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Sample records for secondary wall formation

  1. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications. PMID:24098302

  2. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  3. Formation of wood secondary cell wall may involve two type cellulose synthase complexes in Populus.

    PubMed

    Xi, Wang; Song, Dongliang; Sun, Jiayan; Shen, Junhui; Li, Laigeng

    2017-03-01

    Cellulose biosynthesis is mediated by cellulose synthases (CesAs), which constitute into rosette-like cellulose synthase complexe (CSC) on the plasma membrane. Two types of CSCs in Arabidopsis are believed to be involved in cellulose synthesis in the primary cell wall and secondary cell walls, respectively. In this work, we found that the two type CSCs participated cellulose biosynthesis in differentiating xylem cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening in Populus. During the cell wall thickening process, expression of one type CSC genes increased while expression of the other type CSC genes decreased. Suppression of different type CSC genes both affected the wall-thickening and disrupted the multilaminar structure of the secondary cell walls. When CesA7A was suppressed, crystalline cellulose content was reduced, which, however, showed an increase when CesA3D was suppressed. The CesA suppression also affected cellulose digestibility of the wood cell walls. The results suggest that two type CSCs are involved in coordinating the cellulose biosynthesis in formation of the multilaminar structure in Populus wood secondary cell walls.

  4. Impairment of Cellulose Synthases Required for Arabidopsis Secondary Cell Wall Formation Enhances Disease Resistance[W

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Blanco, Camilo; Feng, Dong Xin; Hu, Jian; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Deslandes, Laurent; Llorente, Francisco; Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Keller, Harald; Barlet, Xavier; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Anderson, Lisa K.; Somerville, Shauna; Marco, Yves; Molina, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthases (CESAs) contained in plasma membrane–localized complexes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three types of CESA subunits (CESA4/IRREGULAR XYLEM5 [IRX5], CESA7/IRX3, and CESA8/IRX1) are required for secondary cell wall formation. We report that mutations in these proteins conferred enhanced resistance to the soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. By contrast, susceptibility to these pathogens was not altered in cell wall mutants of primary wall CESA subunits (CESA1, CESA3/ISOXABEN RESISTANT1 [IXR1], and CESA6/IXR2) or POWDERY MILDEW–RESISTANT5 (PMR5) and PMR6 genes. Double mutants indicated that irx-mediated resistance was independent of salicylic acid, ethylene, and jasmonate signaling. Comparative transcriptomic analyses identified a set of common irx upregulated genes, including a number of abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive, defense-related genes encoding antibiotic peptides and enzymes involved in the synthesis and activation of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. These data as well as the increased susceptibility of ABA mutants (abi1-1, abi2-1, and aba1-6) to R. solanacearum support a direct role of ABA in resistance to this pathogen. Our results also indicate that alteration of secondary cell wall integrity by inhibiting cellulose synthesis leads to specific activation of novel defense pathways that contribute to the generation of an antimicrobial-enriched environment hostile to pathogens. PMID:17351116

  5. Spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wei; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; ...

    2016-02-02

    Among the R2R3 MYB transcription factors that involve in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis, MYB46 alone is sufficient to induce the entire secondary cell wall biosynthesis program. PtrMYB021, the poplar homolog of MYB46, has been reported to regulate secondary cell wall formation when expressed in Arabidopsis. We report here that spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 is critical for its function in regulating secondary cell wall formation. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that PtrMYB021 was expressed primarily in xylem tissues. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of PtrCesA8, but not the 35S promoter,more » PtrMYB021 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification as well as changes in cell wall carbohydrate composition. Consistent with this, elevated expression of lignin and cellulose biosynthetic genes were observed in the transgenic plants. Finally, when expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts as fusion proteins to the Gal4 DNA binding domain, PtrMYB021 activated the reporter gene Gal4-GUS. In summary, our results suggest that PtrMYB021 is a transcriptional activator, and spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 in Arabidopsis regulates secondary cell wall formation by activating a subset of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.« less

  6. Spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Douglas, Carl J.; Wang, Shucai

    2016-02-02

    Among the R2R3 MYB transcription factors that involve in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis, MYB46 alone is sufficient to induce the entire secondary cell wall biosynthesis program. PtrMYB021, the poplar homolog of MYB46, has been reported to regulate secondary cell wall formation when expressed in Arabidopsis. We report here that spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 is critical for its function in regulating secondary cell wall formation. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that PtrMYB021 was expressed primarily in xylem tissues. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of PtrCesA8, but not the 35S promoter, PtrMYB021 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification as well as changes in cell wall carbohydrate composition. Consistent with this, elevated expression of lignin and cellulose biosynthetic genes were observed in the transgenic plants. Finally, when expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts as fusion proteins to the Gal4 DNA binding domain, PtrMYB021 activated the reporter gene Gal4-GUS. In summary, our results suggest that PtrMYB021 is a transcriptional activator, and spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 in Arabidopsis regulates secondary cell wall formation by activating a subset of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  7. Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN21, is a tonoplast-localized protein required for secondary wall formation in fibers.

    PubMed

    Ranocha, Philippe; Denancé, Nicolas; Vanholme, Ruben; Freydier, Amandine; Martinez, Yves; Hoffmann, Laurent; Köhler, Lothar; Pouzet, Cécile; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Sundberg, Björn; Boerjan, Wout; Goffner, Deborah

    2010-08-01

    By combining Zinnia elegans in vitro tracheary element genomics with reverse genetics in Arabidopsis, we have identified a new upstream component of secondary wall formation in xylary and interfascicular fibers. Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN 21 (MtN21), encodes a plant-specific, predicted integral membrane protein, and is a member of the plant drug/metabolite exporter (P-DME) family (transporter classification number: TC 2.A.7.3). Although WAT1 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the plant, its expression is preferentially associated with vascular tissues, including developing xylem vessels and fibers. WAT1:GFP fusion protein analysis demonstrated that WAT1 is localized to the tonoplast. Analysis of wat1 mutants revealed two cell wall-related phenotypes in stems: a defect in cell elongation, resulting in a dwarfed habit and little to no secondary cell walls in fibers. Secondary walls of vessel elements were unaffected by the mutation. The secondary wall phenotype was supported by comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of wat1 and wild-type stems, as many transcripts and metabolites involved in secondary wall formation were reduced in abundance. Unexpectedly, these experiments also revealed a modification in tryptophan (Trp) and auxin metabolism that might contribute to the wat1 phenotype. Together, our data demonstrate an essential role for the WAT1 tonoplast protein in the control of secondary cell wall formation in fibers. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Dissection of the Transcriptional Program Regulating Secondary Wall Biosynthesis during Wood Formation in Poplar1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ruiqin; McCarthy, Ryan L.; Lee, Chanhui; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Wood biomass is mainly made of secondary cell walls; hence, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation will be instrumental to design strategies for genetic improvement of wood biomass. Here, we provide direct evidence demonstrating that the poplar (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factors (PtrWNDs) are master switches activating a suite of downstream transcription factors, and together, they are involved in the coordinated regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation. We show that transgenic poplar plants with dominant repression of PtrWNDs functions exhibit a drastic reduction in secondary wall thickening in woody cells, and those with PtrWND overexpression result in ectopic deposition of secondary walls. Analysis of PtrWND2B overexpressors revealed up-regulation of the expression of a number of wood-associated transcription factors, the promoters of which were also activated by PtrWND6B and the Eucalyptus EgWND1. Transactivation analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that PtrWNDs and EgWND1 activated gene expression through direct binding to the secondary wall NAC-binding elements, which are present in the promoters of several wood-associated transcription factors and a number of genes involved in secondary wall biosynthesis and modification. The WND-regulated transcription factors PtrNAC150, PtrNAC156, PtrNAC157, PtrMYB18, PtrMYB74, PtrMYB75, PtrMYB121, PtrMYB128, PtrZF1, and PtrGATA8 were able to activate the promoter activities of the biosynthetic genes for all three major wood components. Our study has uncovered that the WND master switches together with a battery of their downstream transcription factors form a transcriptional network controlling secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation. PMID:21908685

  9. An arabinogalactan protein associated with secondary cell wall formation in differentiating xylem of loblolly pine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Brown, Garth; Whetten, Ross; Loopstra, Carol A; Neale, David; Kieliszewski, Marcia J; Sederoff, Ronald R

    2003-05-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are abundant plant proteoglycans implicated in plant growth and development. Here, we report the genetic characterization, partial purification and immunolocalization of a classical AGP (PtaAGP6, accession number AF101785) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). A PtaAGP6 full-length cDNA clone was expressed in bacteria. PtaAGP6 resembles tomato LeAGP-1 and Arabidopsis AtAGP17-19 in that they all possess a subdomain composed of basic amino acids. The accessibility of this domain in the glycoprotein makes it possible to label the PtaAGP6 epitopes on the cell surface or in the cell wall with polyclonal antibodies raised against this subdomain. The antibodies recognize the peptide of the basic subdomain and bind to the intact protein molecule. A soluble protein-containing fraction was purified from the differentiating xylem of pine trees by using beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (beta-glcY) and was recognized by antibodies against the basic subdomain. Immunolocalization studies showed that the PtaAGP6 epitopes are restricted to a file of cells that just precede secondary cell wall thickening, suggesting roles in xylem differentiation and wood formation. The location of apparent labeling of the PtaAGP6 epitopes is separated from the location of lignin deposition. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in EST variants. Denaturing HPLC analysis of PCR products suggests that PtaAGP6 is encoded by a single gene. Mobility variation in denaturing gel electrophoresis was used to map PtaAGP6 SNPs to a site on linkage group 5.

  10. MYB75 functions in regulation of secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Apurva; Mansfield, Shawn D; Hall, Hardy C; Douglas, Carl J; Ellis, Brian E

    2010-11-01

    Deposition of lignified secondary cell walls in plants involves a major commitment of carbon skeletons in both the form of polysaccharides and phenylpropanoid constituents. This process is spatially and temporally regulated by transcription factors, including a number of MYB family transcription factors. MYB75, also called PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1, is a known regulator of the anthocyanin branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but how this regulation might impact other aspects of carbon metabolism is unclear. We established that a loss-of-function mutation in MYB75 (myb75-1) results in increased cell wall thickness in xylary and interfascicular fibers within the inflorescence stem. The total lignin content and S/G ratio of the lignin monomers were also affected. Transcript profiles from the myb75-1 inflorescence stem revealed marked up-regulation in the expression of a suite of genes associated with lignin biosynthesis and cellulose deposition, as well as cell wall modifying proteins and genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon assimilation. These patterns suggest that MYB75 acts as a repressor of the lignin branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Since MYB75 physically interacts with another secondary cell wall regulator, the KNOX transcription factor KNAT7, these regulatory proteins may form functional complexes that contribute to the regulation of secondary cell wall deposition in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and that integrate the metabolic flux through the lignin, flavonoid, and polysaccharide pathways.

  11. The dual functions of WLIM1a in cell elongation and secondary wall formation in developing cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-11-01

    LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase-box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits.

  12. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-mediated functional characterization of two genes involved in lignocellulosic secondary cell wall formation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shashank K; Nookaraju, Akula; Fujino, Takeshi; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P

    2016-11-01

    Functional characterization of two tobacco genes, one involved in xylan synthesis and the other, a positive regulator of secondary cell wall formation, is reported. Lignocellulosic secondary cell walls (SCW) provide essential plant materials for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Therefore, thorough understanding of the process of SCW formation in plants is beneficial for efficient bioethanol production. Recently, we provided the first proof-of-concept for using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach for rapid functional characterization of nine genes involved in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin synthesis during SCW formation. Here, we report VIGS-mediated functional characterization of two tobacco genes involved in SCW formation. Stems of VIGS plants silenced for both selected genes showed increased amount of xylem formation but thinner cell walls than controls. These results were further confirmed by production of stable transgenic tobacco plants manipulated in expression of these genes. Stems of stable transgenic tobacco plants silenced for these two genes showed increased xylem proliferation with thinner walls, whereas transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing these two genes showed increased fiber cell wall thickness but no change in xylem proliferation. These two selected genes were later identified as possible members of DUF579 family involved in xylan synthesis and KNAT7 transcription factor family involved in positive regulation of SCW formation, respectively. Glycome analyses of cell walls showed increased polysaccharide extractability in 1 M KOH extracts of both VIGS-NbDUF579 and VIGS-NbKNAT7 lines suggestive of cell wall loosening. Also, VIGS-NbDUF579 and VIGS-NbKNAT7 lines showed increased saccharification rates (74.5 and 40 % higher than controls, respectively). All these properties are highly desirable for producing higher quantities of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials of bioenergy plants.

  13. NAC transcription factors, NST1 and NST3, are key regulators of the formation of secondary walls in woody tissues of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Iwase, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masato; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Wood is formed by the successive addition of secondary xylem, which consists of cells with a conspicuously thickened secondary wall composed mainly of lignin and cellulose. Several genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis have been characterized, but the factors that regulate the formation of secondary walls in woody tissues remain to be identified. In this study, we show that plant-specific transcription factors, designated NAC SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTOR1 (NST1) and NST3, are key regulators of the formation of secondary walls in woody tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana. In nst1-1 nst3-1 double knockout plants, the secondary wall thickenings in interfascicular fibers and secondary xylem, except for vascular vessels, were completely suppressed without affecting formation of cells destined to be woody tissues. Conversely, as shown previously for NST1, overexpression of NST3 induced ectopic secondary wall thickenings in various aboveground tissues. Furthermore, the expression of chimeric repressors derived from NST1 and NST3 suppressed secondary wall thickenings in the presumptive interfascicular fibers. Because putative orthologs of NST1 and NST3 are present in the genome of poplar, our results suggest that they are also key regulators of the formation of secondary walls in woody plants and could be used as a tool for the genetic engineering of wood and its derivatives.

  14. Characterization of xylan in the early stages of secondary cell wall formation in tobacco bright yellow-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tadashi; Matsuoka, Keita; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakano, Yoshimi; Ohtani, Misato; Demura, Taku; Iwai, Hiroaki; Satoh, Shinobu

    2017-11-15

    The major polysaccharides present in the primary and secondary walls surrounding plant cells have been well characterized. However, our knowledge of the early stages of secondary wall formation is limited. To address this, cell walls were isolated from differentiating xylem vessel elements of tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells induced by VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7). The walls of induced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells consisted of cellulose, pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and contained more xylan and cellulose compared with non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells. A reducing end sequence of xylan containing rhamnose and galaturonic acid- residues is present in the walls of induced, uninduced, and non-transformed BY-2 cells. Glucuronic acid residues in xylan from walls of induced cells are O-methylated, while those of xylan in non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced cells are not. Our results show that xylan changes in chemical structure and amounts during the early stages of xylem differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of chamber wall loss of gaseous organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol formation: explicit modeling of SOA formation from alkane and alkene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Y. S.; Camredon, M.; Ziemann, P. J.; Valorso, R.; Matsunaga, A.; Lannuque, V.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that low volatility gas-phase species can be lost onto the smog chamber wall surfaces. Although this loss of organic vapors to walls could be substantial during experiments, its effect on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been well characterized and quantified yet. Here the potential impact of chamber walls on the loss of gaseous organic species and SOA formation has been explored using the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of the Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) modeling tool, which explicitly represents SOA formation and gas-wall partitioning. The model was compared with 41 smog chamber experiments of SOA formation under OH oxidation of alkane and alkene series (linear, cyclic and C12-branched alkanes and terminal, internal and 2-methyl alkenes with 7 to 17 carbon atoms) under high NOx conditions. Simulated trends match observed trends within and between homologous series. The loss of organic vapors to the chamber walls is found to affect SOA yields as well as the composition of the gas and the particle phases. Simulated distributions of the species in various phases suggest that nitrates, hydroxynitrates and carbonylesters could substantially be lost onto walls. The extent of this process depends on the rate of gas-wall mass transfer, the vapor pressure of the species and the duration of the experiments. This work suggests that SOA yields inferred from chamber experiments could be underestimated up a factor of 2 due to the loss of organic vapors to chamber walls.

  16. Impact of chamber wall loss of gaseous organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol formation: explicit modeling of SOA formation from alkane and alkene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Y. S.; Camredon, M.; Ziemann, P. J.; Valorso, R.; Matsunaga, A.; Lannuque, V.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that low volatility gas-phase species can be lost onto the smog chamber wall surfaces. Although this loss of organic vapors to walls could be substantial during experiments, its effect on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been well characterized and quantified yet. Here the potential impact of chamber walls on the loss of gaseous organic species and SOA formation has been explored using the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of the Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) modeling tool which explicitly represents SOA formation and gas/wall partitioning. The model was compared with 41 smog chamber experiments of SOA formation under OH oxidation of alkane and alkene series (linear, cyclic and C12-branched alkanes and terminal, internal and 2-methyl alkenes with 7 to 17 carbon atoms) under high NOx conditions. Simulated trends match observed trends within and between homologous series. The loss of organic vapors to the chamber walls is found to affect SOA yields as well as the composition of the gas and the particle phases. Simulated distributions of the species in various phases suggest that nitrates, hydroxynitrates and carbonylesters could substantially be lost onto walls. The extent of this process depends on the rate of gas/wall mass transfer, the vapor pressure of the species and the duration of the experiments. This work suggests that SOA yields inferred from chamber experiments could be underestimated up to 0.35 yield unit due to the loss of organic vapors to chamber walls.

  17. Rice BRITTLE CULM 5 (BRITTLE NODE) is Involved in Secondary Cell Wall Formation in the Sclerenchyma Tissue of Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Aohara, Tsutomu; Kotake, Toshihisa; Kaneko, Yasuko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Several brittle culm (bc) mutants known in grasses are considered excellent materials to study the process of secondary cell wall formation. The brittle phenotype of the rice bc5 (brittle node) mutant appears exclusively in the developed nodes, which is distinct from other bc mutants (bc1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7) that show the brittle phenotype in culms and leaves. To address the defects of the rice bc5 mutant in node-specific cell wall formation, we analyzed tissue morphology and cell wall composition. The bc5 mutation was found to affect the cell wall deposition of node sclerenchyma tissues at 1 week after heading, the stage at which the cell wall sugar content is reduced, in the bc5 nodes, compared with wild-type nodes. Moreover, decreased accumulation of lignin and thickness of cell walls in the sclerenchyma tissues were also observed in the bc5 nodes. The amounts of cellulose and hemicellulose were reduced to 53 and 65% of those in the wild-type plants, respectively. Sugar composition and glycosidic linkage analyses of the hemicellulose showed that the accumulation of glucuronosyl arabinoxylan in bc5 nodes was perturbed by the mutation. The bc5 locus was narrowed to an approximately 3.1 Mb region of chromosome 2, where none of the other bc genes is located. The bc5 mutation appeared to reduce the expression levels of the OsCesA genes in the nodes after heading. The results indicate that the BC5 gene regulates the development of secondary cell walls of node sclerenchyma tissues. PMID:19812064

  18. Virus-induced gene silencing of P23k in barley leaf reveals morphological changes involved in secondary wall formation.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Ai; Rahman, Abidur; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Taira, Hideharu; Kidou, Shin-Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    P23k is a monocot-unique protein that is highly expressed in the scutellum of germinating barley seed. Previous expression analyses suggested that P23k is involved in sugar translocation and/or sugar metabolism. However, the role of P23k in barley physiology remains unclear. Here, to elucidate its physiological function, BSMV-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of P23k in barley leaves was performed. Expression and localization analyses of P23k mRNA in barley leaves showed up-regulation of P23k transcript with increased photosynthetic activity and the localization of these transcripts to the vascular bundles and sclerenchyma, where secondary wall formation is most active. VIGS of the P23k gene led to abnormal leaf development, asymmetric orientation of main veins, and cracked leaf edges caused by mechanical weakness. In addition, histochemical analyses indicated that the distribution of P23k in leaves coincides with the distribution of cell wall polysaccharides. Considering these results together, it is proposed that P23k is involved in the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides and contributes to secondary wall formation in barley leaves.

  19. BRITTLE SHEATH1 encoding OsCYP96B4 is involved in secondary cell wall formation in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaole; Cheng, Zhijun; Zhao, Zhichao; Gan, Lu; Qin, Ruizhen; Zhou, Kunneng; Ma, Weiwei; Zhang, Baocai; Wang, Jiulin; Zhai, Huqu; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    Mutation of BSH1 leads to brittle sheath phenotype and reduction of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives in wax. The cell wall plays an important role in plant mechanical strength. Several brittle culm mutants have been identified and characterized in rice. Here, we characterized an anther culture-derived rice brittle sheath mutant, named bsh1 and isolated BSH1 via map-based strategy. BSH1 encodes OsCYP96B4 protein, which was localized on ER membrane in the protoplast transient assay. BSH1 is mainly expressed in developing vascular tissues and the cells in which cell wall secondary thickening is occurring. Mutation in bsh1 causes changes in cell wall composition by affecting the expression of cell wall-related genes. Moreover, bsh1 shows reduced amounts of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives in wax rather than the medium-chain fatty acids. In summary, BSH1 functions mainly in secondary cell wall formation, and probably in wax biosynthesis in an unidentified mechanism.

  20. Impact of chamber wall loss of gaseous organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol formation: Explicit modeling of SOA formation from alkane and alkene oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    La, Y. S.; Camredon, M.; Ziemann, P. J.; ...

    2016-02-08

    Recent studies have shown that low volatility gas-phase species can be lost onto the smog chamber wall surfaces. Although this loss of organic vapors to walls could be substantial during experiments, its effect on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been well characterized and quantified yet. Here the potential impact of chamber walls on the loss of gaseous organic species and SOA formation has been explored using the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of the Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) modeling tool, which explicitly represents SOA formation and gas–wall partitioning. The model was compared with 41 smog chambermore » experiments of SOA formation under OH oxidation of alkane and alkene series (linear, cyclic and C12-branched alkanes and terminal, internal and 2-methyl alkenes with 7 to 17 carbon atoms) under high NOx conditions. Simulated trends match observed trends within and between homologous series. The loss of organic vapors to the chamber walls is found to affect SOA yields as well as the composition of the gas and the particle phases. Simulated distributions of the species in various phases suggest that nitrates, hydroxynitrates and carbonylesters could substantially be lost onto walls. The extent of this process depends on the rate of gas–wall mass transfer, the vapor pressure of the species and the duration of the experiments. Furthermore, this work suggests that SOA yields inferred from chamber experiments could be underestimated up a factor of 2 due to the loss of organic vapors to chamber walls.« less

  1. Impact of chamber wall loss of gaseous organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol formation: Explicit modeling of SOA formation from alkane and alkene oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    La, Y. S.; Camredon, M.; Ziemann, P. J.; Valorso, R.; Matsunaga, A.; Lannuque, V.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.

    2016-02-08

    Recent studies have shown that low volatility gas-phase species can be lost onto the smog chamber wall surfaces. Although this loss of organic vapors to walls could be substantial during experiments, its effect on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been well characterized and quantified yet. Here the potential impact of chamber walls on the loss of gaseous organic species and SOA formation has been explored using the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of the Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) modeling tool, which explicitly represents SOA formation and gas–wall partitioning. The model was compared with 41 smog chamber experiments of SOA formation under OH oxidation of alkane and alkene series (linear, cyclic and C12-branched alkanes and terminal, internal and 2-methyl alkenes with 7 to 17 carbon atoms) under high NOx conditions. Simulated trends match observed trends within and between homologous series. The loss of organic vapors to the chamber walls is found to affect SOA yields as well as the composition of the gas and the particle phases. Simulated distributions of the species in various phases suggest that nitrates, hydroxynitrates and carbonylesters could substantially be lost onto walls. The extent of this process depends on the rate of gas–wall mass transfer, the vapor pressure of the species and the duration of the experiments. Furthermore, this work suggests that SOA yields inferred from chamber experiments could be underestimated up a factor of 2 due to the loss of organic vapors to chamber walls.

  2. Graft union formation in grapevine induces transcriptional changes related to cell wall modification, wounding, hormone signalling, and secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Sarah Jane; Clemente Moreno, Maria José; Hevin, Cyril; Nyamba Mendome, Larissa Zita; Delrot, Serge; Trossat-Magnin, Claudine; Ollat, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Grafting is particularly important to the cultivation of perennial crops such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera) because rootstocks can provide resistance to soil-borne pests and diseases as well as improve tolerance to some abiotic stresses. Successful grafting is a complex biochemical and structural process beginning with the adhesion of the two grafted partners, followed by callus formation and the establishment of a functional vascular system. At the molecular level, the sequence of events underlying graft union formation remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the transcriptome of grapevine rootstock and graft interface tissues sampled 3 d and 28 d after grafting of over-wintering stems in the spring. Many genes were differentially expressed over time, from 3 d to 28 d after grafting, which could be related to the activation of stem growth and metabolic activity in the spring. This hypothesis is supported by the up-regulation of many genes associated with cell wall synthesis, and phloem and xylem development. Generally, there was an up-regulation of gene expression in the graft interface tissue compared with the rootstock, particularly genes involved in cell wall synthesis, secondary metabolism, and signalling. Although there was overlap between the genes differentially expressed over time (from 3 d to 28 d after grafting) with the gene differentially expressed between the rootstock and the graft interface, numerous graft interface-specific genes were identified. PMID:23698628

  3. Graft union formation in grapevine induces transcriptional changes related to cell wall modification, wounding, hormone signalling, and secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Sarah Jane; Clemente Moreno, Maria José; Hevin, Cyril; Nyamba Mendome, Larissa Zita; Delrot, Serge; Trossat-Magnin, Claudine; Ollat, Nathalie

    2013-07-01

    Grafting is particularly important to the cultivation of perennial crops such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera) because rootstocks can provide resistance to soil-borne pests and diseases as well as improve tolerance to some abiotic stresses. Successful grafting is a complex biochemical and structural process beginning with the adhesion of the two grafted partners, followed by callus formation and the establishment of a functional vascular system. At the molecular level, the sequence of events underlying graft union formation remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the transcriptome of grapevine rootstock and graft interface tissues sampled 3 d and 28 d after grafting of over-wintering stems in the spring. Many genes were differentially expressed over time, from 3 d to 28 d after grafting, which could be related to the activation of stem growth and metabolic activity in the spring. This hypothesis is supported by the up-regulation of many genes associated with cell wall synthesis, and phloem and xylem development. Generally, there was an up-regulation of gene expression in the graft interface tissue compared with the rootstock, particularly genes involved in cell wall synthesis, secondary metabolism, and signalling. Although there was overlap between the genes differentially expressed over time (from 3 d to 28 d after grafting) with the gene differentially expressed between the rootstock and the graft interface, numerous graft interface-specific genes were identified.

  4. PtoMYB92 is a Transcriptional Activator of the Lignin Biosynthetic Pathway During Secondary Cell Wall Formation in Populus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaofeng; Wang, Xianqiang; Ran, Lingyu; Tian, Qiaoyan; Fan, Di; Luo, Keming

    2015-12-01

    Wood is the most abundant biomass in perennial woody plants and is mainly made up of secondary cell wall. R2R3-MYB transcription factors are important regulators of secondary wall biosynthesis in plants. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of a poplar MYB transcription factor PtoMYB92, a homolog of Arabidopsis MYB42 and MYB85, which is involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. PtoMYB92 is specifically expressed in xylem tissue in poplar. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation analysis suggest that PtoMYB92 is a nuclear-localized transcriptional activator. Overexpression of PtoMYB92 in poplar resulted in an increase in secondary cell wall thickness in stems and ectopic deposition of lignin in leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that PtoMYB92 specifically activated the expression of lignin biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, transient expression assays using a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene revealed that PtoMYB92 is an activator in the lignin biosynthetic pathway during secondary cell wall formation. Taken together, our results suggest that PtoMYB92 is involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation in poplar by controlling the biosynthesis of monolignols.

  5. PtoMYB156 is involved in negative regulation of phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall biosynthesis during wood formation in poplar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Zhao, Xin; Ran, Lingyu; Li, Chaofeng; Fan, Di; Luo, Keming

    2017-01-01

    Some R2R3 MYB transcription factors have been shown to be major regulators of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and impact secondary wall formation in plants. In this study, we describe the functional characterization of PtoMYB156, encoding a R2R3-MYB transcription factor, from Populus tomentosa. Expression pattern analysis showed that PtoMYB156 is widely expressed in all tissues examined, but predominantly in leaves and developing wood cells. PtoMYB156 localized to the nucleus and acted as a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of PtoMYB156 in poplar repressed phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, leading to a reduction in the amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Transgenic plants overexpressing PtoMYB156 also displayed a dramatic decrease in secondary wall thicknesses of xylem fibers and the content of cellulose, lignin and xylose compared with wild-type plants. Transcript accumulation of secondary wall biosynthetic genes was down-regulated by PtoMYB156 overexpression. Transcriptional activation assays revealed that PtoMYB156 was able to repress the promoter activities of poplar CESA17, C4H2 and GT43B. By contrast, knockout of PtoMYB156 by CRISPR/Cas9 in poplar resulted in ectopic deposition of lignin, xylan and cellulose during secondary cell wall formation. Taken together, these results show that PtoMYB156 may repress phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and negatively regulate secondary cell wall formation in poplar. PMID:28117379

  6. Identifying New Components Participating in the Secondary Cell Wall Formation of Vessel Elements in Zinnia and Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Satoshi; Pesquet, Edouard; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Tashiro, Gen; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Udagawa-Motose, Makiko; Kubo, Minoru; Fukuda, Hiroo; Demura, Taku

    2009-01-01

    Xylem vessel elements are hollow cellular units that assemble end-to-end to form a continuous vessel throughout the plant body; the xylem vessel is strengthened by the xylem elements' reinforced secondary cell walls (SCWs). This work aims to unravel the contribution of unknown actors in xylem vessel differentiation using the model in vitro cell culture system of Zinnia elegans differentiating cell cultures and the model in vivo system of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Tracheary Element Differentiation-Related6 (TED6) and TED7 were selected based on an RNA interference (RNAi) screen in the Zinnia system. RNAi reduction of TED6 and 7 delayed tracheary element (TE) differentiation and co-overexpression of TED6 and 7 increased TE differentiation in cultured Zinnia cells. Arabidopsis TED6 and 7 were expressed preferentially in differentiating vessel elements in seedlings. Aberrant SCW formation of root vessel elements was induced by transient RNAi of At TED7 alone and enhanced by inhibition of both TED6 and 7. Protein–protein interactions were demonstrated between TED6 and a subunit of the SCW-related cellulose synthase complex. Our strategy has succeeded in finding two novel components in SCW formation and has opened the door for in-depth analysis of their molecular functions. PMID:19383897

  7. Identifying new components participating in the secondary cell wall formation of vessel elements in zinnia and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Pesquet, Edouard; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Tashiro, Gen; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Udagawa-Motose, Makiko; Kubo, Minoru; Fukuda, Hiroo; Demura, Taku

    2009-04-01

    Xylem vessel elements are hollow cellular units that assemble end-to-end to form a continuous vessel throughout the plant body; the xylem vessel is strengthened by the xylem elements' reinforced secondary cell walls (SCWs). This work aims to unravel the contribution of unknown actors in xylem vessel differentiation using the model in vitro cell culture system of Zinnia elegans differentiating cell cultures and the model in vivo system of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Tracheary Element Differentiation-Related6 (TED6) and TED7 were selected based on an RNA interference (RNAi) screen in the Zinnia system. RNAi reduction of TED6 and 7 delayed tracheary element (TE) differentiation and co-overexpression of TED6 and 7 increased TE differentiation in cultured Zinnia cells. Arabidopsis TED6 and 7 were expressed preferentially in differentiating vessel elements in seedlings. Aberrant SCW formation of root vessel elements was induced by transient RNAi of At TED7 alone and enhanced by inhibition of both TED6 and 7. Protein-protein interactions were demonstrated between TED6 and a subunit of the SCW-related cellulose synthase complex. Our strategy has succeeded in finding two novel components in SCW formation and has opened the door for in-depth analysis of their molecular functions.

  8. Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN6 directly regulates the genes that govern programmed cell death and secondary wall formation during xylem differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Oda, Yoshihisa; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2010-10-01

    Xylem consists of three types of cells: tracheary elements (TEs), parenchyma cells, and fiber cells. TE differentiation includes two essential processes, programmed cell death (PCD) and secondary cell wall formation. These two processes are tightly coupled. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. Here, we show that VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN6 (VND6), a master regulator of TEs, regulates some of the downstream genes involved in these processes in a coordinated manner. We first identified genes that are expressed downstream of VND6 but not downstream of SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1), a master regulator of xylem fiber cells, using transformed suspension culture cells in microarray experiments. We found that VND6 and SND1 governed distinct aspects of xylem formation, whereas they regulated a number of genes in common, specifically those related to secondary cell wall formation. Genes involved in TE-specific PCD were upregulated only by VND6. Moreover, we revealed that VND6 directly regulated genes that harbor a TE-specific cis-element, TERE, in their promoters. Thus, we found that VND6 is a direct regulator of genes related to PCD as well as to secondary wall formation.

  9. The Dual Functions of WLIM1a in Cell Elongation and Secondary Wall Formation in Developing Cotton Fibers[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-01-01

    LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase–box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

  10. Secondary cell walls: biosynthesis, patterned deposition and transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Secondary walls are mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses (xylan and glucomannan) and lignin, and are deposited in some specialized cells, such as tracheary elements, fibers and other sclerenchymatous cells. Secondary walls provide strength to these cells, which lend mechanical support and protection to the plant body and, in the case of tracheary elements, enable them to function as conduits for transporting water. Formation of secondary walls is a complex process that requires the co-ordinated expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes, biosynthesis and targeted secretion of secondary wall components, and patterned deposition and assembly of secondary walls. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of genes involved in secondary wall biosynthesis and deposition. Most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components, including cellulose, xylan, glucomannan and lignin, have been identified and their co-ordinated activation has been shown to be mediated by a transcriptional network encompassing the secondary wall NAC and MYB master switches and their downstream transcription factors. It has been demonstrated that cortical microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play important roles in the targeted secretion of cellulose synthase complexes, the oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils and the patterned deposition of secondary walls. Further investigation of many secondary wall-associated genes with unknown functions will provide new insights into the mechanisms controlling the formation of secondary walls that constitute the bulk of plant biomass.

  11. PtrWRKY19, a novel WRKY transcription factor, contributes to the regulation of pith secondary wall formation in Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhao, Xin; Yang, Fan; Fan, Di; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-28

    WRKY proteins are one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants and play diverse roles in various biological processes. Previous studies have shown that some WRKY members act as negative regulators of secondary cell wall formation in pith parenchyma cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of pith secondary wall formation in tree species remains largely unknown. In this study, PtrWRKY19 encoding a homolog of Arabidopsis WRKY12 was isolated from Populus trichocarpa. PtrWRKY19 was expressed in all tissues tested, with highest expression in stems, especially in pith. PtrWRKY19 was located in the nucleus and functioned as a transcriptional repressor. Ectopic expression of PtrWRKY19 in an atwrky12 mutant successfully rescued the phenotype in pith cell walls caused by the defect of AtWRKY12, suggesting that PtrWRKY19 had conserved functions for homologous AtWRKY12. Overexpression of PtrWRKY19 in poplar plants led to a significant increase in the number of pith parenchyma cells. qRT-PCR analysis showed that lignin biosynthesis-related genes were repressed in transgenic plants. In transcient reporter assays, PtrWRKY19 was identified to repress transcription from the PtoC4H2 promoter containing the conserved W-box elements. These results indicated that PtrWRKY19 may function as a negative regulator of pith secondary wall formation in poplar.

  12. Cell differentiation, secondary cell-wall formation and transformation of callus tissue of Pinus radiata D. Don.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ralf; McDonald, Armando G; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Tracheid and sclereid differentiation was induced in callus cultures of Pinus radiata D. Don by culturing on a basal medium containing activated charcoal but no phytohormones; sclereids differentiated in callus derived from xylem strips, but not in callus derived from hypocotyl segments. The tracheids differentiated in hypocotyl-derived callus had helical, scalariform, reticulated or pitted secondary cell-wall patterns, but those differentiated in xylem-derived callus had a reticulate or pitted pattern. The thickened tracheid and sclereid walls contained lignin as indicated by the red colour reaction given with phloroglucinol-HCl. The presence of lignin in the cell walls of differentiated callus was confirmed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by the detection of phenylpropanoid components derived from lignin. Lignin was also detected using solid-state (13)C cross-polarisation/magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantified as thioglycolic acid lignin. Monosaccharide analyses of the cell walls isolated from differentiated and undifferentiated calli showed that the cell walls of the differentiated calli contained higher proportions of glucose and mannose, consistent with the presence of greater proportions of gluco- and/or galactogluco-mannans in the secondary cell walls of the differentiated cells. A protocol for the stable transformation of undifferentiated, xylem-derived cultures was successfully developed. Transgenic cell lines were established following Biolistic particle bombardment with a plasmid containing the coding region of the nptII gene and the coding region of the cad gene from P. radiata. Expression of the nptII gene in transgenic lines was confirmed by an NPTII-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overexpression of cad in the transgenic lines resulted in a down-regulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) expression.

  13. EgMYB1, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor from eucalyptus negatively regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis and poplar.

    PubMed

    Legay, Sylvain; Sivadon, Pierre; Blervacq, Anne-Sophie; Pavy, Nathalie; Baghdady, Ahmad; Tremblay, Laurence; Levasseur, Caroline; Ladouce, Nathalie; Lapierre, Catherine; Séguin, Armand; Hawkins, Simon; Mackay, John; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2010-11-01

    • The eucalyptus R2R3 transcription factor, EgMYB1 contains an active repressor motif in the regulatory domain of the predicted protein. It is preferentially expressed in differentiating xylem and is capable of repressing the transcription of two key lignin genes in vivo. • In order to investigate in planta the role of this putative transcriptional repressor of the lignin biosynthetic pathway, we overexpressed the EgMYB1 gene in Arabidopsis and poplar. • Expression of EgMYB1 produced similar phenotypes in both species, with stronger effects in transgenic Arabidopsis plants than in poplar. Vascular development was altered in overexpressors showing fewer lignified fibres (in phloem and interfascicular zones in poplar and Arabidopsis, respectively) and reduced secondary wall thickening. Klason lignin content was moderately but significantly reduced in both species. Decreased transcript accumulation was observed for genes involved in the biosynthesis of lignins, cellulose and xylan, the three main polymers of secondary cell walls. Transcriptomic profiles of transgenic poplars were reminiscent of those reported when lignin biosynthetic genes are disrupted. • Together, these results strongly suggest that EgMYB1 is a repressor of secondary wall formation and provide new opportunities to dissect the transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  14. Reconstitution of a secondary cell wall in a secondary cell wall-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2015-02-01

    The secondary cell wall constitutes a rigid frame of cells in plant tissues where rigidity is required. Deposition of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells contributes to the production of wood in woody plants. The secondary cell wall is assembled through co-operative activities of many enzymes, and their gene expression is precisely regulated by a pyramidal cascade of transcription factors. Deposition of a transmuted secondary cell wall in empty fiber cells by expressing selected gene(s) in this cascade has not been attempted previously. In this proof-of-concept study, we expressed chimeric activators of 24 transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in the stem, in empty fiber cells of the Arabidopsis nst1-1 nst3-1 double mutant, which lacks a secondary cell wall in fiber cells, under the control of the NST3 promoter. The chimeric activators of MYB46, SND2 and ANAC075, as well as NST3, reconstituted a secondary cell wall with different characteristics from those of the wild type in terms of its composition. The transgenic lines expressing the SND2 or ANAC075 chimeric activator showed increased glucose and xylose, and lower lignin content, whereas the transgenic line expressing the MYB46 chimeric activator showed increased mannose content. The expression profile of downstream genes in each transgenic line was also different from that of the wild type. This study proposed a new screening strategy to identify factors of secondary wall formation and also suggested the potential of the artificially reconstituted secondary cell walls as a novel raw material for production of bioethanol and other chemicals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  15. Reconstitution of a Secondary Cell Wall in a Secondary Cell Wall-Deficient Arabidopsis Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    The secondary cell wall constitutes a rigid frame of cells in plant tissues where rigidity is required. Deposition of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells contributes to the production of wood in woody plants. The secondary cell wall is assembled through co-operative activities of many enzymes, and their gene expression is precisely regulated by a pyramidal cascade of transcription factors. Deposition of a transmuted secondary cell wall in empty fiber cells by expressing selected gene(s) in this cascade has not been attempted previously. In this proof-of-concept study, we expressed chimeric activators of 24 transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in the stem, in empty fiber cells of the Arabidopsis nst1-1 nst3-1 double mutant, which lacks a secondary cell wall in fiber cells, under the control of the NST3 promoter. The chimeric activators of MYB46, SND2 and ANAC075, as well as NST3, reconstituted a secondary cell wall with different characteristics from those of the wild type in terms of its composition. The transgenic lines expressing the SND2 or ANAC075 chimeric activator showed increased glucose and xylose, and lower lignin content, whereas the transgenic line expressing the MYB46 chimeric activator showed increased mannose content. The expression profile of downstream genes in each transgenic line was also different from that of the wild type. This study proposed a new screening strategy to identify factors of secondary wall formation and also suggested the potential of the artificially reconstituted secondary cell walls as a novel raw material for production of bioethanol and other chemicals. PMID:25535195

  16. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. Results We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168) and one legume-specific family (miR2086). Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium, respectively, thus yielding

  17. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa M L; Cannon, Charles H; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2011-07-05

    Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168) and one legume-specific family (miR2086). Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium, respectively, thus yielding useful markers for

  18. Rolling-leaf14 is a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase family protein that modulates rice leaf rolling by affecting secondary cell wall formation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Likui; Zhao, Fangming; Cong, Yunfei; Sang, Xianchun; Du, Qing; Wang, Dezhong; Li, Yunfeng; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; He, Guanghua

    2012-06-01

    As an important agronomic trait, leaf rolling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has attracted much attention from plant biologists and breeders. Moderate leaf rolling increases the amount of photosynthesis in cultivars and hence raises grain yield. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the gene RL14, which was found to encode a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase of unknown function. rl14 mutant plants had incurved leaves because of the shrinkage of bulliform cells on the adaxial side. In addition, rl14 mutant plants displayed smaller stomatal complexes and decreased transpiration rates, as compared with the wild type. Defective development could be rescued functionally by the expression of wild-type RL14. RL14 was transcribed in sclerenchymatous cells in leaves that remained wrapped inside the sheath. In mature leaves, RL14 accumulated mainly in the mesophyll cells that surround the vasculature. Expression of genes related to secondary cell wall formation was affected in rl14-1 mutants, and cellulose and lignin content were altered in rl14-1 leaves. These results reveal that the RL14 gene affects water transport in leaves by affecting the composition of the secondary cell wall. This change in water transport results in water deficiency, which is the major reason for the abnormal shape of the bulliform cells.

  19. Engineering secondary cell wall deposition in plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Mitra, Prajakta; Zhang, Ling; Prak, Lina; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Kim, Jin-Sun; Sun, Lan; Zheng, Kejian; Tang, Kexuan; Auer, Manfred; Scheller, Henrik V; Loqué, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass was used for thousands of years as animal feed and is now considered a great sugar source for biofuels production. It is composed mostly of secondary cell walls built with polysaccharide polymers that are embedded in lignin to reinforce the cell wall structure and maintain its integrity. Lignin is the primary material responsible for biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. During plant development, deep reductions of lignin cause growth defects and often correlate with the loss of vessel integrity that adversely affects water and nutrient transport in plants. The work presented here describes a new approach to decrease lignin content while preventing vessel collapse and introduces a new strategy to boost transcription factor expression in native tissues. We used synthetic biology tools in Arabidopsis to rewire the secondary cell network by changing promoter-coding sequence associations. The result was a reduction in lignin and an increase in polysaccharide depositions in fibre cells. The promoter of a key lignin gene, C4H, was replaced by the vessel-specific promoter of transcription factor VND6. This rewired lignin biosynthesis specifically for vessel formation while disconnecting C4H expression from the fibre regulatory network. Secondly, the promoter of the IRX8 gene, secondary cell wall glycosyltransferase, was used to express a new copy of the fibre transcription factor NST1, and as the IRX8 promoter is induced by NST1, this also created an artificial positive feedback loop (APFL). The combination of strategies—lignin rewiring with APFL insertion—enhances polysaccharide deposition in stems without over-lignifying them, resulting in higher sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:23140549

  20. Secondary cell walls: biosynthesis and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Campbell, Liam; Turner, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cell walls (SCWs) are produced by specialized plant cell types, and are particularly important in those cells providing mechanical support or involved in water transport. As the main constituent of plant biomass, secondary cell walls are central to attempts to generate second-generation biofuels. Partly as a consequence of this renewed economic importance, excellent progress has been made in understanding how cell wall components are synthesized. SCWs are largely composed of three main polymers: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. In this review, we will attempt to highlight the most recent progress in understanding the biosynthetic pathways for secondary cell wall components, how these pathways are regulated, and how this knowledge may be exploited to improve cell wall properties that facilitate breakdown without compromising plant growth and productivity. While knowledge of individual components in the pathway has improved dramatically, how they function together to make the final polymers and how these individual polymers are incorporated into the wall remain less well understood.

  1. Candidate regulators of Early Leaf Development in Maize Perturb Hormone Signalling and Secondary Cell Wall Formation When Constitutively Expressed in Rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Karki, Shanta; Biswal, Akshaya K; Lin, Hsiang-Chun; Dionora, Mary Jacqueline; Rizal, Govinda; Yin, Xiaojia; Schuler, Mara L; Hughes, Tom; Fouracre, Jim P; Jamous, Basel Abu; Sedelnikova, Olga; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Bandyopadhyay, Anindya; Yu, Su-May; Kelly, Steven; Quick, W Paul; Langdale, Jane A

    2017-07-03

    All grass leaves are strap-shaped with a series of parallel veins running from base to tip, but the distance between each pair of veins, and the cell-types that develop between them, differs depending on whether the plant performs C3 or C4 photosynthesis. As part of a multinational effort to introduce C4 traits into rice to boost crop yield, candidate regulators of C4 leaf anatomy were previously identified through an analysis of maize leaf transcriptomes. Here we tested the potential of 60 of those candidate genes to alter leaf anatomy in rice. In each case, transgenic rice lines were generated in which the maize gene was constitutively expressed. Lines grouped into three phenotypic classes: (1) indistinguishable from wild-type; (2) aberrant shoot and/or root growth indicating possible perturbations to hormone homeostasis; and (3) altered secondary cell wall formation. One of the genes in class 3 defines a novel monocot-specific family. None of the genes were individually sufficient to induce C4-like vein patterning or cell-type differentiation in rice. A better understanding of gene function in C4 plants is now needed to inform more sophisticated engineering attempts to alter leaf anatomy in C3 plants.

  2. Histochemical staining of Arabidopsis thaliana secondary cell wall elements.

    PubMed

    Pradhan Mitra, Prajakta; Loqué, Dominique

    2014-05-13

    Arabidopsis thaliana is a model organism commonly used to understand and manipulate various cellular processes in plants, and it has been used extensively in the study of secondary cell wall formation. Secondary cell wall deposition occurs after the primary cell wall is laid down, a process carried out exclusively by specialized cells such as those forming vessel and fiber tissues. Most secondary cell walls are composed of cellulose (40-50%), hemicellulose (25-30%), and lignin (20-30%). Several mutations affecting secondary cell wall biosynthesis have been isolated, and the corresponding mutants may or may not exhibit obvious biochemical composition changes or visual phenotypes since these mutations could be masked by compensatory responses. Staining procedures have historically been used to show differences on a cellular basis. These methods are exclusively visual means of analysis; nevertheless their role in rapid and critical analysis is of great importance. Congo red and calcofluor white are stains used to detect polysaccharides, whereas Mäule and phloroglucinol are commonly used to determine differences in lignin, and toluidine blue O is used to differentially stain polysaccharides and lignin. The seemingly simple techniques of sectioning, staining, and imaging can be a challenge for beginners. Starting with sample preparation using the A. thaliana model, this study details the protocols of a variety of staining methodologies that can be easily implemented for observation of cell and tissue organization in secondary cell walls of plants.

  3. Poplar PdC3H17 and PdC3H18 are direct targets of PdMYB3 and PdMYB21, and positively regulate secondary wall formation in Arabidopsis and poplar.

    PubMed

    Chai, Guohua; Qi, Guang; Cao, Yingping; Wang, Zengguang; Yu, Li; Tang, Xianfeng; Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Dian; Kong, Yingzhen; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-07-01

    Wood biomass is mainly made of secondary cell walls, whose formation is controlled by a multilevel network. The tandem CCCH zinc finger (TZF) proteins involved in plant secondary wall formation are poorly understood. Two TZF genes, PdC3H17 and PdC3H18, were isolated from Populus deltoides and functionally characterized in Escherichia coli, tobacco, Arabidopsis and poplar. PdC3H17 and PdC3H18 are predominantly expressed in cells of developing wood, and the proteins they encode are targeted to cytoplasmic foci. Transcriptional activation assays showed that PdMYB2/3/20/21 individually activated the PdC3H17 and PdC3H18 promoters, but PdMYB3/21 were most significant. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that PdMYB3/21 bound directly to the PdC3H17/18 promoters. Overexpression of PdC3H17/18 in poplar increased secondary xylem width and secondary wall thickening in stems, whereas dominant repressors of them had the opposite effects on these traits. Similar alteration in secondary wall thickening was observed in their transgenic Arabidopsis plants. qRT-PCR results showed that PdC3H17/18 regulated the expression of cellulose, xylan and lignin biosynthetic genes, and several wood-associated MYB genes. These results demonstrate that PdC3H17 and PdC3H18 are the targets of PdMYB3 and PdMYB21 and are an additional two components in the regulatory network of secondary xylem formation in poplar.

  4. Complexity of the transcriptional network controlling secondary wall biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Secondary walls in the form of wood and fibers are the most abundant biomass produced by vascular plants, and are important raw materials for many industrial uses. Understanding how secondary walls are constructed is of significance in basic plant biology and also has far-reaching implications in genetic engineering of plant biomass better suited for various end uses, such as biofuel production. Secondary walls are composed of three major biopolymers, i.e., cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, the biosynthesis of which requires the coordinated transcriptional regulation of all their biosynthesis genes. Genomic and molecular studies have identified a number of transcription factors, whose expression is associated with secondary wall biosynthesis. We comprehensively review how these secondary wall-associated transcription factors function together to turn on the secondary wall biosynthetic program, which leads to secondary wall deposition in vascular plants. The transcriptional network regulating secondary wall biosynthesis employs a multi-leveled feed-forward loop regulatory structure, in which the top-level secondary wall NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) master switches activate the second-level MYB master switches and they together induce the expression of downstream transcription factors and secondary wall biosynthesis genes. Secondary wall NAC master switches and secondary wall MYB master switches bind to and activate the SNBE (secondary wall NAC binding element) and SMRE (secondary wall MYB-responsive element) sites, respectively, in their target gene promoters. Further investigation of what and how developmental signals trigger the transcriptional network to regulate secondary wall biosynthesis and how different secondary wall-associated transcription factors function cooperatively in activating secondary wall biosynthetic pathways will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional control of secondary wall biosynthesis.

  5. Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in xylem secondary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko

    2006-05-01

    The xylem of higher plants offers support to aerial portions of the plant body and serves as conduit for the translocation of water and nutrients. Terminal differentiation of xylem cells typically involves deposition of thick secondary cell walls. This is a dynamic cellular process accompanied by enhanced rates of cellulose deposition and the induction of synthesis of specific secondary-wall matrix polysaccharides and lignin. The secondary cell wall is essential for the function of conductive and supportive xylem tissues. Recently, significant progress has been made in identifying the genes responsible for xylem secondary cell wall formation. However, our present knowledge is still insufficient to account for the molecular processes by which this complex system operates. To acquire further information about xylem secondary cell walls, we initially focused our research effort on a set of genes specifically implicated in secondary cell wall formation, as well as on loss-of-function mutants. Results from two microarray screens identified several key candidate genes responsible for secondary cell wall formation. Reverse genetic analyses led to the identification of a glycine-rich protein involved in maintaining the stable structure of protoxylem, which is essential for the transport of water and nutrients. A combination of expression analyses and reverse genetics allows us to systematically identify new genes required for the development of physical properties of the xylem secondary wall.

  6. Anther Wall Formation in Solanaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    CARRIZO GARCÍA, CAROLINA

    2002-01-01

    Anther wall formation was studied in 32 species belonging to 27 genera of Solanaceae. Dicotyledonous and basic types of wall formation were observed, as well as several deviations due to subsequent periclinal divisions in the layers formed (middle layers and sometimes the endothecium). One type of wall formation was observed in each species. Some genera are uniform in their type of wall formation, while others are heterogeneous; a similar situation was observed at the tribal level. Summarizing all reported information on anther wall formation in the Solanaceae, 64 % of species show the basic type, while the remaining 36 % show the dicotyledonous type. Thus, neither type predominates, and no single type characterizes genera, tribes or the entire family. PMID:12451025

  7. Plasmodesmata formation: poking holes in walls with ise.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Sieburth, Leslie E

    2010-06-08

    Secondary plasmodesmata are cytoplasmic channels connecting adjacent plant cells that arise after cell division. How membrane-delimited channels penetrate cell walls is unknown, but now two genes, ISE1 and ISE2, are shown to be required for pathways that limit their formation.

  8. The formation and evolution of domain walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Press, William H.; Ryden, Barbara S.; Spergel, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Domain walls are sheet-like defects produced when the low energy vacuum has isolated degenerate minima. The researchers' computer code follows the evolution of a scalar field, whose dynamics are determined by its Lagrangian density. The topology of the scalar field determines the evolution of the domain walls. This approach treats both wall dynamics and reconnection. The researchers investigated not only potentials that produce single domain walls, but also potentials that produce a network of walls and strings. These networks arise in axion models where the U(1) Peccei-Quinn symmetry is broken into Z sub N discrete symmetries. If N equals 1, the walls are bounded by strings and the network quickly disappears. For N greater than 1, the network of walls and strings behaved qualitatively just as the wall network shown in the figures given here. This both confirms the researchers' pessimistic view that domain walls cannot play an important role in the formation of large scale structure and implies that axion models with multiple minimum can be cosmologically disastrous.

  9. Cellulose-hemicellulose interaction in wood secondary cell-wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Shi; Xiong, Liming; Hong, Yu; Chen, Youping

    2015-12-01

    The wood cell wall features a tough and relatively rigid fiber reinforced composite structure. It acts as a pressure vessel, offering protection against mechanical stress. Cellulose microfibrils, hemicellulose and amorphous lignin are the three major components of wood. The structure of secondary cell wall could be imagined as the same as reinforced concrete, in which cellulose microfibrils acts as reinforcing steel bar and hemicellulose-lignin matrices act as the concrete. Therefore, the interface between cellulose and hemicellulose/lignin plays a significant role in determine the mechanical behavior of wood secondary cell wall. To this end, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study attempting to quantify the strength of the interface between cellulose microfibrils and hemicellulose. Since hemicellulose binds with adjacent cellulose microfibrils in various patterns, the atomistic models of hemicellulose-cellulose composites with three typical binding modes, i.e. bridge, loop and random binding modes are constructed. The effect of the shape of hemicellulose chain on the strength of hemicellulose-cellulose composites under shear loadings is investigated. The contact area as well as hydrogen bonds between cellulose and hemicellulose, together with the covalent bonds in backbone of hemicellulose chain are found to be the controlling parameters which determine the strength of the interfaces in the composite system. For the bridge binding model, the effect of shear loading direction on the strength of the cellulose material is also studied. The obtained results suggest that the shear strength of wood-inspired engineering composites can be optimized through maximizing the formations of the contributing hydrogen bonds between cellulose and hemicellulose.

  10. An arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptiona...

  11. An Arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Teeples, M.; Lin, L.; de Lucas, M.; Turco, G.; Toal, T. W.; Gaudinier, A.; Young, N. F.; Trabucco, G. M.; Veling, M. T.; Lamothe, R.; Handakumbura, P. P.; Xiong, G.; Wang, C.; Corwin, J.; Tsoukalas, A.; Zhang, L.; Ware, D.; Pauly, M.; Kliebenstein, D. J.; Dehesh, K.; Tagkopoulos, I.; Breton, G.; Pruneda-Paz, J. L.; Ahnert, S. E.; Kay, S. A.; Hazen, S. P.; Brady, S. M.

    2014-12-24

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptional regulation of synthesis for each polymer is complex and vital to cell function. A regulatory hierarchy of developmental switches has been proposed, although the full complement of regulators remains unknown. In this paper, we present a protein–DNA network between Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors and secondary cell wall metabolic genes with gene expression regulated by a series of feed-forward loops. This model allowed us to develop and validate new hypotheses about secondary wall gene regulation under abiotic stress. Distinct stresses are able to perturb targeted genes to potentially promote functional adaptation. Finally, these interactions will serve as a foundation for understanding the regulation of a complex, integral plant component.

  12. Secondary organic aerosol formation of primary, secondary and tertiary Amines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amines have been widely identified in ambient aerosol in both urban and rural environments and they are potential precursors for formation of nitrogen-containing secondary organic aerosols (SOA). However, the role of amines in SOA formation has not been well studied. In this wrok, we use UC-Riversid...

  13. Populus endo-beta-mannanase PtrMAN6 plays a role in coordinating cell wall remodeling with suppression of secondary wall thickening through generation of oligosaccharide signals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunjun; Song, Dongliang; Sun, Jiayan; Li, Laigeng

    2013-05-01

    Endo-1,4-β-mannanase is known to able to hydrolyze mannan-type polysaccharides in cell wall remodeling, but its function in regulating wall thickening has been little studied. Here we show that a Populus endo-1,4-β-mannanase gene, named PtrMAN6, suppresses cell wall thickening during xylem differentiation. PtrMAN6 is expressed specifically in xylem tissue and its encoded protein localizes to developing vessel cells. Overexpression of PtrMAN6 enhanced wall loosening as well as suppressed secondary wall thickening, whilst knockdown of its expression promoted secondary wall thickening. Transcriptional analysis revealed that PtrMAN6 overexpression downregulated the transcriptional program of secondary cell wall thickening, whilst PtrMAN6 knockdown upregulated transcriptional activities toward secondary wall formation. Activity of PtrMAN6 hydrolysis resulted in the generation of oligosaccharide compounds from cell wall polysaccharides. Application of the oligosaccharides resulted in cellular and transcriptional changes that were similar to those found in PtrMAN6 overexpressed transgenic plants. Overall, our results demonstrated that PtrMAN6 plays a role in hydrolysis of mannan-type wall polysaccharides to produce oligosaccharides that may serve as signaling molecules to suppress cell wall thickening during wood xylem cell differentiation. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Concrete as secondary containment for interior wall embedded waste lines

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.L.

