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Sample records for secondary standard radionuclide

  1. Syringe calibration factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator for selected medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tyler, D K; Woods, M J

    2003-01-01

    Before a radiopharmaceutical is administered to a patient, its activity needs to be accurately assayed. This is normally done via a radionuclide calibrator, using a glass vial as the calibration device. The radionuclide is then transferred to a syringe and it is now becoming common practice to re-measure the syringe and use this value as the activity administered to the patient. Due to elemental composition and geometrical differences, etc. between the glass vial and the syringe, the calibration factors are different for the two containers and this can lead to an incorrect activity being given to the patient unless a correction is applied for these differences. To reduce the uncertainty on syringe measurements, syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator have been derived by NPL for several medically important radionuclides. It was found that the differences between the calibration factors for the syringes and glass vials depend on the energies of the photon emissions from the decay of the radionuclides; the lower the energy, the greater the difference. As expected, large differences were observed for 125I (70%) and only small differences for 131I. However, for radionuclides such as 99mTc and 67Ga, differences of up to 30% have been observed. This work has shown the need for the use of specifically derived syringe calibration factors as well as highlighting the complexity of the problem with regard to syringe types, procurement, etc.

  2. Establishing equivalence for activity standards of short-lived radionuclides using the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator.

    PubMed

    Woods, M J; Baker, M

    2004-01-01

    Conventional comparison techniques used between National Metrology Institutes are not practicable for short-lived radionuclides because of geographical separations and transport difficulties. The NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator provides an alternative approach and a comparison was conducted with 18F to investigate its feasibility. The exercise was successful and the paper details the protocol used, the quality assurance mechanisms introduced to underpin the comparison and an analysis of the results. It was also demonstrated that this approach could be linked to the BIPM SIR system. Recommendations are presented for the extension of this work to other suitable, short-lived radionuclides.

  3. NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator. Syringe calibration factors for radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. National Physical Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Tyler, D K; Baker, M; Woods, M J

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of the activity of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Although these radionuclides are normally measured initially in a standard glass vial, an aliquot of the solution is then usually withdrawn into a syringe prior to the administration. Both for general quality assurance good practice and for additional guarantees for patient safety, a confirmatory measurement of the syringe is almost obligatory Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. A variety of syringes typically used in hospital administrations, and covering a range of volumes and manufacturers, were obtained. The results obtained were compared to those for glass vials and show the large errors that can be produced by ignoring these differences in container format.

  4. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for the new 10R Schott, type 1+ vials.

    PubMed

    Baker, M

    2005-07-01

    For many years, P6 vials have been used for the distribution of a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic radioactive solutions. The activity measurements were performed in this geometry and, in time, the UK calibration system for nuclear medicine was based on this container as a standard. However, one major supplier of radiopharmaceuticals has replaced the P6 vial with the 10R Type 1+ Schott vial. As the dimensions of the new vial are different from those of the P6 vial and the responses of radionuclide calibrators are known to be container dependent, the need for re-calibration became apparent. Preliminary measurements made on some typical radionuclide calibrators for (125)I solution indicated a difference in response of about 10% between the two vials. The master ionisation chamber of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator has been re-calibrated and new calibration factors and volume correction factors for 10R Schott vials have been derived for the relevant medical radionuclides. The standard holder was also modified to accommodate the new larger vial. The complete list of factors and the method used to determine them is presented in this paper. The availability of these new factors will improve the quality of activity measurements in nuclear medicine, as calibration services can now be provided by NPL for the new container. These factors can also be employed for all commercial NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrators (now known as the NPL-CRC and previously as the 671 or ISOCAL IV).

  5. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for 125I seeds used for prostate brachytherapy. National Physical Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Baker, M; Bass, G A; Woods, M J

    2002-01-01

    In the therapeutic use of radionuclides, by far the most rapid growth in recent years is that of 125I seeds used for the treatment of prostate cancer. Large numbers of these seeds are used in each treatment and there is a need for a simple but accurate means of confirming their dose rates. This mechanism requires a transfer device for which the calibration factors are traceable to national standards. The NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, because of its guaranteed reproducibility and traceable calibration procedure, is ideally suited for this purpose. A series of characterisation measurements have been performed on the NPL radionuclide calibrator in order to estimate the uncertainty levels that can be achieved and these are presented together with the relevant calibration factors for some typical seeds.

  6. Sources of secondary radionuclide releases from Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Gydesen, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    This report considers Hanford facilities and operations with the potential to be secondary radionuclide release sources. Facilities that produced radionuclides or processed products of fission reactions and were not covered in previous source term reports are included in this report. The following facilities are described and any potentially significant releases from them are estimated: PUREX (1956--1972, 1983--1988) and REDOX (1952--1967)--campaigns with non-standard feed material (materials other than fuel from single-pass reactors); C PLANT (Hot Semi-Works)--pilot plant and strontium recovery; Z Plant--plutonium finishing; U and UO{sub 3} Plants--uranium recovery; 108 B Plant--tritium extraction; 300 Area Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR); 300 Area Low Power Test Reactors; Criticality Accidents; and 400 Area Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The method of analysis was to examine each facility, give a brief description of its purpose and operations, and describe the types of material the facility processed as an indication of the radionuclides it had the potential to release. Where possible, specific radionuclides are estimated and values from the original documents are reported.

  7. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  8. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  9. Secondary standards for BVRI photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, T. J.; Barnes, T. G., III

    1979-01-01

    A thorough test of Fernie's instrumentation system for matching the Johnson BVRI photometric system has been made. From 1,526 observations of 186 stars in the Arizona-Tonantzintla Catalogue, there were found excellent transformations, except for a slight curvature in the (B-V) transformation, which is easily removed, and a difficulty in (R-I) for highly reddened stars. Photometric values and their uncertainties are given for all the stars, and these are of sufficient quality to serve as secondary standards in BVRI for small- to moderate-size telescopes (1-m).

  10. Comment on ‘Development of a primary standard for absorbed dose from unsealed radionuclide solutions’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. K.

    2017-08-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Billas et al 2016 Metrologia 53 1259-71) describe the development of a primary standard for the absorbed dose in an aqueous solution containing the radionuclide 90Y. By positioning a thin-window extrapolation chamber near the surface of the solution they determine the absorbed dose in the air cavity. Using Monte Carlo calculations and knowledge of the 90Y β-ray spectrum they relate the absorbed dose in air to that in the aqueous solution. I point out that there is no need to develop a new standard for this problem because knowledge of the activity of the radionuclide, combined with its decay characteristics, is adequate to establish a primary standard for the absorbed dose in water. Furthermore, the uncertainty using this approach is significantly smaller than that achieved using the authors’ technique. Results from Monte Carlo calculations are reported that: (1) determine the minimum phantom size required to establish charged particle equilibrium; (2) show that the authors have neglected bremsstrahlung losses from the phantom; (3) show why the authors’ results are very sensitive to the air gap between the solution and the window of the ionization chamber. Finally, I consider the problem of calibrating secondary detectors against the primary standard.

  11. The role of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Samson, Sherry D.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2004-06-27

    The effects of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site were investigated by reacting quartz and Hanford sediment (Warden Soil) with caustic solution of high ionic strength (2 M NaNO3), high pH (~13), high temperature (~90oC), and dissolved Al(0.01 M Al(NO3)3). Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3-10 days reaction time. The presence of dissolved Al in the simulated tank fluid was found to depress the net Si dissolved concentration. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results, secondary precipitates (cancrinite) at the primary mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides of major concern at the Hanford Site such as 129I, 79Se, 99Tc, and 90Sr.

  12. The Role of Non-Standard PET Radionuclides in the Development of New Radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; McQuarrie, S. A.

    2008-08-11

    This paper discusses the production methods of the most commonly used non-standard PET radionuclides, their decay characteristics and importance in the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals for PET-based molecular imaging and potential applications in therapy.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  17. Secondary Uranium-Phase Paragenesis and Incorporation of Radionuclides into Secondary Phase

    SciTech Connect

    R. Finch

    2001-06-05

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to assess the potential for uranium (U) (VI) compounds, formed during the oxidative corrosion of spent uranium-oxide (UO{sub 2}) fuels, to sequester certain radionuclides and, thereby, limit their release. The ''unsaturated drip tests'' being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provide the basis of this AMR (Table 1). The ANL drip tests on spent fuel are the only experiments on fuel corrosion from which solids have been analyzed for trace levels of radionuclides. Brief summaries are provided of the results from other selected corrosion and dissolution experiments on spent UO{sub 2} fuels, specifically those conducted under nominally oxidizing conditions. Discussions of the current understanding of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of U(VI) compounds is provided in order to outline the scientific basis for modeling precipitation and dissolution of potential radionuclide-bearing phases under repository-relevant conditions. Attachment I provides additional information on corrosion mechanisms and behaviors of radionuclides in the tests at ANL. Attachment II reviews occurrence, formation, and alteration (collectively known as paragenesis) of naturally occurring U(VI) minerals because natural mineral occurrences can be used to assess the possible long-term behaviors of U(VI) compounds formed in short-term laboratory experiments and to extrapolate experimental results to repository-relevant time scales. This AMR develops a model for calculating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides that are incorporated into U(VI) compounds, which is an alternative to models currently used in TSPA to calculate dissolved concentration limits for certain radionuclides. In particular, the model developed in this AMR applies to Np (neptunium) concentrations being controlled by solid uranyl oxyhydroxides that are known to contain trace levels of Np. The results of this AMR and the conceptual model developed from it and

  18. Enhanced radionuclide immobilization and flow path modifications by dissolution and secondary precipitates.

    PubMed

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R Jeffrey; Yabusaki, Steven B; Owen, Antoinette T

    2005-01-01

    Caustic radioactive wastes that have leaked at Hanford Site (Richland, WA) induce mineral dissolution and subsequent secondary precipitation that influence the fate and transport of contaminants present in the waste solutions. The effects of secondary mineral precipitates, formed after contacting solids with simulated caustic wastes, on the flow path changes and radionuclide immobilization were investigated by reacting quartz, a mixture of quartz and biotite, and a Hanford sediment (Warden soil: coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Xeric Haplocambids) with simulated caustic tank waste solution. Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed in both batch and flow-through tests. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3- to 10-d reaction times in batch experiments. X-ray microtomography images of a reacted quartz column revealed that secondary precipitates cemented quartz grains together and modified pore geometry in the center of the column. Along the circumference of the packed column, however, quartz dissolution continuously occurred, suggesting that wastes that leaked from buried tanks in the past likely did not migrate vertically as modeled in risk assessments but rather the pathways likely changed to be dominantly horizontal on precipitation of secondary precipitate phases in the Hanford vadose zone. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results on the reacted sediments, the dominant secondary precipitates (cancrinites) on the mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides 129I(-I), 79Se(VI), 99Tc(VII), and 90Sr(II), all of which are of major concern at the Hanford Site.

  19. Enhanced radionuclide immobilization and flow path modifications by dissolution and secondary precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Owen, Antionette T.

    2005-07-05

    Caustic radioactive wastes that have leaked at Hanford Site (Richland, WA) induce mineral dissolution and subsequent secondary precipitation that influence the fate and transport of contaminants present in the waste solutions. The effects of secondary mineral precipitates, formed after contacting solids with simulated caustic wastes, on the flow path changes and radionuclide immobilization were investigated by reacting quartz, a mixture of quartz and biotite, and a Hanford sediment (Warden soil) with simulated caustic tank waste solution. Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed in both batch and flow-through tests. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3 to 10 d reaction times in batch experiments. X-ray microtomography images of a reacted quartz column revealed that secondary precipitates cemented quartz grains together and modified pore geometry in the center of the column. Along the circumference of the packed column, however, quartz dissolution continuously occurred, suggesting that wastes that leaked from buried tanks in the past likely did not migrate vertically as modeled in risk assessments but rather the pathways likely changed to be dominantly horizontal upon precipitation of secondary precipitate phases in the Hanford vadose zone. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results on the reacted sediments, the dominant secondary precipitates (cancrinites) on the mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides 129I(-I), 79Se(VI), 99Tc(VII), and 90Sr(II), all of which are of major concern at the Hanford Site.

  20. Concerning initial and secondary character of radionuclide distribution in elementary landscape geochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Specificity of radionuclide distribution in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) treated as local system of geochemically linked elementary terrestrial units (in toposequence: watershed-slope-closing depression), belongs to one of the less investigated but practically significant problems of current geochemistry. First measurements after the Chernobyl accident showed a considerable variation of Cs-137 distribution in all examined ELGS (Shcheglov et al, 2001; Romanov, 1989; Korobova, Korovaykov, 1990; Linnik, 2008). The results may be interpreted in frames of two alternative hypotheses: 1) irregularity of the initial contamination; 2) secondary redistribution of the initially regular level of fallout. But herewith only a disproof of the first hypothesis automatically justifies the second one. Factors responsible for initial irregularity of surface contamination included: 1) the presence of the so-called "hot" particles in the initial fallout; 2) interception of radionuclides by forest canopy; 3) irregular aerial particles deposition; 4) uneven initial precipitation. Basing on monitoring Cs-137 spatial distribution that has been performed since 2005, we demonstrate that the observed spatial irregularity in distribution of Cs-137 in ELGS reflects a purely secondary distribution of initial reserves of radionuclides in fallout matter due to its migration with water in local geochemical systems. This statement has some significant consequences. 1. Mechanism of migration of matter in ELGS is complicated and could not be reduced solely to a primitive moving from watershed to closing depression. 2. The control of migration of "labeled atoms" (Cs-137) permits to understand common mechanism of migration of water in all systems on the level of ELGS. 3. Understanding formation of the structure of contamination zones in ELGS permits to use mathematical model to solve the inverse problem of restoration of the initially equable level of their contamination. Performed

  1. Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-26

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

  2. Migration to new ampoule types for the NPL secondary standard ionisation chambers.

    PubMed

    Baker, M; Fenwick, A; Ferreira, K; Keightley, J; Johansson, L; Collins, S

    2014-05-01

    As the pre-calibrated sample containers used for activity assay in the two NPL secondary standards ionisation chambers are being phased out, suitable replacements have been identified. Characterisation checks have been carried out on the new ISO ampoules and a long-term recalibration schedule has been devised. Around 40 calibration factors have been determined so far and comparison of ion chamber responses for the two ampoule types showed variations of up to 7% for low energy photon emitting radionuclides.

  3. Drinking water standards for radionuclides: the dilemma and a possible resolution.

    PubMed

    Kocher, D C

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a revision of existing standards for radionuclides in drinking water. The Safe Drinking Water Act specifies that any revision "shall maintain or provide for greater protection of the health of persons." This provision appears to require that existing standards (maximum contaminant levels, MCLs) cannot be relaxed. Such a requirement presents a dilemma for two reasons. First, EPA has shown that the MCL for radium was not cost-effective. Second, MCLs for beta/gamma-emitting radionuclides incorporate outdated approaches to estimating dose from ingestion of radionuclides and, thus, appear to violate provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act concerning the use of sound science in setting standards. We suggest that this dilemma can be resolved based on an argument that the standard for protection of public health mandated by the Safe Drinking Water Act is one of applying best-available technology for removal of contaminants from drinking water at a reasonable cost, not one of meeting previously established MCLs.

  4. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d

    SciTech Connect

    SV Mattigod; DI Kaplan; VL LeGore; RD Orr; HT Schaef; JS Young

    1998-10-23

    Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.

  5. Reply to Comment on ‘Development of a primary standard for absorbed dose from unsealed radionuclide solutions’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billas, I.; Shipley, D.; Galer, S.; Bass, G.; Sander, T.; Fenwick, A.; Duane, S.; Smyth, V.

    2017-08-01

    This article is a reply to the comment from Ross (2017 Metrologia 54 610) on our paper (Billas et al 2016 Metrologia 53 1259) ‘Development of a primary standard for absorbed dose from unsealed radionuclide solutions’.

  6. Current status and future needs for standards of radionuclides used in positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, B E

    2013-06-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly used as a quantitative technique for detecting disease and monitoring patient progress during treatment. To ensure the validity of the quantitative information derived from the imaging data, it is imperative that all radioactivity measurements that are part of the imaging procedure be traceable to national or international standards. This paper reviews the current status of standards for positron emitting radionuclides (e.g., (18)F, (68)Ge/(68)Ga, and (124)I) and suggests needs for future work.

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  9. Distribution of radionuclides in an iron calibration standard for a free release measurement facility.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Stroh, Heiko; Marissens, Gerd; Tzika, Faidra; Lutter, Guillaume; Šurán, Jiri; Kovar, Petr; Skala, Lukas; Sud, Jaromír

    2016-03-01

    A Europallet-sized calibration standard composed of 12 grey cast iron tubes contaminated with (60)Co and (110m)Ag with a mass of 246kg was developed. As the tubes were produced through centrifugal casting it was of particular concern to study the distribution of radionuclides in the radial direction of the tubes. This was done by removing 72 small samples (swarf) of ~0.3g each on both the inside and outside of the tubes. All of the samples were measured in the underground laboratory HADES.

  10. Radionuclide measurement proficiency testing for SNAP using NPL waste drum standards.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J

    2010-12-01

    AWE has participated in two rounds of radionuclide measurement proficiency testing using 200 l waste drum standards prepared by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The results achieved, using the SNAP (spectral non-destructive assay platform) system, were generally within a few per cent of the true activities and gave confidence in the ability to allocate wastes to the correct categories in accordance with national legislation. This is important for reasons of public safety and also for minimisation of the amount of RSA (Radioactive Substances Act) Exempt material categorised as LLW (low level waste) as the UK's LLW storage capacity diminishes.

  11. Development of a primary standard for absorbed dose from unsealed radionuclide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billas, I.; Shipley, D.; Galer, S.; Bass, G.; Sander, T.; Fenwick, A.; Smyth, V.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, the determination of the internal absorbed dose to tissue from an administered radionuclide solution relies on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations based on published nuclear decay data, such as emission probabilities and energies. In order to validate these methods with measurements, it is necessary to achieve the required traceability of the internal absorbed dose measurements of a radionuclide solution to a primary standard of absorbed dose. The purpose of this work was to develop a suitable primary standard. A comparison between measurements and calculations of absorbed dose allows the validation of the internal radiation dose assessment methods. The absorbed dose from an yttrium-90 chloride (90YCl) solution was measured with an extrapolation chamber. A phantom was developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the UK’s National Measurement Institute, to position the extrapolation chamber as closely as possible to the surface of the solution. The performance of the extrapolation chamber was characterised and a full uncertainty budget for the absorbed dose determination was obtained. Absorbed dose to air in the collecting volume of the chamber was converted to absorbed dose at the centre of the radionuclide solution by applying a MC calculated correction factor. This allowed a direct comparison of the analytically calculated and experimentally determined absorbed dose of an 90YCl solution. The relative standard uncertainty in the measurement of absorbed dose at the centre of an 90YCl solution with the extrapolation chamber was found to be 1.6% (k  =  1). The calculated 90Y absorbed doses from published medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) and radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) data agreed with measurements to within 1.5% and 1.4%, respectively. This study has shown that it is feasible to use an extrapolation chamber for performing primary standard absorbed dose measurements of an unsealed radionuclide solution. Internal radiation

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  13. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    PubMed

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  16. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  17. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  18. Performance demonstration of 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M S; Tomar, B S

    2016-02-01

    A standardization of (134)Cs and (131)I was carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme. The coincidence analyzer, capable of analyzing coincidence between beta and two gamma windows simultaneously, was developed and used for the standardization. The use of this dual coincidence analyzer has reduced the total experimental time by half. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, a 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system, and the CIEMAT/NIST method are in excellent agreement with each other within uncertainty limits and hence demonstrates its performance for standardization of radionuclides decaying with complex decay scheme. Hence use of this 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system can be an alternative method suitable to standardize radionuclides with complex decay scheme with acceptable precision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Science, Levels 7-12. Secondary Core Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document presents the core science curriculum standards which must be completed by all students as a requisite for graduation from Utah's secondary schools. Contained within are the elementary and secondary school program of studies and high school graduation requirements. Each course entry for grades 7-12 contains: course title, unit of…

  20. Standardizing clinical laboratory data for secondary use.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Swapna; Demner-Fushman, Dina; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Clinical databases provide a rich source of data for answering clinical research questions. However, the variables recorded in clinical data systems are often identified by local, idiosyncratic, and sometimes redundant and/or ambiguous names (or codes) rather than unique, well-organized codes from standard code systems. This reality discourages research use of such databases, because researchers must invest considerable time in cleaning up the data before they can ask their first research question. Researchers at MIT developed MIMIC-II, a nearly complete collection of clinical data about intensive care patients. Because its data are drawn from existing clinical systems, it has many of the problems described above. In collaboration with the MIT researchers, we have begun a process of cleaning up the data and mapping the variable names and codes to LOINC codes. Our first step, which we describe here, was to map all of the laboratory test observations to LOINC codes. We were able to map 87% of the unique laboratory tests that cover 94% of the total number of laboratory tests results. Of the 13% of tests that we could not map, nearly 60% were due to test names whose real meaning could not be discerned and 29% represented tests that were not yet included in the LOINC table. These results suggest that LOINC codes cover most of laboratory tests used in critical care. We have delivered this work to the MIMIC-II researchers, who have included it in their standard MIMIC-II database release so that researchers who use this database in the future will not have to do this work. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Standardizing clinical laboratory data for secondary use

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical databases provide a rich source of data for answering clinical research questions. However, the variables recorded in clinical data systems are often identified by local, idiosyncratic, and sometimes redundant and/or ambiguous names (or codes) rather than unique, well-organized codes from standard code systems. This reality discourages research use of such databases, because researchers must invest considerable time in cleaning up the data before they can ask their first research question. Researchers at MIT developed MIMIC-II, a nearly complete collection of clinical data about intensive care patients. Because its data are drawn from existing clinical systems, it has many of the problems described above. In collaboration with the MIT researchers, we have begun a process of cleaning up the data and mapping the variable names and codes to LOINC codes. Our first step, which we describe here, was to map all of the laboratory test observations to LOINC codes. We were able to map 87% of the unique laboratory tests that cover 94% of the total number of laboratory tests results. Of the 13% of tests that we could not map, nearly 60% were due to test names whose real meaning could not be discerned and 29% represented tests that were not yet included in the LOINC table. These results suggest that LOINC codes cover most of laboratory tests used in critical care. We have delivered this work to the MIMIC-II researchers, who have included it in their standard MIMIC-II database release so that researchers who use this database in the future will not have to do this work. PMID:22561944

  2. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  3. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  4. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  5. Elementary and Secondary Schools Under the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This pamphlet provides general information and guidelines concerning the application of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act to employees of elementary and secondary schools, as of January 1974. Separate short sections of the pamphlet examine various provisions of the act, emphasizing their impact on employer-employee relations in the schools.…

  6. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  7. Characterization of halogen lamps as secondary standard of luminous flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. A. R.; Sanchez, O., Jr.; Ferreira, A. F. G., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents a study of lamps characterization concerning its lamp output, current and voltage drift during seasoning and regarding the use of theses lamps as luminous flux secondary standard. The 200W halogen lamps are seasoned for 30 hours and during the seasoning period the relative drift of the lamp illuminance, current and voltage are measured at each 3 minutes. The illuminance is measured using a photometer with detector head, the lamp voltage is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and the current is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and 0.1 Ohms standard resistor. The lamp current is controlled by a calibrated current power source with stability better than 1 mA. To reduce the stray light, baffles are positioned between the lamp and the detector head. The alignment of experimental assembly is made by a He-Ne Laser. Data of illuminance, current and voltage is acquired by software built in Labview database. Among the 5 lamps seasoned, the best result presents the variation of illuminance of 0.04% per hour. This lamp is chosen to become the secondary standard and its luminous flux is measured using an Ulbricht integrating sphere. This method allows the laboratory to create secondary standard of luminous flux for its routine test and measurements and to supply theses standards for Brazilian industry.

