations in temperature (T), pressure (P), relative humidity (RH), and chemical environment. Specialized tests (e.g., oxygen requirement) may also be performed. Hydrogen safety sensors selected for evaluation are subjected to a thorough regimen of test protocols, as described. Sensor testing is performed at NREL on custom-built sensor test fixtures. Environmental parameters such as T, P, RH, and gas composition are rigorously controlled and monitored. The NREL evaluations are performed on commercial hydrogen detectors, on emerging sensing technologies, and for end users to validate sensor performance for specific application needs. Test results and data are shared with the manufacturer or client via summary reports, teleconference phone calls, and, when appropriate, site visits to manufacturer facilities. Client representatives may also monitor NREL's operation while their technologies are being tested. Manufacturers may use test data to illustrate the analytical capability of their technologies and, more importantly, to guide future developments. NREL uses the data to assess technology gaps and deployment considerations. Per NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory policy, test results are treated as proprietary and are not shared with other manufacturers or other entities without permission. The data may be used by NREL in open publications

  20. Blood Cholesterol Measurement in Clinical Laboratories in the United States. Current Status. A Report from the Laboratory Standardization Panel of the National Cholesterol Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Precise and accurate cholesterol measurements are required to identify and treat individuals with high blood cholesterol levels. However, the current state of reliability of blood cholesterol measurements suggests that considerable inaccuracy in cholesterol testing exists. This report describes the Laboratory Standardization Panel findings on the…

  1. The Role of the National Laboratory in Improving Secondary Science Education

    SciTech Connect

    White,K.; Morris, M.; Stegman, M.

    2008-10-20

    While the role of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers in our education system is obvious, their role in our economic and national security system is less so. Our nation relies upon innovation and creativity applied in a way that generates new technologies for industry, health care, and the protection of our national assets and citizens. Often, it is our science teachers who generate the excitement that leads students to pursue science careers. While academia provides these teachers with the tools to educate, the rigors of a science and technology curriculum, coupled with the requisite teaching courses, often limit teacher exposure to an authentic research environment. As the single largest funding agency for the physical sciences, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science plays an important role in filling this void. For STEM teachers, the DOE Academies Creating Teacher Scientists program (ACTS) bridges the worlds of research and education. The ACTS program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one of several across the country, exemplifies the value of this program for participating teachers. Outcomes of the work at BNL as evidenced by the balance of this report, include the following: (1) Teachers have developed long-term relationships with the Laboratory through participation in ongoing research, and this experience has both built enthusiasm for and enriched the content knowledge of the participants. (2) Teachers have modified the way they teach and are more likely to engage students in authentic research and include more inquiry-based activities. (3) Teachers have reported their students are more interested in becoming involved in science through classes, extra-curricular clubs, and community involvement. (4) Teachers have established leadership roles within their peer groups, both in their own districts and in the broader teaching community. National laboratories are making an important contribution to the science

  2. Secondary Aluminum National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowcharts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This March 2003 document contains three diagrams that that are intended to assist you in determining whether you own or operate any equipment that is subject to the NESHAP for Secondary Aluminum Production Facilities.

  3. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  8. Secondary electron emission from lunar soil by solar wind type ion impact: Laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukes, Catherine; Bu, Caixia; Baragiola, Raul A.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction: The lunar surface potential is determined by time-varying fluxes of electrons and ions from the solar wind, photoelectrons ejected by UV photons, cosmic rays, and micrometeorite impacts. Solar wind ions have a dual role in the charging process, adding positive charge to the lunar regolith upon impact and ejecting negative secondary electrons (SE). Electron emission occurs when the energy from the impacting ion is transferred to the solid, ionizing and damaging the material; electrons with kinetic energy greater than the ionization potential (band gap + electron affinity) are ejected from the solid[1].Experiment: We investigate the energy distribution of secondary electrons ejected from Apollo soils of varying maturity and lunar analogs by 4 keV He+. Soils are placed into a shallow Al cup and compressed. In-situ low-energy oxygen plasma is used to clean atmospheric contaminants from the soil before analysis[2]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ascertains that the sample surface is clean. Experiments are conducted in a PHI 560 system (<10-9 Torr), equipped with a double-pass, cylindrical-mirror electron energy analyzer (CMA) and μ-metal shield. The spectrometer is used to measure SE distributions, as well as for in situ surface characterization. A small negative bias (~5V) with respect to the grounded entrance grid of the CMA may be placed on the sample holder in order to expose the low energy cutoff.To measure SE energy distributions, primary ions rastered over a ~6 x 6 mm2 area are incident on the sample at ~40° relative to the surface normal, while SE emitted with an angle of 42.3°± 3.5° in a cone are analyzed.Results: The energy distribution of SE ejected from 4 keV He ion irradiation of albite with no bias applied shows positive charging of the surface. The general shape and distribution peak (~4 eV) are consistent with spectra for low energy ions on insulating material[1].Acknowledgements: We thank the NASA LASER program for support

  9. Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters.

    SciTech Connect

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jérémie; Zhang, Jianshun; Fisk, William J.

    2009-09-09

    We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), at realistically high ozone concentrations (150 ppbv). We explored different filter media (i.e., fiberglass and cotton/polyester blends) and different particle loadings (i.e., clean filter and filters loaded with particles for 3 months at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Port of Oakland, CA). Detailed emission dynamics of very low levels of certain organic pollutants from filter media upon ozone exposure in the presence of moisture have been obtained and analyzed.

  10. Laboratory studies on secondary organic aerosol formation from crude oil vapors.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Palm, B B; Borbon, A; Graus, M; Warneke, C; Ortega, A M; Day, D A; Brune, W H; Jimenez, J L; de Gouw, J A

    2013-01-01

    Airborne measurements of aerosol composition and gas phase compounds over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 indicated the presence of high concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from organic compounds of intermediate volatility. In this work, we investigated SOA formation from South Louisiana crude oil vapors reacting with OH in a Potential Aerosol Mass flow reactor. We use the dependence of evaporation time on the saturation concentration (C*) of the SOA precursors to separate the contribution of species of different C* to total SOA formation. This study shows consistent results with those at the DWH oil spill: (1) organic compounds of intermediate volatility with C* = 10(5)-10(6) μg m(-3) contribute the large majority of SOA mass formed, and have much larger SOA yields (0.37 for C* = 10(5) and 0.21 for C* = 10(6) μg m(-3)) than more volatile compounds with C*≥10(7) μg m(-3), (2) the mass spectral signature of SOA formed from oxidation of the less volatile compounds in the reactor shows good agreement with that of SOA formed at DWH oil spill. These results also support the use of flow reactors simulating atmospheric SOA formation and aging.

  11. Secondary organic aerosol production from aqueous photooxidation of glycolaldehyde: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Mark J.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Turpin, Barbara J.

    Organic particulate matter (PM) formed in the atmosphere (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) is a substantial yet poorly understood contributor to atmospheric PM. Aqueous photooxidation in clouds, fogs and aerosols is a newly recognized SOA formation pathway. This study investigates the potential for aqueous glycolaldehyde oxidation to produce low volatility products that contribute SOA mass. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmation that aqueous oxidation of glycolaldehyde via the hydroxyl radical forms glyoxal and glycolic acid, as previously assumed. Subsequent reactions form formic acid, glyoxylic acid, and oxalic acid as expected. Unexpected products include malonic acid, succinic acid, and higher molecular weight compounds, including oligomers. Due to (1) the large source strength of glycolaldehyde from precursors such as isoprene and ethene, (2) its water solubility, and (3) the aqueous formation of low volatility products (organic acids and oligomers), we predict that aqueous photooxidation of glycolaldehyde and other aldehydes in cloud, fog, and aerosol water is an important source of SOA and that incorporation of this SOA formation pathway in chemical transport models will help explain the current under-prediction of organic PM concentrations.

  12. Evaporation kinetics of laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols at elevated relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jacqueline; Imre, Dan; Beránek, Josef; Shrivastava, Manish; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2015-01-06

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate atmospheric organic aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and health. Recent studies indicate that, contrary to previously held assumptions, at low relative humidity (RH) these particles are semisolid and evaporate orders of magnitude slower than expected. Elevated relative humidity has the potential to affect significantly formation, properties, and atmospheric evolution of SOA particles. Here we present a study of the effect of RH on the room-temperature evaporation kinetics of SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene. Experiments were carried out on α-pinene SOA particles generated, evaporated, and aged at <5%, 50 and 90% RH, and on limonene SOA particles at <5% and 90% RH. We find that in all cases evaporation begins with a relatively fast phase, during which 30-70% of the particle mass evaporates in 2 h, followed by a much slower evaporation rate. Evaporation kinetics at <5% and 50% RH are nearly the same, while at 90% RH a slightly larger fraction evaporates. In all cases, aging the particles prior to inducing evaporation reduces the evaporative losses; with aging at elevated RH leading to a more significant effect. In all cases, the observed SOA evaporation is nearly size-independent.

  13. Evaporation Kinetics of Laboratory Generated Secondary Organic Aerosols at Elevated Relative Humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Imre, D.; Beranek, Josef; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2015-01-06

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate atmospheric organic aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and health. Recent studies indicate that, contrary to previously held assumptions, at low relative humidity (RH) these particles are semi-solid and evaporate orders of magnitude slower than expected. Elevated relative humidity has the potential to affect significantly formation, properties, and atmospheric evolution of SOA particles. Here we present a study of the effect of RH on the room-temperature evaporation kinetics of SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene. Experiments were carried out on SOA particles generated, evaporated, and aged at 0%, 50% and 90% RH. We find that in all cases evaporation begins with a relatively fast phase, during which 30% to 70% of the particle mass evaporates in 2 hours, followed by a much slower evaporation rate. Evaporation kinetics at 0% and 50% RH are nearly the same, while at 90% RH a slightly larger fraction evaporates. In all cases, aging the particles prior to inducing evaporation reduces the evaporative losses, with aging at elevated RH leading to more significant effect. In all cases, SOA evaporation is nearly size-independent, providing direct evidence that oligomers play a crucial role in determining the evaporation kinetics.

  14. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.

    PubMed

    Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

    2013-05-01

    Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  15. Secondary science teachers' use of laboratory activities: Linking epistemological beliefs, goals, and practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Nam-Hwa; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how science teachers' epistemological beliefs and teaching goals are related to their use of lab activities. Research questions include (a) What are the teachers' epistemological beliefs pertaining to lab activities? (b) Why do the science teachers use lab activities? (c) How are the teachers' epistemological beliefs and instructional goals related to teaching actions? Two major aspects of epistemologies guided this study: ontological aspect (certainty/diversity of truth) and relational aspect (relationship between the knower and the known). The ontological aspect addresses whether one views knowledge as one certain truth or as tentative multiple truths. The relational aspect addresses whether one views him/herself as a receiver of prescribed knowledge separating self from knowledge construction or as an active meaning maker connecting self to the knowledge construction processes. More sophisticated epistemological beliefs include the acknowledgement of multiple interpretations of the same phenomena and active role of the knower in knowledge construction. Three experienced secondary science teachers were interviewed and observed throughout an academic course. The findings illustrate that a teacher's naïve epistemological beliefs are clearly reflected in the teacher's teaching practices. However, a teacher's sophisticated epistemological beliefs are not always clearly connected to the practice. This seems to be related to the necessary negotiation among their epistemological beliefs, teaching contexts, and instructional goals. Ontological and relational beliefs seem to be connected to different facets of teaching practices. Findings indicate that various syntheses of different aspects of epistemological beliefs and instructional goals are linked to teachers' diverse ways of using lab activities. Implications for research and teacher education are discussed.

  16. Addressing the English Language Arts Technology Standard in a Secondary Reading Methodology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkley, Donna J.; Schmidt, Denise A.; Allen, Gayle

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts to integrate technology into a reading methodology course for secondary English majors. Discusses the use of e-mail, multimedia, distance education for videoconferences, online discussion technology, subject-specific software, desktop publishing, a database management system, a concept mapping program, and the use of the World…

  17. Responsible Healthy Lifestyles, Levels 7-12. Secondary Core Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide presents the Utah elementary and secondary school program of studies and high school graduation requirements. A description is given of the responsible healthy lifestyles curriculum which is designed to integrate into a meaningful whole, medical, scientific, behavioral, and ethical knowledge, values, and practices which enhance a…

  18. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 69.) (d) The high school program shall provide program coordination with feeder schools, career... that lead to high school completion for secondary students who do not function successfully in the... instructional program shall reflect the philosophy of the student, tribe, community, and school, and...

  19. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for the new 10R Schott, type 1+ vials.

    PubMed

    Baker, M

    2005-07-01

    For many years, P6 vials have been used for the distribution of a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic radioactive solutions. The activity measurements were performed in this geometry and, in time, the UK calibration system for nuclear medicine was based on this container as a standard. However, one major supplier of radiopharmaceuticals has replaced the P6 vial with the 10R Type 1+ Schott vial. As the dimensions of the new vial are different from those of the P6 vial and the responses of radionuclide calibrators are known to be container dependent, the need for re-calibration became apparent. Preliminary measurements made on some typical radionuclide calibrators for (125)I solution indicated a difference in response of about 10% between the two vials. The master ionisation chamber of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator has been re-calibrated and new calibration factors and volume correction factors for 10R Schott vials have been derived for the relevant medical radionuclides. The standard holder was also modified to accommodate the new larger vial. The complete list of factors and the method used to determine them is presented in this paper. The availability of these new factors will improve the quality of activity measurements in nuclear medicine, as calibration services can now be provided by NPL for the new container. These factors can also be employed for all commercial NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrators (now known as the NPL-CRC and previously as the 671 or ISOCAL IV).

  20. Resin-based composite light-cured properties assessed by laboratory standards and simulated clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ilie, N; Bauer, H; Draenert, M; Hickel, R

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The following parameters were varied: 1) irradiation technique: top and bottom polymerization according to the ISO standard, and polymerization from only the top, simulating clinical situations; 2) polymerization time: 5, 10, 20, and 40 seconds; 3) storage conditions: 24 hours in distilled water, thermocycling followed by storage for four weeks in artificial saliva or alcohol. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (Eflexural), indentation modulus (E), Vickers hardness (HV), and degree of conversion (DC) were measured. The laboratory results were similar to those measured by mimicking clinical conditions only at high polymerization times and mild storage conditions (20 seconds and 40 seconds and storage for 24 hours in water, and 40 seconds with aging and storing in saliva). Significantly higher DC values were measured on the top than on the bottom of a 2-mm layer for all polymerization times. Overall, 5-second and 10-second irradiation times induced significantly lower DC values compared to the currently recommended polymerization times of 20 and 40 seconds at both the top and bottom of the samples. The initial DC differences as a function of irradiation time are leveled at 24 hours of storage but seem to do well in predicting long-term material behavior. A minimum irradiation time of 20 seconds is necessary clinically to achieve the best mechanical properties with modern high-intensity light emitting diode (LED) units.

  1. A Comprehensive Subcellular Proteomic Survey of Salmonella Grown under Phagosome-Mimicking versus Standard Laboratory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Roslyn N.; Sanford, James A.; Park, Jea H.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Champion, Boyd L.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2012-06-01

    Towards developing a systems-level pathobiological understanding of Salmonella enterica, we performed a subcellular proteomic analysis of this pathogen grown under standard laboratory and infection-mimicking conditions in vitro. Analysis of proteins from cytoplasmic, inner membrane, periplasmic, and outer membrane fractions yielded coverage of over 30% of the theoretical proteome. Confident subcellular location could be assigned to over 1000 proteins, with good agreement between experimentally observed location and predicted/known protein properties. Comparison of protein location under the different environmental conditions provided insight into dynamic protein localization and possible moonlighting (multiple function) activities. Notable examples of dynamic localization were the response regulators of two-component regulatory systems (e.g., ArcB, PhoQ). The DNA-binding protein Dps that is generally regarded as cytoplasmic was significantly enriched in the outer membrane for all growth conditions examined, suggestive of moonlighting activities. These observations imply the existence of unknown transport mechanisms and novel functions for a subset of Salmonella proteins. Overall, this work provides a catalog of experimentally verified subcellular protein location for Salmonella and a framework for further investigations using computational modeling.

  2. Quality assurance of CFU-GM assays: inter-laboratory variation despite standard reagents.

    PubMed

    Lumley, M A; Burton, A; Billingham, L J; McDonald, D F; Czarnecka, H M; Milligan, D W

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that commercial kits for CFU-GM (colony forming unit granulocyte-macrophage) assay will reduce the interlaboratory variation noted by many workers, we carried out a quality assurance exercise in 2 parts. There were 8 participants in the first study and each performed CFU-GM assays using their in-house method and a commercial kit (Stem Cell CFU Kit, Gibco) in parallel. In the second exercise there were 10 participants and each performed CFU-GM with in-house methods and with a different commercial medium (Methocult GF H4534, Stem Cell Technologies). Twelve samples of cryopreserved peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) were analysed by each participant in each part of the study. A very wide range of results was found for the different in-house methods, but standardizing the clonogenic assay with the commercial kits did not reduce the variation seen. To improve the reproducibility of CFU-GM assays between laboratories, scrupulous attention should be paid to all the steps involved in the assays, as little progress will be made by using commercial medium in isolation from efforts to reduce other sources of variation.

  3. 7 CFR 91.37 - Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Technology laboratory services, including issuance of certificates and personnel and overhead... processed commodity products. The new fiscal year for Science and Technology Programs commences on October 1... distribution to Science and Technology's constituents and stakeholders by the individual Laboratory...

  4. Best Practices for Leading a Transition to Standards-Based Grading in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy researchers have concluded that if U.S. schools transition from the traditional model of grading and reporting to a uniform standards-based grading and reporting model, students would benefit academically. However, very few middle and high schools in the United States have made the transition to standards-based grading. This…

  5. Development of a Fan-Filter Unit Test Standard, LaboratoryValidations, and its Applications across Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-10-20

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is now finalizing the Phase 2 Research and Demonstration Project on characterizing 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units in the market using the first-ever standard laboratory test method developed at LBNL.[1][2][3] Fan-filter units deliver re-circulated air and provide particle filtration control for clean environments. Much of the energy in cleanrooms (and minienvironments) is consumed by 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) or 4-foot x 4-foot (122-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units that are typically located in the ceiling (25-100% coverage) of cleanroom controlled environments. Thanks to funding support by the California Energy Commission's Industrial Program of the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, and significant participation from manufacturers and users of fan-filter units from around the world, LBNL has developed and performed a series of standard laboratory tests and reporting on a variety of 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units (FFUs). Standard laboratory testing reports have been completed and reported back to anonymous individual participants in this project. To date, such reports on standard testing of FFU performance have provided rigorous and useful data for suppliers and end users to better understand, and more importantly, to quantitatively characterize performance of FFU products under a variety of operating conditions.[1] In the course of the project, the standard laboratory method previously developed at LBNL has been under continuous evaluation and update.[2][3] Based upon the updated standard, it becomes feasible for users and suppliers to characterize and evaluate energy performance of FFUs in a consistent way.

  6. Model analysis of secondary organic aerosol formation by glyoxal in laboratory studies: the case for photoenhanced chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Andrew J; Woo, Joseph L; McNeill, V Faye

    2014-10-21

    The reactive uptake of glyoxal by atmospheric aerosols is believed to be a significant source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Several recent laboratory studies have been performed with the goal of characterizing this process, but questions remain regarding the effects of photochemistry on SOA growth. We applied GAMMA (McNeill et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 8075-8081), a photochemical box model with coupled gas-phase and detailed aqueous aerosol-phase chemistry, to simulate aerosol chamber studies of SOA formation by the uptake of glyoxal by wet aerosol under dark and irradiated conditions (Kroll et al. J. Geophys. Res. 2005, 110 (D23), 1-10; Volkamer et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2009, 9, 1907-1928; Galloway et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2009, 9, 3331- 306 3345 and Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L17811). We find close agreement between simulated SOA growth and the results of experiments conducted under dark conditions using values of the effective Henry's Law constant of 1.3-5.5 × 10(7) M atm(-1). While irradiated conditions led to the production of some organic acids, organosulfates, and other oxidation products via well-established photochemical mechanisms, these additional product species contribute negligible aerosol mass compared to the dark uptake of glyoxal. Simulated results for irradiated experiments therefore fell short of the reported SOA mass yield by up to 92%. This suggests a significant light-dependent SOA formation mechanism that is not currently accounted for by known bulk photochemistry, consistent with recent laboratory observations of SOA production via photosensitizer chemistry.

  7. Effect of Fe (III) on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at circumneutral pH in standard laboratory tests is explained by nutrient sequestration.

    PubMed

    Arbildua, Jose J; Villavicencio, German; Urrestarazu, Paola; Opazo, Margaret; Brix, Kevin V; Adams, William J; Rodriguez, Patricio H

    2017-04-01

    The complex chemistry of iron (Fe) at circumneutral pH in oxygenated waters and the poor correlation between ecotoxicity results in laboratory and natural waters have led to regulatory approaches for iron based on field studies (US Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criteria and European Union Water Framework Directive proposal for Fe). The results of the present study account for the observed differences between laboratory and field observations for Fe toxicity to algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Results from standard 72-h assays with Fe at pH 6.3 and pH 8 resulted in similar toxicity values measured as algal biomass, with 50% effect concentrations (EC50) of 3.28 mg/L and 4.95 mg/L total Fe(III), respectively. At the end of the 72-h exposure, however, dissolved Fe concentrations were lower than 30 μg/L for all test concentrations, making a direct toxic effect of dissolved iron on algae unlikely. Analysis of nutrient concentrations in the artificial test media detected phosphorus depletion in a dose-dependent manner that correlated well with algal toxicity. Subsequent experiments adding excess phosphorus after Fe precipitation eliminated the toxicity. These results strongly suggest that observed Fe(III) toxicity on algae in laboratory conditions is a secondary effect of phosphorous depletion. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:952-958. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Minimum... technology, industry and business, as well as required special skills and the training requisites....