    1993-10-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are numerous facilities that handle hazardous waste solutions. Secondary containment of tank systems and their ancillary piping is a major concern for existing facilities. The Idaho Division of Environmental Quality was petitioned in 1990 for an Equivalent Device determination regarding secondary containment of waste lines embedded in interior concrete walls. The petition was granted, however it expires in 1996. To address the secondary containment issue, additional studies were undertaken. One study verified the hypothesis that an interior wall pipe leak would follow the path of least resistance through the naturally occurring void found below a rigidly supported pipe and pass into an adjacent room where detection could occur, before any significant deterioration of the concrete takes place. Other tests demonstrated that with acidic waste solutions rebar and cold joints are not an accelerated path to the environment. The results from these latest studies confirm that the subject configuration meets all the requirements of secondary containment

  15. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford M.T. II

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields.

  16. Acute posteroinferior wall myocardial infarction secondary to football chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, R; Badui, E; Castaño, R; Madrid, R

    1985-12-01

    Myocardial infarction secondary to nonpenetrating chest trauma is rare. We present the case of a sportsman who developed an acute transmural posteroinferior wall myocardial infarction due to chest trauma by a football. The angiographic study revealed total obstruction of the proximal right coronary artery.

  17. An Arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor-Teeples, M.; Lin, L.; de Lucas, M.; ...

    2014-12-24

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptional regulation of synthesis for each polymer is complex and vital to cell function. A regulatory hierarchy of developmental switches has been proposed, although the full complement of regulators remains unknown. In this paper, we present a protein–DNA network between Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors and secondary cell wall metabolic genes with gene expression regulated bymore » a series of feed-forward loops. This model allowed us to develop and validate new hypotheses about secondary wall gene regulation under abiotic stress. Distinct stresses are able to perturb targeted genes to potentially promote functional adaptation. Finally, these interactions will serve as a foundation for understanding the regulation of a complex, integral plant component.« less

  18. A cystathionine-β-synthase domain-containing protein, CBSX2, regulates endothecial secondary cell wall thickening in anther development.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Wook; Kim, Yun Young; Yoo, Kyoung Shin; Ok, Sung Han; Cui, Mei Hua; Jeong, Byung-Cheon; Yoo, Sang Dong; Jeung, Ji Ung; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2013-02-01

    Anther formation and dehiscence are complex pivotal processes in reproductive development. The secondary wall thickening in endothecial cells of the anther is a known prerequisite for successful anther dehiscence. However, many gaps remain in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying anther dehiscence in planta, including a possible role for jasmonic acid (JA) and H(2)O(2) in secondary wall thickening of endothecial cells. Here, we report that the cystathionine β-synthase domain-containing protein CBSX2 located in the chloroplast plays a critical role in thickening of the secondary cell walls of the endothecium during anther dehiscence in Arabidopsis. A T-DNA insertion mutant of CBSX2 (cbsx2) showed increased secondary wall thickening of endothecial cells and early anther dehiscence. Consistently, overexpression of CBSX2 resulted in anther indehiscence. Exogenous JA application induced secondary wall thickening and caused flower infertility in the cbsx2 mutant, whereas it partially restored fertility in the CBSX2-overexpressing lines lacking the wall thickening. CBSX2 directly modulated thioredoxin (Trx) in chloroplasts, which affected the level of H(2)O(2) and, consequently, expression of the genes involved in secondary cell wall thickening. Our findings have revealed that CBSX2 modulates the H(2)O(2) status, which is linked to the JA response and in turn controls secondary wall thickening of the endothecial cells in anthers for dehiscence to occur.

  19. The Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Differentiation of Secondary Walls in Cotton Fibers1

    PubMed Central

    Potikha, Tamara S.; Collins, Cheryl C.; Johnson, Douglas I.; Delmer, Deborah P.; Levine, Alex

    1999-01-01

    H2O2 is a widespread molecule in many biological systems. It is created enzymatically in living cells during various oxidation reactions and by leakage of electrons from the electron transport chains. Depending on the concentration H2O2 can induce cell protective responses, programmed cell death, or necrosis. Here we provide evidence that H2O2 may function as a developmental signal in the differentiation of secondary walls in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers. Three lines of evidence support this conclusion: (a) the period of H2O2 generation coincided with the onset of secondary wall deposition, (b) inhibition of H2O2 production or scavenging the available H2O2 from the system prevented the wall differentiation process, and (c) exogenous addition of H2O2 prematurely promoted secondary wall formation in young fibers. Furthermore, we provide support for the concept that H2O2 generation could be mediated by the expression of the small GTPase Rac, the accumulation of which was shown previously to be strongly induced during the onset of secondary wall differentiation. In support of Rac's role in the activation of NADPH oxidase and the generation of reactive oxygen species, we transformed soybean (Glycine max) and Arabidopsis cells with mutated Rac genes. Transformation with a dominantly activated cotton Rac13 gene resulted in constitutively higher levels of H2O2, whereas transformation with the antisense and especially with dominant-negative Rac constructs decreased the levels of H2O2. PMID:10069824

  20. Navigating the transcriptional roadmap regulating plant secondary cell wall deposition

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Steven G.; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Creux, Nicky M.; Myburg, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    The current status of lignocellulosic biomass as an invaluable resource in industry, agriculture, and health has spurred increased interest in understanding the transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis. The last decade of research has revealed an extensive network of NAC, MYB and other families of transcription factors regulating Arabidopsis SCW biosynthesis, and numerous studies have explored SCW-related transcription factors in other dicots and monocots. Whilst the general structure of the Arabidopsis network has been a topic of several reviews, they have not comprehensively represented the detailed protein–DNA and protein–protein interactions described in the literature, and an understanding of network dynamics and functionality has not yet been achieved for SCW formation. Furthermore the methodologies employed in studies of SCW transcriptional regulation have not received much attention, especially in the case of non-model organisms. In this review, we have reconstructed the most exhaustive literature-based network representations to date of SCW transcriptional regulation in Arabidopsis. We include a manipulable Cytoscape representation of the Arabidopsis SCW transcriptional network to aid in future studies, along with a list of supporting literature for each documented interaction. Amongst other topics, we discuss the various components of the network, its evolutionary conservation in plants, putative modules and dynamic mechanisms that may influence network function, and the approaches that have been employed in network inference. Future research should aim to better understand network function and its response to dynamic perturbations, whilst the development and application of genome-wide approaches such as ChIP-seq and systems genetics are in progress for the study of SCW transcriptional regulation in non-model organisms. PMID:24009617

  1. Organosulfate Formation in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organosulfates of isoprene, α-pinene, and β-pinene have recently been identified in both laboratory-generated and ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this study, the mechanism and ubiquity of organosulfate formation in biogenic SOA is investigated by a comprehensive seri...

  2. Organosulfate Formation in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organosulfates of isoprene, α-pinene, and β-pinene have recently been identified in both laboratory-generated and ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this study, the mechanism and ubiquity of organosulfate formation in biogenic SOA is investigated by a comprehensive seri...

  3. Influence of vapor wall loss in laboratory chambers on yields of secondary organic aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; McVay, Renee C.; Ensberg, Joseph J.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitutes a major fraction of submicrometer atmospheric particulate matter. Quantitative simulation of SOA within air-quality and climate models—and its resulting impacts—depends on the translation of SOA formation observed in laboratory chambers into robust parameterizations. Worldwide data have been accumulating indicating that model predictions of SOA are substantially lower than ambient observations. Although possible explanations for this mismatch have been advanced, none has addressed the laboratory chamber data themselves. Losses of particles to the walls of chambers are routinely accounted for, but there has been little evaluation of the effects on SOA formation of losses of semivolatile vapors to chamber walls. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that such vapor losses can lead to substantially underestimated SOA formation, by factors as much as 4. Accounting for such losses has the clear potential to bring model predictions and observations of organic aerosol levels into much closer agreement. PMID:24711404

  4. beta-tubulin affects cellulose microfibril orientation in plant secondary fibre cell walls.

    PubMed

    Spokevicius, Antanas V; Southerton, Simon G; MacMillan, Colleen P; Qiu, Deyou; Gan, Siming; Tibbits, Josquin F G; Moran, Gavin F; Bossinger, Gerd

    2007-08-01

    Cellulose microfibrils are the major structural component of plant secondary cell walls. Their arrangement in plant primary cell walls, and its consequent influence on cell expansion and cellular morphology, is directed by cortical microtubules; cylindrical protein filaments composed of heterodimers of alpha- and beta-tubulin. In secondary cell walls of woody plant stems the orientation of cellulose microfibrils influences the strength and flexibility of wood, providing the physical support that has been instrumental in vascular plant colonization of the troposphere. Here we show that a Eucalyptus grandisbeta-tubulin gene (EgrTUB1) is involved in determining the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in plant secondary fibre cell walls. This finding is based on RNA expression studies in mature trees, where we identified and isolated EgrTUB1 as a candidate for association with wood-fibre formation, and on the analysis of somatically derived transgenic wood sectors in Eucalyptus. We show that cellulose microfibril angle (MFA) is correlated with EgrTUB1 expression, and that MFA was significantly altered as a consequence of stable transformation with EgrTUB1. Our findings present an important step towards the production of fibres with altered tensile strength, stiffness and elastic properties, and shed light on one of the molecular mechanisms that has enabled trees to dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. Interactions between MUR10/CesA7-dependent secondary cellulose biosynthesis and primary cell wall structure.

    PubMed

    Bosca, Sonia; Barton, Christopher J; Taylor, Neil G; Ryden, Peter; Neumetzler, Lutz; Pauly, Markus; Roberts, Keith; Seifert, Georg J

    2006-12-01

    Primary cell walls are deposited and remodeled during cell division and expansion. Secondary cell walls are deposited in specialized cells after the expansion phase. It is presently unknown whether and how these processes are interrelated. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MUR10 gene is required for normal primary cell wall carbohydrate composition in mature leaves as well as for normal plant growth, hypocotyl strength, and fertility. The overall sugar composition of young mur10 seedlings is not significantly altered; however, the relative proportion of pectin side chains is shifted toward an increase in 1 --> 5-alpha-arabinan relative to 1 --> 4-beta-galactan. mur10 seedlings display reduced fucogalactosylation of tightly cell wall-bound xyloglucan. Expression levels of genes encoding either nucleotide sugar interconversion enzymes or glycosyl transferases, known to be involved in primary and secondary cell wall biosynthesis, are generally unaffected; however, the CesA7 transcript is specifically suppressed in the mur10-1 allele. The MUR10 locus is identical with the CesA7 gene, which encodes a cellulose catalytic subunit previously thought to be specifically involved in secondary cell wall formation. The xylem vessels in young mur10 hypocotyls are collapsed and their birefringence is lost. Moreover, a fucogalactosylated xyloglucan epitope is reduced and a 1 --> 5-alpha-arabinan epitope increased in every cell type in mur10 hypocotyls, including cells that do not deposit secondary walls. mur10 also displays altered distribution of an arabinogalactan-protein epitope previously associated with xylem differentiation and secondary wall thickening. This work indicates the existence of a mechanism that senses secondary cell wall integrity and controls biosynthesis or structural remodeling of primary cell walls and cellular differentiation.

  6. Secondary instability of wall-bounded shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.; Patera, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    The present analysis of a secondary instability in a wide class of wall-bounded parallel shear flows indicates that two-dimensional, finite amplitude waves are exponentially unstable to infinitessimal three-dimensional disturbances. The instability appears to be the prototype of transitional instability in such flows as Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, and flat plate boundary layers, in that it has the convective time scales observed in the typical transitions. The energetics and vorticity dynamics of the instability are discussed, and it is shown that the two-dimensional perturbation without directly providing energy to the disturbance. The three-dimensional instability requires that a threshold two-dimensional amplitude be achieved. It is found possible to identify experimental features of transitional spot structure with aspects of the nonlinear two-dimensional/linear three-dimensional instability.

  7. Secondary structure formation in peptide amphiphile micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrell, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are capable of self-assembly into micelles for use in the targeted delivery of peptide therapeutics and diagnostics. PA micelles exhibit a structural resemblance to proteins by having folded bioactive peptides displayed on the exterior of a hydrophobic core. We have studied two factors that influence PA secondary structure in micellar assemblies: the length of the peptide headgroup and amino acids closest to the micelle core. Peptide length was systematically varied using a heptad repeat PA. For all PAs the addition of a C12 tail induced micellization and secondary structure. PAs with 9 amino acids formed beta-sheet interactions upon aggregation, whereas the 23 and 30 residue peptides were displayed in an apha-helical conformation. The 16 amino acid PA experienced a structural transition from helix to sheet, indicating that kinetics play a role in secondary structure formation. A p53 peptide was conjugated to a C16 tail via various linkers to study the effect of linker chemistry on PA headgroup conformation. With no linker the p53 headgroup was predominantly alpha helix and a four alanine linker drastically changed the structure of the peptide headgroup to beta-sheet, highlighting the importance of hydrogen boding potential near the micelle core.

  8. Development of cellulosic secondary walls in flax fibers requires beta-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Roach, Melissa J; Mokshina, Natalia Y; Badhan, Ajay; Snegireva, Anastasiya V; Hobson, Neil; Deyholos, Michael K; Gorshkova, Tatyana A

    2011-07-01

    Bast (phloem) fibers, tension wood fibers, and other cells with gelatinous-type secondary walls are rich in crystalline cellulose. In developing bast fibers of flax (Linum usitatissimum), a galactan-enriched matrix (Gn-layer) is gradually modified into a mature cellulosic gelatinous-layer (G-layer), which ultimately comprises most of the secondary cell wall. Previous studies have correlated this maturation process with expression of a putative β-galactosidase. Here, we demonstrate that β-galactosidase activity is in fact necessary for the dynamic remodeling of polysaccharides that occurs during normal secondary wall development in flax fibers. We found that developing stems of transgenic (LuBGAL-RNAi) flax with reduced β-galactosidase activity had lower concentrations of free Gal and had significant reductions in the thickness of mature cellulosic G-layers compared with controls. Conversely, Gn-layers, labeled intensively by the galactan-specific LM5 antibody, were greatly expanded in LuBGAL-RNAi transgenic plants. Gross morphology and stem anatomy, including the thickness of bast fiber walls, were otherwise unaffected by silencing of β-galactosidase transcripts. These results demonstrate a specific requirement for β-galactosidase in hydrolysis of galactans during formation of cellulosic G-layers. Transgenic lines with reduced β-galactosidase activity also had biochemical and spectroscopic properties consistent with a reduction in cellulose crystallinity. We further demonstrated that the tensile strength of normal flax stems is dependent on β-galactosidase-mediated development of the phloem fiber G-layer. Thus, the mechanical strength that typifies flax stems is dependent on a thick, cellulosic G-layer, which itself depends on β-galactosidase activity within the precursor Gn-layer. These observations demonstrate a novel role for matrix polysaccharides in cellulose deposition; the relevance of these observations to the development of cell walls in other

  9. Formation of charged ferroelectric domain walls with controlled periodicity

    PubMed Central

    Bednyakov, Petr S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Damjanovic, Dragan; Setter, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics were shown recently to possess metallic-like conductivity. Unlike conventional heterointerfaces, these walls can be displaced inside a dielectric by an electric field, which is of interest for future electronic circuitry. In addition, theory predicts that charged domain walls may influence the electromechanical response of ferroelectrics, with strong enhancement upon increased charged domain wall density. The existence of charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics is disfavoured by their high formation energy and methods of their preparation in predefined patterns are unknown. Here we develop the theoretical background for the formation of charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics using energy considerations and outline favourable conditions for their engineering. We experimentally demonstrate, in BaTiO3 single crystals the controlled build-up of high density charged domain wall patterns, down to a spacing of 7 μm with a predominant mixed electronic and ionic screening scenario, hinting to a possible exploitation of charged domain walls in agile electronics and sensing devices. PMID:26516026

  10. Genes Required for Bacillus anthracis Secondary Cell Wall Polysaccharide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, So-Young; Lunderberg, J. Mark; Chateau, Alice; Schneewind, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) is thought to be essential for vegetative growth and surface (S)-layer assembly in Bacillus anthracis; however, the genetic determinants for the assembly of its trisaccharide repeat structure are not known. Here, we report that WpaA (BAS0847) and WpaB (BAS5274) share features with membrane proteins involved in the assembly of O-antigen lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria and propose that WpaA and WpaB contribute to the assembly of the SCWP in B. anthracis. Vegetative forms of the B. anthracis wpaA mutant displayed increased lengths of cell chains, a cell separation defect that was attributed to mislocalization of the S-layer-associated murein hydrolases BslO, BslS, and BslT. The wpaB mutant was defective in vegetative replication during early logarithmic growth and formed smaller colonies. Deletion of both genes, wpaA and wpaB, did not yield viable bacilli, and when depleted of both wpaA and wpaB, B. anthracis could not maintain cell shape, support vegetative growth, or assemble SCWP. We propose that WpaA and WpaB fulfill overlapping glycosyltransferase functions of either polymerizing repeat units or transferring SCWP polymers to linkage units prior to LCP-mediated anchoring of the polysaccharide to peptidoglycan. IMPORTANCE The secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) is essential for Bacillus anthracis growth, cell shape, and division. SCWP is comprised of trisaccharide repeats (→4)-β-ManNAc-(1→4)-β-GlcNAc-(1→6)-α-GlcNAc-(1→) with α-Gal and β-Gal substitutions; however, the genetic determinants and enzymes for SCWP synthesis are not known. Here, we identify WpaA and WpaB and report that depletion of these factors affects vegetative growth, cell shape, and S-layer assembly. We hypothesize that WpaA and WpaB are involved in the assembly of SCWP prior to transfer of this polymer onto peptidoglycan. PMID:27795328

  11. Constraining uncertainties in particle-wall deposition correction during SOA formation in chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nah, Theodora; McVay, Renee C.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Seinfeld, John H.; Ng, Nga L.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of vapor-wall deposition on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has gained significant attention; however, uncertainties in experimentally derived SOA mass yields due to uncertainties in particle-wall deposition remain. Different approaches have been used to correct for particle-wall deposition in SOA formation studies, each having its own set of assumptions in determining the particle-wall loss rate. In volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compound (VOC and IVOC) systems in which SOA formation is governed by kinetically limited growth, the effect of vapor-wall deposition on SOA mass yields can be constrained by using high surface area concentrations of seed aerosol to promote the condensation of SOA-forming vapors onto seed aerosol instead of the chamber walls. However, under such high seed aerosol levels, the presence of significant coagulation may complicate the particle-wall deposition correction. Here, we present a model framework that accounts for coagulation in chamber studies in which high seed aerosol surface area concentrations are used. For the α-pinene ozonolysis system, we find that after accounting for coagulation, SOA mass yields remain approximately constant when high seed aerosol surface area concentrations ( ≥ 8000 µm2 cm-3) are used, consistent with our prior study (Nah et al., 2016) showing that α-pinene ozonolysis SOA formation is governed by quasi-equilibrium growth. In addition, we systematically assess the uncertainties in the calculated SOA mass concentrations and yields between four different particle-wall loss correction methods over the series of α-pinene ozonolysis experiments. At low seed aerosol surface area concentrations (< 3000 µm2 cm-3), the SOA mass yields at peak SOA growth obtained from the particle-wall loss correction methods agree within 14 %. However, at high seed aerosol surface area concentrations ( ≥ 8000 µm2 cm-3), the SOA mass yields at peak SOA growth obtained from different particle-wall

  12. Characterization of microRNAs Expressed during Secondary Wall Biosynthesis in Acacia mangium

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Seong Siang; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles by acting as sequence specific guide during secondary wall formation in woody and non-woody species. Although thousands of plant miRNAs have been sequenced, there is no comprehensive view of miRNA mediated gene regulatory network to provide profound biological insights into the regulation of xylem development. Herein, we report the involvement of six highly conserved amg-miRNA families (amg-miR166, amg-miR172, amg-miR168, amg-miR159, amg-miR394, and amg-miR156) as the potential regulatory sequences of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Within this highly conserved amg-miRNA family, only amg-miR166 exhibited strong differences in expression between phloem and xylem tissue. The functional characterization of amg-miR166 targets in various tissues revealed three groups of HD-ZIP III: ATHB8, ATHB15, and REVOLUTA which play pivotal roles in xylem development. Although these three groups vary in their functions, -psRNA target analysis indicated that miRNA target sequences of the nine different members of HD-ZIP III are always conserved. We found that precursor structures of amg-miR166 undergo exhaustive sequence variation even within members of the same family. Gene expression analysis showed three key lignin pathway genes: C4H, CAD, and CCoAOMT were upregulated in compression wood where a cascade of miRNAs was downregulated. This study offers a comprehensive analysis on the involvement of highly conserved miRNAs implicated in the secondary wall formation of woody plants. PMID:23251324

  13. Characterization of microRNAs expressed during secondary wall biosynthesis in Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Ong, Seong Siang; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles by acting as sequence specific guide during secondary wall formation in woody and non-woody species. Although thousands of plant miRNAs have been sequenced, there is no comprehensive view of miRNA mediated gene regulatory network to provide profound biological insights into the regulation of xylem development. Herein, we report the involvement of six highly conserved amg-miRNA families (amg-miR166, amg-miR172, amg-miR168, amg-miR159, amg-miR394, and amg-miR156) as the potential regulatory sequences of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Within this highly conserved amg-miRNA family, only amg-miR166 exhibited strong differences in expression between phloem and xylem tissue. The functional characterization of amg-miR166 targets in various tissues revealed three groups of HD-ZIP III: ATHB8, ATHB15, and REVOLUTA which play pivotal roles in xylem development. Although these three groups vary in their functions, -psRNA target analysis indicated that miRNA target sequences of the nine different members of HD-ZIP III are always conserved. We found that precursor structures of amg-miR166 undergo exhaustive sequence variation even within members of the same family. Gene expression analysis showed three key lignin pathway genes: C4H, CAD, and CCoAOMT were upregulated in compression wood where a cascade of miRNAs was downregulated. This study offers a comprehensive analysis on the involvement of highly conserved miRNAs implicated in the secondary wall formation of woody plants.

  14. Mechanisms for shaping, orienting, positioning and patterning plant secondary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Pesquet, Edouard; Korolev, Andrey V; Calder, Grant; Lloyd, Clive W

    2011-06-01

    Xylem vessels are cells that develop a specifically ornamented secondary cell wall to ensure their vascular function, conferring both structural strength and impermeability. Further plasticity is given to these vascular cells by a range of different patterns described by their secondary cell walls that-as for the growth of all plant organs-are developmentally regulated. Microtubules and their associated proteins, named MAPs, are essential to define the shape, the orientation, the position and the overall pattern of these secondary cell walls. Key actors in this process are the land-plant specific MAP70 proteins which not only allow the secondary cell wall to be positioned at the cell cortex but also determine the overall pattern described by xylem vessel secondary cell walls

  15. Organosulfate formation in biogenic secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Surratt, Jason D; Gómez-González, Yadian; Chan, Arthur W H; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Shahgholi, Mona; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O; Offenberg, John H; Lewandowski, Michael; Jaoui, Mohammed; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2008-09-11

    Organosulfates of isoprene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene have recently been identified in both laboratory-generated and ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this study, the mechanism and ubiquity of organosulfate formation in biogenic SOA is investigated by a comprehensive series of laboratory photooxidation (i.e., OH-initiated oxidation) and nighttime oxidation (i.e., NO3-initiated oxidation under dark conditions) experiments using nine monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, d-limonene, l-limonene, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, Delta(3)-carene, and beta-phellandrene) and three monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, d-limonene, and l-limonene), respectively. Organosulfates were characterized using liquid chromatographic techniques coupled to electrospray ionization combined with both linear ion trap and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Organosulfates are formed only when monoterpenes are oxidized in the presence of acidified sulfate seed aerosol, a result consistent with prior work. Archived laboratory-generated isoprene SOA and ambient filter samples collected from the southeastern U.S. were reexamined for organosulfates. By comparing the tandem mass spectrometric and accurate mass measurements collected for both the laboratory-generated and ambient aerosol, previously uncharacterized ambient organic aerosol components are found to be organosulfates of isoprene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and limonene-like monoterpenes (e.g., myrcene), demonstrating the ubiquity of organosulfate formation in ambient SOA. Several of the organosulfates of isoprene and of the monoterpenes characterized in this study are ambient tracer compounds for the occurrence of biogenic SOA formation under acidic conditions. Furthermore, the nighttime oxidation experiments conducted under highly acidic conditions reveal a viable mechanism for the formation of previously identified nitrooxy organosulfates found in ambient nighttime aerosol samples. We estimate

  16. Primary Metabolism during Biosynthesis of Secondary Wall Polymers of Protoxylem Vessel Elements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, Keiko; Sawada, Yuji; Sano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shiro; Matsuda, Mami; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-01-01

    Xylem vessels, the water-conducting cells in vascular plants, undergo characteristic secondary wall deposition and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) transcription factors. Here, to identify changes in metabolism that occur during protoxylem vessel element differentiation, we subjected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 suspension culture cells carrying an inducible VND7 system to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based wide-target metabolome analysis and transcriptome analysis. Time-course data for 128 metabolites showed dynamic changes in metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis. The concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, an important intermediate of the glycolysis pathway, immediately decreased in the initial stages of cell differentiation. As cell differentiation progressed, specific amino acids accumulated, including the shikimate-related amino acids and the translocatable nitrogen-rich amino acid arginine. Transcriptome data indicated that cell differentiation involved the active up-regulation of genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing fructose 6-phosphate biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate biosynthesis from oxaloacetate, and phenylalanine biosynthesis, which includes shikimate pathway enzymes. Concomitantly, active changes in the amount of fructose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate were detected during cell differentiation. Taken together, our results show that protoxylem vessel element differentiation is associated with changes in primary metabolism, which could facilitate the production of polysaccharides and lignin monomers and, thus, promote the formation of the secondary cell wall. Also, these metabolic shifts correlate with the active transcriptional regulation of specific enzyme genes. Therefore, our observations indicate that primary metabolism is actively regulated during protoxylem vessel element differentiation to alter the cell’s metabolic

  17. Recent Studies Investigating Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. J.

    2009-05-01

    The metropolitan areas of Mexico City and Atlanta have very different emissions and meteorology, yet in both cities secondary organic aerosol (SOA) comprises a significant fraction of fine particle mass. SOA in Mexico City is predominately from anthropogenic emissions and a number of studies have investigated the role of dicarbonyl partitioning to aerosol liquid water as a SOA formation route [Volkamer et al., 2006; 2007]. Hennigan et al. [2008] noted a high correlation between SOA (measured as water-soluble organic carbon) and fine particle nitrate in Mexico City and used this to estimate the volatility of both species during periods of rapidly decreasing RH in late morning. Secondary aerosol may also form when particles are much drier. In Mexico City, both nitrate and SOA were also frequently observed and highly correlated in late afternoon when RH was below 30 percent. A thermodynamic model could reproduce the observed morning nitrate under high RH when equilibrium was between nitric acid and dissolved nitrate, whereas equilibrium between vapor and crystalline ammonium nitrate was predicted in the afternoon [Fountoukis et al., 2007]. By analogy, these results may suggest two different SOA partitioning mechanisms in Mexico City, occurring at different times of the day. In contrast, measurements suggest that SOA in the southeastern United States is largely from biogenic precursors, and there is evidence that liquid water also plays a role. The stability of dissolved organic aerosol in response to loss of liquid water is currently being investigated and preliminary data suggest that like Mexico City, there is some degree of volatility. Recent experiments comparing data from rural-urban sites shows that there are periods when anthropogenic emissions also substantially contribute to SOA in the Atlanta metropolitan region. However, the mechanisms, or organic precursors involved, are yet to be determined. Results from these various ongoing studies will be presented

  18. Laccases Direct Lignification in the Discrete Secondary Cell Wall Domains of Protoxylem1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Mathias; Benske, Anika; Smith, Rebecca A.; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ralph, John; Demura, Taku; Ellis, Brian; Samuels, A. Lacey

    2014-01-01

    Plants precisely control lignin deposition in spiral or annular secondary cell wall domains during protoxylem tracheary element (TE) development. Because protoxylem TEs function to transport water within rapidly elongating tissues, it is important that lignin deposition is restricted to the secondary cell walls in order to preserve the plasticity of adjacent primary wall domains. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inducible VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN7 (VND7) protoxylem TE differentiation system permits the use of mutant backgrounds, fluorescent protein tagging, and high-resolution live-cell imaging of xylem cells during secondary cell wall development. Enzymes synthesizing monolignols, as well as putative monolignol transporters, showed a uniform distribution during protoxylem TE differentiation. By contrast, the oxidative enzymes LACCASE4 (LAC4) and LAC17 were spatially localized to secondary cell walls throughout protoxylem TE differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that precise delivery of oxidative enzymes determines the pattern of cell wall lignification. This view was supported by lac4lac17 mutant analysis demonstrating that laccases are necessary for protoxylem TE lignification. Overexpression studies showed that laccases are sufficient to catalyze ectopic lignin polymerization in primary cell walls when exogenous monolignols are supplied. Our data support a model of protoxylem TE lignification in which monolignols are highly mobile once exported to the cell wall, and in which precise targeting of laccases to secondary cell wall domains directs lignin deposition. PMID:25157028

  19. Laccases direct lignification in the discrete secondary cell wall domains of protoxylem.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Mathias; Benske, Anika; Smith, Rebecca A; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ralph, John; Demura, Taku; Ellis, Brian; Samuels, A Lacey

    2014-10-01

    Plants precisely control lignin deposition in spiral or annular secondary cell wall domains during protoxylem tracheary element (TE) development. Because protoxylem TEs function to transport water within rapidly elongating tissues, it is important that lignin deposition is restricted to the secondary cell walls in order to preserve the plasticity of adjacent primary wall domains. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inducible VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN7 (VND7) protoxylem TE differentiation system permits the use of mutant backgrounds, fluorescent protein tagging, and high-resolution live-cell imaging of xylem cells during secondary cell wall development. Enzymes synthesizing monolignols, as well as putative monolignol transporters, showed a uniform distribution during protoxylem TE differentiation. By contrast, the oxidative enzymes LACCASE4 (LAC4) and LAC17 were spatially localized to secondary cell walls throughout protoxylem TE differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that precise delivery of oxidative enzymes determines the pattern of cell wall lignification. This view was supported by lac4lac17 mutant analysis demonstrating that laccases are necessary for protoxylem TE lignification. Overexpression studies showed that laccases are sufficient to catalyze ectopic lignin polymerization in primary cell walls when exogenous monolignols are supplied. Our data support a model of protoxylem TE lignification in which monolignols are highly mobile once exported to the cell wall, and in which precise targeting of laccases to secondary cell wall domains directs lignin deposition.

  20. Gel permeation chromatography of crystalline cellulose from the secondary wall of intact cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Greenblatt, G.A.; Kohel, R.J.; Benedict, C.R. )

    1990-05-01

    ({sup 14}C)glucose or UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose incorporation into polysaccharides in cotton fiber during secondary wall formation predominantly labels {beta} 1,3- and {beta} 1,4-glucan. The amount of radioactivity in the individual {beta}-glucans was determined by analyzing the partially methylated alditol acetates from the ({sup 14}C) glucans before and after treatment with Updegraff's acetic-nitric reagent. Hot acetic-nitric hydrolyzes {beta} 1,3-glucan leaving resistant crystalline cellulose. In this research we have determined the mol wt characteristics of the crystalline cellulose polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C) glucose in intact cotton fibers. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose in the secondary wall was isolated using the acetic-nitric reagent, dissolved in a non-degrading solvent of lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide and separated on columns of Ultrastyragel by gel permeation chromatography. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose separates into individual cellulose chains with mol wts of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 4}. The weight average mol wt (Mw) of the polymer is 710,000. The distribution of the chains within the polymer approximates a normal distribution with 95% of the chains distributed with {plus minus} 2 std dev of the mean typical of other biopolymers.

  1. Regulation of secondary wall synthesis and cell death by NAC transcription factors in the monocot Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Elene R; Herrera, María Teresa; Gianzo, Cristina; Fidalgo, Javier; Revilla, Gloria; Zarra, Ignacio; Sampedro, Javier

    2013-03-01

    In several dicotyledonous species, NAC transcription factors act as master switches capable of turning on programmes of secondary cell-wall synthesis and cell death. This work used an oestradiol-inducible system to overexpress the NAC transcription factor BdSWN5 in the monocot model Brachypodium distachyon. This resulted in ectopic secondary cell-wall formation in both roots and shoots. Some of the genes upregulated in the process were a secondary cell-wall cellulose synthase (BdCESA4), a xylem-specific protease (BdXCP1) and an orthologue of AtMYB46 (BdMYB1). While activation of BdMYB1 may not be direct, this study showed that BdSWN5 is capable of transactivating the BdXCP1 promoter through two conserved binding sites. In the course of Brachypodium development, the BdXCP1 promoter was observed to be active in all types of differentiating tracheary elements. Together, these results suggest that Brachypodium SWNs can act as switches that turn on secondary cell-wall synthesis and programmed cell death.

  2. Effect of Compliant Walls on Secondary Instabilities in Boundary-Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1991-01-01

    For aerodynamic and hydrodynamic vehicles, it is highly desirable to reduce drag and noise levels. A reduction in drag leads to fuel savings. In particular for submersible vehicles, a decrease in noise levels inhibits detection. A suggested means to obtain these reduction goals is by delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in external boundary layers. For hydrodynamic applications, a passive device which shows promise for transition delays is the compliant coating. In previous studies with a simple mechanical model representing the compliant wall, coatings were found that provided transition delays as predicted from the semi-empirical e(sup n) method. Those studies were concerned with the linear stage of transition where the instability of concern is referred to as the primary instability. For the flat-plate boundary layer, the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is the primary instability. In one of those studies, it was shown that three-dimensional (3-D) primary instabilities, or oblique waves, could dominate transition over the coatings considered. From the primary instability, the stretching and tilting of vorticity in the shear flow leads to a secondary instability mechanism. This has been theoretical described by Herbert based on Floquet theory. In the present study, Herbert's theory is used to predict the development of secondary instabilities over isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls. Since oblique waves may be dominant over compliant walls, a secondary theory extention is made to allow for these 3-D primary instabilities. The effect of variations in primary amplitude, spanwise wavenumber, and Reynolds number on the secondary instabilities are examined. As in the rigid wall case, over compliant walls the subharmonic mode of secondary instability dominates for low-amplitude primary disturbances. Both isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls lead to reduced secondary growth rates compared to the rigid wall results. For high frequencies

  3. Primordial black hole and wormhole formation by domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Heling; Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    In theories with a broken discrete symmetry, Hubble sized spherical domain walls may spontaneously nucleate during inflation. These objects are subsequently stretched by the inflationary expansion, resulting in a broad distribution of sizes. The fate of the walls after inflation depends on their radius. Walls smaller than a critical radius fall within the cosmological horizon early on and collapse due to their own tension, forming ordinary black holes. But if a wall is large enough, its repulsive gravitational field becomes dominant much before the wall can fall within the cosmological horizon. In this ``supercritical'' case, a wormhole throat develops, connecting the ambient exterior FRW universe with an interior baby universe, where the exponential growth of the wall radius takes place. The wormhole pinches off in a time-scale comparable to its light-crossing time, and black holes are formed at its two mouths. As discussed in previous work, the resulting black hole population has a wide distribution of masses and can have significant astrophysical effects. The mechanism of black hole formation has been previously studied for a dust-dominated universe. Here we investigate the case of a radiation-dominated universe, which is more relevant cosmologically, by using numerical simulations in order to find the initial mass of a black hole as a function of the wall size at the end of inflation. For large supercritical domain walls, this mass nearly saturates the upper bound according to which the black hole cannot be larger than the cosmological horizon. We also find that the subsequent accretion of radiation satisfies a scaling relation, resulting in a mass increase by about a factor of 2.

  4. Long cold exposure induces transcriptional and biochemical remodelling of xylem secondary cell wall in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Ployet, Raphael; Soler, Marçal; Carocha, Victor; Ladouce, Nathalie; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José-Carlos; Harvengt, Luc; Marque, Christiane; Teulières, Chantal; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Mounet, Fabien

    2017-06-13

    Although eucalypts are the most planted hardwood trees worldwide, the majority of them are frost sensitive. The recent creation of frost-tolerant hybrids such as Eucalyptus gundal plants (E. gunnii × E. dalrympleana hybrids), now enables the development of industrial plantations in northern countries. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of cold on the wood structure and composition of these hybrids, and on the biosynthetic and regulatory processes controlling their secondary cell-wall (SCW) formation. We used an integrated approach combining histology, biochemical characterization and transcriptomic profiling as well as gene co-expression analyses to investigate xylem tissues from Eucalyptus hybrids exposed to cold conditions. Chilling temperatures triggered the deposition of thicker and more lignified xylem cell walls as well as regulation at the transcriptional level of SCW genes. Most genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, except those specifically dedicated to syringyl unit biosynthesis, were up-regulated. The construction of a co-expression network enabled the identification of both known and potential new SCW transcription factors, induced by cold stress. These regulators at the crossroads between cold signalling and SCW formation are promising candidates for functional studies since they may contribute to the tolerance of E. gunnii × E. dalrympleana hybrids to cold. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    combination of the aerosol and gas phase data, will continue to provide important information on the extent to which biogenic emissions contribute to secondary organic aerosol and may elucidate important interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The results of these studies, performed in the field, will contribute to the growing effort to produce robust models for particulate formation that are necessary for air quality planning and source apportionment.

  6. Comparative structure and biomechanics of plant primary and secondary cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Jarvis, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent insights into the physical biology of plant cell walls are reviewed, summarizing the essential differences between primary and secondary cell walls and identifying crucial gaps in our knowledge of their structure and biomechanics. Unexpected parallels are identified between the mechanism of expansion of primary cell walls during growth and the mechanisms by which hydrated wood deforms under external tension. There is a particular need to revise current “cartoons” of plant cell walls to be more consistent with data from diverse approaches and to go beyond summarizing limited aspects of cell walls, serving instead as guides for future experiments and for the application of new techniques. PMID:22936943

  7. Comparative structure and biomechanics of plant primary and secondary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J; Jarvis, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    Recent insights into the physical biology of plant cell walls are reviewed, summarizing the essential differences between primary and secondary cell walls and identifying crucial gaps in our knowledge of their structure and biomechanics. Unexpected parallels are identified between the mechanism of expansion of primary cell walls during growth and the mechanisms by which hydrated wood deforms under external tension. There is a particular need to revise current "cartoons" of plant cell walls to be more consistent with data from diverse approaches and to go beyond summarizing limited aspects of cell walls, serving instead as guides for future experiments and for the application of new techniques.

  8. Mesenchymal Wnt Signaling Promotes Formation of Sternum and Thoracic Body Wall

    PubMed Central

    Snowball, John; Ambalavanan, Manoj; Cornett, Bridget; Lang, Richard; Whitsett, Jeff; Sinner, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Midline defects account for approximately 5% of congenital abnormalities observed at birth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the ventral body wall are not well understood. Recent studies linked mutations in Porcupine—an O-acetyl transferase mediating Wnt ligand acylation—with defects in the thoracic body wall. We hypothesized that anomalous Wnt signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of defective closure of the thoracic body wall. We generated a mouse model wherein Wntless (Wls), which encodes a cargo receptor mediating secretion of Wnt ligands, was conditionally deleted from the developing mesenchyme using Dermo1Cre mice. Wlsf/f;Dermo1Cre/+ embryos died during mid-gestation. At E13.5, skeletal defects were observed in the forelimbs, jaw, and rib cage. At E14.5, midline defects in the thoracic body wall began to emerge: the sternum failed to fuse and the heart protruded through the body wall at the midline (ectopia cordis). To determine the molecular mechanism underlying the phenotype observed in Wlsf/f;Dermo1Cre/+ embryos, we tested whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling was operative in developing the embryonic ventral body wall using Axin2LacZ and BatGal reporter mice. While Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity was observed at the midline of the ventral body wall before sternal fusion, this pattern of activity was altered and scattered throughout the body wall after mesenchymal deletion of Wls. Mesenchymal cell migration was disrupted in Wlsf/f;Dermo1Cre/+ thoracic body wall partially due to anomalous non-canonical Wnt signaling as determined by in vitro assays. Deletion of Lrp5 and Lrp6 receptors, which mediate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the mesenchyme, partially recapitulated the phenotype observed in the chest midline of Wlsf/f;Dermo1Cre/+ embryos supporting a role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity in the normal formation of the ventral body wall mesenchyme. We conclude that Wls-mediated secretion of Wnt ligands from the

  9. Mesenchymal Wnt signaling promotes formation of sternum and thoracic body wall.

    PubMed

    Snowball, John; Ambalavanan, Manoj; Cornett, Bridget; Lang, Richard; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Sinner, Debora

    2015-05-15

    Midline defects account for approximately 5% of congenital abnormalities observed at birth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the ventral body wall are not well understood. Recent studies linked mutations in Porcupine-an O-acetyl transferase mediating Wnt ligand acylation-with defects in the thoracic body wall. We hypothesized that anomalous Wnt signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of defective closure of the thoracic body wall. We generated a mouse model wherein Wntless (Wls), which encodes a cargo receptor mediating secretion of Wnt ligands, was conditionally deleted from the developing mesenchyme using Dermo1Cre mice. Wls(f/f);Dermo1(Cre/+) embryos died during mid-gestation. At E13.5, skeletal defects were observed in the forelimbs, jaw, and rib cage. At E14.5, midline defects in the thoracic body wall began to emerge: the sternum failed to fuse and the heart protruded through the body wall at the midline (ectopia cordis). To determine the molecular mechanism underlying the phenotype observed in Wls(f/f);Dermo1(Cre/+) embryos, we tested whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling was operative in developing the embryonic ventral body wall using Axin2(LacZ) and BatGal reporter mice. While Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity was observed at the midline of the ventral body wall before sternal fusion, this pattern of activity was altered and scattered throughout the body wall after mesenchymal deletion of Wls. Mesenchymal cell migration was disrupted in Wls(f/f);Dermo1(Cre/+) thoracic body wall partially due to anomalous β-catenin independent Wnt signaling as determined by in vitro assays. Deletion of Lrp5 and Lrp6 receptors, which mediate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the mesenchyme, partially recapitulated the phenotype observed in the chest midline of Wls(f/f);Dermo1(Cre/+) embryos supporting a role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity in the normal formation of the ventral body wall mesenchyme. We conclude that Wls-mediated secretion of Wnt

  10. Secondary instability of high-speed flows and the influence of wall cooling and suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.

    1992-01-01

    The periodic streamwise modulation of the supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers by a two dimensional first mode or second mode wave makes the resulting base flow susceptible to a broadband spanwise-periodic three dimensional type of instability. The principal parametric resonance of this instability (subharmonic) was analyzed using Floquet theory. The effect of Mach number and the effectiveness of wall cooling or wall suction in controlling the onset, the growth rate, and the vortical nature of the subharmonic secondary instability are assessed for both a first mode and a second mode primary wave. Results indicate that the secondary subharmonic instability of the insulated wall boundary layer is weakened as Mach number increases. Cooling of the wall destabilizes the secondary subharmonic of a second mode primary wave, but stabilizes it when the primary wave is a first mode. Suction stabilizes the secondary subharmonic at all Mach numbers.

  11. Secondary instability of high-speed flows and the influence of wall cooling and suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.

    1992-01-01

    The periodic streamwise modulation of the supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers by a two-dimensional first-mode or second-mode wave makes the resulting base flow susceptible to a broadband spanwise-periodic three-dimensional type of instability. The principal parametric resonance of this instability (subharmonic) has been analyzed using Floquet theory. The effect of Mach number and the effectiveness of wall cooling or wall suction in controlling the onset, the growth rate, and the vortical structure of the subharmonic secondary instability are assessed for both a first-mode and a second-mode primary wave. Results indicate that the secondary subharmonic instability of an insulated wall boundary layer is weakened as Mach number increases. Cooling of the wall destabilizes the secondary subharmonic of a second-mode primary wave, but stabilizes it when the primary wave is a first mode. Suction stabilizes the secondary subharmonic at all Mach numbers.

  12. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  13. Characteristics of a Sheath with Secondary Electron Emission in the Double Walls of a Hall Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ping; Li, Xi; Shen, Hongjuan; Chen, Long; E, Peng

    2012-09-01

    In order to investigate the effects of secondary electrons, which are emitted from the wall, on the performance of a thruster, a one-dimensional fluid model of the plasma sheath in double walls is applied to study the characteristics of a magnetized sheath. The effects of secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficients and trapping coefficients, as well as magnetic field, on the structure of the plasma sheath are investigated. The results show that sheath potential and wall potential rise with the increment of SEE coefficient and trapping coefficient which results in a reduced sheath thickness. In addition, magnetic field strength will influence the sheath potential distributions.

  14. Rho of Plant GTPase Signaling Regulates the Behavior of Arabidopsis Kinesin-13A to Establish Secondary Cell Wall Patterns[W

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yoshihisa; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2013-01-01

    Plant cortical microtubule arrays determine the cell wall deposition pattern and proper cell shape and function. Although various microtubule-associated proteins regulate the cortical microtubule array, the mechanisms underlying marked rearrangement of cortical microtubules during xylem differentiation are not fully understood. Here, we show that local Rho of Plant (ROP) GTPase signaling targets an Arabidopsis thaliana kinesin-13 protein, Kinesin-13A, to cortical microtubules to establish distinct patterns of secondary cell wall formation in xylem cells. Kinesin-13A was preferentially localized with cortical microtubules in secondary cell wall pits, areas where cortical microtubules are depolymerized to prevent cell wall deposition. This localization of Kinesin-13A required the presence of the activated ROP GTPase, MICROTUBULE DEPLETION DOMAIN1 (MIDD1) protein, and cortical microtubules. Knockdown of Kinesin-13A resulted in the formation of smaller secondary wall pits, while overexpression of Kinesin-13A enlarged their surface area. Kinesin-13A alone could depolymerize microtubules in vitro; however, both MIDD1 and Kinesin-13A were required for the depolymerization of cortical microtubules in vivo. These results indicate that Kinesin-13A regulates the formation of secondary wall pits by promoting cortical microtubule depolymerization via the ROP-MIDD1 pathway. PMID:24280391

  15. Exogenously applied 24-epi brassinolide reduces lignification and alters cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis in the secondary xylem of Liriodendron tulipifera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyunjung; Do, Jihye; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, Young Im; Kim, Wook; Kwon, Mi

    2014-05-01

    The roles of brassinosteroids (BRs) in vasculature development have been implicated based on an analysis of Arabidopsis BR mutants and suspension cells of Zinnia elegans. However, the effects of BRs in vascular development of a woody species have not been demonstrated. In this study, 24-epi brassinolide (BL) was applied to the vascular cambium of a vertical stem of a 2-year-old Liriodendron, and the resulting chemical and anatomical phenotypes were characterized to uncover the roles of BRs in secondary xylem formation of a woody species. The growth in xylary cells was clearly promoted when treated with BL. Statistical analysis indicated that the length of both types of xylary cells (fiber and vessel elements) increased significantly after BL application. Histochemical analysis demonstrated that BL-induced growth promotion involved the acceleration of cell division and cell elongation. Histochemical and expression analysis of several lignin biosynthetic genes indicated that most genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway were significantly down-regulated in BL-treated stems compared to that in control stems. Chemical analysis of secondary xylem demonstrated that BL treatment induced significant modification in the cell wall carbohydrates, including biosynthesis of hemicellulose and cellulose. Lignocellulose crystallinity decreased significantly, and the hemicellulose composition changed with significant increases in galactan and arabinan. Thus, BL has regulatory roles in the biosynthesis and modification of secondary cell wall components and cell wall assembly during secondary xylem development in woody plants.

  16. Transcriptional control of secondary growth and wood formation.

    Treesearch

    Juan Du; Andrew Groover

    2010-01-01

    Secondary growth and wood formation are products of the vascular cambium, a lateral meristem. Although the mechanisms have only recently begun to be uncovered, transcriptional regulation appears increasingly central to the regulation of secondary growth. The importance of transcriptional regulation is illustrated by the correlation of expression of specific classes of...

  17. A possible formation mechanism of double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotube: a molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dianrong; Luo, Chenglin; Dai, Yafei; Zhu, Xingfeng

    2016-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations based on an empirical potential were performed to study the interaction of graphene nanoribbons and the single-walled carbon nanotubes. The results indicated that a piece of graphene nanoribbon can form a tube structure inside or outside single-walled carbon nanotubes spontaneously under certain condition. Based on this kind of spontaneous phenomenon, we proposed a new possible formation mechanism of double walled carbon nanotube and multi-walled carbon nanotube, and suggested the possibility of controlling the structure of double-walled carbon nanotube and/or multi-walled carbon nanotube.

  18. Formation of secondary radiation fields at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshenko, G.; Paraipan, M.

    2009-09-01

    The crucial points of a radiation shielding design for a relativistic heavy ion accelerator are the source term problem, neutron fluence and dose attenuation characteristics of the shielding. Simulations of the radiation shielding for JINR's Nuclotron-Based Ion Facility (NICA) project were carried out using the GEANT4 code. Some regularities in the secondary neutron field generation at the 4.5 GeV/n uranium beam interaction with thick targets are discussed. Neutron attenuation by the ordinary concrete shielding of NICA was considered as well.

  19. On the Secondary Eyewall Formation of Hurricane Edouard (2014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarca, Sergio F.; Montgomery, Michael T.; Braun, Scott A.; Dunion, Jason

    2016-01-01

    A first observationally-based estimation of departures from gradient wind balance during secondary eyewall formation is presented. The study is based on the Atlantic Hurricane Edouard (2014). This storm was observed during the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) experiment, a field campaign conducted in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). A total of 135 dropsondes are analyzed in two separate time periods: one named the secondary eyewall formation period and the other one referred to as the decaying-double eyewalled storm period. During the secondary eyewall formation period, a time when the storm was observed to have only one eyewall, the diagnosed agradient force has a secondary maxima that coincides with the radial location of the secondary eyewall observed in the second period of study. The maximum spin up tendency of the radial influx of absolute vertical vorticity is within the boundary layer in the region of the eyewall of the storm and the spin up tendency structure elongates radially outward into the secondary region of supergradient wind, where the secondary wind maxima is observed in the second period of study. An analysis of the boundary layer averaged vertical structure of equivalent potential temperature reveals a conditionally unstable environment in the secondary eyewall formation region. These findings support the hypothesis that deep convective activity in this region contributed to spin up of the boundary layer tangential winds and the formation of a secondary eyewall that is observed during the decaying-double eyewalled storm period.

  20. Longitudinal domain wall formation in elongated assemblies of ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Varón, Miriam; Beleggia, Marco; Jordanovic, Jelena; Schiøtz, Jakob; Kasama, Takeshi; Puntes, Victor F; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2015-09-29

    Through evaporation of dense colloids of ferromagnetic ~13 nm ε-Co particles onto carbon substrates, anisotropic magnetic dipolar interactions can support formation of elongated particle structures with aggregate thicknesses of 100-400 nm and lengths of up to some hundred microns. Lorenz microscopy and electron holography reveal collective magnetic ordering in these structures. However, in contrast to continuous ferromagnetic thin films of comparable dimensions, domain walls appear preferentially as longitudinal, i.e., oriented parallel to the long axis of the nanoparticle assemblies. We explain this unusual domain structure as the result of dipolar interactions and shape anisotropy, in the absence of inter-particle exchange coupling.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of secondary growth and wood formation.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Groover, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Secondary growth and wood formation are products of the vascular cambium, a lateral meristem. Although the mechanisms have only recently begun to be uncovered, transcriptional regulation appears increasingly central to the regulation of secondary growth. The importance of transcriptional regulation is illustrated by the correlation of expression of specific classes of genes with related biological processes occurring at specific stages of secondary growth, including cell division, cell expansion, and cell differentiation. At the same time, transcription factors have been characterized that affect specific aspects of secondary growth, including regulation of the cambium and differentiation of cambial daughter cells. In the present review, we summarize evidence pointing to transcription as a major mechanism for regulation of secondary growth, and outline future approaches for comprehensively describing transcriptional networks underlying secondary growth.

  2. The toughness of secondary cell wall and woody tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, P. W.; Tan, H. T. W.; Cheng, P. Y.

    1997-01-01

    The 'across grain' toughness of 51 woods has been determined on thin wet sections using scissors. The moisture content of sections and the varying sharpness of the scissor blades had little effect on the results. In thin sections (less than 0.6mm), toughness rose linearly with section thickness. The intercept toughness at zero thickness, estimated from regression analysis, was proportional to relative density, consistent with values reported for non-woody plant tissues. Extrapolation of the intercept toughness of these woods and other plant tissues/materials to a relative density of 1.0 predicted a toughness of 3.45kJ m-2 , which we identify with the intrinsic toughness of the cell wall. This quantity appears to predict published results from KIC tests on woods and is related to the propensity for crack deflection. The slope of the relationship between section thickness and toughness, describing the work of plastic buckling of cells, was not proportional to relative density, the lightest (balsa) and heaviest (lignum vitae) woods fracturing with less plastic work than predicted. The size of the plastic zone around the crack tip was estimated to be 0.5mm in size. From this, the hypothetical overall toughness of a thick (greater than 1 mm) block of solid cell wall material was calculated as 39.35 kJ m-2, due to both cell wall resistance (10 per cent) and the plastic buckling of cells (90 per cent). This value successfully predicts the toughness of most commercial woods (of relative densities between 0.2 and 0.8) from 'work area' tests in tension and bending. Though density was the most important factor, both fibre width/fibre length (in hardwoods) and lignin/cellulose ratios were negatively correlated with the work of plastic buckling, after correcting for density. At low densities the work of plastic buckling in the longitudinal radial (LR) direction exceeded that in longitudinal tangential (LT), but the reverse was true for relative densities above 0.25. This could

  3. In-situ Raman microprobe studies of plant cell walls: macromolecular organization and compositional variability in the secondary wall of Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.

    Treesearch

    U.P. Agarwal; R.H. Atalla

    1986-01-01

    Native-state organization and distribution of cell-wall components in the secondary wall of woody tissue from P. mariana (Black Spruce) have been investigated using polarized Raman microspectroscopy. Evidence for orientation is detected through Raman intensity variations resulting from rotations of the exciting electric vector with respect to cell-wall geometry....

  4. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Douglas, Carl

    2014-05-23

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  5. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shucai; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D; Douglas, Carl J

    2014-05-23

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  6. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shucai; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Douglas, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes. PMID:24852237

  7. Development of Cellulosic Secondary Walls in Flax Fibers Requires β-Galactosidase1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Melissa J.; Mokshina, Natalia Y.; Badhan, Ajay; Snegireva, Anastasiya V.; Hobson, Neil; Deyholos, Michael K.; Gorshkova, Tatyana A.

    2011-01-01

    Bast (phloem) fibers, tension wood fibers, and other cells with gelatinous-type secondary walls are rich in crystalline cellulose. In developing bast fibers of flax (Linum usitatissimum), a galactan-enriched matrix (Gn-layer) is gradually modified into a mature cellulosic gelatinous-layer (G-layer), which ultimately comprises most of the secondary cell wall. Previous studies have correlated this maturation process with expression of a putative β-galactosidase. Here, we demonstrate that β-galactosidase activity is in fact necessary for the dynamic remodeling of polysaccharides that occurs during normal secondary wall development in flax fibers. We found that developing stems of transgenic (LuBGAL-RNAi) flax with reduced β-galactosidase activity had lower concentrations of free Gal and had significant reductions in the thickness of mature cellulosic G-layers compared with controls. Conversely, Gn-layers, labeled intensively by the galactan-specific LM5 antibody, were greatly expanded in LuBGAL-RNAi transgenic plants. Gross morphology and stem anatomy, including the thickness of bast fiber walls, were otherwise unaffected by silencing of β-galactosidase transcripts. These results demonstrate a specific requirement for β-galactosidase in hydrolysis of galactans during formation of cellulosic G-layers. Transgenic lines with reduced β-galactosidase activity also had biochemical and spectroscopic properties consistent with a reduction in cellulose crystallinity. We further demonstrated that the tensile strength of normal flax stems is dependent on β-galactosidase-mediated development of the phloem fiber G-layer. Thus, the mechanical strength that typifies flax stems is dependent on a thick, cellulosic G-layer, which itself depends on β-galactosidase activity within the precursor Gn-layer. These observations demonstrate a novel role for matrix polysaccharides in cellulose deposition; the relevance of these observations to the development of cell walls in other

  8. Engineering the formation of secondary building blocks within hollow interiors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobo; Liu, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Li, Mingrun; Zhao, Jiao; Xin, Hongchuan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yan; Li, Can; Yang, Qihua

    2012-03-15

    Secondary building blocks within the cavities of primary silica-architecture building blocks are successfully engineered. The immobilized surfactant directs the selective dissolution and reassembly of dissolved silicate species for the formation of secondary building blocks (hollow nanospheres/nanorods; see figure). Supported TiO(2) on nanostructures with multilevel interiors is shown to exhibit significantly enhanced activity in photocatalytic H(2) production. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cellulose synthase complexes act in a concerted fashion to synthesize highly aggregated cellulose in secondary cell walls of plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Zheng, Yunzhen; Xin, Xiaoran; Huang, Shixin; Kong, Zhaosheng; Kim, Seong H.; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Gu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose, often touted as the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, is a critical component of the plant cell wall and is synthesized by plasma membrane-spanning cellulose synthase (CESA) enzymes, which in plants are organized into rosette-like CESA complexes (CSCs). Plants construct two types of cell walls, primary cell walls (PCWs) and secondary cell walls (SCWs), which differ in composition, structure, and purpose. Cellulose in PCWs and SCWs is chemically identical but has different physical characteristics. During PCW synthesis, multiple dispersed CSCs move along a shared linear track in opposing directions while synthesizing cellulose microfibrils with low aggregation. In contrast, during SCW synthesis, we observed swaths of densely arranged CSCs that moved in the same direction along tracks while synthesizing cellulose microfibrils that became highly aggregated. Our data support a model in which distinct spatiotemporal features of active CSCs during PCW and SCW synthesis contribute to the formation of cellulose with distinct structure and organization in PCWs and SCWs of Arabidopsis thaliana. This study provides a foundation for understanding differences in the formation, structure, and organization of cellulose in PCWs and SCWs. PMID:27647923

  10. Cellulose synthase complexes act in a concerted fashion to synthesize highly aggregated cellulose in secondary cell walls of plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Zheng, Yunzhen; Xin, Xiaoran; Huang, Shixin; Kong, Zhaosheng; Kim, Seong H; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Gu, Ying

    2016-10-04

    Cellulose, often touted as the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, is a critical component of the plant cell wall and is synthesized by plasma membrane-spanning cellulose synthase (CESA) enzymes, which in plants are organized into rosette-like CESA complexes (CSCs). Plants construct two types of cell walls, primary cell walls (PCWs) and secondary cell walls (SCWs), which differ in composition, structure, and purpose. Cellulose in PCWs and SCWs is chemically identical but has different physical characteristics. During PCW synthesis, multiple dispersed CSCs move along a shared linear track in opposing directions while synthesizing cellulose microfibrils with low aggregation. In contrast, during SCW synthesis, we observed swaths of densely arranged CSCs that moved in the same direction along tracks while synthesizing cellulose microfibrils that became highly aggregated. Our data support a model in which distinct spatiotemporal features of active CSCs during PCW and SCW synthesis contribute to the formation of cellulose with distinct structure and organization in PCWs and SCWs of Arabidopsis thaliana This study provides a foundation for understanding differences in the formation, structure, and organization of cellulose in PCWs and SCWs.