  8. Initinal and secondary decline of transport of radionuclides in Fukushima in the terrestrial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Smith, Hugh; Brake, Will; Iwagami, Sho; Kato, Hiroaki

    2017-04-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has released massive amount of radiocesium into the terrestrial environment, and the radiocecium have been moved through rainfall and erosional processes. Especially, radiocesium (Cs-137) transfer and flux through river network is important to understand the redistribution of radiocesium in terrestrial environment. An intensive field monitoring campaign has been started including mapping project, immediately after the Fukushima NPP accident including detailed monitoring site in upstream (Yamakiya site), and 30 monitoring sites in downstream river sites. In this presentation, I will present the initial and secondary decline of summary of environmental transfer studies after the Fukushima NPP accident The processes includes forest canopy to ground soil and aquifers, transfer to river and marine. The activity concentration of radiocesium of suspended sediment declining rapidly in rivers until about 1 year after the fallout, then decline slowly, but the tendency of rate of decline differs between rivers. The rate of decline in paddy field and headwater stream is quicker in initial decline followed by slower decline. However, the slow decline of activity concentration of suspend sediment in cropland and decline steadily. We will analyse the difference in initial and secondary decline between rivers using upstream land use and runoff characteristics.

  9. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  10. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  11. Gaseous standards preparation with the radionuclide Ar-41 for stack monitors calibration and verification in nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Petr; Dryak, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    The Czech Metrology Institute performs calibration and verification of noble gases stack monitors in nuclear power plants and nuclear research facilities. Together with Kr-85 and Xe-133, the radionuclide Ar-41 is measured using HPGe detectors and its activity is determined using a gamma-ray peak at 1293keV. The counting efficiency used in these measurements was calculated by the Monte Carlo method using the MCNP code. Radioactive gas standard is prepared by irradiation of argon in a high-pressure vessel by a Cf-252 neutron generator. The inner shape and thickness of the cylinder walls were determined by radiography. The argon volume under normal conditions is determined from the high-pressure vessel volume and by a precise gas pressure measurement. As a result, the activity concentration of Ar-41 at normal conditions is certified.

  12. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  13. Transition Radiation as a Secondary Standard Source in the VUV.

    PubMed

    Böhm, W; Labs, D

    1971-09-01

    The optical radiation caused by electron bombardment of metallic surfaces was tested for its use as a secondary standard source in the VUV. Aluminum of high purity was found to be a suitable target material. The reproducibility of the radiation is of the order of 4% to 2% for 0.11 < lambda < 0.15 microm and 0.15 < lambda < 0.27 microm, respectively. In the spectral region 0.17 microm to 0.27 microm, the source was calibrated absolutely by comparison with a deuterium lamp of known absolute intensity.

  14. Standardization of radionuclide by beta(LS)-gamma coincidence counting using the geometry-efficiency variation method.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Han-Yull; Sung, Ki Suk; Lee, K B; Lee, Jong Man; Park, Tae Soon

    2006-01-01

    A liquid scintillation counting method consisting of three photomultiplier tubes for beta counters and a NaI(Tl) gamma counter has been developed for the standardization of radionuclides with the beta-gamma coincidence technique. The beta detection efficiency functions are obtained by means of a geometry-variation method developed in the present work; an array of beta detectors is moved uniformly at the same time from a centrally located counting vial to 50 mm. The method has been applied in the standardization of 60Co and 134Cs. Unquenched liquid scintillation samples with nominal count rates from 1000 to 6000 s-1 were prepared. The observed beta detection efficiencies with this method are from 90 to 45% in the case of 60Co, and from 84 to 50% for 134Cs. The output of each beta channel is summed together and compared with gamma data by the coincidence analyzer. The dead time of each counting channel is adjusted to be 20 micros, sufficiently long to suppress the afterpulses in the beta counting channel. The activity of each sample is determined by using the Cox and Isham formula. The obtained results are in good agreement with KRISS certified values.

  15. The IAEA Radiotracer Biodistribution Template - A community resource for supporting the standardization and reporting of radionuclide pre-dosimetry data.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Adam Leon; Poli, Gian Luca; Beykan, Seval; Lassmann, Michael

    2017-09-15

    Radionuclide absorbed-dose dosimetry is an active area of development and has the potential to positively impact molecular radiotherapies. At present, many of the operations required to perform dosimetry calculations are unstandardized and unestablished. While the current methodology allows reasonable dosimetry estimates to be derived and published, it can be difficult to understand, and reproduce, each others' work. To help alleviate this we have identified the collection of biodistribution information as a key step in all internal dosimetry calculations, and present a template that can be used to standardize its documentation and reporting. A generalized biodistribution template entitled the IAEA Radiotracer Biodistribution Template (IAEA RaBiT) has been built and distributed for users performing biodistribution measurements in the community. The template enables robust recording of dosimetry-relevant information through standardization of details and their format. It has been designed to be simple and easy to use, and establish a structured recording of a common reference point in dosimetry operations - biodistribution data documentation. Improved documentation procedures may benefit organization of in house data, or be used to disseminate details throughout the community - for example to supplement dosimetry related publications. The standard format information may also enable the creation of new dosimetry related tools and protocols and support robust population databases. As dosimetry in nuclear medicine becomes more routinely applied in clinical applications, we need to develop the infrastructure for robustly handling large amounts of these data. Our IAEA RaBiT can be used as a standard format structure for data collection, organization, and dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Emission Standards for Radon Emissions from Operating Mill Tailings (Subpart W). EPA Region 8 issued three... 26, 2011, the EPA issued a Construction Approval to Energy Fuels for Tailings Cell A and the Phase I Evaporation Ponds at the proposed Pi on Ridge Uranium Mill. Tailings Cell A and the Phase I Evaporation Ponds...

  17. Standardizing intensive care device data to enable secondary usages.

    PubMed

    Ingenerf, Josef; Kock, Ann-Kristin; Poelker, Marcel; Seidl, Konrad; Zeplin, Georg; Mersmann, Stefan; Handels, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    To represent medical device observations in a format that is consumable by clinical software, standards like HL7v3 and ISO/IEEE 11073 should be used jointly. This is demonstrated in a project with Dräger Medical GmbH focusing on their Patient Data Management System (PDMS) in intensive care, called Integrated Care Manager (ICM). Patient and device data of interest should be mapped to suitable formats to enable data exchange and decision support. Instead of mapping device data to target formats bilaterally we use a generic HL7v3 Refined Message Information Model (RMIM) with device specific parts adapted to ISO/IEEE 11073 DIM. The generality of the underlying model (based on Yuksel et al. [1]) allows the flexible inclusion of IEEE 11073 conformant device models of interest on the one hand and the generation of needed artifacts for secondary usages on the other hand, e.g. HL7 V2 messages, HL7 CDA documents like the Personal Health Monitoring Report (PHMR) or web services. Hence, once the medical device data are obtained in the RMIM format, it can quite easily be transformed into HL7-based standard interfaces through XSL transformations because these interfaces all have their building blocks from the same RIM. From there data can be accessed uniformly, e.g. as needed by Dräger´s decision support system SmartCare [2] for automated control and optimization of weaning from mechanical ventilation.

  18. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  19. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  20. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  1. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  2. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  3. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  4. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  5. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  6. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter...

  7. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference method...

  8. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference method...

  9. Use of Channel Electron Multipliers as Secondary Standard Detectors at EUV Wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Timothy, J G; Lapson, L B

    1974-06-01

    The procedures available for photometric calibration at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths are outlined and the requirements for a secondary standard EUV photomultiplier defined. The performance of a number of commercially available channel electron multipliers over the 304-1350-A wavelength range is described and their suitability for use as secondary standards discussed in detail. Although none of the multipliers evaluated fully met the requirements for a secondary standard it proved possible to calibrate absolutely a Mullard cone channel over the required wavelength range to an accuracy of +/-9% and to employ it as a secondary standard in the calibration of a series of sounding rocket spectrometers.

  10. An automated ionization chamber for secondary radioactivity standards.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R

    2010-01-01

    I report on the operation and characterization of a new ionization chamber system, "AUTOIC", featuring a commercial digital electrometer and a commercial robotic sample changer. The relative accuracy of the electrometer was improved significantly beyond the manufacturer's specifications through an in-house calibration of the various ranges, applied via software. The measurement precision and repeatability of the system have been determined by measuring multiple samples of the same radionuclide over the span of two or three years. The linearity of the system was examined by following the decay of (99m)Tc, (99)Mo and (133)Xe sources for up to 19 half-lives and determining half-life values. All of these values agree with the accepted literature values, within their combined uncertainties. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Secondary Drinking Water Standards: Guidance for Nuisance Chemicals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about Secondary Drinking Water Regulations for nuisance chemicals contained in some drinking water. They are established only as guidelines to assist public water systems in managing their drinking water for aesthetic considerations.

  12. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Lead Smelting; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032...

  13. Illuminating Possibilities: Secondary Writing across the Curriculum as a Resource for Navigating Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillge, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Widespread adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in the United States has resulted in an unprecedented set of national secondary school writing standards that shift responsibility for writing instruction across content areas. As secondary school teachers grapple with these new demands, this article proposes that WAC can serve as a key…

  14. State Secondary Career and Technical Education Standards: Creating a Framework from a Patchwork of Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Harrison, Linda; Schneider, Sherrie

    2008-01-01

    Many states are currently working to define secondary career and technical education (CTE) content standards that specify the knowledge and skills students are expected to master in CTE program areas. This study explores the progress and status of states in developing statewide secondary CTE standards systems. An exhaustive online query of CTE…

  15. Radionuclide Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

    Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

  16. Secondary Biology Textbooks and National Standards for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leigh K.; Hanks, Joseph H.; Erickson, Lynette B.

    2017-01-01

    Given secondary teachers' dependence on textbooks for curricular and instructional guidance, the challenges introduced by increasingly diverse classrooms in the United States, and national efforts to provide equitable access to science for all students, this study examined the alignment between three popular high school biology textbooks and the…

  17. A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-12-01

    This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb

  18. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  19. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emissions Standards for... RIN 2060-AQ68 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting... under national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. These final amendments include...

  20. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Time Commitment When Addressing the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William Benedict, III

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were officially released in America for mathematics and English language arts and soon adopted by 45 of the 50 states. However, within the English langue arts domain there were standards intended for secondary social studies teachers under the title, Common Core State Standards for English Language…

  1. FCS National Standards: Do They Underpin Secondary Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bettye P.; Hall, Helen C.; Jones, Karen H.

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the seven standards that are included in a comprehensive (family-oriented) FCS program: (1) Family; (2) Nutrition and Wellness; (3) Human Development; (4) Interpersonal relationships; (5) Career, Community, and Family Connections; (6) Parenting; and (7) Family and Community Services. The study was conducted to better…

  2. FCS National Standards: Do They Underpin Secondary Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bettye P.; Hall, Helen C.; Jones, Karen H.

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the seven standards that are included in a comprehensive (family-oriented) FCS program: (1) Family; (2) Nutrition and Wellness; (3) Human Development; (4) Interpersonal relationships; (5) Career, Community, and Family Connections; (6) Parenting; and (7) Family and Community Services. The study was conducted to better…

  3. Setting the Standard: Role Definition for a Secondary Literacy Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMeglio, Rachele A.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2010-01-01

    This case introduces Karen, a middle school literacy coach attempting to navigate the myriad tasks she performs. As she aims to satisfy everyone's needs Karen struggles to prioritize and focus her work. The accompanying teaching notes utilize the International Reading Association's "Standards for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches" to…

  4. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  5. Facilities Potentially Subject to the Secondary Aluminum National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a September 2001 list of sources potentially subject to the secondary aluminum production national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). This list does not include auto salvage i.e. sweat furnaces.

  6. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic 3-month...

  7. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic 3-month...

  8. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic 3-month...

  9. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Experiences Implementing Common Core State Literacy Standards: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Krista Faith Huskey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the experiences of secondary social studies teachers who implemented Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in history/social studies, science and technical subjects in social studies courses requiring End of Course Tests at secondary schools in one suburban…

  10. 77 FR 20217 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...This final rule is being issued as required by a consent decree governing the schedule for completion of this review of the air quality criteria and the secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. Based on its review, the EPA is retaining the current nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary......

  11. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Experiences Implementing Common Core State Literacy Standards: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Krista Faith Huskey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the experiences of secondary social studies teachers who implemented Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in history/social studies, science and technical subjects in social studies courses requiring End of Course Tests at secondary schools in one suburban…

  12. Track structure simulation for positron emitters of physical interest. Part III: The case of the non-standard radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Loirec, C.; Champion, C.

    2007-11-01

    With the growth of clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) utilizations, new molecular tracers, able to aid in the assessment, therapy planning and monitoring of cancer patients, are synthesized. As suggested by some works reported in the literature, these newcomers may be positron emitting isotopes of lanthanium, 134La, iodine, 120I, 121I and 124I, arsenic, 72As and 74As, oxygen, 14O, and neon, 19Ne. In this work, we present an inter comparison of these eight radiopharmaceuticals which may be used in PET. To do that we have used a Monte Carlo simulation of positron following-up in water that we have adapted to the beta decay of radionuclides. We have also access to accurate spatial and energetic distributions of the potential PET radiopharmaceuticals under investigation here. The results are given in an analytical way and have been compared, when possible, with theoretical and experimental values available in the literature.

  13. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  14. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  15. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  16. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  17. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  18. 100 years of radionuclide metrology.

    PubMed

    Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

    2014-05-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics.

  19. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics…

  20. Environmental standards for primary and secondary containment systems and transfer stations

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, D.M.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Standards for Primary and Secondary Containment Systems and Transfer Stations will supersede all previous requirements for design of dikes, storage tanks, and transfer stations in order to maintain consistency throughout the Y-12 Plant. This document is organized into six distinct sections, each with a specific purpose. Section I outlines the objectives of the document along with its applications and limitations; this section should be of interest to all readers for essential background information. Section II lists all definitions and is consistent with definitions outlined by environmental regulations. Section III discusses primary containment standards. Section IV outlines secondary containment standards; this section contains the actual standards for the diking of storage tanks and storage containers. Section V discusses transfer station standards. Section VI of this document outlines how exemptions may be granted for specific cases.

  1. [STandardized Reporting Of Secondary data Analyses (STROSA)—a recommendation].

    PubMed

    Swart, Enno; Schmitt, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Secondary data analyses will play an increasingly important role in health services research. But to date, there is no guideline for the systematic, transparent and complete reporting of secondary data. We investigated whether the STROBE statement, i.e., the recommendations for reporting observational studies, satisfies the specific characteristics of secondary data analyses and whether any specifications/modifications and extensions are necessary. For the majority of the 22 STROBE criteria, specifications and extensions are needed to meet the requirements of systematic, transparent and complete reporting of secondary data analysis. Seven aspects of secondary data analysis not covered by STROBE (legal aspects, data flow, protocol, unit of analysis, internal validations/definitions, advantages of secondary data utilisation, role of data owners) should be considered as a specific complement to STROBE. The so called STROSA (STandardized Reporting Of Secondary data Analyses) checklist therefore includes 29 items that relate to the title/abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. The STROSA checklist is intended to support authors and readers in the critical appraisal of secondary data analyses. This proposal will now be subject to continued scientific discussions.

  2. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  3. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  4. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  5. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  6. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  7. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  8. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  9. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  10. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  11. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  12. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  13. 77 FR 8575 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...The EPA is proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production to address the results of the residual risk and technology review that the EPA is required to conduct by the Clean Air Act. In addition, the EPA is proposing amendments to correct and clarify rule requirements and provisions. These proposed amendments would require......

  14. 76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...EPA is proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting to address the results of the residual risk and technology review that EPA is required to conduct by the Clean Air Act. These proposed amendments include revisions to the stack emissions limits for lead; revisions to the fugitive dust emissions control requirements; the......

  15. State Secondary CTE Standards: Developing a Framework out of a Patchwork of Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Harrison, Linda; Schneider, Sherrie

    2007-01-01

    Many state educational administrators are currently working to define secondary career and technical education (CTE) content standards that specify the knowledge and skills students are expected to master in CTE program areas. The two-phase project on which this report is based explored (a) the progress and status of states in developing statewide…

  16. Jordanian Vocational, Secondary Education Teachers and Acquisition of the National Professional Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajeh, Hesham I.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to estimate the level of acquisition of the Jordanian national professional standards by vocational, secondary education teachers. Two hundred teachers participated in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Questionnaire validity was assessed by content validity,…

  17. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  18. A Pilot Standard National Course Classification System for Secondary Education, 1995. [Diskette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malitz, Gerald; And Others

    Presents an "infobase" version of "A Pilot Standard National Course Classification System for Secondary Education" to allow users to browse, search, annotate, print, and export information electronically. This publication is the culmination of a major effort to help establish common terminology, descriptions, and a coding…

  19. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Travis A.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  20. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Travis A.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  1. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Announcement... titled ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' which was... ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should...

  2. An Australian secondary standard dosimetry laboratory participation in IAEA postal dose audits.

    PubMed

    Davies, J B; Izewska, J; Meriaty, H; Baldock, C

    2013-03-01

    For over 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have jointly monitored activities of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) through postal dose audits with the aim of achieving consistency in dosimetry throughout the world. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) maintains an SSDL and is a member of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. Postal dose audit results at this Australian SSDL from 2001 to 2011 demonstrate the consistency of absorbed dose to water measurements, underpinned by the primary standard maintained at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA).

  3. Use and qualification of primary and secondary standards employed in quantitative ¹H NMR spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Torgny; McEwen, Ian; Johansson, Monika; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2014-05-01

    Standards are required in quantitative NMR (qNMR) to obtain accurate and precise results. In this study acetanilide was established and used as a primary standard. Six other chemicals were selected as secondary standards: 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethylterephthalate, maleic acid, 3-sulfolene, 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The secondary standards were quantified using the primary standard acetanilide. A protocol for qualification and periodic checks of these secondary standards was developed, and used for evaluation of the stability of the compounds. Periodic monitoring of purity was performed for several years. The purity was higher than 99% for all secondary standards. All standards maintained the initial purity during the time period of monitoring, with very small variations in purity (0.3-0.4%). The selected secondary standards were shown to be suitable qNMR standards and that periodic requalification of the standards by qNMR ensures reliable analytical results. These standards have been used in our laboratory for compliance testing of pharmaceutical active substances and approved medicinal products as well as for analysis of suspected illegal medicines. In total more than 1000 samples have been tested using both internal and external standardization and examples are given. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Special Report on Standards for Radioactivity: Report on the 1989 Meeting of the Radionuclide Measurements Section of the Consultative Committee on Standards for the Measurement of Ionizing Radiations

    PubMed Central

    Hoppes, Dale D.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the activities discussed at the 10th meeting of Section II of the Consultative Committee on Standards for the Measurement of Ionizing Radiations (Comité Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants, CCEMRI) held in May 1989 at Sèvres (France). Topics included present and future international comparisons of activity measurements, the status and possible extension of the International reference system for activity measurements of gamma-ray emitting nuclides, reports from other working groups, accomplishments at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, BIPM), and progress at member laboratories. PMID:28053423

  5. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  10. 76 FR 59599 - Extension of Comment Period for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... comment period for the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur... Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should be addressed to Rich Scheffe, U.S....

  11. Observations of secondary spectrophotometric standards in the wavelength range between 5840 and 10800 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-three stars that are suitable for use as secondary spectrophotometric standards are compared with Alpha Lyrae in the wavelength range between 5840 A and 1.1 microns. The consistency of the present data with previously existing measurements is discussed, along with the reliability of the present data. It is found that there is good agreement with previous data in some cases, but moderate or substantial discrepancies are exhibited in others. It is suggested that extinction variation is the most probable cause of the discrepancies, and observational procedures that may improve the situation with regard to the discrepancies are proposed.

  12. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  13. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 35 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  14. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  15. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  16. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 35 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  17. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  18. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 35 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  19. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 35 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  20. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  1. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  2. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 35 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  3. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  4. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  5. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  6. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  12. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT∕CT and PET∕CT scanners. PMID:18697529

  13. The Implementation of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation in Vietnamese Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Dong Thap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a critical area of concern in Vietnamese education. Recently, new professional standards for teachers in secondary schools have been developed, piloted, and implemented. This study explores the perceptions of teachers, school principals, and other administrators about the new teacher professional standards, the…

  14. The Implementation of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation in Vietnamese Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Dong Thap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a critical area of concern in Vietnamese education. Recently, new professional standards for teachers in secondary schools have been developed, piloted, and implemented. This study explores the perceptions of teachers, school principals, and other administrators about the new teacher professional standards, the…

  15. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the

  16. Important considerations for establishing a secondary ozone standard to protect vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Lefohn, A.S. ); Runeckles, V.C. ); Krupa, S.V. ); Shadwick, D.S. )

    1989-08-01

    Based on recent evidence published in the literature, as well as retrospective studies using data from the National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN), cumulative indices can be used to describe exposures of ozone for predicting agricultural crop effects. However, the mathematical form of the standard that may be proposed to protect crops does not necessarily have to be of the same form as that used in the statistical or process oriented mathematical models that relate ambient ozone exposures with vegetation effects. This paper discusses the limitations associated with applying a simple statistic that may take the place of a more biologically meaningful exposure parameter. While the NCLAN data have been helpful in identifying identifying indices that may be appropriate for establishing exposure-response relationships, the limitations associated with the NCLAN protocol need to be considered when attempting to apply these relationships in the establishment of a secondary national ambient air quality standard. The Weibull model derived from NCLAN experiments must demonstrate its generality and universal applicability. Furthermore, its predictive power must be tested using independent sets of field data.