  9. 75 FR 22150 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies Correction In...

  10. Horse Manure and Other Fun Projects. Field Studies and Laboratory Experiences in Environmental Biology - A Book of Experimental Ideas for Secondary School Biology Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert T., Ed.; Clark, Barbara G., Ed.

    This guide contains a collection of laboratory and field inquiries designed to promote ecological awareness, sensitivity, and understanding. The activities compiled by 28 teachers are for use in teaching biology at the secondary level. They are presented in a "recipe" form to make it possible for teachers without prior experience or training to…

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Secondary Structure Determination of a Silk-Inspired, Self-Assembling Peptide: A Laboratory Exercise for Organic and Biochemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albin, Tyler J.; Fry, Melany M.; Murphy, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory experiment gives upper-division organic or biochemistry undergraduate students a comprehensive look at the synthesis, chemical characterization, self-assembly, and secondary structure determination of small, N-acylated peptides inspired by the protein structure of silkworm silk. All experiments can be completed in one 4 h lab…

  12. Earth Observation from the ISS Columbus Laboratory- An Open Education Approach to Foster Geographical Competences of Pupils in Secondary Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienow, Andreas; Graw, Valerie; Heinemann, Sascha; Schultz, Johannes; Seig, Fabian; Menz, Gunter

    2016-08-01

    Since spring 2014, four commercial off-the-shelf cam- eras (COTS) are attached to ESA's Columbus laboratory taking videos of the Earth 24/7. The only European partner of the NASA experiment 'High Definition Earth Viewing' (HDEV) is the educational project 'Columbus Eye - Live-Imagery from the ISS in Schools' (www.columbuseye.uni-bonn.de). In order to implement earth observation techniques for a sustainable use in secondary school lessons, the project develops interactive teaching materials. They enable pupils to apply professional remote sensing analyses. The paper explains the development paradigm of the project rooted in problem-based learning and moderate constructivism. It will be discussed how teachers are provided with didactical commentaries and trained in face-to-face workshops for an efficient and sustainable implementation of the material. In doing so, it is ensured that pupils can experience the value of earth observation and space technologies to monitor ongoing processes of coupled human-environment systems driving the future of the Earth.

  13. Laboratory Measurements on Charging of Individual Micron-Size Apollo-11 Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Observations made during Apollo missions, as well as theoretical models indicate that the lunar surface and dust grains are electrostatically charged, levitated and transported. Lunar dust grains are charged by UV photoelectric emissions on the lunar dayside and by the impact of the solar wind electrons on the nightside. The knowledge of charging properties of individual lunar dust grains is important for developing appropriate theoretical models and mitigating strategies. Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size size lunar dust grains in particular by low energy electron impact. However, experimental results based on extensive laboratory measurements on the charging of individual 0.2-13 micron size lunar dust grains by the secondary electron emissions (SEE) have been presented in a recent publication. The SEE process of charging of micron-size dust grains, however, is found to be very complex phenomena with strong particle size dependence. In this paper we present some examples of the complex nature of the SEE properties of positively charged individual lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB), and show that they remain unaffected by the variation of the AC field employed in the above mentioned measurements.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories Facilities Management and Operations Center Design Standards Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Timothy L.

    2014-09-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/NM applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule. These design standards generally apply to all disciplines on all SNL/NM projects. Architectural and engineering design must be both functional and cost-effective. Facility design must be tailored to fit its intended function, while emphasizing low-maintenance, energy-efficient, and energy-conscious design. Design facilities that can be maintained easily, with readily accessible equipment areas, low maintenance, and quality systems. To promote an orderly and efficient appearance, architectural features of new facilities must complement and enhance the existing architecture at the site. As an Architectural and Engineering (A/E) professional, you must advise the Project Manager when this approach is prohibitively expensive. You are encouraged to use professional judgment and ingenuity to produce a coordinated interdisciplinary design that is cost-effective, easily contractible or buildable, high-performing, aesthetically pleasing, and compliant with applicable building codes. Close coordination and development of civil, landscape, structural, architectural, fire

  15. Functions and activities of the Area Committee on Microbiology of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.

    PubMed Central

    Washington, J A

    1991-01-01

    The Area Committee on Microbiology of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has responsibility for the development of guidelines and standards in the field of clinical microbiology. Through the consensus process, representatives from government, industry, and professional societies have developed standards on antibacterial susceptibility testing (M2, M7, and M11), antimycobacterial susceptibility testing (M24), quality assurance on commercially prepared microbiological culture media (M22), evaluation of production lots of dehydrated Mueller-Hinton agar (M6), and preparation and testing of fetal bovine serum for use as cell culture growth supplement (M25) and guidelines on bactericidal tests (M26), protection of laboratory workers from infections transmitted by blood, body fluids, and tissue (M29), blood film examination for parasites (M15), and development of in vitro susceptibility testing criteria and quality control parameters (M23). PMID:2070343

  16. A Consensus German Reporting Standard for Secondary Data Analyses, Version 2 (STROSA-STandardisierte BerichtsROutine für SekundärdatenAnalysen).

    PubMed

    Swart, E; Bitzer, E M; Gothe, H; Harling, M; Hoffmann, F; Horenkamp-Sonntag, D; Maier, B; March, S; Petzold, T; Röhrig, R; Rommel, A; Schink, T; Wagner, C; Wobbe, S; Schmitt, J

    2016-09-01

    Although secondary data analyses have been established in recent years in health research, explicit recommendations for standardized, transparent and complete reporting of secondary data analyses do not exist as yet. Therefore, between 2009 and 2014, a first proposal for a specific reporting standard for secondary data analysis was developed (STROSA 1). Parallel to this national process in Germany, an international reporting standard for routine data analysis was initiated in 2013 (RECORD). Nevertheless, because of the specific characteristics of the German health care system as well as specific data protection requirements, the need for a specific German reporting standard for secondary data analyses became evident. Therefore, STROSA was revised and tested by a task force of 15 experts from the working group Collection and Use of Secondary Data (AGENS) of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) and the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) as well as from the working group Validation and Linkage of Secondary Data of the German Network for Health Services Research (DNVF). The consensus STROSA-2 checklist includes 27 criteria, which should be met in the reporting of secondary data analysis from Germany. The criteria have been illustrated and clarified with specific explanations and examples of good practice. The STROSA reporting standard aims at stimulating a wider scientific discussion on the practicability and completeness of the checklist. After further discussions and possibly resulting modifications, STROSA shall be implemented as a reporting standard for secondary data analyses from Germany. This will guarantee standardized and complete information on secondary data analyses enabling assessment of their internal and external validity.

  17. An Alternative Approach for Preparing and Standardizing Some Common Aqueous Reagents Used in an Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melaku, Samuel; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2014-01-01

    A guide for instructors and laboratory assistants to prepare some common aqueous reagents used in an undergraduate laboratory is presented. Dilute reagents consisting of H[superscript +](aq), I[subscript 3][superscript-](aq), Ce[superscript 4+](aq), and Ag[superscript+](aq) were prepared by electrolytic oxidation of respective precursors.…

  18. 42 CFR 493.1239 - Standard: General laboratory systems quality assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quality assessment. (a) The laboratory must establish and follow written policies and procedures for an... quality assessment must include a review of the effectiveness of corrective actions taken to resolve... of general laboratory systems quality assessment reviews with appropriate staff. (c) The...

  19. National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead NAAQS: 1978 Final Rule (43 FR 46246 & 46264)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the October 5, 1978 Final Rules for National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead (Pb) NAAQS.

  20. Compulsory Literacy and Numeracy Exit Standards for Senior Secondary Students: The Right Direction for Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Care, Esther; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An overview of positive and negative potential effects of the setting of compulsory exit-level standards in literacy and numeracy for students completing their final years of schooling is presented. The overview rests on studies completed primarily outside Australia, reflecting the reality of such practices not having been implemented widely in…

  1. "Raising Standards"& Deepening Inequality: Selection, League Tables, and Reform in Multiethnic Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David; Youdell, Deborah

    Although education in England is dominated by the rhetoric of "standards," this paper attempts to show that the overall shape and drive of English education reform has remained largely consistent. The annually published School Performance Tables continue to be assigned a special place in the reforms, as a means to and as an index of…

  2. QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

  3. Standardization of Lower Secondary Civic Education and Inequality of the Civic and Political Engagement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witschge, Jacqueline; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between the standardization of civic education and the inequality of civic engagement is examined. Using data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2009 among early adolescents and Eurydice country-level data, three-level analysis and variance function regression are applied to examine whether…

  4. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design & performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program

  6. Secondary Standard Sequence and BVRI-H-alpha Light Curves for NGC 4151

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallum, Melissa; Joner, Micheal

    2017-01-01

    We present data for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 secured at the BYU West Mountain Observatory on 36 nights between 2016 April 2 and 2016 August 14. Observations were made using standard BVRI filters as well as a 20 nm filter centered on the rest wavelength of the H-alpha line of hydrogen. Standardized data are presented for 15 stars in the field of NGC 4151 in each of the BVRI magnitudes. The V magnitude range for the extended sequence is between 11.480 and 16.100. Additionally, we have found light curves for NGC 4151 in each of the five colors using both traditional photometric analysis and image subtraction routines. representative examples of light curves are presented for each of the techniques we have tested. We acknowledge the Brigham Young University Department of Physics and Astronomy for continued support of student research experiences at the West Mountain Observatory.

  7. Part 1: Laboratory Culture of Centroptilum triangulifer (Ephemeroptera: BAETIDAE) Using a Standardized Diet of Three Diatoms.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of methods for assessing exposure and effects of waterborne toxicants on stream invertebrate species is important to elucidate environmentally relevant information. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) laboratory protocols for invertebrate toxicity te...

  8. From Topos to Oikos: The Standardization of Glass Containers as Epistemic Boundaries in Modern Laboratory Research (1850-1900).

    PubMed

    Espahangizi, Kijan

    2015-09-01

    Glass vessels such as flasks and test tubes play an ambiguous role in the historiography of modern laboratory research. In spite of the strong focus on the role of materiality in the last decades, the scientific glass vessel - while being symbolically omnipresent - has remained curiously neglected in regard to its materiality. The popular image or topos of the transparent, neutral, and quasi-immaterial glass container obstructs the view of the physico-chemical functionality of this constitutive inner boundary in modern laboratory environments and its material historicity. In order to understand how glass vessels were able to provide a stable epistemic containment of spatially enclosed experimental phenomena in the new laboratory ecologies emerging in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, I will focus on the history of the material standardization of laboratory glassware. I will follow the rise of a new awareness for measurement errors due to the chemical agency of experimental glass vessels, then I will sketch the emergence of a whole techno-scientific infrastructure for the improvement of glass container quality in late nineteenth-century Germany. In the last part of my argument, I will return to the laboratory by looking at the implementation of this glass reform that created a new oikos for the inner experimental milieus of modern laboratory research.

  9. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S.; Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude – apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix – constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305 nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200 nm band was found to be ∼1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  10. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry.

    PubMed

    Meusinger, Carl; Berhanu, Tesfaye A; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel; Johnson, Matthew S

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude - apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix - constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NOx emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305 nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NOx emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200 nm band was found to be ∼1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  11. Harvesting (67)Cu from the Collection of a Secondary Beam Cocktail at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Mastren, Tara; Pen, Aranh; Loveless, Shaun; Marquez, Bernadette V; Bollinger, Elizabeth; Marois, Boone; Hubley, Nicholas; Brown, Kyle; Morrissey, David J; Peaslee, Graham F; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2015-10-20

    Isotope harvesting is a promising new method to obtain isotopes for which there is no reliable continuous supply at present. To determine the possibility of obtaining radiochemically pure radioisotopes from an aqueous beam dump at a heavy-ion fragmentation facility, preliminary experiments were performed to chemically extract a copper isotope from a large mixture of projectile fragmentation products in an aqueous medium. In this work a 93 MeV/u secondary beam cocktail was collected in an aqueous beam stop at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) located on the Michigan State University (MSU) campus. The beam cocktail consisted of ∼2.9% (67)Cu in a large mixture of co-produced isotopes ranging in atomic number from ∼19 to 34. The chemical extraction of (67)Cu was achieved via a two-step process: primary extraction using a divalent metal chelation disk followed by anion-exchange chromatography. A significant fraction (74 ± 4%) of the (67)Cu collected in the aqueous beam stop was recovered with >99% radiochemical purity. To illustrate the utility of this product, the purified (67)Cu material was then used to radiolabel an anti-EGFR antibody, Panitumumab, and injected into mice bearing colon cancer xenografts. The tumor uptake at 5 days postinjection was found to be 12.5 ± 0.7% which was in very good agreement with previously reported studies with this radiolabeled antibody. The present results demonstrate that harvesting isotopes from a heavy-ion fragmentation facility could be a promising new method for obtaining high-quality isotopes that are not currently available by traditional methods.

  12. Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: The SHARPn project

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Susan; Pathak, Jyotishman; Savova, Guergana; Oniki, Thomas A.; Westberg, Les; Beebe, Calvin E.; Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G.; Haug, Peter J.; Huff, Stanley M.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program, established by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in 2010 supports research findings that remove barriers for increased adoption of health IT. The improvements envisioned by the SHARP Area 4 Consortium (SHARPn) will enable the use of the electronic health record (EHR) for secondary purposes, such as care process and outcomes improvement, biomedical research and epidemiologic monitoring of the nation’s health. One of the primary informatics problem areas in this endeavor is the standardization of disparate health data from the nation’s many health care organizations and providers. The SHARPn team is developing open source services and components to support the ubiquitous exchange, sharing and reuse or ‘liquidity’ of operational clinical data stored in electronic health records. One year into the design and development of the SHARPn framework, we demonstrated end to end data flow and a prototype SHARPn platform, using thousands of patient electronic records sourced from two large healthcare organizations: Mayo Clinic and Intermountain Healthcare. The platform was deployed to (1) receive source EHR data in several formats, (2) generate structured data from EHR narrative text, and (3) normalize the EHR data using common detailed clinical models and Consolidated Health Informatics standard terminologies, which were (4) accessed by a phenotyping service using normalized data specifications. The architecture of this prototype SHARPn platform is presented. The EHR data throughput demonstration showed success in normalizing native EHR data, both structured and narrative, from two independent organizations and EHR systems. Based on the demonstration, observed challenges for standardization of EHR data for interoperable secondary use are discussed. PMID:22326800

  13. Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: the SHARPn project.

    PubMed

    Rea, Susan; Pathak, Jyotishman; Savova, Guergana; Oniki, Thomas A; Westberg, Les; Beebe, Calvin E; Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G; Haug, Peter J; Huff, Stanley M; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-08-01

    The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program, established by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in 2010 supports research findings that remove barriers for increased adoption of health IT. The improvements envisioned by the SHARP Area 4 Consortium (SHARPn) will enable the use of the electronic health record (EHR) for secondary purposes, such as care process and outcomes improvement, biomedical research and epidemiologic monitoring of the nation's health. One of the primary informatics problem areas in this endeavor is the standardization of disparate health data from the nation's many health care organizations and providers. The SHARPn team is developing open source services and components to support the ubiquitous exchange, sharing and reuse or 'liquidity' of operational clinical data stored in electronic health records. One year into the design and development of the SHARPn framework, we demonstrated end to end data flow and a prototype SHARPn platform, using thousands of patient electronic records sourced from two large healthcare organizations: Mayo Clinic and Intermountain Healthcare. The platform was deployed to (1) receive source EHR data in several formats, (2) generate structured data from EHR narrative text, and (3) normalize the EHR data using common detailed clinical models and Consolidated Health Informatics standard terminologies, which were (4) accessed by a phenotyping service using normalized data specifications. The architecture of this prototype SHARPn platform is presented. The EHR data throughput demonstration showed success in normalizing native EHR data, both structured and narrative, from two independent organizations and EHR systems. Based on the demonstration, observed challenges for standardization of EHR data for interoperable secondary use are discussed.

  14. Multicenter Comparison of Laboratory Performance in Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Load Testing using International Standards

    PubMed Central

    Rychert, Jenna; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Storch, Gregory; Buller, Richard; Sweet, Stewart C.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Cheeseman, Jennifer A.; Heeger, Peter; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Fishman, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) remain important in solid organ transplantation. Quantitative viral nucleic acid testing is a major advance to patient management. These assays are limited by a lack of standardization, resulting in viral load measurements that differ among clinical laboratories. The variability in viral load measurements makes interpretation of multicenter clinical trials data difficult. This study compares the current practices in CMV and EBV viral load testing at four large transplant centers participating in multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation (CTOT/CTOTC). Methods Viral load testing was performed on well-defined viral preparations according to standard operating procedures at each site. Results Among centers, CMV viral load testing was accurate compared to WHO International Standards and within acceptable variation for this testing method. EBV viral load data were more variable and less accurate despite the use of international standards. Conclusions These data suggest that comparison of CMV, but not EBV, viral load measurements at these sites is possible using current assays and control standards. Standardization of these assays is facilitated by using the WHO International Standards and will allow comparison of viral load results among transplant centers. Assay standardization must be performed prior to initiation of multicenter trials. PMID:25303316

  15. Safety Basis Requirements for Nonnuclear Facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site-Specific Work Smart Standards Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R; Brereton, S; Failor, R; Hildum, S; Spagnolo, S; Van Warmerdam, C

    2003-02-24

    This standard establishes requirements that, when coupled with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) methods and other Work Smart Standards for assuring worker safety, assure that the impacts of nonnuclear operations authorized in LLNL facilities are well understood and controlled in a manner that protects the health of workers, the public, and the environment. All LLNL facilities shall be classified based on potential for adverse impact of operations to the health of co-located (i.e., nearby) workers and the public in accordance with this standard, Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 830, Subpart B, and Department of Energy Order (DOE O) 420.2A. This standard provides information on: Objectives; Applicability; Safety analysis requirements; Control selection and maintenance; Documentation requirements; Safety basis review, approval, and renewal; and Safety basis implementation.

  16. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared 11: Comparison of (alpha) Boo and 1 Ceres with a Laboratory Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witteborn, Fred C.; Cohen, Martin; Bregman, Jess D.; Wooden, Diane; Heere, Karen; Shirley, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Infrared spectra of two celestial objects frequently used as flux standards are calibrated against an absolute laboratory flux standard at a spectral resolving power of 100 to 200. The spectrum of the K1.5III star, alpha Boo, is measured from 3 microns to 30 microns and that of the C-type asteroid, 1 Ceres, from 5 microns to 30 microns. While these 'standard' spectra do not have the apparent precision of those based on calculated models, they do not require the assumptions involved in theoretical models of stars and asteroids. Specifically they provide a model-independent means of calibrating celestial flux in the spectral range from 12 microns to 30 microns where accurate absolute photometry is not available. The agreement found between the spectral shapes of alpha Boo and Ceres based on laboratory standards, and those based on observed ratios to alpha CMa (Sirius) and alpha Lyr (Vega), flux calibrated by theoretical modeling of these hot stars strengthens our confidence in the applicability of the stellar models as primary irradiance standards.

  17. A brave new animal for a brave new world: The British Laboratory Animals Bureau and the constitution of international standards of laboratory animal production and use, circa 1947-1968.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2010-03-01

    In 1947 the Medical Research Council of Britain established the Laboratory Animals Bureau in order to develop national standards of animal production that would enable commercial producers better to provide for the needs of laboratory animal users. Under the directorship of William Lane-Petter, the bureau expanded well beyond this remit, pioneering a new discipline of "laboratory animal science" and becoming internationally known as a producer of pathogenically and genetically standardized laboratory animals. The work of this organization, later renamed the Laboratory Animals Centre, and of Lane-Petter did much to systematize worldwide standards for laboratory animal production and provision--for example, by prompting the formation of the International Committee on Laboratory Animals. This essay reconstructs how the bureau became an internationally recognized center of expertise and argues that standardization discourses within science are inherently internationalizing. It traces the dynamic co-constitution of standard laboratory animals alongside that of the identities of the users, producers, and regulators of laboratory animals. This process is shown to have brought into being a transnational community with shared conceptual understandings and material practices grounded in the materiality of the laboratory animal, conceived as an instrumental technology.