  11. The role of the secondary cell wall in plant resistance to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Miedes, Eva; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Molina, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plant resistance to pathogens relies on a complex network of constitutive and inducible defensive barriers. The plant cell wall is one of the barriers that pathogens need to overcome to successfully colonize plant tissues. The traditional view of the plant cell wall as a passive barrier has evolved to a concept that considers the wall as a dynamic structure that regulates both constitutive and inducible defense mechanisms, and as a source of signaling molecules that trigger immune responses. The secondary cell walls of plants also represent a carbon-neutral feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) for the production of biofuels and biomaterials. Therefore, engineering plants with improved secondary cell wall characteristics is an interesting strategy to ease the processing of lignocellulosic biomass in the biorefinery. However, modification of the integrity of the cell wall by impairment of proteins required for its biosynthesis or remodeling may impact the plants resistance to pathogens. This review summarizes our understanding of the role of the plant cell wall in pathogen resistance with a focus on the contribution of lignin to this biological process.

  12. The role of the secondary cell wall in plant resistance to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Miedes, Eva; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Molina, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plant resistance to pathogens relies on a complex network of constitutive and inducible defensive barriers. The plant cell wall is one of the barriers that pathogens need to overcome to successfully colonize plant tissues. The traditional view of the plant cell wall as a passive barrier has evolved to a concept that considers the wall as a dynamic structure that regulates both constitutive and inducible defense mechanisms, and as a source of signaling molecules that trigger immune responses. The secondary cell walls of plants also represent a carbon-neutral feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) for the production of biofuels and biomaterials. Therefore, engineering plants with improved secondary cell wall characteristics is an interesting strategy to ease the processing of lignocellulosic biomass in the biorefinery. However, modification of the integrity of the cell wall by impairment of proteins required for its biosynthesis or remodeling may impact the plants resistance to pathogens. This review summarizes our understanding of the role of the plant cell wall in pathogen resistance with a focus on the contribution of lignin to this biological process. PMID:25161657

  13. SND1, a NAC domain transcription factor, is a key regulator of secondary wall synthesis in fibers of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Demura, Taku; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2006-11-01

    Secondary walls in fibers and tracheary elements constitute the most abundant biomass produced by plants. Although a number of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components have been characterized, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the coordinated expression of these genes. Here, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana NAC (for NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) domain transcription factor, SND1 (for secondary wall-associated NAC domain protein), is a key transcriptional switch regulating secondary wall synthesis in fibers. We show that SND1 is expressed specifically in interfascicular fibers and xylary fibers in stems and that dominant repression of SND1 causes a drastic reduction in the secondary wall thickening of fibers. Ectopic overexpression of SND1 results in activation of the expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes, leading to massive deposition of secondary walls in cells that are normally nonsclerenchymatous. In addition, we have found that SND1 upregulates the expression of several transcription factors that are highly expressed in fibers during secondary wall synthesis. Together, our results reveal that SND1 is a key transcriptional activator involved in secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers.

  14. The history of the walls of the Acropolis of Athens and the natural history of secondary fracture healing process.

    PubMed

    Lyritis, G P

    2000-09-01

    During its long and adventurous history, the Acropolis of Athens has been a site of many dramatic events. It suffered its most disastrous destruction during the Persian wars. Under the command of King Xerxes, the Persians invaded Athens and ruined the Temple of the Parthenon and the walls of the Acropolis. After their victorious sea battle at Salamis, the Athenians, led by Themistocles, returned home and tried to repair the damage. Their priority still was to defend their city by restoring the walls of the Acropolis. Materials of all kinds were salvaged from the ruins of the Acropolis and used for an immediate reconstruction of the walls. Later, when the Athenians became the leaders of the Greek world, it was decided that the walls should be rebuilt in a proper artistic way. Themistocles suggested that a small section of the walls, which had formerly been a part of the urgent restoration, should remain in place so as to remind the citizens of this historical event. This is a characteristic example of the biological and mechanical adaptation of fracture callus to musculoskeletal function. After a period of urgency with the fixation of a fracture by means of a primitive secondary callus formation, the broken limb gradually returns to its usual function. Increased mechanical loading enhances the remodelling of the callus and the replacement of woven bone with lamellar bone.

  15. Arabidopsis NAC Domain Proteins, VND1 to VND5, Are Transcriptional Regulators of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis in Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianli; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of xylem conducting cells is the deposition of secondary walls. In Arabidopsis, secondary wall biosynthesis in the xylem conducting cells, vessels, has been shown to be regulated by two VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) genes, VND6 and VND7. In this report, we have investigated the roles of five additional Arabidopsis VND genes, VND1 to VND5, in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis in vessels. The VND1 to VND5 genes were shown to be specifically expressed in vessels but not in interfascicular fibers in stems. The expression of VND4 and VND5 was also seen specifically in vessels in the secondary xylem of the root-hypocotyl region. When overexpressed, VND1 to VND5 were able to activate the expression of secondary wall-associated transcription factors and genes involved in secondary wall biosynthesis and programmed cell death. As a result, many normally parenchymatous cells in leaves and stems acquired thickened secondary walls in the VND1 to VND5 overexpressors. In contrast, dominant repression of VND3 function resulted in reduced secondary wall thickening in vessels and a collapsed vessel phenotype. In addition, VND1 to VND5 were shown to be capable of rescuing the secondary wall defects in the fibers of the snd1 nst1 double mutant when expressed under the SND1 promoter. Furthermore, transactivation analysis revealed that VND1 to VND5 could activate expression of the GUS reporter gene driven by the secondary wall NAC binding element (SNBE). Together, these results demonstrate that VND1 to VND5 possess functions similar to that of the SND1 secondary wall NAC and are transcriptional regulators of secondary wall biosynthesis in vessels. PMID:25148240

  16. [Secondary metabolites accumulating and geoherbs formation under enviromental stress].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2007-02-01

    This paper analyzed how habitat affected the formation of geoherbs after summarizing the influences of environmental stress on plants growth, especially on theirs secondary metabolites accumulating, and introducing 4 kinds hypothesis about environmental stress affects plants. It was then pointed out that environmental stress may have advantage on the formation of geoherbs. The stress effect hypothesis on forming geoherbs was brought forward, and the ways and methods on study the geoherbs under environmental stress was discussed.

  17. FT-IR examination of the development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The secondary cell wall development of cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering was examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. Generally, a progressive intensity increase for bands assigned to cellulose Iß was ...

  18. Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

  19. Hepatic abscess secondary to a fishbone penetrating the gastric wall: CT demonstration.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, S; Abe, M; Imura, T; Asano, M; Minami, S; Fujisawa, I

    1991-01-01

    Preoperative diagnosis of hepatic abscess due to foreign bodies penetrating the gastrointestinal tract is uncommon with conventional imaging methods. This report describes and illustrates a case of hepatic abscess secondary to a fishbone penetrating the gastric antrum wall which was diagnosed preoperatively by CT and confirmed at surgery. The value of CT in the preoperative diagnosis of cases of this kind is emphasized.

  20. Longitudinal domain wall formation in elongated assemblies of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Varón, Miriam; Beleggia, Marco; Jordanovic, Jelena; Schiøtz, Jakob; Kasama, Takeshi; Puntes, Victor F.; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Through evaporation of dense colloids of ferromagnetic ~13 nm ε-Co particles onto carbon substrates, anisotropic magnetic dipolar interactions can support formation of elongated particle structures with aggregate thicknesses of 100–400 nm and lengths of up to some hundred microns. Lorenz microscopy and electron holography reveal collective magnetic ordering in these structures. However, in contrast to continuous ferromagnetic thin films of comparable dimensions, domain walls appear preferentially as longitudinal, i.e., oriented parallel to the long axis of the nanoparticle assemblies. We explain this unusual domain structure as the result of dipolar interactions and shape anisotropy, in the absence of inter-particle exchange coupling. PMID:26416297

  1. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ISOPRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is c...

  2. A Review of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Formation from Isoprene

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent field and laboratory evidence indicates that the oxidation of isoprene forms secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Global biogenic emissions of isoprene (600 Tg yr-1) are sufficiently large the formation of SOA is even small yields results in substantial production ...

  3. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ISOPRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is c...

  4. Optical properties and polymer wall formation in cholesteric displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Volodymyr H.

    Stacks of thin layers of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) reflecting light selectively with no polarizers or color filters have proved to be very promising for bright reflective displays. Two- and three-layer stacked displays are capable of showing multiple colors without parallax when addressed with a binary drive and full color when gray scale addressing schemes are used with three CLC layers of primary colors. Although several types of reflective color displays with stacked cholesteric layers have been made, their performance has not been fully optimized and little effort has been made to determine factors influencing it in order. In addition, the ruggedness of CLC-based displays in many cases (especially with plastic substrates) is not sufficient. In this study, reflective properties of double- and triple-layer stacks of various color, chirality, and stack order were analyzed. It has been found that stack order breaks the equity of light propagation direction in stacks comprised of cells with imperfect planar structures. To explain this inequity, a light propagation model incorporating forward scattering in CLC layers with angular distribution of the helical axes has been proposed. By using results of the optical characterization of single and multiple CLC layers, an optimized configuration of color and chirality of stacked CLC layers for full color reflective displays was determined. Electric-field-induced polymer walls are proved to provide ruggedness and pixel separation in CLC displays. Formation of such walls in multiplexed cells was investigated through microscopic observations and numerical calculations and its mechanism was determined. Numerical calculations of the charge distributions on electrodes, as well as potential and electric fields in patterned cells, showed that discontinuity of the electrode surfaces caused a nonuniform distribution of charges in the electrodes leading to a highly nonuniform electric field. Together with a mismatch of

  5. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA) Genes from Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuemei; Wang, Qiuyu; Chen, Pengfei; Song, Funan; Guan, Minxiao; Jin, Lihua; Wang, Yucheng; Yang, Chuanping

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose synthase (CESA), which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the CesA gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as BplCesA3, −4, −7 and −8. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their Arabidopsis homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four BplCesAs were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in Betula. The distinct expression pattern of the four BplCesAs suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in Betula. PMID:23202892

  6. Four novel cellulose synthase (CESA) genes from Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) involved in primary and secondary cell Wall biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Wang, Qiuyu; Chen, Pengfei; Song, Funan; Guan, Minxiao; Jin, Lihua; Wang, Yucheng; Yang, Chuanping

    2012-09-25

    Cellulose synthase (CESA), which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the CesA gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as BplCesA3, -4, -7 and -8. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their Arabidopsis homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four BplCesAs were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in Betula. The distinct expression pattern of the four BplCesAs suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in Betula.

  7. Fluctuation theory of single-walled carbon nanotube formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosel, Sergey V.; Onischuk, Andrei A.; Purtov, Peter A.; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2013-11-01

    In the framework of classical fluctuation theory an analytical formula is derived for the reversible work of formation of just detached carbon cap on the surface of catalyst nanoparticle (NP). This cap is considered as single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) formation center. The work of cap formation depends on the source carbon chemical potential μC. Using the derived formula for this work an expression for the rate of SWCNT formation is determined. From this expression the SWCNT diameter distributions can be obtained. The obtained distributions have sharp maxima. It is found that the modal SWCNT diameter dm increases weakly with μC being in the narrow window of 1.0 < dm < 1.8 nm when changing the source carbon chemical potential in a wide range. The determined diameter distributions proved to be in a good agreement with the typical values of the SWCNT diameters as experimentally measured in the chemical vapor deposition process. The increase of dm is accompanied by the increase of the distribution width Δd. The selectivity dm/Δd is a function of μC, the higher values of μC the worse selectivity is observed. Although the value of the SWCNT formation rate I cannot be calculated precisely the relationship between I and the system parameters, such as the NP radius RS, can be obtained. This relationship is derived for the solid-liquid-solid system. To determine the function I(RS) for nanotubes of a certain diameter d, formulas for catalyst/amorphous carbon mutual solubilities as functions of NP radius are derived in the framework of the rigorous Gibbs theory of interface. Using the derived formulas an expression giving the dependence I(RS) is obtained. The expression predicts an increase of I with the radius RS. The estimations carried out for the metal/carbon interface surface tension of 1000 mN/m show that the SWCNT formation rate increases by a few orders of magnitude with the radius increase from 1 to 10 nm.

  8. Secondary instability of high-speed flows and the influence of wall cooling and suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.

    1991-01-01

    The periodic streamwise modulation of the supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers by a two-dimensional first-mode or second-mode wave makes the resulting base flow susceptible to a broad-band spanwise-periodic three-dimensional type of instability. The principal parametric resonance of this instability (subharmonic) has been analyzed using Floquet theory. The effect of Mach number and the effectiveness of wall cooling or wall suction in controlling the onset, the growth rate, and the vortical structure of the subharmonic secondary instability are assessed for both a first-mode and a second-mode primary wave.

  9. Studying Secondary Growth and Bast Fiber Development: The Hemp Hypocotyl Peeks behind the Wall.

    PubMed

    Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Žižková, Eva; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre I; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e., elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e., 6-9-15-20 days after sowing) to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases, and transcription factors involved in light-related processes) and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors).

  10. Studying Secondary Growth and Bast Fiber Development: The Hemp Hypocotyl Peeks behind the Wall

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Žižková, Eva; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre I.; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e., elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e., 6–9–15–20 days after sowing) to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases, and transcription factors involved in light-related processes) and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors). PMID:27917184

  11. SND2, a NAC transcription factor gene, regulates genes involved in secondary cell wall development in Arabidopsis fibres and increases fibre cell area in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Steven G; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Spokevicius, Antanas V; Bossinger, Gerd; Berger, Dave K; Myburg, Alexander A

    2011-12-01

    NAC domain transcription factors initiate secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis fibres and vessels by activating numerous transcriptional regulators and biosynthetic genes. NAC family member SND2 is an indirect target of a principal regulator of fibre secondary cell wall formation, SND1. A previous study showed that overexpression of SND2 produced a fibre cell-specific increase in secondary cell wall thickness in Arabidopsis stems, and that the protein was able to transactivate the cellulose synthase8 (CesA8) promoter. However, the full repertoire of genes regulated by SND2 is unknown, and the effect of its overexpression on cell wall chemistry remains unexplored. We overexpressed SND2 in Arabidopsis and analyzed homozygous lines with regards to stem chemistry, biomass and fibre secondary cell wall thickness. A line showing upregulation of CesA8 was selected for transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling. We found evidence for upregulation of biosynthetic genes associated with cellulose, xylan, mannan and lignin polymerization in this line, in agreement with significant co-expression of these genes with native SND2 transcripts according to public microarray repositories. Only minor alterations in cell wall chemistry were detected. Transcription factor MYB103, in addition to SND1, was upregulated in SND2-overexpressing plants, and we detected upregulation of genes encoding components of a signal transduction machinery recently proposed to initiate secondary cell wall formation. Several homozygous T4 and hemizygous T1 transgenic lines with pronounced SND2 overexpression levels revealed a negative impact on fibre wall deposition, which may be indirectly attributable to excessive overexpression rather than co-suppression. Conversely, overexpression of SND2 in Eucalyptus stems led to increased fibre cross-sectional cell area. This study supports a function for SND2 in the regulation of cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthetic genes in addition of those

  12. SND2, a NAC transcription factor gene, regulates genes involved in secondary cell wall development in Arabidopsis fibres and increases fibre cell area in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background NAC domain transcription factors initiate secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis fibres and vessels by activating numerous transcriptional regulators and biosynthetic genes. NAC family member SND2 is an indirect target of a principal regulator of fibre secondary cell wall formation, SND1. A previous study showed that overexpression of SND2 produced a fibre cell-specific increase in secondary cell wall thickness in Arabidopsis stems, and that the protein was able to transactivate the cellulose synthase8 (CesA8) promoter. However, the full repertoire of genes regulated by SND2 is unknown, and the effect of its overexpression on cell wall chemistry remains unexplored. Results We overexpressed SND2 in Arabidopsis and analyzed homozygous lines with regards to stem chemistry, biomass and fibre secondary cell wall thickness. A line showing upregulation of CesA8 was selected for transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling. We found evidence for upregulation of biosynthetic genes associated with cellulose, xylan, mannan and lignin polymerization in this line, in agreement with significant co-expression of these genes with native SND2 transcripts according to public microarray repositories. Only minor alterations in cell wall chemistry were detected. Transcription factor MYB103, in addition to SND1, was upregulated in SND2-overexpressing plants, and we detected upregulation of genes encoding components of a signal transduction machinery recently proposed to initiate secondary cell wall formation. Several homozygous T4 and hemizygous T1 transgenic lines with pronounced SND2 overexpression levels revealed a negative impact on fibre wall deposition, which may be indirectly attributable to excessive overexpression rather than co-suppression. Conversely, overexpression of SND2 in Eucalyptus stems led to increased fibre cross-sectional cell area. Conclusions This study supports a function for SND2 in the regulation of cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthetic

  13. Starting to Gel: How Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Produce Specialized Secondary Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Yang, Bo; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Günl, Markus; Usadel, Björn

    2015-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Arabidopsis seed coat epidermis (SCE) has been used as a model system to study the synthesis, secretion and modification of cell wall polysaccharides, particularly pectin. Our detailed re-evaluation of available biochemical data highlights that Arabidopsis seed mucilage is more than just pectin. Typical secondary wall polymers such as xylans and heteromannans are also present in mucilage. Despite their low abundance, these components appear to play essential roles in controlling mucilage properties, and should be further investigated. We also provide a comprehensive community resource by re-assessing the mucilage phenotypes of almost 20 mutants using the same conditions. We conduct an in-depth functional evaluation of all the SCE genes described in the literature and propose a revised model for mucilage production. Further investigation of SCE cells will improve our understanding of plant cell walls. PMID:25658798

  14. Formation of halogen-induced secondary organic aerosol (XOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, Katharina; Ofner, Johannes; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Held, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Reactive halogen species (RHS) are very important due to their potential of stratospheric ozone depletion and surface ozone destruction. RHS seem to interact with precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) similarly to common atmospheric oxidants like OH radicals and ozone. The potential interaction of RHS with preformed SOA has recently been studied (Ofner et al., 2012). Although aerosol formation from reaction of RHS with typical SOA precursors was previously studied (e.g. Cai et al., 2006), no data are available on bromine-induced aerosol formation from organic precursors yet. An aerosol smog-chamber was used to examine the halogen-induced secondary organic aerosol (XOA) formation under atmospheric conditions using simulated sunlight. With a concentration of 10 ppb for the organic precursor, 2 ppb for molecular chlorine, and 10 ppb for molecular bromine, the experimental setup is close to ambient conditions. By combined measurements of the aerosol size distribution, ozone and NOx mixing ratios, as well as the decay of the organic precursor, aerosol yields and aerosol growth rates were determined. The decay of the organic precursor was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) and the aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Additionally, with the decay rate of the precursor and the calculated photolysis rates of molecular halogen species, based on the well-known spectrum of the solar simulator, mechanistic details on the XOA formation pathways can be determined. We observed XOA formation even at very low precursor and RHS concentrations with a diameter mode at 10-20 nm and a number concentration up to 1000000 particles cm-3. While the XOA formation from chlorine is very rapid, the interaction of bromine with the organic precursors is about five times slower. The aerosol yield reached maximum values of 0.01 for the reaction of chlorine with α-pinene and 0.0004 for

  15. Pinoresinol reductase 1 impacts lignin distribution during secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Qiao; Zeng, Yining; Yin, Yanbin; ...

    2014-08-05

    In this paper, pinoresinol reductase (PrR) catalyzes the conversion of the lignan (-)-pinoresinol to (-)-lariciresinol in Arabidopsis thaliana, where it is encoded by two genes, PrR1 and PrR2, that appear to act redundantly. PrR1 is highly expressed in lignified inflorescence stem tissue, whereas PrR2 expression is barely detectable in stems. Co-expression analysis has indicated that PrR1 is co-expressed with many characterized genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas PrR2 expression clusters with a different set of genes. The promoter of the PrR1 gene is regulated by the secondary cell wall related transcription factors SND1 and MYB46. The loss-of-function mutantmore » of PrR1 shows, in addition to elevated levels of pinoresinol, significantly decreased lignin content and a slightly altered lignin structure with lower abundance of cinnamyl alcohol end groups. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy analysis indicated that the lignin content of the prr1-1 loss-of-function mutant is similar to that of wild-type plants in xylem cells, which exhibit a normal phenotype, but is reduced in the fiber cells. Finally, together, these data suggest an association of the lignan biosynthetic enzyme encoded by PrR1 with secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fiber cells.« less

  16. Pinoresinol reductase 1 impacts lignin distribution during secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qiao; Zeng, Yining; Yin, Yanbin; Pu, Yunqiao; Jackson, Lisa A.; Engle, Nancy L.; Martin, Madhavi Z.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    In this paper, pinoresinol reductase (PrR) catalyzes the conversion of the lignan (-)-pinoresinol to (-)-lariciresinol in Arabidopsis thaliana, where it is encoded by two genes, PrR1 and PrR2, that appear to act redundantly. PrR1 is highly expressed in lignified inflorescence stem tissue, whereas PrR2 expression is barely detectable in stems. Co-expression analysis has indicated that PrR1 is co-expressed with many characterized genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas PrR2 expression clusters with a different set of genes. The promoter of the PrR1 gene is regulated by the secondary cell wall related transcription factors SND1 and MYB46. The loss-of-function mutant of PrR1 shows, in addition to elevated levels of pinoresinol, significantly decreased lignin content and a slightly altered lignin structure with lower abundance of cinnamyl alcohol end groups. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy analysis indicated that the lignin content of the prr1-1 loss-of-function mutant is similar to that of wild-type plants in xylem cells, which exhibit a normal phenotype, but is reduced in the fiber cells. Finally, together, these data suggest an association of the lignan biosynthetic enzyme encoded by PrR1 with secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fiber cells.

  17. Pinoresinol reductase 1 impacts lignin distribution during secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiao; Zeng, Yining; Yin, Yanbin; Pu, Yunqiao; Jackson, Lisa A; Engle, Nancy L; Martin, Madhavi Z; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Dixon, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Pinoresinol reductase (PrR) catalyzes the conversion of the lignan (-)-pinoresinol to (-)-lariciresinol in Arabidopsis thaliana, where it is encoded by two genes, PrR1 and PrR2, that appear to act redundantly. PrR1 is highly expressed in lignified inflorescence stem tissue, whereas PrR2 expression is barely detectable in stems. Co-expression analysis has indicated that PrR1 is co-expressed with many characterized genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas PrR2 expression clusters with a different set of genes. The promoter of the PrR1 gene is regulated by the secondary cell wall related transcription factors SND1 and MYB46. The loss-of-function mutant of PrR1 shows, in addition to elevated levels of pinoresinol, significantly decreased lignin content and a slightly altered lignin structure with lower abundance of cinnamyl alcohol end groups. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy analysis indicated that the lignin content of the prr1-1 loss-of-function mutant is similar to that of wild-type plants in xylem cells, which exhibit a normal phenotype, but is reduced in the fiber cells. Together, these data suggest an association of the lignan biosynthetic enzyme encoded by PrR1 with secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fiber cells.

  18. Secondary Organic Aerosol formation from the gas-phase ozonolysis of 3-methylcatechol and 4-methylcatechol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Foulon, Valentine; Laréal, Michel; Cassez, Andy; Zhao, Weixiong

    2010-05-01

    Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation during the ozonolysis of 3-methylcatechol (3-methyl-1,2-dihydroxybenzene) and 4-methylcatechol (3-methyl-1,2-dihydroxybenzene) was investigated using a simulation chamber (8 m3) at atmospheric pressure, room temperature (294 ± 2 K) and low relative humidity (5-10%). The initial mixing ratios were as follows (in ppb): 3-methylcatechol (194-1059), 4-methylcatechol (204-1188) and ozone (93-531). The ozone and methylcatechol concentrations were followed by UV photometry and GC-FID (Gas Chromatography - Flame ionization detector), respectively and the aerosol production was monitored using a SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer). The SOA yields (Y) were determined as the ratio of the suspended aerosol mass corrected for wall losses (Mo) to the total reacted methylcatechol concentrations assuming a particle density of 1.4 g cm-3. The aerosol formation yield increases as the initial methylcatechol concentration increases, and leads to aerosol yields ranging from 32% to 67% and from 30% to 64% for 3-methylcatechol and 4-methylcatechol, respectively. Y is a strong function of Mo and the organic aerosol formation can be expressed by a one-product gas/particle partitioning absorption model. These data are comparable to those published in a recent study on secondary organic aerosol formation from catechol ozonolysis. To our knowledge, this work represents the first investigation of SOA formation from the ozone reaction with methylcatechols.

  19. Formation of surface nanodroplets facing a structured microchannel wall.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haitao; Maheshwari, Shantanu; Zhu, Jiuyang; Lohse, Detlef; Zhang, Xuehua

    2017-04-11

    Surface nanodroplets are important units for lab-on-a-chip devices, compartmentalised catalytic reactions, high-resolution near-field imaging, and many others. Solvent exchange is a simple solution-based bottom-up approach for producing surface nanodroplets by displacing a good solvent of the droplet liquid by a poor one in a narrow channel in the laminar regime. The droplet size is controlled by the solution composition and the flow conditions during the solvent exchange. In this paper, we investigated the effects of local microfluidic structures on the formation of surface nanodroplets. The microstructures consist of a microgap with a well-defined geometry, embedded on the opposite microchannel wall, facing the substrate where nucleation takes place. For a given channel height, the dimensionless control parameters were the Peclet number of the flow, the ratio between the gap height and the channel height, and the aspect ratio between the gap length and the channel height. We found and explained three prominent features in the surface nanodroplet distribution at the surface opposite to the microgap: (i) enhanced volume of the droplets; (ii) asymmetry as compared to the location of the gap in the spatial droplet distribution with increasing Pe; (iii) reduced exponent of the effective scaling law of the droplet size with Pe. The droplet size also varied with the aspect and height ratios of the microgap at a given Pe value. Our simulations of the profile of oversaturation in the channel reveal that the droplet size distribution may be attributed to the local flow patterns induced by the gap. Finally, in a tapered microchannel, a gradient of surface nanodroplet size was obtained. Our work shows the potential for controlling nanodroplet size and spatial organization on a homogeneous surface in a bottom-up approach by simple microfluidic structures.

  20. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor that is specifically expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers affects secondary cell wall biosynthesis and deposition in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Gong, Si-Ying; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Li, Yang; Li, Wen; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-07-01

    Secondary cell wall (SCW) is an important industrial raw material for pulping, papermaking, construction, lumbering, textiles and potentially for biofuel production. The process of SCW thickening of cotton fibers lays down the cellulose that will constitute the bulk (up to 96%) of the fiber at maturity. In this study, a gene encoding a MYB-domain protein was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated as GhMYBL1. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that GhMYBL1 was specifically expressed in cotton fibers at the stage of secondary wall deposition. Further analysis indicated that this protein is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor, and is targeted to the cell nucleus. Overexpression of GhMYBL1 in Arabidopsis affected the formation of SCW in the stem xylem of the transgenic plants. The enhanced SCW thickening also occurred in the interfascicular fibers, xylary fibers and vessels of the GhMYBL1-overexpression transgenic plants. The expression of secondary wall-associated genes, such as CesA4, CesA7, CesA8, PAL1, F5H and 4CL1, were upregulated, and consequently, cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were enhanced in the GhMYBL1 transgenic plants. These data suggested that GhMYBL1 may participate in modulating the process of secondary wall biosynthesis and deposition of cotton fibers.

  1. Tissue and cell-specific transcriptomes in cotton reveal the subtleties of gene regulation underlying the diversity of plant secondary cell walls

    DOE PAGES

    MacMillan, Colleen P.; Birke, Hannah; Chuah, Aaron; ...

    2017-07-18

    Knowledge of plant secondary cell wall (SCW) regulation and deposition is mainly based on the Arabidopsis model of a ‘typical’ lignocellulosic SCW. However, SCWs in other plants can vary from this. The SCW of mature cotton seed fibres is highly cellulosic and lacks lignification whereas xylem SCWs are lignocellulosic. We used cotton as a model to study different SCWs and the expression of the genes involved in their formation via RNA deep sequencing and chemical analysis of stem and seed fibre.

  2. Characterization and Localization of Insoluble Organic Matrices Associated with Diatom Cell Walls: Insight into Their Roles during Cell Wall Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tesson, Benoit; Hildebrand, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Organic components associated with diatom cell wall silica are important for the formation, integrity, and function of the cell wall. Polysaccharides are associated with the silica, however their localization, structure, and function remain poorly understood. We used imaging and biochemical approaches to describe in detail characteristics of insoluble organic components associated with the cell wall in 5 different diatom species. Results show that an insoluble organic matrix enriched in mannose, likely the diatotepum, is localized on the proximal surface of the silica cell wall. We did not identify any organic matrix embedded within the silica. We also identified a distinct material consisting of glucose polymer with variable localization depending on the species. In some species this component was directly involved in the morphogenesis of silica structure while in others it appeared to be only a structural component of the cell wall. A novel glucose-rich structure located between daughter cells during division was also identified. This work for the first time correlates the structure, composition, and localization of insoluble organic matrices associated with diatom cell walls. Additionally we identified a novel glucose polymer and characterized its role during silica structure formation. PMID:23626714

  3. Kinetic regimes for formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Berkemeier, Thomas; Schilling-Fahnestock, Katherine; Seinfeld, John; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Here we present a conceptual framework of kinetic regime and limiting cases for formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The limiting step of SOA formation can be identified following the developed classification scheme, which is based on three fundamental properties of oxidation products: the reaction location, the saturation ratio, and the heterogeneity in the gas and particle phases. Using the kinetic multi-layer model of gas-particle interactions (KM-GAP) (Shiraiwa et al., 2012), we have analyzed the experimental data of photooxidation of dodecane and subsequent SOA formation. We have found that the contribution of intermediate gas-phase oxidation products to SOA formation is most likely limited by gas-phase reaction, validating the assumption of instantaneous equilibrium partitioning. For semi-volatile and low volatility gas-phase oxidation products, partitioning into the particle phase can be limited by surface accommodation, and possibly by bulk diffusion when organic aerosols adopt glassy or amorphous solid state. The formation of low volatility particle-phase products, such as oligomers and other high molar mass compounds, may be limited by reaction and diffusion in the particle. The 2D evolution plot of molar mass vs. volatility is useful to overview SOA formation and aging. The average molar mass of the organic compounds can be used as a yardstick to estimate relative contribution of gas- vs. particle-phase chemistry to SOA formation. The relatively high values of measured average molar mass for ambient and laboratory-generated SOA imply the importance of particle-phase chemistry in SOA formation.

  4. Domain wall formation in late-time phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Wang, Yun

    1992-01-01

    We examine domain wall formulation in late time phase transitions. We find that in the invisible axion domain wall phenomenon, thermal effects alone are insufficient to drive different parts of the disconnected vacuum manifold. This suggests that domain walls do not form unless either there is some supplemental (but perhaps not unreasonable) dynamics to localize the scalar field responsible for the phase transition to the low temperature maximum (to an extraordinary precision) before the onset of the phase transition, or there is some non-thermal mechanism to produce large fluctuations in the scalar field. The fact that domain wall production is not a robust prediction of late time transitions may suggest future directions in model building.

  5. A Study on the Aqueous Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, K.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2013-12-01

    The effect aerosols have on radiative forcing in the atmosphere is recognized as one of the largest uncertainties in the radiation budget. About 80% of organic aerosol mass in the atmosphere is estimated to be created though secondary processes. Recently, the aqueous formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has become recognized as important when considering the source, transformation and radiative impacts of SOA. This work focuses on implementing a mechanism for aqueous SOA formation that can be used in atmospheric chemistry and models of all scales, from box to global. A box model containing a simplified chemical mechanism for the aqueous production of precursors of aqueous SOA (Myriokefalitakis et al. (2011) is coupled to gas-phase chemistry which uses the carbon bond mechanism (CBM) IV is presented. The model implements aqueous chemistry of soluble gases, both in-cloud and aerosol water, including organic compounds such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, which have been shown as potentially significant sources for dissolved secondary organic aerosols. This mechanism implements aqueous phase mass transfer and molecular dissociation. The model's performance is evaluated against previous box model studies from the literature. A comparison is conducted between the detailed GAMMA model (McNeill et al., 2012), which is constrained with chamber experiments and the one developed here. The model output under different atmospheric conditions is explored and differences and sensitivities are assessed. The objective of this work is to create a robust framework for simulating aqueous phase formation of SOA and maximizing the computational efficiency of the model, while maintaining accuracy, in order to later use the exact mechanism in global climate simulations.

  6. Formation of secondary organic aerosols from the ozonolysis of dihydrofurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Bracco, Larisa; Rodriguez, Diana; Rodriguez, Ana

    2017-02-01

    In this work we report the study of the ozonolysis of 2,5-dihydrofuran and 2,3-dihydrofuran and the reaction conditions leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The reactions have been carried out in a Teflon chamber filled with synthetic air mixtures at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ozonolysis only produced particles in the presence of SO2. Rising relative humidity from 0 to 40 % had no effect on the production of secondary organic aerosol in the case of 2,5-dihydrofuran, while it reduced the particle number and particle mass concentrations from the 2,3-dihydrofuran ozonolysis. The water-to-SO2 rate constant ratio for the 2,3-dihydrofuran Criegee intermediate was derived from the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields in experiments with different relative humidity values, kH2O/kSO2 = (9.8 ± 3.7) × 10-5. The experimental results show that SO3 may not be the only intermediate involved in the formation or growth of new particles in contrast to the data reported for other Criegee intermediate-SO2 reactions. For the studied reactions, SO2 concentrations remained constant during the experiments, behaving as a catalyst in the production of condensable products. Computational calculations also show that the stabilised Criegee intermediates from the ozonolysis reaction of both 2,5-dihydrofuran and 2,3-dihydrofuran may react with SO2, resulting in the regeneration of SO2 and the formation of low-volatility organic acids.

  7. Widespread primary, but geographically restricted secondary, human introductions of wall lizards, Podarcis muralis.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Sozos N; While, Geoffrey M; Zajac, Natalia; Uller, Tobias

    2015-06-01

    Establishing the introduction pathways of alien species is a fundamental task in invasion biology. The common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, has been widely introduced outside of its native range in both Europe and North America, primarily through escaped pets or deliberate release of animals from captive or wild populations. Here, we use Bayesian clustering, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) methods and network analyses to reconstruct the origin and colonization history of 23 non-native populations of wall lizards in England. Our analyses show that established populations in southern England originate from at least nine separate sources of animals from native populations in France and Italy. Secondary introductions from previously established non-native populations were supported for eleven (47%) populations. In contrast to the primary introductions, secondary introductions were highly restricted geographically and appear to have occurred within a limited time frame rather than being increasingly common. Together, these data suggest that extant wall lizard populations in England are the result of isolated accidental and deliberate releases of imported animals since the 1970s, with only local translocation of animals from established non-native populations. Given that populations introduced as recently as 25 years ago show evidence of having adapted to cool climate, discouraging further translocations may be important to prevent more extensive establishment on the south coast of England. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in sorghum bicolor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target to alter the abundance and composition of lignin. The major regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism are myb transcription factors, which have been shown to modulate secondary cell wall compositi...

  9. Formation and Applications of the Secondary Fiber Bragg Grating †

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Bai-Ou; Ran, Yang; Feng, Fu-Rong; Jin, Long

    2017-01-01

    Being one of the most proven fiber optic devices, the fiber Bragg grating has developed continually to extend its applications, particularly in extreme environments. Accompanying the growth of Type-IIa Bragg gratings in some active fibers, a new resonance appears at the shorter wavelength. This new type of grating was named “secondary Bragg grating” (SBG). This paper describes the formation and applications of the SBGs. The formation of the SBG is attributed to the intracore Talbot-type-fringes as a result of multi-order diffractions of the inscribing beams. The SBG presents a variety of interesting characteristics, including dip merge, high-temperature resistance, distinct temperature response, and the strong higher-order harmonic reflection. These features enable its promising applications in fiber lasers and fiber sensing technology. PMID:28218697

  10. Matching Electron Beams Without Secondary Collimation for Treatment of Extensive Recurrent Chest-Wall Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Feygelman, Vladimir; Mandelzweig, Yuri; Baral, Ed

    2015-01-15

    Matching electron beams without secondary collimators (applicators) were used for treatment of extensive, recurrent chest-wall carcinoma. Due to the wide penumbra of such beams, the homogeneity of the dose distribution at and around the junction point is clinically acceptable and relatively insensitive to positional errors. Specifically, dose around the junction point is homogeneous to within ±4% as calculated from beam profiles, while the positional error of 1 cm leaves this number essentially unchanged. The experimental isodose distribution in an anthropomorphic phantom supports this conclusion. Two electron beams with wide penumbra were used to cover the desired treatment area with satisfactory dose homogeneity. The technique is relatively simple yet clinically useful and can be considered a viable alternative for treatment of extensive chest-wall disease. The steps are suggested to make this technique more universal.

  11. Intrusive growth of primary and secondary phloem fibres in hemp stem determines fibre-bundle formation and structure

    PubMed Central

    Snegireva, Anastasia; Chernova, Tatyana; Ageeva, Marina; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gorshkova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibres—cells with important mechanical functions and a widely used raw material—are usually identified in microscopic sections only after reaching a significant length or after developing a thickened cell wall. We characterized the early developmental stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa) stem phloem fibres, both primary (originating from the procambium) and secondary (originating in the cambium), when they still had only a primary cell wall. We gave a major emphasis to the role of intrusive elongation, the specific type of plant cell growth by which fibres commonly attain large cell length. We could identify primary phloem fibres at a distance of only 1.2–1.5 mm from the shoot apical meristem when they grew symplastically with the surrounding tissues. Half a millimeter further downwards along the stem, fibres began their intrusive elongation, which led to a sharp increase in fibre numbers visible within the stem cross-sections. The intrusive elongation of primary phloem fibres was completed within the several distal centimetres of the growing stem, before the onset of their secondary cell wall formation. The formation of secondary phloem fibres started long after the beginning of secondary xylem formation. Our data indicate that only a small portion of the fusiform cambial initials (<10 %) give rise directly or via their derivatives to secondary phloem fibres. The key determinant of final bundle structure, both for primary and secondary phloem fibres, is intrusive growth. Through bi-directional elongation, fibres join other fibres initiated individually in other stem levels, thus forming the bundles. Our results provide the specific developmental basis for further biochemical and molecular-genetic studies of phloem fibre development in hemp, but may be applied to many other species. PMID:26019229

  12. Disruption of secondary wall cellulose biosynthesis alters cadmium translocation and tolerance in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Qin; Liu, Li-Feng; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Bao-Cai; Gao, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Ling; Lin, Qing-Shan; Ling, Hong-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Hua

    2013-05-01

    Tricheary elements (TEs), wrapped by secondary cell wall, play essential roles in water, mineral, and nutrient transduction. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that is absorbed by roots and transported to shoot, leaves, and grains through vascular systems in plants. As rice is a major source of Cd intake, many efforts have been made to establish 'low-Cd rice'. However, no links have been found between cellulose biosynthesis and cadmium accumulation. We report here a rice brittle culm13 mutant, resulting from a novel missense mutation (E101K) [corrected] in the N-terminus of cellulose synthase subunit 9 (CESA9). Except for the abnormal mechanical strength, the mutant plants are morphologically indistinguishable from the wild-type plants. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and chemical analyses showed a slight reduction in secondary wall thickness and 22% decrease in cellulose content in bc13 plants. Moreover, this mutation unexpectedly confers the mutant plants Cd tolerance due to less Cd accumulation in leaves. Expression analysis of the genes required for Cd uptake and transport revealed complicated alterations after applying Cd to wild-type and bc13. The mutants were further found to have altered vascular structure. More importantly, Cd concentration in the xylem saps from the bc13 plants was significantly lower than that from the wild-type. Combining the analyses of CESA9 gene expression and Cd content retention in the cell-wall residues, we conclude that CESA9(E101K) [corrected] mutation alters cell-wall properties in the conducting tissues, which consequently affects Cd translocation efficiency that largely contributes to the low Cd accumulation in the mutant plants.

  13. Mutations of Arabidopsis TBL32 and TBL33 affect xylan acetylation and secondary wall deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; ...

    2016-01-08

    Xylan is a major acetylated polymer in plant lignocellulosic biomass and it can be monoand di-acetylated at O-2 and O-3 as well as mono-acetylated at O-3 of xylosyl residues that is substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA) at O-2. Based on the finding that ESK1, an Arabidopsis thaliana DUF231 protein, specifically mediates xylan 2-O- and 3-O-monoacetylation, we previously proposed that different acetyltransferase activities are required for regiospecific acetyl substitutions of xylan. Here, we demonstrate the functional roles of TBL32 and TBL33, two ESK1 close homologs, in acetyl substitutions of xylan. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32 and TBL33 resulted in a significant reductionmore » in xylan acetyl content and endoxylanase digestion of the mutant xylan released GlcA-substituted xylooligomers without acetyl groups. Structural analysis of xylan revealed that the tbl32 tbl33 mutant had a nearly complete loss of 3-O-acetylated, 2-O-GlcA-substituted xylosyl residues. A reduction in 3-Omonoacetylated and 2,3-di-O-acetylated xylosyl residues was also observed. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32, TBL33 and ESK1 resulted in a severe reduction in xylan acetyl level down to 15% of that of the wild type, and concomitantly, severely collapsed vessels and stunted plant growth. In particular, the S2 layer of secondary walls in xylem vessels of tbl33 esk1 and tbl32 tbl33 esk1 exhibited an altered structure, indicating abnormal assembly of secondary wall polymers. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that TBL32 and TBL33 play an important role in xylan acetylation and normal deposition of secondary walls.« less

  14. Contrasting nitrogen fertilization treatments impact xylem gene expression and secondary cell wall lignification in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Soler, Marçal; Salazar, Marcela Mendes; Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Alves, Ana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Martinez, Yves; Deckmann, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-09-28

    Nitrogen (N) is a main nutrient required for tree growth and biomass accumulation. In this study, we analyzed the effects of contrasting nitrogen fertilization treatments on the phenotypes of fast growing Eucalyptus hybrids (E. urophylla x E. grandis) with a special focus on xylem secondary cell walls and global gene expression patterns. Histological observations of the xylem secondary cell walls further confirmed by chemical analyses showed that lignin was reduced by luxuriant fertilization, whereas a consistent lignin deposition was observed in trees grown in N-limiting conditions. Also, the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was significantly lower in luxuriant nitrogen samples. Deep sequencing RNAseq analyses allowed us to identify a high number of differentially expressed genes (1,469) between contrasting N treatments. This number is dramatically higher than those obtained in similar studies performed in poplar but using microarrays. Remarkably, all the genes involved the general phenylpropanoid metabolism and lignin pathway were found to be down-regulated in response to high N availability. These findings further confirmed by RT-qPCR are in agreement with the reduced amount of lignin in xylem secondary cell walls of these plants. This work enabled us to identify, at the whole genome level, xylem genes differentially regulated by N availability, some of which are involved in the environmental control of xylogenesis. It further illustrates that N fertilization can be used to alter the quantity and quality of lignocellulosic biomass in Eucalyptus, offering exciting prospects for the pulp and paper industry and for the use of short coppices plantations to produce second generation biofuels.

  15. Mutations of Arabidopsis TBL32 and TBL33 Affect Xylan Acetylation and Secondary Wall Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Haghighat, Marziyeh; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xylan is a major acetylated polymer in plant lignocellulosic biomass and it can be mono- and di-acetylated at O-2 and O-3 as well as mono-acetylated at O-3 of xylosyl residues that is substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA) at O-2. Based on the finding that ESK1, an Arabidopsis thaliana DUF231 protein, specifically mediates xylan 2-O- and 3-O-monoacetylation, we previously proposed that different acetyltransferase activities are required for regiospecific acetyl substitutions of xylan. Here, we demonstrate the functional roles of TBL32 and TBL33, two ESK1 close homologs, in acetyl substitutions of xylan. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32 and TBL33 resulted in a significant reduction in xylan acetyl content and endoxylanase digestion of the mutant xylan released GlcA-substituted xylooligomers without acetyl groups. Structural analysis of xylan revealed that the tbl32 tbl33 mutant had a nearly complete loss of 3-O-acetylated, 2-O-GlcA-substituted xylosyl residues. A reduction in 3-O-monoacetylated and 2,3-di-O-acetylated xylosyl residues was also observed. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32, TBL33 and ESK1 resulted in a severe reduction in xylan acetyl level down to 15% of that of the wild type, and concomitantly, severely collapsed vessels and stunted plant growth. In particular, the S2 layer of secondary walls in xylem vessels of tbl33 esk1 and tbl32 tbl33 esk1 exhibited an altered structure, indicating abnormal assembly of secondary wall polymers. These results demonstrate that TBL32 and TBL33 play an important role in xylan acetylation and normal deposition of secondary walls. PMID:26745802

  16. Secondary Organic Aerosol formation from the gas-phase reaction of catechol with ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coeur-Tourneur, C.; Tomas, A.; Guilloteau, A.; Henry, F.; Ledoux, F.; Visez, N.; Riffault, V.; Wenger, J. C.; Bedjanian, Y.; Foulon, V.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol from the gas-phase reaction of catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) with ozone has been studied in two smog chambers (at the LPCA in France and at the CRAC in Ireland). Aerosol production was monitored using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The overall organic aerosol yield (Y) was determined as the ratio of the suspended aerosol mass corrected for wall losses (Mo) to the total reacted catechol concentrations, assuming a particle density of 1.4 g cm-3. Analysis of the data clearly shows that Y is a strong function of Mo and that secondary organic aerosol formation can be expressed by a one-product gas/particle partitioning absorption model. The aerosol formation is affected by the initial catechol concentration, which leads to aerosol yields ranging from 17% to 86%. The aerosol yields determined in the LPCA and CRAC smog chambers were comparable and were also in accordance with those determined in a previous study performed in EUPHORE (EUropean PHOto REactor, Spain).

  17. Topological repulsion between domain walls in magnetic nanowires leading to the formation of bound states.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Luc; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Moriya, Rai; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart

    2012-05-01

    Head-to-head and tail-to-tail magnetic domain walls in nanowires behave as free magnetic monopoles carrying a single magnetic charge. Since adjacent walls always carry opposite charges, they attract one another. In most cases this long-range attractive interaction leads to annihilation of the two domain walls. Here, we show that, in some cases, a short-range repulsive interaction suppresses annihilation of the walls, even though the lowest energy state is without any domain walls. This repulsive interaction is a consequence of topological edge defects that have the same winding number. We show that the competition between the attractive and repulsive interactions leads to the formation of metastable bound states made up of two or more domain walls. We have created bound states formed from up to eight domain walls, corresponding to the magnetization winding up over four complete 360° rotations.

  18. Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Activity Regulates Tomato Root Growth via Effects on Secondary Cell Wall Production1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    van der Merwe, Margaretha J.; Osorio, Sonia; Araújo, Wagner L.; Balbo, Ilse; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Maximova, Eugenia; Carrari, Fernando; Bunik, Victoria I.; Persson, Staffan; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’) plants independently expressing fragments of various genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in antisense orientation have previously been characterized as exhibiting altered root growth. In this study, we evaluate the rates of respiration of roots from these lines in addition to determining their total dry weight accumulation. Given that these features were highly correlated, we decided to carry out an evaluation of the cell wall composition in the transformants that revealed a substantial reduction in cellulose. Since the bulk of cellulose is associated with the secondary cell walls in roots, we reasoned that the transformants most likely were deficient in secondary wall cellulose production. Consistent with these findings, cross-sections of the root collar (approximately 15 mm from the junction between root and stem) displayed reduced lignified secondary cell walls for the transformants. In contrast, cell and cell wall patterning displayed no differences in elongating cells close to the root tip. To further characterize the modified cell wall metabolism, we performed feeding experiments in which we incubated excised root tips in [U-14C]glucose in the presence or absence of phosphonate inhibitors of the reaction catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. Taken together, the combined results suggest that restriction of root respiration leads to a deficit in secondary cell wall synthesis. These data are discussed in the context of current models of biomass partitioning and plant growth. PMID:20118274

  19. Reducing secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline vehicle exhaust.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Presto, Albert A; Gordon, Timothy D; Drozd, Greg T; Goldstein, Allen H; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

    2017-07-03

    On-road gasoline vehicles are a major source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in urban areas. We investigated SOA formation by oxidizing dilute, ambient-level exhaust concentrations from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles in a smog chamber. We measured less SOA formation from newer vehicles meeting more stringent emissions standards. This suggests that the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones that meet more stringent emissions standards should reduce SOA levels in urban environments. However, SOA production depends on both precursor concentrations (emissions) and atmospheric chemistry (SOA yields). We found a strongly nonlinear relationship between SOA formation and the ratio of nonmethane organic gas to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (NMOG:NOx), which affects the fate of peroxy radicals. For example, changing the NMOG:NOx from 4 to 10 ppbC/ppbNOx increased the SOA yield from dilute gasoline vehicle exhaust by a factor of 8. We investigated the implications of this relationship for the Los Angeles area. Although organic gas emissions from gasoline vehicles in Los Angeles are expected to fall by almost 80% over the next two decades, we predict no reduction in SOA production from these emissions due to the effects of rising NMOG:NOx on SOA yields. This highlights the importance of integrated emission control policies for NOx and organic gases.

  20. The MYB46 Transcription Factor Is a Direct Target of SND1 and Regulates Secondary Wall Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana MYB46 transcription factor is a direct target of SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1), which is a key transcriptional activator regulating the developmental program of secondary wall biosynthesis. The MYB46 gene is expressed predominantly in fibers and vessels in stems, and its encoded protein is targeted to the nucleus and can activate transcription. MYB46 gene expression was shown to be regulated by SND1, and transactivation analysis demonstrated that SND1 as well as its close homologs were able to activate the MYB46 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that SND1 binds to the MYB46 promoter. Dominant repression of MYB46 caused a drastic reduction in the secondary wall thickening of fibers and vessels. Overexpression of MYB46 resulted in an activation of the biosynthetic pathways of cellulose, xylan, and lignin and concomitantly led to ectopic deposition of secondary walls in cells that are normally nonsclerenchymatous. In addition, the expression of two secondary wall–associated transcription factors, MYB85 and KNAT7, was highly upregulated by MYB46 overexpression. These results demonstrate that MYB46 is a direct target of SND1 and is another key player in the transcriptional network involved in the regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:17890373

  1. Environmental and biofilm-dependent changes in a Bacillus cereus secondary cell wall polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Candela, Thomas; Maes, Emmanuel; Garénaux, Estelle; Rombouts, Yoann; Krzewinski, Frédéric; Gohar, Michel; Guérardel, Yann

    2011-09-09

    Bacterial species from the Bacillus genus, including Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, synthesize secondary cell wall polymers (SCWP) covalently associated to the peptidoglycan through a phospho-diester linkage. Although such components were observed in a wide panel of B. cereus and B. anthracis strains, the effect of culture conditions or of bacterial growth state on their synthesis has never been addressed. Herein we show that B. cereus ATCC 14579 can synthesize not only one, as previously reported, but two structurally unrelated secondary cell wall polymers (SCWP) polysaccharides. The first of these SCWP, →4)[GlcNAc(β1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-6)[Glc(β1-3)][ManNAc(α1-4)]GalNAc(α1-4)ManNAc(β1→, although presenting an original sequence, fits to the already described the canonical sequence motif of SCWP. In contrast, the second polysaccharide was made up by a totally original sequence, →6)Gal(α1-2)(2-R-hydroxyglutar-5-ylamido)Fuc2NAc4N(α1-6)GlcNAc(β1→, which no equivalent has ever been identified in the Bacillus genus. In addition, we established that the syntheses of these two polysaccharides were differently regulated. The first one is constantly expressed at the surface of the bacteria, whereas the expression of the second is tightly regulated by culture conditions and growth states, planktonic, or biofilm.

  2. Localization of sucrose synthase and callose in freeze-substituted secondary-wall-stage cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Salnikov, Vadim V; Grimson, Mark J; Seagull, Robert W; Haigler, Candace H

    2003-06-01

    Methods for cryogenic fixation, freeze substitution, and embedding were developed to preserve the cellular structure and protein localization of secondary-wall-stage cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers accurately for the first time. Perturbation by specimen handling was minimized by freezing fibers still attached to a seed fragment within 2 min after removal of seeds from a boll still attached to the plant. These methods revealed native ultrastructure, including numerous active Golgi bodies, multivesicular bodies, and proplastids. Immunolocalization in the context of accurate structure was accomplished after freeze substitution in acetone only. Quantitation of immunolabeling identified sucrose synthase both near the cortical microtubules and plasma membrane and in a proximal exoplasmic zone about 0.2 microm thick. Immunolabeling also showed that callose (beta-1,3-glucan) was codistributed with sucrose synthase within this exoplasmic zone. Similar results were obtained from cultured cotton fibers. The distribution of sucrose synthase is consistent with its having a dual role in cellulose and callose synthesis in secondary-wall-stage cotton fibers.

  3. Aesthetic and functional abdominal wall reconstruction after multiple bowel perforations secondary to liposuction.

    PubMed

    Di Candia, Michele; Malata, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    This report describes a case of aesthetic and functional abdominal wall reconstruction performed to salvage a deformed, scarred, and herniated anterior abdomen after severe peritonitis and partial rectus muscle necrosis secondary to multiple bowel perforations sustained during liposuction performed in a cosmetic clinic. The diagnosis of intestinal perforation was missed intraoperatively and in the immediate postoperative period. The patient was admitted 4 days after the surgery to the intensive therapy unit in septicemic shock. After resuscitation and stabilization, she was treated by debridement of the abdominal wall, bowel resection, and temporary jejunostomy and colostomy (reversed 10 months later). She was referred 18 months after liposuction to the Plastic Surgery Service with a large central midline abdominal incisional hernia presenting with thinned out skin (14 × 11 cm) overlying adherent bowel. A components separation technique was successfully used to reconstruct the abdominal wall, with no recurrent herniation 2 years later. Survivors of bowel perforations sustained during abdominal liposuction may later present with challenging aesthetic and functional problems, as described in this report. These long-term sequelae have not been addressed hitherto in the literature.

  4. Arterial wall degeneration plus hemodynamic insult cause arterial wall remodeling and nascent aneurysm formation at specific sites in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Qi; Li, Ming-Hua; Yan, Lei; Tan, Hua-Qiao; Cheng, Ying-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether arterial wall degeneration, in combination with hemodynamic insult, causes cerebral artery aneurysms in a dog model, we simulated the geometry and hemodynamics of a human artery by surgical reconstruction of both common carotid arteries in 12 dogs. The dogs were then randomly assigned to one of the following groups: hemodynamic insult + elastase insult group ( n = 6), hemodynamic insult group (n = 6), or elastase control group (n = 3), in which the straight common carotid arteries were subjected to elastase alone. Angiography and hemodynamic analysis were performed immediately and at 12 weeks after surgery; the animals were then killed for histologic evaluation. The 12 surgically reconstructed distal internal carotid arteries simulated the human artery well with respect to geometric and hemodynamic measurements, with the intended aneurysm sites exposed to higher wall shear stress and velocity, lower pressure, turbulent flow, and changes in wall shear stress gradient. Nascent aneurysms developed in 4 hemodynamic insult + elastase insult group dogs at 12 weeks; blood flow analysis demonstrated decreased wall shear stress, increased pressure, and wall shear stress gradient from the neck to the dome. Arterial wall remodeling or nascent aneurysm formation in the hemodynamic insult + elastase insult group versus the other groups was indicated by internal elastic lamina/elastic fiber disruption, muscular layer thinning, increased smooth muscle cell proliferation, macrophage infiltration, and high expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the media. These data suggest that nascent aneurysms were caused by the combination of arterial wall degeneration and hemodynamic perturbations in this distal internal carotid artery dog model.

  5. Secondary organic aerosol formation in biomass-burning plumes: theoretical analysis of lab studies and ambient plumes

    DOE PAGES

    Bian, Qijing; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kodros, John K.; ...

    2017-04-28

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has been shown to form in biomass-burning emissions in laboratory and field studies. However, there is significant variability among studies in mass enhancement, which could be due to differences in fuels, fire conditions, dilution, and/or limitations of laboratory experiments and observations. This study focuses on understanding processes affecting biomass-burning SOA formation in laboratory smog-chamber experiments and in ambient plumes. Vapor wall losses have been demonstrated to be an important factor that can suppress SOA formation in laboratory studies of traditional SOA precursors; however, impacts of vapor wall losses on biomass-burning SOA have not yet been investigated.more » We use an aerosol-microphysical model that includes representations of volatility and oxidation chemistry to estimate the influence of vapor wall loss on SOA formation observed in the FLAME III smog-chamber studies. Our simulations with base-case assumptions for chemistry and wall loss predict a mean OA mass enhancement (the ratio of final to initial OA mass, corrected for particle-phase wall losses) of 1.8 across all experiments when vapor wall losses are modeled, roughly matching the mean observed enhancement during FLAME III. The mean OA enhancement increases to over 3 when vapor wall losses are turned off, implying that vapor wall losses reduce the apparent SOA formation. We find that this decrease in the apparent SOA formation due to vapor wall losses is robust across the ranges of uncertainties in the key model assumptions for wall-loss and mass-transfer coefficients and chemical mechanisms. We then apply similar assumptions regarding SOA formation chemistry and physics to smoke emitted into the atmosphere. In ambient plumes, the plume dilution rate impacts the organic partitioning between the gas and particle phases, which may impact the potential for SOA to form as well as the rate of SOA formation. We add Gaussian dispersion to our aerosol

  6. Secondary organic aerosol formation in biomass-burning plumes: theoretical analysis of lab studies and ambient plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Qijing; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kodros, John K.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Hatch, Lindsay E.; May, Andrew A.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2017-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has been shown to form in biomass-burning emissions in laboratory and field studies. However, there is significant variability among studies in mass enhancement, which could be due to differences in fuels, fire conditions, dilution, and/or limitations of laboratory experiments and observations. This study focuses on understanding processes affecting biomass-burning SOA formation in laboratory smog-chamber experiments and in ambient plumes. Vapor wall losses have been demonstrated to be an important factor that can suppress SOA formation in laboratory studies of traditional SOA precursors; however, impacts of vapor wall losses on biomass-burning SOA have not yet been investigated. We use an aerosol-microphysical model that includes representations of volatility and oxidation chemistry to estimate the influence of vapor wall loss on SOA formation observed in the FLAME III smog-chamber studies. Our simulations with base-case assumptions for chemistry and wall loss predict a mean OA mass enhancement (the ratio of final to initial OA mass, corrected for particle-phase wall losses) of 1.8 across all experiments when vapor wall losses are modeled, roughly matching the mean observed enhancement during FLAME III. The mean OA enhancement increases to over 3 when vapor wall losses are turned off, implying that vapor wall losses reduce the apparent SOA formation. We find that this decrease in the apparent SOA formation due to vapor wall losses is robust across the ranges of uncertainties in the key model assumptions for wall-loss and mass-transfer coefficients and chemical mechanisms.We then apply similar assumptions regarding SOA formation chemistry and physics to smoke emitted into the atmosphere. In ambient plumes, the plume dilution rate impacts the organic partitioning between the gas and particle phases, which may impact the potential for SOA to form as well as the rate of SOA formation. We add Gaussian dispersion to our aerosol

  7. Formation and stability of secondary structures in globular proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bascle, J.; Garel, T.; Orland, H.