  17. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  18. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  19. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    SciTech Connect

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-11-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux.

  1. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  2. Production and separation of no-carrier-added radioactive tracers of yttrium, strontium and rubidium from heavy-ion irradiated germanium target: applicability to the standardization of a separation technique for production of positron-emitting radionuclide 86Y.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sujit; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Das, M K; Sudersanan, M

    2006-12-01

    Among various positron-emitting radionuclides, certain radioisotopes of Y, Sr and Rb have important applications in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. In the present work, an attempt has been made to produce some of those radioisotopes by irradiating a natural Ge-target material with heavy-ion oxygen ((16)O(+6)) projectiles. An effective radiochemical separation scheme was developed to isolate Y, Sr and Rb radiotracers from the irradiated Ge-matrix in no-carrier-added form with a view to applying those radiotracers for standardization of a technique for the radiochemical separation of Y from natural Sr target. The standardized separation technique could be utilized for the production of the positron-emitting (86)Y from an enriched (86)Sr target irradiated at a medical cyclotron.

  3. Guideline on the prevention of secondary central nervous system lymphoma: British Committee for Standards in Haematology.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Andrew; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cwynarski, Kate; Lyttelton, Matthew; McKay, Pam; Montoto, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and NCBI Pubmed were searched systematically for publications in English from 1980 to 2012 using the MeSH subheading 'lymphoma, CNS', 'lymphoma, central nervous system', 'lymphoma, high grade', 'lymphoma, Burkitt's', 'lymphoma, lymphoblastic' and 'lymphoma, diffuse large B cell' as keywords, as well as all subheadings. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemato-oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of ~50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found in Appendix I. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the optimal prevention of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients of all lymphoma sub-types and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Acronyms are defined at time of first use. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  9. Bypass, Augment, or Integrate: How Secondary Mathematics Teachers Address the Literacy Demands of Standards-Based Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Doerr, Helen M.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Masingila, Joanna O.

    2015-01-01

    This 3-year qualitative study examined how 26 teachers in four U.S. secondary schools addressed the literacy demands of curriculum materials based on standards from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. It was grounded in sociocultural perspectives that encourage study of language in local contexts, including classrooms, communities,…

  10. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  11. Bypass, Augment, or Integrate: How Secondary Mathematics Teachers Address the Literacy Demands of Standards-Based Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Doerr, Helen M.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Masingila, Joanna O.

    2015-01-01

    This 3-year qualitative study examined how 26 teachers in four U.S. secondary schools addressed the literacy demands of curriculum materials based on standards from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. It was grounded in sociocultural perspectives that encourage study of language in local contexts, including classrooms, communities,…

  12. The Relationship between Computer and Internet Use and Performance on Standardized Tests by Secondary School Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Li; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Banda, Devender R.; Lan, William Y.; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here explored the relationship between computer and Internet use and the performance on standardized tests by secondary school students with visual impairments. Methods: With data retrieved from the first three waves (2001-05) of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the correlational study focused on…

  13. Investigation and Development of Competency Standards and Certification Requirements for Secondary-Level Vocational Foodservice Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiewicz, Ronald A.

    An investigation ascertained, analyzed, and documented competency standards and certification requirements for secondary-level vocational food service programs. A literature review produced no instruments used in past studies to measure the attitudes of food service professionals toward task competencies. Six occupations were selected for the…

  14. The Relationship between Computer and Internet Use and Performance on Standardized Tests by Secondary School Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Li; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Banda, Devender R.; Lan, William Y.; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here explored the relationship between computer and Internet use and the performance on standardized tests by secondary school students with visual impairments. Methods: With data retrieved from the first three waves (2001-05) of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the correlational study focused on…

  15. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  16. Radionuclide removal by apatite

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Moore, Robert C.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a growing body of research supports widespread future reliance on apatite for radioactive waste cleanup. Apatite is a multi-functional radionuclide sorbent that lowers dissolved radionuclide concentrations by surface sorption, ion exchange, surface precipitation, and by providing phosphate to precipitate low-solubility radionuclide-containing minerals. Natural apatites are rich in trace elements, and apatite’s stability in the geologic record suggest that radionuclides incorporated into apatite, whether in a permeable reactive barrier or a waste form, are likely to remain isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time. Here we outline the mineralogic and surface origins of apatite-radionuclide reactivity and show how apatites might be used to environmental advantage in the future.

  17. Radionuclide removal by apatite

    DOE PAGES

    Rigali, Mark J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Moore, Robert C.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a growing body of research supports widespread future reliance on apatite for radioactive waste cleanup. Apatite is a multi-functional radionuclide sorbent that lowers dissolved radionuclide concentrations by surface sorption, ion exchange, surface precipitation, and by providing phosphate to precipitate low-solubility radionuclide-containing minerals. Natural apatites are rich in trace elements, and apatite’s stability in the geologic record suggest that radionuclides incorporated into apatite, whether in a permeable reactive barrier or a waste form, are likely to remain isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time. Here we outline the mineralogic and surface origins of apatite-radionuclide reactivity andmore » show how apatites might be used to environmental advantage in the future.« less

  18. EPA perspective on radionuclide aerosol sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Karhnak, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is concerned with radionuclide aerosol sampling primarily at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in order to insure compliance with national air emission standards, known as NESHAPs. Sampling procedures are specified in {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Sites{close_quotes} (Subpart H). Subpart H also allows alternate procedures to be used if they meet certain requirements. This paper discusses some of the mission differences between EPA and Doe and how these differences are reflected in decisions that are made. It then describes how the EPA develops standards, considers alternate sampling procedures, and lists suggestions to speed up the review and acceptance process for alternate procedures. The paper concludes with a discussion of the process for delegation of Radionuclide NESHAPs responsibilities to the States, and responsibilities that could be retained by EPA.

  19. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Natural radionuclide mobility and its influence on U-Th-Pb dating of secondary minerals from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, L.A.; Amelin, Y.V.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme U and Pb isotope variations produced by disequilibrium in decay chains of 238U and 232Th are found in calcite, opal/chalcedony, and Mn-oxides occurring as secondary mineral coatings in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These very slowly growing minerals (mm my-1) contain excess 206Pb and 208Pb formed from excesses of intermediate daughter isotopes and cannot be used as reliable 206Pb/238U geochronometers. The presence of excess intermediate daughter isotopes does not appreciably affect 207Pb/235U ages of U-enriched opal/chalcedony, which are interpreted as mineral formation ages. Opal and calcite from outer (younger) portions of coatings have 230Th/U ages from 94.6 ?? 3.7 to 361.3 ?? 9.8 ka and initial 234U/238U activity ratios (AR) from 4.351 ?? 0.070 to 7.02 ?? 0.12, which indicate 234U enrichment from percolating water. Present-day 234U/238U AR is ???1 in opal/chalcedony from older portions of the coatings. The 207Pb/235U ages of opal/chalcedony samples range from 0.1329 ?? 0.0080 to 9.10 ?? 0.21 Ma, increase with microstratigraphic depth, and define slow long-term average growth rates of about 1.2-2.0 mm my-1, in good agreement with previous results. Measured 234U/238U AR in Mn-oxides, which pre-date the oldest calcite and opal/chalcedony, range from 0.939 ?? 0.006 to 2.091 ?? 0.006 and are >1 in most samples. The range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71156-0.71280) in Mn-oxides overlaps that in the late calcite. These data indicate that Mn-oxides exchange U and Sr with percolating water and cannot be used as a reliable dating tool. In the U-poor calcite samples, measured 206Pb/207Pb ratios have a wide range, do not correlate with Ba concentration as would be expected if excess Ra was present, and reach a value of about 1400, the highest ever reported for natural Pb. Calcite intergrown with opal contains excesses of both 206Pb and 207Pb derived from Rn diffusion and from direct ??-recoil from U-rich opal. Calcite from coatings devoid of opal

  1. Secondary Aluminum National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowcharts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This March 2003 document contains three diagrams that that are intended to assist you in determining whether you own or operate any equipment that is subject to the NESHAP for Secondary Aluminum Production Facilities.

  2. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...

  7. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  9. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  10. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... It will then flow with bile into the gallbladder and then the duodenum or small intestine. For ...

  11. School lunches v. packed lunches: a comparison of secondary schools in England following the introduction of compulsory school food standards.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Lesley; Nicholas, Jo; Wood, Lesley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To compare food choices and nutrient intakes of pupils taking a school lunch or a packed lunch in eighty secondary schools in England, following the introduction of the food-based and nutrient-based standards for school food. Cross-sectional data collected between October 2010 and April 2011. Pupils' lunchtime food choices were recorded over five consecutive days. Secondary schools, England. A random selection of 5925 pupils having school lunches and 1805 pupils having a packed lunch in a nationally representative sample of eighty secondary schools in England. The differences in the specific types of food and drink consumed by the two groups of pupils are typical of differences between a hot and cold meal. On average, school lunches as eaten contained significantly more energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamin A, folate, Fe and Zn than packed lunches, and 8 % less Na. Although neither school lunches nor packed lunches provided the balance of nutrients required to meet the nutrient-based standards (based on about one-third of daily energy and nutrient requirements), school lunches generally had a healthier nutrient profile, with lower Na and percentage of energy from fat, and higher fibre and micronutrient content. These differences were greater than those reported prior to the introduction of compulsory standards for school lunches. In order to ensure more pupils have a healthy lunch, schools could introduce and enforce a packed lunch policy or make school meals the only option at lunchtime.

  12. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  13. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Aluminum Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of public... for hazardous air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the... request for an extension from the Aluminum Association. The Aluminum Association has requested the...

  14. The Effects of Implementing Web Accessibility Standards on the Success of Secondary Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savi, Christine Opitz; Savenye, Wilhelmina; Rowland, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Web accessibility has become a paramount concern in providing equal access to audiences of all abilities. Unless web accessibility is supported and employed, the internet does not deliver worldwide access as it was intended. This study engaged 60 students in a secondary school setting in order to identify the navigational effectiveness and…

  15. Responsible Healthy Lifestyles, Levels 7-12. Secondary Core Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide presents the Utah elementary and secondary school program of studies and high school graduation requirements. A description is given of the responsible healthy lifestyles curriculum which is designed to integrate into a meaningful whole, medical, scientific, behavioral, and ethical knowledge, values, and practices which enhance a…

  16. Critical Supports for Secondary Educators in Common Core State Standard Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchti, Wendy P.; Jenkins, Susan J.; Agamba, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Teacher professional development (PD) is a complex, ongoing challenge as educational systems attempt to deliver excellent programming in pursuit of increased student achievement (Opfer and Pedder 2011). This article examines Idaho Total Instructional Alignment (TIA), a model for teacher PD that is currently being utilized in secondary schools…

  17. Addressing the English Language Arts Technology Standard in a Secondary Reading Methodology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkley, Donna J.; Schmidt, Denise A.; Allen, Gayle

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts to integrate technology into a reading methodology course for secondary English majors. Discusses the use of e-mail, multimedia, distance education for videoconferences, online discussion technology, subject-specific software, desktop publishing, a database management system, a concept mapping program, and the use of the World…

  18. 25 CFR 36.24 - Standard IX-Secondary instructional program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 69.) (d) The high school program shall provide program coordination with feeder schools, career... that lead to high school completion for secondary students who do not function successfully in the... instructional program shall reflect the philosophy of the student, tribe, community, and school, and...

  19. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... of implementing the standards. See generally, Whitman v. American Trucking Associations, 531 U.S. 457... considerations in the promulgation of national ambient air quality standards.'' American Petroleum Institute v... national and international significance; and (3) current and future generations of Americans will...

  20. Elementary-Secondary Guide for Oregon Schools, 1980. Standards for Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Part 1 of a two-part publication, this guide presents newly revised standards for public schools prescribed by the Oregon Department of Education pursuant to Oregon law. The standards presented are legal requirements intended to insure that all Oregon students have access to a sound, comprehensive curriculum and to guide districts in qualifying…

  1. Best Practices for Leading a Transition to Standards-Based Grading in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy researchers have concluded that if U.S. schools transition from the traditional model of grading and reporting to a uniform standards-based grading and reporting model, students would benefit academically. However, very few middle and high schools in the United States have made the transition to standards-based grading. This…

  2. New Standards Require Teaching More Statistics: Are Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Jennifer N.; Lee, Hollylynne S.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics teacher education programs often need to respond to changing expectations and standards for K-12 curriculum and accreditation. New standards for high school mathematics in the United States include a strong emphasis in statistics. This article reports results from a mixed methods cross-institutional study examining the preparedness of…

  3. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  4. Quantification of xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 8-prenylnaringenin, and 6-prenylnaringenin in hop extracts and derived capsules using secondary standards.

    PubMed

    Dhooghe, Liene; Naessens, Tania; Heyerick, Arne; De Keukeleire, Denis; Vlietinck, Arnold J; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2010-12-15

    Hop is a well-known and already frequently used estrogenic phytotherapeutic, containing the interesting prenylflavonoids, xanthohumol (XN), isoxanthohumol (IXN), 8- and 6-prenylnaringenin (8-PN and 6-PN). Since the use of secondary standards can form a solution whenever the determination is required of certain components, not commercially available or too expensive, it was decided to develop an accessible HPLC-DAD method for the determination of these prenylflavonoids. The amounts were determined in hop extract and capsules, using quercetin and naringenin as secondary standards. After optimization of the sample preparation and HPLC conditions, the analysis was validated according to the ICH guidelines. The response function of XN, 8-PN, quercetin and naringenin showed a linear relationship. For the determination of XN, a calibration line of at least three concentrations of quercetin has to be constructed. The correction factors for XN (quercetin) and for 8-PN (naringenin) were validated and determined to be 0.583 for XN, and 1.296 for IXN, 8-PN and 6-PN. The intermediate precision was investigated and it could be concluded that the standard deviation of the method was equal considering time and concentration (RSD of 2.5-5%). By means of a recovery experiment, it was proven that the method is accurate (recoveries of 96.1-100.1%). Additionally, by analysing preparations containing hop extracts on the Belgian market, it was shown that the method is suitable for its use, namely the determination of XN, IXN, 8-PN and 6-PN in hop extract and capsules, using quercetin and naringenin as secondary standards. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  6. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  7. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  8. VALIDATION OF ANSI N42.34 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR HAND-HELD INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RADIONUCLIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T.

    2014-09-03

    SRNL’s validation of ANSI N42.34-D6 for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) was performed utilizing one hand-held instrument (or RID) – the FLIR identiFINDER 2. Each section of the standard was evaluated via a walk-through or test. NOTE: In Table 1, W = walk-through and T = test, as directed by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). For a walk-through, the experiment was either setup or reviewed for setup; for a test, the N42.34-D6 procedures were followed with some exceptions and comments noted. SRNL is not fully able to evaluate a RID against Sections 7 (Environmental), 8 (Electromagnetic), and 9 (Mechanical) of N42.34, so those portions of this validation were done in collaboration with Qualtest, Inc. in Orlando, Florida. The walk-throughs and tests of Sections 7, 8, and 9 were performed in Qualtest, Inc. facilities with SRNL providing radiological sources as necessary. Where applicable, assessment results and findings of the walk-throughs and tests were recorded on datasheets and a validation summary is provided. A general comment pertained to test requirements found in another standard and referenced in N42.34-D6. For example, step 1 of the test method in section 8.1.2 states “RF test set up information can be found in IEC 61000-4-3.” It is recommended that any information from other standards necessary for conducting the tests within N42.34 should be posted in N42.34 for simplicity and to prevent the user from having to peruse other documents. Another general comment, as noted by Qualtest, is that a tolerance reference is not listed for each test in sections 7-9. Overall, the N42.34-D6 was proven to be practicable, but areas for improvement and recommendations were identified for consideration prior to final ballot submittal.

  9. Development of standard methods for activity measurement of natural radionuclides in waterworks as basis for dose and risk assessment--first results of an Austrian study.

    PubMed

    Stietka, M; Baumgartner, A; Seidel, C; Maringer, F J

    2013-11-01

    A comprehensive study with the aim to evaluate the risks due to radiation exposure for workers in water supply is conducted in 21 Austrian waterworks. The development of standard methods for the assessment of occupational exposure of water work staff is a part of this study. Preliminary results of this study show a wide range of Rn-222 activity concentration in waterworks with values from (28 ± 10)Bq/m(3) to (38,000 ± 4,000)Bq/m(3). Also seasonal variations of the Rn-222 activity concentration could be observed.

  10. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  11. Standardization of Lower Secondary Civic Education and Inequality of the Civic and Political Engagement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witschge, Jacqueline; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between the standardization of civic education and the inequality of civic engagement is examined. Using data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2009 among early adolescents and Eurydice country-level data, three-level analysis and variance function regression are applied to examine whether…

  12. Compulsory Literacy and Numeracy Exit Standards for Senior Secondary Students: The Right Direction for Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Care, Esther; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An overview of positive and negative potential effects of the setting of compulsory exit-level standards in literacy and numeracy for students completing their final years of schooling is presented. The overview rests on studies completed primarily outside Australia, reflecting the reality of such practices not having been implemented widely in…

  13. Compulsory Literacy and Numeracy Exit Standards for Senior Secondary Students: The Right Direction for Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Care, Esther; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An overview of positive and negative potential effects of the setting of compulsory exit-level standards in literacy and numeracy for students completing their final years of schooling is presented. The overview rests on studies completed primarily outside Australia, reflecting the reality of such practices not having been implemented widely in…

  14. QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

  15. Standardization of Lower Secondary Civic Education and Inequality of the Civic and Political Engagement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witschge, Jacqueline; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between the standardization of civic education and the inequality of civic engagement is examined. Using data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2009 among early adolescents and Eurydice country-level data, three-level analysis and variance function regression are applied to examine whether…

  16. "Raising Standards"& Deepening Inequality: Selection, League Tables, and Reform in Multiethnic Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David; Youdell, Deborah

    Although education in England is dominated by the rhetoric of "standards," this paper attempts to show that the overall shape and drive of English education reform has remained largely consistent. The annually published School Performance Tables continue to be assigned a special place in the reforms, as a means to and as an index of…

  17. Secondary Standard Sequence and BVRI-H-alpha Light Curves for NGC 4151

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallum, Melissa; Joner, Micheal

    2017-01-01

    We present data for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 secured at the BYU West Mountain Observatory on 36 nights between 2016 April 2 and 2016 August 14. Observations were made using standard BVRI filters as well as a 20 nm filter centered on the rest wavelength of the H-alpha line of hydrogen. Standardized data are presented for 15 stars in the field of NGC 4151 in each of the BVRI magnitudes. The V magnitude range for the extended sequence is between 11.480 and 16.100. Additionally, we have found light curves for NGC 4151 in each of the five colors using both traditional photometric analysis and image subtraction routines. representative examples of light curves are presented for each of the techniques we have tested. We acknowledge the Brigham Young University Department of Physics and Astronomy for continued support of student research experiences at the West Mountain Observatory.

  18. A Consensus German Reporting Standard for Secondary Data Analyses, Version 2 (STROSA-STandardisierte BerichtsROutine für SekundärdatenAnalysen).

    PubMed

    Swart, E; Bitzer, E M; Gothe, H; Harling, M; Hoffmann, F; Horenkamp-Sonntag, D; Maier, B; March, S; Petzold, T; Röhrig, R; Rommel, A; Schink, T; Wagner, C; Wobbe, S; Schmitt, J

    2016-09-01

    Although secondary data analyses have been established in recent years in health research, explicit recommendations for standardized, transparent and complete reporting of secondary data analyses do not exist as yet. Therefore, between 2009 and 2014, a first proposal for a specific reporting standard for secondary data analysis was developed (STROSA 1). Parallel to this national process in Germany, an international reporting standard for routine data analysis was initiated in 2013 (RECORD). Nevertheless, because of the specific characteristics of the German health care system as well as specific data protection requirements, the need for a specific German reporting standard for secondary data analyses became evident. Therefore, STROSA was revised and tested by a task force of 15 experts from the working group Collection and Use of Secondary Data (AGENS) of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) and the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) as well as from the working group Validation and Linkage of Secondary Data of the German Network for Health Services Research (DNVF). The consensus STROSA-2 checklist includes 27 criteria, which should be met in the reporting of secondary data analysis from Germany. The criteria have been illustrated and clarified with specific explanations and examples of good practice. The STROSA reporting standard aims at stimulating a wider scientific discussion on the practicability and completeness of the checklist. After further discussions and possibly resulting modifications, STROSA shall be implemented as a reporting standard for secondary data analyses from Germany. This will guarantee standardized and complete information on secondary data analyses enabling assessment of their internal and external validity.

  19. National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead NAAQS: 1978 Final Rule (43 FR 46246 & 46264)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the October 5, 1978 Final Rules for National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead (Pb) NAAQS.

  20. Critical review and rethinking of USEPA secondary standards for maintaining organoleptic quality of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Andrea M; Burlingame, Gary A

    2015-01-20

    Consumers assess their tap water primarily by its taste, odor, and appearance. Starting in 1979, USEPA promulgated Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCLs) as guidance for contaminants with organoleptic effects and also to maintain consumers’ confidence in tap water. This review assesses the basis for the 15 SMCLs (aluminum, chloride, color, copper, corrosivity, fluoride, foaming agents, iron, manganese, odor, pH, silver, sulfate, total dissolved solids, zinc) and summarizes advances in scientific knowledge since their promulgation. SMCLs for aluminum, color, pH, silver, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and zinc are appropriate at current values and remain consistent with sensory science literature. Recent advances in sensory and health sciences indicate that SMCLs for chloride, copper, fluoride, iron, and manganese are too high to minimize organoleptic effects. The SMCLs for corrosivity and foaming agents may be outdated. The SMCL for odor requires rethinking as the test does not correlate with consumer complaints. Since current stresses on source and treated waters include chemical spills, algal blooms, and increased salinization, organoleptic episodes that negatively impact consumer confidence and perception of tap water still occur and may increase. Thus, adherence to SMCLs can help maintain production of palatable water along with consumers’ confidence in their water providers.