  18. Role of Concentration and Time of Day in Developing Ozone Exposure Indices for a Secondary Standard.

    PubMed

    Lee, E H; Hogsett, W E

    1999-06-01

    Evidence from exposure-response studies and a turbulent transfer model demonstrate that plant response is differential to concentration, duration, temporal pattern, and time of day of exposure. Reductions in productivity of crops and trees as seedlings are greater when plants are exposed to higher daytime ozone (O3) concentrations (0800-2000 hr standard time) or for longer durations. Primary evidence on the greater role of concentration comes from exposure-response experiments where plants are exposed to a series of pollutant concentrations in open-top chambers under field conditions. These studies demonstrate that the integrated exposure indices that give preferential weight to higher concentrations are better predictors of response than mean or peak indices. Evidence suggesting that mid-range O3 concentrations (0.05-0.09 parts per million, ppm) play a greater role than higher concentrations (>0.09 ppm) in biological response could not be justified. The time of day when O3 concentrations and atmospheric and stomatal conductances of gas exchange are optimal is a key to understanding plant response because plants respond only to O3 entering the leaf via stomata. A turbulent transfer model that describes the resistance of pollutant gas exchange from the atmosphere to the boundary layer of a forest canopy, as a function of micrometeorological variables, is developed to determine when flux of O3 is optimal. Based on meteorological and ambient air quality monitoring data at remote forest sites in the United States, it appears that O3 flux densities to the forest boundary layer are optimal during the 0800-2000 hr window. It is concluded that descriptors of ambient air quality for use in setting a federal standard should (1) cumulate hourly O3 concentrations, (2) give preferential weight to daytime concentrations between 0800 and 2000 hr, and (3) give preferential weight to higher O3 concentrations.

  19. Standard testing procedures for optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair at Sandia National Laboratories. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    This revision updates Sandia`s working standard for testing optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair cables included in the Lab-wide telecommunications cabling infrastructure. The purpose of these standard testing procedures is to deliver to all Sandians a reliable, low-maintenance, state-of-the-art, ubiquitous telecommunications cabling infrastructure capable of satisfying all current and future telecommunication needs.

  20. Standard testing procedures for optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    This document will establish a working standard for testing optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair cables included in the Lab-wide telecommunications cabling system. The purpose of these standard testing procedures is to deliver to all Sandians a reliable, low-maintenance, state-of-the-art, ubiquitous telecommunications cabling infrastructure capable of satisfying all current and future telecommunication needs.

  1. Fitness components of Drosophila melanogaster developed on a standard laboratory diet or a typical natural food source.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Henningsen, Astrid Kallestrup; Aastrup, Christian; Bech-Hansen, Mads; Bjerre, Lise B Hoberg; Carlsen, Benjamin; Hagstrup, Marie; Jensen, Sofie Graarup; Karlsen, Pernille; Kristensen, Line; Lundsgaard, Cecillie; Møller, Tine; Nielsen, Lise D; Starcke, Camilla; Sørensen, Christine Riisager; Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2016-10-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is often used as a model organism in evolutionary biology and ecophysiology to study evolutionary processes and their physiological mechanisms. Diets used to feed Drosophila cultures differ between laboratories and are often nutritious and distinct from food sources in the natural habitat. Here we rear D. melanogaster on a standard diet used in our laboratory and a field diet composed of decomposing apples collected in the field. Flies developed on these two diet compositions are tested for heat, cold, desiccation, and starvation resistance as well as developmental time, dry body mass and fat percentage. The nutritional compositions of the standard and field diets were analyzed, and discussed in relation to the phenotypic observations. Results showed marked differences in phenotype of flies from the two types of diets. Flies reared on the field diet are more starvation resistant and they are smaller, leaner, and have lower heat resistance compared to flies reared on the standard diet. Sex specific effects of diet type are observed for several of the investigated traits and the strong sexual dimorphism usually observed in desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster disappeared when rearing the flies on the field diet. Based on our results we conclude that care should be taken in extrapolating results from one type of diet to another and especially from laboratory to field diets.

  2. The World Health Organization's role and future plans in laboratory standardization.

    PubMed

    Heuck, C C

    1993-01-01

    WHO is monitoring health care and the status of health of the population in each of its member states. The statistics provides valuable information for the comparison of the effectiveness of different health systems. As part of its global responsibility on health WHO issues international reference materials (IRMs), assigns international nonproprietary names for therapeutics (INNs), publishes guidelines for good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good laboratory practice (GLP) and, in collaboration with international professional organizations, makes recommendations towards achieving global harmonization of clinical laboratory investigations.

  3. Quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--Part I. Quality assurance: development of secondary and working standards.

    PubMed

    Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2005-12-01

    International movement in animals and animal products has urged organisations like the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to draw up guidelines to regulate and facilitate trade between Member Countries. However, as the global market continues to grow, further standardisation and harmonisation of antibody detection assays for infectious diseases are needed, especially regarding the development and use of reference materials. For OIE notifiable diseases for which primary or international reference standards are available or under development, National or Regional Reference Laboratories are encouraged to establish their own secondary and/or working standards. This paper describes the development of standards for the foot and mouth disease (FMD) solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using positive serum obtained from calves vaccinated against the FMD virus. The procedure outlined in this manuscript can easily be extrapolated to similar serological assays and should lead to further international harmonisation of assays and test results.

  4. Bipolar plasma vaporization versus standard transurethral resection in secondary bladder neck sclerosis: a prospective, medium-term, randomized comparison

    PubMed Central

    Geavlete, Bogdan; Moldoveanu, Cristian; Iacoboaie, Catalin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, randomized, medium-term trial aimed to assess the efficiency, safety and postoperative results of bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) in comparison with monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) in cases of secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS). Methods: A total of 70 patients with BNS secondary to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP; 46 cases), open prostatectomy for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; 18 cases) and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (6 cases) were enrolled in the trial. The inclusion criteria consisted of maximum flow rate (Q max) <10 ml/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) >19. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after surgery by IPSS, quality of life score (QoL), Q max and postvoiding residual urinary volume (PVR). Results: The mean operation time (10.3 versus 14.9 minutes), catheterization period (0.75 versus 2.1 days) and hospital stay (1.1 versus 3.2 days) were significantly reduced in the BPV series. During the immediate postoperative follow up, recatheterization for acute urinary retention only occurred in the TUR series (5.7%). The medium-term retreatment requirements due to BNS recurrence were lower in the BPV study arm (2.8% versus 8.5%). At the 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months assessments, statistically similar parameters were found concerning the IPSS and QoL symptom scores, Q max and PVR values specific for the two therapeutic alternatives. Conclusions: BPV constitutes a valuable endoscopic treatment approach for secondary BNS. The method emphasized superior efficacy, a satisfactory safety profile and similar medium-term follow-up features when compared with standard TUR. PMID:23554842

  5. Implementation of the OECD principles of good laboratory practice in test facilities complying with a quality system accredited to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard.

    PubMed

    Feller, Etty

    2008-01-01

    Laboratories with a quality system accredited to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard have a definite advantage, compared to non-accredited laboratories, when preparing their facilities for the implementation of the principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Accredited laboratories have an established quality system covering the administrative and technical issues specified in the standard. The similarities and differences between the ISO/IEC 17025 standard and the OECD principles of GLP are compared and discussed.

  6. Knowledge and practices of laboratory workers on standardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing and biosafety practices to prevent the spread of superbugs in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ghanchi, Najia K; Khan, Erum; Farooqi, Joveria Q; Fasih, Naima; Dojki, Maqboola; Hughes, Molly A

    2014-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaire was conducted to assess practices of microbiological laboratories working with pathogens. Forty-eight laboratory workers (50%) agreed that laboratory methods to detect antimicrobial resistance are not standardized in Pakistan, and 6% of the laboratory workers were not aware of the standardization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Pakistan. Reported rates of awareness regarding the role of waste disposal, disinfection, and handwashing in limiting the spread of antimicrobial resistance were 75%, 42%, and 81%, respectively. Our results provide baseline data for planning programs to train, supervise, and improve the operational quality of microbiological laboratories nationwide to prevent the spread of superbugs.

  7. [Control of accuracy of immunoserological laboratory data on medical network and standardization].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Keiko

    2003-05-01

    Construction of a medical network for each region and organization has become possible by utilization of information technology. Standardization of the data on the medical network is urgent. Especially, the standardization of immunoserological data is much delayed. In this study, the possibility of standardization of such data was reconsidered based on the findings from various control surveys. Regarding the measurement items for serum concentrations of proteins and other compounds, we concluded that standardization should occur in a manner similar to the method for standardization of biochemical data and accurate control. The data on CRP, IgG, IgA, IgM and AFP, which are determined using the respective standard compound, were converged to a range with inter-facility differences of less than 10% CV. The data on CEA were also converged to achieve an inter-facility difference of less than 10% CV through repeated survey. Automatic measurement for the markers of infection diseases has progressed, and the expression of measurements was changed to the absolute value of COI, U/ml or IU/ml although it was titer in the past. Since these expressions now coexist, it is impossible to standardize the data with absolute qualitative values. It seemed necessary to present them uniformly with qualitative or clinical criteria values or express the presence or absence of infection by a combination of related markers. The measurements obtained from autoantibody-related tests using identical reagent were found coincident, but measurements obtained using different reagents were discrepant and the differences were greater than the sensitivity of measurement. In immunoserological testing and immunochemical testing, it is most important whether the antigen/antibody used as the reagent is the same preparation or not. Therefore, the test should be reconsidered through setting a certain restrictions on each recognition site of epitope and antibody. Thus, we concluded that use of a suitable

  8. Allied Health Occupations II. Medical Laboratory Assistant Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is intended to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by medical laboratory technicians and technologists. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the value of…

  9. Estimation of Wildlife Hazard Levels Using Interspecies Correlation Models and Standard Laboratory Rodent Toxicity Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity data from laboratory rodents are widely available and frequently used in human health assessments as an animal model. We explore the possibility of using single rodent acute toxicity values to predict chemical toxicity to a diversity of wildlife species and to estimate ...

  10. Cellular Cultivation: Growing HeLa Cells Using Standard High School Laboratory Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woloschak, Gayle; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes experiments to culture cells in a laboratory that provide students with hands-on experience in manipulating cells and a chance to observe cell growth characteristics first hand. Exposes students to sterile technique, cell culture, cell growth concepts, and eukaryotic cell structure. (JRH)

  11. IPEM guidelines on dosimeter systems for use as transfer instruments between the UK primary dosimetry standards laboratory (NPL) and radiotherapy centres.

    PubMed

    Morgan, A M; Aird, E G; Aukett, R J; Duane, S; Jenkins, N H; Mayles, W P; Moretti, C; Thwaites, D I

    2000-09-01

    United Kingdom dosimetry codes of practice have traditionally specified one electrometer for use as a secondary standard, namely the Nuclear Enterprises (NE) 2560 NPL secondary standard therapy level exposure meter. The NE2560 will become obsolete in the foreseeable future. This report provides guidelines to assist physicists following the United Kingdom dosimetry codes of practice in the selection of an electrometer to replace the NE2560 when necessary. Using an internationally accepted standard (BS EN 60731:1997) as a basis, estimated error analyses demonstrate that the uncertainty (one standard deviation) in a charge measurement associated with the NE2560 alone is approximately 0.3% under specified conditions. Following a review of manufacturers' literature, it is considered that modern electrometers should be capable of equalling this performance. Additional constructural and operational requirements not specified in the international standard but considered essential in a modern electrometer to be used as a secondary standard are presented.

  12. The impact of standard preparation practice on the runoff and soil erosion rates under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaledi Darvishan, Abdulvahed; Homayounfar, Vafa; Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed

    2016-09-01

    The use of laboratory methods in soil erosion studies, rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach troughs, and other measurements such as ring infiltrometer has been recently considered more and more because of many advantages in controlling rainfall properties and high accuracy of sampling and measurements. However, different stages of soil removal, transfer, preparation and placement in laboratory plots cause significant changes in soil structure and, subsequently, the results of runoff, sediment concentration and soil loss. Knowing the rate of changes in sediment concentration and soil loss variables with respect to the soil preparation for laboratory studies is therefore inevitable to generalize the laboratory results to field conditions. However, there has been little attention given to evaluate the effects of soil preparation on sediment variables. The present study was therefore conducted to compare sediment concentration and soil loss in natural and prepared soil. To achieve the study purposes, 18 field 1 × 1 m plots were adopted in an 18 % gradient slope with sandy-clay-loam soil in the Kojour watershed, northern Iran. A portable rainfall simulator was then used to simulate rainfall events using one or two nozzles of BEX: 3/8 S24W for various rainfall intensities with a constant height of 3 m above the soil surface. Three rainfall intensities of 40, 60 and 80 mm h-1 were simulated on both prepared and natural soil treatments with three replications. The sediment concentration and soil loss at five 3 min intervals after time to runoff were then measured. The results showed the significant increasing effects of soil preparation (p ≤ 0.01) on the average sediment concentration and soil loss. The increasing rates of runoff coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss due to the study soil preparation method for laboratory soil erosion plots were 179, 183 and 1050 % (2.79, 2.83 and 11.50 times), respectively.

  13. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., scientific or academic establishment, government agency, or organizational unit thereof, and any other legal... for monitoring each study to assure management that the facilities, equipment, personnel, methods... describes the methods and standard operating procedures, and that the reported results accurately...

  14. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., scientific or academic establishment, government agency, or organizational unit thereof, and any other legal... for monitoring each study to assure management that the facilities, equipment, personnel, methods... describes the methods and standard operating procedures, and that the reported results accurately...

  15. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., scientific or academic establishment, government agency, or organizational unit thereof, and any other legal... for monitoring each study to assure management that the facilities, equipment, personnel, methods... describes the methods and standard operating procedures, and that the reported results accurately...

  16. The NBS/NRL (National Bureau of Standards/Naval Research Laboratory) Free Electron Laser Facility,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    343eec... .. ba as a joint project with the Naval Research Laboratory. Theelectron beam source is the i35-MeV CW racetrack microtron (RTM) presently...materials sciences, and basic physics and chemistry. The driving accelerator is a 185-MeV CW racetrack microtron (RTM) now nearing completion. *This...JV Accelerator The electron accelerator of the NBS/NRL FEL facility is the NBS/Los Alamos Racetrack Microtron (RTM). A general description of the RTM

  17. Investigations of primary and secondary impact structures on the moon and laboratory experiments to study the ejecta of secondary particles. Ph.D. Thesis - Ruprecht Karl Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, B.

    1977-01-01

    Young lunar impact structures were investigated by using lunar orbiter, Apollo Metric and panorama photographs. Measurements on particularly homogeneous areas low in secondary craters made possible an expansion of primary crater distribution to small diameters. This is now sure for a range between 20m or = D or = 20km and this indicates that the size and velocity distribution of the impacting bodies in the last 3 billion years has been constant. A numerical approximation in the form of a 7th degree polynomial was obtained for the distribution.

  18. Laboratory Measurements on Charging of Individual Micron-Size Apollo-11 Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-03-01

    We present some examples of the complex nature of secondary electron emissions from lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance, and show that the measurements are unaffected by the variation of the AC field employed in the experiments.

  19. Effects of the use of the Calculator-Based Laboratory Device on the attitudes of students towards laboratory work in secondary physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Michael Herman

    Students exist in a technology-saturated milieu, and with this in mind, it was desirable to determine whether use of a technology specifically designed for use in the conduct of physical science laboratory work would affect student attitudes towards that laboratory work. This study employed a specific device, the Calculator-Based Laboratory device (CBL), a product of the Vernier Corporation in conjunction with Texas Instruments. Students in a high school setting in west central Georgia were the subjects in this study. Thirty-two students in two physics classes participated, with fifteen of the students in one class and seventeen in another class. The students were in non-AP Physics classes. These were intact groups of students who were taught topics in motion during the course of the study. The study was carried out for six weeks, with one physics class using the CBL for the entire time (five laboratories) and the other class for only three weeks (three laboratories). All experiments were from the mechanics sections of physics, involving one- and two-dimensional motion. Graphical output was studied and produced and interpretation of physical phenomena was made from that output. Content related to laboratory work was also studied as appropriate in both classes, with both classes covering the same content. A pre- and post-survey of attitudes was carried out utilizing an attitude survey developed by the author. Two students who graduated were interviewed three months later to further examine their impressions of the laboratory work with and without the CBL, one from the full-treatment CBL class and one from the partial-treatment CBL class. Their comments and interpretations were included in the study. It was found that there was a significant, positive change in attitudes on the part of the students towards using the device and towards laboratory work in Physics. Of no significance was the class in which the student was enrolled. This supports earlier findings in the

  20. Comparison of a new cobinamide-based method to a standard laboratory method for measuring cyanide in human blood.

    PubMed

    Swezey, Robert; Shinn, Walter; Green, Carol; Drover, David R; Hammer, Gregory B; Schulman, Scott R; Zajicek, Anne; Jett, David A; Boss, Gerry R

    2013-01-01

    Most hospital laboratories do not measure blood cyanide concentrations, and samples must be sent to reference laboratories. A simple method is needed for measuring cyanide in hospitals. The authors previously developed a method to quantify cyanide based on the high binding affinity of the vitamin B12 analog, cobinamide, for cyanide and a major spectral change observed for cyanide-bound cobinamide. This method is now validated in human blood, and the findings include a mean inter-assay accuracy of 99.1%, precision of 8.75% and a lower limit of quantification of 3.27 µM cyanide. The method was applied to blood samples from children treated with sodium nitroprusside and it yielded measurable results in 88 of 172 samples (51%), whereas the reference laboratory yielded results in only 19 samples (11%). In all 19 samples, the cobinamide-based method also yielded measurable results. The two methods showed reasonable agreement when analyzed by linear regression, but not when analyzed by a standard error of the estimate or paired t-test. Differences in results between the two methods may be because samples were assayed at different times on different sample types. The cobinamide-based method is applicable to human blood, and can be used in hospital laboratories and emergency rooms.

  1. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  2. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Mixtures of test emissions or reference solutions with carriers. (i) For test emissions or each reference... specified: Batch means a specific quantity or lot of a test fuel, additive/base fuel mixture, or reference... chemical substance or mixture, analytical standard, or material other than engine/motor vehicle...

  3. Leishmania infection: laboratory diagnosing in the absence of a "gold standard".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Francino, Olga; López-Fuertes, Laura; Timón, Marcos; Alberola, Jordi

    2010-02-01

    There is no gold standard for diagnosing leishmaniases. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of tests used in detecting Leishmania infection using samples from experimental infections, a reliable equivalent to the classic definition of gold standard. Without statistical differences, the highest sensitivity was achieved by protein A (ProtA), immunoglobulin (Ig)G2, indirect fluorescenece antibody test (IFAT), lymphocyte proliferation assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of bone marrow (qPCR-BM), qPCR-Blood, and IgG; and the highest specificity by IgG1, IgM, IgA, qPCR-Blood, IgG, IgG2, and qPCR-BM. Maximum positive predictive value was obtained simultaneously by IgG2, qPCR-Blood, and IgG; and maximum negative predictive value by qPCR-BM. Best positive and negative likelihood ratios were obtained by IgG2. The test having the greatest, statistically significant, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was IgG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, according to the gold standard used, IFAT and qPCR are far from fulfilling the requirements to be considered gold standards, and the test showing the highest potential to detect Leishmania infection is Leishmania-specific ELISA IgG2.

  4. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Request (ICR). All comments including any personal information you provide, are placed in the public... 1910, Subpart Z. They do so by developing a written Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) that describes standard... commenters about submitting personal information, such as social security numbers and dates of...

  5. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...-0059) for the Information Collection Request (ICR). All comments, including any personal information... by developing a written Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) that describes: Standard operating procedures for... commenters about submitting personal information such as Social Security Numbers and date of birth....

  6. 78 FR 63999 - Notice of Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) Symposium: Tools To Improve Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... the detection, evaluation, and treatment of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency by making... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Notice of Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP... one-day symposium on November 14, 2013, to present information about the Vitamin D...

  7. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc Balci, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  8. Intercomparison of a range of primary gas standards of carbon monoxide in nitrogen and carbon dioxide in nitrogen prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Physical Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, E.E.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr. ); Davenport, A.J.; Woods, P.T. )

    1991-04-01

    Measurements were carried out by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the United Kingdom and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the US to intercompare the primary gravimetric gas standards developed by these two laboratories. These intercomparisons involved analyses of a set of CO and CO{sub 2} NIST Standard Reference Materials by the NPL, and of a similar set of NPL primary standards by the NIST. In each case, the exact concentrations of the exchanged sets were unknown to the analyzing laboratory. The CO and CO{sub 2} standards ranged in nominal concentration from 8% to 10 ppm and from 8% to 0.5%, respectively. The analyses were carried out using primary gravimetric standards, which were independently produced by the two laboratories. The mean difference between the values assigned by the supplying laboratory and the values determined by the analyzing laboratory was less than 0.2% relative for both sets of CO and CO{sub 2} standards. The results confirmed that standards produced by NPL and NIST have a degree of consistency, and that measurements obtained using these standards for measurements of levels of atmospheric CO and CO{sub 2} may be directly intercompared.

  9. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  10. Rapid identification of bacteria and yeast: summary of a National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards proposed guideline.

    PubMed

    Baron, E J

    2001-07-15

    Using colony morphology on selected agars, Gram-stain morphology, and a number of 1-step biochemical or enzymatic tests, skilled microbiologists can identify the species of the majority of isolates seen routinely in a clinical laboratory. These results are often available more quickly than and are as accurate as those derived from conventional methods. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has produced a guideline that describes tests that can be used to identify a number of aerobic gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci, a number of commonly isolated anaerobes, and 3 species of yeast. An overview of the organisms included in the guideline, the tests that identify them, and the situations in which rapid testing is appropriate is presented here.

  11. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... unit, and are produced from the processing of discarded non-hazardous secondary materials and that meet... industrial process. (iv) The non-hazardous secondary material must result in products that...