    1993-02-01

    We study two models for the formation and packing of helices and sheets in globular (compact) proteins. These models, based on weighted Hamiltonian paths on a regular lattice both exhibit a first order transition between a compact high temperature phase, with no extended secondary structures, and a quasi-frozen compact phase, with secondary structures invading the whole lattice. The quasi-frozen phase with very weak temperature dependence, is identified as the native phase of proteins, whereas the high-temperature phase may be relevant to the so-called molten globule state of proteins. Nous étudions deux modèles pour la formation et l'empilement d'hélices ou de feuillets dans la phase globulaire (compacte) des protéines. ces modèles, fondés sur des chemins hamiltoniens pondérés sur réseau, possèdent une transition de phase du premier ordre, entre (i) une phase haute température compacte, avec structures secondaires non étendues, et (ii) une phase compacte quasi-gelée, où les structures secondaires envahissent tout le réseau. La phase quasi-gelée, qui a une dépendance en température très faible, est identifiée à la phase native des protéines; la phase haute température est peut-être reliée à la phase native “globule fondu” (molten globule) des protéines.

  8. Streptomycetes in micro-cultures: growth, production of secondary metabolites, and storage and retrieval in the 96-well format.

    PubMed

    Minas, W; Bailey, J E; Duetz, W

    2000-12-01

    Mycelium-forming Streptomyces strains were grown in one milliliter liquid micro-cultures in square deep-well microtiter plates. Growth was evaluated with respect to biomass formation and production of secondary metabolites which were found to be very similar in the micro-cultures, bioreactor, and shake flask cultivations, respectively. Despite repetitive sampling and extensive growth on the walls of the wells, no cross contamination occurred. Furthermore, we successfully employed cold storage at -20 degrees C of spore suspensions (in the 96-well format), directly prepared from cultures grown on agar in the microtitre plate. Cultures were retrieved by replicating aliquots from the frozen spore suspensions.

  9. On the Dynamics of Hurricane Secondary Eyewall Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Dr.; Brunet, Dr.; Yau, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the fact that asymmetries in hurricanes, such as spiral rainbands, polygonal eyewalls and mesovortices, have long been observed in radar imagery, many aspects of their dynamics still remain unsolved, particularly in the formation of the secondary eyewall. The underlying associated dynamical processes need to be better understood to advance the science of hurricane intensity forecasting. To fill this gap, a simple 2D barotropic "dry" model and the high-resolution PSU-NCAR non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) are used to study hurricane asymmetries. The Empirical Mormal Modes (ENM) and the newly developed Space-Time Empirical Normal Modes (ST-ENM) techniques, together with the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux calculations, are used to isolate wave modes from the model datasets to investigate their impact on the changes in the structure and intensity of the simulated hurricanes. From the ENM diagnostics of the 2D simulations, it is shown that when asymmetric disturbances are placed outside a strong vortex ring with a large vorticity skirt they relax to form concentric rings of enhanced vorticity that contain a secondary wind maximum. The role of internal dynamics on Concentric Eyewall Genesis (CEG) is further evaluated using the full physics MM5 simulation. The leading modes of the ST-ENM diagnostics exhibit mainly characteristics of vortex Rossby waves (VRWs) and their contribution to the EP flux divergence induced two regions of maximum tangential wind acceleration; one inside the primary eyewall which accounts for eyewall contraction and the other outside the primary eyewall which explains the development of the secondary eyewall. A signal of maximum eddy angular momentum propagating outwards to the critical radius of the mode suggests a redistribution of angular momentum and potential vorticity re-arrangement around that area. The fact that the critical radius for some of the leading modes is close to the location where the secondary eyewall eventually develops

  10. Cotton GhMYB7 is predominantly expressed in developing fibers and regulates secondary cell wall biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junfeng; Chen, Feng; Wu, Siyu; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenliang

    2016-02-01

    The secondary cell wall in mature cotton fibers contains over 90% cellulose with low quantities of xylan and lignin. However, little is known regarding the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in cotton fibers. In this study, we characterized an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GhMYB7, in cotton. GhMYB7 is expressed at a high level in developing fibers and encodes a MYB protein that is targeted to the cell nucleus and has transcriptional activation activity. Ectopic expression of GhMYB7 in Arabidopsis resulted in small, curled, dark green leaves and also led to shorter inflorescence stems. A cross-sectional assay of basal stems revealed that cell wall thickness of vessels and interfascicular fibers was higher in transgenic lines overexpressing GhMYB7 than in the wild type. Constitutive expression of GhMYB7 in Arabidopsis activated the expression of a suite of secondary cell wall biosynthesis-related genes (including some secondary cell wall-associated transcription factors), leading to the ectopic deposition of cellulose and lignin. The ectopic deposition of secondary cell walls may have been initiated before the cessation of cell expansion. Moreover, GhMYB7 was capable of binding to the promoter regions of AtSND1 and AtCesA4, suggesting that GhMYB7 may function upstream of NAC transcription factors. Collectively, these findings suggest that GhMYB7 is a potential transcriptional activator, which may participate in regulating secondary cell wall biosynthesis of cotton fibers.

  11. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE IRRADIATION OF SIMULATED AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from emissions from automotive exhaust. The goal was to determine to what extent photochemical oxidation products of these hydrocarbons contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SO...

  12. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE IRRADIATION OF SIMULATED AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from emissions from automotive exhaust. The goal was to determine to what extent photochemical oxidation products of these hydrocarbons contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SO...

  13. Secondary organic aerosol formation from road vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieber, Simone M.; Platt, Stephen M.; El Haddad, Imad; Zardini, Alessandro A.; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Slowik, Jay G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Drinovec, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadogna; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Organic aerosol particles (OA) are a major fraction of the submicron particulate matter. OA consists of directly emitted primary (POA) and secondary OA (SOA). SOA is formed in-situ in the atmosphere via the reaction of volatile organic precursors. The partitioning of SOA species depends not only on the exposure to oxidants, but for instance also on temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the absorptive mass chemical composition (presence of inorganics) and concentration. Vehicle exhaust is a known source of POA and likely contributes to SOA formation in urban areas [1;2]. This has recently been estimated by (i) analyzing ambient data from urban areas combined with fuel consumption data [3], (ii) by examining the chemical composition of raw fuels [4], or (iii) smog chamber studies [5, 6]. Contradictory and thus somewhat controversial results in the relative quantity of SOA from diesel vs. gasoline vehicle exhaust were observed. In order to elucidate the impact of variable ambient conditions on the potential SOA formation of vehicle exhaust, and its relation to the emitted gas phase species, we studied SOA formed from the exhaust of passenger cars and trucks as a function of fuel and engine type (gasoline, diesel) at different temperatures (T 22 vs. -7oC) and RH (40 vs. 90%), as well as with different levels of inorganic salt concentrations. The exhaust was sampled at the tailpipe during regulatory driving cycles on chassis dynamometers, diluted (200 - 400x) and introduced into the PSI mobile smog chamber [6], where the emissions were subjected to simulated atmospheric ageing. Particle phase instruments (HR-ToF-AMS, aethalometers, CPC, SMPS) and gas phase instruments (PTR-TOF-MS, CO, CO2, CH4, THC, NH3 and other gases) were used online during the experiments. We found that gasoline emissions, because of cold starts, were generally larger than diesel, especially during cold temperatures driving cycles. Gasoline vehicles also showed the highest SOA formation

  14. The NAC Transcription Factors NST1 and NST2 of Arabidopsis Regulate Secondary Wall Thickenings and Are Required for Anther DehiscenceW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2005-01-01

    In plants, secondary wall thickenings play important roles in various biological processes, although the factors regulating these processes remain to be characterized. We show that expression of chimeric repressors derived from NAC SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTOR1 (NST1) and NST2 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in an anther dehiscence defect due to loss of secondary wall thickening in anther endothecium. Plants with double, but not single, T-DNA–tagged lines for NST1 and NST2 had the same anther-indehiscent phenotype as transgenic plants that expressed the individual chimeric repressors, indicating that NST1 and NST2 are redundant in regulating secondary wall thickening in anther walls. The activity of the NST2 promoter was particularly strong in anther tissue, while that of the NST1 promoter was detected in various tissues in which lignified secondary walls develop. Ectopic expression of NST1 or NST2 induced ectopic thickening of secondary walls in various aboveground tissues. Epidermal cells with ectopic thickening of secondary walls had structural features similar to those of tracheary elements. However, among genes involved in the differentiation of tracheary elements, only those related to secondary wall synthesis were clearly upregulated. None of the genes involved in programmed cell death were similarly affected. Our results suggest NAC transcription factors as possible regulators of secondary wall thickening in various tissues. PMID:16214898

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN AUTOLYZED CELL WALL OF BACILLUS CEREUS DURING SPHEROPLAST FORMATION1

    PubMed Central

    Kronish, Donald P.; Mohan, Raam R.; Schwartz, Benjamin S.

    1964-01-01

    Kronish, Donald P. (Warner-Lambert Research Institute, Morris Plains, N.J.), Raam R. Mohan, and Benjamin S. Schwartz. Distribution of radioactivity in autolyzed cell wall of Bacillus cereus during spheroplast formation. J. Bacteriol. 87:581–587. 1964.—Spheroplasts of Bacillus cereus strain T were produced from cells grown in the presence of uniformly labeled C14-glucose. At regular intervals during spheroplast formation, enzymatically degraded cell wall was isolated by a new procedure. Radioactivity of solubilized cell wall in cell-free material increased from 2.5 to 42% of the total incorporated label during spheroplast formation. The rate of cell-wall degradation as measured by increase in radioactivity was biphasic with relative slopes of 2.0 and 5.0. During autolytic depolymerization of B. cereus cell wall, two major components were solubilized at different rates. Chemical fractionation revealed these to be a peptide and a mucopeptide. The possibility of two enzymes being involved in spheroplast formation and cell-wall degradation is discussed. Images PMID:14127573

  16. Heteromannan and Heteroxylan Cell Wall Polysaccharides Display Different Dynamics During the Elongation and Secondary Cell Wall Deposition Phases of Cotton Fiber Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Gomez, Mercedes C.; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Bourot, Stéphane; Benians, Thomas A.S.; Willats, William G.T.; Meulewaeter, Frank; Knox, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    The roles of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in cotton fiber development are poorly understood. Combining glycan microarrays and in situ analyses with monoclonal antibodies, polysaccharide linkage analyses and transcript profiling, the occurrence of heteromannan and heteroxylan polysaccharides and related genes in developing and mature cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers has been determined. Comparative analyses on cotton fibers at selected days post-anthesis indicate different temporal and spatial regulation of heteromannan and heteroxylan during fiber development. The LM21 heteromannan epitope was more abundant during the fiber elongation phase and localized mainly in the primary cell wall. In contrast, the AX1 heteroxylan epitope occurred at the transition phase and during secondary cell wall deposition, and localized in both the primary and the secondary cell walls of the cotton fiber. These developmental dynamics were supported by transcript profiling of biosynthetic genes. Whereas our data suggest a role for heteromannan in fiber elongation, heteroxylan is likely to be involved in the regulation of cellulose deposition of secondary cell walls. In addition, the relative abundance of these epitopes during fiber development varied between cotton lines with contrasting fiber characteristics from four species (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. arboreum and G. herbaceum), suggesting that these non-cellulosic polysaccharides may be involved in determining final fiber quality and suitability for industrial processing. PMID:26187898

  17. Differential expression of three eucalyptus secondary cell wall-related cellulose synthase genes in response to tension stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shanfa; Li, Laigeng; Yi, Xiaoping; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P; Chiang, Vincent L

    2008-01-01

    Trees constitute the majority of lignocellulosic biomass existing on our planet. Trees also serve as important feedstock materials for various industrial products. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of cellulose synthase (CesA) genes of trees. Here, the cloning and characterization of three CesA genes (EgraCesA1, EgraCesA2, and EgraCesA3) from an economically important tree species, Eucalyptus grandis, are reported. All three genes were specifically expressed in xylem cells of eucalyptus undergoing secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The GUS gene, expressed under the control of the EgraCesA2 or EgraCesA3 promoter, was also localized in the secondary xylem in transgenic tobacco stems. However, the EgraCesA1 promoter alone or along with its 5'-UTR introns was insufficient to direct appropriate GUS expression. EgraCesA2 and EgraCesA3 gene expression was up-regulated in tension-stressed eucalyptus xylem cells. Accordingly, GUS expression directed by the EgraCesA2 or EgraCesA3 promoter was also up-regulated. EgraCesA1 had no such response. Thus, it is most unlikely that EgraCesA1 is a subunit of the EgraCesA2-EgraCesA3 complex. The presence of at least two types of cellulose biosynthesis machinery in wood formation is an important clue in deciphering the underpinnings of the perennial growth of trees in various environmental conditions. By analysing GUS gene expression directed by the EgraCesA3 promoter or its deletions, several negative and positive regulatory regions controlling gene expression in xylem or phloem were identified. Also a region which is likely to contain mechanical stress-responsive elements was deduced. These results will guide further studies on identifying cis-regulatory elements directing CesA gene transcription and wood formation regulatory networks.

  18. Modeling SOA formation from alkanes and alkenes in chamber experiments: effect of gas/wall partitioning of organic vapors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stéphanie La, Yuyi; Camredon, Marie; Ziemann, Paul; Ouzebidour, Farida; Valorso, Richard; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hodzic, Alma; Aumont, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Oxidation products of Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds (IVOC) are expected to be the major precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Laboratory experiments were conducted this last decade in the Riverside APRC chamber to study IVOC oxidative mechanisms and SOA formation processes for a large set of linear, branched and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons (Ziemann, 2011). This dataset are used here to assess the explicit oxidation model GECKO-A (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) (Aumont et al., 2005). The simulated SOA yields agree with the general trends observed in the chamber experiments. They are (i) increasing with the increasing carbon number; (ii) decreasing with increasing methyl branch number; and (iii) increasing for cyclic compounds compared to their corresponding linear analogues. However, simulated SOA yields are systematically overestimated regardless of the precursors, suggesting missing processes in the model. In this study, we assess whether gas-to-wall partitioning of organic vapors can explain these model/observation mismatches (Matsunaga and Ziemann, 2010). First results show that GECKO-A outputs better match the observations when wall uptake of organic vapors is taken into account. Effects of gas/wall partitioning on SOA yields and composition will be presented. Preliminary results suggest that wall uptake is a major process influencing SOA production in the Teflon chambers. References Aumont, B., Szopa, S., Madronich, S.: Modelling the evolution of organic carbon during its gas-phase tropospheric oxidation: development of an explicit model based on a self generating approach. Atmos.Chem.Phys., 5, 2497-2517 (2005). P. J. Ziemann: Effects of molecular structure on the chemistry of aerosol formation from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of alkanes and alkenes, Int. Rev.Phys.Chem., 30:2, 161-195 (2011). Matsunaga, A., Ziemann, P. J.: Gas-wall partitioning of organic compounds in a Teflon film

  19. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from the Photooxidation of Naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S.; Chen, Y.; Wenger, J.

    2009-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous air pollutants that are released into the atmosphere as a by-product of combustion processes. The gas-phase PAHs can be chemically transformed via reaction with the hydroxyl radical to produce a range of oxidised organic compounds and other pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Epidemiological studies have established that exposure to this type of air pollution is associated with damaging effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and can lead to asthma, oxidative stress, health deterioration and even death. The major anthropogenic source of SOA in urban areas is believed to be aromatic hydrocarbons, which are present in automobile fuels and are used as solvents. As a result, research is currently being performed on the characterisation of SOA produced from aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, the xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. However, significant amounts of PAHs are also released into urban areas from automobile emissions and the combustion of fossil fuels for home heating. Naphthalene is regularly cited as the most abundant PAH in polluted urban air, with typical ambient air concentrations of 0.05 - 0.20 parts per billion (ppbV) in European cities, comparable to the xylenes. Since naphthalene reacts in an analogous manner to monocyclic aromatic compounds then it is also expected to make a significant contribution to ambient SOA. However, the yield and chemical composition of SOA produced from the atmospheric degradation of naphthalene is not well known. In this presentation, the effects of NOx level and relative humidity on the SOA formation from the phootooixdation of naphthalene will be presented. A series of experiments has been performed in a large atmospheric simulation chamber equipped with a gas chromatograph and analyzers for monitoring nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone. SOA formation from the photooxidation of naphthalene was measured using a scanning mobility

  20. Gibberellin Overproduction Promotes Sucrose Synthase Expression and Secondary Cell Wall Deposition in Cotton Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Juan; Song, Shui-Qing; Hu, Lin; Zeng, Jian-Yan; Li, Xian-Bi; Hou, Lei; Luo, Ming; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression. PMID:24816840

  1. Expression of the MYB transcription factor gene BplMYB46 affects abiotic stress tolerance and secondary cell wall deposition in Betula platyphylla.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiyan; Wang, Yucheng; Wang, Liuqiang; Hu, Ping; Wang, Yanmin; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunrui; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yiming; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuanping

    2017-01-01

    Plant MYB transcription factors control diverse biological processes, such as differentiation, development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, we characterized BplMYB46, an MYB gene from Betula platyphylla (birch) that is involved in both abiotic stress tolerance and secondary wall biosynthesis. BplMYB46 can act as a transcriptional activator in yeast and tobacco. We generated transgenic birch plants with overexpressing or silencing of BplMYB46 and subjected them to gain- or loss-of-function analysis. The results suggest that BplMYB46 improves salt and osmotic tolerance by affecting the expression of genes including SOD, POD and P5CS to increase both reactive oxygen species scavenging and proline levels. In addition, BplMYB46 appears to be involved in controlling stomatal aperture to reduce water loss. Overexpression of BplMYB46 increases lignin deposition, secondary cell wall thickness and the expression of genes in secondary cell wall formation. Further analysis indicated that BplMYB46 binds to MYBCORE and AC-box motifs and may directly activate the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress responses and secondary cell wall biosynthesis whose promoters contain these motifs. The transgenic BplMYB46-overexpressing birch plants, which have improved salt and osmotic stress tolerance, higher lignin and cellulose content and lower hemicellulose content than the control, have potential applications in the forestry industry. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from the Ozonolysis of Cycloalkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keywood, M.; Varutbangkul, V.; Gao, S.; Brechtel, F.; Bahreini, R.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2003-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is ubiquitous in the atmosphere being present in both urban and remote locations and exerting influence on human health, visibility and climate. Despite its importance, our understanding of SOA formation still lacks essential elements, limiting our understanding of the effect of SOA on climate forcing. While there do exist experimental data on SOA yields from both biogenic and anthropogenic precursor compounds, it is difficult to extend these results to predict the aerosol-forming potential of precursor compounds not yet studied. In response to this, a series of chamber experiments were carried out in the Caltech Indoor Chamber Facility, where compounds from the cycloalkene and methyl-substituted cycloalkene families were oxidized by ozone in the dark. The reactions were carried out in dual 28 m3 teflon chambers at 20oC and relative humidity below 5%, in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Cyclohexane was used as a scavenger to prevent side oxidation reactions with OH radicals, generated during ozonolysis of the cycloalkene. While cycloalkenes may not be important precursors for SOA formation in the ambient atmosphere, the system was chosen for its simplicity relative to atmospherically relevant SOA precursors such as the biogenic monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Cycloalkenes may be seen as the simplified structures on which these more complicated compounds are based. The compounds reacted included the cycloalkenes: cyclopentene, cyclohexene, cycloheptene and cyclooctene, the methyl-substituted cycloalkenes: 1-methyl-1-cyclohexene, 3-methyl-1-cyclohexene, 1-methy-1-cycloheptene and1-methyl-1-cylopentene, and other related classes of hydrocarbons: methylene cyclohexane and terpinolene. Data collected include aerosol yield, chemical composition and hygroscopic behaviour. The effect of the precursor hydrocarbon structure on these properties of the SOA will be discussed.

  3. Laboratory studies on secondary organic aerosol formation from terpenes.

    PubMed

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Miao, Yunkun; Sierau, Berko; Gnauk, Thomas; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) following the ozonolysis of terpene has been investigated intensively in recent years. The enhancement of SOA yields from the acid catalysed reactions of organics on aerosol surfaces or in the bulk particle phase has been receiving great attention. Recent studies show that the presence of acidic seed particles increases the SOA yield significantly (M. S. Jang and R. M. Kamens, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2001, 35, 4758, ref. 1; M. S. Jang, N. M. Czoschke, S. Lee and R. M. Kamens, Science, 2002, 298, 814, ref. 2; N. M. Czoschke, M. Jang and R. M. Kamens, Atmos. Environ., 2003, 37, 4287, ref. 3; M. S. Jang, B. Carroll, B. Chandramouli and R. M. Kamens, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2003, 37, 3828, ref. 4; Y. Iinuma, O. Böge, T. Gnauk and H. Herrmann, Atmos. Environ., 2004, 38, 761, ref. 5; S. Gao, M. Keywood, N. L. Ng, J. Surratt, V. Varutbangkul, R. Bahreini, R. C. Flagan and J. H. Seinfeld, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2004, 108, 10147, ref. 6). More detailed studies report the formation of higher molecular weight products in SOA (refs. 5 and 6; M. P. Tolocka, M. Jang, J. M. Ginter, F. J. Cox, R. M. Kamens and M. V. Johnston, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2004, 38, 1428, ref. 7; S. Gao, N. L. Ng, M. Keywood, V. Varutbangkul, R. Bahreini, A. Nenes, J. He, K. Y. Yoo, J. L. Beauchamp, R. P. Hodyss, R. C. Flagan and J. H. Seinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2004, 38, 6582, ref. 8) which could result in a non-reversible uptake of organics into the particle phase. Most of the past studies concentrated on the characterisation of the yields of enhanced SOA and its composition from ozonolysis of terpenes in the presence or absence of acidic and neutral seed particles. Recent findings from cyclohexene ozonolysis show that the presence of OH scavengers can also significantly influence the SOA yield. Our new results from the IfT chemistry department aerosol chamber on terpene ozonolysis in the presence of OH scavengers show that the presence of hydroxyl

  4. The Transcriptomics of Secondary Growth and Wood Formation in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

  5. The transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in conifers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality.

  6. Nonequilibrium atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation and growth

    PubMed Central

    Perraud, Véronique; Bruns, Emily A.; Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Chang, Wayne L.; Dabdub, Donald; Pankow, James F.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne particles play critical roles in air quality, health effects, visibility, and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from oxidation of organic gases such as α-pinene account for a significant portion of total airborne particle mass. Current atmospheric models typically incorporate the assumption that SOA mass is a liquid into which semivolatile organic compounds undergo instantaneous equilibrium partitioning to grow the particles into the size range important for light scattering and cloud condensation nuclei activity. We report studies of particles from the oxidation of α-pinene by ozone and NO3 radicals at room temperature. SOA is primarily formed from low-volatility ozonolysis products, with a small contribution from higher volatility organic nitrates from the NO3 reaction. Contrary to expectations, the particulate nitrate concentration is not consistent with equilibrium partitioning between the gas phase and a liquid particle. Rather the fraction of organic nitrates in the particles is only explained by irreversible, kinetically determined uptake of the nitrates on existing particles, with an uptake coefficient that is 1.6% of that for the ozonolysis products. If the nonequilibrium particle formation and growth observed in this atmospherically important system is a general phenomenon in the atmosphere, aerosol models may need to be reformulated. The reformulation of aerosol models could impact the predicted evolution of SOA in the atmosphere both outdoors and indoors, its role in heterogeneous chemistry, its projected impacts on air quality, visibility, and climate, and hence the development of reliable control strategies. PMID:22308444

  7. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    PubMed

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation.

  8. Secondary brown carbon formation via the dicarbonyl imine pathway: nitrogen heterocycle formation and synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Kampf, C J; Filippi, A; Zuth, C; Hoffmann, T; Opatz, T

    2016-07-21

    Dicarbonyls are known to be important precursors of so-called atmospheric brown carbon, significantly affecting aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing. In this systematic study we report the formation of light-absorbing nitrogen containing compounds from simple 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-, and 1,5-dicarbonyl + amine reactions. A combination of spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric techniques was used to characterize reaction products in solutions mimicking atmospheric particulates. Experiments with individual dicarbonyls and dicarbonyl mixtures in ammonium sulfate and glycine solutions demonstrate that nitrogen heterocycles are common structural motifs of brown carbon chromophores formed in such reaction systems. 1,4- and 1,5-dicarbonyl reaction systems, which were used as surrogates for terpene ozonolysis products, showed rapid formation of light-absorbing material and products with absorbance maxima at ∼450 nm. Synergistic effects on absorbance properties were observed in mixed (di-)carbonyl experiments, as indicated by the formation of a strong absorber in ammonium sulfate solutions containing acetaldehyde and acetylacetone. This cross-reaction oligomer shows an absorbance maximum at 385 nm, relevant for the actinic flux region of the atmosphere. This study demonstrates the complexity of secondary brown carbon formation via the imine pathway and highlights that cross-reactions with synergistic effects have to be considered an important pathway for atmospheric BrC formation.

  9. Plant metabolism and cell wall formation in space (microgravity) and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1994-01-01

    Variations in cell wall chemistry provide vascular plants with the ability to withstand gravitational forces, as well as providing facile mechanisms for correctional responses to various gravitational stimuli, e.g., in reaction wood formation. A principal focus of our current research is to precisely and systematically dissect the essentially unknown mechanism(s) of vascular plant cell wall assembly, particularly with respect to formation of its phenolic constituents, i.e., lignins and suberins, and how gravity impacts upon these processes. Formation of these phenolic polymers is of particular interest, since it appears that elaboration of their biochemical pathways was essential for successful land adaptation. By extrapolation, we are also greatly intrigued as to how the microgravity environment impacts upon 'normal' cell wall assembly mechanisms/metabolism.

  10. A Novel Isoform of Sucrose Synthase Is Targeted to the Cell Wall during Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Cotton Fiber[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Elizabeth; van Thournout, Michel; White, Rosemary G.; Llewellyn, Danny; Campbell, Peter M.; Engelen, Steven; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Arioli, Tony; Furbank, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) synthase (Sus) is the major enzyme of Suc breakdown for cellulose biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber, an important source of fiber for the textile industry. This study examines the tissue-specific expression, relative abundance, and temporal expression of various Sus transcripts and proteins present in cotton. A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction. The phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences indicate two ancestral groups of Sus proteins predating the divergence of monocots and dicots and that SusC sequences form a distinct branch in the phylogeny within the dicot-specific clade. The subcellular location of the Sus isoforms is determined, and it is proposed that cell wall-localized SusC may provide UDP-glucose for cellulose and callose synthesis from extracellular sugars. PMID:21757635

  11. Expression of S-adenosylmethionine Hydrolase in Tissues Synthesizing Secondary Cell Walls Alters Specific Methylated Cell Wall Fractions and Improves Biomass Digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Eudes, Aymerick; Zhao, Nanxia; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Lao, Jeemeng; Wang, George; Yogiswara, Sasha; Lee, Taek Soon; Singh, Seema; Mortimer, Jenny C.; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-07-19

    Plant biomass is a large source of fermentable sugars for the synthesis of bioproducts using engineered microbes. These sugars are stored as cell wall polymers, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, and are embedded with lignin, which makes their enzymatic hydrolysis challenging. One of the strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance is the modification of lignin content and composition. Lignin is a phenolic polymer of methylated aromatic alcohols and its synthesis in tissues developing secondary cell walls is a significant sink for the consumption of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). In this study, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis stems that targeted expression of AdoMet hydrolase (AdoMetase, E.C. 3.3.1.2) in secondary cell wall synthesizing tissues reduces the AdoMet pool and impacts lignin content and composition. In particular, both NMR analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of lignin in engineered biomass showed relative enrichment of non-methylated p-hydroxycinnamyl (H) units and a reduction of dimethylated syringyl (S) units. This indicates a lower degree of methylation compared to that in wild-type lignin. Quantification of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates revealed a reduction of ferulate in AdoMetase transgenic lines. Biomass from transgenic lines, in contrast to that in control plants, exhibits an enrichment of glucose content and a reduction in the degree of hemicellulose glucuronoxylan methylation. We also show that these modifications resulted in a reduction of cell wall recalcitrance, because sugar yield generated by enzymatic biomass saccharification was greater than that of wild-type plants. Considering that transgenic plants show no important diminution of biomass yields, and that heterologous expression of AdoMetase protein can be spatiotemporally optimized, this novel approach provides a valuable option for the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock.

  12. Expression of S-adenosylmethionine Hydrolase in Tissues Synthesizing Secondary Cell Walls Alters Specific Methylated Cell Wall Fractions and Improves Biomass Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Eudes, Aymerick; Zhao, Nanxia; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Lao, Jeemeng; Wang, George; Yogiswara, Sasha; Lee, Taek Soon; Singh, Seema; Mortimer, Jenny C.; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Plant biomass is a large source of fermentable sugars for the synthesis of bioproducts using engineered microbes. These sugars are stored as cell wall polymers, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, and are embedded with lignin, which makes their enzymatic hydrolysis challenging. One of the strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance is the modification of lignin content and composition. Lignin is a phenolic polymer of methylated aromatic alcohols and its synthesis in tissues developing secondary cell walls is a significant sink for the consumption of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). In this study, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis stems that targeted expression of AdoMet hydrolase (AdoMetase, E.C. 3.3.1.2) in secondary cell wall synthesizing tissues reduces the AdoMet pool and impacts lignin content and composition. In particular, both NMR analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of lignin in engineered biomass showed relative enrichment of non-methylated p-hydroxycinnamyl (H) units and a reduction of dimethylated syringyl (S) units. This indicates a lower degree of methylation compared to that in wild-type lignin. Quantification of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates revealed a reduction of ferulate in AdoMetase transgenic lines. Biomass from transgenic lines, in contrast to that in control plants, exhibits an enrichment of glucose content and a reduction in the degree of hemicellulose glucuronoxylan methylation. We also show that these modifications resulted in a reduction of cell wall recalcitrance, because sugar yield generated by enzymatic biomass saccharification was greater than that of wild-type plants. Considering that transgenic plants show no important diminution of biomass yields, and that heterologous expression of AdoMetase protein can be spatiotemporally optimized, this novel approach provides a valuable option for the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock. PMID:27486577

  13. Expression of S-adenosylmethionine Hydrolase in Tissues Synthesizing Secondary Cell Walls Alters Specific Methylated Cell Wall Fractions and Improves Biomass Digestibility

    DOE PAGES

    Eudes, Aymerick; Zhao, Nanxia; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; ...

    2016-07-19

    Plant biomass is a large source of fermentable sugars for the synthesis of bioproducts using engineered microbes. These sugars are stored as cell wall polymers, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, and are embedded with lignin, which makes their enzymatic hydrolysis challenging. One of the strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance is the modification of lignin content and composition. Lignin is a phenolic polymer of methylated aromatic alcohols and its synthesis in tissues developing secondary cell walls is a significant sink for the consumption of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). In this study, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis stems that targeted expression ofmore » AdoMet hydrolase (AdoMetase, E.C. 3.3.1.2) in secondary cell wall synthesizing tissues reduces the AdoMet pool and impacts lignin content and composition. In particular, both NMR analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of lignin in engineered biomass showed relative enrichment of non-methylated p-hydroxycinnamyl (H) units and a reduction of dimethylated syringyl (S) units. This indicates a lower degree of methylation compared to that in wild-type lignin. Quantification of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates revealed a reduction of ferulate in AdoMetase transgenic lines. Biomass from transgenic lines, in contrast to that in control plants, exhibits an enrichment of glucose content and a reduction in the degree of hemicellulose glucuronoxylan methylation. We also show that these modifications resulted in a reduction of cell wall recalcitrance, because sugar yield generated by enzymatic biomass saccharification was greater than that of wild-type plants. Considering that transgenic plants show no important diminution of biomass yields, and that heterologous expression of AdoMetase protein can be spatiotemporally optimized, this novel approach provides a valuable option for the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock.« less

  14. Kinetics, products, and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Paul J; Atkinson, Roger

    2012-10-07

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is formed in the atmosphere when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources are oxidized by reactions with OH radicals, O(3), NO(3) radicals, or Cl atoms to form less volatile products that subsequently partition into aerosol particles. Once in particles, these organic compounds can undergo heterogenous/multiphase reactions to form more highly oxidized or oligomeric products. SOA comprises a large fraction of atmospheric aerosol mass and can have significant effects on atmospheric chemistry, visibility, human health, and climate. Previous articles have reviewed the kinetics, products, and mechanisms of atmospheric VOC reactions and the general chemistry and physics involved in SOA formation. In this article we present a detailed review of VOC and heterogeneous/multiphase chemistry as they apply to SOA formation, with a focus on the effects of VOC molecular structure on the kinetics of initial reactions with the major atmospheric oxidants, the subsequent reactions of alkyl, alkyl peroxy, and alkoxy radical intermediates, and the composition of the resulting products. Structural features of reactants and products discussed include compound carbon number; linear, branched, and cyclic configurations; the presence of C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bonds and aromatic rings; and functional groups such as carbonyl, hydroxyl, ester, hydroxperoxy, carboxyl, peroxycarboxyl, nitrate, and peroxynitrate. The intention of this review is to provide atmospheric chemists with sufficient information to understand the dominant pathways by which the major classes of atmospheric VOCs react to form SOA products, and the further reactions of these products in particles. This will allow reasonable predictions to be made, based on molecular structure, about the kinetics, products, and mechanisms of VOC and heterogeneous/multiphase reactions, including the effects of important variables such as VOC, oxidant, and NO

  15. Degradation of lignified secondary cell walls of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) by rumen fungi growing in methanogenic co-culture.

    PubMed

    Bootten, T J; Joblin, K N; McArdle, B H; Harris, P J

    2011-11-01

    To compare the abilities of the monocentric rumen fungi Neocallimastix frontalis, Piromyces communis and Caecomyces communis, growing in coculture with Methanobrevibacter smithii, to colonize and degrade lignified secondary cell walls of lucerne (alfalfa) hay. The cell walls of xylem cylinders isolated from stems of lucerne contained mostly xylans, cellulose and lignin together with a small proportion of pectic polysaccharides. All of these major components were removed during incubation with the three fungi, and differing cell wall polysaccharides were degraded to different extents. The greatest dry weight loss was found with N. frontalis and least with C. communis, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that these extensively colonized different cell types. C. communis specifically colonized secondary xylem fibres and showed much less degradation than N. frontalis and P. communis. Neocallimastix frontalis and P. communis were efficient degraders of the cell walls of lucerne xylem cylinders. Degradation occurred of pectic polysaccharides, xylan and cellulose. Loss of lignin from the xylem cylinders probably resulted from the cleavage of xylan releasing xylan-lignin complexes. Unlike rumen bacteria, the rumen fungi N. frontalis, P. communis and C. communis are able to degrade lignified secondary walls in lucerne stems. These fungi could improve forage utilization by ruminants and may have potential in the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass in the production of biofuels. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model - Part 2: Assessing the influence of vapor wall losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Jathar, S. H.; Kleeman, M. J.; Docherty, K. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of losses of organic vapors to chamber walls during secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation experiments has recently been established. Here, the influence of such losses on simulated ambient SOA concentrations and properties is assessed in the UCD/CIT regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model (SOM) for SOA. The SOM was fit to laboratory chamber data both with and without accounting for vapor wall losses following the approach of Zhang et al. (2014). Two vapor wall loss scenarios are considered when fitting of SOM to chamber data to determine best-fit SOM parameters, one with "low" and one with "high" vapor wall-loss rates to approximately account for the current range of uncertainty in this process. Simulations were run using these different parameterizations (scenarios) for both the southern California/South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and the eastern United States (US). Accounting for vapor wall losses leads to substantial increases in the simulated SOA concentrations from VOCs in both domains, by factors of ~ 2-5 for the low and ~ 5-10 for the high scenario. The magnitude of the increase scales approximately inversely with the absolute SOA concentration of the no loss scenario. In SoCAB, the predicted SOA fraction of total OA increases from ~ 0.2 (no) to ~ 0.5 (low) and to ~ 0.7 (high), with the high vapor wall loss simulations providing best general agreement with observations. In the eastern US, the SOA fraction is large in all cases but increases further when vapor wall losses are accounted for. The total OA/ΔCO ratio represents dilution-corrected SOA concentrations. The simulated OA/ΔCO in SoCAB (specifically, at Riverside, CA) is found to increase substantially during the day only for the high vapor wall loss scenario, which is consistent with observations and indicative of photochemical production of SOA. Simulated O : C atomic ratios for both SOA and for total OA increase when vapor wall losses are accounted for, while

  17. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  18. Web-Enhanced, Standards-Oriented Teaching Units on Post-Wall Germany for the Secondary School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Handle, Donna C.; Ayres, Evelyn; Cimino, Ellen; Dunn, Bryan; Foell, Kimberly; McCarthy, Jennifer K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the creation and use of Web sites developed by secondary school teachers of German and European history who participated in an NEH-sponsored summer institute titled "Post-Wall Germany: Integrating Post-Unification German Culture into the High School Curriculum. Teacher participants also offer suggestions for using sites they created…

  19. Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

  20. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Ortega, A. M.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Jud, W.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Cross, E. S.; Kroll, J. H.; Peng, Z.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 1 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH oxidation than

  1. SND1, a NAC Domain Transcription Factor, Is a Key Regulator of Secondary Wall Synthesis in Fibers of Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Demura, Taku; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Secondary walls in fibers and tracheary elements constitute the most abundant biomass produced by plants. Although a number of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components have been characterized, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the coordinated expression of these genes. Here, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana NAC (for NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) domain transcription factor, SND1 (for secondary wall–associated NAC domain protein), is a key transcriptional switch regulating secondary wall synthesis in fibers. We show that SND1 is expressed specifically in interfascicular fibers and xylary fibers in stems and that dominant repression of SND1 causes a drastic reduction in the secondary wall thickening of fibers. Ectopic overexpression of SND1 results in activation of the expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes, leading to massive deposition of secondary walls in cells that are normally nonsclerenchymatous. In addition, we have found that SND1 upregulates the expression of several transcription factors that are highly expressed in fibers during secondary wall synthesis. Together, our results reveal that SND1 is a key transcriptional activator involved in secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers. PMID:17114348

  2. Secondary cell wall composition and candidate gene expression in developing willow (Salix purpurea) stems.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yongfang; Gritsch, Cristina; Tryfona, Theodora; Ray, Mike J; Andongabo, Ambrose; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Jones, Huw D; Dupree, Paul; Karp, Angela; Shewry, Peter R; Mitchell, Rowan A C

    2014-05-01

    The properties of the secondary cell wall (SCW) in willow largely determine the suitability of willow biomass feedstock for potential bioenergy and biofuel applications. SCW development has been little studied in willow and it is not known how willow compares with model species, particularly the closely related genus Populus. To address this and relate SCW synthesis to candidate genes in willow, a tractable bud culture-derived system was developed in Salix purpurea, and cell wall composition and RNA-Seq transcriptome were followed in stems during early development. A large increase in SCW deposition in the period 0-2 weeks after transfer to soil was characterised by a big increase in xylan content, but no change in the frequency of substitution of xylan with glucuronic acid, and increased abundance of putative transcripts for synthesis of SCW cellulose, xylan and lignin. Histochemical staining and immunolabeling revealed that increased deposition of lignin and xylan was associated with xylem, xylem fibre cells and phloem fibre cells. Transcripts orthologous to those encoding xylan synthase components IRX9 and IRX10 and xylan glucuronyl transferase GUX1 in Arabidopsis were co-expressed, and showed the same spatial pattern of expression revealed by in situ hybridisation at four developmental stages, with abundant expression in proto-xylem, xylem fibre and ray parenchyma cells and some expression in phloem fibre cells. The results show a close similarity with SCW development in Populus species, but also give novel information on the relationship between spatial and temporal variation in xylan-related transcripts and xylan composition.

  3. Formation of thin walled ceramic solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Claar, Terry D.; Busch, Donald E.; Picciolo, John J.

    1989-01-01

    To reduce thermal stress and improve bonding in a high temperature monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), intermediate layers are provided between the SOFC's electrodes and electrolyte which are of different compositions. The intermediate layers are comprised of a blend of some of the materials used in the electrode and electrolyte compositions. Particle size is controlled to reduce problems involving differential shrinkage rates of the various layers when the entire structure is fired at a single temperature, while pore formers are provided in the electrolyte layers to be removed during firing for the formation of desired pores in the electrode layers. Each layer includes a binder in the form of a thermosetting acrylic which during initial processing is cured to provide a self-supporting structure with the ceramic components in the green state. A self-supporting corrugated structure is thus formed prior to firing, which the organic components of the binder and plasticizer removed during firing to provide a high strength, high temperature resistant ceramic structure of low weight and density.

  4. Role of Aerosol Liquid Water in Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Faust, Jennifer A; Wong, Jenny P S; Lee, Alex K Y; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2017-02-07

    A key mechanism for atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurs when oxidation products of volatile organic compounds condense onto pre-existing particles. Here, we examine effects of aerosol liquid water (ALW) on relative SOA yield and composition from α-pinene ozonolysis and the photooxidation of toluene and acetylene by OH. Reactions were conducted in a room-temperature flow tube under low-NOx conditions in the presence of equivalent loadings of deliquesced (∼20 μg m(-3) ALW) or effloresced (∼0.2 μg m(-3) ALW) ammonium sulfate seeds at exactly the same relative humidity (RH = 70%) and state of wall conditioning. We found 13% and 19% enhancements in relative SOA yield for the α-pinene and toluene systems, respectively, when seeds were deliquesced rather than effloresced. The relative yield doubled in the acetylene system, and this enhancement was partially reversible upon drying the prepared SOA, which reduced the yield by 40% within a time scale of seconds. We attribute the high relative yield of acetylene SOA on deliquesced seeds to aqueous partitioning and particle-phase reactions of the photooxidation product glyoxal. The observed range of relative yields for α-pinene, toluene, and acetylene SOA on deliquesced and effloresced seeds suggests that ALW plays a complicated, system-dependent role in SOA formation.

  5. Constraining condensed-phase formation kinetics of secondary organic aerosol components from isoprene epoxydiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, T. P.; Lin, Y.-H.; Zhang, Z.; Chu, K.; Thornton, J. A.; Vizuete, W.; Gold, A.; Surratt, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    Isomeric epoxydiols from isoprene photooxidation (IEPOX) have been shown to produce substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass and are therefore considered a major isoprene-derived SOA precursor. Heterogeneous reactions of IEPOX on atmospheric aerosols form various aerosol-phase components or "tracers" that contribute to the SOA mass burden. A limited number of the reaction rate constants for these acid-catalyzed aqueous-phase tracer formation reactions have been constrained through bulk laboratory measurements. We have designed a chemical box model with multiple experimental constraints to explicitly simulate gas- and aqueous-phase reactions during chamber experiments of SOA growth from IEPOX uptake onto acidic sulfate aerosol. The model is constrained by measurements of the IEPOX reactive uptake coefficient, IEPOX and aerosol chamber wall losses, chamber-measured aerosol mass and surface area concentrations, aerosol thermodynamic model calculations, and offline filter-based measurements of SOA tracers. By requiring the model output to match the SOA growth and offline filter measurements collected during the chamber experiments, we derive estimates of the tracer formation reaction rate constants that have not yet been measured or estimated for bulk solutions.

  6. Cell wall composition and biofilm formation of azoles-susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata strains.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Alberto; Vavala, Elisabetta; Marzano, Valeria; Leone, Claudia; Castagnola, Massimo; Iavarone, Federica; Angiolella, Letizia

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, three strains of Candida glabrata have been investigated to shed light on the mechanisms involved in azole resistance during adherence and biofilm formation. In particular, a clinical isolate, susceptible to azole-based drugs, DSY562 and two different resistant mutagenic strains deriving from DSY562, SFY114 and SFY115, have been analysed with different approaches for their cell wall composition and properties. A proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of six cell wall-related proteins and biofilm formation varied between the strains. The SFY114 and SFY115 strains resulted to be less hydrophobic than the susceptible parental counterpart DSY562, on the other hand they showed a higher amount in total cell wall polysaccharides fraction in the total cell wall. Accordingly to the results obtained from the hydrophobicity and adherence assays, in the resistant strain SFY115 the biofilm formation decreased compared to the parental strain DSY562. Finally, the total glucose amount in resistant SFY115 was about halved in comparison to other strains. Taken together all these data suggest that azole drugs may affect the cell wall composition of C. glabrata, in relation to the different pathogenic behaviours.

  7. Formation of Micro-Scale Gas Pockets From Underwater Wall Orifices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Francisco A.; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Our experiments examine the formation of micro-scale gas pockets from orifices on walls with hydrophilic and hydrophobic wetting properties. Bubble injection is operated in a liquid at rest at constant flow rate and in a quasi-static regime, and the mechanism of bubble growth is investigated through high speed recordings. The growth dynamics is studied in terms of orifice size, surface wetting properties and buoyancy sign. The bubble formation is characterized by an explosive growth, with a pressure wave that causes the bubble to take highly transient shapes in its very initial stages, before stabilizing as a sphere and growing at a relatively slow rate. In case of positive buoyancy, the bubble elongates with the formation of a neck before detaching from the wall. When buoyancy acts towards the wall, the bubble attaches to the wall and expands laterally with a moving contact line. In presence of hydrophobic surfaces, the bubble attaches immediately to the wall irrespective of buoyancy direction and takes a hemispherical shape, expanding radially along the surface. A force balance is outlined to explain the different figures. The work was performed by FAP while on leave from CNR-INSEAN, and is supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  8. The rice dynamin-related protein DRP2B mediates membrane trafficking, and thereby plays a critical role in secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guangyan; Li, Rui; Qian, Qian; Song, Xueqin; Liu, Xiangling; Yu, Yanchun; Zeng, Dali; Wan, Jianmin; Li, Jiayang; Zhou, Yihua

    2010-10-01

    Membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular compartments is an important process that regulates the deposition and metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. Dynamin-related proteins (DRPs), which function in membrane tubulation and vesiculation are closely associated with cell wall biogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which DRPs participate in cell wall formation are poorly understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of Brittle Culm3 (BC3), a gene encoding OsDRP2B. Consistent with the expression of BC3 in mechanical tissues, the bc3 mutation reduces mechanical strength, which results from decreased cellulose content and altered secondary wall structure. OsDRP2B, one of three members of the DRP2 subfamily in rice (Oryza sativa L.), was identified as an authentic membrane-associated dynamin via in vitro biochemical analyses. Subcellular localization of fluorescence-tagged OsDRP2B and several compartment markers in protoplast cells showed that this protein not only lies at the PM and the clathrin-mediated vesicles, but also is targeted to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). An FM4-64 uptake assay in transgenic plants that express green fluorescent protein-tagged OsDRP2B verified its involvement in an endocytic pathway. BC3 mutation and overexpression altered the abundance of cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 4 (OsCESA4) in the PM and in the endomembrane systems. All of these findings lead us to conclude that OsDRP2B participates in the endocytic pathway, probably as well as in post-Golgi membrane trafficking. Mutation of OsDRP2B disturbs the membrane trafficking that is essential for normal cellulose biosynthesis of the secondary cell wall, thereby leading to inferior mechanical properties in rice plants.

  9. Bacillus anthracis tagO Is Required for Vegetative Growth and Secondary Cell Wall Polysaccharide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lunderberg, J. Mark; Liszewski Zilla, Megan; Missiakas, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus anthracis elaborates a linear secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) that retains surface (S)-layer and associated proteins via their S-layer homology (SLH) domains. The SCWP is comprised of trisaccharide repeats [→4)-β-ManNAc-(1→4)-β-GlcNAc-(1→6)-α-GlcNAc-(1→] and tethered via acid-labile phosphodiester bonds to peptidoglycan. Earlier work identified UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerases GneY (BAS5048) and GneZ (BAS5117), which act as catalysts of ManNAc synthesis, as well as a polysaccharide deacetylase (BAS5051), as factors contributing to SCWP synthesis. Here, we show that tagO (BAS5050), which encodes a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:undecaprenyl-P N-acetylglucosaminyl 1-P transferase, the enzyme that initiates the synthesis of murein linkage units, is required for B. anthracis SCWP synthesis and S-layer assembly. Similar to gneY-gneZ mutants, B. anthracis strains lacking tagO cannot maintain cell shape or support vegetative growth. In contrast, mutations in BAS5051 do not affect B. anthracis cell shape, vegetative growth, SCWP synthesis, or S-layer assembly. These data suggest that TagO-mediated murein linkage unit assembly supports SCWP synthesis and attachment to the peptidoglycan via acid-labile phosphodiester bonds. Further, B. anthracis variants unable to synthesize SCWP trisaccharide repeats cannot sustain cell shape and vegetative growth. IMPORTANCE Bacillus anthracis elaborates an SCWP to support vegetative growth and envelope assembly. Here, we show that some, but not all, SCWP synthesis is dependent on tagO-derived murein linkage units and subsequent attachment of SCWP to peptidoglycan. The data implicate secondary polymer modifications of peptidoglycan and subcellular distributions as a key feature of the cell cycle in Gram-positive bacteria and establish foundations for work on the molecular functions of the SCWP and on inhibitors with antibiotic attributes. PMID:26324447

  10. Influence of Different PBL Schemes on Secondary Eyewall Formation and Eyewall Replacement Cycle in Simulated Typhoon Sinlaku (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yutao

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the different planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes on the secondary eyewall formation (SEF) and eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) are investigated by using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with six different PBL schemes. The SEF and ERC have been successfully simulated with all the six PBL schemes and the mechanism of the SEF and ERC proposed in our previous study has been reconfirmed: It is demonstrated that both the intensification of the storm and the inward-moving outer spiral rainband contribute to the SEF. After the SEF, the associated diabatic heating enhances the secondary eyewall further and transfer of the moist air from outer region to the primary eyewall is cut off by the secondary eyewall. In such a way the primary eyewall dies and an ERC completes. It is found that some simulated features of the SEF and ERC, such as the time and location of the SEF and duration of the ERC, do vary from one simulation to another. In order to describe the feature of the SEF and ERC quantitatively, a concentric eyewall index (CEI) is defined and a threshold of the CEI is suggested to determine the onset of the secondary eyewall. The differences of the simulated SEF and ERC are discussed and some possible causes are suggested. In addition, based on the threshold of the CEI and the conservation law of the angular momentum a formula to predict the location of the SEF is also suggested and applied to all the six simulations. The success and failure of the formula are also discussed. Key words: eye-wall replacement cycle, secondary eye-wall formation, PBL scheme, CEI

  11. Secondary structure of proteins analyzed ex vivo in vascular wall in diabetic animals using FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Majzner, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Tomasz P; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Chlopicki, Stefan; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2013-11-12

    In recent years many methods for ex vivo tissue analysis or diagnosis of diseases have been applied, including infrared absorption spectroscopy. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption microspectroscopy allows the simultaneous monitoring of the content of various chemical compounds in tissues with both high selectivity and resolution. Imaging of tissue samples in very short time can be performed using a spectrometer equipped with a Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector. Additionally, a detection of minor components or subtle changes associated with the functional status of a tissue sample is possible when advanced methods of data analysis, such as chemometric techniques, are applied. Monitoring of secondary structures of proteins has already proved to be useful in the analysis of animal tissues in disease states. The aim of this work was to build a mathematical model based on FT-IR measurements for the prediction of alterations in the content of secondary structures of proteins analyzed by FT-IR in the vascular wall of diabetic animals. For that purpose a spectral database of proteins of known crystallography and secondary structures was assembled. Thirty-seven proteins were measured by means of two FT-IR techniques: transflection and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). The obtained model was tested on cross-sections of rat tail, for which the content of proteins and their secondary structures was well characterized. Then, the model was applied for the detection of possible alterations in the secondary structures of proteins in the vascular wall of diabetic rats and mice. The obtained results suggest a prominent increase in E- and S-structures and a decrease in the content of H-structures in the vascular wall from diabetic mice and rats. FT-IR-based studies of secondary structures of proteins may be a novel approach to study complex processes ongoing in the vascular wall. The obtained results are satisfactory; however, the existing limitations of the method are

  12. Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis in developing internodes of Miscanthus lutarioriparius.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruibo; Xu, Yan; Yu, Changjiang; He, Kang; Tang, Qi; Jia, Chunlin; He, Guo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Kong, Yingzhen; Zhou, Gongke

    2017-08-22

    Miscanthus is a promising lignocellulosic bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. To identify candidate genes and regulation networks involved in secondary cell wall (SCW) development in Miscanthus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of a developing internode. According to the histological and in-situ histochemical analysis, an elongating internode of M. lutarioriparius can be divided into three distinct segments, the upper internode (UI), middle internode (MI) and basal internode (BI), each representing a different stage of SCW development. The transcriptome analysis generated approximately 300 million clean reads, which were de novo assembled into 79,705 unigenes. Nearly 65% of unigenes was annotated in seven public databases. Comparative profiling among the UI, MI and BI revealed four distinct clusters. Moreover, detailed expression profiling was analyzed for gene families and transcription factors (TFs) involved in SCW biosynthesis, assembly and modification. Based on the co-expression patterns, putative regulatory networks between TFs and SCW-associated genes were constructed. The work provided the first transcriptome analysis of SCW development in M. lutarioriparius. The results obtained provide novel insights into the biosynthesis and regulation of SCW in Miscanthus. In addition, the genes identified represent good candidates for further functional studies to unravel their roles in SCW biosynthesis and modification.

  13. Secondary organic aerosol formation and source apportionment in Southeast Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2011-06-01

    The latest version of US EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7) model with the most recent update on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation pathways was adapted into a source-oriented modeling framework to determine the contributions of different emission sources to SOA concentrations from a carbon source perspective in Southeast Texas during the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) from August 25 to September 5, 2000. A comparison of the VOC and SOA predictions with observations shows that anthropogenic emissions of long chain alkanes and aromatics are likely underestimated in the EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) inventory and the current SOA mechanism in CMAQ still under-predicts SOA. The peak SOA concentrations measured at La Porte are more accurately predicted by increasing the emissions of the anthropogenic SOA precursors by a factor of 5 although the overall precursor concentrations are better predicted by increasing the emissions by a factor of 2. A linear correlation between SOA and odd oxygen (ΔSOA/ΔOx = 23.0-28.4 μg m-3/ppm Ox) can be found when they are formed simultaneously in the air masses passing the urban Houston area on high SOA days. Based on the adjusted emissions (a factor of 2 increase in the alkane and aromatics precursor emissions), approximately 20% of the total SOA in the Houston-Galveston Bay area is due to anthropogenic sources. Solvent utilization and gasoline engines are the main anthropogenic sources. SOA from alkanes and aromatics accounts for approximately 2-4% and 5-9% of total SOA, respectively. The predicted overall anthropogenic SOA concentrations are not sensitive to the half-life time used to calculate the conversion rate of semi-volatile organic compounds to non-volatile oligomers in the particle phase. The main precursors of biogenic SOA are sesquiterpenes, which contribute to approximately 12-35% of total SOA. Monoterpenes contribute to 3-14% and isoprene accounts for approximately 6-9% of the

  14. Ultrastructure and behavior of actin cytoskeleton during cell wall formation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tomoko; Ishijima, Sanae A; Ochi, Hisako; Osumi, Masako

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has shown that F-actin of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe forms patch, cable and ring structures. To study the relationship between cell wall formation and the actin cytoskeleton, the process of cell wall regeneration from the protoplast was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) and three-dimensional reconstruction analysis. During cell wall regeneration from the protoplast, localization of F-actin patches was similar to that of the newly synthesized cell wall materials, as shown by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In serial sectioned TEM images, filasomes were spherical, 100-300 nm in diameter and consisted of a single microvesicle (35-70 nm diameter) surrounded by fine filaments. Filasomes were adjacent to the newly formed glucan fibrils in single, cluster or rosary forms. By IEM analysis, we found that colloidal gold particles indicating actin molecules were present in the filamentous area of filasomes. Three-dimensional reconstruction images of serial sections clarified that the distribution of filasomes corresponded to the distribution of F-actin patches revealed by CLSM. Thus, a filasome is one of the F-actin patch structures appearing in the cytoplasm at the site of the initial formation of the cell wall and it may play an important role in this action.

  15. MADS-Box Transcription Factor VdMcm1 Regulates Conidiation, Microsclerotia Formation, Pathogenicity, and Secondary Metabolism of Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dianguang; Wang, Yonglin; Tian, Longyan; Tian, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae, a notorious phytopathogenic fungus, causes vascular wilt diseases in many plant species resulting in devastating yield losses worldwide. Due to its ability to colonize plant xylem and form microsclerotia, V. dahliae is highly persistent and difficult to control. In this study, we show that the MADS-box transcription factor VdMcm1 is a key regulator of conidiation, microsclerotia formation, virulence, and secondary metabolism of V. dahliae. In addition, our findings suggest that VdMcm1 is involved in cell wall integrity. Finally, comparative RNA-Seq analysis reveals 823 significantly downregulated genes in the VdMcm1 deletion mutant, with diverse biological functions in transcriptional regulation, plant infection, cell adhesion, secondary metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and cell secretion. When taken together, these data suggest that VdMcm1 performs pleiotropic functions in V. dahliae. PMID:27536281

  16. Detecting the formation of single-walled carbon nanotube rings by photoabsorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Akira; Suzuki, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Koji

    2016-08-01

    Photoabsorption spectroscopy was conducted on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) during the formation of ring structures. The absorption bands observed before starting the formation gradually shifted while broadening in the middle. When they finally disappeared, it was found, via atomic force microscopy observations, that almost all SWNTs were transformed into rings. The spectral changes were assumed to be due to the changes in the electronic states of SWNTs. This idea was supported by the results of an investigation using a scanning tunneling microscope. It could be said that photoabsorption spectroscopy is useful for detecting ring formation in situ.