  1. Photon doses in NPL standard neutron fields.

    PubMed

    Roberts, N J; Horwood, N A; McKay, C J

    2014-10-01

    Standard neutron fields are invariably accompanied by a photon component due to the neutron-generating reactions and secondary neutron interactions in the surrounding environment. A set of energy-compensated Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) have been used to measure the photon dose rates in a number of standard radionuclide and accelerator-based neutron fields. The GM tubes were first characterised in standard radioisotope and X-ray photon fields and then modelled using MCNP to determine their photon dose response as a function of energy. Values for the photon-to-neutron dose equivalent ratios are presented and compared with other published values.

  2. Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: The SHARPn project

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Susan; Pathak, Jyotishman; Savova, Guergana; Oniki, Thomas A.; Westberg, Les; Beebe, Calvin E.; Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G.; Haug, Peter J.; Huff, Stanley M.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program, established by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in 2010 supports research findings that remove barriers for increased adoption of health IT. The improvements envisioned by the SHARP Area 4 Consortium (SHARPn) will enable the use of the electronic health record (EHR) for secondary purposes, such as care process and outcomes improvement, biomedical research and epidemiologic monitoring of the nation’s health. One of the primary informatics problem areas in this endeavor is the standardization of disparate health data from the nation’s many health care organizations and providers. The SHARPn team is developing open source services and components to support the ubiquitous exchange, sharing and reuse or ‘liquidity’ of operational clinical data stored in electronic health records. One year into the design and development of the SHARPn framework, we demonstrated end to end data flow and a prototype SHARPn platform, using thousands of patient electronic records sourced from two large healthcare organizations: Mayo Clinic and Intermountain Healthcare. The platform was deployed to (1) receive source EHR data in several formats, (2) generate structured data from EHR narrative text, and (3) normalize the EHR data using common detailed clinical models and Consolidated Health Informatics standard terminologies, which were (4) accessed by a phenotyping service using normalized data specifications. The architecture of this prototype SHARPn platform is presented. The EHR data throughput demonstration showed success in normalizing native EHR data, both structured and narrative, from two independent organizations and EHR systems. Based on the demonstration, observed challenges for standardization of EHR data for interoperable secondary use are discussed. PMID:22326800

  3. Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: the SHARPn project.

    PubMed

    Rea, Susan; Pathak, Jyotishman; Savova, Guergana; Oniki, Thomas A; Westberg, Les; Beebe, Calvin E; Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G; Haug, Peter J; Huff, Stanley M; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-08-01

    The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program, established by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in 2010 supports research findings that remove barriers for increased adoption of health IT. The improvements envisioned by the SHARP Area 4 Consortium (SHARPn) will enable the use of the electronic health record (EHR) for secondary purposes, such as care process and outcomes improvement, biomedical research and epidemiologic monitoring of the nation's health. One of the primary informatics problem areas in this endeavor is the standardization of disparate health data from the nation's many health care organizations and providers. The SHARPn team is developing open source services and components to support the ubiquitous exchange, sharing and reuse or 'liquidity' of operational clinical data stored in electronic health records. One year into the design and development of the SHARPn framework, we demonstrated end to end data flow and a prototype SHARPn platform, using thousands of patient electronic records sourced from two large healthcare organizations: Mayo Clinic and Intermountain Healthcare. The platform was deployed to (1) receive source EHR data in several formats, (2) generate structured data from EHR narrative text, and (3) normalize the EHR data using common detailed clinical models and Consolidated Health Informatics standard terminologies, which were (4) accessed by a phenotyping service using normalized data specifications. The architecture of this prototype SHARPn platform is presented. The EHR data throughput demonstration showed success in normalizing native EHR data, both structured and narrative, from two independent organizations and EHR systems. Based on the demonstration, observed challenges for standardization of EHR data for interoperable secondary use are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Concentration and Time of Day in Developing Ozone Exposure Indices for a Secondary Standard.

    PubMed

    Lee, E H; Hogsett, W E

    1999-06-01

    Evidence from exposure-response studies and a turbulent transfer model demonstrate that plant response is differential to concentration, duration, temporal pattern, and time of day of exposure. Reductions in productivity of crops and trees as seedlings are greater when plants are exposed to higher daytime ozone (O3) concentrations (0800-2000 hr standard time) or for longer durations. Primary evidence on the greater role of concentration comes from exposure-response experiments where plants are exposed to a series of pollutant concentrations in open-top chambers under field conditions. These studies demonstrate that the integrated exposure indices that give preferential weight to higher concentrations are better predictors of response than mean or peak indices. Evidence suggesting that mid-range O3 concentrations (0.05-0.09 parts per million, ppm) play a greater role than higher concentrations (>0.09 ppm) in biological response could not be justified. The time of day when O3 concentrations and atmospheric and stomatal conductances of gas exchange are optimal is a key to understanding plant response because plants respond only to O3 entering the leaf via stomata. A turbulent transfer model that describes the resistance of pollutant gas exchange from the atmosphere to the boundary layer of a forest canopy, as a function of micrometeorological variables, is developed to determine when flux of O3 is optimal. Based on meteorological and ambient air quality monitoring data at remote forest sites in the United States, it appears that O3 flux densities to the forest boundary layer are optimal during the 0800-2000 hr window. It is concluded that descriptors of ambient air quality for use in setting a federal standard should (1) cumulate hourly O3 concentrations, (2) give preferential weight to daytime concentrations between 0800 and 2000 hr, and (3) give preferential weight to higher O3 concentrations.

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  7. Source geometry factors for HDR ¹⁹²Ir brachytherapy secondary standard well-type ionization chamber calibrations.

    PubMed

    Shipley, D R; Sander, T; Nutbrown, R F

    2015-03-21

    Well-type ionization chambers are used for measuring the source strength of radioactive brachytherapy sources before clinical use. Initially, the well chambers are calibrated against a suitable national standard. For high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir, this calibration is usually a two-step process. Firstly, the calibration source is traceably calibrated against an air kerma primary standard in terms of either reference air kerma rate or air kerma strength. The calibrated (192)Ir source is then used to calibrate the secondary standard well-type ionization chamber. Calibration laboratories are usually only equipped with one type of HDR (192)Ir source. If the clinical source type is different from that used for the calibration of the well chamber at the standards laboratory, a source geometry factor, k(sg), is required to correct the calibration coefficient for any change of the well chamber response due to geometric differences between the sources. In this work we present source geometry factors for six different HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources which have been determined using Monte Carlo techniques for a specific ionization chamber, the Standard Imaging HDR 1000 Plus well chamber with a type 70010 HDR iridium source holder. The calculated correction factors were normalized to the old and new type of calibration source used at the National Physical Laboratory. With the old Nucletron microSelectron-v1 (classic) HDR (192)Ir calibration source, ksg was found to be in the range 0.983 to 0.999 and with the new Isodose Control HDR (192)Ir Flexisource k(sg) was found to be in the range 0.987 to 1.004 with a relative uncertainty of 0.4% (k = 2). Source geometry factors for different combinations of calibration sources, clinical sources, well chambers and associated source holders, can be calculated with the formalism discussed in this paper.

  8. Geomorphic control of radionuclide diffusion in desert soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Harrington, Charles D.; Whitney, John W.; Cline, Michael; DeLong, Stephen B.; Keating, Gordon; Ebert, K. Teryn

    2005-12-01

    Diffusion is a standard model for the vertical migration of radionuclides in soil profiles. Here we show that diffusivity values inferred from fallout 137Cs profiles in soils on the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan, Nye County, Nevada, have a strong inverse correlation with the age of the geomorphic surface. This result suggests that radionuclide-bound particles are predominantly transported by infiltration rather than by bulk-mixing processes such as wetting/drying, freeze/thaw, and bioturbation. Our results provide a preliminary basis for using soil-geomorphic mapping, point-based calibration data, and the diffusion model to predict radionuclide transport in desert soils within a pedotransfer-function approach.

  9. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Hepatobiliary and Gastrointestinal System Imaging.

    PubMed

    Low, Chen Sheng; Ahmed, Haseeb; Notghi, Alp

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclide imaging for the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal system covers a wide range of different indications and imaging techniques. This wide variety allows the different functional assessments of both systems. Therefore, the understanding of each technique and its indications is essential. Cholescintigraphy is a well-established method in the assessment of acute and chronic cholecystitis. It also has a role in the detection of biliary atresia. The assessment of gastrointestinal transit is also well-established in radionuclide imaging for functional investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding with radionuclide imaging is also standard practice. This article aims to review the pitfalls and limitations in all of these areas.

  10. Bipolar plasma vaporization versus standard transurethral resection in secondary bladder neck sclerosis: a prospective, medium-term, randomized comparison

    PubMed Central

    Geavlete, Bogdan; Moldoveanu, Cristian; Iacoboaie, Catalin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, randomized, medium-term trial aimed to assess the efficiency, safety and postoperative results of bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) in comparison with monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) in cases of secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS). Methods: A total of 70 patients with BNS secondary to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP; 46 cases), open prostatectomy for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; 18 cases) and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (6 cases) were enrolled in the trial. The inclusion criteria consisted of maximum flow rate (Q max) <10 ml/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) >19. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after surgery by IPSS, quality of life score (QoL), Q max and postvoiding residual urinary volume (PVR). Results: The mean operation time (10.3 versus 14.9 minutes), catheterization period (0.75 versus 2.1 days) and hospital stay (1.1 versus 3.2 days) were significantly reduced in the BPV series. During the immediate postoperative follow up, recatheterization for acute urinary retention only occurred in the TUR series (5.7%). The medium-term retreatment requirements due to BNS recurrence were lower in the BPV study arm (2.8% versus 8.5%). At the 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months assessments, statistically similar parameters were found concerning the IPSS and QoL symptom scores, Q max and PVR values specific for the two therapeutic alternatives. Conclusions: BPV constitutes a valuable endoscopic treatment approach for secondary BNS. The method emphasized superior efficacy, a satisfactory safety profile and similar medium-term follow-up features when compared with standard TUR. PMID:23554842

  11. Osteoid osteoma: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Vogler, J.B.

    1984-06-01

    The double-density sign, seen on radionuclide bone scans, is described for diagnosing osteoid osteomas and for localizing the nidus. Its use in differentiating the nidus of an osteoid osteoma from osteomyelitis is also described. The utility of computed tomography in localization of the nidus is also illustrated. The double-density sign was helpful in diagnosing seven cases of surgically confirmed osteoid osteoma.

  12. Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Burge, Scott R.

    2009-05-18

    We have developed automated sensor and monitoring devices for trace radionuclides in water, using preconcentrating columns and radiometric detection. The preconcentrating minicolumn sensor concept combines selective capture and detection in a single functional unit. We have demonstrated quantification of radionuclides such as technetium-99 to levels below drinking water standards in an equilibration-based process that produces steady state signals, signal proportional to concentration, and easy re-equilibration to new concentration levels. Alternatively, monitors can be developed with separate separation and detection units that are fluidically linked. We have demonstrated detection of strontium-90 to levels below drinking water standards by this approach. We are developing autonomous systems for at-site monitoring on the Hanford Site in Washington State.

  13. Computational methods in radionuclide dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardiès, M.; Myers, M. J.

    1996-10-01

    The various approaches in radionuclide dosimetry depend on the size and spatial relation of the sources and targets considered in conjunction with the emission range of the radionuclide used. We present some of the frequently reported computational techniques on the basis of the source/target size. For whole organs, or for sources or targets bigger than some centimetres, the acknowledged standard was introduced 30 years ago by the MIRD committee and is still being updated. That approach, based on the absorbed fraction concept, is mainly used for radioprotection purposes but has been updated to take into account the dosimetric challenge raised by therapeutic use of vectored radiopharmaceuticals. At this level, the most important computational effort is in the field of photon dosimetry. On the millimetre scale, photons can often be disregarded, and or electron dosimetry is generally reported. Heterogeneities at this level are mainly above the cell level, involving groups of cell or a part of an organ. The dose distribution pattern is often calculated by generalizing a point source dose distribution, but direct calculation by Monte Carlo techniques is also frequently reported because it allows media of inhomogeneous density to be considered. At the cell level, and electron (low-range or Auger) are the predominant emissions examined. Heterogeneities in the dose distribution are taken into account, mainly to determine the mean dose at the nucleus. At the DNA level, Auger electrons or -particles are considered from a microdosimetric point of view. These studies are often connected with radiobiological experiments on radionuclide toxicity.

  14. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  15. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  16. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  17. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  18. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  19. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  20. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis. PMID:25589808

  1. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... unit, and are produced from the processing of discarded non-hazardous secondary materials and that meet... industrial process. (iv) The non-hazardous secondary material must result in products that...

  2. Radionuclides in nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    1987-01-01

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

  3. [Robustness of Hospital Benchmarking with the Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR): An Analysis of Secondary Data from 37 German Hospitals].

    PubMed

    Stausberg, J; Jungen, T; Bartels, C; Scheu, C

    2016-10-01

    Introduction: Internationally, the hospital standardized mortality ratio is increasingly used as a risk-adjusted simple measure for quality control. Goodness of fit of different risk models in Germany and robustness of hospital comparisons were evaluated with a secondary data analysis. Methods: Anonymized routine data from the year 2012 of 37 hospitals of the association Quality Indicators for Ecclesiastical Hospitals were used. 2 independent risk models and the observed mortality were compared, the risk models considered both the original and the adapted forms. Results: The risk models showed an area under curve between 0.906 [95% CI 0.904-0.908] and 0.920 [0.918-0.922]. There was a significant correlation between the risk models and the observed mortality with a correlation coefficient between 0.388 (p<0.05) and 0.936 (p<0.01). 26 hospitals had an identical assessment in all risk models comparing their HSMR with the group. 2 hospitals achieved a positive and a negative assessment taking into account the observed mortality. Conclusion: The quality of the risk models is high and the hospital comparison with the HSMR remained stable. However, it is unclear whether the differences are caused by quality-related issues or by different structures and case-mix. Therefore, the HSMR is primarily intended for quality management purposes within German hospitals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  5. Student Achievement Standards and Testing. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    The General Accounting Office (GAO), at the request of the House Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education, conducted studies on the extent and cost of testing in the United States, the experience of Canada in testing, and initial efforts to set standards for judging student performance on…

  6. Enhancing the Standard of Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century via Qualitative School-Based Supervision in Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebele, Uju F.; Olofu, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    The study focused on enhancing the standard of teaching and learning in the 21st century via qualitative school-based supervision in secondary schools in Abuja municipal area council. To guide the study, two null hypotheses were formulated. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The sample of the study constituted of 270 secondary…

  7. Common Pressures, Same Results? Recent Reforms in Professional Standards and Competences in Teacher Education for Secondary Teachers in England, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the introduction of professional standards and competences in initial teacher education for secondary teachers in England, France and Germany has provided the cornerstone of education reform in all three countries. The precise number and specific content of a measurable set of skills for teachers have offered challenges for…

  8. Common Pressures, Same Results? Recent Reforms in Professional Standards and Competences in Teacher Education for Secondary Teachers in England, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the introduction of professional standards and competences in initial teacher education for secondary teachers in England, France and Germany has provided the cornerstone of education reform in all three countries. The precise number and specific content of a measurable set of skills for teachers have offered challenges for…

  9. APT radionuclide production experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.

    1994-07-02

    Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

  10. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  11. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  12. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  13. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  14. SECONDARY STANDARD CALIBRATION, MEASUREMENT AND IRRADIATION CAPABILITIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL MONITORING SERVICE AT THE HELMHOLTZ ZENTRUM MÜNCHEN: ASPECTS OF UNCERTAINTY AND AUTOMATION.

    PubMed

    Greiter, M B; Denk, J; Hoedlmoser, H

    2016-09-01

    The individual monitoring service at the Helmholtz Zentrum München has adopted the recommendations of the ISO 4037 and 6980 standards series as base of its dosimetric systems for X-ray, gamma and beta dosimetry. These standards define technical requirements for radiation spectra and measurement processes, but leave flexibility in the implementation of irradiations as well as in the resulting uncertainty in dose or dose rate. This article provides an example for their practical implementation in the Munich IAEA/WHO secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. It focusses on two aspects: automation issues and uncertainties in calibration.

  15. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  16. Radionuclide imaging of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide procedures frequently are performed as part of the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. Degenerative joint disease, fracture, and orthopedic hardware decrease the specificity of the bone scan, making it less useful in these situations. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was often used as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy for diagnosing osteomyelitis. However, now it is used primarily for spinal infections when (18)F-FDG imaging cannot be performed. Except for the spine, in vitro-labeled leukocyte imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. Leukocytes accumulate in bone marrow as well as in infection. Performing complementary bone marrow imaging with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid facilitates the differentiation between osteomyelitis and normal marrow and improves test overall accuracy. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, such as (99m)Tc-besilesomab and (99m)Tc-sulesomab, were developed to eliminate the disadvantages associated with in vitro-labeled leukocytes. These agents, however, have their own shortcomings and are not widely available. As biotin is used as a growth factor by certain bacteria, (111)In-biotin is useful to diagnose spinal infections. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, can differentiate infection from sterile inflammation and may be useful to monitor response to treatment. (18)F-FDG is extremely useful in the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Sensitivity in excess of 95% and specificity ranging from 75%-99% have been reported. (18)F-FDG is the radionuclide test of choice for spinal infection. The test is sensitive, with a high negative predictive value, and reliably differentiates degenerative from infectious vertebral body end-plate abnormalities. Data on the accuracy of (18)F-FDG for diagnosing diabetic pedal

  17. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  18. Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

  19. The Next Generation Science Standards, Common Core State Standards, and English Learners: Using the SSTELLA Framework to Prepare Secondary Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Sara; Stoddart, Trish; Lyon, Edward G.; Solis, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on a critical issue in STEM education: preparing novice secondary school teachers to provide effective science instruction to the rapidly growing population of students from language minority groups who traditionally have been underserved in STEM education and who are underrepresented in STEM degrees and careers (National…

  20. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  1. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  2. Supporting academically-based social studies curriculum standards for the Nation's elementary and secondary education public school textbooks.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Johnson, Eddie Bernice [D-TX-30

    2010-07-30

    10/13/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hazardous secondary material is located, and be made available on EPA's Web site. (iii) The Regional... in concentration to or lower than those in traditional fuels which the combustion unit is designed to...

  4. Supporting academically-based social studies curriculum standards for the Nation's elementary and secondary education public school textbooks.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Johnson, Eddie Bernice [D-TX-30

    2010-07-30

    10/13/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Supporting academically-based social studies curriculum standards for the Nation's elementary and secondary education public school textbooks.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Johnson, Eddie Bernice [D-TX-30

    2010-07-30

    House - 10/13/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. A radionuclide calibrator based on Cherenkov counting for activity measurements of high-energy pure β¯-emitters.

    PubMed

    Bobin, C; Thiam, C; Chauvenet, B

    2017-01-01

    Due to their stability and reproducibility, re-entrant pressurized ionization chambers (also called radionuclide calibrators) are widely used for activity measurements in nuclear medicine services as well as in national metrology institutes to maintain reference standards. Generally, these secondary instruments yield accurate activity measurements for γ-emitting radionuclides. Ionization chambers are easy to use and thus well-adapted to guarantee the metrological traceability between national metrology institutes and end-users. However, the reproducibility of calibration factors can be significantly impaired when measuring high-energy pure β¯-emitters such as radiopharmaceuticals based on (90)Y. This is because the bremsstrahlung emission contributing to the instrument response is strongly dependent on the geometry of the components surrounding the radioactive solution. The present article describes a new design based on pulse counting to address this problem. It takes advantage of Cherenkov emission resulting from Compton scattering in transparent materials. The interest of Cherenkov counting is to obtain a low-sensitivity detector that enables direct measurements of high-activity solutions (at least up to 10 GBq for (90)Y-microspheres in aqueous suspensions used in nuclear medicine). A simple design based on a geometry close to an ionization chamber used at LNHB (Vinten 671 type) is described. The feasibility in terms of detection efficiencies (lower than 10(-4) for (90)Y solutions) of the new radionuclide calibrator is investigated by Monte Carlo calculations using the Geant4 code. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  8. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  9. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  10. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  11. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  12. Investigation of a 0.6 hub-tip radius-ratio transonic turbine designed for secondary-flow study I : design and experimental performance of standard turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlik, Harold E; Wintucky, William T; Scibbe, Herbert W

    1957-01-01

    Detailed design information including overall performance parameters, velocity diagrams, and blade surface velocities is presented. Experimental performance includes maps based on rating as well as total-pressure ratios showing the effect of exit whirl. Also included are results of surveys at the stator exit and downstream of the rotor at design speed and specific work. This information will be used as a standard for comparison with subsequent secondary-flow work.

  13. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  14. Applicability of Gaussian plume dispersion parameters to acute radionuclide releases

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Fields, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model is one of the most widely used models for assessing the impact of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. This model is a statistical solution to the basic atmospheric diffusion equation. As a result, the Gaussian model should give more accurate results when used to calculate average air concentrations from long-term releases rather than for short-term concentrations from acute releases. However, the Gaussian model is routinely applied to such short-term radionuclide releases. The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of standard plume dispersion parameters for calculations of air concentrations resulting from such acute releases.

  15. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Mann, Nicholas R [Rigby, ID; Lister, Tedd E [Idaho Falls, ID; Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  16. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  18. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  19. Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide transfer coefficients. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Johnson, J.E.

    1984-08-28

    The objectives are to determine transfer coefficients to milk, beef and chicken of four radionuclides for which transfer coefficients were either indetermined or based upon secondary data. The radionuclides are /sup 99/Mo, /sup 99/Tc, /sup 140/Ba, and /sup 131/Te. The transfer coefficient for /sup 133/I to eggs was also determined, because again only limited data was available in the literature.