  12. Quantification of Soil Physical Properties by Using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) and Standard Laboratory (STD) Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Maria Ambert

    2003-12-12

    The implementation of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) on agricultural soils has been used in this research to quantify soil physical properties to be compared with standard laboratory (STD) methods. The overall research objective was to more accurately quantify soil physical properties for long-term management systems. Two field studies were conducted at Iowa State University's Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, IA using two different soil management strategies. The first field study was conducted in 1999 using continuous corn crop rotation for soil under chisel plow with no-till treatments. The second study was conducted in 2001 and on soybean crop rotation for the same soil but under chisel plow and no-till practices with wheel track and no-wheel track compaction treatments induced by a tractor-manure wagon. In addition, saturated hydraulic (K{sub s}) conductivity and the convection-dispersion (CDE) model were also applied using long-term soil management systems only during 2001. The results obtained for the 1999 field study revealed no significant differences between treatments and laboratory methods, but significant differences were found at deeper depths of the soil column for tillage treatments. The results for standard laboratory procedure versus CT method showed significant differences at deeper depths for the chisel plow treatment and at the second lower depth for no-till treatment for both laboratory methods. The macroporosity distribution experiment showed significant differences at the two lower depths between tillage practices. Bulk density and percent porosity had significant differences at the two lower depths of the soil column. The results obtained for the 2001 field study showed no significant differences between tillage practices and compaction practices for both laboratory methods, but significant differences between tillage practices with wheel track and no-wheel compaction treatments were found along the soil profile for

  13. Thermal cycling for restorative materials: does a standardized protocol exist in laboratory testing? A literature review.

    PubMed

    Morresi, Anna Lucia; D'Amario, Maurizio; Capogreco, Mario; Gatto, Roberto; Marzo, Giuseppe; D'Arcangelo, Camillo; Monaco, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    In vitro tests continue to be an indispensable method for the initial screening of dental materials. Thermal cycling is one of the most widely used procedures to simulate the physiological aging experienced by biomaterials in clinical practice. Consequently it is routinely employed in experimental studies to evaluate materials' performance. A literature review aimed to elucidate test parameters for in vitro aging of adhesive restorations was performed. This study aims to assess whether or not a standardized protocol of thermal cycling has been acknowledged from a review of the literature. An exhaustive literature search, examining the effect of thermal cycling on restorative dental materials, was performed with electronic database and by hand. The search was restricted to studies published from 1998 to August 2013. No language restrictions were applied. The search identified 193 relevant experimental studies. Only twenty-three studies had faithfully applied ISO standard. The majority of studies used their own procedures, showing only a certain consistency within the temperature parameter (5-55°C) and a great variability in the number of cycles and dwell time chosen. A wide variation in thermal cycling parameters applied in experimental studies has been identified. The parameters selected amongst these studies seem to be done on the basis of convenience for the authors in most cases. A comparison of results between studies would appear to be impossible. The available data suggest that further investigations will be required to ultimately develop a standardized thermal cycling protocol.

  14. [Proposals for standardization of clinical laboratory studies: technology "cytological study of lymph node specimens"].

    PubMed

    Shabalova, I P; Morozova, V T; Dzhangirova, T V

    2010-11-01

    This proposal contains unique requirements for a cytological study of lymph node specimens at the cytological and clinical diagnostic laboratories of health care facilities certified for this kind of work. The paper gives requirements for the performance of technologies, for specialists and auxiliary personnel, specialists' knowledge and skills, medical staff safeguarding. The conditions for rendering a service, necessary equipment, ware, and reagents are described in details. The specific features of a pre-analytical stage, methods for the fixation and staining of smears, the interpretation and recording of findings, and the control of the quality of a performed study, as well as the cost characteristics in conventional units of man-hours. The developed technology may be of great importance to the health care facilities certified for rendering this service.

  15. Standardized pretreatment inflammatory laboratory markers and calculated ratios in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Martin; Rieth, Johan; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Rieth, Sven; Teriete, Peter; Kluba, Susanne; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-10-01

    Analyzing the inflammatory microenvironment has become an important issue in the management of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Pretreatment C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, leucocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, platelets, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) derived from the peripheral blood were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determined a cut-off value for each parameter in 146 patients with OSCC compared with 93 controls and the results were associated with clinicopathological characteristics. CRP expression of tumors was measured by immunohistochemistry. ROC analysis determined cut-off values for CRP levels, leucocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, NLR, dNLR, LMR, PLR and showed significant differences between the OSCC and control group. Compared with single laboratory tests calculated ratios were superior in measuring sensitivity and specificity of OSCC disease. NLR was significant directly associated and correlated with PLR. LMR was significant inversely associated and correlated with NLR and PLR. Immunohistochemical analysis did not show CRP expression of OSCCs. This study highlights the first analysis for cut-off values of pretreatment single laboratory tests and calculated ratios, which are strongly needed for a follow-up of cancer patients. Additionally, the calculated baselines can be used as a goal for successful immunotherapies in the future. The links between NLR, LMR, and PLR might be helpful for the clinical course (monitoring) of cancer patients and have been first described for OSCC in this study. Taken together, analyzing these data provides an additional practical guideline of further postoperative OSCC management.

  16. [A novel method for patient-oriented assignment of wheelchair cushions based on standardized laboratory testing procedures].

    PubMed

    Diesing, P; Hochmann, D; Boenick, U; Kraft, M

    2005-06-01

    A wheelchair seat cushion represents the interface between the wheelchair and the wheelchair driver and has to manage the force transmission and the stabilization between both of them. An additional very important requirement is the prevention of pressure ulcers by pressure relief and the transfer of humidity and heat away from the patient. The allocation of a cushion to the patient happens normally on the base of a subjective description of the cushion without any transparent decision rules. Consequently the quality of this procedure could be improved by a better description of the cushion, based on standardized laboratory tests and by the development of decision tools helping to identify the main efforts of the user. This article describes a procedure that allows the allocation of wheelchair seat cushions based on the characteristic of cushions from standardized laboratory tests and on the brief description of the user. Additionally the existing principles for wheelchair cushions are listed, described and compared. The possibilities to develop structured decision tools for wheelchair cushions are discussed.

  17. Impact of new Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin susceptibility testing breakpoints on reported resistance changes over time.

    PubMed

    Mera, Robertino M; Miller, Linda A; Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Sahm, Daniel F

    2011-03-01

    The analysis comprised a total of 97,843 U.S. isolates from the Surveillance Network(®) database for the period 1996-2008. Penicillin resistance, when defined using the old Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint (≥2 μg/ml), had an initial rise that started in 1996, peaked in 2000, declined until 2003, and rebounded through 2008 (15.6%, 23.2%, 15.4%, and 16.9%, respectively). Using the new Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute criteria and applying a breakpoint of ≥8 μg/ml to blood and bronchial isolates, resistance was unchanged (0.24% in 2003) but rose to 1.52% in 2008. Using the new meningitis criteria (≥0.12 μg/ml), resistance prevalence was 34.8% in 2008, whereas it was 12.3% using the old criteria (≥2 μg/ml) for cerebrospinal fluid isolates. The rise, fall, and subsequent rebound of penicillin resistance in the United States, presumably influenced by the introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, is clearly seen with the old definition, but only the rebound is seen when the new criteria are applied. In the postvaccine period, isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1 and 2 μg/ml decline, whereas those with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.12-0.5 increase, which may signal the loss of resistant vaccine serotypes and the acquisition of resistance by nonvaccine serotypes.

  18. Ecological risk assessment of substances with suspected estrogenic activity using standard laboratory fish tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gimeno, S.; Bowmer, C.T.

    1999-07-01

    The assessment of risks to the aquatic environment in the European Union is generally based on a comparison of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) with Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) for surrogate, or representative, organisms of the receiving waters. Such risk assessments are required for new and priority existing chemicals, pesticides, and, in the near future, biocides; they are dependent on robust in vivo test data. Current strategies for ecological risk assessment were not designed to assess the risk of endocrine disrupters. The selection of suitable fish species and practical in vivo end points for determining endocrine disruption in fish are discussed, including the adaptation of some existing guidelines. This paper is partly based on a series of experiments conducted at the laboratory to look at the effects of a model alkylphenol (4-tert-pentylphenol), an industrial chemical intermediate, acting as a pseudo-estrogen on an all-male population of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Exposure to the test substance occurred at critical life stages for endocrine disruption. Biochemical parameters as well as histological parameters were applied, and their suitability to be used in ecological risk assessment is discussed.

  19. Suitability of the echo-time-shift method as laboratory standard for thermal ultrasound dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Tina; Georg, Olga; Haller, Julian; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound therapy is a promising, non-invasive application with potential to significantly improve cancer therapies like surgery, viro- or immunotherapy. This therapy needs faster, cheaper and more easy-to-handle quality assurance tools for therapy devices as well as possibilities to verify treatment plans and for dosimetry. This limits comparability and safety of treatments. Accurate spatial and temporal temperature maps could be used to overcome these shortcomings. In this contribution first results of suitability and accuracy investigations of the echo-time-shift method for two-dimensional temperature mapping during and after sonication are presented. The analysis methods used to calculate time-shifts were a discrete frame-to-frame and a discrete frame-to-base-frame algorithm as well as a sigmoid fit for temperature calculation. In the future accuracy could be significantly enhanced by using continuous methods for time-shift calculation. Further improvements can be achieved by improving filtering algorithms and interpolation of sampled diagnostic ultrasound data. It might be a comparatively accurate, fast and affordable method for laboratory and clinical quality control.

  20. Role of secondary level laboratories in strengthening quality at primary level health facilities' laboratories: an innovative approach to ensure accurate HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria test results in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Paterniti, Antonio D; Redfield, Robert R; Marinucci, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Providing regular external quality assessment of primary level laboratories and timely feedback is crucial to ensure the reliability of testing capacity of the whole laboratory network. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of primary level laboratories in Southwest Showa Zone in Ethiopia. An external quality assessment protocol was devised whereby from among all the samples collected on-site at 4 health centers (HCs), each HC sent to a district hospital (DH) on a weekly basis 2 TB slides (1 Ziehl-Neelsen stained and another unstained), 2 malaria slides (1 Giemsa stained and another unstained), and 2 blood samples for HIV testing (1 whole blood and another plasma) for a comparative analysis. Similarly, the DH preserved the same amount and type of specimens to send to each HC for retesting. From October to November 2011, 192 single-blinded specimens were rechecked: 64 TB slides, 64 malaria slides, and 64 blood specimens for HIV testing. The analyses demonstrated an overall agreement of 95.3% (183/192) between the test and the retest, and 98.4% (63/64), 92.2% (59/64,) and 95.3% (61/64) for TB microscopy, malaria microscopy, and HIV rapid testing, respectively. Of the total TB slides tested positive, 20/23 (87%) were quantified similar in both laboratories. The agreement on HIV rapid testing was 100% (32/32) when plasma samples were tested either at HC (16/16) or at DH (16/16), while when whole blood specimens were tested, the agreement was 87.5% (14/16) and 93.8% (15/16) for samples prepared by HCs and DH, respectively. Results of this new approach proved that secondary laboratories could play a vital role in assuring laboratory qualities at primary level HCs, without depending on remotely located national and regional laboratories to provide this support.

  1. Virtual Global Transplant Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures for Blood Collection, PBMC Isolation, and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Higdon, Lauren E.; Lee, Karim; Tang, Qizhi; Maltzman, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research on human immune responses frequently involves the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) immediately, or at significantly delayed timepoints, after collection. This requires PBMC isolation from whole blood and cryopreservation for some applications. It is important to standardize protocols for blood collection, PBMC isolation, cryopreservation, and thawing that maximize survival and functionality of PBMC at the time of analysis. This resource includes detailed protocols describing blood collection tubes, isolation of PBMC using a density gradient, cryopreservation of PBMC, and thawing of cells as well as preparation for functional assays. For each protocol, we include important considerations, such as timing, storage temperatures, and freezing rate. In addition, we provide alternatives so that researchers can make informed decisions in determining the optimal protocol for their application. PMID:27795993

  2. Virtual Global Transplant Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures for Blood Collection, PBMC Isolation, and Storage.

    PubMed

    Higdon, Lauren E; Lee, Karim; Tang, Qizhi; Maltzman, Jonathan S

    2016-09-01

    Research on human immune responses frequently involves the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) immediately, or at significantly delayed timepoints, after collection. This requires PBMC isolation from whole blood and cryopreservation for some applications. It is important to standardize protocols for blood collection, PBMC isolation, cryopreservation, and thawing that maximize survival and functionality of PBMC at the time of analysis. This resource includes detailed protocols describing blood collection tubes, isolation of PBMC using a density gradient, cryopreservation of PBMC, and thawing of cells as well as preparation for functional assays. For each protocol, we include important considerations, such as timing, storage temperatures, and freezing rate. In addition, we provide alternatives so that researchers can make informed decisions in determining the optimal protocol for their application.

  3. Common Pressures, Same Results? Recent Reforms in Professional Standards and Competences in Teacher Education for Secondary Teachers in England, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the introduction of professional standards and competences in initial teacher education for secondary teachers in England, France and Germany has provided the cornerstone of education reform in all three countries. The precise number and specific content of a measurable set of skills for teachers have offered challenges for…

  4. Student Achievement Standards and Testing. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    The General Accounting Office (GAO), at the request of the House Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education, conducted studies on the extent and cost of testing in the United States, the experience of Canada in testing, and initial efforts to set standards for judging student performance on…

  5. IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSPORTATION TASK REPORT ON ACHIEVING MODERATOR EXCLUSION AND SUPPORTING STANDARDIZED TRANSPORTATION

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for the foreseeable future. This report proposes supplementing the ongoing research and development work related to potential degradation of used fuel, baskets, poisons, and storage canisters during an extended period of storage with a parallel path. This parallel path can assure criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). Using updated risk assessment insights for additional technical justification and relying upon a component inside of the transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal conditions of transportation. A demonstrating testing program supporting a detailed analytical effort as well as updated risk assessment insights can provide the basis for moderator exclusion during hypothetical accident conditions. This report also discusses how this engineered concept can support the goal of standardized transportation.

  6. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  7. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    PubMed

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  8. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  9. Design of a medical and laboratory equipment management program for the new standards certification achievement in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franco-Clark, D; Pimentel-Aguilar, A B; Rodriguez-Vera, R

    2010-01-01

    Certification for healthcare institutions in Mexico is ruled by 2009 standards homologated with the Joint Commission International criteria. Nowadays, healthcare requires of medical equipment and devices, so it has become necessary to implement guidelines for its adequate management in order to reach the highest level of quality and safety at the lowest cost. The objective of this work was to develop a Medical and Laboratory Equipment Management Program, oriented to the improvement of quality, effectiveness and efficiency of the technological resources in order to meet the certification requirements. The result of this work allows to have an auto evaluation tool that focuses the efforts of the National Institute for Respiratory Diseases to the achievement of the new requirements established for the certification.

  10. Gateway to the Future. Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry for Technical Workers in Pharmaceutical Companies, Biotechnology Companies, and Clinical Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…

  11. Statistical methods for establishing quality control ranges for antibacterial agents in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Turnidge, John; Bordash, Gerry

    2007-07-01

    Quality control (QC) ranges for antimicrobial agents against QC strains for both dilution and disk diffusion testing are currently set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), using data gathered in predefined structured multilaboratory studies, so-called tier 2 studies. The ranges are finally selected by the relevant CLSI subcommittee, based largely on visual inspection and a few simple rules. We have developed statistical methods for analyzing the data from tier 2 studies and applied them to QC strain-antimicrobial agent combinations from 178 dilution testing data sets and 48 disk diffusion data sets, including a method for identifying possible outlier data from individual laboratories. The methods are based on the fact that dilution testing MIC data were log normally distributed and disk diffusion zone diameter data were normally distributed. For dilution testing, compared to QC ranges actually set by CLSI, calculated ranges were identical in 68% of cases, narrower in 7% of cases, and wider in 14% of cases. For disk diffusion testing, calculated ranges were identical to CLSI ranges in 33% of cases, narrower in 8% of cases, and 1 to 2 mm wider in 58% of cases. Possible outliers were detected in 8% of diffusion test data but none of the disk diffusion data. Application of statistical techniques to the analysis of QC tier 2 data and the setting of QC ranges is relatively simple to perform on spreadsheets, and the output enhances the current CLSI methods for setting of QC ranges.

  12. Standardized and flexible eight colour flow cytometry panels harmonized between different laboratories to study human NK cell phenotype and function.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, John P; Delso-Vallejo, María; Kok, Nina; Bohme, Fenna; Seggewiss-Bernhardt, Ruth; van der Vliet, Hans J; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Huppert, Volker; Spanholtz, Jan

    2017-03-10

    Advancements in multi-colour fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) panel warrant harmonized procedures to obtain comparable data between various laboratories. The intensifying clinical exploration of Natural Killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy demands standardized and harmonized NK cell FACS panels and acquisition protocols. Eight colour FACS panels were designed to study human NK cell phenotype and function within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The panels were designed around fixed backbone markers and channels, covering antigens for non-NK lineage exclusion (CD3, TCRγδ, CD19, CD14, SYTOX(®) Blue) and NK cell selection (CD45, CD56, CD16), complemented with variable drop-in markers/channels to study NK cell phenotype (NKG2A, NKG2C, NKG2D and KIR2D) or NK cell function and activation (CD25, NKp44 and CD107a). Harmonized FACS set-up and data analysis for three different flow cytometers has been established, leading to highly comparable and reproducible data sets using the same PBMC reference samples (n = 6). Further studies of NK cells in fresh or cryopreserved PBMC samples (n = 12) confirmed that freezing and thawing of PBMC samples did not significantly affect NK phenotype or function. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that cryopreserved PBMC samples analysed by standardized FACS panels and harmonized analysis protocols will generate highly reliable data sets for multi-center clinical trials under validated conditions.

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  14. Standardized and flexible eight colour flow cytometry panels harmonized between different laboratories to study human NK cell phenotype and function

    PubMed Central

    Veluchamy, John P.; Delso-Vallejo, María; Kok, Nina; Bohme, Fenna; Seggewiss-Bernhardt, Ruth; van der Vliet, Hans J.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; Huppert, Volker; Spanholtz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in multi-colour fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) panel warrant harmonized procedures to obtain comparable data between various laboratories. The intensifying clinical exploration of Natural Killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy demands standardized and harmonized NK cell FACS panels and acquisition protocols. Eight colour FACS panels were designed to study human NK cell phenotype and function within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The panels were designed around fixed backbone markers and channels, covering antigens for non-NK lineage exclusion (CD3, TCRγδ, CD19, CD14, SYTOX® Blue) and NK cell selection (CD45, CD56, CD16), complemented with variable drop-in markers/channels to study NK cell phenotype (NKG2A, NKG2C, NKG2D and KIR2D) or NK cell function and activation (CD25, NKp44 and CD107a). Harmonized FACS set-up and data analysis for three different flow cytometers has been established, leading to highly comparable and reproducible data sets using the same PBMC reference samples (n = 6). Further studies of NK cells in fresh or cryopreserved PBMC samples (n = 12) confirmed that freezing and thawing of PBMC samples did not significantly affect NK phenotype or function. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that cryopreserved PBMC samples analysed by standardized FACS panels and harmonized analysis protocols will generate highly reliable data sets for multi-center clinical trials under validated conditions. PMID:28281564

  15. Supporting academically-based social studies curriculum standards for the Nation's elementary and secondary education public school textbooks.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Johnson, Eddie Bernice [D-TX-30

    2010-07-30

    10/13/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hazardous secondary material is located, and be made available on EPA's Web site. (iii) The Regional... in concentration to or lower than those in traditional fuels which the combustion unit is designed...

  17. 75 FR 75485 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...-Toxicology Laboratory, 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209-7056. 501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology...-5295/800-950-5295. ] Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1..., Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory). Pacific Toxicology Laboratories,...

  18. 75 FR 16813 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...-Toxicology Laboratory, 9601 I-630, Exit 7, Little Rock, AR 72205-7299, 501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic...-5295/800-950-5295; Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1..., Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory); Pacific Toxicology Laboratories,...

  19. TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme (TAQAS) to standardize the outcome of HIV genotypic resistance testing in a group of Asian laboratories.

    PubMed

    Land, Sally; Cunningham, Philip; Zhou, Jialun; Frost, Kevin; Katzenstein, David; Kantor, Rami; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Oka, Shinichi; DeLong, Allison; Sayer, David; Smith, Jeffery; Dax, Elizabeth M; Law, Matthew

    2009-08-01

    The TREAT Asia (Therapeutics, Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia) Network is building capacity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance testing in the region. The objective of the TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme - designated TAQAS - is to standardize HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing (HIV genotyping) among laboratories to permit rigorous comparison of results from different clinics and testing centres. TAQAS has evaluated three panels of HIV-1-positive plasma from clinical material or low-passage, culture supernatant for up to 10 Asian laboratories. Laboratory participants used their standard protocols to perform HIV genotyping. Assessment was in comparison to a target genotype derived from all participants and the reference laboratory's result. Agreement between most participants at the edited nucleotide sequence level was high (>98%). Most participants performed to the reference laboratory standard in detection of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). However, there was variation in the detection of nucleotide mixtures (0-83%) and a significant correlation with the detection of DRMs (p<0.01). Interpretation of antiretroviral resistance showed approximately 70% agreement among participants when different interpretation systems were used but >90% agreement with a common interpretation system, within the Stanford University Drug Resistance Database. Using the principles of external quality assessment and a reference laboratory, TAQAS has demonstrated high quality HIV genotyping results from Asian laboratories.