  17. Loss of INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT (ISE)1 or ISE2 increases the formation of secondary plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2010-06-08

    Plasmodesmata (PD) transport developmentally important nucleic acids and proteins between plant cells. Primary PD form during cell division and are simple, linear channels. Secondary PD form in existing cell walls after cell division and are simple, twinned, or branched. PD function undergoes a marked reduction at the mid-torpedo stage of Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Two mutants, increased size exclusion limit (ise)1 and ise2, fail to undergo this transition, and their null mutations are embryonically lethal. We investigated the ultrastructure of PD in early-, mid-, and late-torpedo-stage embryos and in young leaves. Wild-type (WT) embryos contain twinned and branched (T/B) PD at all stages, but ise1 and ise2 embryos contain significantly higher proportions of T/B PD than WT embryos. WT T/B PD formation occurs in a stage- and tissue-specific pattern that is reversed in ise1 embryos. Silencing ISE1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves increases the frequency of secondary PD in existing cell walls. Silencing ISE2 increases the proportion of T/B secondary PD formed. Silenced tissues exhibit increased PD-mediated movement of green fluorescent protein tracers. Thus, silencing of ISE1 and ISE2 phenocopies ise1 and ise2 mutant embryos: when wild-type ISE1 and ISE2 functions are lost, de novo production of PD occurs, leading to increased intercellular transport.

  18. Formation of silica aggregates in sorghum root endodermis is predetermined by cell wall architecture and development.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Milan; Martinka, Michal; Bosnic, Dragana; Caplovicová, Mária; Elbaum, Rivka; Lux, Alexander

    2017-06-22

    Deposition of silica in plant cell walls improves their mechanical properties and helps plants to withstand various stress conditions. Its mechanism is still not understood and silica-cell wall interactions are elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silica deposition on the development and structure of sorghum root endodermis and to identify the cell wall components involved in silicification. Sorghum bicolor seedlings were grown hydroponically with (Si+) or without (Si-) silicon supplementation. Primary roots were used to investigate the transcription of silicon transporters by quantitative RT-PCR. Silica aggregation was induced also under in vitro conditions in detached root segments. The development and architecture of endodermal cell walls were analysed by histochemistry, microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Water retention capability was compared between silicified and non-silicified roots. Raman spectroscopy analyses of isolated silica aggregates were also carried out. Active uptake of silicic acid is provided at the root apex, where silicon transporters Lsi1 and Lsi2 are expressed. The locations of silica aggregation are established during the development of tertiary endodermal cell walls, even in the absence of silicon. Silica aggregation takes place in non-lignified spots in the endodermal cell walls, which progressively accumulate silicic acid, and its condensation initiates at arabinoxylan-ferulic acid complexes. Silicification does not support root water retention capability; however, it decreases root growth inhibition imposed by desiccation. A model is proposed in which the formation of silica aggregates in sorghum roots is predetermined by a modified cell wall architecture and takes place as governed by endodermal development. The interaction with silica is provided by arabinoxylan-ferulic acid complexes and interferes with further deposition of lignin. Due to contrasting hydrophobicity, silicification and lignification

  19. Light-regulated compensation of wat1 (walls are thin1) growth and secondary cell wall phenotypes is auxin-independent

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Yves; Sundberg, Björn

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported the characterization of walls are thin1 (wat1), an Arabidopsis mutant that exhibits two developmental phenotypes in stems: (1) a severe decrease in fiber secondary cell wall thickness and (2) a reduction in stem height.1 Auxin concentration and transport were also significantly reduced in the stem base of wat1 plants. In the original study, these characteristics were observed in plants grown under short day conditions (9 h light/15 h dark). Herein, we provide evidence for partial phenotypic complementation of both wat1 developmental phenotypes when grown under a continuous light regime. Interestingly, when auxin concentration and basipetal transport were measured in these plants, neither was restored to wild-type levels. These results suggest that free auxin concentration is not responsible for the partial light-regulated complementation of wat1-mediated phenotypes. PMID:20935503

  20. Light-regulated compensation of wat1 (walls are thin1) growth and secondary cell wall phenotypes is auxin-independent.

    PubMed

    Denancé, Nicolas; Ranocha, Philippe; Martinez, Yves; Sundberg, Björn; Goffner, Deborah

    2010-10-01

    We previously reported the characterization of walls are thin1 (wat1), an Arabidopsis mutant that exhibits two developmental phenotypes in stems: (1) a severe decrease in fiber secondary cell wall thickness and (2) a reduction in stem height. Auxin concentration and transport were also significantly reduced in the stem base of wat1 plants. In the original study, these characteristics were observed in plants grown under short day conditions (9 h light /15 h dark). Herein, we provide evidence for partial phenotypic complementation of both wat1 developmental phenotypes when grown under a continuous light regime. Interestingly, when auxin concentration and basipetal transport were measured in these plants, neither was restored to wild type levels. These results suggest that free auxin concentration is not responsible for the partial light-regulated complementation of wat1-mediated phenotypes. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  1. Effect of Late Planting and Shading on Cellulose Synthesis during Cotton Fiber Secondary Wall Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Lv, Fengjuan; Liu, Jingran; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP) and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June) each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR). Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%–25.5%) produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%–20.9%) was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%–5.6%). The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38–45 days post-anthesis). The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase. PMID:25133819

  2. Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Lv, Fengjuan; Liu, Jingran; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M

    2014-01-01

    Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP) and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June) each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR). Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5%) produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9%) was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%). The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis). The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase.

  3. EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION IN WINTER. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three different methods are used to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA)
    concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the winter of 1995-1996 [Integrated
    Monitoring Study, (IMS95)]. The first of these methods estimates SOA by using elemental carbon as

  4. EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION IN WINTER. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three different methods are used to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA)
    concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the winter of 1995-1996 [Integrated
    Monitoring Study, (IMS95)]. The first of these methods estimates SOA by using elemental carbon as

  5. FORMATION MECHANISMS FOR SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    An laboratory and field research program is underway at the NERL to characterize secondary organic carbon in PM2.5 which is formed through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Information from this study will provide critical data needed to improve the treatment of SO...

  6. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM MIXTURES OF BIOGENIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work the influence of hydrocarbon mixtures on the overall Secondary Organic Aerosol yield is investigated. Photochemical reaction experiments were conducted using mixtures of a-pinene, isoprene and propene in the presence of NOx. Results of the experiments show...

  7. Polymer Wall Formation Using Liquid-Crystal/Polymer Phase Separation Induced on Patterned Polyimide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashige, Takeshi; Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Taiichiro; Sato, Fumio

    2004-12-01

    We could form lattice-shaped polymer walls in a liquid crystal (LC) layer through the thermal phase separation of an LC/polystyrene solution between substrates with polyimide films etched by short-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation using a photomask. The LC wetting difference between the polyimide and substrate surfaces caused the coalescence of growing LC droplets on patterned polyimide films with the progress of phase separation. Consequently, polymer walls were formed on substrate surface areas without polyimide films. The shape of the polymer wall formed became sharp with the use of rubbed polyimide films because the nucleation of growing LC droplets concentrated on the patterned polyimide films. It is thought that the increase in the alignment order of LC molecules in the solution near the rubbed polyimide films promotes the formation of LC molecular aggregation, which becomes the growth nuclei of LC droplets.

  8. Conservation of proteins involved in oocyst wall formation in Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Belli, Sabina I; Ferguson, David J P; Katrib, Marilyn; Slapetova, Iveta; Mai, Kelly; Slapeta, Jan; Flowers, Sarah A; Miska, Kate B; Tomley, Fiona M; Shirley, Martin W; Wallach, Michael G; Smith, Nicholas C

    2009-08-01

    Vaccination with proteins from gametocytes of Eimeria maxima protects chickens, via transfer of maternal antibodies, against infection with several species of Eimeria. Antibodies to E. maxima gametocyte proteins recognise proteins in the wall forming bodies of macrogametocytes and oocyst walls of E. maxima, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina. Homologous genes for two major gametocyte proteins - GAM56 and GAM82 - were found in E. maxima, E. tenella and E. acervulina. Alignment of the predicted protein sequences of these genes reveals that, as well as sharing regions of tyrosine richness, strong homology exists in their amino-terminal regions, where protective antibodies bind. This study confirms the conservation of the roles of GAM56 and GAM82 in oocyst wall formation and shows that antibodies to gametocyte antigens of E. maxima cross-react with homologous proteins in other species, helping to explain cross-species maternal immunity.

  9. Secondary effects of catalytic diesel particulate filters: copper-induced formation of PCDD/Fs.

    PubMed

    Heeb, Norbert V; Zennegg, Markus; Gujer, Erika; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Gfeller, Urs; Wichser, Adrian; Kohler, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Emmenegger, Lukas; Ulrich, Andrea; Wenger, Daniela; Petermann, Jean-Luc; Czerwinski, Jan; Mosimann, Thomas; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

    2007-08-15

    Potential risks of a secondary formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) were assessed for two cordierite-based, wall-through diesel particulate filters (DPFs) for which soot combustion was either catalyzed with an iron- or a copper-based fuel additive. A heavy duty diesel engine was used as test platform, applying the eight-stage ISO 8178/4 C1 cycle. DPF applications neither affected the engine performance, nor did they increase NO, NO2, CO, and CO2 emissions. The latter is a metric for fuel consumption. THC emissions decreased by about 40% when deploying DPFs. PCDD/F emissions, with a focus on tetra- to octachlorinated congeners, were compared under standard and worst case conditions (enhanced chlorine uptake). The iron-catalyzed DPF neither increased PCDD/F emissions, nor did it change the congener pattern, even when traces of chlorine became available. In case of copper, PCDD/F emissions increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude from 22 to 200 to 12 700 pg I-TEQ/L with fuels of < 2, 14, and 110 microg/g chlorine, respectively. Mainly lower chlorinated DD/Fs were formed. Based on these substantial effects on PCDD/F emissions, the copper-catalyzed DPF system was not approved for workplace applications, whereas the iron system fulfilled all the specifications of the Swiss procedures for DPF approval (VERT).

  10. Interconnection of Salt-induced Hydrophobic Compaction and Secondary Structure Formation Depends on Solution Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Shubhasis; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the early stage of protein folding remains an interesting unsolved problem. Rapid kinetics measurements with cytochrome c using submillisecond continuous flow mixing devices suggest simultaneous formation of a compact collapsed state and secondary structure. These data seem to indicate that collapse formation is guided by specific short and long range interactions (heteropolymer collapse). A contrasting interpretation also has been proposed, which suggests that the collapse formation is rapid, nonspecific, and a trivial solvent related compaction, which could as well be observed by a homopolymer (homopolymer collapse). We address this controversy using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which enables us to monitor the salt-induced compaction accompanying collapse formation and the associated time constant directly at single molecule resolution. In addition, we follow the formation of secondary structure using far UV CD. The data presented here suggest that both these models (homopolymer and heteropolymer) could be applicable depending on the solution conditions. For example, the formation of secondary structure and compact state is not simultaneous in aqueous buffer. In aqueous buffer, formation of the compact state occurs through a two-state co-operative transition following heteropolymer formalism, whereas secondary structure formation takes place gradually. In contrast, in the presence of urea, a compaction of the protein radius occurs gradually over an extended range of salt concentration following homopolymer formalism. The salt-induced compaction and the formation of secondary structure take place simultaneously in the presence of urea. PMID:22303014

  11. Organic Aerosol Formation Photoenhanced by the Formation of Secondary Photo-sensitizers in ageing Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aregahegn, Kifle; Nozière, Barbara; George, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Humankind is facing a changing environment possibly due to anthropogenic stress on the atmosphere. In this context, aerosols play a key role by affecting the radiative climate forcing, hydrological cycle, and by their adverse effect on health. The role of organic compounds in these processes is however still poorly understood because of their massive chemical complexity and numerous transformations. This is particularly true for Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), which are produced in the atmosphere by organic gases. Traditionally, the driving forces for SOA growth is believed to be the partitioning onto aerosol seeds of condensable gases, either emitted primarily or resulting from the gas phase oxidation of organic gases. However, even the most up-to-date models based on such mechanisms can not account for the SOA mass observed in the atmosphere, suggesting the existence of other, yet unknown formation processes. The present study shows experimental evidence that particulate phase chemistry produces photo-sensitizers that lead to photo-induced formation and growth of secondary organic aerosol in the near UV and the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as terpenes. By means of an aerosol flow tube reactor equipped with Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) having Kr-85 source aerosol neutralizer, Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) and Condensation Particle Sizer (CPC), we identified that traces of the aerosol phase product of glyoxal chemistry as is explained in Gallway et al., and Yu et al., namely imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) is a strong photo-sensitizer when irradiated by near-UV in the presence of volatile organic compounds such as terpenes. Furthermore, the influence of pH, type and concentration of VOCs, composition of seed particles, relative humidity and irradiation intensity on particle growth were studied. This novel photo-sensitizer contributed to more than 30% of SOA growth in 19min irradiation time in the presence of terpenes in the

  12. Exogenous GA₃ Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiyan; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Huizi; Hu, Ping; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunrui; Wang, Yanmin; Gu, Shan; Yang, Chuanping; Wang, Chao

    2015-09-23

    Gibberellin (GA) is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch) seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA₃ and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC), seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA₃ and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol-HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA₃, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA₃-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA₃ treatment, suggesting their role in GA₃-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA₃ induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants.

  13. Exogenous GA3 Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huiyan; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Huizi; Hu, Ping; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunrui; Wang, Yanmin; Gu, Shan; Yang, Chuanping; Wang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch) seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA3 and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC), seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA3 and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol–HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA3, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA3-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA3 treatment, suggesting their role in GA3-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA3 induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants. PMID:26404260

  14. SOL density profile formation and intermittent ion fluxes to the first wall in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkden, Nicholas; Militello, F.; Matthews, G.; Harrison, J.; Moulton, D.; Wynn, A.; Lipschultz, B.; Guillemaut, C.; JET Team

    2016-10-01

    The ion flux in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a tokamak is highly non-diffusive due to the radial propagation of intermittent burst events known as filaments. As a result the formation of mean profiles in the SOL and the flux incident on the outer wall are strongly impacted by transient events. This has been investigated over a series of pulses in an Ohmic L-mode horizontal target configuration in JET. Broadening of the SOL density profile is reduced as plasma current is increased or the density is decreased. The mean and variance of the ion flux at the outer wall change concurrently with this broadening. Upon renormalization the PDFs of the ion flux at the outer-wall collapse indicating universality in the dynamics of their constituent fluctuations. This universality is shown to result from a balance between the duration and frequency of burst events which keeps the intermittency parameter constant. These measurements will be compared to synthetically produced measurements created using a stochastic framework based on filamentary dynamics. Through this comparison possible models of filamentary dynamics will be assessed and compared quantitatively to gain an understanding of the processes underlying density profile formation and fluxes to the outer wall of JET. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EURO- fusion Consortium.

  15. Cell wall structure and formation of maturing fibres of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) increase buckling resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Ren, Haiqing; Zhang, Bo; Fei, Benhua; Burgert, Ingo

    2012-05-07

    The mechanical stability of the culms of monocotyledonous bamboos is highly attributed to the proper embedding of the stiff fibre caps of the vascular bundles into the soft parenchymatous matrix. Owing to lack of a vascular cambium, bamboos show no secondary thickening growth that impedes geometrical adaptations to mechanical loads and increases the necessity of structural optimization at the material level. Here, we investigate the fine structure and mechanical properties of fibres within a maturing vascular bundle of moso bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens, with a high spatial resolution. The fibre cell walls were found to show almost axially oriented cellulose fibrils, and the stiffness and hardness of the central part of the cell wall remained basically consistent for the fibres at different regions across the fibre cap. A stiffness gradient across the fibre cap is developed by differential cell wall thickening which affects tissue density and thereby axial tissue stiffness in the different regions of the cap. The almost axially oriented cellulose fibrils in the fibre walls maximize the longitudinal elastic modulus of the fibres and their lignification increases the transverse rigidity. This is interpreted as a structural and mechanical optimization that contributes to the high buckling resistance of the slender bamboo culms.

  16. Cell wall structure and formation of maturing fibres of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) increase buckling resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Ren, Haiqing; Zhang, Bo; Fei, Benhua; Burgert, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical stability of the culms of monocotyledonous bamboos is highly attributed to the proper embedding of the stiff fibre caps of the vascular bundles into the soft parenchymatous matrix. Owing to lack of a vascular cambium, bamboos show no secondary thickening growth that impedes geometrical adaptations to mechanical loads and increases the necessity of structural optimization at the material level. Here, we investigate the fine structure and mechanical properties of fibres within a maturing vascular bundle of moso bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens, with a high spatial resolution. The fibre cell walls were found to show almost axially oriented cellulose fibrils, and the stiffness and hardness of the central part of the cell wall remained basically consistent for the fibres at different regions across the fibre cap. A stiffness gradient across the fibre cap is developed by differential cell wall thickening which affects tissue density and thereby axial tissue stiffness in the different regions of the cap. The almost axially oriented cellulose fibrils in the fibre walls maximize the longitudinal elastic modulus of the fibres and their lignification increases the transverse rigidity. This is interpreted as a structural and mechanical optimization that contributes to the high buckling resistance of the slender bamboo culms. PMID:21920959

  17. Formation of Secondary Ca-Fe-Rich Assemblages in CV Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganino, C.; Libourel, G.

    2016-08-01

    Chondrites have multiplied evidences for metasomatic processes during the early solar system formation. Diversity in secondary Ca-Fe silicate provides information on T-X conditions and the open/closed-system behavior.

  18. Examining the Use of Audience Response Systems in Secondary School Classrooms: A Formative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin; LeSage, Ann; Knaack, Liesel

    2010-01-01

    To date, extensive research has been done on the use of Audience Response Systems (ARSs) in colleges and universities, but not in secondary school schools. The purpose of this study was to conduct a detailed formative analysis on the benefits, challenges, and use of ARSs from the perspective of 659 secondary school students. Key benefits reported…

  19. Examining the Use of Audience Response Systems in Secondary School Classrooms: A Formative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin; LeSage, Ann; Knaack, Liesel

    2010-01-01

    To date, extensive research has been done on the use of Audience Response Systems (ARSs) in colleges and universities, but not in secondary school schools. The purpose of this study was to conduct a detailed formative analysis on the benefits, challenges, and use of ARSs from the perspective of 659 secondary school students. Key benefits reported…

  20. Formative Assessment in the Grenadian Lower Secondary School: Teachers' Perceptions, Attitudes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James E. J.; Jackman, Mary Grace-Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions, attitudes and frequency of use of formative assessment strategies of teachers in the Grenadian lower secondary school (Forms 1, 2 and 3). The study, which was quantitative in nature, involved 252 lower secondary school teachers. Overall the participants had positive perceptions and…

  1. Formative Assessment in the Grenadian Lower Secondary School: Teachers' Perceptions, Attitudes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James E. J.; Jackman, Mary Grace-Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions, attitudes and frequency of use of formative assessment strategies of teachers in the Grenadian lower secondary school (Forms 1, 2 and 3). The study, which was quantitative in nature, involved 252 lower secondary school teachers. Overall the participants had positive perceptions and…

  2. Role of particulate metals in heterogenous secondary sulfate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Andrea L.; Buzcu-Guven, Birnur; Fraser, Matthew P.; Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2013-08-01

    A series of field sampling and controlled laboratory experiments were undertaken to quantify the role of trace metals found in ambient fine particulate matter and metal-rich primary sources in the heterogenous catalytic conversion of SO2 gas into sulfate particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. Analysis produced source profiles of three primary source materials, fluidized-bed catalytic cracking catalyst, coal-fired combustion fly ash, and paved road dust, featuring 33 elements including rare earth metals, which are not commonly reported in the literature. Subsequently three sets of experiments were conducted exposing 1) source materials, 2) ambient PM, and 3) ambient PM augmented with approximately an equal amount of source material to SO2 gas and measuring sulfate formation. Source material experiments revealed that the greatest extent of reaction was on the surface of coal fly ash with sulfate formation of 19 ± 5 mg sulfate g-1 material. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) experiments showed sulfate formation ranging from negligible amounts to 180 ± 10 mg sulfate g-1 PM. It was much more difficult to quantify the sulfate formation on ambient filters augmented with the source materials. In these experiments, sulfate formation ranged from negligible amounts to 40 ± 8 mg sulfate g-1 of particles (ambient + augmented material). These three sets of experiments shows that heterogenous sulfate formation is often negligible but, under some conditions can contribute 10% or more to the total sulfate concentrations when exposed to high SO2 concentrations such as those found in plumes. Factor analysis of the source material experiments grouped metals into two categories, crustal components and anthropogenically emitted metals representative of catalyst material, with the former showing the strongest correlation with sulfate formation. Subsequent analysis of data collected from the ambient PM experiments showed a much weaker correlation of sulfate formation with the

  3. Mug28, a Meiosis-specific Protein of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Regulates Spore Wall Formation

    PubMed Central

    Shigehisa, Akira; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Kasama, Takashi; Tohda, Hideki; Hirata, Aiko

    2010-01-01

    The meiosis-specific mug28+ gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes a putative RNA-binding protein with three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs). Live observations of meiotic cells that express Mug28 tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that Mug28 is localized in the cytoplasm, and accumulates around the nucleus from metaphase I to anaphase II. Disruption of mug28+ generated spores with low viability, due to the aberrant formation of the forespore membrane (FSM). Visualization of the FSM in living cells expressing GFP-tagged Psy1, an FSM protein, indicated that mug28Δ cells harbored abnormal FSMs that contained buds, and had a delayed disappearance of Meu14, a leading edge protein. Electron microscopic observation revealed that FSM formation was abnormal in mug28Δ cells, showing bifurcated spore walls that were thicker than the nonbifurcated spore walls of the wild type. Analysis of Mug28 mutants revealed that RRM3, in particular phenylalanin-466, is of primary importance for the proper localization of Mug28, spore viability, and FSM formation. Together, we conclude that Mug28 is essential for the proper maturation of the FSM and the spore wall. PMID:20410137

  4. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 is essential for pollen wall pattern formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ming-Xi; Huang, Xue-Yong; Zhu, Jun; Guan, Yue-Feng; Jia, Qi-Shi; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2013-06-01

    In angiosperms, pollen wall pattern formation is determined by primexine deposition on the microspores. Here, we show that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 (ARF17) is essential for primexine formation and pollen development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The arf17 mutant exhibited a male-sterile phenotype with normal vegetative growth. ARF17 was expressed in microsporocytes and microgametophytes from meiosis to the bicellular microspore stage. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that primexine was absent in the arf17 mutant, which leads to pollen wall-patterning defects and pollen degradation. Callose deposition was also significantly reduced in the arf17 mutant, and the expression of CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 (CalS5), the major gene for callose biosynthesis, was approximately 10% that of the wild type. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that ARF17 can directly bind to the CalS5 promoter. As indicated by the expression of DR5-driven green fluorescent protein, which is an synthetic auxin response reporter, auxin signaling appeared to be specifically impaired in arf17 anthers. Taken together, our results suggest that ARF17 is essential for pollen wall patterning in Arabidopsis by modulating primexine formation at least partially through direct regulation of CalS5 gene expression.

  5. ER-YAG laser pretreatment effect on in vitro secondary caries formation around composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, L; Toledano, M; Osorio, R; García-Godoy, F; Flaitz, C; Hicks, J

    2001-02-01

    This in vitro study determined if Er-YAG laser used in instead of acid-etching influenced artificial secondary caries formation in enamel and root surfaces. Class V cavities were prepared in buccal and lingual surfaces of 10 extracted caries-free molars, with cervical margins in the root surface and occlusal margins in enamel. The specimens were randomly assigned to 2 groups: Group 1: Enamel and dentin etched with 35% phosphoric acid gel (Scotchbond 15s, rinse 10s; n=5 teeth with 2 cavities per specimen, 10 occlusal and 10 root surface margins at caries risk). Group 2: Enamel and dentin surfaces conditioned using a pulsed Er-YAG laser (KAVO) with 2.94 microm wavelength, 250 micros pulse duration, 300 mJ for enamel and 250 mJ for root surface pulse energy, 2 Hz repetition rate, and water cooling (n=5 teeth with 2 cavities per specimen, 10 occlusal and 10 root surface margins at caries risk). The cavity preparations were restored with a wet-bonding technique (Scotchbond 1 adhesive system) and a hybrid resin, light-cured composite (Z100, A3 shade), according to the manufacturer's instructions. Acid-resistant varnish was applied leaving the restoration and a 1 mm rim of adjacent surface enamel and root surface exposed. The specimens were thermocycled (5-50 degrees C, 500 cycles, dwell time 30s). Following artificial caries formation (2.2 mM calcium, 2.2 mM phosphate, 50 mM acetic acid, 5.0 mg/L fluoride, pH 4.25, 10 days), longitudinal sections (3/tooth, 30 occlusal and cervical caries risk sites per group) were taken for polarized light microscopic examination (water imbibition). Primary surface lesion depth and wall lesion frequency was determined and compared between groups (Student's t-test). Er-YAG laser irradiation resulted in a 56% reduction in primary enamel surface lesion depth (116 microm mean depth) when compared with the acid-etched group (263 microm mean depth), and a 39% decrease in root surface lesion depth (194 microm mean depth) compared with that (316

  6. WD40-Repeat Proteins in Plant Cell Wall Formation: Current Evidence and Research Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Gea; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Ezcurra, Inés

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic complexity of living organisms relies on supramolecular protein structures which ensure vital processes, such as signal transduction, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis. In eukaryotes WD40-repeat (WDR) proteins often function as molecular “hubs” mediating supramolecular interactions. WDR proteins may display a variety of interacting partners and participate in the assembly of complexes involved in distinct cellular functions. In plants, the formation of lignocellulosic biomass involves extensive synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides, a process that requires the assembly of large transmembrane enzyme complexes, intensive vesicle trafficking, interactions with the cytoskeleton, and coordinated gene expression. Because of their function as supramolecular hubs, WDR proteins could participate in each or any of these steps, although to date only few WDR proteins have been linked to the cell wall by experimental evidence. Nevertheless, several potential cell wall-related WDR proteins were recently identified using in silico approaches, such as analyses of co-expression, interactome and conserved gene neighborhood. Notably, some WDR genes are frequently genomic neighbors of genes coding for GT2-family polysaccharide synthases in eukaryotes, and this WDR-GT2 collinear microsynteny is detected in diverse taxa. In angiosperms, two WDR genes are collinear to cellulose synthase genes, CesAs, whereas in ascomycetous fungi several WDR genes are adjacent to chitin synthase genes, chs. In this Perspective we summarize and discuss experimental and in silico studies on the possible involvement of WDR proteins in plant cell wall formation. The prospects of biotechnological engineering for enhanced biomass production are discussed. PMID:26734023

  7. Secondary Aerosol Formation from Oxidation of Aromatics Hydrocarbons by Cl atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Griffin, R.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol Formation From the Oxidation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Chlorine Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) affects regional and global air quality. The formation mechanisms of SOA via the oxidation of volatile organic compounds by hydroxyl radicals, ozone, and nitrate radicals have been studied intensively during the last decade. Chlorine atoms (Cl) also have been hypothesized to be effective oxidants in marine and industrially influenced areas. Recent work by the authors has indicated that significant amounts of SOA are formed from the oxidation of monoterpenes by Cl. Aromatic hydrocarbons are important for generation of both SOA and ozone in urban areas because of their large emission rates and high reactivity. The goal of this work was to quantify the SOA formation potentials of two representative aromatic hydrocarbons through laboratory chamber experiments in which oxidation was initiated by Cl. The system constructed for this study includes an experimental chamber, a gas chromatograph for quantification of aromatic mixing ratios, a Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer to measure SOA size distributions, a zero air generator, and an illuminating system. The model aromatic hydrocarbons chosen for this study are toluene and m-xylene. Aerosol yields are estimated based on measured aerosol volume concentration, the concentration of consumed hydrocarbon, and estimation of wall loss of the newly formed aerosol. Toluene and m-xylene exhibit similar SOA yields from the oxidation initiated by Cl. The toluene SOA yield from Cl-initiated oxidation, however, depends on the ratio between the mixing ratios of the initial chlorine source and toluene in the chamber. For toluene experiments with higher such ratios, SOA yields vary from 0.05 to 0.079 for generated aerosol ranging from 4.2 to12.0 micrograms per cubic meter. In the lower ratio experiments, SOA yields are from 0.033 to 0.064, corresponding to generated aerosol from 3.0 to 11.0 micrograms per cubic

  8. Formation and growth mechanisms of single-walled metal oxide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucelen, Gulfem Ipek

    In this thesis, main objectives are to discover the first molecular-level mechanistic framework governing the formation and growth of single-walled metal-oxide nanotubes, apply this framework to demonstrate the engineering of nanotubular materials of controlled dimensions, and to progress towards a quantitative multiscale understanding of nanotube formation. In Chapter 2, the identification and elucidation of the mechanistic role of molecular precursors and nanoscale (1-3 nm) intermediates with intrinsic curvature, in the formation of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes is reported. The structural and compositional evolution of molecular and nanoscale species over a length scale of 0.1-100 nm, are characterized by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. DFT calculations revealed the intrinsic curvature of nanoscale intermediates with bonding environments similar to the structure of the final nanotube product. It is shown that curved nano-intermediates form in aqueous synthesis solutions immediately after initial hydrolysis of reactants at 25 °C, disappear from the solution upon heating to 95 °C due to condensation, and finally rearrange to form ordered single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes. Integration of all results leads to the construction of the first molecular-level mechanism of single-walled metal oxide nanotube formation, incorporating the role of monomeric and polymeric aluminosilicate species as well as larger nanoparticles. Then, in Chapter 3, new molecular-level concepts for constructing nanoscopic metal oxide objects are demonstrated. The diameters of metal oxide nanotubes are shaped with Angstrom-level precision by controlling the shape of nanometer-scale precursors. The subtle relationships between precursor shape and structure and final nanotube curvature are measured (at the molecular level). Anionic ligands (both organic and inorganic) are used to exert fine control over precursor

  9. Formation potential of nine nitrosamines from corresponding secondary amines by chloramination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjun; Chen, Cuiping; Lou, Linjie; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Lizhong

    2014-01-01

    Nitrosamines, a group of emerging disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water, have recently caused significant concern because of their higher carcinogenic potential than that of currently regulated DBPs. In this study, the formation of nine representative nitrosamines by chloramination of their corresponding secondary amines was investigated under various conditions. All nine nitrosamines were detected in the corresponding reaction solutions, which confirmed that all the investigated secondary amines were the potential precursors of corresponding nitrosamines. The molar yields of nitrosamines from the corresponding secondary amines were quite different, depending on the structural characteristics of the secondary amines. The maximum molar yields for the formation of all nine nitrosamines occurred in the pH range of 7.0-9.0 and at the Cl/N molar ratio of 0.7 for chloramines, suggesting that monochloramine and unprotonated secondary amines may play a major role in the formation of nitrosamines. The molar yields of nitrosamines also exhibited a moderate upward tendency with rising temperature, but no consistent correlation was observed between the formation of nitrosamine and the initial concentrations of secondary amines and chloramines. The results of this study could be useful for devising strategies for controlling the formation of nitrosamines during the disinfection processes of drinking water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Aerosol Acidity on the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Biogenic Precursor Hydrocarbons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and dynamics may be important factors for the role of aerosols in adverse health effects, visibility and climate change. Formation of SOA occurs when a parent volatile organic compound is oxidized to create products that form in a conden...

  11. Alternative Format Preferences among Secondary School Visually Impaired Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetoro, 'Niran

    2012-01-01

    Persons with visual impairment have consistently shown a preference for one alternative reading format over another, often because of factors outside their control. This study adopted survey research design to investigate alternative format preferences among secondary school visually impaired students, focusing on Southwestern Nigeria. Using total…

  12. Influence of Aerosol Acidity on the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Biogenic Precursor Hydrocarbons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and dynamics may be important factors for the role of aerosols in adverse health effects, visibility and climate change. Formation of SOA occurs when a parent volatile organic compound is oxidized to create products that form in a conden...

  13. Alternative Format Preferences among Secondary School Visually Impaired Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetoro, 'Niran

    2012-01-01

    Persons with visual impairment have consistently shown a preference for one alternative reading format over another, often because of factors outside their control. This study adopted survey research design to investigate alternative format preferences among secondary school visually impaired students, focusing on Southwestern Nigeria. Using total…

  14. Differential Growth in Periclinal and Anticlinal Walls during Lobe Formation in Arabidopsis Cotyledon Pavement Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Deborah A.; Law, Andrew M.K.; Overall, Robyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Lobe development in the epidermal pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons and leaves is thought to take place via tip-like growth on the concave side of lobes driven by localized concentrations of actin filaments and associated proteins, with a predicted role for cortical microtubules in establishing the direction of restricted growth at the convex side. We used homologous landmarks fixed to the outer walls of pavement cells and thin-plate spline analysis to demonstrate that lobes form by differential growth of both the anticlinal and periclinal walls. Most lobes formed within the first 24 h of the cotyledons unfurling, during the period of rapid cell expansion. Cortical microtubules adjacent to the periclinal wall were persistently enriched at the convex side of lobes during development where growth was anisotropic and were less concentrated or absent at the concave side where growth was promoted. Alternating microtubule-enriched and microtubule-free zones at the periclinal wall in neighboring cells predicted sites of new lobes. There was no particular arrangement of cortical actin filaments that could predict where lobes would form. However, drug studies demonstrate that both filamentous actin and microtubules are required for lobe formation. PMID:26296967

  15. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii development mutants identifies a potential proteophosphogylcan that enhances cyst wall formation.

    PubMed

    Craver, Mary Patricia J; Rooney, Peggy J; Knoll, Laura J

    2010-02-01

    Within warm-blooded animals, Toxoplasma gondii switches from an actively replicating form called a tachyzoite into a slow growing encysted form called a bradyzoite. To uncover the genes involved in bradyzoite development, we screened over 8000 T. gondii insertional mutants by immunofluorescence microscopy. We identified nine bradyzoite development mutants that were defective in both cyst wall formation and expression of a bradyzoite specific heat shock protein. One of these mutants, named 42F5, contained an insertion into the predicted gene TGME49_097520. The disrupted protein is serine/proline-rich with homology to proteophosphoglycans from Leishmania. T. gondii proteophosphoglycan (GU182879) expressed from the native promoter was undetectable in tachyzoites, but bradyzoites show punctate spots within the parasite and staining around the parasitophorous vacuole. Complementation of the 42F5 mutant with GU182879 expressed from either the alpha-tubulin or native promoter restores cyst wall formation. Overall, GU182879 is upregulated in bradyzoites and enhances cyst wall component expression and assembly.

  16. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the irradiation of simulated automobile exhaust.

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, T E; Corse, E W; Li, W; McIver, C D; Conver, T S; Edney, E O; Driscoll, D J; Speer, R E; Weathers, W S; Tejada, S B

    2002-03-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from emissions from automotive exhaust. The goal was to determine to what extent photochemical oxidation products of these hydrocarbons contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and how well their formation is described by recently developed models for SOA formation. The quality of a surrogate was tested by comparing its reactivity with that from irradiations of authentic automobile exhaust. Experiments for secondary particle formation using the surrogate were conducted in a fixed volume reactor operated in a dynamic mode. The mass concentration of the aerosol was determined from measurements of organic carbon collected on quartz filters and was corrected for the presence of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms in the organic species. A functional group analysis of the aerosol made by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated

  17. Secondary Aerosol: Precursors and Formation Mechanisms. Technical Report on Grant

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein-Lloyd, Judith B

    2009-05-04

    This project focused on studying trace gases that participate in chemical reactions that form atmospheric aerosols. Ammonium sulfate is a major constituent of these tiny particles, and one important pathway to sulfate formation is oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide by hydrogen peroxide in cloud, fog and rainwater. Sulfate aerosols influence the number and size of cloud droplets, and since these factors determine cloud radiative properties, sulfate aerosols also influence climate. Peroxide measurements, in conjunction with those of other gaseous species, can used to distinguish the contribution of in-cloud reaction to new sulfate aerosol formation from gas-phase nucleation reactions. This will lead to more reliable global climate models. We constructed and tested a new 4-channel fluorescence detector for airborne detection of peroxides. We integrated the instrument on the G-1 in January, 2006 and took a test flight in anticipation of the MAX-Mex field program, where we planned to fly under pressurized conditions for the first time. We participated in the 2006 Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) - Megacity Aerosol EXperiment Mexico City (MAX-Mex) field measurement campaign. Peroxide instrumentation was deployed on the DOE G-1 research aircraft based in Veracruz, and at the surface site at Tecamac University.

  18. Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation and Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Perraud, Veronique M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Alexander, M. L.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.; Chang, W. L.; Dabdub, Donald; Pankow, James F.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2012-02-21

    Airborne particles play a critical role in air quality, human health effects, visibility and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) account for a significant portion of total airborne particles. They are formed in reactions of organic gases that produce low volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Current atmospheric models assume that SOA are liquids into which SVOCs undergo equilibrium partitioning and grow the particles. However a large discrepancy between model predictions and field measurements of SOA is commonly observed. We report here laboratory studies of the oxidation of a-pinene by ozone and nitrate radicals and show that particle composition is actually consistent with a kinetically determined growth mechanism, and not with equilibrium partitioning between the gas phase and liquid particles. If this is indeed a general phenomenon in air, the formulation of atmospheric SOA models will have to be revised to reflect this new paradigm. This will have significant impacts on quantifying the role of SOA in air quality, visibility, and climate.

  19. Template directed formation of nanoparticle decorated multi-walled carbon nanotube bundles with uniform diameter.

    PubMed

    Han, T Yong-Jin; Stadermann, Michael; Baumann, Theodore F; Murphy, Kristen E; Satcher, Joe H

    2011-10-28

    Bundles of multi-walled carbon nanotubes of uniform diameter decorated with Ni nanoparticles were synthesized using mesoporous silicates as templates. The ordered morphology and the narrow pore size distribution of mesoporous silicates provide an ideal platform to synthesize uniformly sized carbon nanotubes. In addition, homogeneous sub-10 nm pore sizes of the templates allow in situ formation of catalytic nanoparticles with uniform diameters which end up decorating the carbon nanotubes. The resulting carbon nanotubes are multi-walled with a uniform diameter corresponding to the pore diameter of the template used during the synthesis that are decorated with the catalysts used to synthesize them. They have a narrow size distribution which can be used in many energy related fields of research.

  20. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres as a medium or substrate for storage and formation of novel materials

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G; Serkiz, Steven M.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Heung, Leung K.

    2014-06-24

    Porous wall hollow glass microspheres are provided as a template for formation of nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, In addition, the carbon nanotubes in combination with the porous wall hollow glass microsphere provides an additional reaction template with respect to carbon nanotubes.

  1. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-07

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  2. Lumbar spine osteomyelitis and epidural abscess formation secondary to acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Godhania, Vinesh

    2016-01-01

    A 39-year-old male with no previous medical history presented with abdominal and low back pain. Based on clinical and radiological findings he was diagnosed with L1/L2 osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Further history taking revealed recent use of acupuncture for treatment of mechanical back pain. The patient was treated conservatively with an extended course of antibiotics, monitored with repeat MRI scans and had a full recovery with no neurological deficit. This is the first reported case of epidural abscess formation and osteomyelitis after acupuncture in the UK. As acupuncture becomes more commonly used in western countries, it is important to be aware of this rare but serious complication. PMID:26976275

  3. Role of Glycosyltransferases in Pollen Wall Primexine Formation and Exine Patterning1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenhua L.; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    The pollen cell wall is important for protection of male sperm from physical stresses and consists of an inner gametophyte-derived intine layer and a sporophyte-derived exine layer. The polymeric constituents of the robust exine are termed sporopollenin. The mechanisms by which sporopollenin is anchored onto microspores and polymerized in specific patterns are unknown, but the primexine, a transient cell wall matrix formed on the surface of microspores at the late tetrad stage, is hypothesized to play a key role. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) spongy (spg) and uneven pattern of exine (upex) mutants exhibit defective and irregular exine patterns. SPG2 (synonymous with IRREGULAR XYLEM9-LIKE [IRX9L]) encodes a family GT43 glycosyltransferase involved in xylan backbone biosynthesis, while UPEX1 encodes a family GT31 glycosyltransferase likely involved in galactosylation of arabinogalactan proteins. Imaging of developing irx9l microspores showed that the earliest detectable defect was in primexine formation. Furthermore, wild-type microspores contained primexine-localized epitopes indicative of the presence of xylan, but these were absent in irx9l. These data, together with the spg phenotype of a mutant in IRX14L, which also plays a role in xylan backbone elongation, indicate the presence of xylan in pollen wall primexine, which plays a role in exine patterning on the microspore surface. We observed an aberrant primexine and irregular patterns of incipient sporopollenin deposition in upex1, suggesting that primexine-localized arabinogalactan proteins could play roles in sporopollenin adhesion and patterning early in microspore wall development. Our data provide new insights into the biochemical and functional properties of the primexine component of the microspore cell wall. PMID:27495941

  4. Nitrogen fertilizer application affects lodging resistance by altering secondary cell wall synthesis in japonica rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wujun; Wu, Longmei; Ding, Yanfeng; Yao, Xiong; Wu, Xiaoran; Weng, Fei; Li, Ganghua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Wang, Shaohua

    2017-09-01

    Stem mechanical strength is an important agricultural quantitative trait that is closely related to lodging resistance in rice, which is known to be reduced by fertilizer with higher levels of nitrogen. To understand the mechanism that regulates stem mechanical strength in response to nitrogen, we analysed stem morphology, anatomy, mechanical properties, cell wall components, and expression of cell wall-related genes, in two varieties of japonica rice, namely, Wuyunjing23 (lodging-resistant variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety). The results showed that higher nitrogen fertilizer increased the lodging index in both varieties due to a reduction in breaking strength and bending stress, and these changes were larger in W3668. Cellulose content decreased slightly under higher nitrogen fertilizer, whereas lignin content reduced remarkably. Histochemical staining revealed that high nitrogen application decreased lignin deposition in the secondary cell wall of the sclerenchyma cells and vascular bundle cells compared with the low nitrogen treatments, while it did not alter the pattern of cellulose deposition in these cells in both Wuyunjing23 and W3668. In addition, the expression of the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, OsPAL, OsCoMT, Os4CL3, OsCCR, OsCAD2, OsCAD7, OsCesA4, and OsCesA7, were also down-regulated under higher nitrogen conditions at the early stage of culm growth. These results suggest that the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis are down-regulated by higher nitrogen fertilizer, which causes lignin deficiency in the secondary cell walls and the weakening of mechanical tissue structure. Subsequently, this results in these internodes with reduced mechanical strength and poor lodging resistance.

  5. Secondary embryonic axis formation by transplantation of D quadrant micromeres in an oligochaete annelid.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Ayaki; Nagy, Lisa M; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Among spiral cleaving embryos (e.g. mollusks and annelids), it has long been known that one blastomere at the four-cell stage, the D cell, and its direct descendants play an important role in axial pattern formation. Various studies have suggested that the D quadrant acts as the organizer of the embryonic axes in annelids, although this has never been demonstrated directly. Here we show that D quadrant micromeres (2d and 4d) of the oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex are essential for embryonic axis formation. When 2d and 4d were ablated the embryo developed into a rounded cell mass covered with an epithelial cell sheet. To examine whether 2d and 4d are sufficient for axis formation they were transplanted to an ectopic position in an otherwise intact embryo. The reconstituted embryo formed a secondary embryonic axis with a duplicated head and/or tail. Cell lineage analyses showed that neuroectoderm and mesoderm along the secondary axis were derived from the transplanted D quadrant micromeres and not from the host embryo. However, endodermal tissue along the secondary axis originated from the host embryo. Interestingly, when either 2d or 4d was transplanted separately to host embryos, the reconstituted embryos failed to form a secondary axis, suggesting that both 2d and 4d are required for secondary axis formation. Thus, the Tubifex D quadrant micromeres have the ability to organize axis formation, but they lack the ability to induce neuroectodermal tissues, a characteristic common to chordate primary embryonic organizers.

  6. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model - Part 2: Assessing the influence of vapor wall losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, Christopher D.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Seinfeld, John H.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of losses of organic vapors to chamber walls during secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation experiments has recently been established. Here, the influence of such losses on simulated ambient SOA concentrations and properties is assessed in the University of California at Davis / California Institute of Technology (UCD/CIT) regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model (SOM) for SOA. The SOM was fit to laboratory chamber data both with and without accounting for vapor wall losses following the approach of Zhang et al. (2014). Two vapor wall-loss scenarios are considered when fitting of SOM to chamber data to determine best-fit SOM parameters, one with "low" and one with "high" vapor wall-loss rates to approximately account for the current range of uncertainty in this process. Simulations were run using these different parameterizations (scenarios) for both the southern California/South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and the eastern United States (US). Accounting for vapor wall losses leads to substantial increases in the simulated SOA concentrations from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both domains, by factors of ˜ 2-5 for the low and ˜ 5-10 for the high scenarios. The magnitude of the increase scales approximately inversely with the absolute SOA concentration of the no loss scenario. In SoCAB, the predicted SOA fraction of total organic aerosol (OA) increases from ˜ 0.2 (no) to ˜ 0.5 (low) and to ˜ 0.7 (high), with the high vapor wall-loss simulations providing best general agreement with observations. In the eastern US, the SOA fraction is large in all cases but increases further when vapor wall losses are accounted for. The total OA / ΔCO ratio captures the influence of dilution on SOA concentrations. The simulated OA / ΔCO in SoCAB (specifically, at Riverside, CA) is found to increase substantially during the day only for the high vapor wall-loss scenario, which is consistent with observations and indicative of

  7. Lignin biosynthesis perturbations affect secondary cell wall composition and saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Second-generation biofuels are generally produced from the polysaccharides in the lignocellulosic plant biomass, mainly cellulose. However, because cellulose is embedded in a matrix of other polysaccharides and lignin, its hydrolysis into the fermentable glucose is hampered. The senesced inflorescence stems of a set of 20 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in 10 different genes of the lignin biosynthetic pathway were analyzed for cell wall composition and saccharification yield. Saccharification models were built to elucidate which cell wall parameters played a role in cell wall recalcitrance. Results Although lignin is a key polymer providing the strength necessary for the plant’s ability to grow upward, a reduction in lignin content down to 64% of the wild-type level in Arabidopsis was tolerated without any obvious growth penalty. In contrast to common perception, we found that a reduction in lignin was not compensated for by an increase in cellulose, but rather by an increase in matrix polysaccharides. In most lignin mutants, the saccharification yield was improved by up to 88% cellulose conversion for the cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase1 mutants under pretreatment conditions, whereas the wild-type cellulose conversion only reached 18%. The saccharification models and Pearson correlation matrix revealed that the lignin content was the main factor determining the saccharification yield. However, also lignin composition, matrix polysaccharide content and composition, and, especially, the xylose, galactose, and arabinose contents influenced the saccharification yield. Strikingly, cellulose content did not significantly affect saccharification yield. Conclusions Although the lignin content had the main effect on saccharification, also other cell wall factors could be engineered to potentially increase the cell wall processability, such as the galactose content. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the effect of lignin perturbations on plant cell

  8. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; ...

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  9. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  10. Assessment of secondary bubble formation on a backward-facing step geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juste, G. L.; Fajardo, P.; Guijarro, A.

    2016-07-01

    Flow visualization experiments and numerical simulations were performed on a narrow three-dimensional backward-facing step (BFS) flow with the main objective of characterizing the secondary bubble appearing at the top wall. The BFS has been widely studied because of its geometrical simplicity as well as its ability to reproduce most of the flow features appearing in many applications in which separation occurs. A BFS test rig with an expansion ratio of 2 and two aspect ratios (AR = 4 and AR = 8) was developed. Tests were performed at range of Reynolds numbers ranging from 50 to 1000; visualization experiments provided a qualitative description of secondary bubble and wall-jet flows. Large eddy simulations were carried out with two different codes for validation. Numerical solutions, once validated with experimental data from the literature, were used to acquire a deeper understanding of the experimental visualizations, to characterize the secondary bubble as a function of the flow variables (Reynolds and AR) and to analyze the effect of the secondary bubble on primary reattachment length. Finally, to decouple the sidewall effects due to the non-slip condition and the intrinsic flow three-dimensionality, numerical experiments with free-slip conditions over the sidewalls were computed. The main differences were as follows: When the non-slip condition is used, the secondary bubble appears at a Reynolds number of approximately 200, increases with the Reynolds number, and is limited to a small part of the span. This recirculation zone interacts with the wall-jets and causes the maximum and minimum lengths in the reattachment line of the primary recirculation. Under free slip conditions, the recirculation bubble appears at a higher Reynolds number and covers the entire channel span.

  11. Technical Note: Formation of airborne ice crystals in a wall independent reactor (WIR) under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, E.; Haunold, W.; Starokozhev, E.; Palitzsch, K.; Sitals, R.; Jaeschke, W.; Püttmann, W.

    2008-07-01

    Both, gas and particle scavenging contribute to the transport of organic compounds by ice crystals in the troposphere. To simulate these processes an experimental setup was developed to form airborne ice crystals under atmospheric conditions. Experiments were performed in a wall independent reactor (WIR) installed in a walk-in cold chamber maintained constantly at -20°C. Aerosol particles were added to the carrier gas of ambient air by an aerosol generator to allow heterogeneous ice formation. Temperature variations and hydrodynamic conditions of the WIR were investigated to determine the conditions for ice crystal formation and crystal growth by vapour deposition. In detail, the dependence of temperature variations from flow rate and temperature of the physical wall as well as temperature variations with an increasing reactor depth were studied. The conditions to provide a stable aerosol concentration in the carrier gas flow were also studied. The temperature distribution inside the reactor was strongly dependent on flow rate and physical wall temperature. At an inlet temperature of -20°C, a flow rate of 30 L•min-1 and a physical wall temperature of +5°C turned out to provide ideal conditions for ice formation. At these conditions a sharp and stable laminar down draft "jet stream" of cold air in the centre of the reactor was produced. Temperatures measured at the chamber outlet were kept well below the freezing point in the whole reactor depth of 1.0 m. Thus, melting did not affect ice formation and crystal growth. The maximum residence time for airborne ice crystals was calculated to at 40 s. Ice crystal growth rates increased also with increasing reactor depth. The maximum ice crystal growth rate was calculated at 2.82 mg• s-1. Further, the removal efficiency of the cleaning device for aerosol particles was 99.8% after 10 min. A reliable particle supply was attained after a preliminary lead time of 15 min. Thus, the minimum lead time was determined at 25

  12. Secondary Island Formation in Collisional and Collisionless Kinetic Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Daughton, W.; Roytershteyn, V.; Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Gary, S. P.; Karimabadi, H.; Bowers, Kevin J.

    2011-01-04

    The evolution of magnetic reconnection in large-scale systems often gives rise to extended current layers that are unstable to the formation of secondary magnetic islands. The role of these islands in the reconnection process and the conditions under which they form remains a subject of debate. In this work, we benchmark two different kinetic particle-in-cell codes to address the formation of secondary islands for several types of global boundary conditions. The influence on reconnection is examined for a range of conditions and collisionality limits. Although secondary islands are observed in all cases, their influence on reconnection may be different depending on the regime. In the collisional limit, the secondary islands play a key role in breaking away from the slow Sweet-Parker scaling and pushing the evolution towards small scales where kinetic effects can dominate. In the collisionless limit, fast reconnection can proceed in small systems (30x ion inertial scale) without producing any secondary islands. However, in large-scale systems the diffusion region forms extended current layers that are unstable to the formation of secondary islands, giving rise to a time-dependent reconnection process. These instabilities provide one possible mechanism for controlling the average length of the diffusion region in large systems. New results from Fokker-Planck kinetic simulations are used to examine the role of secondary islands in electron-positron plasmas for both collisional and kinetic parameter regimes. Simple physics arguments suggest the transition should occur when the resistive layers approach the inertial scale. These expectations are confirmed by simulations, which demonstrate the average rate remains fast in large systems and is accompanied by the continuous formation of secondary islands.

  13. Ultrastructural studies of the zygote and oocyst wall formation of Eimeria truncata of the lesser snow goose.

    PubMed

    Gajadhar, A A; Stockdale, P H; Cawthorn, R J

    1986-08-01

    Zygote development and oocyst wall formation of Eimeria truncata occurred in epithelial cells in renal tubules and ducts of experimentally infected lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens). Post-fertilization stages were present throughout the kidneys beginning nine days post-inoculation. Initially, a single plasmalemma enclosed the zygote, and type 1 wall-forming bodies (WF1) became labyrinthine and moved toward the surface. There, WF1 degranulated and formed the outer layer of the oocyst wall between the plasmalemma and a newly formed second subpellicular membrane. Several WF2 fused and formed the inner layer of the oocyst wall between the third and fourth subpellicular membranes. Six subpellicular membranes were observed during wall formation. Other features of oocyst development were similar to those of other eimerian species.

  14. Secondary island formation in collisional and collisionless kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, William S; Roytershteyn, Vadim; Gary, Peter; Yin, L; Albright, B J; Bowers, K J; Karimabadi, H

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic reconnection in large-scale systems often gives rise to extended current layers that are unstable to the formation of secondary magnetic islands. The role of these islands in the reconnection process and the conditions under which they form remains a subject of debate. In this work, we benchmark two different kinetic particle-in-cell codes to address the formation of secondary islands for several types of global boundary conditions. The influence on reconnection is examined for a range of conditions and collisionality limits. Although secondary islands are observed in all cases, their influence on reconnection may be different depending on the regime. In the collisional limit, the secondary islands playa key role in breaking away from the Sweet-Parker scaling and enabling faster reconnection. In the collisionless limit, their formation is one mechanism for controlling the length of the diffusion region. In both limits, the onset of secondary islands leads to a time dependent behavior in the reconnection rate. In all cases considered, the number of secondary islands increases for larger systems.

  15. Modelling non-equilibrium secondary organic aerosol formation and evaporation with the aerosol dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multi-layer model ADCHAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldin, P.; Eriksson, A. C.; Nordin, E. Z.; Hermansson, E.; Mogensen, D.; Rusanen, A.; Boy, M.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Zelenyuk, A.; Pagels, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the novel Aerosol Dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM). The model combines the detailed gas phase Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2, an aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module (which considers acid catalysed oligomerization, heterogeneous oxidation reactions in the particle phase and non-ideal interactions between organic compounds, water and inorganic ions) and a kinetic multilayer module for diffusion limited transport of compounds between the gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk phase. In this article we describe and use ADCHAM to study: (1) the mass transfer limited uptake of ammonia (NH3) and formation of organic salts between ammonium (NH4+) and carboxylic acids (RCOOH), (2) the slow and almost particle size independent evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, and (3) the influence of chamber wall effects on the observed SOA formation in smog chambers. ADCHAM is able to capture the observed α-pinene SOA mass increase in the presence of NH3(g). Organic salts of ammonium and carboxylic acids predominantly form during the early stage of SOA formation. These salts contribute substantially to the initial growth of the homogeneously nucleated particles. The model simulations of evaporating α-pinene SOA particles support the recent experimental findings that these particles have a semi-solid tar like amorphous phase state. ADCHAM is able to reproduce the main features of the observed slow evaporation rates if low-volatility and viscous oligomerized SOA material accumulates in the particle surface layer upon evaporation. The evaporation rate is mainly governed by the reversible decomposition of oligomers back to monomers. Finally, we demonstrate that the mass transfer limited uptake of condensable organic compounds onto wall deposited particles or directly onto the Teflon chamber walls of smog chambers can have profound influence on the

  16. Fluid filtration and reabsorption across microvascular walls: control by oncotic or osmotic pressure? (secondary publication).

    PubMed

    Bulat, Marin; Klarica, Marijan

    2014-08-28

    Relationships between hydrostatic and oncotic (colloid osmotic) pressures in both capillaries and interstitium are used to explain fluid filtration and reabsorption across microvascular walls. These pressures are incorporated in the Starling oncotic hypothesis of capillaries which fails, however, to explain fluid homeostasis when hydrostatic capillary pressure is high (in feet during orthostasis) and low (in lungs), or when oncotic plasma pressure is significantly decreased in experiments and some clinical states such as genetic analbuminaemia. To explain fluid homeostasis we propose osmotic counterpressure hypothesis of capillaries which claims: 1) during water filtration across microvascular wall in arterial capillary, the plasma osmolytes are sieved (retained) so that plasma osmotic counterpressure is generated, 2) this osmotic counterpressure rises along the length of capillary and when it reaches capillary hydrostatic pressure the water filtration is halted, and 3) in venous capillaries and postcapillary venules where hydrostatic pressure is low, the osmotic counterpressure is instrumental in water reabsorption from interstitium what leads to dissipation of osmotic counterpressure. According to modified van’t Hoff’s equation the generation of osmotic counterpressure depends on plasma concentration of osmolytes and their restricted passage (reflection coefficient) across microvascular wall in comparison to water. Plasma NaCl makes 83% of plasma osmolarity and shows restricted passage across the walls of cerebral and peripheral continuous capillaries, so that Na and Cl are the most important osmolytes for generation of osmotic counterpressure. Our calculation indicates that at various rates of water filtration the osmotic counterpressure of NaCl acts as negative feedback control: higher hydrostatic pressure and water filtration rate create higher osmotic counterpressure which opposes filtration and leads to higher water reabsorption rate. Furthermore, our

  17. A Distinct Pathway for Polar Exocytosis in Plant Cell Wall Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiangfeng; Law, Angus Ho Yin; Zhao, Teng; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M.T.; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Post-Golgi protein sorting and trafficking to the plasma membrane (PM) is generally believed to occur via the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In this study using Nicotiana tabacum pectin methylesterase (NtPPME1) as a marker, we have identified a TGN-independent polar exocytosis pathway that mediates cell wall formation during cell expansion and cytokinesis. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Golgi-derived secretory vesicles (GDSVs) labeled by NtPPME1-GFP are distinct from those organelles belonging to the conventional post-Golgi exocytosis pathway. In addition, pharmaceutical treatments, superresolution imaging, and dynamic studies suggest that NtPPME1 follows a polar exocytic process from Golgi-GDSV-PM/cell plate (CP), which is distinct from the conventional Golgi-TGN-PM/CP secretion pathway. Further studies show that ROP1 regulates this specific polar exocytic pathway. Taken together, we have demonstrated an alternative TGN-independent Golgi-to-PM polar exocytic route, which mediates secretion of NtPPME1 for cell wall formation during cell expansion and cytokinesis and is ROP1-dependent. PMID:27531442

  18. Two-dimensional pattern formation in ionic liquids confined between graphene walls.

    PubMed

    Montes-Campos, Hadrián; Otero-Mato, José Manuel; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Cabeza, Oscar; Gallego, Luis J; Ciach, Alina; Varela, Luis M

    2017-09-20

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquids confined between graphene walls under a large variety of conditions (pure ionic liquids, mixtures with water and alcohols, mixtures with lithium salts and defective graphene walls). Our results show that the formation of striped and hexagonal patterns in the Stern layer can be considered as a general feature of ionic liquids at electrochemical interfaces, the transition between patterns being controlled by the net balance of charge in the innermost layer of adsorbed molecules. This explains previously reported experimental and computational results and, for the first time, why these pattern changes are triggered by any perturbation of the charge density at the innermost layer of the electric double layer (voltage and composition changes, and vacancies at the electrode walls, among others), which may help tuning electrode-ionic liquid interfaces. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that such structures can be reproduced by a simple two-dimensional lattice model with only nearest-neighbour interactions, governed by highly screened ionic interactions and short-range and excluded volume interactions. We also show that the results of our simulations are consistent with those inferred from the Landau-Brazovskii theory of pattern formation in self-assembling systems. The presence of these patterns at the ionic liquid graphene-electrode interfaces may have a strong impact on the process of ionic transfer from the bulk mixtures to the electrodes, on the differential capacitance of the electrode-electrolyte double layer or on the rates of redox reactions at the electrodes, among other physicochemical properties, and is therefore an effect of great technological interest.