  20. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  1. Geomorphic control of radionuclide diffusion in desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelletier, J.D.; Harrington, C.D.; Whitney, J.W.; Cline, M.; DeLong, S.B.; Keating, G.; Ebert, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion is a standard model for the vertical migration of radionuclides in soil profiles. Here we show that diffusivity values inferred from fallout 137CS profiles in soils on the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan, Nye County, Nevada, have a strong inverse correlation with the age of the geomorphic surface. This result suggests that radionuclide-bound particles are predominantly transported by infiltration rather than by bulk-mixing processes such as wetting/ drying, freeze/thaw, and bioturbation. Our results provide a preliminary basis for using soil-geomorphic mapping, point-based calibration data, and the diffusion model to predict radionuclide trans desert soils within a pedotransfer-function approach. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Essential Standards for Preparing Secondary Content Teachers to Effectively Teach Students with Mild Disabilities in Included Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grskovic, Janice A.; Trzcinka, Sheila M.

    2011-01-01

    Secondary content teachers are more likely than ever before to be asked to provide instruction for students with disabilities in their classrooms. Despite years of recommendations for curricular reform, general education teachers continue to report feeling ill-prepared to teach students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify…

  3. The Widening Gap of Intolerance: An Analysis of Standards-Based Reforms and Special Education in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Bernard F.

    This report discusses current secondary school restructuring efforts of nine school districts that are implementing the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and New York State initiatives to provide students with disabilities access to general education curriculum and settings. It demonstrates how Skrtic's (1995) mutually reinforcing…

  4. 40 CFR 241.3 - Standards and procedures for identification of non-hazardous secondary materials that are solid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustion units. 241.3 Section 241.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES SOLID WASTES USED AS FUELS OR INGREDIENTS IN COMBUSTION UNITS Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Wastes When Used as Fuels or Ingredients in Combustion Units...

  5. Web-Enhanced, Standards-Oriented Teaching Units on Post-Wall Germany for the Secondary School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Handle, Donna C.; Ayres, Evelyn; Cimino, Ellen; Dunn, Bryan; Foell, Kimberly; McCarthy, Jennifer K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the creation and use of Web sites developed by secondary school teachers of German and European history who participated in an NEH-sponsored summer institute titled "Post-Wall Germany: Integrating Post-Unification German Culture into the High School Curriculum. Teacher participants also offer suggestions for using sites they created…

  6. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of comment... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft (75 FR 11877; March 12, 2010... a proposal addressing the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and sulfur oxides (SO X ) secondary...

  7. Estimation and implications of random errors in whole-body dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Flux, Glenn D; Guy, Matthew J; Beddows, Ruth; Pryor, Matthew; Flower, Maggie A

    2002-09-07

    For targeted radionuclide therapy, the level of activity to be administered is often determined from whole-body dosimetry performed on a pre-therapy tracer study. The largest potential source of error in this method is due to inconsistent or inaccurate activity retention measurements. The main aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the uncertainty in the absorbed dose due to these inaccuracies. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of error propagation from the results of the tracer study to predictive absorbed dose estimates for the therapy as a result of using different radionuclides for each. Standard error analysis was applied to the MIRD schema for absorbed dose calculations. An equation was derived to describe the uncertainty in the absorbed dose estimate due solely to random errors in activity-time data, requiring only these data as input. Two illustrative examples are given. It is also shown that any errors present in the dosimetry calculations following the tracer study will propagate to errors in predictions made for the therapy study according to the ratio of the respective effective half-lives. If the therapy isotope has a much longer physical half-life than the tracer isotope (as is the case, for example, when using 123I as a tracer for 131I therapy) the propagation of errors can be significant. The equations derived provide a simple means to estimate two potentially large sources of error in whole-body absorbed dose calculations.

  8. Radionuclide Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Cives, Mauro; Strosberg, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a form of systemic radiotherapy that allows targeted delivery of radionuclides to tumor cells expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors. The two radiopeptides most commonly used for PRRT, (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE, have been successfully employed for more than a decade for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recently, the phase III, randomized NETTER-1 trial has compared (177)Lu-DOTATATE versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with progressive, metastatic midgut NETs, demonstrating exceptional tolerability and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of radionuclide therapy for gastroenteropancreatic and lung NETs and considers possible strategies to further enhance its clinical efficacy.

  9. Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

  10. Bioremediation of radionuclides: emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Singh, Sompal; Singh, Om V

    2007-01-01

    A large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated as the byproduct of atomic energy and related programs worldwide. There are multiple radioactive waste dumping sites, that, if exposed to the general population, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Currently, no efficient technology is available that can store the radioactive wastes with adequate safety. Therefore, bioremediation of radionuclides/radioactive waste is an unavoidable necessity that has been tried using biotransformation, bioaccumulation, biosorption, biostimulation, and bioaugmentaion, with limited success. Genetic engineering has been implemented to develop an organism that can effectively detoxify radionuclides along with other organic pollutants present as co-contaminants in the radioactive waste sites. However, the lack of system-wide information regarding factors regulating growth and metabolism of microbial communities can be conquered by newly seeded "-omics"-based technologies, viz. transcriptomics and proteomics. Studies combining functional transcriptomics and proteomics would create a system-wide approach studying the microbial metabolism in radionuclides detoxification.

  11. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  12. The second insight: Radionuclide diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentle, Brian C.; Hooper, Richard

    Nuclear medicine has been defined as the use of radionuclides (unsealed sources of radiation) in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is a predominantly diagnostic speciality. Of the two aspects of disease, disordered structure and disordered function, nuclear medicine or radionuclide diagnosis has been unique in consistently providing information about disordered function. The method has applications both in life ( in vivo examinations, often involving imaging radionuclide distributions in the body) and in the test-tube ( in vivo). The tracer principle has allowed insights in respect of both patient care and research across a broad spectrum of diseases. Although nuclear medicine is a specialty which continues to evolve, it already has an established role in health care, predicated on its ability to study function.

  13. Development of the national radionuclide dose calibrator standardisation service.

    PubMed

    van der Gaast, H; Buckman, S; Sherlock, S

    1993-03-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, acting as agent for the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics, maintains the Australian standard of measurement for activity. The standard includes all nuclear medicine gamma emitters and a new standard for pure positron emitters. Under Section 10 of the National Measurement Act 1960, if a measurement is made for a legal purpose, or if the legality of a measurement is in dispute, it can only be confirmed if the following two conditions are fulfilled: (a) that the measurement be in terms of the prescribed Australian legal units of measurement. (b) that it can be proven to be traceable to an Australian primary standard of measurement. To satisfy these requirements, radionuclide dose calibrators require a calibration report determined by Ansto. For this reason, Ansto has developed the national radionuclide dose calibrator standardisation service.

  14. EOS7R: Radionuclide transport for TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K.

    1995-11-01

    EOS7R provides radionuclide transport capability for TOUGH2. EOS7R extends the EOS7 module (water, brine, and optional air) to model water, brine, parent component, daughter component, and optional air and heat. The radionuclide components follow a first-order decay law, and may adsorb onto the solid grains. Volatilization of the decaying components is modeled by Henry`s Law. The decaying components are normally referred to as radionuclides, but they may in fact by any trace components that decay, adsorb, and volatilize. The decay process need not be radioactive decay, but could be any process that follows a first-order decay law, such as biodegradation. EOS7R includes molecular diffusion for all components in gaseous and aqueous phases using a simplified binary diffusion model. When EOS7R is used with standard TOUGH2, transport occurs by advection and molecular diffusion in all phases. When EOS7R is coupled with the dispersion module T2DM, one obtains T2DMR, the radionuclide transport version of T2DM. T2DMR models advection, diffusion, and hydrodynamic dispersion in rectangular two-dimensional regions. Modeling of radionuclide transport requires input parameters specifying the half-life for first-order decay, distribution coefficients for each rock type for adsorption, and inverse Henry`s constants for volatilization. Options can be specified in the input file to model decay in inactive grid blocks and to read from standard EOS7 INCON files. The authors present a number of example problems to demonstrate application and accuracy of TOUGH2/EOS7R. One-dimensional simulation results agree well with analytical solutions. For a two-dimensional salt-dome flow problem, the final distribution of daughter radionuclide component is complicated by the presence of weak recirculation caused by density effects due to salinity.

  15. 75 FR 61486 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of... Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft (75 FR 57463, September... (summary of options for elements of the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and sulfur oxides (SO X ) standard)....

  16. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections.

  17. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  18. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  19. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Richards, Powell

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  20. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  1. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  2. Effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery: A patient-based survey at a pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Pancha karma is a modality of treatments commonly used in Ayurvedic hospitals. It has elaborate textual reference of its usage in various clinical conditions forming the basis of its extensive use in Ayurvedic clinical practice. Unfortunately, despite its unquestionable popularity and usage among Ayurvedic physicians and patients, it has not been evaluated rigorously on scientific parameters to identify its effectiveness, safety, and procedural standards. Considering the patient's opinion as an important determinant in this perspective, this study aims at identifying the patient's (actual recipients of pancha karma therapy) perception toward the effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery concerning pancha karma through a structured survey at a pre-identified pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital. Majority of the survey respondents considered these therapies as safe and effective (88%). Ninety-four percent respondents have expressed their satisfaction to the standard of services provided to them at the pancha karma unit of the hospital concerned. PMID:22253510

  3. Assessment of unabated facility emission potentials for evaluating airborne radionuclide monitoring requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Jette, S.J.; Sula, M.J.

    1995-11-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for 31 emission locations at the US DOE`s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the Hanford Site. Four buildings met Sate and Federal critical for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1995.

  4. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-06-30

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

  5. The effect of a slower than standard dose escalation scheme for dipyridamole on headaches in secondary prevention therapy of strokes: a randomized, open-label trial (DOSE).

    PubMed

    de Vos-Koppelaar, N C Martine; Kerkhoff, Henk; de Vogel, Ed M; Zock, Elles; Dieleman, Hetty G

    2014-01-01

    Combination therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole is first-line treatment in secondary prevention of strokes. Approximately 40% of patients report headache as a side effect of dipyridamole. Dose escalation of dipyridamole reduces this side effect. In practice, different dose escalation schemes are used. In theory, slower dose escalation than a standard scheme reduces headaches even more. This study aimed to find the best dose escalation scheme for prevention of headaches as a side effect of dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of strokes. In this randomized, open-label, 4-week trial, 114 patients who had an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomized to receive either a standard or slow dose escalation scheme of dipyridamole. Participants were asked to report the four most common side effects of dipyridamole in a study diary on study days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28. They were asked to score headache intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Participants were unaware that the trial was focused on headaches. Primary end point was to determine if a slow dose escalation scheme reduces the percentage of patients with headaches. Secondary objective was to determine the number of patients who discontinued treatment with dipyridamole because of headaches. Overall 37 patients (38%) of the final population reported headache, 19 (39%) in the standard dose escalation group and 18 (37%) in the slow dose escalation group (p = 1.0). In the standard dose escalation group patients scored headaches (VAS >4) on an average of 3.3 days and patients in the slow dose escalation group on 3.6 days (p = 0.82). Mean VAS scores on study days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 ranged from 1.4 to 3.7 in both groups. These scores did not differ significantly. However, on day 28 patients scored a significantly lower mean VAS score in the standard dose escalation group than in the slow dose escalation group (2.5 vs. 4.8; p = 0.05). In the standard dose escalation group 6

  6. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

  8. [Role of Radionuclide Technologies in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chernyaev, A P; Belousov, A V; Varzar, S M; Borchegovskaya, P Y; Nikolaeva, A A; Krusanov, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the role of radionuclide technologies among the nuclear-physical methods used in medicine. The condition and prospects of the development of nuclear technology with use of radionuclides in medicine, and in particular, the method of brachytherapy are analyzed. The analysis of the current state of applying radionuclide facilities in medicine is provided.

  9. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Perkins, Richard W.; Rieck, Henry G.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  10. Airborne radionuclides in the proglacial environment as indicators of sources and transfers of soil material.

    PubMed

    Łokas, Edyta; Wachniew, Przemysław; Jodłowski, Paweł; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-09-04

    A survey of artificial ((137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Am) and natural ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (210)Pb) radioactive isotopes in proglacial soils of an Arctic glacier have revealed high spatial variability of activity concentrations and inventories of the airborne radionuclides. Soil column (137)Cs inventories range from below the detection limit to nearly 120 kBq m(-2), this value significantly exceeding direct atmospheric deposition. This variability may result from the mixing of materials characterised by different contents of airborne radionuclides. The highest activity concentrations observed in the proglacial soils may result from the deposition of cryoconites, which have been shown to accumulate airborne radionuclides on the surface of glaciers. The role of cryoconites in radionuclide accumulation is supported by the concordant enrichment of the naturally occurring airborne (210)Pb in proglacial soil cores showing elevated levels of artificial radionuclides. The lithogenic radionuclides show less variability than the airborne radionuclides because their activity concentrations are controlled only by the mixing of material derived from the weathering of different parent rocks. Soil properties vary little within and between the profiles and there is no unequivocal relationship between them and the radionuclide contents. The inventories reflect the pathways and time variable inputs of soil material to particular sites of the proglacial zone. Lack of the airborne radionuclides reflects no deposition of material exposed to the atmosphere after the 1950s or its removal by erosion. Inventories above the direct atmospheric deposition indicate secondary deposition of radionuclide-bearing material. Very high inventories indicate sites where transport pathways of cryoconite material terminated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gulenchyn, K Y; Yao, X; Asa, S L; Singh, S; Law, C

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in patients with different types of advanced neuroendocrine tumour (NETs). A literature search was carried out in MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1998 to November 2010. The Cochrane Library (to Issue 10, 2010) and the Standards and Guidelines Evidence Inventory of Cancer Guidelines, including over 1100 English-language cancer guidelines from January 2003 to June 2010, were also checked. No existing systematic reviews or clinical practice guidelines based on a systematic review or randomised controlled trials focusing on this topic were found. Twenty-four fully published articles were abstracted and summarised: 16 articles focused on five peptide receptor radionuclide therapy ((111)In-DTPAOC, (90)Y-DOTALAN, (90)Y-DOTATOC, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and (177)Lu-DOTATATE) and eight focused on (131)I-MIBG treatment. Limited evidence from a historical comparison of studies in one centre supported that (177)Lu-DOTATATE might be associated with greater clinical outcomes compared with (90)Y-DOTATOC or (111)In-DTPAOC. The severe toxicities for (177)Lu-DOTATATE included hepatic insufficiency in 0.6%, myelodysplastic syndrome in 0.8% and renal insufficiency in 0.4% of patients in this study. Insufficient evidence suggested efficacy of (131)I-MIBG in adult NET patients, but the overall tumour response rate from (131)I-MIBG was 27-75% for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma. Haematological toxicities were the main severe side-effects after (131)I-MIBG and 4% of patients developed secondary malignancies in one study. To date, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy seems to be an acceptable option and is relatively safe in adult advanced NET patients with receptor uptake positive on scintigraphy, but patients' renal function must be monitored. (131)I-MIBG may be effective for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma, but its side-effects need to be

  12. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  13. Radionuclide evaluation in childhood injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.; Hubbard, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    Radionuclide techniques serve an important role in evaluating childhood injuries. Frequently, they can be employed as the initial and definitive examination. At times they represent the only modality that will detect specific injuries such as the skeletal system. Familiarity with the advantages and limitations of tracer techniques will insure appropriate management of childhood injuries.

  14. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  15. (Biogeochemical pathways at artificial radionuclides)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1989-06-26

    Many of the present computer codes used to assist management decisions on hazardous waste management issues have not been verified or tested and, in many instances, are operated by individuals lacking specific expertise about the overall behavior of radionuclides in the environment. BIOMOVS is an international effort to test such codes. SCOPE-RADPATH has been organized to address the data needs for reliable environmental assessment of radionuclides and the data required for code testing. Concern was expressed at both meetings that computer codes are being inadvertently used as a substitute for scientific expertise and are obscuring rather than identifying needs for further research. Efforts to alleviate this situation are apparent among the scientific community funded by the Commission of the European Communities and the Nordic Liason Committee for Atomic Energy. Attempts are also being made to transfer information about the environmental behavior of radionuclides to other types of trace contaminants in the biosphere, using radionuclides as quantitative tracers of major biospheric transport processes. Of particular importance is the assessment of the transfer of radioactive contaminants from watersheds into surface waters and subsequent bioaccumulation into aquatic food chains as well as the long-term remobilization of contaminants initially immobilized in sediment.

  16. Radionuclide measurement of differential glomerular filtration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Stone, W.J.; Grove, R.B.; Plunkett, J.M.; Kadir, S.; Patton, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether radionuclides could provide a reasonable estimate of differential renal function in five normal dogs and six dogs with unilateral segmental renal infarction. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each kidney was measured by the standard technique using constant infusions of 99mTc-DTPA, iothalamate, and creatinine following ureteral catheterization. These results were correlated with total GFR estimated by bolus injection of 99mTc-DTPA and analysis of the plasma 99mTc-DTPA disappearance curve obtained by blood sampling. Differential GFR was then calculated by multiplying the total GFR from double exponential analysis of this curve (DTPA2) by each of three measures of differential function. These include the percent differential uptake of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA in the posterior projection as well as the geometric mean of 99mTc-DMSA uptake. There were good correlations between differential GFR calculated from iothalamate clearances obtained at ureteral catheterization and all noninvasive methods involving radionuclides and DTPA2 (r = 0.85 - 0.99). Single exponential analysis of the 99mTc-DTPA plasma disappearance curve was less satisfactory. The authors suggest that measurement of total and differential GFR calculated from plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and external counting may be a useful method with potential clinical applications.

  17. [Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer].

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, C; Giesel, F L

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50% and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90%. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in >30% and symptom control in almost 80% of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes.

  18. Secondary analysis of anthropometric data from a South African national food consumption survey, using different growth reference standards.

    PubMed

    Bosman, L; Herselman, M G; Kruger, H S; Labadarios, D

    2011-11-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references were used to analyse anthropometric data from the 1999 National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) of South Africa. Since then, however, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 standards were released. It was anticipated that these reference and standards may lead to differences in the previous estimates of stunting, wasting, underweight and obesity in the study population. The aim was to compare the anthropometric status of children using the 1977 NCHS, the 2000 CDC growth references and the 2006 WHO standards. All children 12-60 months of age with a complete set of anthropometric data were included in the analyses. Data for 1,512 children were analysed with SAS 9.1 for Windows. A Z-score was calculated for each child for weight-for-age (W/A), weight-for-length/height (W/H), length/height-for-age (H/A) and body mass index (BMI)-for-age, using each of the three reference or standards for comparison. The prevalence of stunting, obesity and overweight were significantly higher and the prevalence of underweight and wasting were lower when using the WHO standards compared to the NCHS and the CDC references. The higher than previously established prevalence of stunting at 20.1% and combined overweight/obesity at 30% poses a challenge to South African policy makers to implement nutrition programmes to decrease the prevalence of both stunting and overweight. The 2006 WHO growth standard should be the standard used for assessment of growth of infants and children younger than 5 years in developing countries.

  19. Modeling Radionuclide Transport in Clays

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Liange; Li, Lianchong; Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui -Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2012-05-01

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated or plastic clays (Tsang and Hudson, 2010). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. During the lifespan of a clay repository, the repository performance is affected by complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow, formation of damage zones, radionuclide transport, waste dissolution, and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) of the repository. These coupled processes may affect radionuclide transport by changing transport paths (e.g., formation and evolution of excavation damaged zone (EDZ)) and altering flow, mineral, and mechanical properties that are related to radionuclide transport. While radionuclide transport in clay formation has been studied using laboratory tests (e,g, Appelo et al. 2010, Garcia-Gutierrez et al., 2008, Maes et al., 2008), short-term field

  20. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution, migration, and environmental and agricultural impacts.

    PubMed

    Alexakhin, R M; Sanzharova, N I; Fesenko, S V; Spiridonov, S I; Panov, A V

    2007-11-01

    The distribution and migration of radionuclides released into the environment following the Chernobyl accident in 1986 are described. The Chernobyl disaster resulted in the consumption of farm products containing radionuclides as a source of irradiation of the population due to the prevalence of a rural type of human nutrition in the affected region. Economic and radiologic importance of countermeasures for reducing the impacts of the accident are described. The basic radioecological problem is described in which the area where direct radiation contamination of biota was observed is considerably smaller than the zone where concentrations of radionuclides through the food chain exceeded the permissible standards. The radiation-induced effects in biota in the affected area are described. In the long-term post-accident period, the radionuclide distribution between components of ecosystems (including humans) and doses are considered in comparison to a technologically normal situation of nuclear power plant operation. This analysis demonstrates that if radiation standards protect humans, then biota are also adequately protected against ionizing radiation.

  1. Standards for Quality Agricultural Occupations Programs as Validated by the Agricultural Occupations Teachers in the Secondary and Area Vocational Centers of Illinois. Part I and Part II. [A Final Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    This report details the process of the Illinois Standards Project to develop, adopt, and implement standards of quality for agricultural occupation programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels throughout Illinois. Part I, standards for quality programs in area vocational centers excluding metropolitan areas, is divided into three…

  2. Bioinformatics in the secondary science classroom: A study of state content standards and students' perceptions of, and performance in, bioinformatics lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wefer, Stephen H.

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern Biology marks a new revolution in science, which promises to influence science education at all levels. This thesis examined state standards for content that articulated bioinformatics, and explored secondary students' affective and cognitive perceptions of, and performance in, a bioinformatics mini-unit. The results are presented as three studies. The first study analyzed secondary science standards of 49 U.S States (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics at the introductory high school biology level. The bionformatics content of each state's Biology standards were categorized into nine areas and the prevalence of each area documented. The nine areas were: The Human Genome Project, Forensics, Evolution, Classification, Nucleotide Variations, Medicine, Computer Use, Agriculture/Food Technology, and Science Technology and Society/Socioscientific Issues (STS/SSI). Findings indicated a generally low representation of bioinformatics related content, which varied substantially across the different areas. Recommendations are made for reworking existing standards to incorporate bioinformatics and to facilitate the goal of promoting science literacy in this emerging new field among secondary school students. The second study examined thirty-two students' affective responses to, and content mastery of, a two-week bioinformatics mini-unit. The findings indicate that the students generally were positive relative to their interest level, the usefulness of the lessons, the difficulty level of the lessons, likeliness to engage in additional bioinformatics, and were overall successful on the assessments. A discussion of the results and significance is followed by suggestions for future research and implementation for transferability. The third study presents a case study of individual differences among ten secondary school students, whose cognitive and affective percepts were

  3. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  4. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    the improvement in accuracy and precision of measurement as demanded by the stringent requirements of the user community, such as the correct calibration of nuclear instrumentation. This leads into the need for traceability to national measurement standards maintained by the national metrology institutes. As part of the radioactivity traceability chain, as for all areas of metrology, it is vital that systems are in place to ensure that national standards can be checked for worldwide uniformity and measurement equivalence. Many of the resulting areas are covered by the topics in this special issue, although specifically excluded from the scope of the publication are topics that are widely covered in other publications due to their application in applied metrology—for example, radiochemistry, environmental gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. There are three sections to this issue, starting with papers on how the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement has been implemented for radionuclide metrology, following into the bulk of the publication with articles on the `state of the art' in radionuclide metrology and ending with traceability to national/international standards in nuclear medicine, environmental monitoring, radiation protection and decommissioning. This special issue in essence follows on from earlier BIPM Monographies that were published in order to provide the base information for radionuclide metrology. In many respects they complement the special issue since much of their content is still valid today, particularly those published more recently as an aid to ensuring consistency of method and data. The BIPM Monographies are freely available to download from the BIPM website at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/monographies-ri.html. The papers in the special issue draw on the experience of radionuclide metrologists who have been involved in their area of expertise for many years. The authors give readers an insightful account of the selected topics

  5. Economic evaluation of neutral-pH, low-glucose degradation product peritoneal dialysis solutions compared with standard solutions: a secondary analysis of the balANZ Trial.