  20. Laboratory studies on formation and minimisation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in secondary aluminium process.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Dieter; Klobasa, Oliver; Pandelova, Marchela; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the formation mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in thermal aluminium recycling processes by use of laboratory experiments. The pattern of isomers of PCDD/F indicates that de novo synthesis is important in aluminium smeltery. The mechanisms of PCDD/F formation in aluminium smelting are similar to that of various incineration processes of waste material. The results of bioanalysis (EROD-test) confirms the existence of de novo synthesis of PCDD/F, but points out to the existence to some additional, toxic compounds of unknown structure. To reduce the amount of PCDD/F the input of carbon at the metal should be reduced; in addition the metal smeltery plants should be cleaned from fly ash particles. It is suggested to use good primary methods in the technical plants like constant feeding of the metal into the oven will minimise PCDD/F concentration. The biological EROD-bioassay is a good tool to estimate PCDD/F-TEQ values also for this technical process simulated in the laboratory.

  1. Investigation of a 0.6 hub-tip radius-ratio transonic turbine designed for secondary-flow study I : design and experimental performance of standard turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlik, Harold E; Wintucky, William T; Scibbe, Herbert W

    1957-01-01

    Detailed design information including overall performance parameters, velocity diagrams, and blade surface velocities is presented. Experimental performance includes maps based on rating as well as total-pressure ratios showing the effect of exit whirl. Also included are results of surveys at the stator exit and downstream of the rotor at design speed and specific work. This information will be used as a standard for comparison with subsequent secondary-flow work.

  2. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  3. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  4. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  5. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  6. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  7. Effect of new breakpoints proposed by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2008 for evaluating penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Turkish University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ozlem; Gülmez, Dolunay; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute changed penicillin susceptibility breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2008. After reevaluation with new breakpoints, resistance rates decreased from 6.1% to 0.5% for nonmeningitis and increased from 6.6% to 33.3% for meningitis isolates in our hospital. This breakpoint modification is expected to reduce the inconsistency between susceptibility results and therapeutic outcomes; however, both the clinical microbiology laboratories and the clinicians should be aware of the change to interpret the susceptibility results.

  8. Transitions from functionalization to fragmentation reactions of laboratory secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from the OH oxidation of alkane precursors.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Andrew T; Onasch, Timothy B; Croasdale, David R; Wright, Justin P; Martin, Alexander T; Franklin, Jonathan P; Massoli, Paola; Kroll, Jesse H; Canagaratna, Manjula R; Brune, William H; Worsnop, Douglas R; Davidovits, Paul

    2012-05-15

    Functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) reactions governing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the OH oxidation of alkane precursors were studied in a flow reactor in the absence of NO(x). SOA precursors were n-decane (n-C10), n-pentadecane (n-C15), n-heptadecane (n-C17), tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]decane (JP-10), and vapors of diesel fuel and Southern Louisiana crude oil. Aerosol mass spectra were measured with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, from which normalized SOA yields, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) and oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios, and C(x)H(y)+, C(x)H(y)O+, and C(x)H(y)O(2)+ ion abundances were extracted as a function of OH exposure. Normalized SOA yield curves exhibited an increase followed by a decrease as a function of OH exposure, with maximum yields at O/C ratios ranging from 0.29 to 0.74. The decrease in SOA yield correlates with an increase in oxygen content and decrease in carbon content, consistent with transitions from functionalization to fragmentation. For a subset of alkane precursors (n-C10, n-C15, and JP-10), maximum SOA yields were estimated to be 0.39, 0.69, and 1.1. In addition, maximum SOA yields correspond with a maximum in the C(x)H(y)O+ relative abundance. Measured correlations between OH exposure, O/C ratio, and H/C ratio may enable identification of alkane precursor contributions to ambient SOA.

  9. Guideline: the laboratory diagnosis of malaria. General Haematology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Wendi; Williams, John; Bain, Barbara J; Parker-Williams, John; Chiodini, Peter L

    2013-12-01

    UK National External Quality Assessment Service surveys indicate continuing problems in malaria diagnosis: inaccurate calculation of parasitaemia or failure to estimate it altogether, difficulty distinguishing Plasmodium vivax from P. ovale, reporting malaria parasites when none were present and misidentification of P. falciparum as another species still occur. Therefore, the British Committee for Standards in Haematology Guidelines for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria have been revised. They are intended for use in the UK but may also prove useful in other non-endemic areas. Routine use of thick and thin films is advised for malaria diagnosis. Thick films should be stained using Giemsa or Field stain. Thin films should be stained with Giemsa stain or Leishman stain. Thick films should be examined by two observers, each viewing a minimum of 200 high power fields. If thick films are positive, the species should be determined by examination of a thin film. In the case of P. falciparum or P. knowlesi infection, the percentage of parasitized cells or the number of parasites per microlitre (/μl) should be estimated and reported. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malarial antigen cannot replace microscopy but are indicated as a supplementary test when malaria diagnosis is performed by relatively inexperienced staff. Malaria RDTs are negative in babesiosis.

  10. Laboratory diagnostic outcome applying detection criteria recommended by the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the ISTH on Lupus Anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Chantarangkul, Veena; Biguzzi, Eugenia; Asti, Daniela; Palmucci, Claudia; Tripodi, Armando

    2013-07-01

    This study shows the diagnostic outcome of an APTT-based and two dRVVT-based commercial confirmatory integrated tests with the application of the recommendations by the Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC) on Lupus anticoagulant (LA)/antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) issued in 2009 concerning the cut-off values for the screening, mixing and confirmatory tests for the detection of LA and the mandatory need to perform mixing tests of patient plasma with pooled normal plasma. The study population included 565 patients collected from a large central coagulation laboratory, for which the attending physicians requested LA detection. One-hundred-six healthy subjects (HS) and 131 selected patients on oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) were included as negative controls. The results suggest that the performance of mixing tests is indicated for those methods with relatively poor specificity, but is less needed for those methods with high specificity. Furthermore, the SSC recommendation to use normal mid-value (i.e. the 50th percentile of distribution of results from healthy subjects) as the cut-off to interpret results of confirmatory tests, showed a modest increase in LA detection rate (sensitivity) but at the expense of specificity, particularly in methods with low specificity.

  11. Non-matrix Matched Glass Disk Calibration Standards Improve XRF Micronutrient Analysis of Wheat Grain across Five Laboratories in India.

    PubMed

    Guild, Georgia E; Stangoulis, James C R

    2016-01-01

    Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program.

  12. Non-matrix Matched Glass Disk Calibration Standards Improve XRF Micronutrient Analysis of Wheat Grain across Five Laboratories in India

    PubMed Central

    Guild, Georgia E.; Stangoulis, James C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program. PMID:27375644

  13. 75 FR 9229 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ...-7299, 501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center) Clinical... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-747-3774. (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB...

  14. Non-Contact Methods for Measuring Front Cavity Depths of Laboratory Standard Microphones Using a Depth-Measuring Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Nedzelnitsky, Victor; Wagner, Randall P.

    2008-01-01

    To achieve an acceptable degree of accuracy at high frequencies in some standardized methods for primary calibration of laboratory standard (LS) microphones, the front cavity depth lfc of each microphone must be known. This dimension must be measured using non-contact methods to prevent damage to the microphone diaphragm. The basic capabilities of an optical depth-measuring microscope were demonstrated by the agreement of its measurements within 0.7 μm of the known values of reference gage blocks. Using this microscope, two basic methods were applied to measure lfc. One (D) uses direct measurements at the microphone front surface annulus and conventional data reduction techniques. The other (GB) uses measurements at the surface of a gage block placed on the annulus, and plane-fitting data reduction techniques intended to reduce the effects of the slightly imperfect geometries of the microphones. The GB method was developed to provide a smoother surface of measurement than the relatively rough surface of the annulus, and to simulate the contact that occurs between the annulus and the smooth, plane surface of an acoustic coupler during microphone calibration. Using these methods, full data sets were obtained at 33 measurement positions (D), or 25 positions (GB). In addition, D and GB subsampling methods were applied by using subsamples of either the D or the GB full data sets. All these methods were applied to six LS microphones, three each of two different types. The GB subsampling methods are preferred for several reasons. The measurement results for lfc obtained by these methods agree well with those obtained by the GB method using the full data set. The expanded uncertainties of results from the GB subsampling methods are not very different from the expanded uncertainty of results from the GB method using the full data set, and are smaller than the expanded uncertainties of results from the D subsampling methods. Measurements of lfc using the GB subsampling

  15. Web-Enhanced, Standards-Oriented Teaching Units on Post-Wall Germany for the Secondary School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Handle, Donna C.; Ayres, Evelyn; Cimino, Ellen; Dunn, Bryan; Foell, Kimberly; McCarthy, Jennifer K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the creation and use of Web sites developed by secondary school teachers of German and European history who participated in an NEH-sponsored summer institute titled "Post-Wall Germany: Integrating Post-Unification German Culture into the High School Curriculum. Teacher participants also offer suggestions for using sites they created…

  16. Essential Standards for Preparing Secondary Content Teachers to Effectively Teach Students with Mild Disabilities in Included Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grskovic, Janice A.; Trzcinka, Sheila M.

    2011-01-01

    Secondary content teachers are more likely than ever before to be asked to provide instruction for students with disabilities in their classrooms. Despite years of recommendations for curricular reform, general education teachers continue to report feeling ill-prepared to teach students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify…

  17. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of comment... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft (75 FR 11877; March 12, 2010... a proposal addressing the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and sulfur oxides (SO X ) secondary...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1773 - Standard: Basic inspection requirements for all laboratories issued a CLIA certificate and CLIA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... issued a certificate must permit CMS or a CMS agent to conduct an inspection to assess the laboratory's... procedures. (2) Permit interviews of all personnel concerning the laboratory's compliance with the applicable requirements of this part. (3) Permit laboratory personnel to be observed performing all phases of the...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1773 - Standard: Basic inspection requirements for all laboratories issued a CLIA certificate and CLIA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... issued a certificate must permit CMS or a CMS agent to conduct an inspection to assess the laboratory's... procedures. (2) Permit interviews of all personnel concerning the laboratory's compliance with the applicable requirements of this part. (3) Permit laboratory personnel to be observed performing all phases of the...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1773 - Standard: Basic inspection requirements for all laboratories issued a CLIA certificate and CLIA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... issued a certificate must permit CMS or a CMS agent to conduct an inspection to assess the laboratory's... procedures. (2) Permit interviews of all personnel concerning the laboratory's compliance with the applicable requirements of this part. (3) Permit laboratory personnel to be observed performing all phases of the...

  1. Practical solution for control of the pre-analytical phase in decentralized clinical laboratories for meeting the requirements of the medical laboratory accreditation standard DIN EN ISO 15189.

    PubMed

    Vacata, Vladimir; Jahns-Streubel, Gerlinde; Baldus, Mirjana; Wood, William Graham

    2007-01-01

    This report was written in response to the article by Wood published recently in this journal. It describes a practical solution to the problems of controlling the pre-analytical phase in the clinical diagnostic laboratory. As an indicator of quality in the pre-analytical phase of sample processing, a target analyte was chosen which is sensitive to delay in centrifugation and/or analysis. The results of analyses of the samples sent by satellite medical practitioners were compared with those from an on-site hospital laboratory with a controllable optimized pre-analytical phase. The aim of the comparison was: (a) to identify those medical practices whose mean/median sample values significantly deviate from those of the control situation in the hospital laboratory due to the possible problems in the pre-analytical phase; (b) to aid these laboratories in the process of rectifying these problems. A Microsoft Excel-based Pre-Analytical Survey tool (PAS tool) has been developed which addresses the above mentioned problems. It has been tested on serum potassium which is known to be sensitive to delay and/or irregularities in sample treatment. The PAS tool has been shown to be one possibility for improving the quality of the analyses by identifying the sources of problems within the pre-analytical phase, thus allowing them to be rectified. Additionally, the PAS tool has an educational value and can also be adopted for use in other decentralized laboratories.

  2. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  3. 75 FR 61486 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of... Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft (75 FR 57463, September... (summary of options for elements of the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and sulfur oxides (SO X ) standard)....

  4. Laboratory studies of oxidation of primary emissions: Oxidation of organic molecular markers and secondary organic aerosol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitkamp, Emily A.

    Particulate matter (PM) is solid particles and liquid droplets of complex composition suspended in the atmosphere. In 1997, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM was modified to include new standards for fine particulate (particles smaller than 2.5mum, PM2.5) because of their association with adverse health effects, mortality and visibility reduction. Fine PM may also have large impacts on the global climate. Chemically, fine particulate is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic material, from both natural and anthropogenic sources. A large fraction of PM2.5 is organic. The first objective was to investigate heterogeneous oxidation of condensed-phase molecular markers for two major organic source categories, meat-cooking emissions and motor vehicle exhaust. Effective reaction rate constants of key molecular markers were measured over a range of atmospherically relevant experimental conditions, including a range of concentrations and relative humidities, and with SOA condensed on the particles. Aerosolized meat grease was reacted with ozone to investigate the oxidation of molecular markers for meat-cooking emissions. Aerosolized motor oil, which is chemically similar to vehicle exhaust aerosol and contains the molecular markers used in source apportionment, was reacted with the hydroxyl radical (OH) to investigate oxidation of motor vehicle molecular markers. All molecular markers of interest - oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, and cholesterol for meat-cooking emissions, and hopanes and steranes for vehicle exhaust - reacted at rates that are significant for time scales on the order of days assuming typical summertime oxidant concentrations. Experimental conditions influenced the reaction rate constants. For both systems, experiments conducted at high relative humidity (RH) had smaller reaction rate constants than those at low RH. SOA coating slowed the reaction rate constants for meat-cooking markers, but had no effect on the oxidation of

  5. Improved standardization and potential for shortened time to results with BD Kiestra™ total laboratory automation of early urine cultures: A prospective comparison with manual processing.

    PubMed

    Graham, Maryza; Tilson, Leanne; Streitberg, Richard; Hamblin, John; Korman, Tony M

    2016-09-01

    We compared the results of 505 urine specimens prospectively processed by both conventional manual processing (MP) with 16-24h incubation to BD Kiestra™ Total Laboratory Automation (TLA) system with a shortened incubation of 14h: 97% of culture results were clinically concordant. TLA processing was associated with improved standardization of time of first culture reading and total incubation time.

  6. Validation of 24-hour flucytosine MIC determination by comparison with 48-hour determination by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 broth microdilution reference method.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Bolden, Carol B; Iqbal, Naureen; Kuykendall, Randall J

    2011-12-01

    Flucytosine and itraconazole are the only antifungal agents for which the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute recommendations include MIC breakpoint readings at 48 h only. Here we show good essential and categorical agreement between the flucytosine MIC readings at 48 and 24 h for Candida species.

  7. Evaluation of Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs.

    PubMed

    Schissler, Jennifer R; Hillier, Andrew; Daniels, Joshua B; Cole, Lynette K; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2009-09-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute published in 2008 new interpretive criteria for the identification of methicillin resistance in staphylococci isolated from animals. The sensitivity of the 2008 interpretive criteria for mecA gene-positive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, compared with the previous criteria of 2004, was investigated. Thirty clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius from dogs were used. The presence of the mecA gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The minimum inhibitory concentration for oxacillin was determined by broth microdilution. The 2008 breakpoint of >or=4 microg/ml for methicillin resistance resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity of 73.3% (22/30). The 2004 breakpoint guideline of >or=0.5 microg/ml resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity of 97% (29/30). For oxacillin disk diffusion, the 2008 interpretive criterion of

  8. Enhanced cell affinity of chitosan membranes mediated by superficial cross-linking: a straightforward method attainable by standard laboratory procedures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velázquez, Eustolia; Silva, Maite; Taboada, Pablo; Mano, João F; Suárez-Quintanilla, David; Alatorre-Meda, Manuel

    2014-01-13

    It is well accepted that the surface modification of biomaterials can improve their biocompatibility. In this context, techniques like ion etching, plasma-mediated chemical functionalization, electrospinning, and contact microprinting have successfully been employed to promote the cell adhesion and proliferation of chitosan (CH) substrates. However, they prove to be time-consuming, highly dependent on environmental conditions, and/or limited to the use of expensive materials and sophisticated instruments not accessible to standard laboratories, hindering to a high extent their straightforward application. Filling this gap, this paper proposes the superficial cross-linking of CH as a much simpler and accessible means to modify its superficial properties in order to enhance its cellular affinity. CH membranes were prepared by solvent casting followed by a cross-linking step mediated by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of glutaraldehyde (GA). The membranes were characterized against non- and solution cross-linked membranes in terms of their mechanical/surface properties and biological performance. Among others, the CVD membranes proved (i) to be more mechanically stable against cell culture and sterilization than membranes cross-linked in solution and (ii) to prompt the adherence and sustained proliferation of healthy cells to levels even superior to commercial tissue culture plates (TCPs). Accordingly, the CVD cross-linking approach was demonstrated to be a simple and cost-effective alternative to the aforementioned conventional methods. Interestingly, this concept can also be applied to other biomaterials as long as GA (or other volatile components alike) can be employed as a cross-linker, making possible the cross-linking reaction at mild experimental conditions, neither requiring sophisticated lab implements nor using any potentially harmful procedure.

  9. Accreditation of clinical laboratories in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Maramba, T P

    2002-01-01

    In order to assure the reliability of the results of laboratory services, clinical laboratories are regulated in the Philippines. This started with the passage of the Clinical Laboratory Law in 1965, which required the Licensing of clinical laboratories by the Bureau of Research and Laboratories, Department of Health (BRL, DOH) before they can operate. Standards were set for the various types of laboratory services. In 1988, the minimum standards of laboratory services were formulated for three categories, ie, primary, secondary and tertiary categories. Subsequently, to permit clinical laboratories to offer 'special service', accreditation of clinical laboratories was instituted. In 1968, the Philippine Society of Pathologists (PSP) decided to accredit clinical laboratories for Residency Training Program in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology. The following year after the passage of the Medical Technology Law, the BRL, DOH began accrediting clinical laboratories that trained Medical Technology Interns. A few years later, the BRL, DOH started to accredit clinical laboratories who did Water Analysis. In 1989, after realizing the serious implications of HIV Testing, the DOH mandated the BRL, DOH to set standards for clinical laboratories performing HIV testing. In 1997, upon request of the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth), the PSP formulated and submitted standards for the accreditation of clinical laboratories, both hospital and free-standing, for reimbursement of fees for laboratory services rendered to patients enrolled in the PhilHealth social insurance program. In 2000, the Philippine Council for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (PCAHO) approved the Standards for the accreditation of Hospitals for the provision of quality medical services. Included were the standards for the Department of Pathology.

  10. Safety in the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses undetected hazards that may have potential for injuring staff and students. Cites examples of chemical hazards in the lab. Stresses the need for laboratory safety education. Gives examples of safety publications for secondary and college science laboratories. Comments on the changing nature of chemical safety standards. (CW)

  11. Standards for Quality Agricultural Occupations Programs as Validated by the Agricultural Occupations Teachers in the Secondary and Area Vocational Centers of Illinois. Part I and Part II. [A Final Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    This report details the process of the Illinois Standards Project to develop, adopt, and implement standards of quality for agricultural occupation programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels throughout Illinois. Part I, standards for quality programs in area vocational centers excluding metropolitan areas, is divided into three…

  12. Secondary analysis of anthropometric data from a South African national food consumption survey, using different growth reference standards.

    PubMed

    Bosman, L; Herselman, M G; Kruger, H S; Labadarios, D

    2011-11-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references were used to analyse anthropometric data from the 1999 National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) of South Africa. Since then, however, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 standards were released. It was anticipated that these reference and standards may lead to differences in the previous estimates of stunting, wasting, underweight and obesity in the study population. The aim was to compare the anthropometric status of children using the 1977 NCHS, the 2000 CDC growth references and the 2006 WHO standards. All children 12-60 months of age with a complete set of anthropometric data were included in the analyses. Data for 1,512 children were analysed with SAS 9.1 for Windows. A Z-score was calculated for each child for weight-for-age (W/A), weight-for-length/height (W/H), length/height-for-age (H/A) and body mass index (BMI)-for-age, using each of the three reference or standards for comparison. The prevalence of stunting, obesity and overweight were significantly higher and the prevalence of underweight and wasting were lower when using the WHO standards compared to the NCHS and the CDC references. The higher than previously established prevalence of stunting at 20.1% and combined overweight/obesity at 30% poses a challenge to South African policy makers to implement nutrition programmes to decrease the prevalence of both stunting and overweight. The 2006 WHO growth standard should be the standard used for assessment of growth of infants and children younger than 5 years in developing countries.

  13. Bioinformatics in the secondary science classroom: A study of state content standards and students' perceptions of, and performance in, bioinformatics lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wefer, Stephen H.

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern Biology marks a new revolution in science, which promises to influence science education at all levels. This thesis examined state standards for content that articulated bioinformatics, and explored secondary students' affective and cognitive perceptions of, and performance in, a bioinformatics mini-unit. The results are presented as three studies. The first study analyzed secondary science standards of 49 U.S States (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics at the introductory high school biology level. The bionformatics content of each state's Biology standards were categorized into nine areas and the prevalence of each area documented. The nine areas were: The Human Genome Project, Forensics, Evolution, Classification, Nucleotide Variations, Medicine, Computer Use, Agriculture/Food Technology, and Science Technology and Society/Socioscientific Issues (STS/SSI). Findings indicated a generally low representation of bioinformatics related content, which varied substantially across the different areas. Recommendations are made for reworking existing standards to incorporate bioinformatics and to facilitate the goal of promoting science literacy in this emerging new field among secondary school students. The second study examined thirty-two students' affective responses to, and content mastery of, a two-week bioinformatics mini-unit. The findings indicate that the students generally were positive relative to their interest level, the usefulness of the lessons, the difficulty level of the lessons, likeliness to engage in additional bioinformatics, and were overall successful on the assessments. A discussion of the results and significance is followed by suggestions for future research and implementation for transferability. The third study presents a case study of individual differences among ten secondary school students, whose cognitive and affective percepts were

  14. 75 FR 62842 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ..., 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-747-3774, (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB...