  19. Single-walled carbon nanotube formation on iron oxide catalysts in diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrau, Chad J.; Axelbaum, Richard L.; Fraundorf, Phil

    2010-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are shown to grow rapidly on iron oxide catalysts on the fuel side of an inverse ethylene diffusion flame. The pathway of carbon in the flame is controlled by the flame structure, leading to formation of SWCNTs free of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or soot. By using a combination of oxygen-enrichment and fuel dilution, fuel oxidation is favored over pyrolysis, PAH growth, and subsequent soot formation. The inverse configuration of the flame prevents burnout of the SWCNTs while providing a long carbon-rich region for nanotube formation. Furthermore, flame structure is used to control oxidation of the catalyst particles. Iron sub-oxide catalysts are highly active toward SWCNT formation while Fe and Fe2O3 catalysts are less active. This can be understood by considering the effects of particle oxidation on the dissociative adsorption of gas-phase hydrocarbons. The optimum catalyst particle composition and flame conditions were determined in near real-time using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to measure the catalyst and SWCNT size distributions. In addition, SMPS results were combined with flame velocity measurement to measure SWCNT growth rates. SWCNTs were found to grow at rates of over 100 μm/s.

  20. Beyond the Classroom Walls: Edmodo in Saudi Secondary School EFL Instruction, Attitudes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kathiri, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the prospects of integrating Edmodo into Saudi EFL female secondary school instruction. It concentrates on students' perceptions and challenges regarding Edmodo use and its effect on their attitudes towards EFL learning. The 42 participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group received traditional teaching…

  1. Polarized and persistent Ca²⁺ plumes define loci for formation of wall ingrowth papillae in transfer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Ming; Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Laver, Derek R; McCurdy, David W; Offler, Christina E; van Helden, Dirk F; Patrick, John W

    2015-03-01

    Transfer cell morphology is characterized by a polarized ingrowth wall comprising a uniform wall upon which wall ingrowth papillae develop at right angles into the cytoplasm. The hypothesis that positional information directing construction of wall ingrowth papillae is mediated by Ca(2+) signals generated by spatiotemporal alterations in cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]cyt) of cells trans-differentiating to a transfer cell morphology was tested. This hypothesis was examined using Vicia faba cotyledons. On transferring cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells synchronously trans-differentiate to epidermal transfer cells. A polarized and persistent Ca(2+) signal, generated during epidermal cell trans-differentiation, was found to co-localize with the site of ingrowth wall formation. Dampening Ca(2+) signal intensity, by withdrawing extracellular Ca(2+) or blocking Ca(2+) channel activity, inhibited formation of wall ingrowth papillae. Maintenance of Ca(2+) signal polarity and persistence depended upon a rapid turnover (minutes) of cytosolic Ca(2+) by co-operative functioning of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channels and Ca(2+)-ATPases. Viewed paradermally, and proximal to the cytosol-plasma membrane interface, the Ca(2+) signal was organized into discrete patches that aligned spatially with clusters of Ca(2+)-permeable channels. Mathematical modelling demonstrated that these patches of cytosolic Ca(2+) were consistent with inward-directed plumes of elevated [Ca(2+)]cyt. Plume formation depended upon an alternating distribution of Ca(2+)-permeable channels and Ca(2+)-ATPase clusters. On further inward diffusion, the Ca(2+) plumes coalesced into a uniform Ca(2+) signal. Blocking or dispersing the Ca(2+) plumes inhibited deposition of wall ingrowth papillae, while uniform wall formation remained unaltered. A working model envisages that cytosolic Ca(2+) plumes define the loci at which wall ingrowth papillae are deposited. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford

  2. Polarized and persistent Ca2+ plumes define loci for formation of wall ingrowth papillae in transfer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Ming; Imtiaz, Mohammad S.; Laver, Derek R.; McCurdy, David W.; Offler, Christina E.; van Helden, Dirk F.; Patrick, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Transfer cell morphology is characterized by a polarized ingrowth wall comprising a uniform wall upon which wall ingrowth papillae develop at right angles into the cytoplasm. The hypothesis that positional information directing construction of wall ingrowth papillae is mediated by Ca2+ signals generated by spatiotemporal alterations in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) of cells trans-differentiating to a transfer cell morphology was tested. This hypothesis was examined using Vicia faba cotyledons. On transferring cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells synchronously trans-differentiate to epidermal transfer cells. A polarized and persistent Ca2+ signal, generated during epidermal cell trans-differentiation, was found to co-localize with the site of ingrowth wall formation. Dampening Ca2+ signal intensity, by withdrawing extracellular Ca2+ or blocking Ca2+ channel activity, inhibited formation of wall ingrowth papillae. Maintenance of Ca2+ signal polarity and persistence depended upon a rapid turnover (minutes) of cytosolic Ca2+ by co-operative functioning of plasma membrane Ca2+-permeable channels and Ca2+-ATPases. Viewed paradermally, and proximal to the cytosol–plasma membrane interface, the Ca2+ signal was organized into discrete patches that aligned spatially with clusters of Ca2+-permeable channels. Mathematical modelling demonstrated that these patches of cytosolic Ca2+ were consistent with inward-directed plumes of elevated [Ca2+]cyt. Plume formation depended upon an alternating distribution of Ca2+-permeable channels and Ca2+-ATPase clusters. On further inward diffusion, the Ca2+ plumes coalesced into a uniform Ca2+ signal. Blocking or dispersing the Ca2+ plumes inhibited deposition of wall ingrowth papillae, while uniform wall formation remained unaltered. A working model envisages that cytosolic Ca2+ plumes define the loci at which wall ingrowth papillae are deposited. PMID:25504137

  3. FASTR: A novel data format for concomitant representation of RNA sequence and secondary structure information.

    PubMed

    Bose, Tungadri; Dutta, Anirban; Mh, Mohammed; Gandhi, Hemang; Mande, Sharmila S

    2015-09-01

    Given the importance of RNA secondary structures in defining their biological role, it would be convenient for researchers seeking RNA data if both sequence and structural information pertaining to RNA molecules are made available together. Current nucleotide data repositories archive only RNA sequence data. Furthermore, storage formats which can frugally represent RNA sequence as well as structure data in a single file, are currently unavailable. This article proposes a novel storage format, 'FASTR', for concomitant representation of RNA sequence and structure. The storage efficiency of the proposed FASTR format has been evaluated using RNA data from various microorganisms. Results indicate that the size of FASTR formatted files (containing both RNA sequence as well as structure information) are equivalent to that of FASTA-format files, which contain only RNA sequence information. RNA secondary structure is typically represented using a combination of a string of nucleotide characters along with the corresponding dot-bracket notation indicating structural attributes. 'FASTR' - the novel storage format proposed in the present study enables a frugal representation of both RNA sequence and structural information in the form of a single string. In spite of having a relatively smaller storage footprint, the resultant 'fastr' string(s) retain all sequence as well as secondary structural information that could be stored using a dot-bracket notation. An implementation of the 'FASTR' methodology is available for download at http://metagenomics.atc.tcs.com/compression/fastr.

  4. Formation of Secondary Particulate Matter by Reactions of Gas Phase Hexanal with Sulfate Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2003-12-01

    The formation of secondary particulate matter from the atmospheric oxidation of organic compounds can significantly contribute to the particulate burden, but the formation of organic secondary particulate matter is poorly understood. One way of producing organic secondary particulate matter is the oxidation of hydrocarbons with seven or more carbon atoms to get products with low vapor pressure. However, several recent reports suggest that relatively low molecular weight carbonyls can enter the particle phase by undergoing heterogeneous reactions. This may be a very important mechanism for the formation of organic secondary particulate matter. Atmospheric aldehydes are important carbonyls in the gas phase, which form via the oxidation of hydrocarbons emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In this poster, we report the results on particle growth by the heterogeneous reactions of hexanal. A 5 L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is set up to conduct the reactions in the presence of seed aerosol particles of deliquesced ammonia bisulfate. Hexanal is added into CSTR by syringe pump, meanwhile the concentrations of hexanal are monitored with High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC 1050). A differential Mobility Analyzer (TSI 3071) set to an appropriate voltage is employed to obtain monodisperse aerosols, and another DMA associated with a Condensation Nuclear Counter (TSI 7610) is used to measure the secondary particle size distribution by the reaction in CSTR. This permits the sensitive determination of particle growth due to the heterogeneous reaction, very little growth occurs when hexanal added alone. Results for the simultaneous addition of hexanal and alcohols will also be presented.

  5. Modeling of formation and distribution of secondary aerosols in the Milan area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; PréVôT, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Keller, J.; Dommen, J.

    2004-03-01

    The performance of an aerosol module of the three-dimensional Eulerian model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) was evaluated in a domain covering the Po Basin in northern Italy. Concentrations of secondary aerosol species such as particulate NO3-, NH4+, SO42-, and SOC (secondary organic carbon) were calculated for the particle size below 2.5 μm and compared with the data available from a field experiment, which took place in May-June 1998. Model results for the inorganic aerosols were comparable to the measurements at an urban and a rural station. Sensitivity studies with reduced anthropogenic NOx and volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions showed that SOC behaves in the same way as ozone, i.e., decreases with reduced VOC emissions and increases with reduced NOx emissions in the plume where ozone production is predicted to be VOC sensitive. Sensitivity of secondary aerosol formation to NH3 and NOx emissions was studied by reducing these emissions. Varying NH3 emissions led to an almost linear change in secondary aerosol mass at sites with low NH3. At ammonia-rich sites, on the other hand, availability of nitrate became important for the further formation of secondary aerosols. Monoterpene emissions were predicted to contribute about 25% of the secondary organic aerosols produced in the northern part of the model domain, which is mostly a forested area.

  6. Suppression of Hydroxycinnamate Network Formation in Cell Walls of Rice Shoots Grown under Microgravity Conditions in Space.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Kotake, Toshihisa; Yamazaki, Takashi; Higashibata, Akira; Ishioka, Noriaki; Shimazu, Toru; Fukui, Keiji; Osada, Ikuko; Kasahara, Haruo; Kamada, Motoshi

    2015-01-01

    Network structures created by hydroxycinnamate cross-links within the cell wall architecture of gramineous plants make the cell wall resistant to the gravitational force of the earth. In this study, the effects of microgravity on the formation of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates were examined using etiolated rice shoots simultaneously grown under artificial 1 g and microgravity conditions in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility on the International Space Station. Measurement of the mechanical properties of cell walls showed that shoot cell walls became stiff during the growth period and that microgravity suppressed this stiffening. Amounts of cell wall polysaccharides, cell wall-bound phenolic acids, and lignin in rice shoots increased as the shoot grew. Microgravity did not influence changes in the amounts of cell wall polysaccharides or phenolic acid monomers such as ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid, but it suppressed increases in diferulic acid (DFA) isomers and lignin. Activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cell wall-bound peroxidase (CW-PRX) in shoots also increased as the shoot grew. PAL activity in microgravity-grown shoots was almost comparable to that in artificial 1 g-grown shoots, while CW-PRX activity increased less in microgravity-grown shoots than in artificial 1 g-grown shoots. Furthermore, the increases in expression levels of some class III peroxidase genes were reduced under microgravity conditions. These results suggest that a microgravity environment modifies the expression levels of certain class III peroxidase genes in rice shoots, that the resultant reduction of CW-PRX activity may be involved in suppressing DFA formation and lignin polymerization, and that this suppression may cause a decrease in cross-linkages within the cell wall architecture. The reduction in intra-network structures may contribute to keeping the cell wall loose under microgravity conditions.

  7. Suppression of Hydroxycinnamate Network Formation in Cell Walls of Rice Shoots Grown under Microgravity Conditions in Space

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Kotake, Toshihisa; Yamazaki, Takashi; Higashibata, Akira; Ishioka, Noriaki; Shimazu, Toru; Fukui, Keiji; Osada, Ikuko; Kasahara, Haruo; Kamada, Motoshi

    2015-01-01

    Network structures created by hydroxycinnamate cross-links within the cell wall architecture of gramineous plants make the cell wall resistant to the gravitational force of the earth. In this study, the effects of microgravity on the formation of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates were examined using etiolated rice shoots simultaneously grown under artificial 1 g and microgravity conditions in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility on the International Space Station. Measurement of the mechanical properties of cell walls showed that shoot cell walls became stiff during the growth period and that microgravity suppressed this stiffening. Amounts of cell wall polysaccharides, cell wall-bound phenolic acids, and lignin in rice shoots increased as the shoot grew. Microgravity did not influence changes in the amounts of cell wall polysaccharides or phenolic acid monomers such as ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid, but it suppressed increases in diferulic acid (DFA) isomers and lignin. Activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cell wall-bound peroxidase (CW-PRX) in shoots also increased as the shoot grew. PAL activity in microgravity-grown shoots was almost comparable to that in artificial 1 g-grown shoots, while CW-PRX activity increased less in microgravity-grown shoots than in artificial 1 g-grown shoots. Furthermore, the increases in expression levels of some class III peroxidase genes were reduced under microgravity conditions. These results suggest that a microgravity environment modifies the expression levels of certain class III peroxidase genes in rice shoots, that the resultant reduction of CW-PRX activity may be involved in suppressing DFA formation and lignin polymerization, and that this suppression may cause a decrease in cross-linkages within the cell wall architecture. The reduction in intra-network structures may contribute to keeping the cell wall loose under microgravity conditions. PMID:26378793

  8. Development and Application of an Oxidation Flow Reactor to Study Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Brett Brian

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere play an important role in air quality, human health, and climate. However, the sources, formation pathways, and fate of SOA are poorly constrained. In this dissertation, I present development and application of the oxidation flow reactor (OFR) technique for studying SOA formation from OH, O3, and NO3 oxidation of ambient air. With a several-minute residence time and a portable design with no inlet, OFRs are particularly well-suited for this purpose. I first introduce the OFR concept, and discuss several advances I have made in performing and interpreting OFR experiments. This includes estimating oxidant exposures, modeling the fate of low-volatility gases in the OFR (wall loss, condensation, and oxidation), and comparing SOA yields of single precursors in the OFR with yields measured in environmental chambers. When these experimental details are carefully considered, SOA formation in an OFR can be more reliably compared with ambient SOA formation processes. I then present an overview of what OFR measurements have taught us about SOA formation in the atmosphere. I provide a comparison of SOA formation from OH, O3, and NO3 oxidation of ambient air in a wide variety of environments, from rural forests to urban air. In a rural forest, the SOA formation correlated with biogenic precursors (e.g., monoterpenes). In urban air, it correlated instead with reactive anthropogenic tracers (e.g., trimethylbenzene). In mixed-source regions, the SOA formation did not correlate well with any single precursor, but could be predicted by multilinear regression from several precursors. Despite these correlations, the concentrations of speciated ambient VOCs could only explain approximately 10-50% of the total SOA formed from OH oxidation. In contrast, ambient VOCs could explain all of the SOA formation observed from O3 and NO3 oxidation. Evidence suggests that lower-volatility gases (semivolatile and intermediate-volatility organic

  9. Formative Assessment and Increased Student Involvement Increase Grades in an Upper Secondary School Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granbom, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that formative methods and increased student participation has a positive influence on learning measured as grades. The study was conducted during the course Biology A in a Swedish Upper Secondary School. The students constructed grade criteria and defined working methods and type of examination within a given topic, Gene…

  10. Formative Assessment and Increased Student Involvement Increase Grades in an Upper Secondary School Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granbom, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that formative methods and increased student participation has a positive influence on learning measured as grades. The study was conducted during the course Biology A in a Swedish Upper Secondary School. The students constructed grade criteria and defined working methods and type of examination within a given topic, Gene…

  11. Public Health Impacts of Secondary Particulate Formation from Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from gasoline‐powered vehicles contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which increases the atmospheric mass concentration of fine particles (PM2.5). Here we estimate the public health burden associated w...

  12. Public Health Impacts of Secondary Particulate Formation from Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from gasoline‐powered vehicles contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which increases the atmospheric mass concentration of fine particles (PM2.5). Here we estimate the public health burden associated w...

  13. Abdominal wall abscess secondary to spontaneous rupture of pyogenic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Zizzo, Maurizio; Zaghi, Claudia; Manenti, Antonio; Luppi, Davide; Ugoletti, Lara; Bonilauri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess is a rare cause of hospitalization, related to a mortality rate ranging between 15% and 19%. Treatment of choice is represented by image-guided percutaneous drainage in combination with antibiotic therapy but, in some selected cases, surgical treatment is necessary. In extremely rare cases, spontaneous rupture of liver abscess may occur, free in the peritoneal cavity or in neighboring organs, an event which is generally considered a surgical emergency. A 95-years-old woman was hospitalized with fever, upper abdominal pain, mild dyspepsia and massive swelling of the anterior abdominal wall. Computed tomography revealed an oval mass located in the abdominal wall of 12cm×14cm×7cm, in continuity with an abscess of the left hepatic lobe. Because Proteus mirabilis was detected in both the liver abscess and the abdominal wall abscess, the patient was diagnosed with a ruptured pyogenic liver abscess. After spontaneous drainage to the exterior of the hepato-parietal abscess, she was successfully treated with antibiotics alone. Pyogenic liver abscess is a serious and life-threatening illness. Abscess rupture might occur. Many authors consider this complication a surgical emergency, but the site of abscess rupture changes the clinical history of the disease: in case of free rupture into the peritoneum, emergency surgery is mandatory, while a rupture localized in neighboring tissues or organs can be successfully treated by a combination of systemic antibiotics and fine needle aspiration and/or percutaneous drainage of the abscess. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS

    SciTech Connect

    de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria

    2013-10-16

    formation or genes encoding transcription factors that control feruloylation. So it will require further investigations to confirm if we have a mutation on the ferulloyltransferase gene(s). We have also identified severe phenotypes which showed a significant change in the level of cell wall ferulates and sugars and have not survived. As this genotype did not reach flowering stage there was no seed production and so further analysis could not be done. 3. Candidate Gene Approach: Because of the likely long time expected to generate and identify candidate with mutation(s) on the feruloyltransferase gene, from our screening, we have in addition taken a bioinformatics approach in order to try to identify candidates gene(s) involved in feruloylation. Homologues of the rice feruloyl transferase genes belonging to Pfam PF02458 family were identified in Brachypodium distachyon by blasting EST sequences of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes against Brachypodium and homologous sequences identified were tested for their expression level in Brachypodium. Sequences of the two Brachypodium genes, which showed highest expression and similarity to rice sequences, were used to design primers for construction of RNAi and over-expression vectors. These were transformed into Brachypodium using Agrobacterium transformation and plants generated have been analyzed for levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates over generations T0 to T2 or T3. Our data shows a significant reduction if ferulates monomers and dimers from plants generated from RNAi::BdAT2 over 2-3 generations indicating that this gene might be a positive candidate for feruloylation in Brachypodium. However when BdAT2 was up regulated there was not much increase in the level of ferulates as would be expected. This lack of effect on the level of cell wall ferulates could be due to the CaMV::35S promoter used to drive the expression of the putative BdAT2 gene. We have shown previously that Aspergillus FAEA

  15. Contribution of wall material to the vibrational excitation and negative ion formation in hydrogen negative ion sources (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A.; Glass-Maujean, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Nishiura, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.

    2004-05-01

    The wall production contribution to the negative hydrogen ion formation in multicusp ion sources has been investigated using the photodetachment diagnostic (for determining the negative ion density and temperature), negative ion and electron extraction, and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectroscopy. The wall material was modified either by depositing thin films from filaments made of different material or by depositing fresh material of the same filament. Thus we show that a fresh tantalum film leads to enhanced negative ion density and enhanced temperature of the hot negative ion population. The slow poisoning effect due to argon additive also indicates the presence of the wall contribution to H- formation. The study of the VUV spectra with different wall materials indicates the presence of vibrationally excited states of H2.

  16. Bubble Formation from Wall Orifice in Liquid Cross-Flow Under Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Kamotani, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Two-phase flows present a wide variety of applications for spacecraft thermal control systems design. Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two phase flow science. The objective of the present work is to experimentally investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate, and orifice diameter on bubble formation in a wall-bubble injection configuration. Data were taken mainly under reduced gravity conditions but some data were taken in normal gravity for comparison. The reduced gravity experiment was conducted aboard the NASA DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The results show that the process of bubble formation and detachment depends on gravity, the orifice diameter, the gas flow rate, and the liquid cross-flow velocity. The data are analyzed based on a force balance, and two different detachment mechanisms are identified. When the gas momentum is large, the bubble detaches from the injection orifice as the gas momentum overcomes the attaching effects of liquid drag and inertia. The surface tension force is much reduced because a large part of the bubble pinning edge at the orifice is lost as the bubble axis is tilted by the liquid flow. When the gas momentum is small, the force balance in the liquid flow direction is important, and the bubble detaches when the bubble axis inclination exceeds a certain angle.

  17. Secondary organic aerosol formation from reaction of tertiary amines with nitrate radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erupe, M. E.; Price, D. J.; Silva, P. J.; Malloy, Q. G. J.; Qi, L.; Warren, B.; Cocker, D. R., III

    2008-09-01

    Secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of tertiary amines with nitrate radical was investigated in an indoor environmental chamber. Particle chemistry was monitored using a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer while gas-phase species were detected using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. Trimethylamine, triethylamine and tributylamine were studied. Results indicate that tributylamine forms the most aerosol mass followed by trimethylamine and triethylamine respectively. Spectra from the aerosol mass spectrometer indicate the formation of complex non-salt aerosol products. We propose a reaction mechanism that proceeds via abstraction of a proton by nitrate radical followed by RO2 chemistry. Rearrangement of the aminyl alkoxy radical through hydrogen shift leads to the formation of hydroxylated amides, which explain most of the higher mass ions in the mass spectra. These experiments show that oxidation of tertiary amines by nitrate radical may be an important night-time source of secondary organic aerosol.

  18. Rice GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE1 Encodes a Glycosyltransferase Essential for Pollen Wall Formation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sunok; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Zhao, Guochao; Yi, Jakyung; Yoo, Youngchul; Jin, Ping; Lee, Sang-Won; Jung, Ki-hong; Zhang, Dabing; An, Gynheung

    2013-01-01

    The pollen wall consists of an exine and an intine. The mechanism underlying its formation is not well understood. Glycosyltransferases catalyze the modification of biological molecules by attaching a single or multiple sugars and play key roles in a wide range of biological processes. We examined the role of GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE1 (OsGT1) in pollen wall development in rice (Oryza sativa). This gene is highly expressed in mature pollen, and plants containing alleles caused by transfer DNA insertion do not produce homozygous progeny. Reciprocal crosses between OsGT1/osgt1 and the wild type indicated that the mutation leads to a male gametophyte defect. Microscopic analyses revealed that osgt1 pollen developed normally to the pollen mitosis stage but failed to produce mature grains. In osgt1 pollen, intine structure was disrupted. In addition, starch and protein levels were much lower in the mutant grains. Recombinant OsGT1 transferred glucose from UDP-glucose to the third and seventh positions of quercetin, a universal substrate of glycosyltransferases. Consistent with the role of OsGT1, an OsGT1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized to the Golgi apparatus. Taken together, our results suggest that OsGT1 is a Golgi-localized glycosyltransferase essential for intine construction and pollen maturation, providing new insight into male reproductive development. PMID:23263792

  19. Tetrahedral collapse: a rotational toy model of simultaneous dark-matter halo, filament and wall formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss an idealized model of halo formation, in which a collapsing halo node is tetrahedral, with a filament extruding from each of its four faces, and with a wall connecting each pair of filaments. In the model, filaments generally spin when they form, and the halo spins if and only if there is some rotation in filaments. This is the simplest possible fully three-dimensional halo collapse in the `origami approximation', in which voids are irrotational, and the dark-matter sheet out of which dark-matter structures form is allowed to fold in position-velocity phase space, but not stretch (i.e. it cannot vary in density along a stream). Up to an overall scaling, the four filament directions, and only three other quantities, such as filament spins, suffice to determine all of the collapse's properties: the shape, mass, and spin of the halo; the densities per unit length and spins of all filaments; and masses per unit area of the walls. If the filaments are arranged regular-tetrahedrally, filament properties obey simple laws, reminiscent of angular-momentum conservation. The model may be most useful in understanding spin correlations between neighbouring galaxies joined by filaments; these correlations would give intrinsic alignments between galaxies, essential to understand for accurate cosmological weak-lensing measurements.

  20. Formation of single-walled bimetallic coinage alloy nanotubes in confined carbon nanotubes: molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Zhou, Jian; Dong, Jinming; Yoshiyuki, Kawazoe

    2013-10-28

    The growth of single-walled bimetallic Au-Ag, Au-Cu and Ag-Cu alloy nanotubes (NTs) and nanowires (NWs) in confined carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been investigated by using the classical molecular dynamics (MD) method. It is found that three kinds of single-walled gold-silver, gold-copper and silver-copper alloy NTs could indeed be formed in confined CNTs at any alloy concentration, whose geometric structures are less sensitive to the alloy concentration. And an extra nearly pure Au (Cu) chain will exist at the center of Au-Ag (Au-Cu and Ag-Cu) NTs when the diameters of the outside CNTs are big enough, thus producing a new type of tube-like alloy NWs. The bonding energy differences between the mono- and hetero-elements of the coinage metal atoms and the quasi-one-dimensional confinement from the CNT play important roles in suppressing effectively the "self-purification" effects, leading to formation of these coinage alloy NTs. In addition, the fluid-solid phase transition temperatures of the bimetallic alloy NTs are found to locate between those of the corresponding pure metal tubes. Finally, the dependences of the radial breathing mode (RBM) frequencies and the tube diameters of the alloy NTs on the alloying concentration were obtained, which will be very helpful for identifying both the alloying concentration and the alloy tube diameters in future experiments.

  1. Synergetic formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol: effect of SO2 and NH3 on particle formation and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Biwu; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Sun, Yele; Jiang, Jingkun; Li, Junhua; Hao, Jiming

    2016-11-01

    The effects of SO2 and NH3 on secondary organic aerosol formation have rarely been investigated together, while the interactive effects between inorganic and organic species under highly complex pollution conditions remain uncertain. Here we studied the effects of SO2 and NH3 on secondary aerosol formation in the photooxidation system of toluene/NOx in the presence or absence of Al2O3 seed aerosols in a 2 m3 smog chamber. The presence of SO2 increased new particle formation and particle growth significantly, regardless of whether NH3 was present. Sulfate, organic aerosol, nitrate, and ammonium were all found to increase linearly with increasing SO2 concentrations. The increases in these four species were more obvious under NH3-rich conditions, and the generation of nitrate, ammonium, and organic aerosol increased more significantly than sulfate with respect to SO2 concentration, while sulfate was the most sensitive species under NH3-poor conditions. The synergistic effects between SO2 and NH3 in the heterogeneous process contributed greatly to secondary aerosol formation. Specifically, the generation of NH4NO3 was found to be highly dependent on the surface area concentration of suspended particles, and increased most significantly with SO2 concentration among the four species under NH3-rich conditions. Meanwhile, the absorbed NH3 might provide a liquid surface layer for the absorption and subsequent reaction of SO2 and organic products and, therefore, enhance sulfate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This effect mainly occurred in the heterogeneous process and resulted in a significantly higher growth rate of seed aerosols compared to without NH3. By applying positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis to the AMS data, two factors were identified for the generated SOA. One factor, assigned to less-oxidised organic aerosol and some oligomers, increased with increasing SO2 under NH3-poor conditions, mainly due to the well-known acid catalytic effect of

  2. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from the Photooxidation of p- and o-Xylene

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chen; Na, Kwangsam; Warren, Bethany; Malloy, Quentin; Cocker, David R.

    2007-11-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of xylene isomers (m-, p-, and o-xylenes) has been extensively investigated. The dependence of SOA aerosol formation on the structure of xylene isomers in the presence of NO was confirmed. Generally, SOA formation of p-xylene was less than that ofm- and o-xylenes. This discrepancy varies significantly with initial NOx levels. In a NOx-free environment, the difference of aerosol formation between o- and p-xylenes becomes insignificant. Several chemical pathways for the SOA dependence on structure and NOx are explored, with the experimental findings indicating that organic peroxides may be a major key to explaining SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Influence of plant secondary metabolites on in vitro oxidation of methyl ferulate with cell wall peroxidases from lupine apoplast.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Łukasz; Wojtaszek, Przemysław; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Ionically bound cell wall peroxidases (POXs) were liberated to intercellular washing fluids (IWFs) and isolated together with other proteins and metabolites present in the apoplast of white lupine (Lupinus albus L. var. Bac) root. After separation of proteins from low molecular weight compounds, activity of peroxidases was monitored in in vitro experiments. Oxidation of methyl ferulate with H2O2 was studied in multi-component mixtures of plant metabolites. Secondary metabolites identified in IWFs or other natural products playing important roles in different physiological processes were applied as modifiers of the dehydrodimerization process during oxidation reactions performed in vitro. These were isoflavones and their conjugates, lupanine representing quinolizidine alkaloids synthesized in lupine, or other natural products such as quercetin, ascorbic, and salicylic acid. The influence of these substances on the oxidation kinetics of methyl ferulate was monitored with liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC/UV), and identification of compounds was confirmed with the liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) system. On the basis of data collected, it was possible to reveal changes in the activities of cell wall POXs. Application of the LC system permitted us to monitor, independently, quantitative changes of two or more reaction products in the mixtures. In multi-component combinations, oxidation yields of methyl ferulate by POXs were modified depending on the actual composition of the reaction mixture. We conclude that various classes of plant secondary metabolites can modify the yield of methyl ferulate oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of POX, due to interactions with the enzyme's active site (genistein) or radical scavenging properties of metabolites present in the reaction mixture.

  4. Anatomical variations of the lateral nasal wall: The secondary and accessory middle turbinates.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, A E; Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Cabay, J; Lefebvre, P P

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the current anatomical and clinical study was to audit our cases of patients who presented with secondary and/or accessory middle turbinates during a two-year period. We investigated the incidence and the clinical impact of these variations. Twenty-eight patients, 19 males and 9 females with a mean age of 41.5 years, representing different ethnic origins, were diagnosed with double middle turbinates based on endoscopic examination. Of those, 92.8% had a main symptom of refractory frontal headache. A secondary nasal symptom was sensation of blocked nose. Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery (n = 13) for reduction of the extra turbinate, reported significant symptom scores improvement (P < 0.0001) of frontal headache and blocked nose, from means of 9.07 ± 0.26 and 8.57 ± 1.39 to 1 ± 0.31, and 1.42 ± 0.35, respectively. Our results indicate that double middle turbinates may be encountered in rhinology practice (2%). Clinically they may present with refractory headache and blocked nose. Endoscopic surgical approach seems to be an effective way of improving the symptoms.

  5. LytR-CpsA-Psr enzymes as determinants of Bacillus anthracis secondary cell wall polysaccharide assembly.

    PubMed

    Liszewski Zilla, Megan; Chan, Yvonne G Y; Lunderberg, Justin Mark; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, replicates as chains of vegetative cells by regulating the separation of septal peptidoglycan. Surface (S)-layer proteins and associated proteins (BSLs) function as chain length determinants and bind to the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP). In this study, we identified the B. anthracis lcpD mutant, which displays increased chain length and S-layer assembly defects due to diminished SCWP attachment to peptidoglycan. In contrast, the B. anthracis lcpB3 variant displayed reduced cell size and chain length, which could be attributed to increased deposition of BSLs. In other bacteria, LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP) proteins attach wall teichoic acid (WTA) and polysaccharide capsule to peptidoglycan. B. anthracis does not synthesize these polymers, yet its genome encodes six LCP homologues, which, when expressed in S. aureus, promote WTA attachment. We propose a model whereby B. anthracis LCPs promote attachment of SCWP precursors to discrete locations in the peptidoglycan, enabling BSL assembly and regulated separation of septal peptidoglycan.

  6. Supramolecular Interactions in Secondary Plant Cell Walls: Effect of Lignin Chemical Composition Revealed with the Molecular Theory of Solvation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Rodrigo L; Stoyanov, Stanislav R; Gusarov, Sergey; Skaf, Munir S; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2015-01-02

    Plant biomass recalcitrance, a major obstacle to achieving sustainable production of second generation biofuels, arises mainly from the amorphous cell-wall matrix containing lignin and hemicellulose assembled into a complex supramolecular network that coats the cellulose fibrils. We employed the statistical-mechanical, 3D reference interaction site model with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation (or 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation) to reveal the supramolecular interactions in this network and provide molecular-level insight into the effective lignin-lignin and lignin-hemicellulose thermodynamic interactions. We found that such interactions are hydrophobic and entropy-driven, and arise from the expelling of water from the mutual interaction surfaces. The molecular origin of these interactions is carbohydrate-π and π-π stacking forces, whose strengths are dependent on the lignin chemical composition. Methoxy substituents in the phenyl groups of lignin promote substantial entropic stabilization of the ligno-hemicellulosic matrix. Our results provide a detailed molecular view of the fundamental interactions within the secondary plant cell walls that lead to recalcitrance.

  7. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Sarath, Gautam; Palmer, Nathan A; Baird, Lisa; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Dien, Bruce S; Boateng, Akwasi A; Ge, Zhengxiang; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Twigg, Paul; Clemente, Thomas E; Sattler, Scott E

    2016-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target for altering the abundance and composition of lignin. The global regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism may include MYB transcription factors, whose expression levels have been correlated with changes in secondary cell wall composition and the levels of several other aromatic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonoids. While transcription factors correlated with downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway have been identified in several grass species, few transcription factors linked to activation of this pathway have been identified in C4 grasses, some of which are being developed as dedicated bioenergy feedstocks. In this study we investigated the role of SbMyb60 in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which is a drought-tolerant, high-yielding biomass crop. Ectopic expression of this transcription factor in sorghum was associated with higher expression levels of genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and led to higher abundances of syringyl lignin, significant compositional changes to the lignin polymer and increased lignin concentration in biomass. Moreover, transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing SbMyb60 also displayed ectopic lignification in leaf midribs and elevated concentrations of soluble phenolic compounds in biomass. Results indicate that overexpression of SbMyb60 is associated with activation of monolignol biosynthesis in sorghum. SbMyb60 represents a target for modification of plant cell wall composition, with the potential to improve biomass for renewable uses.

  8. Secondary Cell Wall Polymers of Enterococcus faecalis Are Critical for Resistance to Complement Activation via Mannose-binding Lectin*

    PubMed Central

    Geiss-Liebisch, Stefan; Rooijakkers, Suzan H. M.; Beczala, Agnieszka; Sanchez-Carballo, Patricia; Kruszynska, Karolina; Repp, Christian; Sakinc, Tuerkan; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Holst, Otto; Huebner, Johannes; Theilacker, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The complement system is part of our first line of defense against invading pathogens. The strategies used by Enterococcus faecalis to evade recognition by human complement are incompletely understood. In this study, we identified an insertional mutant of the wall teichoic acid (WTA) synthesis gene tagB in E. faecalis V583 that exhibited an increased susceptibility to complement-mediated killing by neutrophils. Further analysis revealed that increased killing of the mutant was due to a higher rate of phagocytosis by neutrophils, which correlated with higher C3b deposition on the bacterial surface. Our studies indicated that complement activation via the lectin pathway was much stronger on the tagB mutant compared with wild type. In concordance, we found an increased binding of the key lectin pathway components mannose-binding lectin and mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) on the mutant. To understand the mechanism of lectin pathway inhibition by E. faecalis, we purified and characterized cell wall carbohydrates of E. faecalis wild type and V583ΔtagB. NMR analysis revealed that the mutant strain lacked two WTAs with a repeating unit of →6)[α-l-Rhap-(1→3)]β-d-GalpNAc-(1→5)-Rbo-1-P and →6) β-d-Glcp-(1→3) [α-d-Glcp-(1→4)]-β-d-GalpNAc-(1→5)-Rbo-1-P→, respectively (Rbo, ribitol). In addition, compositional changes in the enterococcal rhamnopolysaccharide were noticed. Our study indicates that in E. faecalis, modification of peptidoglycan by secondary cell wall polymers is critical to evade recognition by the complement system. PMID:22908219

  9. Increasing Gas Hydrate Formation Temperature for Desalination of High Salinity Produced Water with Secondary Guests

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Seol, Yongkoo

    2013-10-07

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from -2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  10. OBSERVATIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE GOLGI APPARATUS TO WALL FORMATION IN THE MARINE CHRYSOPHYCEAN ALGA, PLEUROCHRYSIS SCHERFFELII PRINGSHEIM

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    The role of the Golgi apparatus in wall formation of vegetative cells of a marine chrysophyte, Pleurochrysis scherffelii, is described. Wall fragments are synthesized within the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. A single Golgi apparatus is always located at the cell periphery, and the distended cisternae are oriented toward the cell surface. A highly-ordered body found near the inflated cisternae is associated with spherical, membrane-bounded bodies which may be involved in the progressive degeneration of cisternal membranes which release wall fragments. Protoplast movement has been detected by time-lapse cinephotomicrography and is correlated at the ultrastructural level with change in positions of the Golgi cisternae. Wall-synthesizing capacity is greatest during transverse wall formation. Senescent cells lack a Golgi apparatus with inflated cisternae. In addition, wall fragments are not present in the Golgi cisternae at this stage. Zoosporogenesis results in a temporary loss of the wall-forming capacity of the Golgi apparatus; this activity then resumes with the formation of a different morphological entity, the scale. Preliminary quantitative measurements of the turnover capacity of the Golgi apparatus have been made. From these data it has been determined that between 41 and 82 Golgi generations are required to synthesize the cell wall of an actively growing cell; this estimate indicates that approximately one cisterna is produced every 2 min, provided the cell generation time is 3 days. The time-lapse cinephotomicrographic data confirm that the rate of production of Golgi cisternae is at least one cisterna every 2 min. PMID:5775782

  11. Formation of Low Volatility Organic Compounds and Secondary Organic Aerosol from Isoprene Hydroxyhydroperoxide Low-NO Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Krechmer, Jordan E; Coggon, Matthew M; Massoli, Paola; Nguyen, Tran B; Crounse, John D; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A; Tyndall, Geoffrey S; Henze, Daven K; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Nowak, John B; Kimmel, Joel R; Mauldin, Roy L; Stark, Harald; Jayne, John T; Sipilä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Clair, Jason M St; Zhang, Xuan; Feiner, Philip A; Zhang, Li; Miller, David O; Brune, William H; Keutsch, Frank N; Wennberg, Paul O; Seinfeld, John H; Worsnop, Douglas R; Jimenez, Jose L; Canagaratna, Manjula R

    2015-09-01

    Gas-phase low volatility organic compounds (LVOC), produced from oxidation of isoprene 4-hydroxy-3-hydroperoxide (4,3-ISOPOOH) under low-NO conditions, were observed during the FIXCIT chamber study. Decreases in LVOC directly correspond to appearance and growth in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of consistent elemental composition, indicating that LVOC condense (at OA below 1 μg m(-3)). This represents the first simultaneous measurement of condensing low volatility species from isoprene oxidation in both the gas and particle phases. The SOA formation in this study is separate from previously described isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) uptake. Assigning all condensing LVOC signals to 4,3-ISOPOOH oxidation in the chamber study implies a wall-loss corrected non-IEPOX SOA mass yield of ∼4%. By contrast to monoterpene oxidation, in which extremely low volatility VOC (ELVOC) constitute the organic aerosol, in the isoprene system LVOC with saturation concentrations from 10(-2) to 10 μg m(-3) are the main constituents. These LVOC may be important for the growth of nanoparticles in environments with low OA concentrations. LVOC observed in the chamber were also observed in the atmosphere during SOAS-2013 in the Southeastern United States, with the expected diurnal cycle. This previously uncharacterized aerosol formation pathway could account for ∼5.0 Tg yr(-1) of SOA production, or 3.3% of global SOA.

  12. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M S; Andersen, Henrik R

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECONDARY WALL OF THE XYLEM IN ACER PSEUDOPLATANUS

    PubMed Central

    Wooding, F. B. P.; Northcote, D. H.

    1964-01-01

    The development of the spirally thickened xylem element from a cambium initial of sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus has been traced by means of electron microscopy. The narrow elongated cambial initial undergoes considerable expansion in all dimensions. The cytoplasm at this stage is distributed in a thin skin between the cell wall and a large vacuole. No correlation has been observed between the distribution of any organelle and the pattern of the eventual thickenings. After the sites of thickening deposition have become apparent, the most conspicuous feature of the cell is the proliferation of Golgi bodies and vesicles. It is suggested that the material of the developing thickenings stems from direct apposition of the material in the Golgi vesicles. After glutaraldehyde fixation, microtubules (200 to 220 A in diameter) are seen to be sited in specific relation to the thickenings, the orientation of the tubules mirroring that of the fibrils seen in the thickenings. Possible reasons for absence of an observable pattern in the expanded but relatively undifferentiated cell are given, and the possible roles of the Golgi apparatus and microtubules in the thickening production are discussed PMID:14222817

  14. Secondary correction of posttraumatic orbital wall adhesions by membranes laminated with amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils H; Gabriel, Christian; Hennerbichler, Simone; Bauer, Florian; Mücke, Thomas; Kolk, Andreas; Loeffelbein, Denys J; Wolff, Klaus D; Kesting, Marco R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study was to find out if human amniotic membrane could be used for corrective surgery after trauma to the orbital wall. Because of its proposed antiadhesive qualities, it seemed to be potentially suitable. We studied 8 men (mean age 37 (range 19-74) years) who had deficient ocular movement after fractures of the orbital floor. Five of them had already been operated on. Inclusion criteria were trauma dating back more than 4 months and a soft tissue stricture in the orbital floor diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were treated secondarily with lysis of adhesions and insertion of allogeneic human amniotic membrane laminated on to polyglactin 910/polydioxanone foil, which functioned as the carrier material. Patients were followed up for 3 months, by which time disorders of motility of the ocular bulb had disappeared completely in 5. Two patients had improved motility and a reduction in both their subjective and objective symptoms. One patient had no improvement. The considerable reduction in adhesions and scarring after insertion of the membrane confirms previous assumptions, according to which the epithelial side of the human amniotic membrane has an antiadhesive effect because of its smooth surface.

  15. The first biantennary bacterial secondary cell wall polymer and its influence on S-layer glycoprotein assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Steindl, Christian; Schäffer, Christina; Wugeditsch, Thomas; Graninger, Michael; Matecko, Irena; Müller, Norbert; Messner, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The cell surface of Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus DSM 10155 is covered with a square surface (S)-layer glycoprotein lattice. This S-layer glycoprotein, which was extracted with aqueous buffers after a freeze-thaw cycle of the bacterial cells, is the only completely water-soluble S-layer glycoprotein to be reported to date. The purified S-layer glycoprotein preparation had an overall carbohydrate content of 19%. Detailed chemical investigations indicated that the S-layer O-glycans of previously established structure accounted for 13% of total glycosylation. The remainder could be attributed to a peptidoglycan-associated secondary cell wall polymer. Structure analysis was performed using purified secondary cell wall polymer-peptidoglycan complexes. NMR spectroscopy revealed the first biantennary secondary cell wall polymer from the domain Bacteria, with the structure alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->4)-[alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)]-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->O)-PO(2)(-)-O-PO(2)(-)-(O-->6)-MurNAc- (where MurNAc is N -acetylmuramic acid). The neutral polysaccharide is linked via a pyrophosphate bond to the C-6 atom of every fourth N -acetylmuramic acid residue, in average, of the A1gamma-type peptidoglycan. In vivo, the biantennary polymer anchored the S-layer glycoprotein very effectively to the cell wall, probably due to the doubling of motifs for a proposed lectin-like binding between the polymer and the N-terminus of the S-layer protein. When the cellular support was removed during S-layer glycoprotein isolation, the co-purified polymer mediated the solubility of the S

  16. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day and night time chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, A. K. Y.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Leaitch, W. R.; Li, S.-M.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Wentzell, J. J. B.; Liggio, J.; Macdonald, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region at Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA-2), which were primarily generated by gas-phase oxidation of monoterpenes and perhaps sesquiterpenes. The temporal variations of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 can be explained by gas-particle partitioning in response to ambient temperature and the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night. While BSOA-1 will arise from gas-phase ozonolysis and nitrate radical chemistry at night, BSOA-2 is less volatile than BSOA-1 and consists of products formed via gas-phase oxidation by the OH radical and ozone during the day. Organic nitrates produced through nitrate radical chemistry can account for 22-33 % of BSOA-1 mass at night. The mass spectra of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 have higher values of the mass fraction of m/z 91 (f91) compared to the background organic aerosol, and so f91 is used as an indicator of BSOA formation pathways. A comparison between laboratory studies in the literature and our field observations highlights the potential importance of gas-phase formation chemistry of BSOA-2 type materials that may not be captured in smog chamber experiments, perhaps due to the wall loss of gas-phase intermediate products.

  17. The Wsc1p Cell Wall Signaling Protein Controls Biofilm (Mat) Formation Independently of Flo11p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sarode, Neha; Davis, Sarah E.; Tams, Robert N.; Reynolds, Todd B.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of the ∑1278b background generate biofilms, referred to as mats, on low-density agar (0.3%) plates made with rich media (YPD). Mat formation involves adhesion of yeast cells to the surface of the agar substrate and each other as the biofilm matures, resulting in elaborate water channels that create filigreed patterns of cells. The cell wall adhesion protein Flo11p is required for mat formation; however, genetic data indicate that other unknown effectors are also required. For example, mutations in vacuolar protein sorting genes that affect the multivesicular body pathway, such as vps27∆, cause mat formation defects independently of Flo11p, presumably by affecting an unidentified signaling pathway. A cell wall signaling protein, Wsc1p, found at the plasma membrane is affected for localization and function by vps27∆. We found that a wsc1∆ mutation disrupted mat formation in a Flo11p-independent manner. Wsc1p appears to impact mat formation through the Rom2p-Rho1p signaling module, by which Wsc1p also regulates the cell wall. The Bck1p, Mkk1/Mkk2, Mpk1p MAP kinase signaling cascade is known to regulate the cell wall downstream of Wsc1p-Rom2p-Rho1p but, surprisingly, these kinases do not affect mat formation. In contrast, Wsc1p may impact mat formation by affecting Skn7p instead. Skn7p can also receive signaling inputs from the Sln1p histidine kinase; however, mutational analysis of specific histidine kinase receiver residues in Skn7p indicate that Sln1p does not play an important role in mat formation, suggesting that Skn7p primarily acts downstream of Wsc1p to regulate mat formation. PMID:24318926

  18. Factors determining the formation of secondary inorganic aerosol: a case study in the Po Valley (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squizzato, S.; Masiol, M.; Brunelli, A.; Pistollato, S.; Tarabotti, E.; Rampazzo, G.; Pavoni, B.

    2013-02-01

    Physicochemical properties of aerosol were investigated by analyzing the inorganic water soluble content in PM2.5 samples collected in the eastern part of the Po Valley (Italy). In this area the EU limits for many air pollutants are frequently exceeded as a consequence of local sources and regional-scale transport of secondary inorganic aerosol precursors. Nine PM2.5-bound major inorganic ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) were monitored over one year in three sites categorized as semi-rural background, urban background and industrial. The acidic properties of the PM2.5 were studied by applying the recently developed E-AIM thermodynamic model 4 (Extended Aerosol Thermodynamics Model). The experimental data were also examined in relation to the levels of gaseous precursors of secondary inorganic aerosol (SO2, NOx, NO, NO2) and on the basis of some environmental conditions having an effect on the secondary aerosols generation processes. A chemometric procedure using cluster analysis on experimental [NH4+]/[SO42-] molar ratio and NO3- concentration has been applied to determine the conditions needed for ammonium nitrate formation in different chemical environments. Finally, some considerations on the secondary inorganic aerosol formation and the most relevant weather conditions concerning the sulfate-nitrate-ammonium system were also discussed. The obtained results and discussion can help in understanding the secondary aerosol formation dynamics in the Po Valley, which is one of the most critical regions for air pollution in southern Europe.

  19. Asparagus Spears as a Model to Study Heteroxylan Biosynthesis during Secondary Wall Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Aimin; Picard, Kelsey; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Cheetamun, Roshan; Beahan, Cherie; Cassin, Andrew; Lonsdale, Andrew; Doblin, Monika S.; Bacic, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a commercially important crop species utilized for its excellent source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. However, after harvest the tissue hardens and its quality rapidly deteriorates because spear cell walls become rigidified due to lignification and substantial increases in heteroxylan content. This latter observation prompted us to investigate the in vitro xylan xylosyltransferase (XylT) activity in asparagus. The current model system for studying heteroxylan biosynthesis, Arabidopsis, whilst a powerful genetic system, displays relatively low xylan XylT activity in in vitro microsomal preparations compared with garden asparagus therefore hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanism(s) of heteroxylan assembly. Here, we analyzed physiological and biochemical changes of garden asparagus spears stored at 4 °C after harvest and detected a high level of xylan XylT activity that accounts for this increased heteroxylan. The xylan XylT catalytic activity is at least thirteen-fold higher than that reported for previously published species, including Arabidopsis and grasses. A biochemical assay was optimized and up to seven successive Xyl residues were incorporated to extend the xylotetraose (Xyl4) acceptor backbone. To further elucidate the xylan biosynthesis mechanism, we used RNA-seq to generate an Asparagus reference transcriptome and identified five putative xylan biosynthetic genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9-L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14_A, AoIRX14_B) with AoIRX9 having an expression profile that is distinct from the other genes. We propose that Asparagus provides an ideal biochemical system to investigate the biochemical aspects of heteroxylan biosynthesis and also offers the additional benefit of being able to study the lignification process during plant stem maturation. PMID:25894575

  20. Asparagus Spears as a Model to Study Heteroxylan Biosynthesis during Secondary Wall Development.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Zeng, Wei; Wu, Aimin; Picard, Kelsey; Lampugnani, Edwin R; Cheetamun, Roshan; Beahan, Cherie; Cassin, Andrew; Lonsdale, Andrew; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a commercially important crop species utilized for its excellent source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. However, after harvest the tissue hardens and its quality rapidly deteriorates because spear cell walls become rigidified due to lignification and substantial increases in heteroxylan content. This latter observation prompted us to investigate the in vitro xylan xylosyltransferase (XylT) activity in asparagus. The current model system for studying heteroxylan biosynthesis, Arabidopsis, whilst a powerful genetic system, displays relatively low xylan XylT activity in in vitro microsomal preparations compared with garden asparagus therefore hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanism(s) of heteroxylan assembly. Here, we analyzed physiological and biochemical changes of garden asparagus spears stored at 4 °C after harvest and detected a high level of xylan XylT activity that accounts for this increased heteroxylan. The xylan XylT catalytic activity is at least thirteen-fold higher than that reported for previously published species, including Arabidopsis and grasses. A biochemical assay was optimized and up to seven successive Xyl residues were incorporated to extend the xylotetraose (Xyl4) acceptor backbone. To further elucidate the xylan biosynthesis mechanism, we used RNA-seq to generate an Asparagus reference transcriptome and identified five putative xylan biosynthetic genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9-L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14_A, AoIRX14_B) with AoIRX9 having an expression profile that is distinct from the other genes. We propose that Asparagus provides an ideal biochemical system to investigate the biochemical aspects of heteroxylan biosynthesis and also offers the additional benefit of being able to study the lignification process during plant stem maturation.

  1. Mechanisms of Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Implications for Global Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Seinfeld, John H.

    2011-12-02

    Organic material constitutes about 50% of global atmospheric aerosol mass, and the dominant source of organic aerosol is the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons, to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Understanding the formation of SOA is crucial to predicting present and future climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. The goal of this program is to significantly increase our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements indicate that the amount of SOA in the atmosphere exceeds that predicted in current models based on existing laboratory chamber data. This would suggest that either the SOA yields measured in laboratory chambers are understated or that all major organic precursors have not been identified. In this research program we are systematically exploring these possibilities.

  2. Secondary organic aerosol formation initiated from reactions between ozone and surface-sorbed squalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunyi; Waring, Michael S.

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has shown that ozone reactions on surface-sorbed D-limonene can promote gas phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation indoors. In this work, we conducted 13 steady state chamber experiments to measure the SOA formation entirely initiated by ozone reactions with squalene sorbed to glass, at chamber ozone of 57-500 ppb for two relative humidity (RH) conditions of 21% and 51%, in the absence of seed particles. Squalene is a nonvolatile compound that is a component of human skin oil and prevalent on indoor surfaces and in settled dust due to desquamation. The size distributions, mass and number secondary emission rates (SER), aerosol mass fractions (AMF), and aerosol number fractions (ANF) of formed SOA were quantified. The surface AMF and ANF are defined as the change in SOA mass or number formed, respectively, per ozone mass consumed by ozone-squalene reactions. All experiments but one exhibited nucleation and mass formation. Mass formation was relatively small in magnitude and increased with ozone, most notably for the RH = 51% experiments. The surface AMF was a function of the chamber aerosol concentration, and a multi-product model was fit using the 'volatility basis set' framework. Number formation was relatively strong at low ozone and low RH conditions. Though we cannot extrapolate our results because experiments were conducted at high air exchange rates, we speculate that this process may enhance particle number more than mass concentrations indoors.

  3. Fly ash-mediated formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes during secondary copper smelting and mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Thermal experiments (at 250-450 °C for 10-240 min) on fly ash from secondary copper smelting process (SeCu) were performed to study the polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formation in the post-zone of a secondary copper smelter. Unexpectedly high concentrations of PCNs were formed. Total PCN concentrations and toxic equivalents were 47-104 and 44-80 times higher than the initial concentration and toxic equivalent, respectively. The thermal disposal of SeCu fly ash should therefore be reconsidered. The kinetic of each homolog was determined under different thermal conditions. Less chlorinated homologs favored 350 °C and more chlorinated homologs favored higher temperature. Most of the homologs reached an equilibrium of formation and degradation within 30 min, except octachloronaphthalene which did not appear to reach such an equilibrium even after 240 min. Chlorine substitution of the formed PCNs was identified and a similar pattern was found in chlorination products starting with naphthalene and chlorine. Furthermore, inorganic chlorine and unsubstituted naphthalene were found in the reaction products, confirming that the formation of naphthalene and the chlorination of that naphthalene could occur and could be suggested to be an important PCN formation route. A detailed formation pathway from naphthalene through octachloronaphthalene is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondary new particle formation in Northern Finland Pallas site between the years 2000 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kivekäs, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Komppula, M.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

    2011-09-01

    Secondary new particle formation affects atmospheric aerosol and cloud droplet numbers and thereby, the aerosol effects on climate. In this paper, the frequency of nucleation events and the associated particle formation and growth rates, along with their seasonal variation, was analysed based on over ten years of aerosol measurements conducted at the Pallas GAW station in northern Finland. The long-term measurements also allowed a detailed examination of factors possibly favouring or suppressing particle formation. Effects of meteorological parameters and air mass properties as well as vapour sources and sinks for particle formation frequency and event parameters were inspected. In addition, the potential of secondary particle formation to increase the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sized particles was examined. Findings from these long-term measurements confirmed previous observations: event frequency peaked in spring and the highest growth rates were observed in summer, affiliated with increased biogenic activity. Events were almost exclusively observed in marine air masses on sunny cloud-free days. A low vapour sink by the background particle population as well as an elevated sulphuric acid concentration were found to favour particle formation. These were also conditions taking place most likely in marine air masses. Inter-annual trend showed a minimum in event frequency in 2003, when also the smallest annual median of growth rate was observed. This gives further evidence of the importance and sensitivity of particle formation for the condensing vapour concentrations at Pallas site. The particle formation was observed to increase CCN80 (>80 nm particle number) concentrations especially in summer and autumn seasons when the growth rates were the highest. When the growing mode exceeded the selected 80 nm limit, on average in those cases, 211 ± 114 % increase of CCN80 concentrations was observed.

  5. Secondary new particle formation in Northern Finland Pallas site between the years 2000 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kivekäs, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Komppula, M.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Secondary new particle formation affects atmospheric aerosol and cloud droplet numbers and thereby, the aerosol effects on climate. In this paper, the frequency of nucleation events and the associated particle formation and growth rates, along with their seasonal variation, was analysed based on over ten years of aerosol measurements conducted at the Pallas GAW station in northern Finland. The long-term measurements also allowed a detailed examination of factors possibly favouring or suppressing particle formation. Effects of meteorological parameters and air mass properties as well as vapour sources and sinks for particle formation frequency and event parameters were inspected. In addition, the potential of secondary particle formation to increase the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sized particles was examined. Findings from these long-term measurements confirmed previous observations: event frequency peaked in spring and the highest growth rates were observed in summer, affiliated with increased biogenic activity. Events were almost exclusively observed in marine air masses on sunny cloud-free days. A low vapour sink by the background particle population as well as an elevated sulphuric acid concentration were found to favour particle formation. These were also conditions taking place most likely in marine air masses. Inter-annual trend showed a minimum in event frequency in 2003, when also the smallest annual median of growth rate was observed. This gives further evidence of the importance and sensitivity of particle formation for the condensing vapour concentrations at Pallas site. The particle formation was observed to increase CCN80 (>80 nm particle number) concentrations especially in summer and autumn seasons when the growth rates were the highest. When the growing mode exceeded the selected 80 nm limit, on average in those cases, 211 ± 114% increase of CCN80 concentrations was observed.