    PubMed

    Howard, Kirsten; Hayes, Alison; Cho, Yeoungjee; Cass, Alan; Clarke, Margaret; Johnson, David W

    2015-05-01

    Biocompatible solutions may lower peritonitis rates, but are more costly than conventional solutions. The aim of the present study was to assess the additional costs and health outcomes of biocompatible over conventional solutions in incident peritoneal dialysis patients to guide practice decisions. Secondary economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial. 185 participants in the balANZ trial. Cost-effectiveness of biocompatible compared to standard solution over the 2 years using an Australian health care funder perspective. Intervention group received biocompatible solutions and control group received standard solutions over 2 years. Costs included dialysis charges, costs of treating peritonitis, non-peritonitis-related hospital stays, and medication. Peritonitis was the health outcome of interest; incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were reported in terms of the additional cost per additional patient avoiding peritonitis at 2 years. Mean total per-patient costs were A$57,451 and A$53,930 for the biocompatible and standard-solution groups, respectively. The base-case analysis indicated an incremental cost of A$17,804 per additional patient avoiding peritonitis at 2 years for biocompatible compared to standard solution. In a sensitivity analysis excluding extreme outliers for non-peritonitis-related hospitalizations, mean per-patient costs were A$49,159 and A$52,009 for the biocompatible and standard-solution groups, respectively. Consequently, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio also was reduced significantly: biocompatible solution became both less costly and more effective than standard solution and, in economic terms, was dominant over standard solution. Peritonitis was a secondary outcome of the balANZ trial. Health outcomes measured only in terms of patients avoiding peritonitis over 2 years may underestimate the longer term benefits (eg, prolonged technique survival). Biocompatible dialysis solutions may offer a cost-effective alternative to

  6. An Examination of Intervention Research with Secondary Students with EBD in Light of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Maccini, Paula; Wright, Kenneth; Miller, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the authors offer a critical analysis of published interventions for improving mathematics performance among middle and high school students with EBD in light of the Common Core State Standards. An exhaustive review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 20 articles that met criteria for inclusion. The authors analyzed…

  7. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  8. An Examination of Intervention Research with Secondary Students with EBD in Light of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Maccini, Paula; Wright, Kenneth; Miller, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the authors offer a critical analysis of published interventions for improving mathematics performance among middle and high school students with EBD in light of the Common Core State Standards. An exhaustive review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 20 articles that met criteria for inclusion. The authors analyzed…

  9. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of draft... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft... (welfare-based) NAAQS for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO...

  10. 75 FR 57463 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of draft... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft... for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO X , and...

  11. A new standard of Efficacy for Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in Pain Attenuation in Japan (a secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the efficacy of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for pain attenuation varies among institutions, all having their own method of assessment with no common standards. At the author's institution in the beginning, the patients were asked how they assessed their pain relief immediately after the treatment. They were to choose from excellent, good, fair, no change and poor. The overall efficacy rate was calculated by the numbers of patients scoring excellent and good, expressed as a percentage of the total number of patients. However, a large number of institutions have utilized the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) or the Pain Relief Score (PRS) for the assessment of treatment; but even then, the evaluation could not be considered uniform. Therefore, the standardization of the efficacy rate was continuously discussed among the practitioners of LLLT, dating back to the 9th annual meeting of the Japan Laser Therapy Association (JaLTA) in 1997. It took four years (including the 1997 meeting) until finally an agreement was reached and a new standard of efficacy was presented at the 12th JaLTA meeting in 2000, based on the PRS. The new standard defined excellent as pain reduction in any treatment session from 10 to 0 or 1, good as reduction from 10 to 2∼5, fair as reduction from 10 to 6∼8, no change as a reduction from 10 to 9∼10 and poor was defined as exacerbation of pain from 10 to 11 or greater. Efficacy rate was calculated by the number of patients scoring excellent and good expressed as a percentage of the total number of patients. For the purpose of reference, the VAS was to be used for patients receiving the treatment for the first time. PMID:25368444

  12. Beverages and snacks available in vending machines from a subset of Ontario secondary schools: Do offerings align with provincial nutrition standards?

    PubMed

    Orava, Taryn; Manske, Steve; Hanning, Rhona

    2016-12-27

    As part of an evaluation of Ontario's School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150) in a populous Ontario region, this research aimed to: 1) identify, describe and categorize beverages and snacks available for purchase in secondary school vending machines according to P/PM 150 standards; and 2) compare the number and percentage of beverages and snacks within P/PM 150 categories (Sell Most, Sell Less, Not Permitted) from Time I (2012/2013) to Time II (2014). Representatives from consenting secondary schools assisted researchers in completing a Food Environmental Scan checklist in Times I and II. Sourced nutritional content information (calories, fats, sodium, sugars, ingredients and % daily values) was used to categorize products. The number and percentage of products in P/PM 150 categories were compared between Times by paired t-tests. Of 26 secondary schools participating in total, 19 participated in both Time periods and were included in the study. There were 75 beverages identified (59 Time I, 45 Time II), mostly water, juices and milk-based beverages; and 132 types of snacks (87 Time I, 103 Time II), mostly grain-based snacks, vegetable/fruit chips, and baked goods. A majority of schools offered one or more Not Permitted beverages (47% Time I, 58% Time II) or snacks (74% Time I, 53% Time II). Significantly more schools met P/PM 150 standards for snacks (p = 0.02) but not beverages in Time II. Full P/PM 150 compliance was achieved by few schools, indicating that schools, school boards, public health, and food services need to continue to collaborate to ensure nutrient-poor products are not sold to students in school settings.

  13. Radionuclide synovectomy - essentials for rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Marek M; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70-80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice.

  14. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    PubMed

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident.

  15. Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1983-08-25

    This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

  16. Proficiency Testing as a tool to monitor consistency of measurements in the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Czap, Ladislav; Shortt, Ken

    2008-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (IAEA/WHO SSDL Network) in 1976. Through SSDLs designated by Member States, the Network provides a direct link of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Within this structure and through the proper calibration of field instruments, the SSDLs disseminate S.I. quantities and units. To ensure that the services provided by SSDL members to end-users follow internationally accepted standards, the IAEA has set up two different comparison programmes. One programme relies on the IAEA/WHO postal TLD service and the other uses comparisons of calibrated ionization chambers to help the SSDLs verify the integrity of their national standards and the procedures used for the transfer of the standards to the end-users. The IAEA comparisons include 60Co air kerma (NK) and absorbed dose to water (ND,W) coefficients. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy. This work describes the results of the IAEA programme comparing calibration coefficients for radiotherapy dosimetry, using ionization chambers. In this programme, ionization chambers that belong to the SSDLs are calibrated sequentially at the SSDL, at the IAEA, and again at the SSDL. As part of its own quality assurance programme, the IAEA has participated in several regional comparisons organized by Regional Metrology Organizations. The results of the IAEA comparison programme show that the majority of SSDLs are capable of providing calibrations that fall inside the acceptance level of 1.5% compared to the IAEA.

  17. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

  18. Radionuclide reactions with groundwater and basalts from Columbia River basalt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1981-06-01

    Chemical reactions of radionuclides with geologic materials found in Columbia River basalt formations were studied. The objective was to determine the ability of these formations to retard radionuclide migration from a radioactive waste repository located in deep basalt. Reactions that can influence migration are precipitation, ion-exchange, complexation, and oxidation-reduction. These reactions were studied by measuring the effects of groundwater composition and redox potential (Eh) on radionuclide sorption on fresh basalt surfaces, a naturally altered basalt, and a sample of secondary minerals associated with a Columbia River basalt flow. In addition, radionuclide sorption isotherms were measured for these materials and reaction kinetics were determined. The radionuclides studied were /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 75/Se, /sup 95m/Tc, /sup 237/Np, /sup 241/Am, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 237/Pu. The Freundlich equation accurately describes the isotherms when precipitation of radionuclides does not occur. In general, sorption increased in the order: basalt < altered basalt < secondary minerals. This increase in sorption corresponds to increasing surface area and cation exchange capacity. The Eh of the system had a large effect on technetium, plutonium, and neptunium sorption. Technetium(VII), Pu(VI), and Np(V) are reduced to Tc(IV), Pu(IV), and Np(IV), respectively, under Eh conditions expected in deep basalt formations. The kinetics of radionuclide sorption and basalt-groundwater reactions were observed over a period of 18 weeks. Most sorption reactions stabilized after about four weeks. Groundwater composition changed the least in contact with altered basalt. Contact with secondary minerals greatly increased Ca, K, and Mg concentrations in the groundwater.

  19. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  20. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  1. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  2. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  3. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  4. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  5. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  6. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-07-14

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2.

  7. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  8. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

  9. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  10. Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M

    2009-08-14

    An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dolomite and limestone are present and an understanding of the sorption of radionuclides in these carbonate minerals is therefore advantageous. A list of the radionuclides of interest is given in Table 1. The distribution coefficient, K{sub d} is defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentration bound on the solid phase to the contaminant concentration remaining in the liquid phase at equilibrium. Some authors report distribution coefficients and other report partition coefficients, the data presented in this work assumes equality between these two terms, and data are presented and summarized in this work as logarithmic distribution coefficient (log K{sub D}). Published literature was searched using two methods. Firstly, the JNC Sorption Database, namely Shubutani et al (1999), and Suyama and Sasamoto (2004) was used to select elements of interest and a number of carbonate minerals. Secondly, on-line literature search tools were used to locate relevant published articles from 1900 to 2009. Over 300 data points covering 16 elements (hydrogen, carbon, calcium, nickel, strontium, technetium, palladium, iodine, cesium, samarium, europium, holmium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium) were used to calculate an average and range of log K{sub d} values for each element. Unfortunately, no data could be found for chlorine, argon, krypton, zirconium, niobium, tin, thorium and curium. A description of the data is given below, together with the average, standard deviation, minimum, maximum and number of inputs for radionuclide K{sub d} values for calcite, aragonate, limestone, dolomite and unidentified carbonate rocks in Table 2. Finally, the data are condensed into one group (carbonate minerals) of data for each

  11. Factors predicting the development of pressure ulcers in an at-risk population who receive standardized preventive care: secondary analyses of a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Demarre, Liesbet; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann; Clays, Els; Grypdonck, Maria; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2015-02-01

    To identify predictive factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers in patients at risk who receive standardized preventive care. Numerous studies have examined factors that predict risk for pressure ulcer development. Only a few studies identified risk factors associated with pressure ulcer development in hospitalized patients receiving standardized preventive care. Secondary analyses of data collected in a multicentre randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 610 consecutive patients at risk for pressure ulcer development (Braden Score <17) receiving standardized preventive care measures. Patient demographic information, data on skin and risk assessment, medical history and diagnosis were collected during 26 months (December 2007-January 2010). Predictive factors were identified using multivariate statistics. Pressure ulcers in category II-IV were significantly associated with non-blanchable erythema, urogenital disorders and higher body temperature. Predictive factors significantly associated with superficial pressure ulcers were admission to an internal medicine ward, incontinence-associated dermatitis, non-blanchable erythema and a lower Braden score. Superficial sacral pressure ulcers were significantly associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis. Despite the standardized preventive measures they received, hospitalized patients with non-blanchable erythema, urogenital disorders and a higher body temperature were at increased risk for developing pressure ulcers. Improved identification of at-risk patients can be achieved by taking into account specific predictive factors. Even if preventive measures are in place, continuous assessment and tailoring of interventions is necessary in all patients at risk. Daily skin observation can be used to continuously monitor the effectiveness of the intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Radionuclide therapy of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Chen, Clara C

    2012-10-01

    Adrenal tumors arising from chromaffin cells will often accumulate radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thus are amenable to therapy with I-131 MIBG. More recently, therapy studies have targeted the somatostatin receptors using Lu-177 or Y-90 radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Because pheochromocytoma (PHEO)/paraganglioma (PGL) and neuroblastoma (NB), which often arise from the adrenals, express these receptors, clinical trials have been performed with these reagents. We will review the experience using radionuclide therapy for targeting PHEO/PGL and NBs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours].

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Jann; Oturai, Peter; Højgaard, Liselotte; Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnaes; Martiný, Lars; Rasmussen, Palle; Kjaer, Andreas

    2010-10-25

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using somatostatin analogues labelled with beta-emitting isotopes can be given to patients with metastasized or inoperable neuroendocrine tumours provided these have increased uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. This is a brief review of the treatment principle, indications and contraindications and practices with (177)Lu-DOTATATE treatment used at Rigshospitalet. Side effects are generally mild and reversible. Severe long-term side effects are rare. The majority of patients will experience increased quality of life and partial tumour reduction or stabilization for a period of time. However, up to 20% will experience no treatment effect.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling.

  15. Nuclear data for production and medical application of radionuclides: Present status and future needs.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Syed M

    2017-01-01

    The significance of nuclear data in the choice and medical application of a radionuclide is considered: the decay data determine its suitability for organ imaging or internal therapy and the reaction cross section data allow optimisation of its production route. A brief discussion of reaction cross sections and yields is given. The standard SPECT, PET and therapeutic radionuclides are enumerated and their decay and production data are considered. The status of nuclear data is generally good. Some existing discrepancies are outlined. A few promising alternative production routes of (99m)Tc and (68)Ga are discussed. The increasing significance of non-standard positron emitters in organ imaging and of low-energy highly-ionizing radiation emitters in internal therapy is discussed, their nuclear data are considered and a brief review of their status is presented. Some other related nuclear data issues are also mentioned. The data needs arising from new directions in radionuclide applications (multimode imaging, theranostic approach, radionanoparticles, etc.) are considered. The future needs of data associated with possible utilization of newer irradiation technologies (intermediate energy cyclotron, high-intensity photon accelerator, spallation neutron source, etc.) are outlined. Except for a few small discrepancies, the available nuclear data are sufficient for routine production and application of radionuclides. Considerable data needs exist for developing novel radionuclides for applications. The developing future technologies for radionuclide production will demand further data-related activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  17. Radionuclide imaging in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by interruption or significant impairment of blood supply to the brain, which leads to a cascade of metabolic and molecular alterations resulting in functional disturbance and morphologic damage. The changes in regional cerebral blood flow and regional metabolism can be assessed by radionuclide imaging, especially SPECT and PET. SPECT and PET have broadened our understanding of flow and metabolic thresholds critical for maintenance of brain function and morphology: PET was essential in the transfer of the concept of the penumbra to clinical stroke and thereby had a great impact on developing treatment strategies. Receptor ligands can be applied as early markers of irreversible neuronal damage and can predict the size of the final infarcts, which is important for decisions on invasive therapy in large ("malignant") infarction. With SPECT and PET, the reserve capacity of the blood supply can be tested in obstructive arteriosclerosis, which is essential for planning interventions. The effect of a stroke on surrounding and contralateral primarily unaffected tissue can be investigated, helping to understand symptoms caused by disturbance in functional networks. Activation studies are useful to demonstrate alternative pathways to compensate for lesions and to test the effect of rehabilitative therapy. Radioisotope studies help to detect neuroinflammation and its effect on extension of tissue damage. Despite the limitations of broad clinical application of radionuclide imaging, this technology has a great impact on research in cerebrovascular diseases and still has various applications in the management of stroke. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-05-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities.

  19. Impacts of extra-regional pollutants on summertime California ozone levels and the implications on the secondary ozone standard design values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kulkarni, S.; Spak, S.; Chai, T.; Pierce, R.

    2011-12-01

    Transported ozone (O3) from outside of the North America (NA) as well as the lower stratospheric O3 (referred to as extra-regional O3 in this paper), together with the locally-formed O3 from anthropogenic and natural emissions, affect the O3 variability over California. Quantification of the contributions from these sources is important as it helps define national emission reductions strategies. The impact of extra-regional anthropogenic and fire sources on California surface air quality during summer 2008 is evaluated using a multi-scale STEM modeling system. Several forward sensitivity simulations are conducted to estimate the contributions of extra-regional O3 and precursors on California O3 levels, indicating the direct transport of O3 through the model boundaries is the largest single extra-regional contributor, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) plays an important role among several precursors. Weak impacts from stratospheric O3 are shown during this period. The impacts of extra-regional pollution from each of these contributing factors present regional differences over California and other western US states. The O3 sensitivity to extra-regional pollution is also compared with a sensitivity simulation with local emissions perturbed. The secondary O3 standard design value is the 3-year average of the annual maximum consecutive 3-month sum of adjusted monthly W126 index values, and is recommended to be set at a level in the range of 7 to 21 ppm-hours. Many of the areas violate the proposed secondary O3 standard without violating the primary O3 standard are located in rural areas due to long-range transport of O3 and its precursors. Here we calculate the sensitivity of monthly-based W126 index to extra-regional pollution based on the model forward sensitivity simulations. The surface O3 sensitivity to trans-boundary pollution over California is further interpreted by trajectories and adjoint sensitivity analysis. Probability of airmasses originating from northern

  20. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  1. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  2. Microbial detoxification of metals and radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J R; Lovley, D R

    2001-06-01

    Microorganisms have important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of toxic metals and radionuclides. Recent advances have been made in understanding metal-microbe interactions and new applications of these processes to the detoxification of metal and radionuclide contamination have been developed.

  3. Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, B.

    2001-09-24

    This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

  4. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  5. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-03-27

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

  6. A new experimental procedure for determination of photoelectric efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector used for nuclear medicine liquid waste monitoring with traceability to a reference standard radionuclide calibrator.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, A; Campanella, F; Ciofetta, G; Marracino, F M; Cannatà, V

    2010-02-01

    To determine photopeak efficiency for (99m)Tc of the NaI(Tl) detector used for liquid waste monitoring at the Nuclear Medicine Unit of IRCCS Paediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù in Rome, a specific experimental procedure, with traceability to primary standards, was developed. Working with the Italian National Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety, two different calibration source geometries were employed and the detector response dependence on geometry was investigated. The large percentage difference (almost 40%) between the two efficiency values obtained showed that geometrical effects cannot be neglected.

  7. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Dixon

    2004-02-17

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document two models for drift-scale radionuclide transport. This has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]), which includes planning documents for the technical work scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.15, Work Package AUZM11, ''Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport.'' The technical work scope for this Model Report calls for development of a process-level model and an abstraction model representing diffusive release from the invert to the rocks, partitioned between fracture and matrix, as compared to the fracture-release approach used in the Site Recommendation. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of that drift. The plan for validation of the models documented in this Model Report is given in Section I-5 of Attachment I in BSC (2002 [160819]). Note that the model validation presented in Section 7 deviates from the technical work plan (BSC 2002 [160819], Section I-5) in that an independent technical review specifically for model validation has not been conducted, nor publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Model validation presented in Section 7 is based on corroboration with alternative mathematical models, which is also called out by the technical work plan (BSC 2002 [160819], Section I-5), and is sufficient based on the requirements of AP-SIII.10Q for model validation. See Section 7 for additional discussion. The phenomenon of flow and transport in the vicinity of the waste emplacement drift are evaluated in this model report under ambient thermal, chemical, and mechanical conditions. This includes the effects of water diversion around an emplacement drift and the flow and transport behavior expected in a fractured rock below the drift. The reason for a separate assessment of drift-scale transport is that the effects of waste emplacement drifts on flow

  8. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  9. Radionuclides in surface and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

  10. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  11. Radionuclide Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an integral role in the diagnostic workup of suspected pulmonary embolism, and several modalities have been employed over the years. In recent years, the choice has been narrowed to either computer tomographic or radionuclide based methods, i.e. computer tomographic angiography (CTA) and ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (V/Q-scan). Both methods display advantages and shortcomings, and while we provide some insights into CTA and alternative methods, the paper's main focus is a review of the V/Q-scan. We discuss basic considerations, interpretation criteria, clinical value, and controversies of conventional planar lung scintigraphy as well as the more contemporary 3-dimensional imaging technique of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) with or without CT.

  12. Standardisation of (90)Y and determination of calibration factors for (90)Y microspheres (resin) for the NPL secondary ionisation chamber and a Capintec CRC-25R.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Kelley M; Fenwick, Andrew J; Arinc, Arzu; Johansson, Lena C

    2016-03-01

    The use of (90)Y resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres® microspheres) in Nuclear Medicine has dramatically increased in recent years due to its favourable outcome in the treatment of liver cancer and liver metastases (Rajekar et al., 2011). The measurement of administered activity before and residual activity after treatment in radionuclide calibrators is required to determine total activity delivered to the patient. In comparison with External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) where administered doses are often know to within ±5%, the actual administered activity in nuclear medicine procedures may only be known to within ±20% and subsequent dose calculations can result in even larger uncertainties (Fenwick et al., 2009). It is a well-recognised issue that ion chambers are instruments that are sensitive to the measurement geometry and matrix of a source, in particular for pure beta or low energy (<100keV) x-ray emitters (Gadd et al., 2006). This paper presents new calibration factors for NPL secondary standard ionisation chamber system (Vinten 671) and a Capintec CRC-25R radionuclide calibrator along with a discussion of the measurement problems associated with this radionuclide and matrix. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard system for this measurement matrix will enable NPL to provide standards for the Nuclear Medicine community and consequently increase the measurement capability.

  13. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  14. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  15. Review of radionuclide source terms used for performance-assessment analyses; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.W.