  15. 75 FR 154 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ..., Exit 7, Little Rock, AR 72205-7299, 501-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-747-3774 (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB...

  16. 75 FR 45128 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Laboratory, 9601 I-630, Exit 7, Little Rock, AR 72205-7299, 501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-3774, (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB...

  17. 75 FR 39023 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...--Toxicology Laboratory, 9601 I-630, Exit 7, Little Rock, AR 72205-7299, 501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic...-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive..., Pasadena, TX 77504, 888-747-3774. (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical...

  18. 75 FR 32950 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...-Toxicology Laboratory, 9601 I-630, Exit 7, Little Rock, AR 72205-7299. 501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic...-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive..., Pasadena, TX 77504. 888-747-3774. (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical...

  19. 75 FR 27348 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Laboratory, 9601 I-630, Exit 7, Little Rock, AR 72205-7299, 501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology...-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive..., Pasadena, TX 77504, 888-747-3774. (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical...

  20. 75 FR 55795 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ...-Toxicology Laboratory, 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-747-3774 (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB...

  1. An inter-laboratory comparison study of the ANSI/BIFMA standard test method M7.1 for furniture

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five laboratories using five different test chambers participated in the study to quantify within- and between-laboratory variability in the measurement of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new commercial furniture test items following ANSI/BIFMA M7.1. Test item...

  2. The use of laboratory sand, soil and crushed-glass filter columns for polishing domestic-strength synthetic wastewater that has undergone secondary treatment.

    PubMed

    Healy, M G; Burke, P; Rodgers, M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of intermittently loaded, 150 mm-diameter stratified filter columns of 2 depths (0.65 and 0.375 m) comprising different media--sand, crushed glass and soil--in polishing the effluent from a laboratory horizontal flow biofilm reactor (HFBR) treating synthetic domestic-strength wastewater. The HFBR has been successfully used to remove organic carbon and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from domestic wastewater. In this treatment method, wastewater is allowed to flow over and back along a stack of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. Biofilms on the sheets reduce organic carbon, suspended matter, and nutrients in the wastewater, but to achieve the quality of a septic tank system, additional treatment is required. In all filters, at a hydraulic loading rate of 100 L m(-2) d(-1), 40-65% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and practically 100% of total suspended solids (TSS) were removed, nitrification was complete, and bacterial numbers were reduced by over 80%, with best removals achieved in the soil filters (93%). Soil polishing filters with the depth of 0.65 m performed best in terms of organic carbon, total nitrogen (Tot-N) and bacterial removal. Data from this preliminary study are useful in the design of treatment systems to polish secondary wastewaters with similar water quality characteristics.

  3. Laboratory studies on optical properties of secondary organic aerosols generated during the photooxidation of toluene and the ozonolysis of α-pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka; Sato, Kei; Imamura, Takashi; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Uchiyama, Akihiro

    2010-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that some organic aerosols can absorb solar radiation, especially at the shorter visible and UV wavelengths. Although quantitative characterization of the optical properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) is required in order to confirm the effect of SOAs on the atmospheric radiation balance, the light absorption of SOAs has not yet been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we conducted laboratory experiments to measure the optical properties of SOAs generated during the photooxidation of toluene in the presence of NOx and the ozonolysis of α-pinene. Extinction and scattering coefficients of the SOAs were measured by a cavity ring-down aerosol extinction spectrometer and an integrating nephelometer, respectively. Refractive indices of the SOAs were determined so that the measured particle size dependence of the extinction and scattering efficiencies could be reproduced by calculations using Mie scattering theory. As a result, significant light absorption was found at 355 nm for the toluene SOAs. In contrast, no significant absorption was found either at 355 or 532 nm for the α-pinene SOAs. Using the obtained refractive index, mass absorption cross-section values of the toluene SOAs were calculated to be 0.3-3 m2 g-1 at 355 nm. The results indicate that light absorption by the SOAs formed from the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons have a potential to influence the total aerosol light absorption, especially at UV wavelengths.

  4. An Examination of Intervention Research with Secondary Students with EBD in Light of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Maccini, Paula; Wright, Kenneth; Miller, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the authors offer a critical analysis of published interventions for improving mathematics performance among middle and high school students with EBD in light of the Common Core State Standards. An exhaustive review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 20 articles that met criteria for inclusion. The authors analyzed…

  5. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  6. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of draft... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft... (welfare-based) NAAQS for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO...

  7. 75 FR 57463 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of draft... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft... for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO X , and...

  8. Standardization of collection requirements for fasting samples: for the Working Group on Preanalytical Phase (WG-PA) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM).

    PubMed

    Simundic, A M; Cornes, M; Grankvist, K; Lippi, G; Nybo, M

    2014-05-15

    Standardized protocols for patient preparation for laboratory testing are currently lacking. Moreover, a great heterogeneity exists in the definitions of "fasting" currently being used among healthcare workers and in the literature. Marked metabolic and hormonal changes occur after food ingestion, mainly due to the absorption of fluids, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and other food constituents. This postprandial response varies markedly in response to numerous factors, such as eating behavior, food composition, fasting duration, time of the day, chronic and acute smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption. It is therefore crucial to minimize the total variability by controlling as many of these modifying factors as possible. Control of the abovementioned effects on postprandial response can only be achieved by standardizing the way patients are prepared for laboratory testing, i.e. by defining the fasting duration, as well as what is and what is not allowed (e.g., coffee, tea, smoking, water) during the period of fasting prior to sample collection. The aim of this article is to describe the range of effects of different approaches to fasting on laboratory tests, and to provide a framework for the harmonization of definitions for fasting requirements for laboratory tests.

  9. American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories, 2014 edition: technical standards and guidelines for Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Bean, Lora; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar

    2014-12-01

    Huntington disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disease of mid-life onset caused by expansion of a polymorphic trinucleotide (CAG) repeat. Variable penetrance for alleles carrying 36-39 repeats has been noted, but the disease appears fully penetrant when the repeat numbers are >40. An abnormal CAG repeat may expand, contract, or be stably transmitted when passed from parent to child. Assays used to diagnose Huntington disease must be optimized to ensure the accurate and unambiguous quantitation of CAG repeat length. This document provides an overview of Huntington disease and methodological considerations for Huntington disease testing. Examples of laboratory reports are also included.

  10. Do English NHS Microbiology laboratories offer adequate services for the diagnosis of UTI in children? Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP) Audit of Standard Operational Procedures.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Verlander, Neville Q; Moore, Philippa C L; Larcombe, James; Dudley, Jan; Banerjee, Jaydip; Jadresic, Lyda

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute of Care Excellence (NICE) 2007 guidance CG54, on urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, states that clinicians should use urgent microscopy and culture as the preferred method for diagnosing UTI in the hospital setting for severe illness in children under 3 years old and from the GP setting in children under 3 years old with intermediate risk of severe illness. NICE also recommends that all 'infants and children with atypical UTI (including non-Escherichia coli infections) should have renal imaging after a first infection'. We surveyed all microbiology laboratories in England with Clinical Pathology Accreditation to determine standard operating procedures (SOPs) for urgent microscopy, culture and reporting of children's urine and to ascertain whether the SOPs facilitate compliance with NICE guidance. We undertook a computer search in six microbiology laboratories in south-west England to determine urine submissions and urine reports in children under 3 years. Seventy-three per cent of laboratories (110/150) participated. Enterobacteriaceae that were not E. coli were reported only as coliforms (rather than non-E. coli coliforms) by 61% (67/110) of laboratories. Eighty-eight per cent of laboratories (97/110) provided urgent microscopy for hospital and 54% for general practice (GP) paediatric urines; 61% of laboratories (confidence interval 52-70%) cultured 1 μl volume of urine, which equates to one colony if the bacterial load is 106 c.f.u. l(-1). Only 22% (24/110) of laboratories reported non-E. coli coliforms and provided urgent microscopy for both hospital and GP childhood urines; only three laboratories also cultured a 5 μl volume of urine. Only one of six laboratories in our submission audit had a significant increase in urine submissions and urines reported from children less than 3 years old between the predicted pre-2007 level in the absence of guidance and the 2008 level following publication of the NICE guidance. Less than a

  11. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  12. 42 CFR 493.1775 - Standard: Inspection of laboratories issued a certificate of waiver or a certificate for provider...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certificate of waiver or a certificate for provider-performed microscopy procedures. 493.1775 Section 493.1775... laboratories issued a certificate of waiver or a certificate for provider-performed microscopy procedures. (a... microscopy procedures is not subject to biennial inspections. (b) If necessary, CMS or a CMS agent...

  13. A Statistical Review of DWPF Laboratory Data Including Measurements of the ARG-1 Standard for Batches 94 - 263.

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS, EDWARDS

    2004-11-30

    Measurements of calibration and bench standards as well as samples of ARG-1 that were performed by the DWPF Lab during the processing of batches 94 through 263 were provided to SCS for review. Three datasets, one associated with each of three preparation methods (Cold Chem, Mixed Acid, and Fusion) were included in the review. The review conducted covered several areas of investigation. Biases in these measurements relative to the reference values for the standards including ARG-1 were estimated and found to be of no practical concern. Percent relative standard deviations for these data also were determined. Sources of variation in the measurements (i.e., batch-to-batch and within process batch) were estimated and compared. An investigation into evidence of instrument drift during a group of measurements representing a prototypical block was conducted for each preparation method using pairs of calibration and bench standards. No evidence of instrument drift at levels of practical concern was seen in these data. Also, the replicates of calibration standards at the beginning of each analytical block were found to be unnecessary. The uncertainties of the measurements, which incorporated biases and precision errors, were computed for the calibration standards, bench standards, and ARG-1. The limits for these uncertainties were compared to the current, LIMS operating limits for the errors in the measurements of these standards. These comparisons may provide opportunities for revising the LIMS limits. Comparisons between MFT and SME results were made for both the Mixed Acid and the Fusion prep methods. There was no evidence of differences (in either bias or precision) between the results for these two tanks for either of the two prep methods.

  14. Safety Basis Requirements for Nonnuclear Facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site-Specific Work Smart Standard Revision 3 December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, D; Brereton, S; Failor, R; Hildum, J; Ingram, C; Spagnolo, S; van Warmerdam, C

    2007-06-07

    This standard establishes requirements that, when coupled with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) methods and other Work Smart Standards for assuring worker safety, assure that the impacts of nonnuclear operations authorized in LLNL facilities are well understood and controlled in a manner that protects the health of workers, the public, and the environment. All LLNL facilities shall be classified based on potential for adverse impact of operations to the health of co-located (i.e., nearby) workers and the public in accordance with this standard, Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 830, Subpart B, and Department of Energy Order (DOE O) 420.2A.

  15. Final report on key comparison CCAUV.A-K5: pressure calibration of laboratory standard microphones in the frequency range 2 Hz to 10 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avison, Janine; Barham, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This document and the accompanying spreadsheets constitute the final report for key comparison CCAUV.A-K5 on the pressure calibration of laboratory standard microphones in the frequency range from 2 Hz to 10 kHz. Twelve national measurement institutes took part in the key comparison and the National Physical Laboratory piloted the project. Two laboratory standard microphones IEC type LS1P were circulated to the participants and results in the form of regular calibration certificates were collected throughout the project. One of the microphones was subsequently deemed to have compromised stability for the purpose of deriving a reference value. Consequently the key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been made based on the weighted mean results for sensitivity level and for sensitivity phase from just one of the microphones. Corresponding degrees of equivalence (DoEs) have also been calculated and are presented. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Laboratory Frame Analysis of e+e-→μ+μ- Scattering in the Noncommutative Standard Model at Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Prasanta Kumar; Prakash, Abhishodh

    2012-09-01

    We study the muon pair production e+e-→μ+μ- in the framework of the nonminimal noncommutative standard model (NCSM) to the second-order of the noncommutative (NC) parameter Θμν at linear collider. The {O}(Θ 2) momentum-dependent NC interaction significantly modifies the cross-section and angular distributions which are different from the standard model. After including the effects of earth's rotation we analyze the time-averaged and time-dependent observables in detail. The time-averaged azimuthal distribution of the cross-section shows significant departure from the standard model which can be tested at the upcoming linear collider. We find strong dependence of total cross-section (time-averaged) and their distributions on the orientation and the magnitude of the NC electric vector (ΘE). Assuming that the future linear collider data will differ from the standard model result by 5%, we obtain Λ≥615 GeV and Λ≥946 GeV corresponding to the machine energy Ecom = 1000 GeV and 1500 GeV.

  17. Standardization of protocols to test wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for reaction to blast in a biocontainment laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth medium, spore age, and inoculum density are essential factors for determining host responses to a plant pathogen. The standardization of these factors is important to obtain adequate and reproducible disease assessments. We are testing US wheat cultivars for reaction to the exotic disease bla...

  18. Altering Public University Admission Standards to Preserve White Group Position in the United States: Results from a Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies a theoretical mechanism that could potentially affect public university admissions standards in a context of demographic change. I explore how demographic changes at a prestigious public university in the United States affect individuals' evaluations of college applications. Responding to a line graph that randomly displays a…

  19. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was

  20. Low energy tests of the standard model: the 12 GeV parity violation program at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna S. Kumar

    2010-06-01

    We discuss the current status and prospects of an experimental program of parity-violating asymmetry measurements in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized fixed targets. In particular, we focus on those measurements where judicious choices of target species and kinematics allows the theoretical predictions to be made purely in terms of fundamental electroweak couplings with little theoretical uncertainty. If such asymmetries are measured with sufficient precision, they are sensitive to new physics at the TeV scale. After reviewing recent results, two new experimental initiatives called MOLLER and SoLID being designed for the Jefferson Laboratory 12 GeV upgrade are discussed.

  1. NVLAP activities at Department of Defense calibration laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    There are 367 active radiological instrument calibration laboratories within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Each of the four services in DoD manages, operates, and certifies the technical proficiency and competency of those laboratories under their cognizance. Each service has designated secondary calibration laboratories to trace all calibration source standards to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Individual service radiological calibration programs and capabilities, present and future, are described, as well as the measurement quality assurance (MQA) processes for their traceability. National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) programs for dosimetry systems are briefly summarized. Planned NVLAP accreditation of secondary laboratories is discussed in the context of current technical challenges and future efforts.

  2. Impacts of extra-regional pollutants on summertime California ozone levels and the implications on the secondary ozone standard design values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kulkarni, S.; Spak, S.; Chai, T.; Pierce, R.

    2011-12-01

    Transported ozone (O3) from outside of the North America (NA) as well as the lower stratospheric O3 (referred to as extra-regional O3 in this paper), together with the locally-formed O3 from anthropogenic and natural emissions, affect the O3 variability over California. Quantification of the contributions from these sources is important as it helps define national emission reductions strategies. The impact of extra-regional anthropogenic and fire sources on California surface air quality during summer 2008 is evaluated using a multi-scale STEM modeling system. Several forward sensitivity simulations are conducted to estimate the contributions of extra-regional O3 and precursors on California O3 levels, indicating the direct transport of O3 through the model boundaries is the largest single extra-regional contributor, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) plays an important role among several precursors. Weak impacts from stratospheric O3 are shown during this period. The impacts of extra-regional pollution from each of these contributing factors present regional differences over California and other western US states. The O3 sensitivity to extra-regional pollution is also compared with a sensitivity simulation with local emissions perturbed. The secondary O3 standard design value is the 3-year average of the annual maximum consecutive 3-month sum of adjusted monthly W126 index values, and is recommended to be set at a level in the range of 7 to 21 ppm-hours. Many of the areas violate the proposed secondary O3 standard without violating the primary O3 standard are located in rural areas due to long-range transport of O3 and its precursors. Here we calculate the sensitivity of monthly-based W126 index to extra-regional pollution based on the model forward sensitivity simulations. The surface O3 sensitivity to trans-boundary pollution over California is further interpreted by trajectories and adjoint sensitivity analysis. Probability of airmasses originating from northern

  3. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    SciTech Connect

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

  4. Computer Assisted Fluid Power Instruction: A Comparison of Hands-On and Computer-Simulated Laboratory Experiences for Post-Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Scott B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of utilizing a combination of lecture and computer resources to train personnel to assume roles as hydraulic system technicians and specialists in the fluid power industry. This study compared computer simulated laboratory instruction to traditional hands-on laboratory instruction,…

  5. In vitro susceptibility of filamentous fungi to itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference method and E-test.

    PubMed

    Kondori, N; Svensson, E; Mattsby-Baltzer, I

    2011-09-01

    The use of anti-fungal agents has increased dramatically in recent years and new drugs have been developed. Several methods are available for determinations of their specific biological activities, i.e. the standard method for minimum inhibitory concentration-determination is described in M-38 [Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M-38 (CLSI M-38)]. However, alternative methods, such as the E-test, are currently available in Mycology laboratories. The susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. (n = 29), Fusarium spp. (n = 5), zygomycetes (n = 21) and Schizophyllum (n = 1) were determined for itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, using the CLSI M-38-A broth dilution method and also by the E-test. A good overall agreement (83.7%) between the two methods for all drugs and organisms was observed. Analyses of voriconazole showed a better agreement (93%) between the methods than posaconazole and itraconazole (85% and 74% respectively). Aspergillus spp. were the most susceptible fungi to the anti-fungal agents tested in this study. Posaconazole was the most active drug against filamentous fungi in vitro, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. The latter (voriconazole) demonstrated no significant in vitro activity against zygomycetes.

  6. A third component causing random variability beside environment and genotype. A reason for the limited success of a 30 year long effort to standardize laboratory animals?

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a review of experiments, performed in our laboratory during the past 20 years, designed to analyse the significance of different components of random variability in quantitative traits in laboratory rats and mice. Reduction of genetic variability by using inbred strains and reduction of environmental variability by highly standardized husbandry in laboratory animals did not remarkably reduce the range of random variability in quantitative biological traits. Neither did a tremendous increase of the environmental variability (i.e., living in a natural setting) increase it. Therefore, the postnatal environment cannot be that important as the source of random variability. Utilizing methods established in twin research, only 20-30% of the range of the body weight in inbred mice were directly estimated to be of environmental origin. The remaining 70-80% were due to a third component creating biological random variability, in addition to the genetic and environmental influences. This third component is effective at or before fertilization and may originate from ooplasmic differences. It is the most important component of the phenotypic random variability, fixing its range and dominating the genetic and the environmental component. The Gaussian distribution of the body weights observed, even in inbred animals, seems to be an arrangement supporting natural selection rather than the consequence of heterogeneous environmental influences. In a group of inbred rats, the males with the highest chance of parenting the next generation were gathered in the central classes of the distribution of the body weight.

  7. Standardized laboratory tests with 21 species of temperate and tropical sepsid flies confirm their suitability as bioassays of pharmaceutical residues (ivermectin) in cattle dung.

    PubMed

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A; Scheffczyk, Adam; Römbke, Jörg

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals excreted in the dung of treated livestock can have strong non-target effects on the dung organism community. We report results of ecotoxicological tests with ivermectin for 21 species of temperate (Europe, North America) and tropical (Asia, Central America) black scavenger flies (Diptera: Sepsidae), using standardized methods developed previously for the yellow dung fly and the face fly. Our study documents great variation in ivermectin sensitivity of more than two orders of magnitude among species and even populations within species: estimated lethal effect concentrations LC(50) (at which 50% of the flies died) ranged from 0.05 to 18.55 μg/kg dung fresh weight (equivalent to 0.33-132.22 μg/kg dung dry weight). We also show that controlled laboratory tests can--within reasonable limits-be extended to the field or to laboratory settings without climate control, as obtained LC(50) were roughly similar. In addition to lethal effects, our study revealed relevant sub-lethal effects at lower ivermectin concentrations in terms of prolonged development, smaller body size and reduced juvenile growth rate. Finally, oviposition choice experiments showed that females generally do not discriminate against dung containing ivermectin residues. We conclude that sepsid flies are well suited test organisms for pharmaceutical residues in the dung of livestock due to their ease and speed of rearing and handling, particularly in the tropics, where high-tech laboratory equipment is often not available.

  8. Development of radioactive beams at LAMPF for a high precision test of the standard model and as a step towards an IsoSpin Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, D.; Chamberlin, E.; Preston, D.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Producing high yields of isotopically pure beams of radioactive heavy ions is the technical challenge facing the IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL). The main objective of this project is to design, fabricate, install, and make operational a thin-target, He- jet system at LAMPF to provide high-intensity {sup 125-139}Cs isotopes for an atomic parity nonconservation (PNC) experiment and as a robust production source for radioactive beams. The Cs-PNC experiment itself would take several years beyond the successful completion of the developments outlined in this project. The experiment outlined in this project. The experiment seeks to measure the 6S-7S PNC transition rate for this series of Cs isotopes. From the ratios of these rates measured in the different isotopes, a fundamental test of the standard model can be made at the level of 0. 2{percent}. Herein, we describe the successful operation of a thin- target, He-jet system operating at primary beam intensities of up to 700 {mu}A with production yields of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} atoms/s for a wide range of nonvolatile and Cs radioisotopes. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  9. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2.