  6. Effects Of Secondary Electron Emission On The Plasma Sheath Of A Copper Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Adrian; Foster, John

    2016-09-01

    Secondary electron emissions (SEE) from surfaces immersed in plasma such as that found in Hall thruster channels has the potential to affect not only the sheath potential distribution and overall sheath voltage, but also influence the near plasma properties. Such changes can influence engine performance and lifetime. In order to better understand how SEE can bring about changes in the bulk plasma, Langmuir probe-derived electron energy distribution measurements are made outside the sheath of a target under electron beam irradiation. Rather than numerically differentiating the I-V characteristic, an AC superimposed signal is used to obtain the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). This approach allows for better resolution of the distribution function, in particular, the distribution tail. In this manner, numerical noise and artificial structure that arises due to numerical differentiation can be avoided. EEDF changes are correlated with observed changes in the sheath potential of a copper substrate irradiated with a monoenergetic electron beam. Work supported by US Air Force grant FA9550-09-1-0695.

  7. Formation of secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhausts when mixing with SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Deng, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, X.; Fu, X.; Bernard, F.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; He, Q.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.; Yu, J.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can enhance the formation of secondary aerosols from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but its influence on secondary aerosol formation from anthropogenic VOCs, particularly complex mixtures like vehicle exhausts, is still poorly understood. Here we directly co-introduced gasoline vehicles exhausts (GVE) and SO2, a typical pollutant from coal burning, into a smog chamber to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and sulfate aerosols through photooxidation. In the presence of high concentration of SO2, new particle formation was enhanced while substantial sulfate was formed through the oxidation of SO2. The homogenous oxidation by OH radicals contributed a negligible fraction to the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, and instead the oxidation by stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs), formed from alkenes in the exhaust reacting with ozone, dominated the conversion of SO2. After 5 h of photochemical aging, GVE's SOA production factor revealed an increase by 60-200 % in the presence of high concentration of SO2. This increase could largely be attributed to acid-catalyzed SOA formation, which was evidenced by the strong positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the SOA production factor and in-situ particle acidity calculated by AIM-II model. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) resolved OA's relatively lower oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) and higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C) molar ratios for the GVE/SO2 mixture, with a much lower estimated average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of -0.51 ± 0.06 than that of -0.19 ± 0.08 for GVE alone. The relative higher mass loading of OA in the experiments with SO2 might be the major reason for the lower oxidation degree of SOA.

  8. Formation of secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhaust when mixing with SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Deng, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, X.; Fu, X.; Bernard, F.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; He, Q.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.; Yu, J.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can enhance the formation of secondary aerosols from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but its influence on secondary aerosol formation from anthropogenic VOCs, particularly complex mixtures like vehicle exhaust, remains uncertain. Gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE) and SO2, a typical pollutant from coal burning, are directly co-introduced into a smog chamber, in this study, to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and sulfate aerosols through photooxidation. New particle formation was enhanced, while substantial sulfate was formed through the oxidation of SO2 in the presence of high concentration of SO2. Homogenous oxidation by OH radicals contributed a negligible fraction to the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, and instead the oxidation by stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs), formed from alkenes in the exhaust reacting with ozone, dominated the conversion of SO2. After 5 h of photochemical aging, GVE's SOA production factor revealed an increase by 60-200 % in the presence of high concentration of SO2. The increase could principally be attributed to acid-catalyzed SOA formation as evidenced by the strong positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the SOA production factor and in situ particle acidity calculated by the AIM-II model. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) resolved OA's relatively lower oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) (0.44 ± 0.02) and higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C) (1.40 ± 0.03) molar ratios for the GVE / SO2 mixture, with a significantly lower estimated average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of -0.51 ± 0.06 than -0.19 ± 0.08 for GVE alone. The relative higher mass loading of OA in the experiments with SO2 might be a significant explanation for the lower SOA oxidation degree.

  9. The MP65 gene is required for cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The MP65 gene of Candida albicans (orf19.1779) encodes a putative β-glucanase mannoprotein of 65 kDa, which plays a main role in a host-fungus relationship, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. In this study, we performed an extensive analysis of a mp65Δ mutant to assess the role of this protein in cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation. Results The mp65Δ mutant showed a high sensitivity to a range of cell wall-perturbing and degrading agents, especially Congo red, which induced morphological changes such as swelling, clumping and formation of hyphae. The mp65Δ mutant showed an activation of two MAPKs (Mkc1p and Cek1p), a high level of expression of two stress-related genes (DDR48 and SOD5), and a modulated expression of β-glucan epitopes, but no gross changes in cell wall polysaccharide composition. Interestingly, the mp65Δ mutant displayed a marked reduction in adhesion to BEC and Caco-2 cells and severe defects in biofilm formation when compared to the wild type. All of the mentioned properties were totally or partially recovered in a revertant strain, demonstrating the specificity of gene deletion. Conclusions We demonstrate that the MP65 gene of Candida albicans plays a significant role in maintaining cell wall integrity, as well as in adherence to epithelia and biofilm formation, which are major virulence attributes of this fungus. PMID:21575184

  10. Identification of proteins from a cell wall fraction of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: insights into silica structure formation.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, Luciano G; Radabaugh, Timothy R; Haynes, Paul A; Hildebrand, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Diatoms are unicellular eucaryotic algae with cell walls containing silica, intricately and ornately structured on the nanometer scale. Overall silica structure is formed by expansion and molding of the membrane-bound silica deposition vesicle. Although molecular details of silica polymerization are being clarified, we have limited insight into molecular components of the silica deposition vesicle, particularly of membrane-associated proteins that may be involved in structure formation. To identify such proteins, we refined existing procedures to isolate an enriched cell wall fraction from the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, the first diatom with a sequenced genome. We applied tandem mass spectrometric analysis to this fraction, identifying 31 proteins for further evaluation. mRNA levels for genes encoding these proteins were monitored during synchronized progression through the cell cycle and compared with two previously identified silaffin genes (involved in silica polymerization) having distinct mRNA patterns that served as markers for cell wall formation. Of the 31 proteins identified, 10 had mRNA patterns that correlated with the silaffins, 13 had patterns that did not, and seven had patterns that correlated but also showed additional features. The possible involvements of these proteins in cell wall synthesis are discussed. In particular, glutamate acetyltransferase was identified, prompting an analysis of mRNA patterns for other genes in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway and identification of those induced during cell wall synthesis. Application of a specific enzymatic inhibitor for ornithine decarboxylase resulted in dramatic alteration of silica structure, confirming the involvement of polyamines and demonstrating that manipulation of proteins involved in cell wall synthesis can alter structure. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic analysis of a diatom, and furthermore we identified new candidate genes involved in structure formation and

  11. Oligomerization reaction of the Criegee intermediate leads to secondary organic aerosol formation in ethylene ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yosuke; Inomata, Satoshi; Hirokawa, Jun

    2013-12-05

    Ethylene ozonolysis was investigated in laboratory experiments using a Teflon bag reactor. A negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer (NI-CIMS) using SO2Cl(-) and Cl(-) as reagent ions was used for product analysis. In addition to the expected gas-phase products, such as formic acid and hydroperoxymethyl formate, oligomeric hydroperoxides composed of the Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) as a chain unit were observed. Furthermore, we observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the ethylene ozonolysis, and the particle-phase products were also analyzed by NI-CIMS. The CH2OO oligomers were also observed as particle-phase components, suggesting that the oligomeric hydroperoxides formed in the gas phase partition into the particle phase. By adding methanol as a stabilized Criegee intermediate scavenger, both the gas-phase oligomer formation and SOA formation were strongly suppressed. This indicates that CH2OO plays a critical role in the formation of oligomeric hydroperoxides followed by SOA formation in ethylene ozonolysis. A new formation mechanism for the oligomeric hydroperoxides, which includes sequential addition of CH2OO to hydroperoxides, is proposed.

  12. Secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene photooxidation during cloud condensation-evaporation cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brégonzio-Rozier, L.; Giorio, C.; Siekmann, F.; Pangui, E.; Morales, S. B.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Gratien, A.; Michoud, V.; Cazaunau, M.; DeWitt, H. L.; Tapparo, A.; Monod, A.; Doussin, J.-F.

    2016-02-01

    The impact of cloud events on isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has been studied from an isoprene / NOx / light system in an atmospheric simulation chamber. It was shown that the presence of a liquid water cloud leads to a faster and higher SOA formation than under dry conditions. When a cloud is generated early in the photooxidation reaction, before any SOA formation has occurred, a fast SOA formation is observed with mass yields ranging from 0.002 to 0.004. These yields are 2 and 4 times higher than those observed under dry conditions. When the cloud is generated at a later photooxidation stage, after isoprene SOA is stabilized at its maximum mass concentration, a rapid increase (by a factor of 2 or higher) of the SOA mass concentration is observed. The SOA chemical composition is influenced by cloud generation: the additional SOA formed during cloud events is composed of both organics and nitrate containing species. This SOA formation can be linked to the dissolution of water soluble volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the aqueous phase and to further aqueous phase reactions. Cloud-induced SOA formation is experimentally demonstrated in this study, thus highlighting the importance of aqueous multiphase systems in atmospheric SOA formation estimations.

  13. Role of the thymus in streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis and hepatic granuloma formation. Comparative studies of pathology and cell wall distribution in athymic and euthymic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J B; Malone, D G; Wahl, S M; Calandra, G B; Wilder, R L

    1985-01-01

    Systemic administration of an aqueous suspension of group A streptococcal cell wall fragments to susceptible rats induces acute and chronic polyarthritis, as well as noncaseating hepatic granulomas. To gain insight into the role of the thymus in the pathogenesis of this experimental model, pathologic responses and cell wall tissue distribution were compared in congenitally athymic rats (rnu/rnu) and their euthymic littermates (NIH/rnu). Within 24 h, both rat strains developed acute arthritis, characterized by polymorphonuclear leukocytic exudate in the synovium and joint spaces. This acute process was maximal at day 3 and gradually subsided. Beginning 2-3 wk after injection, the euthymic, but not the athymic, rats developed the typical exacerbation of arthritis, characterized by synovial cell hyperplasia with villus formation and T helper/inducer lymphocyte-rich mononuclear cell infiltration. This process eventually resulted in marginal erosions and destruction of periarticular bone and cartilage. Parallel development of acute and chronic hepatic lesions was observed. Bacterial cell wall antigen distribution and persistence were similar in the athymic and euthymic rats. Cell wall antigens were demonstrated in the cytoplasm of cells within subchondral bone marrow, synovium, liver, and spleen, coincident with the development of the acute lesions, and persisted in these sites, although in decreasing amounts, for the duration of the experiment. Our findings provide evidence that the acute and chronic phases of the experimental model are mechanistically distinct. The thymus and functional thymus derived-lymphocytes appear not to be required for the development of the acute exudative disease but are essential for the development of chronic proliferative and erosive disease. Induction of disease is dependent upon cell wall dissemination to and persistence in the affected tissues. Images PMID:3876354

  14. Cellulose synthase catalytic subunit (CesA) genes associated with primary or secondary wall biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers (Gossypium hirsutum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton fibers are unicellular seed trichomes and consist of almost pure cellulose. During the transition from elongation growth to secondary wall thickening, the rate of cellulose biosynthesis in fibers rises nearly 100-fold. Although the first two cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CesAs) wer...

  15. A new environmental chamber for evaluation of gas-phase chemical mechanisms and secondary aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, William P. L.; Cocker, David R.; Fitz, Dennis R.; Malkina, Irina L.; Bumiller, Kurt; Sauer, Claudia G.; Pisano, John T.; Bufalino, Charles; Song, Chen

    A new state-of-the-art indoor environmental chamber facility for the study of atmospheric processes leading to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has been constructed and characterized. The chamber is designed for atmospheric chemical mechanism evaluation at low reactant concentrations under well-controlled environmental conditions. It consists of two collapsible 90 m 3 FEP Teflon film reactors on pressure-controlled moveable frameworks inside a temperature-controlled enclosure flushed with purified air. Solar radiation is simulated with either a 200 kW Argon arc lamp or multiple blacklamps. Results of initial characterization experiments, all carried out at ˜300-305 K under dry conditions, concerning NO x and formaldehyde offgasing, radical sources, particle loss rates, and background PM formation are described. Results of initial single organic-NO x and simplified ambient surrogate-NO x experiments to demonstrate the utility of the facility for mechanism evaluation under low NO x conditions are summarized and compared with the predictions of the SAPRC-99 chemical mechanism. Overall, the results of the initial characterization and evaluation indicate that this new environmental chamber can provide high quality mechanism evaluation data for experiments with NO x levels as low as ˜2 ppb, though the results indicate some problems with the gas-phase mechanism that need further study. Initial evaluation experiments for SOA formation, also carried out under dry conditions, indicate that the chamber can provide high quality secondary aerosol formation data at relatively low hydrocarbon concentrations.

  16. Bacillus anthracis acetyltransferases PatA1 and PatA2 modify the secondary cell wall polysaccharide and affect the assembly of S-layer proteins.

    PubMed

    Lunderberg, J Mark; Nguyen-Mau, Sao-Mai; Richter, G Stefan; Wang, Ya-Ting; Dworkin, Jonathan; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-03-01

    The envelope of Bacillus anthracis encompasses a proteinaceous S-layer with two S-layer proteins (Sap and EA1). Protein assembly in the envelope of B. anthracis requires S-layer homology domains (SLH) within S-layer proteins and S-layer-associated proteins (BSLs), which associate with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP), an acetylated carbohydrate that is tethered to peptidoglycan. Here, we investigated the contributions of two putative acetyltransferases, PatA1 and PatA2, on SCWP acetylation and S-layer assembly. We show that mutations in patA1 and patA2 affect the chain lengths of B. anthracis vegetative forms and perturb the deposition of the BslO murein hydrolase at cell division septa. The patA1 and patA2 mutants are defective for the assembly of EA1 in the envelope but retain the ability of S-layer formation with Sap. SCWP isolated from the patA1 patA2 mutant lacked acetyl moieties identified in wild-type polysaccharide and failed to associate with the SLH domains of EA1. A model is discussed whereby patA1- and patA2-mediated acetylation of SCWP enables the deposition of EA1 as well as BslO near the septal region of the B. anthracis envelope.

  17. Role of pH controlled DNA secondary structures in the reversible dispersion/precipitation and separation of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Maji, Basudeb; Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-04-07

    Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) oligomers (dA20, d[(C3TA2)3C3] or dT20) are able to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water at pH 7 through non-covalent wrapping on the nanotube surface. At lower pH, an alteration of the DNA secondary structure leads to precipitation of the SWNTs from the dispersion. The structural change of dA20 takes place from the single-stranded to the A-motif form at pH 3.5 while in case of d[(C3TA2)3C3] the change occurs from the single-stranded to the i-motif form at pH 5. Due to this structural change, the DNA is no longer able to bind the nanotube and hence the SWNT precipitates from its well-dispersed state. However, this could be reversed on restoring the pH to 7, where the DNA again relaxes in the single-stranded form. In this way the dispersion and precipitation process could be repeated over and over again. Variable temperature UV-Vis-NIR and CD spectroscopy studies showed that the DNA-SWNT complexes were thermally stable even at ∼90 °C at pH 7. Broadband NIR laser (1064 nm) irradiation also demonstrated the stability of the DNA-SWNT complex against local heating introduced through excitation of the carbon nanotubes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the formation of a stable DNA-SWNT complex at pH 7 and also the generation of DNA secondary structures (A/i-motif) upon acidification. The interactions of ss-DNA with SWNTs cause debundling of the nanotubes from its assembly. Selective affinity of the semiconducting SWNTs towards DNA than the metallic ones enables separation of the two as evident from spectroscopic as well as electrical conductivity studies.

  18. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2014-09-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site in June-July of 2010 during CalNex and a site in an oil and gas producing region in January-February of 2013 during UBWOS 2013 will be discussed. Although the VOC compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 ppb in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 8%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Inclusion of recent findings on additional precursors and formation pathways of formic acid in the box model increases modeled formic acid concentrations for UBWOS 2013 and CalNex by a factor of 6.4 and 4.5, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 21 and 47% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be -7 and 0-6% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that air-snow exchange processes and morning fog events may also contribute to ambient formic acid concentrations during UBWOS 2013 (∼20% in total). In total, 50-57% in UBWOS 2013 and 48-53% in CalNex of secondary formation of formic acid remains unexplained. More work on formic acid formation pathways is needed to reduce the uncertainties in the sources and budget of formic

  19. Evidence that the N-terminal part of the S-layer protein from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 recognizes a secondary cell wall polymer.

    PubMed Central

    Ries, W; Hotzy, C; Schocher, I; Sleytr, U B; Sára, M

    1997-01-01

    The S-layer of Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 shows oblique lattice symmetry and is composed of identical protein subunits with a molecular weight of 97,000. The isolated S-layer subunits could bind and recrystallize into the oblique lattice on native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi which consist of peptidoglycan of the A1gamma chemotype and a secondary cell wall polymer with an estimated molecular weight of 24,000. The secondary cell wall polymer could be completely extracted from peptidoglycan-containing sacculi with 48% HF, indicating the presence of phosphodiester linkages between the polymer chains and the peptidoglycan backbone. The cell wall polymer was composed mainly of GlcNAc and ManNAc in a molar ratio of 4:1, constituted about 20% of the peptidoglycan-containing sacculus dry weight, and was also detected in the fraction of the S-layer self-assembly products. Extraction experiments and recrystallization of the whole S-layer protein and proteolytic cleavage fragments confirmed that the secondary cell wall polymer is responsible for anchoring the S-layer subunits by the N-terminal part to the peptidoglycan-containing sacculi. In addition to this binding function, the cell wall polymer was found to influence the in vitro self-assembly of the guanidinium hydrochloride-extracted S-layer protein. Chemical modification studies further showed that the secondary cell wall polymer does not contribute significant free amino or carboxylate groups to the peptidoglycan-containing sacculi. PMID:9190804

  20. Effect of Mould Coating on Skin Formation and Nodule Characteristics of Thin Wall Ductile Iron Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaneswara, D.; Suharno, B.; Aprilio, A.; Ariobimo, R. D. S.; Sofyan, N.

    2017-05-01

    Thin wall ductile iron (TWDI) has the potential alternative for lightweight aluminium use in automotive parts. The main problem in TWDI, however, is the formation of skin during the casting, which may reduce its mechanical properties. This casting skin is formed by the decomposition of nodular graphite at the mould interface during the casting process. One of the ways to work around this problem is by using mould coating to control the cooling process. In this work, three variables of mould coatings were used, i.e. graphite, MgO, and MgO/graphite double layers. The results showed that the average casting skin thickness in double layer coating was the lowest (30.41 μm), 57% lower than that of in MgO (71.46 μm) and 60% lower than that of graphite (74.44 μm). The reduction of casting skin thickness increased the mechanical properties of TWDI (346 MPa), 69% higher than that of MgO (223 MPa) and 26% higher than that of graphite (297 MPa). The same is true for ductility (2.7%), which was higher than that of MgO (1.43%) and that of graphite (1.43%).

  1. Thermodynamics for the Formation of Double-Stranded DNA-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Tsuzuki, Akiko; Toshimitsu, Fumiyuki; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, the thermodynamics are described for the formation of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA)-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids. This treatment is applied to the exchange reaction of sodium cholate (SC) molecules on SWNTs and the ds-DNAs d(A)20 -d(T)20 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB decoy. UV/Vis/near-IR spectroscopy with temperature variations was used for analyzing the exchange reaction on the SWNTs with four different chiralities: (n,m)=(8,3), (6,5), (7,5), and (8,6). Single-stranded DNAs (ss-DNAs), including d(A)20 and d(T)20, are also used for comparison. The d(A)20-d(T)20 shows a drastic change in its thermodynamic parameters around the melting temperature (Tm ) of the DNA oligomer. No such Tm dependency was measured, owing to high Tm in the NF-κB decoy DNA and no Tm in the ss-DNA. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. [Molecular mechanism of AtGA3OX1 and AtGA3OX2 genes affecting secondary wall thickening in stems in Arabidopsis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zeng-Guang; Chai, Guo-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Tang, Xian-Feng; Sun, Chang-Jiang; Zhou, Gong-Ke; Ma, San-Mei

    2013-05-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are a type of important plant growth regulators, which play the key roles in multiple processes, such as seed germination, leaf expansion, flowering, fruit bearing, and stem development. Its biosynthesis is regulated by a variety of enzymes including gibberellin 3-oxidase that is a key rate-limiting enzyme. In Arabidopsis, gibberellin 3-oxidase consists of four members, of which AtGA3OX1 and AtGA3OX2 are highly expressed in stems, suggesting the potential roles in the stem development played by the two genes. To date, there are few studies on AtGA3OX1 and AtGA3OX2 regulating secondary wall thickening in stems. In this study, we used the atga3ox1atga3ox2 double mutant as the materials to study the effects of AtGA3OX1 and AtGA3OX2 genes on secondary wall thickening in stems. The results indicated that simulations repression of AtGA3OX1 and AtGA3OX2 genes resulted in significantly reduction of secondary wall thickening of fiber cells, but not that of vessel cells. Three main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) were also dramatically suppressed in the double mutants. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expressions of secondary wall biosynthetic genes and the associated transcription factors were obviously affected in AtGA3OX1 and AtGA3OX2 double mutant. Therefore, we presume that Arabidopsis AtGA3OX1 and AtGA3OX2 genes might activate the expression of these transcription factors, thus regulate secondary wall thickening in stems. Together, our results provide a theoretical basis for enhancing the lodging resistance of food crops and improving the biomass of energy plants by genetically engineering Arabidopsis AtGA3OX homologs.

  3. Dynamics of protein aggregation and oligomer formation governed by secondary nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Lazell, Hamish W.; Arosio, Paolo; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2015-08-01

    The formation of aggregates in many protein systems can be significantly accelerated by secondary nucleation, a process where existing assemblies catalyse the nucleation of new species. In particular, secondary nucleation has emerged as a central process controlling the proliferation of many filamentous protein structures, including molecular species related to diseases such as sickle cell anemia and a range of neurodegenerative conditions. Increasing evidence suggests that the physical size of protein filaments plays a key role in determining their potential for deleterious interactions with living cells, with smaller aggregates of misfolded proteins, oligomers, being particularly toxic. It is thus crucial to progress towards an understanding of the factors that control the sizes of protein aggregates. However, the influence of secondary nucleation on the time evolution of aggregate size distributions has been challenging to quantify. This difficulty originates in large part from the fact that secondary nucleation couples the dynamics of species distant in size space. Here, we approach this problem by presenting an analytical treatment of the master equation describing the growth kinetics of linear protein structures proliferating through secondary nucleation and provide closed-form expressions for the temporal evolution of the resulting aggregate size distribution. We show how the availability of analytical solutions for the full filament distribution allows us to identify the key physical parameters that control the sizes of growing protein filaments. Furthermore, we use these results to probe the dynamics of the populations of small oligomeric species as they are formed through secondary nucleation and discuss the implications of our work for understanding the factors that promote or curtail the production of these species with a potentially high deleterious biological activity.

  4. Dynamics of protein aggregation and oligomer formation governed by secondary nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, Thomas C. T. Lazell, Hamish W.; Arosio, Paolo; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2015-08-07

    The formation of aggregates in many protein systems can be significantly accelerated by secondary nucleation, a process where existing assemblies catalyse the nucleation of new species. In particular, secondary nucleation has emerged as a central process controlling the proliferation of many filamentous protein structures, including molecular species related to diseases such as sickle cell anemia and a range of neurodegenerative conditions. Increasing evidence suggests that the physical size of protein filaments plays a key role in determining their potential for deleterious interactions with living cells, with smaller aggregates of misfolded proteins, oligomers, being particularly toxic. It is thus crucial to progress towards an understanding of the factors that control the sizes of protein aggregates. However, the influence of secondary nucleation on the time evolution of aggregate size distributions has been challenging to quantify. This difficulty originates in large part from the fact that secondary nucleation couples the dynamics of species distant in size space. Here, we approach this problem by presenting an analytical treatment of the master equation describing the growth kinetics of linear protein structures proliferating through secondary nucleation and provide closed-form expressions for the temporal evolution of the resulting aggregate size distribution. We show how the availability of analytical solutions for the full filament distribution allows us to identify the key physical parameters that control the sizes of growing protein filaments. Furthermore, we use these results to probe the dynamics of the populations of small oligomeric species as they are formed through secondary nucleation and discuss the implications of our work for understanding the factors that promote or curtail the production of these species with a potentially high deleterious biological activity.

  5. Predicting secondary organic aerosol formation from terpenoid ozonolysis with varying yields in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, S; Waring, M S

    2012-10-01

    The ozonolysis of terpenoids generates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. Models of varying complexity have been used to predict indoor SOA formation, and many models use the SOA yield, which is the ratio of the mass of produced SOA and the mass of consumed reactive organic gas. For indoor simulations, the SOA yield has been assumed as a constant, even though it depends on the concentration of organic particles in the air, including any formed SOA. We developed two indoor SOA formation models for single terpenoid ozonolysis, with yields that vary with the organic particle concentration. The models have their own strengths and were in agreement with published experiments for d-limonene ozonolysis. Monte Carlo analyses were performed, which simulated different residential and office environments to estimate ranges of SOA concentrations and yields for d-limonene and α-pinene ozonolysis occurring indoors. Results indicate that yields are highly variable indoors and are most influenced by background organic particles for steady-state formation and indoor ozone concentration for transient peak formation. Additionally, a review of ozonolysis yields for indoor-relevant terpenoids in the literature revealed much uncertainty in their values at low concentrations typical of indoors. The results in this study suggest important factors that govern indoor secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and yields, in typical residential and office spaces. This knowledge informs the development and comparison of control strategies to reduce indoor-generated SOA. The ranges of SOA concentrations predicted indoors allow the quantification of the effects of sorptive interactions of semi-volatile organic compounds or reactive oxygen species with SOA, filter loading owing to SOA formation, and impacts of SOA on health, if links are established. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Emerging Trends in the Volume and Format of Outside Examinations Submitted for Secondary Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Christopher H.; Wood, Christopher P.; Diehn, Felix E.; Eckel, Laurence J.; Schwartz, Kara M.; Erickson, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to describe the trends of secondary interpretations, including the total volume and format of cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective study involved all outside neuroradiology examinations submitted for secondary interpretation from November 2006 through December 2010. This practice utilizes consistent criteria and includes all images that cover the brain, neck, and spine. For each month, the total number of outside examinations and their format (i.e., hard-copy film, DICOM CD-ROM, or non-DICOM CD-ROM) were recorded. RESULTS There was no significant change in the volume of cases (1043 ± 131 cases/month; p = 0.46, two-sided Student t test). There was a significant decrease in the volume of hard-copy films submitted, with the mean number of examinations submitted per month on hard-copy film declining from 297 in 2007 to 57 in 2010 (p < 0.0001, Student t test). This decrease was mirrored by an increase in the mean number of cases submitted on CD-ROM (753 cases/month in 2007 and 1036 cases/month in 2010; p < 0.0001). Although most were submitted in DICOM format, there was almost a doubling of the volume of cases submitted on non-DICOM CD-ROM (mean number of non-DICOM CD-ROMs, nine cases/month in 2007 and 17 cases/month in 2010; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION There has been a significant decrease in the number of hard-copy films submitted for secondary interpretation. There has been almost a doubling of the volume of cases submitted in non-DICOM formats, which is unfortunate, given the many advantages of the internationally derived DICOM standard, including ease of archiving, standardized display, efficient review, improved interpretation, and quality of patient care. PMID:22451538

  7. Secondary aerosol formation from stress-induced biogenic emissions and possible climate feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, Th. F.; Kleist, E.; Andres, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Hohaus, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Uerlings, R.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by acting as ice and cloud condensation nuclei. Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs) comprise an important component of atmospheric aerosols. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by vegetation are the source of BSOAs. Pathogens and insect attacks, heat waves and droughts can induce stress to plants that may impact their BVOC emissions, and hence the yield and type of formed BSOAs, and possibly their climatic effects. This raises questions of whether stress-induced changes in BSOA formation may attenuate or amplify effects of climate change. In this study we assess the potential impact of stress-induced BVOC emissions on BSOA formation for tree species typical for mixed deciduous and Boreal Eurasian forests. We studied the photochemical BSOA formation for plants infested by aphids in a laboratory setup under well-controlled conditions and applied in addition heat and drought stress. The results indicate that stress conditions substantially modify BSOA formation and yield. Stress-induced emissions of sesquiterpenes, methyl salicylate, and C17-BVOCs increase BSOA yields. Mixtures including these compounds exhibit BSOA yields between 17 and 33%, significantly higher than mixtures containing mainly monoterpenes (4-6% yield). Green leaf volatiles suppress SOA formation, presumably by scavenging OH, similar to isoprene. By classifying emission types, stressors and BSOA formation potential, we discuss possible climatic feedbacks regarding aerosol effects. We conclude that stress situations for plants due to climate change should be considered in climate-vegetation feedback mechanisms.

  8. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from m-Xylene in the Absence of NOx

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chen; Na, Kwangsam; Warren, Bethany; Malloy, Quentin; Cocker, David R.

    2007-11-01

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from m-xylene photoxidation in the absence of NOx was investigated in a series of smog chamber experiments. Experiments were performed in dry air and in the absence of seed aerosol with H2O2 photolysis providing a stable hydroxyl radical (OH radical) source. SOA formation from this study is exceptionally higher than experiments with existence of NOx. The experiments with elevated HO2 levels indicate that organic hydroperoxide compounds should contribute to SOA formation. Nitrogen oxide (NO) is shown to reduce aerosol formation; the constant aerosol formation rate obtained before addition of NO and after consumption of NO strongly suggests that aerosol formation is mainly through reactions with OH and HO2 radicals. In addition, a density of 1.40 ± 0.1 g cm-3 for the SOA from the photooxidation of m-xylene in the absence of NOx has been measured, which is significantly higher than the currently used unit density.

  9. Secondary aerosol formation from stress-induced biogenic emissions and possible climate feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, Th. F.; Kleist, E.; Andres, S.; Maso, M. D.; Hohaus, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Uerlings, R.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by acting as ice and cloud condensation nuclei. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) comprise an important component of atmospheric aerosols. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted by vegetation are a major source of SOA. Pathogens and insect attacks, heat waves and droughts can induce stress to plants that may impact their BVOC emissions, and hence the yield and type of formed SOA, and possibly their climatic effects. This raises questions whether stress-induced changes in SOA formation may attenuate or amplify effects of climate change. In this study we assess the potential impact of stress-induced BVOC emissions on SOA formation for tree species typical for mixed deciduous and Boreal Eurasian forests. We studied the photochemical SOA formation for infested plants in a laboratory setup under well-controlled conditions and applied in addition heat and drought stress. The results indicate that stress conditions substantially modify SOA formation. While sesquiterpenes, methyl salicylate, and C17-BVOC increase SOA yield, green leaf volatiles suppress SOA formation. By classifying emission types, stressors and SOA formation potential, we propose possible climatic feedbacks regarding aerosol effects. We conclude that stress situations for plants due to climate change should be considered in climate-vegetation feedback mechanisms.

  10. Influence of the Secondary Cell Wall Polymer on the Reassembly, Recrystallization, and Stability Properties of the S-Layer Protein from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2

    PubMed Central

    Sára, Margit; Dekitsch, Christine; Mayer, Harald F.; Egelseer, Eva M.; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    1998-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP) from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 is mainly composed of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) and is involved in anchoring the S-layer protein via its N-terminal region to the rigid cell wall layer. In addition to this binding function, the SCWP was found to inhibit the formation of self-assembly products during dialysis of the guanidine hydrochloride (GHCl)-extracted S-layer protein. The degree of assembly (DA; percent assembled from total S-layer protein) that could be achieved strongly depended on the amount of SCWP added to the GHCl-extracted S-layer protein and decreased from 90 to 10% when the concentration of the SCWP was increased from 10 to 120 μg/mg of S-layer protein. The SCWP kept the S-layer protein in the water-soluble state and favored its recrystallization on solid supports such as poly-l-lysine-coated electron microscopy grids. Derived from the orientation of the base vectors of the oblique S-layer lattice, the subunits had bound with their charge-neutral outer face, leaving the N-terminal region with the polymer binding domain exposed to the ambient environment. From cell wall fragments about half of the S-layer protein could be extracted with 1 M GlcNAc, indicating that the linkage type between the S-layer protein and the SCWP could be related to that of the lectin-polysaccharide type. Interestingly, GlcNAc had an effect on the in vitro self-assembly and recrystallization properties of the S-layer protein that was similar to that of the isolated SCWP. The SCWP generally enhanced the stability of the S-layer protein against endoproteinase Glu-C attack and specifically protected a potential cleavage site in position 138 of the mature S-layer protein. PMID:9696762

  11. Mechanisms for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones: A Case Study of Hurricane Katrina (2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rivera, J. M.; Lin, Y.

    2013-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is used to simulate the last eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) of Hurricane Katrina (2005) just before it's landfall in the Louisiana coastline. In this study, we pursue a complete understanding of the physics behind the secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in tropical cyclones. The simulation results show the occurrence of the early stages of an ERC in the simulated storm just before landfall. This confirms that with the appropriate set of physics parameterization schemes, grid spacing and initial conditions, the numerical model is able to reproduce ERCs on certain tropical cyclones with no data assimilation or extra data inputs. Strong updrafts are observed to converge in a ring outside the primary eyewall of Hurricane Katrina (2005) suggesting SEF during that period. The increase of divergence outside the primary eyewall with an outer-ring of convergence forming above the boundary layer can be part of the mechanisms that lead to SEF. Also, potential vorticity (PV) field is analyzed for its possible relationship with the development of the secondary eyewall. This detailed study of the pre-ERC events in the inner-core of Hurricane Katrina can build the foundations for testing some of the existing hypotheses for the development of secondary eyewalls leading to new ideas behind their formation.

  12. Exact calculation of loop formation probability identifies folding motifs in RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Sloma, Michael F; Mathews, David H

    2016-12-01

    RNA secondary structure prediction is widely used to analyze RNA sequences. In an RNA partition function calculation, free energy nearest neighbor parameters are used in a dynamic programming algorithm to estimate statistical properties of the secondary structure ensemble. Previously, partition functions have largely been used to estimate the probability that a given pair of nucleotides form a base pair, the conditional stacking probability, the accessibility to binding of a continuous stretch of nucleotides, or a representative sample of RNA structures. Here it is demonstrated that an RNA partition function can also be used to calculate the exact probability of formation of hairpin loops, internal loops, bulge loops, or multibranch loops at a given position. This calculation can also be used to estimate the probability of formation of specific helices. Benchmarking on a set of RNA sequences with known secondary structures indicated that loops that were calculated to be more probable were more likely to be present in the known structure than less probable loops. Furthermore, highly probable loops are more likely to be in the known structure than the set of loops predicted in the lowest free energy structures. © 2016 Sloma and Mathews; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. The 4-hydroxyestrone: Electron emission, formation of secondary metabolites and mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Getoff, Nikola; Gerschpacher, Marion; Hartmann, Johannes; Huber, Johannes C; Schittl, Heike; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2010-01-21

    4-Hydroxyestrone (4-OHE(1)), a typical cancer-inducing metabolite, originating from 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2), was chosen as a model for the studies. The aim was to get a deeper insight in the mechanisms of its ability to initiate cancer. It was found, that 4-OHE(1) can eject electrons (e(aq)(-)), when excited in the singlet state by monochromatic UV-light (lambda=254 nm) in polar media (water:ethanol=40:60 vol.%). The quantum yield Q(e(aq)(-)), determined for various 4-OHE(1) concentrations, is found to be as high as that previously observed for 17beta-E2. It decreases with increasing substrate concentration, but it is enhanced at higher temperature. The ability of 4-OHE(1) to eject as well as to consume and to transfer electrons to other biological systems, classifies it as an electron mediator, similar to 17beta-E2. The 4-OHE(1) transients resulting of the electron emission process are leading to the formation of secondary metabolites. Surprisingly, it was established that the secondary metabolites possess likewise the ability to eject as well as to consume electrons. Hence, they behave similar like 17beta-E2. However, the structure of the secondary formed metabolites, which determinates their biological properties and carcinogenity, depends on the nature of the available reaction partners involved in their formation. A probable reaction mechanism explaining the subject matter is discussed.

  14. A set of nearest neighbor parameters for predicting the enthalpy change of RNA secondary structure formation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhi John; Turner, Douglas H.; Mathews, David H.

    2006-01-01

    A complete set of nearest neighbor parameters to predict the enthalpy change of RNA secondary structure formation was derived. These parameters can be used with available free energy nearest neighbor parameters to extend the secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences to temperatures other than 37°C. The parameters were tested by predicting the secondary structures of sequences with known secondary structure that are from organisms with known optimal growth temperatures. Compared with the previous set of enthalpy nearest neighbor parameters, the sensitivity of base pair prediction improved from 65.2 to 68.9% at optimal growth temperatures ranging from 10 to 60°C. Base pair probabilities were predicted with a partition function and the positive predictive value of structure prediction is 90.4% when considering the base pairs in the lowest free energy structure with pairing probability of 0.99 or above. Moreover, a strong correlation is found between the predicted melting temperatures of RNA sequences and the optimal growth temperatures of the host organism. This indicates that organisms that live at higher temperatures have evolved RNA sequences with higher melting temperatures. PMID:16982646

  15. Formation flavonoid secondary metabolites in callus culture of Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium as alternative provision medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwianingsih, Widi; Febri, Santika; Kusdianti

    2016-02-01

    Increasing need of medicine ingredients require the discovery of other methods that can be used as an alternative. One method that can be used as an alternative is tissue culture. Quercetin is a flavonoid secondary metabolites that have been known to be useful as antiviral, anti-asthma and anti-cancer potential. The purpose of this study was to produce flavonoids, especially quercetin in callus culture Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. Pieces of leaves of plantlets C. cinerariefolium used as explants for formation of callus tissue. To grow the callus, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used with addition of various concentrations of growth regulators 2.4-D, and kinetin. For multiplication, callus subcultured on similar medium. Callus that had formed, especially brown callus, further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum (GCMS). Before analyzed callus was extracted in 95% ethanol. The result showed that callus potentially generate secondary metabolite are brown and friable. Based on these parameters, the best callus produced from leaf explants grown on MS medium with the addition of 4 mg / L 2,4-D and 0 mg / L kinetin. The callus contain secondary metabolites such as some of the flavonoid quercetin precursors such as acetic acid and tetrahydroxychalcone, and some other secondary metabolites.

  16. A set of nearest neighbor parameters for predicting the enthalpy change of RNA secondary structure formation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi John; Turner, Douglas H; Mathews, David H

    2006-01-01

    A complete set of nearest neighbor parameters to predict the enthalpy change of RNA secondary structure formation was derived. These parameters can be used with available free energy nearest neighbor parameters to extend the secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences to temperatures other than 37 degrees C. The parameters were tested by predicting the secondary structures of sequences with known secondary structure that are from organisms with known optimal growth temperatures. Compared with the previous set of enthalpy nearest neighbor parameters, the sensitivity of base pair prediction improved from 65.2 to 68.9% at optimal growth temperatures ranging from 10 to 60 degrees C. Base pair probabilities were predicted with a partition function and the positive predictive value of structure prediction is 90.4% when considering the base pairs in the lowest free energy structure with pairing probability of 0.99 or above. Moreover, a strong correlation is found between the predicted melting temperatures of RNA sequences and the optimal growth temperatures of the host organism. This indicates that organisms that live at higher temperatures have evolved RNA sequences with higher melting temperatures.

  17. Monitoring Single-Stranded DNA Secondary Structure Formation by Determining the Topological State of DNA Catenanes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xingguo; Kuhn, Heiko; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D.

    2006-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) has essential biological functions during DNA replication, recombination, repair, and transcription. The structure of ssDNA must be better understood to elucidate its functions. However, the available data are too limited to give a clear picture of ssDNA due to the extremely capricious structural features of ssDNA. In this study, by forming DNA catenanes and determining their topology (the linking number, Lk) through the electrophoretic analysis, we demonstrate that the studies of catenanes formed from two ssDNA molecules can yield valuable new information about the ssDNA secondary structure. We construct catenanes out of two short (60/70 nt) ssDNA molecules by enzymatic cyclization of linear oligodeoxynucleotides. The secondary structure formed between the two DNA circles determines the topology (the Lk value) of the constructed DNA catenane. Thus, formation of the secondary structure is experimentally monitored by observing the changes of linking number with sequences and conditions. We found that the secondary structure of ssDNA is much easier to form than expected: the two strands in an internal loop in the folded ssDNA structure prefer to braid around each other rather than stay separately forming a loop, and a duplex containing only mismatched basepairs can form under physiological conditions. PMID:16461397

  18. Influence of fuel ethanol content on primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential for a modern flex-fuel gasoline vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonen, Hilkka; Karjalainen, Panu; Saukko, Erkka; Saarikoski, Sanna; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Simonen, Pauli; Murtonen, Timo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Bloss, Matthew; Ahlberg, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Pagels, Joakim; Brune, William H.; Keskinen, Jorma; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Hillamo, Risto; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-04-01

    The effect of fuel ethanol content (10, 85 and 100 %) on primary emissions and on subsequent secondary aerosol formation was investigated for a Euro 5 flex-fuel gasoline vehicle. Emissions were characterized during a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a comprehensive set-up of high time-resolution instruments. A detailed chemical composition of the exhaust particulate matter (PM) was studied using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), and secondary aerosol formation was studied using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. For the primary gaseous compounds, an increase in total hydrocarbon emissions and a decrease in aromatic BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) compounds was observed when the amount of ethanol in the fuel increased. In regard to particles, the largest primary particulate matter concentrations and potential for secondary particle formation was measured for the E10 fuel (10 % ethanol). As the ethanol content of the fuel increased, a significant decrease in the average primary particulate matter concentrations over the NEDC was found. The PM emissions were 0.45, 0.25 and 0.15 mg m-3 for E10, E85 and E100, respectively. Similarly, a clear decrease in secondary aerosol formation potential was observed with a larger contribution of ethanol in the fuel. The secondary-to-primary PM ratios were 13.4 and 1.5 for E10 and E85, respectively. For E100, a slight decrease in PM mass was observed after the PAM chamber, indicating that the PM produced by secondary aerosol formation was less than the PM lost through wall losses or the degradation of the primary organic aerosol (POA) in the chamber. For all fuel blends, the formed secondary aerosol consisted mostly of organic compounds. For E10, the contribution of organic compounds containing oxygen increased from 35 %, measured for primary organics, to 62 % after the PAM chamber. For E85, the contribution of organic compounds containing oxygen increased from 42 % (primary) to 57

  19. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that

  20. Molecular modeling of the structural and dynamical properties of secondary plant cell walls: influence of lignin chemistry.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Landry; Mazeau, Karim

    2012-04-12

    A modeling of lignified secondary plant cell walls adapted to grass has been achieved, using molecular dynamics for time up to 180 ns, applied to systems composed of cellulose, xylan, water, and lignin. The overall model, which was 70 nm thick for a volume of 74.4 nm(3), consisted of two crystalline cellulose layers, each being two molecules deep, separated by an interlayer space where the three other components were located. Whereas the cellulose and xylan chemistry was fixed, 18 lignin systems were considered that varied not only in guaiacyl, syringyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl composition, but also in chain length, linkage types, and the presence or absence of coumaryl units. The stabilized models showed a well-defined interface between xylan and cellulose, but some interpenetration of xylan into the lignin part of the models. A survey of the 18 models showed that their lignin component was amorphous and that their density profile was very variable and essentially model dependent. This variability was also reflected in the co-orientation of the lignin phenyl rings with respect to the cellulose surfaces, some systems showing some orientation whereas others did not. The pattern of void distribution accessible to water varied from one system to the next, but the overall void volume was systematically established at around 3%, accepting around 200 water molecules. The estimated mobility of the water molecules interacting with lignin was 1.5 times greater than that interacting with carbohydrates.

  1. Contribution of secondary condensable organics to new particle formation: A case study in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Collins, Don; Li, Guohui

    2006-08-01

    We report aerosol simulations using the EPA's Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) and ground-based and aircraft aerosol measurements to investigate new particle formation in Houston, Texas. The aerosol measurements reveal elevated ultrafine particles that reach the highest value in the afternoon, indicating prominent new particle formation. Simulations of the binary H2SO4-H2O nucleation predict an order of magnitude lower concentrations for aerosols near 10 nm than the measurements. A parameterized nucleation scheme that accounts for the enhanced nucleation effect of secondary condensable organics is incorporated into the Models-3/CMAQ. The organic nucleation scheme predicts the number concentrations in agreement with the measurements during the daytime. The diurnal variation is well reproduced in the simulations including the organic nucleation scheme. Comparison with the aircraft measurements also shows that the organic nucleation scheme produces good predictions of the altitude-dependent number size distributions of the ultrafine particles. The results corroborate the importance of secondary condensable organics in new particle formation when sulfate and organics are abundant.

  2. Contribution of methyl group to secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijie; Qi, Li; Cocker, David R.

    2017-02-01

    The complete atmospheric oxidation pathways leading to secondary organic aerosol remain elusive for aromatic compounds including the role of methyl substitutes on oxidation. This study investigates the contribution of methyl group to Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation during the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons under low NOx condition by applying methyl carbon labeled aromatic hydrocarbons ((13C2) m-xylene and (13C2) p-xylene). Particle and gas phase oxidation products are analyzed by a series of mass spectrometers (HR-TOF-AMS, PTR-MS and SIFT-MS). The methyl group carbon containing oxidation products partition to the particle-phase at a lower rate than the carbons originating from the aromatic ring as a result of ring opening reactions. Further, the methyl carbon in the original aromatic structure is at least 7 times less likely to be oxidized when forming products that partition to SOA than the aromatic ring carbon. Therefore, oxidation of the methyl group in xylenes exerts little impact on SOA formation in current study. This study provides supporting evidence for a recent finding - a similarity in the SOA formation and composition from aromatic hydrocarbons regardless of the alkyl substitutes.

  3. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Felipe; Haroth, Sven; Feussner, Kirstin; Meldau, Dorothea; Rekhter, Dmitrij; Ischebeck, Till; Brodhun, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl)-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4) and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite. PMID:27907207

  4. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Eng, Felipe; Haroth, Sven; Feussner, Kirstin; Meldau, Dorothea; Rekhter, Dmitrij; Ischebeck, Till; Brodhun, Florian; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl)-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4) and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite.

  5. Formation mechanism of the secondary building unit in a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu Cantu, David; McGrail, B. Peter; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2014-09-18

    Based on density functional theory calculations and simulation, a detailed mechanism is presented on the formation of the secondary building unit (SBU) of MIL-101, a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework (MOF). SBU formation is key to MOF nucleation, the rate-limiting step in the formation process of many MOFs. A series of reactions that lead to the formation of the SBU of MIL-101 is proposed in this work. Initial rate-limiting reactions form the metal cluster with three chromium (III) atoms linked to a central bridging oxygen. Terephthalate linkers play a key role as chromium (III) atoms are joined to linker carboxylate groups prior to the placement of the central bridging oxygen. Multiple linker addition reactions, which follow in different paths due to structural isomers, are limited by the removal of water molecules in the first chromium coordination shell. The least energy path is identified were all linkers on one face of the metal center plane are added first. A simple kinetic model based on transition state theory shows the rate of secondary building unit formation similar to the rate metal-organic framework nucleation. The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Rousseau for a critical reading of the manuscript. This research would not have been possible without the support of the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the PNNL Institutional Computing (PIC) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-03-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plume of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI project, an intensive campaign was launched in the Greater Paris Region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind the Paris region. Slopes of the plume OA levels vs. Ox (= O3 + NO2) show secondary OA (SOA) formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. Simulated and observed slopes are in good agreement, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields are used in the Volatility-Basis-Set scheme implemented into the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggest that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. Since OA within the plume is mainly formed from anthropogenic precursors (VOC and primary OA, POA), this work allows a specific evaluation of anthropogenic SOA and SOA formed from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatile VOCs (SI-SOA) formation scheme in a model. For specific plumes, this anthropogenic OA build-up can reach about 10 μg m-3. For the average of the month of July 2009, maximum increases occur close to the agglomeration for primary OA are noticed at several tens (for POA) to hundred (for SI-SOA) kilometers of distance from the Paris agglomeration.

  7. Modelling non-equilibrium secondary organic aerosol formation and evaporation with the aerosol dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multilayer model ADCHAM

    SciTech Connect

    Roldin, P.; Eriksson, A. C.; Nordin, E. Z.; Hermansson, E.; Mogensen, Ditte; Rusanen, A.; Boy, Michael; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Zelenyuk, Alla; Pagels, J.

    2014-08-11

    We have developed the novel Aerosol Dynamics, gas- and particle- phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM). The model combines the detailed gas phase Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2, an aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module (which considers acid catalysed oligomerization, heterogeneous oxidation reactions in the particle phase and non-ideal interactions between organic compounds, water and inorganic ions) and a kinetic multilayer module for diffusion limited transport of compounds between the gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk phase. In this article we describe and use ADCHAM to study: 1) the mass transfer limited uptake of ammonia (NH3) and formation of organic salts between ammonium (NH4+) and carboxylic acids (RCOOH), 2) the slow and almost particle size independent evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, and 3) the influence of chamber wall effects on the observed SOA formation in smog chambers.

  8. A model of formative assessment practice in secondary science classrooms using an audience response system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Melissa L.

    Formative assessment involves the probing of students' ideas to determine their level of understanding during the instructional sequence. Often conceptualized as a cycle, formative assessment consists of the teacher posing an instructional task to students, collecting data about student understanding, and engaging in follow-up strategies such as clarifying student understanding and adjusting instruction to meet learning needs. Despite having been shown to increase student achievement in a variety of classroom settings, formative assessment remains a relative weak area of teacher practice. Methods that enhance formative assessment strategies may therefore have a positive effect on student achievement. Audience response systems comprise a broad category of technologies that support richer classroom interaction and have the potential to facilitate formative assessment. Results from a large national research study, Classroom Connectivity in Promoting Mathematics and Science Achievement (CCMS), show that students in algebra classrooms where the teacher has implemented a type of audience response system experience significantly higher achievement gains compared to a control group. This suggests a role for audience response systems in promoting rich formative assessment. The importance of incorporating formative assessment strategies into regular classroom practice is widely recognized. However, it remains challenging to identify whether rich formative assessment is occurring during a particular class session. This dissertation uses teacher interviews and classroom observations to develop a fine-grained model of formative assessment in secondary science classrooms employing a type of audience response system. This model can be used by researchers and practitioners to characterize components of formative assessment practice in classrooms. A major component of formative assessment practice is the collection and aggregation of evidence of student learning. This dissertation

  9. Dynamics and predictability of secondary eyewall formation in sheared tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuqing; Tao, Dandan; Sun, Y. Qiang; Kepert, Jeffrey D.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the predictability and dynamics of tropical cyclone (TC) secondary eyewall formation (SEF), eyewall replacement cycles (ERC), and intensity changes under moderate environmental shear through convection-permitting ensemble simulations. Even with the same environmental shear, the TC intensity changes during formation, rapid intensification, and SEF/ERC can be extremely sensitive to small, unobservable, random initial condition uncertainties, or computer's truncation error due to the chaotic nature of moist convection. Through composite analysis of five ensemble members with similar clear SEF/ERC and diagnostics with a nonlinear boundary layer (BL) model, we identify several key factors in the SEF/ERC process: (1) fast expansion of outer wind fields and changing inertial stability through shear-induced peripheral convection outside of the primary eyewall, (2) downward building and axisymmetrization of the primary (outer) rainband due to enhanced inertial stability and positive feedback between BL and outer convection, (3) establishment of the secondary eyewall along with moat formation that is facilitated by compensating subsidence from the primary eyewall, and (4) weakening and eventual replacement of the original primary eyewall by the strengthening secondary eyewall. It is also seen from the partial ERC cases that the preexisting rainband can be of great importance to the later development of SEF. Diagnosis with the nonlinear BL model shows that the location and relative strengths of the diagnosed frictional updrafts closely match those in the ensemble simulation of the ERC case, suggesting that the boundary layer convergence substantially influences the location of the convection in both eyewalls there.

  10. Seed Regeneration Potential of Canopy Gaps at Early Formation Stage in Temperate Secondary Forests, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiao-Ling; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Promoting the seed regeneration potential of secondary forests undergoing gap disturbances is an important approach for achieving forest restoration and sustainable management. Seedling recruitment from seed banks strongly determines the seed regeneration potential, but the process is poorly understood in the gaps of secondary forests. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of gap size, seed availability, and environmental conditions on the seed regeneration potential in temperate secondary forests. It was found that gap formation could favor the invasion of more varieties of species in seed banks, but it also could speed up the turnover rate of seed banks leading to lower seed densities. Seeds of the dominant species, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, were transient in soil and there was a minor and discontinuous contribution of the seed bank to its seedling emergence. For Quercus mongolica, emerging seedling number was positively correlated with seed density in gaps (R = 0.32, P<0.01), especially in medium and small gaps (<500 m2). Furthermore, under canopies, there was a positive correlation between seedling number and seed density of Acer mono (R = 0.43, P<0.01). Gap formation could promote seedling emergence of two gap-dependent species (i.e., Q. mongolica and A. mono), but the contribution of seed banks to seedlings was below 10% after gap creation. Soil moisture and temperature were the restrictive factors controlling the seedling emergence from seeds in gaps and under canopies, respectively. Thus, the regeneration potential from seed banks is limited after gap formation. PMID:22745771

  11. Secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone-initiated reactions with nicotine and secondhand tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Destaillats, Hugo; Smith, Jared D.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Gundel, Lara A.

    2010-11-01

    We used controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the aerosol-forming potential of ozone reactions with nicotine and secondhand smoke. Special attention was devoted to real-time monitoring of the particle size distribution and chemical composition of SOA as they are believed to be key factors determining the toxicity of SOA. The experimental approach was based on using a vacuum ultraviolet photon ionization time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (VUV-AMS), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and off-line thermal desorption coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) for gas-phase byproducts analysis. Results showed that exposure of SHS to ozone induced the formation of ultrafine particles (<100 nm) that contained high molecular weight nitrogenated species ( m/ z 400-500), which can be due to accretion/acid-base reactions and formation of oligomers. In addition, nicotine was found to contribute significantly (with yields 4-9%) to the formation of secondary organic aerosol through reaction with ozone. The main constituents of the resulting SOA were tentatively identified and a reaction mechanism was proposed to elucidate their formation. These findings identify a new component of thirdhand smoke that is associated with the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) through oxidative aging of secondhand smoke. The significance of this chemistry for indoor exposure and health effects is highlighted.

  12. Lithologic Control on Secondary Clay Mineral Formation in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Dhakal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transformation of rock to soil is central to landscape evolution and ecosystem function. The objective of this study was to examine controls on secondary mineral formation in a forested catchment in the Catalina-Jemez CZO. We hypothesized landscape position controls the type of secondary minerals formed in that well-drained hillslopes favor Si-poor secondary phases such as kaolinite, whereas poorly drained portions of the landscape that collect solutes from surrounding areas favor formation of Si-rich secondary phases such as smectite. The study focused on a catchment in Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico where soils are derived from a mix of rhyolitic volcanic material, vegetation includes a mixed conifer forest, and climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of ~800 mm yr-1 and mean annual temperature of 4.5°C. Soils were collected at the soil-saprolite boundary from three landscape positions, classified as well drained hillslope, poorly drained convergent area, and poorly drained hill slope. Clay fractions were isolated and analyzed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and thermal analysis. Quantitative XRD of random powder mounts indicated the presence of both primary phases such as quartz, and alkali and plagioclase feldspars, and secondary phases that include illite, Fe-oxyhydroxides including both goethite and hematite, kaolinite, and smectite. The clay fractions were dominated by smectite ranging from 36-42%, illite ranging from 21-35%, and kaolinite ranging from 1-8%. Qualitative XRD of oriented mounts confirmed the presence of smectite in all samples, with varying degrees of interlayering and interstratification. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicated that secondary mineral assemblage was not strongly controlled by landscape position, but rather varied with underlying variation in lithology. The catchment is underlain by a combination of porphorytic rhyolite and

  13. Induction of secondary axis in hydra revisited: New insights into pattern formation

    PubMed Central

    Kadu, Vishal; S. Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2012-01-01

    In 1909, several years before the famous `Organizer’ experiments of Spemann and Mangold, Ethel Browne demonstrated induction of a secondary axis in hydra by grafting a hypostome. Based on this and subsequent work, in the late sixties, Lewis Wolpert proposed the theory of morphogen gradients and positional information. We have studied secondary axis induction by hypostome and foot tissue using three species of hydra as well as transgenic, GFP-expressing lines of hydra. We have found that pieces of hypostome and complete foot of a donor hydra can induce a secondary axis all along (in upper, middle or lower parts of) the body column of a host hydra, both within and across species with comparable rates. Thus, contrary to the available literature, our results show that the host hypostome does not completely inhibit the induction of a secondary axis. The length of the induced axis though is determined by the position of the graft. By using GFP-expressing lines of hydra we have demonstrated that host ectodermal and endodermal cells actively contribute to the secondary axis. On comparison, the hypostome was found to be a stronger and dominant Organizer than the foot. Foot grafting experiments show a transient increase in the host length as well as the distance between the two Organizers. The length becomes normal once the grafted foot reaches the budding zone. Our work brings out several new aspects of the role of positional cues in pattern formation in hydra that can be now be explored at cellular and molecular levels. PMID:24551754

  14. The popliteal artery, an unusual muscular artery with wall properties similar to the aorta: implications for susceptibility to aneurysm formation?

    PubMed

    Debasso, R; Astrand, H; Bjarnegård, N; Rydén Ahlgren, A; Sandgren, T; Länne, T

    2004-04-01

    The popliteal artery is, after the aorta, the most common site for aneurysm formation. Why the popliteal artery is more susceptible than other peripheral muscular arteries is unknown. An important factor may be differences in arterial wall composition as compared with other peripheral muscular arteries, which in turn affect wall properties. These are however unknown. We studied the mechanical wall properties of the popliteal artery in healthy subjects. An ultrasound echo-tracking system was used to measure pulsatile changes in popliteal diameter in 108 healthy subjects (56 female, 52 male; age range, 9-82 years). In combination with blood pressure, stiffness (beta), strain, cross-sectional artery wall compliance coefficient (CC), and distensibility coefficient (DC) were calculated. Intima-media thickness (IMT) was registered with a Philips P700 ultrasound scanner. The popliteal diameter increased with age, and was larger in male subjects than in female subjects (P<.001). Fractional diameter change (strain) decreased with age (P<.001), and strain values were lower in male subjects than in female subjects (P<.01). Accordingly, stiffness increased with age (P<.001), with higher stiffness values in male subjects (P<.01). DC decreased with age (P<.001), with lower DC values in male subjects (P<.01). CC decreased with age, with no difference between genders (P<.001). IMT increased with age (P<.001), with higher IMT values in male subjects (P<.001). The increase in IMT did not affect distensibility. The wall properties of the popliteal artery are affected by age and gender, not only with an increase in diameter, but also with an age-related decrease in distensibility, with male subjects having lower distensibility than in female subjects. This seems not to be the behavior of a true muscular artery, but of a central elastic artery, such as the aorta, and might have implications for susceptibility to arterial dilatation, as well as the association of aneurysm formation

  15. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chhabra, P. S.; Loza, C. L.; Crounse, J. D.; Yee, L. D.; Flagan, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde) under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN) as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232) is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(O)OONO2) formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios (3-8), the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOx photooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  16. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chhabra, P. S.; Loza, C. L.; Crounse, J. D.; Yee, L. D.; Flagan, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde) under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN) as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232) is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(O)OONO2) formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios, the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOxphotooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  17. The Arabidopsis domain of unknown function 1218 (DUF1218) containing proteins, MODIFYING WALL LIGNIN-1 and 2 (At1g31720/MWL-1 and At4g19370/MWL-2) function redundantly to alter secondary cell wall lignin content

    DOE PAGES

    Mewalal, Ritesh; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Coetzee, Berdine; ...