    1993-06-01

    Two aspects of the radionuclide source terms used for total-system performance assessment (TSPA) analyses have been reviewed. First, a detailed radionuclide inventory (i.e., one in which the reactor type, decay, and burnup are specified) is compared with the standard source-term inventory used in prior analyses. The latter assumes a fixed ratio of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) to boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent fuel, at specific amounts of burnup and at 10-year decay. TSPA analyses have been used to compare the simplified source term with the detailed one. The TSPA-91 analyses did not show a significant difference between the source terms. Second, the radionuclides used in source terms for TSPA aqueous-transport analyses have been reviewed to select ones that are representative of the entire inventory. It is recommended that two actinide decay chains be included (the 4n+2 ``uranium`` and 4n+3 ``actinium`` decay series), since these include several radionuclides that have potentially important release and dose characteristics. In addition, several fission products are recommended for the same reason. The choice of radionuclides should be influenced by other parameter assumptions, such as the solubility and retardation of the radionuclides.

  16. Complications of renal transplantation: evaluation with US and radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Brown, E D; Chen, M Y; Wolfman, N T; Ott, D J; Watson, N E

    2000-01-01

    Following renal transplantation, patients are often evaluated with ultrasonography (US) or radionuclide imaging to assess renal function and the presence of possible complications. Both modalities are inexpensive, noninvasive, and nonnephrotoxic. A basic understanding of the surgical techniques commonly used for renal transplantation is useful when imaging these patients in order to recognize complications and to direct further imaging or intervention. The most frequent complications of renal transplantation include perinephric fluid collections; decreased renal function; and abnormalities of the vasculature, collecting system, and renal parenchyma. Perinephric fluid collections are common following transplantation, and their clinical significance depends on the type, location, size, and growth of the fluid collection, features that are well-evaluated with US. Causes of diminished renal function include acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and toxicity from medications. Radionuclide imaging is the most useful modality for assessing renal function. Vascular complications of transplantation include occlusion or stenosis of the arterial or venous supply, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysms. Although the standard for evaluating these vascular complications is angiography, US is an excellent noninvasive method for screening. Other transplant complications such as abnormalities of the collecting system and renal parenchyma are well-evaluated with both radionuclide imaging and US.

  17. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2.

    PubMed

    Brunzendorf, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time.

  18. Uncertainties on predicted concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial foods and ingestion doses.

    PubMed

    Smith, K R; Brown, J; Jones, J A; Mansfield, P; Smith, J G; Haywood, S M; Walters, C B

    2002-01-01

    Models are routinely used to calculate doses following routine releases and potential accidental releases of radionuclides. These models contain a number of parameters. Values for many of these are not accurately known. The primary aim of this study was to determine the level of uncertainty on predicted concentrations of radionuclides in foods, and doses to individuals consuming those foods, arising from uncertainties on the model input parameter values. A secondary objective was to identify those input parameters whose uncertainty makes a major contribution to the overall uncertainty on the predicted endpoints. The methodology adopted and results obtained are presented for the following radionuclides: 90Sr, 131I, 137Cs and 239Pu. The estimated uncertainty ratios (the ratio of the 95th to the 5th percentile) are frequently very large, often two to three orders of magnitude. The results of this study may be used to identify areas where further research could improve assessment capabilities.

  19. School lunch menus and 11 to 12 year old children's food choice in three secondary schools in England-are the nutritional standards being met?

    PubMed

    Gould, Rebecca; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2006-01-01

    To determine if the lunchtime food provided to schoolchildren adheres to nutritional standards and to examine the influence of children's food choice on nutrient intake at lunchtime. Seventy-four children aged 11-12 years were recruited from three secondary schools. The school populations spanned a spectrum of socio-economic deprivation. Lunchtime food and nutrient intake was assessed over a 5 day period. Cross-sectional study of menu composition and children's food choice in relation to nutrient intake. Dietary recording was by an indirect weighing method of menu composition and nutrient intake over a 5 day period. Statistical analysis was carried out using general linear modelling techniques including: t-test, one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. One school met the standards on food group provision. Intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids were greater in boys. Intake of folate was greater in girls. There were between-school differences (independent of gender) for intake of fatty acids, starch, calcium and folate, with socio-economic deprivation associated with a lesser nutrient intake. Children could have chosen meals higher in calcium, iron, folate and zinc and lower in starch and fat, from the extensive cafeteria menu of between 26 and 42 food. For some nutrients, providing 'healthier' food influences intake of those nutrients whilst for other nutrients, children's food choice predominates. The majority of children did not meet the recommended targets for lunchtime nutrient intake, especially for micronutrients. Food provision in two out of three schools did not meet government guidelines and socio-economic deprivation was associated with worse food provision. Children from deprived areas were more likely to choose those foods of limited nutritional value than those from more privileged backgrounds. The statutory nutritional standards on their own, without a pricing policy to encourage healthier food choice or restrictions in food

  20. [Radionuclide diagnosis of the ureteral motor function and urodynamics in renal tuberculosis and other diseases of the urinary system].

    PubMed

    Savin, I B

    1994-01-01

    Radionuclide methods (a new technique of infusion dynamic ureteroscintigraphy and standard techniques of dynamic and static scintigraphy of the kidneys, radionuclide renography) were used to examine 134 patients with nephrophthisis, 61 patients with other urological diseases and 51 controls. It is shown that nephrophthisis brings urodynamic disorders and impairment of ureteral contractility. Three types of the contractile disorders are distinguished. A decline in motor function and urodynamic defects occurred also in other urological affections. Sensitive radionuclide techniques are thought valuable in examination of the urinary system and objective evaluation of urodynamic disorders.

  1. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  2. Dosimetry and Case Studies for Selected Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review and analysis of biokinetic and dosimetric information for those radionuclides most likely to be involved in accidental exposures to workers or members of the public or used in radiological terrorism.

  3. Natural radionuclides in Hanford site ground waters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Johnson, V.G.

    1987-10-01

    Uranium, Th, Ra, Rn, Pb and Po radionuclide concentrations in ground waters from the Hanford Site indicate that U, Th, and Ra are highly sorbed. Relative to Rn, these radionuclides are low by factors of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -6/. Uranium sorption is likely due to its reduction from the +6 state, where it is introduced via surface waters, to the +4 state found in the confined aquifers. The distribution of radionuclides is very similar in all of the confined aquifers and significantly different from the distribution observed in the unconfined and surface waters. Barium correlates well with Ra over three orders of magnitude, indicating that stable element analogs may be useful for inferring the behavior of radioactive waste radionuclides in this candidate geologic repository. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-01-01

    This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

  5. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Scott; Bleuel, Darren; Johnson, Micah; Rusnak, Brian; Soltz, Ron; Tonchev, Anton

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  6. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  7. Radiochemical separation of zirconium and hafnium from other radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R B

    1972-11-01

    Radiozirconium and radiohafnium may be separated from all other radionuclides except scandium and protactinium by precipitation with mandelic acid from 5-10 M hydrochloric acid, using commercial zirconyl chloride as carrier. Scandium and protactinium are removed by dissolving the precipitate in sodium carbonate, then adding barium nitrate to precipitate barium carbonate which acts as a scavenger. Zirconium mandelate is finally reprecipitated and the sample weighed and counted in this form. The method was checked by analysing commercial zirconyl chloride and standard rock samples for zirconium and hafnium by neutron-activation analysis.

  8. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  9. Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    hemisphere. Although the releases from the Fukushima NPP were pronounced, due to significant dilution of the radioactivity in the atmosphere as it was transported across the globe, the concentrations of radionuclides measured outside Japan were extremely low. The activities of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 in air were estimated to have diluted by a factor of 105 to 108 during trans-Pacific transport. This paper will present a compilation of the radionuclide concentrations measured across the northern hemisphere by various national and international monitoring networks. It will focus on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes will be discussed. Spatial and Temporal patterns and differences will be contrasted. The effects from this global radionuclide dispersal are reported and discussed. The activity ratios of ^131I/^137Cs and ^134Cs/^137Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and thus on the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected across the northern hemisphere have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental concern.

  10. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  11. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  12. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  13. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  14. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  15. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  16. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  17. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  18. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a facility... receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr. (b) Emissions of iodine to the ambient...

  19. Lunchtime food and nutrient intakes of secondary-school pupils; a comparison of school lunches and packed lunches following the introduction of mandatory food-based standards for school lunch.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jo; Wood, Lesley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To compare the key differences between school lunches and packed lunches as eaten in eleven secondary schools in England, 21 months after the food-based standards for school lunch became mandatory, but before the introduction of nutrient-based standards. Data on 358 school lunches and 139 packed lunches were collected in May and June 2008 from pupils attending secondary schools in Sheffield, Manchester, Leicester City and Essex. Fieldwork was conducted over five consecutive school days at each school. Fieldworkers randomly selected five pupils taking a school lunch and five pupils bringing a packed lunch each day. All food and drink items chosen by pupils were weighed and recorded. Leftovers were also weighed. Eleven state-maintained, co-educational secondary schools from four local authorities in England. Four hundred and ninety-seven pupils aged 11-16 years. Pupils taking school lunches, on average, had significantly higher intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, NSP, vitamin C, folate, Fe and Zn than pupils bringing a packed lunch to school. Mean intakes of protein, fat and vitamin C from both types of lunch met the nutrient-based standards and school lunches also met standards for carbohydrate, NSP and energy. Nutrient intakes from school lunches were more favourable than those from packed lunches, but typically failed to meet nutrient-based standards for school food. A combination of continued improvements to school food, educating pupils to make healthier choices and policies to encourage pupils to eat at school or bring healthier packed lunches is needed.

  20. Australian Dialects and Indigenous Creoles: Is There a Place for Non-Standard Australian English in the Lower Secondary English Classroom in Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lucy J.

    2011-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of students entering Australian secondary schools whose first language is not English. Compound this with the numbers of Indigenous students who speak Creoles or who have distinct dialects, and teachers in secondary English classrooms are facing a struggle to implement the syllabus and engage students. The issue of how…

  1. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  2. [Recent progress in radionuclide therapy].

    PubMed

    Kasagi, K; Iwata, M; Misaki, T; Konishi, J; Sakahara, H

    2000-11-01

    Therapeutic use of radionuclides includes 131I for thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid Graves' disease, 89SrCl3 for metastatic bone tumors, 131I-MIBG for malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma, and radioimmunotherapies. 131I is concentrated in 60-70% of metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer following total thyroidectomy. Radioiodine uptake in metastatic lesions is greater in younger patients than in older ones. Hypothyroidism is often mild or even absent in patients with a large amount of tumor tissue, indicating that thyroid hormones produced by highly differentiated tumors compensate partially or even completely for hypothyroidism following total thyroidectomy. Adequate uptake of 131I has been reported to be associated with significant reduction in the size and number of metastases, and with lower recurrence and higher survival rates. Other favorable factors for longer survival are younger age, well-differentiated histological type, small disease extent, and early discovery of metastases. Older patients with extensive metastases and/or bulky tumor masses in the bone have a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to discover metastases as early as possible, when patients are still young. Long-term follow-up with periodic thyroglobulin measurements and imaging studies is strongly recommended. In Japan, 131I treatment for Graves' disease is performed only in selected patients in whom antithyroid drugs cannot be used because of side effects or not effective, considering the high prevalence of permanent hypothyroidism. 89SrCl3 is useful for reducing pain due to bone metastases of malignant tumors. 131I-MIBG therapy is effective for improvement of QOL in some patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma. Radioimmuno-therapy using anti-CD20 has been used successfully in clinical application in patients with malignant B cell lymphoma.

  3. Radionuclide imaging in drug development.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Alan C; Frier, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive tracers have made an immense contribution to the understanding of human physiology and pathology. At the start of the 21st century nuclear imaging has emerged as the main metabolic imaging modality which is of growing importance in drug development and clinical pharmacology. Using techniques adapted from those undertaken in clinical radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities drug molecules and carrier systems may be radiolabelled and their release, biodistribution and uptake may be visualized in human subjects. Imaging studies are capable of locating the uptake of specific receptors in the brain, the site of disintegration of a tablet in the GI tract, the penetration of a nebulized solution into the lung and the residence time of an eye drop on the cornea. The technology uses suitable gamma emitting radionuclides such as 99mTc, 111In, 123I and 153Sm, which may be imaged with a gamma camera or positron emitters such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F for positron emission tomography (PET). Positron emitters are more appropriate for the direct labeling of drug molecules rather than metals such a 99mTc or 111In. A particular asset of these techniques is that the in vivo distribution and kinetics of a radiolabelled pharmaceutical formulation may be quantified. In this way correlation between the observed pharmacological effects and the precise site of delivery may be made. A powerful feature of nuclear molecular imaging is the evaluation of drug delivery systems in patient groups for whom the treatment is intended. Such studies not only provide data on the nature and characteristics of a product, such as reliability and reproducibility, but can demonstrate proof of principle for the new generation of targeted therapeutics. Imaging data are increasingly being used in product registration dossiers for submission to Regulatory Authorities.

  4. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.

  5. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-08-07

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  6. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  7. Activity size distribution of some natural radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Mohery, M; Abdallah, A M; Al-Amoudi, Z M; Baz, S S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the results concerning the activity size distribution of the long-lived ((210)Pb) radon decay product aerosols and the thoron decay product aerosols ((212)Pb) and ((7)Be) of the outdoor atmosphere are presented. Also, the mass size distribution of the aerosol particles is determined. The low-pressure Berner cascade impactor Model 20/0.015 was used as a sampling device. The activity size distribution of these radionuclides was determined by one log-normal distribution (accumulation mode) whereas the mass size distribution was by two log-normal distributions (accumulation and coarse mode). The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of (212)Pb was found to be 305 nm with a geometric standard deviation (σg) of 2.41. The specific air activity concentration of (212)Pb was found to be 0.14 ± 0.012 Bq m(-3). An AMAD of (210)Pb of 610 nm with σg of 1.8 was determined, whereas that of 550 nm with σg of 1.97 was determined for (7)Be. The specific air activity concentration of (210)Pb and (7)Be was found to be 0.0016±2.5×10(-4) and 0.00348 ± 4×10(-4) Bq m(-3), respectively. Using a dosimetric model, the total deposition fraction as well as the total equivalent dose has been evaluated considering the observed parameters of the activity size distribution of (212)Pb. At a total deposition fraction of ∼21 %, the total equivalent dose was found to be 0.41 µSv.

  8. Effect of Hanford Tank Waste Leachate on Radionuclide Transport Through Unsaturated Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod, K. A.; Serne, J. R.; Um, W.

    2006-12-01

    A series of unsaturated column experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of leaking tank waste on radionuclide transport through sediment from the Hanford site in Washington, USA. Previous studies have shown that the caustic tank leachate solution with high ionic strength (I=2-8 M NaNO3) and high pH (~14) conditions dissolves primary minerals (quartz and clays) and forms secondary precipitates on mineral surfaces. The secondary precipitates include zeolite, cancrinite and sodalite. The dissolution followed by precipitation reaction would alter the sediment pore structure as well as the soil surface properties. Both physical and chemical changes of the sediment were found to have an impact on the flow and mobility of radionuclide in unsaturated columns at varying degrees of saturation.

  9. Primary calibrations of radionuclide solutions and sources for the EML quality assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Fisenne, I.M.

    1993-12-31

    The quality assurance procedures established for the operation of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Measurements Laboratory (DOE-EML`s) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) are essentially the same as those that are in effect for any EML program involving radiometric measurements. All these programs have at their core the use of radionuclide standards for their instrument calibration. This paper focuses on EML`s approach to the acquisition, calibration and application of a wide range of radionuclide sources that are required to meet its programmatic needs.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

    2006-09-01

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

  11. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  12. Radionuclides and heavy metals in Borovac, Southern Serbia.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Dragana; Todorovic, Dragana; Frontasyeva, Marina; Ajtic, Jelena; Tasic, Mirjana; Rajsic, Slavica

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents the complex approach to the assessment of the state of the environment in Southern Serbia, surroundings of Bujanovac, the region which is of great concern as being exposed to contamination by depleted uranium (DU) ammunition during the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) attacks in 1999. It includes studies on concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in different environmental samples 5 years after the military actions. In October 2004, samples of soil, grass, lichen, moss, honey, and water were collected at two sites, in the immediate vicinity of the targeted area and 5 km away from it. Radionuclide ((7)Be, (40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U) activities in solid samples were determined by standard gamma spectrometry and total alpha and beta activity in water was determined by proportional alpha-beta counting. Concentrations of 35 elements were determined in the samples of soil, moss, grass, and lichen by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results are discussed in the context of a possible contamination by DU that reached the environment during the attacks as well as in the context of an environmental pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals in Southern Serbia. The results are compared to the state of environment in the region and other parts of the country both prior to and following the attacks. This is the first comprehensive study of the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in Southern Serbia and consequently highly important for the assessment of the state of environment in this part of the country concerning possible effects of DU ammunition on the environment, as well as anthropogenic source of pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals and other elements. Also, the highly sensitive method of INAA was used for the first time to analyze the environmental samples from this area. The results of the study of radionuclides in the samples of soils, leaves, grass, moss, lichen

  13. To amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to allow States to adopt alternate and modified standards for students with disabilities.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Boozman, John [R-AR-3

    2009-05-04

    House - 06/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. To amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to allow States to adopt alternate and modified standards for students with disabilities.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Boozman, John [R-AR-3

    2009-05-04

    06/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. To amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to allow States to adopt alternate and modified standards for students with disabilities.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Boozman, John [R-AR-3

    2009-05-04

    06/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  17. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  18. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-06-04

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, stored, and potentially emitted. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2011, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.01 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included about 90 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley lab operations. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer codes, CAP88-PC and COMPLY, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI).

  19. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  20. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  1. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  2. Radionuclide imaging technologies and their use in evaluating asthma drug deposition in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stephen P; Pitcairn, Gary R; Hirst, Peter H; Rankin, Lisa

    2003-07-18

    Whole lung and regional lung deposition of inhaled asthma drugs in the lungs can be quantified using either two-dimensional or three-dimensional radionuclide imaging methods. The two-dimensional method of gamma scintigraphy has been the most widely used, and is currently considered the industry standard, but the three-dimensional methods (SPECT, single photon emission computed tomography; and PET, positron emission tomography) give superior regional lung deposition data and will undoubtedly be used more frequently in future. Recent developments in radionuclide imaging are described, including an improved algorithm for assessing regional lung deposition in gamma scintigraphy, and a patent-protected radiolabelling method (TechneCoat), applicable to both gamma scintigraphy and SPECT. Radionuclide imaging data on new inhaled asthma products provide a milestone assessment, and the data form a bridge between in vitro testing and a full clinical trials program, allowing the latter to be entered with increased confidence.

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  4. Radionuclide bone scanning in females with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, R S; Davis, P; Lentle, B C

    1981-01-01

    Sixty female patients with chronic low back pain have been studied clinically, radiographically, and by radionuclide bone scanning for evidence of sacroiliac disease. Twenty-four patients had quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy (QSS) results suggesting sacroiliitis. In only one of these patients was the radiograph abnormal. Clinical and laboratory examinations failed to reveal any possible associated aetiological factors. Six-month follow-up of 18 patients showed that subjective improvement of pain is associated with a return to normal of QSS results, often secondary to anti-inflammatory medication. It is concluded that sacroiliac disease may be a common cause for chronic low back pain in women and that its presence may be missed if radiographs are relied upon to confirm the diagnosis. Its aetiology remains obscure. PMID:6451204

  5. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-04-25

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

  6. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  7. Radionuclide migration as a function of mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-02-01

    The migration of radionuclides is studied as a function of mineralogy utilizing batch sorption and column experiments. The transport behavior of alkaline, alkaline-earth, and transition metals, and actinide species is studied in pure mineral separates. The solid phases utilized for these investigations are silicates, alumino-silicates, carbonates, and metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The results of this effort are utilized to aid in the elucidation of the dominant chemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration, the prediction of radionuclide transport in conditions similar to those expected at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the identification of materials that act as natural geological barriers or that can be utilized as strong sorbers in engineered barriers. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized.

  9. Folate-receptor-targeted radionuclide imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Mathias, Carla J; Green, Mark A

    2004-04-29

    The cell-membrane folate receptor is a potential molecular target for tumor-selective drug delivery, including delivery of radiolabeled folate-chelate conjugates for diagnostic imaging. This review surveys the growing literature on tumor imaging with radionuclide agents targeted to the folate receptor. Successful folate-receptor targeting has been reported, both in vitro and in vivo, using a variety of radionuclides that are suitable for clinical diagnostic imaging (67Ga, 111In, 99mTc, 66Ga, and 64Cu). While none of these agents has, to date, been demonstrated to have clinical efficacy as a diagnostic tool, existing data indicates that it is feasible to noninvasively assess (at least qualitatively) tissue folate receptor levels by external radionuclide imaging.

  10. Therapeutic Radionuclides: Biophysical and Radiobiologic Principles

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Amin I.

    2008-01-01

    Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are the same, there are significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation. In addition to the emission of particulate radiation, targeted radionuclide therapy is characterized by (i) extended exposures and, usually, declining dose rates; (ii) nonuniformities in the distribution of radioactivity and, thus, absorbed dose; and (iii) particles of varying ionization density and, hence, quality. This chapter explores the special features that distinguish the biologic effects consequent to the traversal of charged particles through mammalian cells. It also highlights what has been learned when these radionuclides and radiotargeting pharmaceuticals are used to treat cancers. PMID:18662557

  11. Peptide-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yubin; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) and melanin are two attractive melanoma-specific targets for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Radiolabeled peptides targeting MC1-R/melanin can selectively and specifically target cytotoxic radiation generated from therapeutic radionuclides to melanoma cells for cell killing, while sparing the normal tissues and organs. This review highlights the recent advances of peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma targeting MC1R and melanin. The promising therapeutic efficacies of 188Re-(Arg11)CCMSH (188Re-[Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]-α-MSH3-13), 177Lu- and 212Pb-labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-[ReO-(Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11)]-α-MSH3-13) and 188Re-HYNIC-4B4 (188Re-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr-Glu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Trp-His-Gly-Arg-His) in preclinical melanoma-bearing models demonstrate an optimistic outlook for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma will likely contribute in an adjuvant setting, once the primary tumor has been surgically removed, to treat metastatic deposits and for treatment of end-stage disease. The lack of effective treatments for metastatic melanoma and end stage disease underscores the necessity to develop and implement new treatment strategies, such as peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:18387816

  12. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  13. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  14. The Watchboy Radionuclide Detector Deployment and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dazeley, S.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N.