    PubMed

    Brunzendorf, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time.

  10. Standardizing Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sompuram, Seshi R.; Vani, Kodela; Tracey, Brian; Kamstock, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    A new standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC) control for breast cancer testing comprises formalin-fixed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, or progesterone receptor peptide antigens covalently attached to 8-µm glass beads. The antigen-coated beads are suspended in a liquid matrix that hardens upon pipetting onto a glass microscope slide. The antigen-coated beads remain in place through deparaffinization, antigen retrieval, and immunostaining. The intensity of the beads’ stain provides feedback regarding the efficacy of both antigen retrieval and immunostaining. As a first report, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of the new IHC controls (“IHControls”). To evaluate sensitivity, various staining problems were simulated. IHControls detected primary and secondary reagent degradation similarly to tissue controls. This first group of IHControls behaved similarly to tissue controls expressing high concentrations of the antigen. The IHControls were also able to detect aberrations in antigen retrieval, as simulated by sub-optimal times or temperatures. Specificity testing revealed that each antigen-coated bead was specific for its cognate IHC test antibody. The data support the conclusion that, like tissue controls, IHControls are capable of verifying the analytic components of an immunohistochemical stain. Unlike tissue controls, IHControls are prepared in large bulk lots, fostering day-to-day reproducibility that can be standardized across laboratories. PMID:25940339

  11. Secondary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Secondary hypertension Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your ...

  12. Preparation, Purification, and Secondary Structure Determination of Bacillus Circulans Xylanase. A Molecular Laboratory Incorporating Aspects of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biophysical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Sal; Gentile, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    A project module designed for biochemistry or cellular and molecular biology student which involves determining the secondary structure of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under conditions that compromise its stabilizing intramolecular forces is described. The lab model enhanced students knowledge of the…

  13. DETERMINATION OF 2-METHYL TETROLS AND 2-METHYLGLYCERIC ACID IN SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FROM LABORATORY IRRADIATED ISOPRENE/NO X/SO 2/AIR MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation addresses recent work performed at EPA to evaluate the potential for the photooxidation of isoprene to produce secondary organic aerosol. Analysis of the samples for methyl tetrols and 2-methylglyceric acid were performed at EPA and the University of Antwerp. T...

  14. The standardized fish bioassay procedure for detecting and culturing actively toxic Pfiesteria, used by two reference laboratories for atlantic and gulf coast states.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, J M; Marshall, H G; Glasgow, H B; Seaborn, D W; Deamer-Melia, N J

    2001-10-01

    In the absence of purified standards of toxins from Pfiesteria species, appropriately conducted fish bioassays are the "gold standard" that must be used to detect toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. from natural estuarine water or sediment samples and to culture actively toxic Pfiesteria. In this article, we describe the standardized steps of our fish bioassay as an abbreviated term for a procedure that includes two sets of trials with fish, following the Henle-Koch postulates modified for toxic rather than infectious agents. This procedure was developed in 1991, and has been refined over more than 12 years of experience in research with toxic Pfiesteria. The steps involve isolating toxic strains of Pfiesteria (or other potentially, as-yet-undetected, toxic Pfiesteria or Pfiesteria-like species) from fish-killing bioassays with natural samples; growing the clones with axenic algal prey; and retesting the isolates in a second set of fish bioassays. The specific environmental conditions used (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, other factors) must remain flexible, given the wide range of conditions from which natural estuarine samples are derived. We present a comparison of information provided for fish culture conditions, reported in international science journals in which such research is routinely published, and we provide information from more than 2,000 fish bioassays with toxic Pfiesteria, along with recommendations for suitable ranges and frequency of monitoring of environmental variables. We present data demonstrating that algal assays, unlike these standardized fish bioassays, should not be used to detect toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. Finally, we recommend how quality control/assurance can be most rapidly advanced among laboratories engaged in studies that require research-quality isolates of toxic Pfiesteria spp.

  15. The standardized fish bioassay procedure for detecting and culturing actively toxic Pfiesteria, used by two reference laboratories for atlantic and gulf coast states.

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, J M; Marshall, H G; Glasgow, H B; Seaborn, D W; Deamer-Melia, N J

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of purified standards of toxins from Pfiesteria species, appropriately conducted fish bioassays are the "gold standard" that must be used to detect toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. from natural estuarine water or sediment samples and to culture actively toxic Pfiesteria. In this article, we describe the standardized steps of our fish bioassay as an abbreviated term for a procedure that includes two sets of trials with fish, following the Henle-Koch postulates modified for toxic rather than infectious agents. This procedure was developed in 1991, and has been refined over more than 12 years of experience in research with toxic Pfiesteria. The steps involve isolating toxic strains of Pfiesteria (or other potentially, as-yet-undetected, toxic Pfiesteria or Pfiesteria-like species) from fish-killing bioassays with natural samples; growing the clones with axenic algal prey; and retesting the isolates in a second set of fish bioassays. The specific environmental conditions used (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, other factors) must remain flexible, given the wide range of conditions from which natural estuarine samples are derived. We present a comparison of information provided for fish culture conditions, reported in international science journals in which such research is routinely published, and we provide information from more than 2,000 fish bioassays with toxic Pfiesteria, along with recommendations for suitable ranges and frequency of monitoring of environmental variables. We present data demonstrating that algal assays, unlike these standardized fish bioassays, should not be used to detect toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. Finally, we recommend how quality control/assurance can be most rapidly advanced among laboratories engaged in studies that require research-quality isolates of toxic Pfiesteria spp. PMID:11677184

  16. The role of European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase in standardization and harmonization of the preanalytical phase in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cornes, Michael P; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell; Guimarães, João T; Ibarz, Mercedes; Kovalevskaya, Svetlana; Kristensen, Gunn Bb; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Sprongl, Ludek; Sumarac, Zorica; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-09-01

    Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) was established to lead in standardization and harmonization of preanalytical policies and practices at a European level. One of the key activities of the WG-PRE is the organization of the biennial EFLM-BD conference on the preanalytical phase to provide a forum for National Societies (NS) to discuss their issues. Since 2012, a year after the first Preanalytical phase conference, there has been a rapid growth in the number of NS with a working group engaged in preanalytical phase activities and there are now at least 19 countries that have one. As a result of discussions with NS at the third conference held in March 2015 five key areas were identified as requiring harmonisation. These were test ordering, sample transport and storage, patient preparation, sampling procedures and management of unsuitable specimens. The article below summarises the work that has and will be done in these areas. The goal of this initiative is to ensure the EFLM WG-PRE produces work that meets the needs of the European laboratory medicine community. Progress made in the identified areas will be updated at the next preanalytical phase conference and show that we have produced guidance that has enhanced standardisation in the preanalytical phase and improved patient safety throughout Europe.

  17. Establishment of reference intervals for von Willebrand factor antigen and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Hyun; Seo, Ja-Young; Bang, Sung-Hwan; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    Establishment of reference intervals for coagulation molecules is important but is costly and sometimes not feasible. Since reference intervals from manufacturers or the literature are mostly out of date or involved Western populations, the authors determined reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight factors in a Korean population. VWF: Ag, factor VIII (FVIII), FII, FV, FVII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXII were determined in Korean individuals visiting for routine checkup following the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) guidelines. Reagents by Diagnostica Stago were used on the STA Compact Analyzer (Diagnostica Stago). Exclusion criteria were medical history or laboratory findings that could affect the factor levels. Influence of demographic factors was analyzed. Mean +/- 2 x SD or central 95 percentile was used, as appropriate. We obtained data from 266 adults for VWF: Ag, 371 adults for FVIII, and minimum 136 adults for the rest. Reference interval for VWF was 51-176% (52-155% in blood group O and 71-186% for non-O). Reference interval for FVIII was 64-197% (55-150% in O and 77-205% in non-O). Reference interval for FII was 77-121%, FV 81-160%, FVII 68-149%, FIX 67-154%, FX 69-126%, FXI 59-138%, and FXII 48-177%. The medians of VWF: Ag, FVIII, and FIX were significantly higher in the elderly group (> or =60 years). We established local reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population according to the CLSI guidelines. Significantly, different reference intervals were obtained in blood group O vs. non-O for VWF: Ag and FVIII. The reference intervals obtained in this study could be adopted in other clinical laboratories after appropriate validation.

  18. The Optics and Alignment of the Divergent Beam Laboratory X-ray Powder Diffractometer and its Calibration Using NIST Standard Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Cline, James P.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Black, David; Windover, Donald; Henins, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory X-ray powder diffractometer is one of the primary analytical tools in materials science. It is applicable to nearly any crystalline material, and with advanced data analysis methods, it can provide a wealth of information concerning sample character. Data from these machines, however, are beset by a complex aberration function that can be addressed through calibration with the use of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Laboratory diffractometers can be set up in a range of optical geometries; considered herein are those of Bragg-Brentano divergent beam configuration using both incident and diffracted beam monochromators. We review the origin of the various aberrations affecting instruments of this geometry and the methods developed at NIST to align these machines in a first principles context. Data analysis methods are considered as being in two distinct categories: those that use empirical methods to parameterize the nature of the data for subsequent analysis, and those that use model functions to link the observation directly to a specific aspect of the experiment. We consider a multifaceted approach to instrument calibration using both the empirical and model based data analysis methods. The particular benefits of the fundamental parameters approach are reviewed. PMID:26958446

  19. The Optics and Alignment of the Divergent Beam Laboratory X-ray Powder Diffractometer and its Calibration Using NIST Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Cline, James P; Mendenhall, Marcus H; Black, David; Windover, Donald; Henins, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory X-ray powder diffractometer is one of the primary analytical tools in materials science. It is applicable to nearly any crystalline material, and with advanced data analysis methods, it can provide a wealth of information concerning sample character. Data from these machines, however, are beset by a complex aberration function that can be addressed through calibration with the use of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Laboratory diffractometers can be set up in a range of optical geometries; considered herein are those of Bragg-Brentano divergent beam configuration using both incident and diffracted beam monochromators. We review the origin of the various aberrations affecting instruments of this geometry and the methods developed at NIST to align these machines in a first principles context. Data analysis methods are considered as being in two distinct categories: those that use empirical methods to parameterize the nature of the data for subsequent analysis, and those that use model functions to link the observation directly to a specific aspect of the experiment. We consider a multifaceted approach to instrument calibration using both the empirical and model based data analysis methods. The particular benefits of the fundamental parameters approach are reviewed.

  20. Lunar secondary craters, part K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overbeck, V. R.; Morrison, R. H.; Wedekind, J.

    1972-01-01

    Formation of V-shaped structures surrounding the fresh Copernicus Crater and its secondary craters are reviewed, and preliminary observations of the more extensively eroded secondary crater field of Theophilus are presented. Results of laboratory simulation of secondary lunar craters to examine their effects on V-shaped ridges are also described.

  1. The Use of Microcomputer Based Laboratories in Chemistry Secondary Education: Present State of the Art and Ideas for Research-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortosa, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    In microcomputer based laboratories (MBL) and data loggers, one or more sensors are connected to an interphase and this to a computer. This equipment allows visualization in real time of the variables of an experiment and provides the possibility of measuring magnitudes which are difficult to measure with traditional equipment. Research shows that…

  2. To amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to allow States to adopt alternate and modified standards for students with disabilities.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Boozman, John [R-AR-3

    2009-05-04

    06/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Flexible scope for ISO 15189 accreditation: a guidance prepared by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group Accreditation and ISO/CEN standards (WG-A/ISO).

    PubMed

    Thelen, Marc H M; Vanstapel, Florent J L A; Kroupis, Christos; Vukasovic, Ines; Boursier, Guilaime; Barrett, Edward; Bernabeu Andreu, Francisco; Brguljan, Pika Meško; Brugnoni, Duilio; Lohmander, Maria; Sprongl, Ludek; Vodnik, Tatjana; Ghita, Irina; Vaubourdolle, Michel; Huisman, Willem

    2015-07-01

    The recent revision of ISO15189 has further strengthened its position as the standard for accreditation for medical laboratories. Both for laboratories and their customers it is important that the scope of such accreditation is clear. Therefore the European co-operation for accreditation (EA) demands that the national bodies responsible for accreditation describe the scope of every laboratory accreditation in a way that leaves no room for doubt about the range of competence of the particular laboratories. According to EA recommendations scopes may be fixed, mentioning every single test that is part of the accreditation, or flexible, mentioning all combinations of medical field, examination type and materials for which the laboratory is competent. Up to now national accreditation bodies perpetuate use of fixed scopes, partly by inertia, partly out of fear that a too flexible scope may lead to over-valuation of the competence of laboratories, most countries only use fixed scopes. The EA however promotes use of flexible scopes, since this allows for more readily innovation, which contributes to quality in laboratory medicine. In this position paper, the Working Group Accreditation and ISO/CEN Standards belonging to the Quality and Regulation Committee of the EFLM recommends using an approach that has led to successful introduction of the flexible scope for ISO15189 accreditation as intended in EA-4/17 in The Netherlands. The approach is risk-based, discipline and competence-based, and focuses on defining a uniform terminology transferable across the borders of scientific disciplines, laboratories and countries.

  4. Measuring maximum and standard metabolic rates using intermittent-flow respirometry: a student laboratory investigation of aerobic metabolic scope and environmental hypoxia in aquatic breathers.

    PubMed

    Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology.

  5. Secondary amenorrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... of periods - secondary Images Secondary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. Physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  6. Report on key comparison COOMET.AUV.A-K5: pressure calibration of laboratory standard microphones in the frequency range 2 Hz to 10 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowolska, D.; Kosterov, A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the final report for regional key comparison COOMET.AUV.A-K5 on the pressure calibration of laboratory standard microphones in the frequency range from 2 Hz to 10 kHz. Two laboratories—Central Office of Measures (GUM)—the national metrology institute for Poland and the State Enterprise Scientific-Research Institute for Metrology of Measurement and Control Systems (DP NDI Systema)— the designated institute for acoustics in Ukraine took part in this comparison with the GUM as a pilot. One travelling type LS1P microphone was circulated to the participants and results in the form of regular calibration certificates were collected. The results of the DP NDI Systema obtained in this comparison were linked to the CCAUV.A-K5 key comparison through the joint participation of the GUM. The degrees of equivalence were computed for DP NDI Systema with respect to the CCAUV.A-K5 key comparison reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Health-based reference intervals for ALAT, ASAT and GT in serum, measured according to the recommendations of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS).

    PubMed

    Leino, A; Impivaara, O; Irjala, K; Mäki, J; Peltola, O; Järvisalo, J

    1995-05-01

    The reference intervals for the activities of L-alanine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2, ALAT), L-aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1, ASAT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.2, GT) in serum were determined according to the recommendations of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS). Serum specimens from 954 subjects were analysed for ALAT and ASAT and from 794 subjects for GT. The subjects, aged 27-67 years, were participants in general health surveys. The reference population was formed by excluding subjects with any disease, or on any medication, affecting the liver, and also those consuming excessive amounts of alcohol. The 95% inner reference intervals for ALAT and ASAT were 9-50 (n = 189) and 15-36 U l-1 (n = 192) in men and 8-38 (n = 270) and 13-33 U l-1 (n = 270) in women. For GT the reference interval was 11-58 in men (n = 165) and 8-42 U l-1 in women (n = 220). Serum GT levels correlated clearly with alcohol consumption. Serum ALAT and ASAT were only slightly associated with alcohol consumption at levels less than 280 g per week in men and 190 g per week in women. There were modest positive associations between the three enzyme levels and body mass index. None of the enzymes correlated significantly with age.

  8. Impact of Revised Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Breakpoints on Susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae Producing AmpC β-Lactamase

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki-Ho; Chong, Yong Pil; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Lee, Mi Suk; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints for broad-spectrum cephalosporins (BSCs) on the susceptibilities of 1,742 isolates of Enterobacter species, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii. The 2011 CLSI criteria for cefotaxime and ceftazidime reduced the rates of susceptibility by 2.9% and 5.9%, respectively. The 2014 CLSI criteria for cefepime reduced the rate of susceptibility by 13.9%, and categorized 11.8% isolates as susceptible-dose dependent (SDD) for cefepime. Among 183 isolates with extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype, implementation of the new criteria reduced the rates of susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime by 2.8%, 14.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The proportion of ESBL phenotype among BSC-susceptible isolates was low (0.9% for cefotaxime, 3.0% for ceftazidime, and 3.3% for cefepime). In summary, implementation of new CLSI criteria led to little change in susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime but a substantial change in susceptibility to cefepime. The recognition of revised CLSI criteria for BSC and SDD will help clinicians to select the optimal antibiotic and dosing regimen. PMID:28271652

  9. Clinical usefulness of the 2010 clinical and laboratory standards institute revised breakpoints for cephalosporin use in the treatment of bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp.

    PubMed

    Ku, Nam Su; Chung, Hae-Sun; Choi, Jun Yong; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Kim, June Myung; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the clinical usefulness of the revised 2010 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Of 2,623 patients with bacteremia caused by E. coli or Klebsiella spp., 573 who had been treated appropriately with cephalosporin based on the CLSI 2009 guidelines were enrolled. There were no differences in the rates of treatment failure or mortality between the appropriately and inappropriately treated groups according to the CLSI 2010 guidelines. Additionally, in the matched case-control analysis, the treatment failure rate was higher in bacteremic patients with extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing but cephalosporin-susceptible organisms than in those with ESBL-nonproducing isolates when patients with urinary tract infections were excluded (44% and 0%, resp., P = 0.026). In patients with bacteremia caused by E. coli or Klebsiella spp., the revised CLSI 2010 guidelines did not lead to poorer outcomes. However, ESBL production appeared to be associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with bacteremia from sources other than the urinary tract.

  10. Comparison of four reading methods of broth microdilution based on the clinical and laboratory standards institute M27-A3 method for Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Hiromi; Mano, Yoko; Oguri, Toyoko; Furuya, Nobuhiko

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the susceptibilities of 5 reference strains and 28 isolates of Candida spp., to micafungin, amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and miconazole, obtained by visually determined minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the agitation method (V-A), as described in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 document; visual determinations without agitation (V-NA); and spectrophotometric determinations for the presence or absence of agitation (SP-A and SP-NA, respectively). Our results indicate that when the V-NA, SP-A, and SP-NA-the 3 alternative microdilution procedures for MIC endpoint determinations-were compared with the V-A, excellent agreements were observed between the V-NA and V-A rather than with the spectrophotometric methods (between the SP-A or SP-NA, and V-A). Furthermore, many errors occurred while using the SP-A method in the presence of agitation and some isolates showed major errors. Three of 5 isolates that showed very major errors between the spectrophotometric SP-A or SP-NA, and the reference V-A method were trailing isolates. Therefore, it was suggested that the MICs of Candida spp. obtained by the V-NA method were more precise than those by the conventional SP-A method.

  11. Strengths and limitations of various screening methods for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae including new method recommended by clinical and laboratory standards institute, 2017: A tertiary care experience.

    PubMed

    Pragasam, Agila Kumari; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Bakthavatchalam, Yamuna Devi; Gopi, Radha; Aslam, Raziya Fathima

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenemase-mediated carbapenem resistance is a major concern across the world. Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms is of great importance in clinical settings. However, it is essential to have a test with good sensitivity and specificity. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of RAPIDEC® CARBA NP and modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline 2017. A total of ninety carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have been tested. The presence of various carbapenemases was screened by conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RAPIDEC® CARBA NP detected 90%, whereas mCIM detected 99% of the study isolates tested. Although RAPIDEC® CARBA NP is a rapid test, the sensitivity is reduced for blaOxa-48Likedetection; while mCIM could pick up blaOxa-48Likeenzymes with excellent sensitivity. Further, organisms producing low carbapenemase activity enzymes, thickness of the inoculum and the disc potency are likely to influence the test results of mCIM with an overnight delay.

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  13. Characterization of XR-RV3 GafChromic{sup ®} films in standard laboratory and in clinical conditions and means to evaluate uncertainties and reduce errors

    SciTech Connect

    Farah, J. Clairand, I.; Huet, C.; Trianni, A.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; De Angelis, C.; Delle Canne, S.; Hadid, L.; Waryn, M. J.; Jarvinen, H.; Siiskonen, T.; Negri, A.; Novák, L.; Pinto, M.; Knežević, Ž.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the optimal use of XR-RV3 GafChromic{sup ®} films to assess patient skin dose in interventional radiology while addressing the means to reduce uncertainties in dose assessment. Methods: XR-Type R GafChromic films have been shown to represent the most efficient and suitable solution to determine patient skin dose in interventional procedures. As film dosimetry can be associated with high uncertainty, this paper presents the EURADOS WG 12 initiative to carry out a comprehensive study of film characteristics with a multisite approach. The considered sources of uncertainties include scanner, film, and fitting-related errors. The work focused on studying film behavior with clinical high-dose-rate pulsed beams (previously unavailable in the literature) together with reference standard laboratory beams. Results: First, the performance analysis of six different scanner models has shown that scan uniformity perpendicular to the lamp motion axis and that long term stability are the main sources of scanner-related uncertainties. These could induce errors of up to 7% on the film readings unless regularly checked and corrected. Typically, scan uniformity correction matrices and reading normalization to the scanner-specific and daily background reading should be done. In addition, the analysis on multiple film batches has shown that XR-RV3 films have generally good uniformity within one batch (<1.5%), require 24 h to stabilize after the irradiation and their response is roughly independent of dose rate (<5%). However, XR-RV3 films showed large variations (up to 15%) with radiation quality both in standard laboratory and in clinical conditions. As such, and prior to conducting patient skin dose measurements, it is mandatory to choose the appropriate calibration beam quality depending on the characteristics of the x-ray systems that will be used clinically. In addition, yellow side film irradiations should be preferentially used since they showed a lower

  14. Preparation, Practice, and Performance: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Standards-Based Instruction on Secondary Students' Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades proponents of educational reform have advocated the use of standards-based education in maths and science classrooms for improving teacher practices, increasing student learning, and raising the quality of maths and science instruction. This study empirically examined the impact of specific standards-based teacher…

  15. Impact of penicillin nonsusceptibility on clinical outcomes of patients with nonmeningeal Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia in the era of the 2008 clinical and laboratory standards institute penicillin breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Chung, Jin-Won; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Choi, Sang-Ho

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the impact of penicillin nonsusceptibility on clinical outcomes of patients with nonmeningeal Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB), a retrospective cohort study was performed. The characteristics of 39 patients with penicillin-nonsusceptible SPB (PNSPB) were compared to those of a group of age- and sex-matched patients (n = 78) with penicillin-susceptible SPB (PSSPB). Susceptibility to penicillin was redetermined by using the revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) penicillin breakpoints in CLSI document M100-S18. Although the PNSPB group tended to have more serious initial manifestations than the PSSPB group, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of their 30-day mortality rates (30.8% versus 23.1%; P = 0.37) or the duration of hospital stay (median number of days, 14 versus 12; P = 0.89). Broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, such as extended-spectrum cephalosporins, vancomycin, and carbapenem, were frequently used in both the PNSPB and PSSPB groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07 to 22.27; P = 0.041) was one of the independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. Thus, when the 2008 CLSI penicillin breakpoints are applied and the current clinical practice of using wide-spectrum empirical antimicrobial agents is pursued, fatal outcomes in patients with nonmeningeal SPB that can be attributed to penicillin nonsusceptibility are likely to be rare. Further studies that examine the clinical impact of ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility in nonmningeal SPB may be warranted.

  16. Determination of Unknown Concentrations of Sodium Acetate Using the Method of Standard Addition and Proton NMR: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabzadeh, Massy

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…

  17. The effects of the level of inquiry of situated secondary science laboratory activities on students' understanding of concepts and the nature of science, ability to use process skills and attitudes toward problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Lisa Ann

    Although there has been over thirty years of studies on the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on students' understanding of concepts and the nature of science, ability to use process skills, and attitudes toward problem solving and subsequent meta-analyses of these studies, little is conclusive because of the inability of researchers to adequately describe the various levels of inquiry-based science instruction being utilized. In many of these past studies inquiry-based science instruction was vaguely defined. Past descriptions of inquiry have mainly focused on the teacher vs. student responsibility in the parts of a laboratory activity (Herron 1971, Pella, 1961, and Schwab, 1962) and although others have since focused on other various aspects (Luft, 1999; Priestley, Priestley, Sutman, Schumuckler, Hilosky, & White 1998), none have been complete in scope to describe the classroom interactions between teacher and student, before, during and after manipulation of laboratory materials and to clearly define the various levels of inquiry-based science instruction occurring in a classroom. Utilizing some of these previous theoretical frameworks, this study created the Situated Laboratory Activity Instrument (SLAI) that clearly defines various levels of inquiry based upon specific categories of teacher-student behaviors. The term, situated laboratory activities, more clearly represents the time before, during and after the actual manipulation of material. Validity and reliability were established for the SLAI. The instrument was derived from both historical and current instruments for looking at inquiry. The data for the creation and revision of this instrument were collected through initial reliability measures and observing the situated laboratory activities in four secondary physics classrooms during the study. The SLAI was utilized in a preliminary study in a public high school of the effects of various levels of inquiry teaching on students' understanding

  18. Echocardiography laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Katanick, S L

    1998-01-01

    In response to the need for standardization and improvement in the quality of echocardiographic laboratories an intersocietal commission has been created. The intent of the accreditation process is designed to recognize laboratories that provide quality services and to be used as an educational tool to improve the overall quality of the laboratory.

  19. Procedures for establishing and maintaining consistent air-kerma strength standards for low-energy, photon-emitting brachytherapy sources: recommendations of the Calibration Laboratory Accreditation Subcommittee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    PubMed

    DeWerd, Larry A; Huq, M Saiful; Das, Indra J; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Hanson, William F; Slowey, Thomas W; Williamson, Jeffrey F; Coursey, Bert M

    2004-03-01

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is being used extensively for the treatment of prostate cancer. As of September 2003, there are a total of thirteen 125I and seven 103Pd sources that have calibrations from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories (ADCLs) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The dosimetry standards for these sources are traceable to the NIST wide-angle free-air chamber. Procedures have been developed by the AAPM Calibration Laboratory Accreditation Subcommittee to standardize quality assurance and calibration, and to maintain the dosimetric traceability of these sources to ensure accurate clinical dosimetry. A description of these procedures is provided to the clinical users for traceability purposes as well as to provide guidance to the manufacturers of brachytherapy sources and ADCLs with regard to these procedures.

  20. Standardization of sensitive human immunodeficiency virus coculture procedures and establishment of a multicenter quality assurance program for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. The NIH/NIAID/DAIDS/ACTG Virology Laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Hollinger, F B; Bremer, J W; Myers, L E; Gold, J W; McQuay, L

    1992-01-01

    An independent quality assurance program has been established by the Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, for monitoring virologic assays performed by nearly 40 laboratories participating in multicenter clinical trials in the United States. Since virologic endpoints are important in evaluating the timing and efficacy of therapeutic interventions, it is imperative that virologic measurements be accurate and uniform. When the quality assurance program was initially created, fewer than 40% of the laboratories could consistently recover human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-infected patients. By comparing coculture procedures in the more competent laboratories with those in laboratories who were struggling to isolate virus, optimal conditions were established and nonessential reagents and practices were eliminated. Changes were rapidly introduced into a laboratory when experience dictated that such modifications would result in a favorable outcome. Isolation of HIV was enhanced by optimizing the numbers and ratios of patient and donor cells used in cultures, by standardizing PBMC separation procedures, by using fresh rather than frozen donor PBMCs, by processing whole blood within 24 h, and by using natural delectinated interleukin 2 instead of recombinant interleukin 2 products in existence at that time. Delays of more than 8 h in the addition of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated donor cells to freshly separated patient PBMCs reduced recovery. Phytohemagglutinin in cocultures and the addition of Polybrene and anti-human alpha interferon to media were not important in HIV isolation. The introduction of a consensus protocol based on this information brought most laboratories quickly into compliance. In addition, monthly monitoring has successfully maintained proficiency among the laboratories, a process that is critical for the scientific integrity of collaborative multicenter trials

  1. Importance of the Earth and space sciences in primary and secondary education: An endorsement of the AAAS benchmarks and NRC standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citizens require a solid understanding of the Earth and space sciences to address responsibly many of the issues confronting society, such as climate change, natural hazards, and resource availability. In the U.S., the only opportunity for most people to learn science in a formal setting occurs in grades K-12 (kindergarten through high school). In addition, a positive K-12 science experience may inspire young people to pursue the further study of science. As a community dedicated to advancing the understanding of Earth and space, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) is committed to effective science education in the primary and secondary grades.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of PASCO and National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A Broth Microdilution Methods for Antifungal Drug Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A.; Motley, Milwood; Warnock, David W.; Morrison, Christine J.

    2000-01-01

    The PASCO antifungal susceptibility test system, developed in collaboration with a commercial company, is a broth microdilution assay which is faster and easier to use than the reference broth microdilution test performed according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) document M27-A guidelines. Advantages of the PASCO system include the system's inclusion of quality-controlled, premade antifungal panels containing 10, twofold serial dilutions of drugs and a one-step inoculation system whereby all wells are simultaneously inoculated in a single step. For the prototype panel, we chose eight antifungal agents for in vitro testing (amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, and terconazole) and compared the results with those of the NCCLS method for testing 74 yeast isolates (14 Candida albicans, 10 Candida glabrata, 10 Candida tropicalis, 10 Candida krusei, 10 Candida dubliniensis, 10 Candida parapsilosis, and 10 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates). The overall agreements between the methods were 91% for fluconazole, 89% for amphotericin B and ketoconazole, 85% for itraconazole, 80% for flucytosine, 77% for terconazole, 66% for miconazole, and 53% for clotrimazole. In contrast to the M27-A reference method, the PASCO method classified as resistant seven itraconazole-susceptible isolates (9%), two fluconazole-susceptible isolates (3%), and three flucytosine-susceptible isolates (4%), representing 12 major errors. In addition, it classified two fluconazole-resistant isolates (3%) and one flucytosine-resistant isolate (1%) as susceptible, representing three very major errors. Overall, the agreement between the methods was greater than or equal to 80% for four of the seven species tested (C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. neoformans). The lowest agreement between methods was observed for miconazole and clotrimazole and for C. krusei isolates tested against terconazole. When the

  3. Comparative evaluation of PASCO and national committee for clinical laboratory standards M27-A broth microdilution methods for antifungal drug susceptibility testing of yeasts.

    PubMed

    Arthington-Skaggs, B A; Motley, M; Warnock, D W; Morrison, C J

    2000-06-01

    The PASCO antifungal susceptibility test system, developed in collaboration with a commercial company, is a broth microdilution assay which is faster and easier to use than the reference broth microdilution test performed according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) document M27-A guidelines. Advantages of the PASCO system include the system's inclusion of quality-controlled, premade antifungal panels containing 10, twofold serial dilutions of drugs and a one-step inoculation system whereby all wells are simultaneously inoculated in a single step. For the prototype panel, we chose eight antifungal agents for in vitro testing (amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, and terconazole) and compared the results with those of the NCCLS method for testing 74 yeast isolates (14 Candida albicans, 10 Candida glabrata, 10 Candida tropicalis, 10 Candida krusei, 10 Candida dubliniensis, 10 Candida parapsilosis, and 10 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates). The overall agreements between the methods were 91% for fluconazole, 89% for amphotericin B and ketoconazole, 85% for itraconazole, 80% for flucytosine, 77% for terconazole, 66% for miconazole, and 53% for clotrimazole. In contrast to the M27-A reference method, the PASCO method classified as resistant seven itraconazole-susceptible isolates (9%), two fluconazole-susceptible isolates (3%), and three flucytosine-susceptible isolates (4%), representing 12 major errors. In addition, it classified two fluconazole-resistant isolates (3%) and one flucytosine-resistant isolate (1%) as susceptible, representing three very major errors. Overall, the agreement between the methods was greater than or equal to 80% for four of the seven species tested (C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. neoformans). The lowest agreement between methods was observed for miconazole and clotrimazole and for C. krusei isolates tested against terconazole. When the

  4. Differences in antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from blood cultures, set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Shimizu, Chihiro; Kasahara, Mayumi; Nakata, Chiyo; Munakata, Machiko; Takahashi, Hakuo

    2007-02-01

    A study was made of the antimicrobial susceptibility to and efficacy of various kinds of antimicrobial agents against 179 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from blood cultures at Kansai Medical University Hospital from 1990 through 2004. The annual detection rate was highest in 1994, at 22 strains (6.5%). There were 9 multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.0%). Among 14 antimicrobial agents tested for measurements, ciprofloxacin (CPFX) showed the best minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 value, of 0.25 microg/ml, followed by pazufloxacin (PZFX) and biapenem (BIPM), each at 0.5 microg/ml. When the period of 15 years was divided into three stages, the MIC50 value for each antimicrobial agent was highest in the middle stage (1995 to 1999). Assuming that the percentage of sensitive strains according to the breakpoints set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) represents the antimicrobial susceptibility rate, amikacin (AMK) showed the best value, of 85.5%. According to the sepsis breakpoint set by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC), the efficacy of CPFX showed the highest rate (77.1%) of all the antimicrobial agents tested. Among beta-lactams, BIPM showed the highest efficacy rate, of 67.0%. When the efficacy rates were compared with each other, the difference in efficacy rate between the breakpoint set by the CLSI and the sepsis breakpoint set by the JSC was large for beta-lactams. Comparisons made based on the CLSI criteria showed no difference in cross-resistance rates between CPFX, meropenem (MEPM), and BIPM. However, when comparisons were made using the JSC sepsis breakpoint, MEPM showed a cross-resistance rate of 87.8%, while the rate for BIPM was lower, at 56.1%, with the chi2 test showing a significant difference, at P = 0.0014. In accordance with the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics theory that has been advocated, breakpoints which are more suitable for the clinical setting in Japan should

  5. Development of a standard protocol for in vitro cytogenetic testing with Chinese hamster ovary cells: comparison of results for 22 compounds in two laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, S.M.; Bloom, A.D.; Resnick, M.; Margolin, B.H.; Nakamura, F.; Archer, P.; Zeiger, E.

    1985-01-01

    A major problem of cytogenetics testing in mammalian cells is lack of agreement of results among laboratories. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive in vitro test protocol that was applicable to large-scale chemical screening and yielded comparable results in two laboratories. The authors used sister chromatid exchange (SEC) and chromosome aberration (CAb) tests in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Five clastogens were tested in the first two-laboratory comparison: mitomycin-C, triethylenemelamine, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, cyclophosphamide, and benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene. There was quite good agreement between laboratories. Seventeen compounds were then tested blind in the two laboratories. As testing proceeded, some discrepancies occurred between the laboratories, and the protocol was modified in attempts to improve the resolution of marginal responses and make dose selection more consistent. This protocol gave comparable results in the two laboratories in many cases and by testing up to a maximum dose, limited by solubility and/or toxicity, should detect a high proportion of clastogens and SCE inducers.

  6. ASTM Photovoltaic Performance Standards: Their Use at the National Renewable Energy Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.

    2007-07-01

    The performance of photovoltaic devices is typically rated in terms of their peak power with respect to a specific spectrum, total irradiance and temperature. The PV Cell and Module Performance Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo., has been measuring the performance of cells and modules for the U.S. terrestrial PV community since 1980. NREL typically calibrates 200 cells and modules per month. The laboratory follows the procedures described in ASTM International standards for calibrating its primary reference cells (E 1125), spectral responsivity measurements (E 1021), secondary reference cells (E 948), secondary modules (E 1036), concentrator modules (E 2527), and multi-junction cells and modules (E 2236).

  7. \\tLaboratory Environmental Sample Disposal Information Document - Companion to Standardized Analytical Methods for Environmental Restoration Following Homeland Security Events (SAM) – Revision 5.0

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document is intended to provide general guidelines for use byEPA and EPA-contracted laboratories when disposing of samples and associated analytical waste following use of the analytical methods listed in SAM.

  8. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. XVI. Improved Accuracy in the Infrared Spectra of the Secondary and Tertiary Standard Calibration Stars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Paper XIII) E created template spectra for faint standards to calibrate the Infra- .9 red Array Camera ( IRAC ) on Spitzer. In their calibration of... IRAC , a . Reach et al. (2005) noted a systematic 5%-7% difference between ’a the camera calibration against the A stars compared to that from - the K

  9. Effect of Using Mathematics Laboratory in Teaching Mathematics on the Achievement of Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okigbo, Ebele C.; Osuafor, Abigail M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of using mathematics laboratory in teaching on students' achievement in Junior Secondary School Mathematics. A total of 100 JS 3 Mathematics students were involved in the study. The study is a quasi-experimental research. Results were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).…

  10. Comparative evaluation of three commercial quantitative cytomegalovirus standards by use of digital and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Hayden, R T; Gu, Z; Sam, S S; Sun, Y; Tang, L; Pounds, S; Caliendo, A M

    2015-05-01

    The recent development of the 1st WHO International Standard for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the introduction of commercially produced secondary standards have raised hopes of improved agreement among laboratories performing quantitative PCR for CMV. However, data to evaluate the trueness and uniformity of secondary standards and the consistency of results achieved when these materials are run on various assays are lacking. Three concentrations of each of the three commercially prepared secondary CMV standards were tested in quadruplicate by three real-time and two digital PCR methods. The mean results were compared in a pairwise fashion with nominal values provided by each manufacturer. The agreement of results among all methods for each sample and for like concentrations of each standard was also assessed. The relationship between the nominal values of standards and the measured values varied, depending upon the assay used and the manufacturer of the standards, with the degree of bias ranging from +0.6 to -1.0 log10 IU/ml. The mean digital PCR result differed significantly among the secondary standards, as did the results of the real-time PCRs, particularly when plotted against nominal log10 IU values. Commercially available quantitative secondary CMV standards produce variable results when tested by different real-time and digital PCR assays, with various magnitudes of bias compared to nominal values. These findings suggest that the use of such materials may not achieve the intended uniformity among laboratories measuring CMV viral load, as envisioned by adaptation of the WHO standard.

  11. Quality guidelines and standards for genetic laboratories/clinics in prenatal diagnosis on fetal samples obtained by invasive procedures. An attempt to establish a common European framework for quality assessment. EUCROMIC Quality Assessment Group.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    At a workshop in Leuven, November 8-10, 1996, 24 clinical and laboratory geneticists from 15 countries in Europe met and discussed minimum standards for prenatal diagnosis. These guidelines are intended for use as a reference manual by genetic centres all over Europe, especially in countries without national guidelines, in their efforts to achieve and maintain high standards. The workshop was restricted to discuss quality assessment on established invasive procedures for cytogenetic and molecular studies. The committee brought together from their own countries substantial experience of genetic counselling, cytogenetics, molecular biology and quality assessment. It is hoped that future discussions, embracing all aspects of clinical and laboratory genetic services will lead to the establishment of common guidelines for all European countries.

  12. 76 FR 9578 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory... Additional Information: Nancy Anderson, Chief, Laboratory Practice Standards Branch, Division of Laboratory Science and Standards, Laboratory Science, Policy and Practice Program Office, Office of...

  13. The Causal Effect of Student Mobility on Standardized Test Performance: A Case Study with Possible Implications for Accountability Mandates within the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    PubMed Central

    Selya, Arielle S.; Engel-Rebitzer, Eden; Dierker, Lisa; Stephen, Eric; Rose, Jennifer; Coffman, Donna L.; Otis, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act. PMID:27486427

  14. Correspondence between maternal determination of child fullness and young children's self-determined fullness level: Results from a standardized laboratory protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined maternal understanding and acceptance of young children's ability to self-assess fullness using a mixed-methods approach. Twenty low-income mothers of 5- to 7-year-olds participated in this semistructured laboratory study. After consumption of a buffet dinner meal, mothers were a...

  15. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  16. DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 sdAb Produced by U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Biosurveillance (JPMO BSV), Critical Reagents Program instituted a quality program for the standardization of test methods to support more...standardization of antibody testing provides JPMO BSV with an invaluable platform for providing consistent, high- quality assays and reagents for current...Program (ATP) Quality MS2 coat protein (MS2CP) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  17. Requirements for Reference (Calibration) Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Siekmann, Lothar

    2007-01-01

    In addition to reference measurement procedures and reference materials, reference or calibration laboratories play an integral role in the implementation of measurement traceability in routine laboratories. They provide results of measurements using higher-order methods, e.g. isotope dilution mass spectrometry and may assign values to materials to be used for external quality assessment programs and to secondary reference materials. The requirements for listing of laboratories that provide reference measurement services include a statement of the metrological level or principle of measurement, accreditation as a calibration laboratory according to ISO 15195 and the participation in a proficiency testing system (regular inter-laboratory comparisons) for reference laboratories. Ring trials are currently conducted for thirty well-defined measurands and the results are made available to all laboratories. Through the use of reference laboratory services that are listed by the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine there is the opportunity to further promote traceability and standardisation of laboratory measurements. PMID:18392129

  18. Oversight Hearings on the Report of the National Council on Education Standards and Testing. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session (February 4, 19, and March 18, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education.

    The Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the House Committee on Education and Labor met to consider the recommendations of the National Council on Education Standards and Testing. The report recommends the establishment of national education standards, a national system of assessments, and the establishment of a…

  19. Advances in standardization of laboratory measurement procedures: implications for measuring biomarkers of folate and vitamin B-12 status in NHANES1234

    PubMed Central

    Eckfeldt, John H

    2011-01-01

    Population studies such as NHANES analyze large numbers of laboratory measurements and are often performed in different laboratories using different measurement procedures and over an extended period of time. Correct clinical and epidemiologic interpretations of the results depend on the accuracy of those measurements. Unfortunately, considerable variability has been observed among assays for folate, vitamin B-12, and related biomarkers. In the past few decades, the science of metrology has advanced considerably, with the development of improved primary reference measurement procedures and high-level reference materials, which can serve as the basis for accurate measurement. A rigorous approach has been established for making field methods traceable to the highest-level reference measurement procedures and reference materials. This article reviews some basic principles of metrology and describes their recent application to measurements of folate and vitamin B-12. PMID:21562088

  20. [Secondary rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Duron, J-B; Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Secondary rhinoplasty is very usual. Some patients are not satisfied by the previous surgery because the result is poor with obvious defaults but, sometimes, the result is good but the patient expects perfection. These two different situations will not lead to the same answer from the surgeon. Techniques of secondary rhinoplasty are the same than primary, but are often more difficult to perform because of scar tissue, retraction and loss of lining. The authors analyse the more frequent deformities in secondary rhinoplasty and the way they fix them.