    2014-09-30

    The Watchboy detector was designed to measure the rate of radionuclide production in water created via muon spallation. The three primary nuclei of interest, 11Li, 8He and 9Li, can mimic an antineutrino induced inverse beta decay, producing a high energy beta particle in coincidence with a neutron. Their signature in Watchboy would be the passage of a muon through the target, followed some time later, characterized by the decay time of the radionuclide, by a beta and a neutron emitted in coincidence.

  15. On the lognormality of radionuclide deposition.

    PubMed

    Grubich, Andry

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the variation of soil density and the uncertainty of activity measurements on the statistical distribution of radionuclide concentrations on a site is considered. It is demonstrated that the influence of these factors adequately explains the observed deviation of radionuclide empirical probability distribution functions (empirical PDFs) from lognormal. In all probability lognormality of activity density distributions is the consequence of the atmospheric fallout process, as observed for deposition from Chernobyl and Fukushima. The results obtained are in no way specific to radioactive contaminants, and are consequently applicable for depositions of non-radioactive pollutants as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-04

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  17. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Velchik, M G

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable.

  18. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-10-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Radionuclide Therapies in Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kendi, A Tuba; Moncayo, Valeria M; Nye, Jonathon A; Galt, James R; Halkar, Raghuveer; Schuster, David M

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances and applications of radionuclide therapy. Individualized precision medicine, new treatments, and the evolving role of radionuclide therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.

    1999-01-26

    This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

  1. Secondary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions that affect your kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system. Secondary hypertension can also occur during pregnancy. Secondary ... blood pressure, such as kidney, artery, heart or endocrine system problems. Complications Secondary hypertension can worsen the underlying ...

  2. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  3. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  4. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  5. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  6. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  8. Secondary Schools in the States of Central America, South America, and the West Indies: Scholastic Scope and Standards. Bulletin, 1915, No. 26. Whole Number 653

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anna Tolman

    1915-01-01

    The States of Central America and South America are in the midst of an industrial development, which imparts new impulses to their educational activities. There is at once an awakened sense of the economic bearings of elementary or popular education and of the need of a readjustment of the work of the long-established secondary schools. Efforts in…

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  10. Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.

    PubMed

    Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

    1984-02-01

    Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively.

  11. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  12. REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

  13. REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

  14. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  15. Theranostic Applications of Lutetium-177 in Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 has been widely discussed as a radioisotope of choice for targeted radionuclide therapy. The simultaneous emission of imageable gamma photons [208 keV (11%) and 113 keV (6.4%)] along with particulate β(-) emission [β(max) = 497 keV] makes it a theranostically desirable radioisotope. In the present article, the possibility of using two 177Lu-based agents viz. 177Lu-EDTMP and 177Lu-DOTATATE for theranostic applications in metastatic bone pain palliation (MBPP) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), have been explored. In the case of 177Lu-EDTMP, the whole-body images obtained are compared with those recorded using 99mTc-MDP in the same patient. On the other hand, pre-therapy images acquired with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE are compared with similar images obtained with standard agents, such as 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC (SPECT) and 68Ga-DOTA-TOC (PET) in the same patient. The advantage of the long physical half-life (T1/2) of 177Lu has been utilized in mapping the pharmacokinetics of two additional agents, 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in radiation synovectomy of knee joints and 177Lu-HA for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of these multiple studies conclusively document the potential of 177Lu as a theranostic radioisotope.

  16. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  17. Radionuclides in radiation-induced bystander effect; may it share in radionuclide therapy?

    PubMed

    Widel, M

    2017-01-01

    For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect. These stress-induced and molecular signaling mediated phenomena appear in non-targeted cells as variety responses resembling that observed in directly hit cells. Bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial in dependence on dose, dose-rate, cell type, genetic status and experimental condition. Less is known about radionuclide-induced non-targeted effects in radionuclide therapy, although, based on characteristics of the radionuclide radiation, on experiments in vitro utilizing classical and 3-D cell cultures, and preclinical study on animals it seems obvious that exposure to radionuclide is accompanied by various bystander effects, mostly damaging, less often protective. This review summarizes existing data on radionuclide induced bystander effects comprising radionuclides emitting beta- and alpha-particles and Auger electrons used in tumor radiotherapy and diagnostics. So far, separation of the direct effect of radionuclide decay from crossfire and bystander effects in clinical targeted radionuclide therapy is impossible because of the lack of methods to assess whether, and to what extent bystander effect is involved in human organism. Considerations on this topic are also included.

  18. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  19. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides...

  20. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides...

  1. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides...

  2. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides...

  3. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides...

  4. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  5. Preparation, Practice, and Performance: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Standards-Based Instruction on Secondary Students' Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades proponents of educational reform have advocated the use of standards-based education in maths and science classrooms for improving teacher practices, increasing student learning, and raising the quality of maths and science instruction. This study empirically examined the impact of specific standards-based teacher…

  6. Quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--Part I. Quality assurance: development of secondary and working standards.

    PubMed

    Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2005-12-01

    International movement in animals and animal products has urged organisations like the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to draw up guidelines to regulate and facilitate trade between Member Countries. However, as the global market continues to grow, further standardisation and harmonisation of antibody detection assays for infectious diseases are needed, especially regarding the development and use of reference materials. For OIE notifiable diseases for which primary or international reference standards are available or under development, National or Regional Reference Laboratories are encouraged to establish their own secondary and/or working standards. This paper describes the development of standards for the foot and mouth disease (FMD) solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using positive serum obtained from calves vaccinated against the FMD virus. The procedure outlined in this manuscript can easily be extrapolated to similar serological assays and should lead to further international harmonisation of assays and test results.

  7. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  8. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  9. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process.

  10. Cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure in three UK nuclear industry workforces.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, L. M.; Higgins, C. D.; Douglas, A. J.; Maconochie, N. E.; Omar, R. Z.; Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Smith, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer mortality in 40,761 employees of three UK nuclear industry facilities who had been monitored for external radiation exposure was examined according to whether they had also been monitored for possible internal exposure to tritium, plutonium or other radionuclides (uranium, polonium, actinium or other unspecified). Death rates from cancer were compared both with national rates and with rates in radiation workers not monitored for exposure to any radionuclides. Among workers monitored for tritium exposure, overall cancer mortality was significantly below national rates [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 83, 165 deaths; 2P = 0.02] and none of the cancer-specific death rates was significantly above either the national average or rates in non-monitored workers. Although the overall death rate from cancer in workers monitored for plutonium exposure was also significantly low relative to national rates (SMR = 89, 581 deaths; 2P = 0.005), mortality from pleural cancer was significantly raised (SMR = 357, nine deaths; 2P = 0.002); none of the rates differed significantly from those of non-monitored workers. Workers monitored for radionuclides other than tritium or plutonium also had a death rate from all cancers combined that was below the national average (SMR = 86, 418 deaths; 2P = 0.002) but prostatic cancer mortality was raised both in relation to death rates in the general population (SMR = 153, 37 deaths; 2P = 0.02) and to death rates in radiation workers who had not been monitored for exposure to any radionuclide [rate ratio (RR) = 1.65; 2P = 0.03]. Mortality from cancer of the lung was also significantly increased in workers monitored for other radionuclides compared with those of radiation workers not monitored for exposure to radionuclides (RR = 1.31, 164 deaths; 2P = 0.01). For cancers of the lung, prostate and all cancers combined, death rates in monitored workers were examined according to the timing and duration of monitoring for radionuclide

  11. Radionuclide release calculations for selected severe accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R.S.; Leonard, M.T.; Cybulskis, P.; Lee, K.W.; Kelly, R.F.; Jordan, H.; Schumacher, P.M.; Curtis, L.A. )

    1990-08-01

    This report provides the results of source term calculations that were performed in support of the NUREG-1150 study. Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Power Plants.'' This is the sixth volume of a series of reports. It supplements results presented in the earlier volumes. Analyses were performed for three of the NUREG-1150 plants: Peach Bottom, a Mark I, boiling water reactor; Surry, a subatmospheric containment, pressurized water reactor; and Sequoyah, an ice condenser containment, pressurized water reactor. Complete source term results are presented for the following sequences: short term station blackout with failure of the ADS system in the Peach Bottom plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA for the Surry plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA in the Sequoyah plant; and a very small break with loss of ECC and spray recirculation in the Sequoyah plant. In addition, some partial analyses were performed which did not require running all of the modules of the Source Term Code Package. A series of MARCH3 analyses were performed for the Surry and Sequoyah plants to evaluate the effects of alternative emergency operating procedures involving primary and secondary depressurization on the progress of the accident. Only thermal-hydraulic results are provided for these analyses. In addition, three accident sequences were analyzed for the Surry plant for accident-induced failure of steam generator tubes. In these analyses, only the transport of radionuclides within the primary system and failed steam generator were examined. The release of radionuclides to the environment is presented for the phase of the accident preceding vessel meltthrough. 17 refs., 176 figs., 113 tabs.

  12. Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

  13. Importance of the Earth and space sciences in primary and secondary education: An endorsement of the AAAS benchmarks and NRC standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citizens require a solid understanding of the Earth and space sciences to address responsibly many of the issues confronting society, such as climate change, natural hazards, and resource availability. In the U.S., the only opportunity for most people to learn science in a formal setting occurs in grades K-12 (kindergarten through high school). In addition, a positive K-12 science experience may inspire young people to pursue the further study of science. As a community dedicated to advancing the understanding of Earth and space, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) is committed to effective science education in the primary and secondary grades.

  14. Radionuclide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Zabel, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past years, Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TAMS) has become established as an important method for radionuclide analysis. In the Arizona system the accelerator is operated at a thermal voltage of 1.8MV for C-14 analysis, and 1.6 to 2MV for Be-10. Samples are inserted into a cesium sputter ion source in solid form. Negative ions sputtered from the target are accelerated to about 25kV, and the injection magnet selects ions of a particular mass. Ions of the 3+ charge state, having an energy of about 9MeV are selected by an electrostatic deflector, surviving ions pass through two magnets, where only ions of the desired mass-energy product are selected. The final detector is a combination ionization chamber to measure energy loss (and hence, Z), and a silicon surface-barrier detector which measures residual energy. After counting the trace iosotope for a fixed time, the injected ions are switched to the major isotope used for normalization. These ions are deflected into a Faraday cup after the first high-energy magnet. Repeated measurements of the isotope ratio of both sample and standards results in a measurement of the concentration of the radionuclide. Recent improvements in sample preparation for C-14 make preparation of high-beam current graphite targets directly from CO2 feasible. Except for some measurements of standards and backgrounds for Be-10 measurements to date have been on C-14. Although most results have been in archaeology and quaternary geology, studies have been expanded to include cosmogenic C-14 in meteorites. The data obtained so far tend to confirm the antiquity of Antarctic meteorites from the Allan Hills site. Data on three samples of Yamato meteorites gave terrestrial ages of between about 3 and 22 thousand years.

  15. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  16. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  17. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  18. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  19. [Radionuclide therapy for bone metastases: new opportunities].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Kochetova, T Yu; Voloznev, L V

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with multiple bone metastases accompanied by pain syndrome is a complicated clinical task. Radionuclide therapy is one of its solutions, which is used to achieve long reduction of pain syndrome and significant improvement the quality of patients' life. However mechanism of action of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals suggests not only pain control but antitumor effect as well. In early clinical studies of safety and efficacy of the most common bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in single administration there were not any preferences in overall survival but individual clinical cases with extraordinary tumor regression after radionuclide therapy were reported. Repeated bone targeted therapy and combination with other treatment modalities can help to gain statistical significant increase in overall survival of patients.

  20. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  1. Cadastral valuation of lands polluted with radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, O. A.; Tsvetnov, E. V.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Romashkina, A. D.; Ermiyaev, Ya. R.

    2016-11-01

    The major method to correct the cadastral value of land for contamination with radionuclides is to reduce it by the sum of expenses necessary for land remediation and for special measures ensuring the obtaining of agricultural and forestry products satisfying safety norms. Lands contaminated with radionuclides and used in agriculture and forestry are often removed from the system of land taxation. In this case, their cadastral value becomes an excessive element of the state cadaster of real estate. An approach toward cadastral valuation of such lands suggested by the authors assumes the creation of a system of compensation payments as the main source of financing of land rehabilitation and soil conservation measures. An original system of calculation of such payments has been tested for radioactively contaminated lands in Plavsk district of Tula oblast. It is argued that compensation payments for radioactively contaminated agrocenoses should be higher than those for natural cenoses.

  2. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.; Scott, A.J.; Gurtisen, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river.

  3. Advances in radionuclide imaging of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kouranos, V; Wells, A U; Sharma, R; Underwood, S R; Wechalekar, K

    2015-09-01

    Radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis has advanced significantly in recent years. This article is based on published clinical guidelines, literature review and our collective clinical experience. Gallium-67 scintigraphy is among the diagnostic criteria for cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis, and it is strongly associated with response to treatment. However, fluorine-18, 2-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is now preferred both for diagnosis and for assessing prognosis. Most data are from small observational studies that are potentially biased. Quantitative imaging to assess changes in disease activity in response to treatment may lead to FDG-PET having an important routine role in managing cardiac sarcoidosis. Larger prospective studies are required, particularly to assess the effectiveness of radionuclide imaging in improving clinical management and outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  5. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk.

  6. Breast-Dedicated Radionuclide Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Hsu, David F C; Freese, David L; Levin, Craig S

    2016-02-01

    Breast-dedicated radionuclide imaging systems show promise for increasing clinical sensitivity for breast cancer while minimizing patient dose and cost. We present several breast-dedicated coincidence-photon and single-photon camera designs that have been described in the literature and examine their intrinsic performance, clinical relevance, and impact. Recent tracer development is mentioned, results from recent clinical tests are summarized, and potential areas for improvement are highlighted.

  7. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  8. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  9. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

  10. Targeted radionuclide therapies for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Da Silva, R; Gravekamp, C; Libutti, S K; Abraham, T; Dadachova, E

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic malignancies, the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths, have an aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, resulting in a 5-year survival rate of only 4%. It is typically a silent malignancy until patients develop metastatic disease. Targeted radionuclide therapies of cancer such as radiolabeled peptides, which bind to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells and radiolabeled antibodies to tumor-specific antigens provide a viable alternative to chemotherapy and external beam radiation of metastatic cancers. Multiple clinical trials of targeted radionuclide therapy of pancreatic cancer have been performed in the last decade and demonstrated safety and potential efficacy of radionuclide therapy for treatment of this formidable disease. Although a lot of progress has been made in treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled (90)Y and (177)Lu somatostatin peptide analogs, pancreatic adenocarcinomas remain a major challenge. Novel approaches such as peptides and antibodies radiolabeled with alpha emitters, pre-targeting, bispecific antibodies and biological therapy based on the radioactive tumorlytic bacteria might offer a potential breakthrough in treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

  11. [Biosorption of Radionuclide Uranium by Deinococcus radiodurans].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Dong, Fa-qin; Dai, Qun-wei; Liu, Ming-xue; Nie, Xiao-qin; Zhang, Dong; Ma, Jia-lin; Zhou, Xian

    2015-04-01

    As a biological adsorbent, Living Deinococcus radiodurans was used for removing radionuclide uranium in the aqueous solution. The effect factors on biosorption of radionuclide uranium were researched in the present paper, including solution pH values and initial uranium concentration. Meanwhile, the biosorption mechanism was researched by the method of FTIR and SEM/EDS. The results show that the optimum conditions for biosorption are as follows: pH = 5, co = 100 mg · L(-1) and the maximum biosorption capacity is up to 240 mgU · g(-1). According to the SEM results and EDXS analysis, it is indicated that the cell surface is attached by lots of sheet uranium crystals, and the main biosorpiton way of uranium is the ion exchange or surface complexation. Comparing FTIR spectra and FTIR fitting spectra before and after biosorption, we can find that the whole spectra has a certain change, particularly active groups (such as amide groups of the protein, hydroxy, carboxyl and phosphate group) are involved in the biosorption process. Then, there is a new peak at 906 cm(-1) and it is a stretching vibration peak of UO2(2+). Obviously, it is possible that as an anti radiation microorganism, Deinococcus radiodurans could be used for removing radionuclide uranium in radiation environment.

  12. Fungi and ionizing radiation from radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Dighton, John; Tugay, Tatyana; Zhdanova, Nelli

    2008-04-01

    Radionuclides in the environment are one of the major concerns to human health and ecotoxicology. The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant renewed interest in the role played by fungi in mediating radionuclide movement in ecosystems. As a result of these studies, our knowledge of the importance of fungi, especially in their mycorrhizal habit, in long-term accumulation of radionuclides, transfer up the food chain and regulation of accumulation by their host plants was increased. Micro-fungi have been found to be highly resilient to exposure to ionizing radiation, with fungi having been isolated from within and around the Chernobyl plant. Radioresistance of some fungal species has been linked to the presence of melanin, which has been shown to have emerging properties of acting as an energy transporter for metabolism and has been implicated in enhancing hyphal growth and directed growth of sensitized hyphae towards sources of radiation. Using this recently acquired knowledge, we may be in a better position to suggest the use of fungi in bioremediation of radioactively contaminated sites and cleanup of industrial effluent.

  13. Nuclear Melt Glass Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation at 40 to 200C

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M; Roberts, S; Viani, B; Pawloski, G; Rose, T

    2004-06-14

    Most long-lived radionuclides associated with an underground nuclear test are initially incorporated into melt glass and become part of the hydrologic source term (HST) only upon their release via glass dissolution (Pawloski et al., 2001). As the melt glass dissolves, secondary minerals precipitate. The types of secondary minerals that precipitate influence the water chemistry in and around the melt glass. The secondary minerals also provide a sorption sink to the released radionuclides. The changing water chemistry affects the rate of glass dissolution; it also affects the sorption behavior of the released radionuclides. This complex nature of glass dissolution and its important role in defining the HST requires a thorough understanding of glass dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation. The identity of secondary minerals formed at temperatures from 40 to 200 C are evaluated in this report to assist in that understanding.

  14. Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1981-04-01

    The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

  15. Fukushima's forgotten radionuclides: a review of the understudied radioactive emissions.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg

    2014-05-06

    In environmental monitoring campaigns for anthropogenic radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), most focus had been on gamma-emitting radionuclides. More than 99% of the released activity was due to radionuclides of the elements Kr, Te, I, Xe, and Cs. However, little work had been done on the monitoring of radionuclides other than (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, and (137)Cs. Radionuclides such as those of less volatile elements (e.g., (89)Sr, (90)Sr, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, plutonium), pure beta-emitters ((3)H, (14)C, (35)S), gaseous radionuclides ((85)Kr, (133)Xe, (135)Xe) or radionuclides with very long half-lives (e.g., (36)Cl, (99)Tc, (129)I, some actinides such as (236)U) have been understudied by comparison. In this review, we summarize previous monitoring work on these "orphan" radionuclides in various environmental media and outline further challenges for future monitoring campaigns. Some of the understudied radionuclides are of radiological concern, others are promising tracers for environmental, geochemical processes such as oceanic mixing. Unfortunately, the shorter-lived nuclides of radioxenon, (103)Ru, (89)Sr and (35)S will no longer exhibit detectable activities in the environment. Activity concentrations of other radionuclides such as tritium, (14)C, or (85)Kr will become blurred in the significant background of previous releases (nuclear explosions and previous accidents). Isotope ratios such as (240)Pu/(239)Pu will allow for the identification of Fukushima plutonium despite the plutonium background.

  16. Environmental impact of radionuclide migration in groundwater from a low-intermediate level radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Wang, J S; Yang, Z F; Li, S S; Wang, Z M

    2001-04-01

    The radionuclide migration from a certain Chinese repository with low-intermediate level radioactive solid waste is studied. The migration in groundwater is analyzed and computed in detail. Under presumption of normal releasing, or the bottom of the repository has been marinated for one month with precipitation reaching 600 mm once and a 6 m aerated zone exists, a prediction for 7 radionuclides is conducted. It shows that the aerated zone is the primary barrier for migration. The migration for radionuclides 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, 63Ni, etc. will be retarded in it within 500 years. The concentration of 239Pu will be decreased by amount of 6 order. Only 3H and 14C can migrate through the aerated zone. The radionuclides that go through the aerated zone and enter the aquifer will exist in spring, stream and sea. Based on this, the intake dose by residents in different age group resulting from drinking contaminated spring water, eating seafood is calculated. The results showed that the impact of the repository to the key resident group is lower than the limit in national repository regulation standard. This complies with the repository management target.

  17. Cardiac Radionuclide Imaging in Rodents: A Review of Methods, Results, and Factors at Play

    PubMed Central

    Cicone, Francesco; Viertl, David; Quintela Pousa, Ana Maria; Denoël, Thibaut; Gnesin, Silvano; Scopinaro, Francesco; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Prior, John O.

    2017-01-01

    The interest around small-animal cardiac radionuclide imaging is growing as rodent models can be manipulated to allow the simulation of human diseases. In addition to new radiopharmaceuticals testing, often researchers apply well-established probes to animal models, to follow the evolution of the target disease. This reverse translation of standard radiopharmaceuticals to rodent models is complicated by technical shortcomings and by obvious differences between human and rodent cardiac physiology. In addition, radionuclide studies involving small animals are affected by several extrinsic variables, such as the choice of anesthetic. In this paper, we review the major cardiac features that can be studied with classical single-photon and positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, namely, cardiac function, perfusion and metabolism, as well as the results and pitfalls of small-animal radionuclide imaging techniques. In addition, we provide a concise guide to the understanding of the most frequently used anesthetics such as ketamine/xylazine, isoflurane, and pentobarbital. We address in particular their mechanisms of action and the potential effects on radionuclide imaging. Indeed, cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism can all be significantly affected by varying anesthetics and animal handling conditions. PMID:28424774

  18. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

  19. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. XVI. Improved Accuracy in the Infrared Spectra of the Secondary and Tertiary Standard Calibration Stars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Paper XIII) E created template spectra for faint standards to calibrate the Infra- .9 red Array Camera ( IRAC ) on Spitzer. In their calibration of... IRAC , a . Reach et al. (2005) noted a systematic 5%-7% difference between ’a the camera calibration against the A stars compared to that from - the K

  20. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DIEDIKER, L.P.

    1999-06-15

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event