    2016-03-01

    DUF1218 is a land plant-specific innovation and has previously been shown to be associated with cell wall biology, vasculature patterning and abiotic/biotic stress response. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 15 members, two of which (At1g31720 and At4g27435) are preferentially expressed in the secondary cell wall depositing inflorescence stems. To further our understanding of the roles of DUF1218-containing proteins in secondary cell wall biology, we functionally characterized At1g31720 (herein referred to as MODIFYING WALL LIGNIN-1 or MWL-1). Since related gene family members may contribute to functional redundancy, we also characterized At4g19370 (MWL-2), the most closely related gene to MWL-1 in the proteinmore » family. Subcellular localization revealed that both Arabidopsis proteins are targeted to the cell periphery. The single T-DNA knockout lines, mwl-1 and mwl-2, and independent overexpression lines showed no significant differences in plant growth or changes in total lignin content relative to wild-type (WT) control plants. However, the double homozygous mutant, mwl-1/mwl-2, had smaller rosettes with a significant decrease in rosette fresh weight and stem height relative to the WT control at four weeks and six weeks, respectively. Moreover, mwl-1/mwl-2 showed a significant reduction in total lignin content (by ca. 11% relative to WT) and an increase in syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) monomer ratio relative to the control plants. Lastly, our study has identified two additional members of the DUF1218 family in Arabidopsis as novel contributors to secondary cell wall biology, specifically lignin biosynthesis, and these proteins appear to function redundantly.« less

  18. [ROLE OF LEPTIN IN THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY AMENORRHEA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS].

    PubMed

    Levenets, S A; Nachotova, T A; Kashkalda, D A

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the role of leptin in the formation of secondary amenorrhea (SA) during puberty, 78 girls aged from 13 to 17 years with SA and 74 girls of the same age with regular menstrual cycle have been examined with the estimation of body mass index (BMI) and hormonal/metabolic state. The obtained data show a strong connection between leptin level, BMI and parameters of energetic metabolic state (insulin; HOMA index); regression analysis results indicated the participation of leptin in steroidogenesis. Odds ratio (OR) values indicated an important role of leptin in the formation of SA during body weight deficit and normal BMI. It has been found that various clinical types of SA have different patterns of leptin influence.

  19. Gasoline emissions dominate over diesel in formation of secondary organic aerosol mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; Brock, C. A.; Stark, H.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, W. P.; Gilman, J. B.; Hall, K.; Holloway, J. S.; Kuster, W. C.; Perring, A. E.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Szidat, S.; Wagner, N. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zotter, P.; Parrish, D. D.

    2012-03-01

    Although laboratory experiments have shown that organic compounds in both gasoline fuel and diesel engine exhaust can form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the fractional contribution from gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions to ambient SOA in urban environments is poorly known. Here we use airborne and ground-based measurements of organic aerosol (OA) in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin, California made during May and June 2010 to assess the amount of SOA formed from diesel emissions. Diesel emissions in the LA Basin vary between weekdays and weekends, with 54% lower diesel emissions on weekends. Despite this difference in source contributions, in air masses with similar degrees of photochemical processing, formation of OA is the same on weekends and weekdays, within the measurement uncertainties. This result indicates that the contribution from diesel emissions to SOA formation is zero within our uncertainties. Therefore, substantial reductions of SOA mass on local to global scales will be achieved by reducing gasoline vehicle emissions.

  20. Modelling non-equilibrium secondary organic aerosol formation and evaporation with the aerosol dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multilayer model ADCHAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldin, P.; Eriksson, A. C.; Nordin, E. Z.; Hermansson, E.; Mogensen, D.; Rusanen, A.; Boy, M.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Zelenyuk, A.; Pagels, J.

    2014-08-01

    We have developed the novel Aerosol Dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM). The model combines the detailed gas-phase Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCMv3.2), an aerosol dynamics and particle-phase chemistry module (which considers acid-catalysed oligomerization, heterogeneous oxidation reactions in the particle phase and non-ideal interactions between organic compounds, water and inorganic ions) and a kinetic multilayer module for diffusion-limited transport of compounds between the gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk phase. In this article we describe and use ADCHAM to study (1) the evaporation of liquid dioctyl phthalate (DOP) particles, (2) the slow and almost particle-size-independent evaporation of α-pinene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, (3) the mass-transfer-limited uptake of ammonia (NH3) and formation of organic salts between ammonium (NH4+) and carboxylic acids (RCOOH), and (4) the influence of chamber wall effects on the observed SOA formation in smog chambers. ADCHAM is able to capture the observed α-pinene SOA mass increase in the presence of NH3(g). Organic salts of ammonium and carboxylic acids predominantly form during the early stage of SOA formation. In the smog chamber experiments, these salts contribute substantially to the initial growth of the homogeneously nucleated particles. The model simulations of evaporating α-pinene SOA particles support the recent experimental findings that these particles have a semi-solid tar-like amorphous-phase state. ADCHAM is able to reproduce the main features of the observed slow evaporation rates if the concentration of low-volatility and viscous oligomerized SOA material at the particle surface increases upon evaporation. The evaporation rate is mainly governed by the reversible decomposition of oligomers back to monomers. Finally, we demonstrate that the mass-transfer-limited uptake of condensable organic compounds

  1. Composition and secondary formation of fine particulate matter in the Salt Lake Valley: winter 2009.

    PubMed

    Kuprov, Roman; Eatough, Delbert J; Cruickshank, Tyler; Olson, Neal; Cropper, Paul M; Hansen, Jaron C

    2014-08-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), put in place as a result of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, three regions in the state of Utah are in violation of the NAAQS for PM10 and PM2.5 (Salt Lake County, Ogden City, and Utah County). These regions are susceptible to strong inversions that can persist for days to weeks. This meteorology, coupled with the metropolitan nature of these regions, contributes to its violation of the NAAQS for PM during the winter. During January-February 2009, 1-hr averaged concentrations of PM10-2.5, PM2.5, NO(x), NO2, NO, O3, CO, and NH3 were measured. Particulate-phase nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate and gas-phase HONO, HNO3, and SO2 were also measured on a 1-hr average basis. The results indicate that ammonium nitrate averages 40% of the total PM2.5 mass in the absence of inversions and up to 69% during strong inversions. Also, the formation of ammonium nitrate is nitric acid limited. Overall, the lower boundary layer in the Salt Lake Valley appears to be oxidant and volatile organic carbon (VOC) limited with respect to ozone formation. The most effective way to reduce ammonium nitrate secondary particle formation during the inversions period is to reduce NO(x) emissions. However, a decrease in NO(x) will increase ozone concentrations. A better definition of the complete ozone isopleths would better inform this decision. Implications: Monitoring of air pollution constituents in Salt Lake City, UT, during periods in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the NAAQS, reveals that secondary aerosol formation for this region is NO(x) limited. Therefore, NO(x) emissions should be targeted in order to reduce secondary particle formation and PM2.5. Data also indicate that the highest concentrations of sulfur dioxide are associated with winds from the north-northwest, the location of several small refineries.

  2. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions impact secondary aerosol formation in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirardo, A.; Xie, J.; Zheng, X.; Wang, Y.; Grote, R.; Block, K.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Hallquist, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Schnitzler, J.-P.

    2015-08-01

    Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs) and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs) from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on an inventory of BVOC emissions and the tree census, we assessed the potential impact of BVOCs on secondary particulate matter formation in 2005 and 2010, i.e., before and after realizing the large tree-planting program for the 2008 Olympic Games. We found that sBVOCs, such as fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids and sesquiterpenes, constituted a significant fraction (∼ 15 %) of the total annual BVOC emissions, and we estimated that the overall annual BVOC budget may have doubled from ∼ 3.6 × 109 g C year-1 in 2005 to ∼ 7.1 × 109 g C year-1 in 2010 due to the increase in urban greens, while at the same time, the emission of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs) could be lowered by 24 %. Based on our BVOC emission assessment, we estimated the biological impact on SOA mass formation in Beijing. Compared to AVOCs, the contribution of biogenic precursors (2-5 %) for secondary particulate matter in Beijing was low. However, sBVOCs can significantly contribute (∼ 40 %) to the formation of total secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic sources; apparently, their annual emission increased from 1.05 μg m-3 in 2005 to 2.05 μg m-3 in 2010. This study demonstrates that biogenic and, in particular, sBVOC emissions contribute to SOA formation in megacities. However, the main problems regarding air quality in Beijing still originate from anthropogenic activities. Nevertheless, the present survey suggests that in urban plantation programs, the selection of plant species with low cBVOC and sBVOC emission potentials have some possible beneficial effects on urban air quality.

  3. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis of 2-carene and 3-carene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellouki, A.; Chen, H.; Bernard, F.; Cazaunau, M.; Grosselin, B.; Daele, V.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The atmospheric degradation of terpenes in the remote areas such as those with coniferous forests is known to lead to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. 2-carene and 3-carene have been reported to be present in number of such areas. Hence, their oxidation may represent an important source of secondary organic aerosols in some specific regions. 2-carene and 3-carene possess a structure of endocyclic double bonds which make them reactive toward ozone under atmospheric conditions. We have conducted a study on the reactions of ozone with 2-carene and 3-carene using a flow reactor dedicated to the investigation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The reactor is equipped with an ozone generator and a movable injector which allows the reaction to occur within a short time range (typically 17 - 48 seconds). This enables us to investigate the initial steps of the SOA formation. In a first series of experiments, we have determined the rate constant for the reaction of ozone with 3-carene under pseudo-first-order conditions. The rate constant value measured was 3.8 x 10-17 molecule-1s-1, at 298 K, in agreement with the literatures and simulation chamber experiments. We have then investigated the SOA formation from the ozonolysis of 2-carene and 3-carene. By adjusting the residence time and initial concentration of carenes and ozone, number concentration of SOA have been measured for short reactions times and low concentrations of reactants. Nucleation thresholds of 2-carene and 3-carene were extracted from the plots of log N = f(Δ[Carenes]).

  4. Formation of hydroxyl radicals from photolysis of secondary organic aerosol material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badali, K. M.; Zhou, S.; Aljawhary, D.; Antiñolo, M.; Chen, W. J.; Lok, A.; Mungall, E.; Wong, J. P. S.; Zhao, R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-07-01

    This paper demonstrates that OH radicals are formed by photolysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material formed by terpene ozonolysis. The SOA is collected on filters, dissolved in water containing a radical trap (benzoic acid), and then exposed to ultraviolet light in a photochemical reactor. The OH formation rates, which are similar for both α-pinene and limonene SOA, are measured from the formation rate of p-hydroxybenzoic acid as measured using offline HPLC analysis. To evaluate whether the OH is formed by photolysis of H2O2 or organic hydroperoxides (ROOH), the peroxide content of the SOA was measured using the horseradish peroxidase-dichlorofluorescein (HRP-DCF) assay, which was calibrated using H2O2. The OH formation rates from SOA are 5 times faster than from the photolysis of H2O2 solutions whose concentrations correspond to the peroxide content of the SOA solutions, assuming that the HRP-DCF signal arises from H2O2 alone. The higher rates of OH formation from SOA are likely due to ROOH photolysis, but we cannot rule out a contribution from secondary processes as well. This result is substantiated by photolysis experiments conducted with t-butyl hydroperoxide and cumene hydroperoxide which produce over 3 times more OH than photolysis of equivalent concentrations of H2O2. Relative to the peroxide level in the SOA and assuming that the peroxides drive most of the ultraviolet absorption, the quantum yield for OH generation from α-pinene SOA is 0.8 ± 0.4. This is the first demonstration of an efficient photolytic source of OH in SOA, one that may affect both cloud water and aerosol chemistry.

  5. Identifying new lignin bioengineering targets: 1. Monolignol-substitute impacts on lignin formation and cell wall fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant biotechnology efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols, but in the future apoplastic targeting of phenolics from other metabolic pathways may provide new approaches for designing lignins that are less inhibitory toward the enzymatic hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides, both with and without biomass pretreatment. To identify promising new avenues for lignin bioengineering, we artificially lignified cell walls from maize cell suspensions with various combinations of normal monolignols (coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols) plus a variety of phenolic monolignol substitutes. Cell walls were then incubated in vitro with anaerobic rumen microflora to assess the potential impact of lignin modifications on the enzymatic degradability of fibrous crops used for ruminant livestock or biofuel production. Results In the absence of anatomical constraints to digestion, lignification with normal monolignols hindered both the rate and extent of cell wall hydrolysis by rumen microflora. Inclusion of methyl caffeate, caffeoylquinic acid, or feruloylquinic acid with monolignols considerably depressed lignin formation and strikingly improved the degradability of cell walls. In contrast, dihydroconiferyl alcohol, guaiacyl glycerol, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate readily formed copolymer-lignins with normal monolignols; cell wall degradability was moderately enhanced by greater hydroxylation or 1,2,3-triol functionality. Mono- or diferuloyl esters with various aliphatic or polyol groups readily copolymerized with monolignols, but in some cases they accelerated inactivation of wall-bound peroxidase and reduced lignification; cell wall degradability was influenced by lignin content and the degree of ester group hydroxylation

  6. Identifying new lignin bioengineering targets: 1. Monolignol-substitute impacts on lignin formation and cell wall fermentability.

    PubMed

    Grabber, John H; Schatz, Paul F; Kim, Hoon; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John

    2010-06-17

    Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant biotechnology efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols, but in the future apoplastic targeting of phenolics from other metabolic pathways may provide new approaches for designing lignins that are less inhibitory toward the enzymatic hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides, both with and without biomass pretreatment. To identify promising new avenues for lignin bioengineering, we artificially lignified cell walls from maize cell suspensions with various combinations of normal monolignols (coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols) plus a variety of phenolic monolignol substitutes. Cell walls were then incubated in vitro with anaerobic rumen microflora to assess the potential impact of lignin modifications on the enzymatic degradability of fibrous crops used for ruminant livestock or biofuel production. In the absence of anatomical constraints to digestion, lignification with normal monolignols hindered both the rate and extent of cell wall hydrolysis by rumen microflora. Inclusion of methyl caffeate, caffeoylquinic acid, or feruloylquinic acid with monolignols considerably depressed lignin formation and strikingly improved the degradability of cell walls. In contrast, dihydroconiferyl alcohol, guaiacyl glycerol, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate readily formed copolymer-lignins with normal monolignols; cell wall degradability was moderately enhanced by greater hydroxylation or 1,2,3-triol functionality. Mono- or diferuloyl esters with various aliphatic or polyol groups readily copolymerized with monolignols, but in some cases they accelerated inactivation of wall-bound peroxidase and reduced lignification; cell wall degradability was influenced by lignin content and the degree of ester group hydroxylation. Overall

  7. Secondary structure formations of conotoxin genes: a possible role in mediating variability.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Kalyan Kumar

    2006-10-20

    Small venomous peptides called conotoxins produced by the predatory marine snail (genus Conus) present an interesting case for mutational studies. They have a high degree of amino acid variability among them yet they possess highly conserved structural elements that are defined by cysteine residues forming disulfide bridges along the length of the mature peptide. It has been observed that codons specifying these cysteines are also highly conserved. It is unknown how such codon conservation is maintained within the mature conotoxin gene since this entire region undergoes an accelerated rate of mutation. There is evidence suggesting that nucleic acids wield some influence in mechanisms that dictate the region and frequency where mutations occur in DNA. Nucleic acids exert this effect primarily through secondary structures that bring about local peaks and troughs in the energy relief of these transient formations. Secondary structure predictions of several conotoxin genes were analyzed to see if there was any correspondence between the highly variable regions of the conotoxin. Regions of the DNA encompassing the conserved Cys codons (and several other conserved amino acid codons) have been found to correspond to predicted secondary structures of higher stabilities. In stark contrast the regions of the conotoxin that have a higher degree of variation correlate to regions of lower stability. This striking co-relation allows for a simple model of inaccessibility of a mutator to these highly conserved regions of the conotoxin gene allowing them a relative degree of resistance towards change.

  8. A secondary antibody format chemiluminescence immunoassay for the determination of estradiol in human serum.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tian-Bing; Chen, Hui; Lin, Zhen; Liang, Shu-Xuan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2010-09-15

    A competitive immunoassay for estradiol (E2) based on secondary antibody format was established. The donkey anti-rabbit IgG was used as the secondary antibody to coat micro-plates, and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-H(2)O(2) chemiluminescent system with high sensitivity was chosen as the detection system. The addition of sodium trichloroacetate (CCl(3)COONa) in the enzyme buffer as a replaceable packing material can realize directly analysis of E2 in human serum without extraction, which improved reproducibility and resolution of the assay. Additionally, the method showed specific recognition of estrogen, without cross-reaction for the major steroids (estrone (E1), estriol (E3), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione, testosterone (T)) commonly found in human serum. The chemiluminescence immunoassay with secondary antibody can be applied to detect E2 with good precision at concentrations as low as 1.48 pg mL(-1). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of E2 in 97 human sera and showed a good correlation compared with the commercially radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit with a correlative coefficient of 0.9881. This method has exhibited great potential in the fabrication of diagnostic kit and can be used in the clinical analysis of E2 in human serum.

  9. N-nitrosamines formation from secondary amines by nitrogen fixation on the surface of activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh P; Hertzberg, Benjamin; Yushin, Gleb; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that many commercial activated carbon (AC) particles may catalyze transformation of secondary amines to yield trace levels of N-nitrosamines under ambient aerobic conditions. Because of the widespread usage of AC materials in numerous analytical and environmental applications, it is imperative to understand the reaction mechanism responsible for formation of nitrosamine on the surface of ACs to minimize their occurrence in water treatment systems and during analytical methods employing ACs. The study results show that the AC-catalyzed nitrosamine formation requires both atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. AC's surface reactive sites react with molecular oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS), which facilitate fixation of molecular nitrogen on the carbon surfaces to generate reactive nitrogen species (RNS) likely nitrous oxide and hydroxylamine that can react with adsorbed amines to form nitrosamines. AC's properties play a crucial role as more nitrosamine formation is associated with carbon surfaces with higher surface area, more surface defects, reduced surface properties, higher O(2) uptake capacity, and higher carbonyl group content. This study is a first of its kind on the nitrosamine formation mechanism involving nitrogen fixation on AC surfaces, and the information will be useful for minimization of nitrosamines in AC-based processes.

  10. Secondary organic aerosol formation from cyclohexene ozonolysis in the presence of water vapor and dissolved salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Bethany; Malloy, Quentin G. J.; Yee, Lindsay D.; Cocker, David R.

    A series of 90 experiments were conducted in the UC Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber to evaluate the impact of water vapor and dissolved salts on secondary organic aerosol formation for cyclohexene ozonolysis. Water vapor (low - 30 ± 2% RH, medium - 46 ± 2% RH, high - 63 ± 2% RH) was found to directly participate in the atmospheric chemistry altering the composition of the condensing species, thus increasing total organic aerosol formation by ˜22% as compared to the system under dry (<0.1% RH) conditions. Hygroscopicity measurements also indicate that the organic aerosol composition is altered in the presence of gaseous water. These results are consistent with water vapor reacting with the crigee intermediate in the gas phase resulting in increased aldehyde formation. The addition of dissolved salts ((NH 4) 2SO 4, NH 4HSO 4, CaCl 2, NaCl) had minimal effect; only the (NH 4) 2SO 4 and NaCl were found to significantly impact the system with ˜10% increase in total organic aerosol formation. These results indicate that the organics may be partitioning to an outer organic shell as opposed to into the aqueous salt. Hygroscopicity measurements indicate that the addition of salts does not alter the aerosol composition for the dry or water vapor system.

  11. Aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol and organosulfate formation in atmospheric aerosols: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    McNeill, V Faye; Woo, Joseph L; Kim, Derek D; Schwier, Allison N; Wannell, Neal J; Sumner, Andrew J; Barakat, Joseph M

    2012-08-07

    We have examined aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and organosulfate (OS) formation in atmospheric aerosols using a photochemical box model with coupled gas-phase chemistry and detailed aqueous aerosol chemistry. SOA formation in deliquesced ammonium sulfate aerosol is highest under low-NO(x) conditions, with acidic aerosol (pH = 1) and low ambient relative humidity (40%). Under these conditions, with an initial sulfate loading of 4.0 μg m(-3), 0.9 μg m(-3) SOA is predicted after 12 h. Low-NO(x) aqueous-aerosol SOA (aaSOA) and OS formation is dominated by isoprene-derived epoxydiol (IEPOX) pathways; 69% or more of aaSOA is composed of IEPOX, 2-methyltetrol, and 2-methyltetrol sulfate ester. 2-Methyltetrol sulfate ester comprises >99% of OS mass (66 ng m(-3) at 40% RH and pH 1). In urban (high-NO(x)) environments, aaSOA is primarily formed via reversible glyoxal uptake, with 0.12 μg m(-3) formed after 12 h at 80% RH, with 20 μg m(-3) initial sulfate. OS formation under all conditions studied is maximum at low pH and lower relative humidities (<60% RH), i.e., when the aerosol is more concentrated. Therefore, OS species are expected to be good tracer compounds for aqueous aerosol-phase chemistry (vs cloudwater processing).

  12. Modeling Photosensitized Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Laboratory and Ambient Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Tsui, William G; Rao, Yi; Dai, Hai-Lung; McNeill, V Faye

    2017-07-05

    Photosensitized reactions involving imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) have been experimentally observed to contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth. However, the extent of photosensitized reactions in ambient aerosols remains poorly understood and unaccounted for in atmospheric models. Here we use GAMMA 4.0, a photochemical box model that couples gas-phase and aqueous-phase aerosol chemistry, along with recent laboratory measurements of the kinetics of IC photochemistry, to analyze IC-photosensitized SOA formation in laboratory and ambient settings. Analysis of the laboratory results of Aregahegn et al. (2013) suggests that photosensitized production of SOA from limonene, isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and toluene by (3)IC* occurs at or near the surface of the aerosol particle. Reactive uptake coefficients were derived from the experimental data using GAMMA 4.0. Simulations of aqueous aerosol SOA formation at remote ambient conditions including IC photosensitizer chemistry indicate less than 0.3% contribution to SOA growth from direct reactions of (3)IC* with limonene, isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and toluene, and an enhancement of less than 0.04% of SOA formation from other precursors due to the formation of radicals in the bulk aerosol aqueous phase. Other, more abundant photosensitizer species, such as humic-like substances (HULIS), may contribute more significantly to aqueous aerosol SOA production.

  13. Chamber studies to simulate secondary organic aerosol formation from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daumit, K. E.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Williams, L. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    Because atmospheric organic species are generally emitted from a large number of sources, over wide spatial and temporal scales, it is generally challenging to ascribe ambient organic aerosol (OA) to the oxidation of specific secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors. However, the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill (April 20-July 15, 2010), provided the unique circumstance of a large, well-defined source of gas-phase organics introduced into a relatively clean atmosphere. Here we describe a laboratory simulation of SOA formation downwind of the DWH spill, via the oxidation of South Louisiana-light (SL) crude oil by OH radicals in an environmental chamber. Intermediate and semi-volatile fractions of the SL crude oil are vaporized and oxidized by gas-phase OH radicals (formed from the photolysis of HONO). The chemical composition is monitored as a function of OH exposure. When OH exposures are approximately matched, laboratory-generated SOA and OA measured downwind of the oil spill exhibit extremely similar aerosol mass spectra, in strong support of the hypothesis that the OA measured downwind of the DWH oil spill was secondary in nature. More generally, this agreement indicates that in cases when SOA precursors are well-constrained, chamber experiments can reasonably reproduce key properties of ambient OA. Results of chamber studies on sub-fractions of the SL crude oil, aimed at identifying the classes of oil components most responsible for SOA formation, will be discussed.

  14. Heterogeneous Chemistry of Carbonyls and Alcohols With Sulfuric Acid: Implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Levitt, N.; Zhang, R.

    2006-12-01

    Recent environmental chamber studies have suggested that acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions of organic carbonyls lead to multifold increases in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass and acid-catalyzed reactions between alcohols and aldehydes in the condensed phase lead to the formation of hemiacetals and acetals, also enhancing secondary organic aerosol growth. The kinetics and mechanism of the heterogeneous chemistry of carbonyls and alcohols with sulfuric acid, however, remain largely uncertain. In this talk, we present measurements of heterogeneous uptake of several carbonyls and alcohols on liquid H2SO4 in a wide range of acid concentrations and temperatures. The results indicate that uptake of larger carbonyls is explained by aldol condensation. For small dicarbonyls, heterogeneous reactions are shown to decrease with acidity and involve negligible formation of sulfate esters. Hydration and polymerization likely explain the measured uptake of such small dicarbonyls on H2SO4 and the measurements do not support an acid- catalyzed uptake. Atmospheric implications from our findings will be discussed.

  15. Effect of Biodentine on secondary caries formation: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Özgül, Betül Memis; Tirali, R Ebru; Cehreli, S Burcak

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of two materials, Biodentine and conventional glass-ionomer cement (CGIC), on secondary caries formation around restorations when used as a dentin replacement material. 30 approximal cavities were prepared on mesial and distal surfaces of 15 caries-free human premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons. Cavities were filled with A: Biodentine as a base + Filtek Z250 composite (n = 15) or B: CGIC as a base + Filtek Z250 composite (n = 15). The materials were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. Teeth were thermocycled, and placed in a demineralizing solution for 5 weeks. Secondary caries formation was assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II and quantitative computer- aided image measurement of caries depth. The computer-aided measurements showed that the Biodentine group had significantly lower lesion depth measurements than the CGIC group (P = 0.004). However, there was no significant difference among the groups based on the ICDAS II scores (P > 0.05).

  16. Modeling the influence of alkane molecular structure on secondary organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Aumont, Bernard; Camredon, Marie; Mouchel-Vallon, Camille; La, Stéphanie; Ouzebidour, Farida; Valorso, Richard; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Madronich, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) production and ageing is a multigenerational oxidation process involving the formation of successive organic compounds with higher oxidation degree and lower vapor pressure. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds (IVOC) emitted to the atmosphere are expected to be a substantial source of SOA. These emitted IVOC constitute a complex mixture including linear, branched and cyclic alkanes. The explicit gas-phase oxidation mechanisms are here generated for various linear and branched C10-C22 alkanes using the GECKO-A (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) and SOA formation is investigated for various homologous series. Simulation results show that both the size and the branching of the carbon skeleton are dominant factors driving the SOA yield. However, branching appears to be of secondary importance for the particle oxidation state and composition. The effect of alkane molecular structure on SOA yields appears to be consistent with recent laboratory observations. The simulated SOA composition shows, however, an unexpected major contribution from multifunctional organic nitrates. Most SOA contributors simulated for the oxidation of the various homologous series are far too reduced to be categorized as highly oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). On a carbon basis, the OOA yields never exceeded 10% regardless of carbon chain length, molecular structure or ageing time. This version of the model appears clearly unable to explain a large production of OOA from alkane precursors.

  17. Ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjing; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major precursors for ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), both of which greatly harm human health and significantly affect the Earth's climate. We simultaneously estimated ozone and SOA formation from anthropogenic VOCs emissions in China by employing photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) values and SOA yields. We gave special attention to large molecular species and adopted the SOA yield curves from latest smog chamber experiments. The estimation shows that alkylbenzenes are greatest contributors to both ozone and SOA formation (36.0% and 51.6%, respectively), while toluene and xylenes are largest contributing individual VOCs. Industry solvent use, industry process and domestic combustion are three sectors with the largest contributions to both ozone (24.7%, 23.0% and 17.8%, respectively) and SOA (22.9%, 34.6% and 19.6%, respectively) formation. In terms of the formation potential per unit VOCs emission, ozone is sensitive to open biomass burning, transportation, and domestic solvent use, and SOA is sensitive to industry process, domestic solvent use, and domestic combustion. Biomass stoves, paint application in industrial protection and buildings, adhesives application are key individual sources to ozone and SOA formation, whether measured by total contribution or contribution per unit VOCs emission. The results imply that current VOCs control policies should be extended to cover most important industrial sources, and the control measures for biomass stoves should be tightened. Finally, discrepant VOCs control policies should be implemented in different regions based on their ozone/aerosol concentration levels and dominant emission sources for ozone and SOA formation potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Incremental Reactivity Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Urban Atmospheres with and without Biogenic Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacarab, Mary; Li, Lijie; Carter, William P. L.; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-04-01

    Two different surrogate mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were developed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at atmospheric reactivities similar to urban regions with varying biogenic influence levels. Environmental chamber simulations were designed to enable the study of the incremental aerosol formation from select anthropogenic (m-Xylene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, and 1-Methylnaphthalene) and biogenic (α-pinene) precursors under the chemical reactivity set by the two different surrogate mixtures. The surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were based on that used to develop the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) factors for evaluation of O3 forming potential. Multiple incremental aerosol formation experiments were performed in the University of California Riverside (UCR) College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) dual 90m3 environmental chambers. Incremental aerosol yields were determined for each of the VOCs studied and compared to yields found from single precursor studies. Aerosol physical properties of density, volatility, and hygroscopicity were monitored throughout experiments. Bulk elemental chemical composition from high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data will also be presented. Incremental yields and SOA chemical and physical characteristics will be compared with data from previous single VOC studies conducted for these aerosol precursors following traditional VOC/NOx chamber experiments. Evaluation of the incremental effects of VOCs on SOA formation and properties are paramount in evaluating how to best extrapolate environmental chamber observations to the ambient atmosphere and provides useful insights into current SOA formation models. Further, the comparison of incremental SOA from VOCs in varying surrogate urban atmospheres (with and without strong biogenic influence) allows for a unique perspective on the impacts

  19. Secondary Reaction Zone Formations in coated Ni-base Single Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Rae, C. M. F.

    2009-05-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) has been added to the latest 4th Generation Ni-base superalloys to improve phase stability and modify creep life. Various coatings are routinely applied to these advanced alloys to protect the turbine blade at elevated temperature, however, this creates several problems such as the precipitation of brittle Topologically Close-Packed (TCP) phases and the formation of Secondary Reaction Zones (SRZ). The SRZ forms under the plat-aluminized coating of turbine blades and consists of γ, γ and TCP phases growing into substrate by the migration of high-angle grain boundaries. Surface residual stress and chemical super-saturation of alloying elements are associated to SRZ formation. In the thin sections of high-pressure turbine blades this is critical in determining blade performance and longevity. It is essential to know how Ru additions affect coating and SRZ morphologies during exposure. In this study, we focus on the effects of three variables on the SRZ formation: Ru concentration, alloy composition in Ru-containing alloys and surface finish. A series of Platinum-Aluminised superalloys containing 2-5wt% Ru and having various surface finishes was studied after isothermal exposure at 1100°C for up to 500h. The alloys were classified into two groups by their distinctive SRZ morphology. At the lowest Ru levels sporadic formation of SRZ was observed, whilst a continuous SRZ was formed in the higher Ru alloys. EBSD analysis revealed that the latter group have a higher nucleation rate of individual SRZ grains and also showed more rapid SRZ growth. The precipitation of TCPs in the substrate also inhibited the growth of the SRZ towards the end of the exposure further reducing the penetration of the SRZ into the substrate. It is concluded that Ru-additions to Ni-base superalloys are effective in impeding TCP phase formation in the substrate, but increase both the extent and the rate of SRZ formation beneath coating.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of nitrogenous aerosols in Northeast Asia: biological sources and secondary formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, C. M.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P. Q.

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the sources of nitrogenous aerosols, particularly water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) and water-insoluble organic nitrogen (WION), in Northeast Asia, we measured total nitrogen (TN) and water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) as well as nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of TN (δ15NTN) and WSTN (δ15NWSTN) in the total suspended particles (TSP) collected from Sapporo, northern Japan for one-year period. In general, WION was more abundant (126 ± 117 ng m-3) whereas WSON (89.7 ± 80.6 ng m-3), accounting for 14 ± 11% and 9.2 ± 7.3% of TN, respectively. WSON peaked in late autumn to winter (maximum 288 ng m-3) and WION peaked in mid spring to early summer (454 ng m-3). δ15NTN (21.9 ± 4.1‰) and δ15NWSTN (25.8 ± 8.2‰) showed peaks in summer with relatively high ratios in late autumn. Based on the seasonal variations of WSON and WION together with organic tracers, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning are found to be two major sources of WSON whereas emissions of biological particles and secondary formation by reactions of biogenic secondary organic species (carbonyls) with NH3 are suggested as important source of WION. The seasonality of δ15NTN and δ15NWSTN, together with the comparisons to literature values, implies that chemical aging (including gas/particle partitioning) and biomass burning are the causes of the enhanced values in summer and autumn, respectively. This study demonstrates that contributions of aerosol N from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning dominate in autumn/winter whereas emission of terrestrial biological particles and secondary formation from biogenic hydrocarbons and subsequent chemical aging in the atmosphere are important in spring/summer in Northeast Asia.

  1. Atmospheric chemistry of nitrogenous aerosols in northeastern Asia: biological sources and secondary formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, C. M.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P. Q.

    2015-09-01

    To better understand the sources of nitrogenous aerosols, particularly water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) and water-insoluble organic nitrogen (WION), in northeastern Asia, we measured total nitrogen (TN) and water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) as well as nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of TN (δ15NTN) and WSTN (δ15NWSTN) in the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected from Sapporo, northern Japan, for a 1-year period. In general, WION was more abundant (126 ± 117 ng m-3), whereas WSON was 89.7 ± 80.6 ng m-3, accounting for 14 ± 11 % and 9.2 ± 7.3 % of TN, respectively. WSON peaked in late autumn to winter (maximum 288 ng m-3) and WION peaked in mid-spring to early summer (454 ng m-3). δ15NTN (21.9 ± 4.1 ‰) and δ15NWSTN (25.8 ± 8.2 ‰) showed peaks in summer with relatively high ratios in late autumn. Based on the seasonal variations in WSON and WION together with organic tracers, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning are found to be two major sources of WSON, whereas emissions of biological particles and secondary formation by reactions of biogenic secondary organic species (carbonyls) with NH3 are suggested as an important source of WION. The seasonality of δ15NTN and δ15NWSTN, together with the comparisons to literature values, implies that chemical aging (including gas-particle partitioning) and biomass burning are the causes of the enhanced values in summer and autumn, respectively. This study demonstrates that contributions of aerosol N from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning dominate in autumn and/or winter, whereas emission of terrestrial biological particles and secondary formation from biogenic hydrocarbons and subsequent chemical aging in the atmosphere are important in spring and/or summer in northeastern Asia.

  2. Secondary chaotic terrain formation in the higher outflow channels of southern circum-Chryse, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Kargel, J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.; Crown, D.A.; Berman, D.C.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Furfaro, R.; Candelaria, P.; Sasaki, S.

    2011-01-01

    Higher outflow channel dissection in the martian region of southern circum-Chryse appears to have extended from the Late Hesperian to the Middle Amazonian Epoch. These outflow channels were excavated within the upper 1. km of the cryolithosphere, where no liquid water is expected to have existed during these geologic epochs. In accordance with previous work, our examination of outflow channel floor morphologies suggests the upper crust excavated by the studied outflow channels consisted of a thin (a few tens of meters) layer of dry geologic materials overlying an indurated zone that extends to the bases of the investigated outflow channels (1. km in depth). We find that the floors of these outflow channels contain widespread secondary chaotic terrains (i.e., chaotic terrains produced by the destruction of channel-floor materials). These chaotic terrains occur within the full range of outflow channel dissection and tend to form clusters. Our examination of the geology of these chaotic terrains suggests that their formation did not result in the generation of floods. Nevertheless, despite their much smaller dimensions, these chaotic terrains are comprised of the same basic morphologic elements (e.g., mesas, knobs, and smooth deposits within scarp-bound depressions) as those located in the initiation zones of the outflow channels, which suggests that their formation must have involved the release of ground volatiles. We propose that these chaotic terrains developed not catastrophically but gradually and during multiple episodes of nested surface collapse. In order to explain the formation of secondary chaotic terrains within zones of outflow channel dissection, we propose that the regional Martian cryolithosphere contained widespread lenses of volatiles in liquid form. In this model, channel floor collapse and secondary chaotic terrain formation would have taken place as a consequence of instabilities arising during their exhumation by outflow channel dissection

  3. Formation of secondary organic aerosol and oligomers from the ozonolysis of enol ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadezky, A.; Chaimbault, P.; Mellouki, A.; Römpp, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Le Bras, G.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2006-10-01

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol has been observed in the gas phase ozonolysis of a series of enol ethers, among them several alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE, ROCH=CH2), such as ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, t-butyl vinyl ether, and ethyl propenyl ether (EPE, C2H5OCH=CHCH3). The ozonolysis has been studied in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at ambient pressure (730 Torr) and room temperature (296 K). Gas phase reaction products were investigated by in-situ FTIR spectroscopy, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was monitored by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The chemical composition of the formed SOA was analysed by a hybrid mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI). The main stable gas phase reaction product is the respective alkyl formate ROC(O)H, formed with yields of 60 to 80%, implying that similar yields of the corresponding excited Criegee Intermediates (CI) CH2O2 for the AVE and CH3CHO2 for EPE are generated. Measured SOA yields are between 2 to 4% for all enol ethers. Furthermore, SOA formation is strongly reduced or suppressed by the presence of an excess of formic acid, which acts as an efficient CI scavenger. Chemical analysis of the formed SOA by ESI(+)/MS-TOF allows to identify oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as its major constituents. Repetitive chain units are identified as CH2O2 (mass 46) for the AVE and C2H4O2 (mass 60) for EPE and thus have the same chemical compositions as the respective major Criegee Intermediates formed during ozonolysis of these ethers. The oligomeric structure and chain unit identity are confirmed by HPLC/ESI(+)/MS-TOF and ESI(+)/MS/MS-TOF experiments, whereby successive and systematic loss of a fragment with mass 46 for the AVE (and mass 60 for EPE) is observed. It is proposed that the oligomer has the following basic structure of an oligoperoxide, -[CH(R)-O-O]n-, where R=H for the AVE and R=CH3 for the EPE. Oligoperoxide formation is thus suggested to be another, so

  4. Formation of secondary organic aerosol and oligomers from the ozonolysis of enol ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadezky, A.; Chaimbault, P.; Mellouki, A.; Römpp, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Le Bras, G.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2006-06-01

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol has been observed in the gas phase ozonolysis of a series of enol ethers, among them several alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE, ROCH=CH2), such as ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, t-butyl vinyl ether, and ethyl propenyl ether (EPE, C2H5OCH=CHCH3). The ozonolysis has been studied in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric pressure (730 Torr) and temperature (296 K). Gas phase reaction products were investigated by in-situ FTIR spectroscopy, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was monitored by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The chemical composition of the formed SOA was analysed by a hybrid mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI). The main stable gas phase reaction product is the respective alkyl formate ROC(O)H, formed with yields of 60 to 80%, implying that similar yields of the corresponding Criegee Intermediates (CI) CH2O2 for the AVE and CH3CHO2 for EPE are generated. Measured SOA yields are between 2 to 4% for all enol ethers. Furthermore, SOA formation is strongly reduced or suppressed by the presence of an excess of formic acid, which acts as an efficient CI scavenger. Chemical analysis of the formed SOA by ESI(+)/MS-TOF allows to identify oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as its major constituents. Repetitive chain units are identified as CH2O2 (mass 46) for the AVE and C2H4O2 (mass 60) for EPE and thus have the same chemical compositions as the respective major Criegee Intermediates formed during ozonolysis of these ethers. The oligomeric structure and chain unit identity are confirmed by HPLC/ESI(+)/MS-TOF and ESI(+)/MS/MS-TOF experiments, whereby successive and systematic loss of a fragment with mass 46 for the AVE (and mass 60 for EPE) is observed. It is proposed that the oligomer has the following basic structure of an oligoperoxide, -[CH(R)-O-O]n-, where R=H for the AVE and R=CH3 for the EPE. Oligoperoxide formation is thus suggested to be another, so far

  5. 3rd hand smoking; heterogeneous oxidation of nicotine and secondary aerosol formation in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren; Dubowski, Yael

    2010-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is well known as a significant source of primary indoor air pollutants. However, only recently has it been recognized that the impact of Tobacco smoking may continue even after the cigarette has been extinguished (i.e., third hand smoke) due to the effect of indoor surfaces. These surfaces may affect the fate of tobacco smoke in the form of secondary reactions and pollutants, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) in tandem with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizing (SMPS) system was used to monitor the ozonation of cellulose sorbed nicotine and resulting SOA formation. SOA formation began at onset of ozone introduction ([O3] = 60 ± 5 ppb) with a size distribution of dp ≤ 25 nm, and was determined to be a result of heterogeneous reaction (opposed to homogeneous). SOA yield from reacted surface nicotine was on the order of 10 %. Simultaneous to SOA monitoring, FTIR-ATR spectra showed surface changes in the nicotine film as the reaction progressed, revealing a pseudo first-order surface reaction rate of 0.0026 ± 0.0008 min-1. Identified surface oxidation products included: cotinine, myosmine, methylnicotinamide and nicotyrine. Surface reaction rate was found to be partially inhibited at high relative humidity. Given the toxicity of some of the identified products (e.g., cotinine has shown potential mutagenicity and teratogenicity) and that small particles may contribute to adverse health effects, the present study indicates that exposure to 3rd hand smoke ozonation products may pose additional health risks.

  6. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Peng, Zhe; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-03-01

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic

  7. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; ...

    2016-03-08

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed formore » semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m–3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m–3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (>10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small

  8. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation of Tailpipe Emissions from On-road Gasoline Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lambe, A. T.; Saleh, R.; Saliba, G.; Drozd, G.; Maldonado, H.; Sardar, S.; Frodin, B.; Russell, L. M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Robinson, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    On-road gasoline vehicles are a major source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in urban areas. We tested a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles using a cold-start unified cycle on the dynamometer to investigate SOA formation from the OH radical oxidation of gasoline vehicle tailpipe emissions using a smog chamber and a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor. These vehicles were recruited from California in-use on-road vehicles and covered a wide range of emission standards, including Super Ultra-Low Emission vehicles (SULEVs) that meet the most stringent emission standard. The PAM reactor complements the smog chamber by enabling us to characterize SOA production from the oxidation of gasoline vehicular exhaust over longer OH exposure times. Comprehensive chemical analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in tailpipe emissions from gasoline vehicles has been carried out to determine SOA precursors, including intermediate volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds. We observed less SOA production from newer, lower NMHC emitting vehicles compared to older, higher-emitting vehicles. No SOA production was observed for SULEV vehicles during smog chamber experiments, but SOA production for SULEV vehicles was about a factor of 4 greater than primary organic aerosol in the PAM reactor. In addition, we have investigated the SOA formation potential and the composition of SOA under a range of conditions, including organic aerosol concentrations, SOA precursor concentrations and OH exposure, by comparing the SOA formation in the smog chamber to the PAM reactor. Our measurements of SOA formation and characterization of NMHCs identify the major classes of SOA precursors and determine the effectiveness of the tightening of emission standards to reduce SOA. Our results will significantly improve our understanding of SOA formation in the atmosphere.

  9. Chemistry of secondary organic aerosol: Formation and evolution of low-volatility organics in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Jesse H.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2008-05-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), particulate matter composed of compounds formed from the atmospheric transformation of organic species, accounts for a substantial fraction of tropospheric aerosol. The formation of low-volatility (semivolatile and possibly nonvolatile) compounds that make up SOA is governed by a complex series of reactions of a large number of organic species, so the experimental characterization and theoretical description of SOA formation presents a substantial challenge. In this review we outline what is known about the chemistry of formation and continuing transformation of low-volatility species in the atmosphere. The primary focus is chemical processes that can change the volatility of organic compounds: (1) oxidation reactions in the gas phase, (2) reactions in the particle phase, and (3) continuing chemistry (in either phase) over several generations. Gas-phase oxidation reactions can reduce volatility by the addition of polar functional groups or increase it by the cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds; key branch points that control volatility are the initial attack of the oxidant, reactions of alkylperoxy (RO2) radicals, and reactions of alkoxy (RO) radicals. Reactions in the particle phase include oxidation reactions as well as accretion reactions, non-oxidative processes leading to the formation of high-molecular-weight species. Organic carbon in the atmosphere is continually subject to reactions in the gas and particle phases throughout its atmospheric lifetime (until lost by physical deposition or oxidized to CO or CO2), implying continual changes in volatility over the timescales of several days. The volatility changes arising from these chemical reactions must be parameterized and included in models in order to gain a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation.

  10. Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Formation from Hydroxyl Radical Oxidation and Ozonolysis of Monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Defeng; Kaminski, Martin; Schlag, Patrick; Fuchs, Hendrik; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Bohn, Birger; Haeseler, Rolf; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wang, Mingjin; Wegner, Robert; Wahner, Andreas; Mentel, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation and ozonolysis are the two major pathways of daytime biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) oxidation and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The pure OH oxidation of monoterpenes, an important biogenic VOC class, has seldom been investigated. In order to elucidate the importance of the reaction pathyways of the OH oxidation and ozonolysis and their roles in particle formation and growth, we investigated the particle formation of several common monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and limonene) in the large atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Juelich, Germany. The experiments were conducted for both OH dominant and pure ozonolysis case (in the presence of CO as OH scavenger) at ambient relevant conditions (low OA, low VOC and low NOx concentration). OH and ozone (O3) concentrations were measured so that the oxidation rates of OH and O3 with precursors were quantified. The particle formation and growth, aerosol yield, multi-generation reaction process and aerosol composition were analyzed. Pure ozonolysis generated a large amount of particles indicating ozonolysis plays an important role in particle formation as well as OH oxidation. In individual experiments, particle growth rates did not necessarily correlate with OH or O3 oxidation rates. However, comparing the growth rates at similar OH or O3 oxidation rates shows that generally, OH oxidation and ozonolysis have similar efficiency in particle growth. Multi-generation products are shown to be important in the OH oxidation experiment based on aerosol yield "growth curve" (Ng et al., 2006). The reaction process of OH oxidation experiments was analyzed as a function of OH dose to elucidate the role of functionalization and fragmentation. A novel analysis was developed to link the particle formation with the reaction with OH, which was also used to examine the role of functionalization and fragmentation in the particle formation by OH oxidation. These analyses show

  11. Cloud processing of organic compounds: Secondary organic aerosol and nitrosamine formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, James W., III

    Cloud processing of atmospheric organic compounds has been investigated through field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling. Observational cloud chemistry studies were performed in northern Arizona and fog studies in central Pennsylvania. At both locations, the cloud and fogs showed low acidity due to neutralization by soil dust components (Arizona) and ammonia (Pennsylvania). The field observations showed substantial concentrations (20-5500 ng•L -1) of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase with half lives of approximately three hours. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction kinetics decreased with increasing organic carbon content, resulting in half lives of approximately 7 hours. The secondary organic aerosol (SUA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX was evaluated. SOA mass formation by cloud processing of BTEX, while strongly dependent on the atmospheric conditions, could contribute up to 9% of the ambient atmospheric aerosol mass, although typically ˜1% appears realistic. Field observations also showed the occurrence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, in fogs and clouds (100-340 ng•L -1). Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the formation of NDMA from nitrous acid and dimethylamine in the homogeneous aqueous phase within cloud droplets. While NDMA was produced in the cloud droplets, the low yields (<1%) observed could not explain observational concentrations

  12. Primary sources and secondary formation of organic aerosols in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Hu, Min; Guo, Qingfeng; Zhang, Xin; Zheng, Mei; Zheng, Jun; Chang, Chih Chung; Schauer, James J; Zhang, Renyi

    2012-09-18

    Ambient aerosol samples were collected at an urban site and an upwind rural site of Beijing during the CAREBEIJING-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in BEIJING and surrounding region) summer field campaign. Contributions of primary particles and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were estimated by chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling and tracer-yield method. The apportioned primary and secondary sources explain 73.8% ± 9.7% and 79.6% ± 10.1% of the measured OC at the urban and rural sites, respectively. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) contributes to 32.5 ± 15.9% of the organic carbon (OC) at the urban site, with 17.4 ± 7.6% from toluene, 9.7 ± 5.4% from isoprene, 5.1 ± 2.0% from α-pinene, and 2.3 ± 1.7% from β-caryophyllene. At the rural site, the secondary sources are responsible for 38.4 ± 14.4% of the OC, with the contributions of 17.3 ± 6.9%, 13.9 ± 9.1%, 5.6 ± 1.9%, and 1.7 ± 1.0% from toluene, isoprene, α-pinene, and β-caryophyllene, respectively. Compared with other regions in the world, SOA in Beijing is less aged, but the concentrations are much higher; between the sites, SOA is more aged and affected by regional transport at the urban site. The high SOA loading in Beijing is probably attributed to the high regional SOC background (~2 μg m(-3)). The toluene SOC concentration is high and comparable at the two sites, implying that some anthropogenic components, at least toluene SOA, are widespread in Beijing and represents a major factor in affecting the regional air quality. The aerosol gaseous precursor concentrations and temperature correlate well with SOA, both affecting SOA formation. The significant SOA enhancement with increasing water uptake and acidification indicates that the aqueous-phase reactions are largely responsible SOA formation in Beijing.

  13. Constraints on Permeability Resulting from Secondary Porosity in the Burns Formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perl, S. M.; McLennan, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations by the MER rover Opportunity of the Burns Formation on the surface and within various craters on Meridiani Planum, using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) and Microscopic Imager (MI), revealed abundant void spaces within abraded sandstone outcrop targets interpreted to have formed by post-depositional mineral dissolution of primary depositional constituents. After deposition, multiple episodic events of groundwater recharge led to these constituents, primarily Mg-sulfates, chlorides, or other soluble ferrous sulfates, being dissolved - leaving behind secondary porosity. Elongate to sheet-like pores are aligned to bedding, but with vertical porous features allowing for connectivity of pore spaces, or throats, throughout much of the exposed stratigraphic section; the section itself being divided into three units in the vicinity of Endurance crater whose boundaries are controlled largely by the former presence of a fluctuating paleo-groundwater table. The boundary separating the Lower and Middle units (Wellington contact) formed as a groundwater-controlled deflation surface whereas the boundary separating the Middle and Upper units (Whatanga contact) is interpreted as a diagenetic front possibly associated with a stagnant water table. The timing, shape, volume, and quantity of secondary pore space provide important constraints on the genesis and history of diagenetic fluid-flow through these sedimentary rocks. Measurements of pore geometries indicate that three distinct pore classes can be defined with varying length/width ratios, shapes, abundances, and stratigraphic position. The infiltration history of these groundwater recharge cycles is likely related to the connectivity of secondary pores. After the original mineral dissolution, the vertical extent of the vadose zone probably decreased as the water table rose higher with each recharge cycle. Secondary pores that have been enlarged have only been found stratigraphically at the Whatanga contact exposed

  14. Secondary organic aerosol formation initiated by α-terpineol ozonolysis in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Waring, M S

    2016-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) owing to reactive organic gas (ROG) ozonolysis can be an important indoor particle source. However, SOA formation owing to ozonolysis of α-terpineol, which is emitted by consumer product usage and reacts strongly with ozone, has not been systematically quantified. Therefore, we conducted 21 experiments to investigate the SOA formation initiated by α-terpineol ozonolysis for high (0.84 h(-1) ), moderate (0.61 h(-1) ), and low (0.36 h(-1) ) air exchange rates (AER), which is the frequency with which indoor is replaced by outdoor air. α-Terpineol concentrations of 6.39 to 226 ppb were combined with high ozone (~25 ppm) to ensure rapid and complete ozonolysis. No reactants were replenished, so SOA peaked quickly and then decreased due to AER and surface losses, and peak SOA ranged from 2.03 to 281 μg/m(3) at unit density. SOA mass formation was parameterized with the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), a.k.a. the SOA yield, and AMFs ranged from 0.056 to 0.24. The AMFs strongly and positively correlated with reacted α-terpineol, whereas they weakly and negatively correlated with higher AERs. One-product, two-product, and volatility basis set (VBS) models were fit to the AMF data. Predictive modeling demonstrated that α-terpineol ozonolysis could meaningfully form SOA in indoor air.

  15. Secondary aerosol formation from the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons by chlorine atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xuyi; Griffin, Robert J.

    2006-07-01

    The chlorine atom (Cl) is a potential oxidant of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and is hypothesized to lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in coastal and industrialized areas. The purpose of this paper is to test this hypothesis and to quantify the SOA formation potentials of the common monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene, and d-limonene when oxidized by Cl in laboratory chamber experiments. Results indicate that the oxidation of these monoterpenes generates significant amounts of aerosol. The SOA yields of α-pinene, β-pinene, and d-limonene in this study are comparable to those when they are oxidized by ozone, by nitrate radical, and in photooxidation scenarios. For aerosol mass up to 30.0 μg m-3, their yields reach approximately 0.20, 0.20, and 0.30, respectively. For d-limonene, data indicate two yield curves that depend on the initial concentration ratio of Cl precursor to d-limonene. It is argued theoretically that multiple SOA yield curves may be common for VOCs, depending on the initial concentration ratio of oxidant to VOC. SOA formation from the three typical monoterpenes when oxidized by Cl in the marine boundary layer, coastal areas, and inland industrialized areas could be a source of organic aerosol in the early morning.

  16. Formation and evolution of molecular products in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; McVay, Renee C.; Huang, Dan D.; Dalleska, Nathan F.; Aumont, Bernard; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Much of our understanding of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from volatile organic compounds derives from laboratory chamber measurements, including mass yield and elemental composition. These measurements alone are insufficient to identify the chemical mechanisms of SOA production. We present here a comprehensive dataset on the molecular identity, abundance, and kinetics of α-pinene SOA, a canonical system that has received much attention owing to its importance as an organic aerosol source in the pristine atmosphere. Identified organic species account for ∼58–72% of the α-pinene SOA mass, and are characterized as semivolatile/low-volatility monomers and extremely low volatility dimers, which exhibit comparable oxidation states yet different functionalities. Features of the α-pinene SOA formation process are revealed for the first time, to our knowledge, from the dynamics of individual particle-phase components. Although monomeric products dominate the overall aerosol mass, rapid production of dimers plays a key role in initiating particle growth. Continuous production of monomers is observed after the parent α-pinene is consumed, which cannot be explained solely by gas-phase photochemical production. Additionally, distinct responses of monomers and dimers to α-pinene oxidation by ozone vs. hydroxyl radicals, temperature, and relative humidity are observed. Gas-phase radical combination reactions together with condensed phase rearrangement of labile molecules potentially explain the newly characterized SOA features, thereby opening up further avenues for understanding formation and evolution mechanisms of α-pinene SOA. PMID:26578760

  17. Interactions between SO2 oxidation and Secondary Organic Aerosol formation through Criegee intermediate chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Ye, J.; Abbatt, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ozonolysis of monoterpenes is an important source of atmospheric biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA). While enhanced BSOA formation has been repeatedly observed under sulfate-rich conditions in both field studies and laboratory experiments, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work, the effect of SO2 on BSOA formation from monoterpene ozonolysis was investigated. The role of stabilized Criegee biradicals (sCIs) generated from alkene ozonolysis on SO2 oxidation was examined under different humidity conditions (<5% vs. 50%). Experiments were conducted in a 1 m3 Teflon chamber. BSOA was produced from ozonolysis of a-pinene or limonene. SO2 concentration was injected at various levels ranging from 30 to 100 ppb. In all experiments, cyclohexane was used as OH scavenger and added at sufficient amount to minimize the influence from OH + monoterpenes reaction. SOA samples were collected for composition analysis. Preliminary results show that BSOA from monoterpene ozonolysis is significantly enhanced in the presence of SO2 under dry conditions. SOA enhancement increases with increasing the concentration of SO2. However, the enhancement became negligible as the conditions became more humid. Control experiments show that SO2 is consumed at timescales consistent with oxidation by sCIs indicating that gaseous SO2 interacts directly with reactive intermediates during monoterpene ozonolysis. Organosulfate formation is probed by electrospray ionization-ion mobility time of flight mass spectrometer (ESI-IMS/TOF). The effect of SO2 on ozonolysis mechanism and chemical composition will be discussed.

  18. Impact of NOx on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from β-pinene photooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Mehrnaz; Pullinen, Iida; Springer, Monika; Kleist, Einhard; Tillmann, Ralf; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Hastie, Donald R.; Wildt, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from atmospheric oxidation of volatile organics contributes substantially to the global aerosol load. It has been shown that odd nitrogen (NOx) has a significant influence on the formation of this SOA. In this study, we investigated SOA formation from β-pinene photooxidation in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC) under varying NOx conditions. At higher-NOx levels, the SOA yield was significantly suppressed by increasing the NOx concentration. However at lower-NOx levels the opposite trend, an increase in SOA with increasing NOx concentration, was observed. This increase was likely due to the increased OH concentration in the stirred flow reactor. By holding the OH concentration constant for all experiments we removed the potential effect of OH concentration on SOA mass growth. In this case increasing the NOx concentration only decreased the SOA yield. In addition, the impact of NOx on SOA formation was explored in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosols. This suggested that SOA yield was only slightly suppressed under increasing NOx concentrations when seed aerosol was present.

  19. Effect of Pellet Boiler Exhaust on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from α-Pinene.

    PubMed

    Kari, Eetu; Hao, Liqing; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Ari; Kortelainen, Miika; Grigonyte, Julija; Worsnop, Douglas R; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Sippula, Olli; Faiola, Celia L; Virtanen, Annele

    2017-02-07

    Interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and implications for aerosol production, have raised particular scientific interest. Despite active research in this area, real anthropogenic emission sources have not been exploited for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction studies until now. This work examines these interactions using α-pinene and pellet boiler emissions as a model test system. The impact of pellet boiler emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene photo-oxidation was studied under atmospherically relevant conditions in an environmental chamber. The aim of this study was to identify which of the major pellet exhaust components (including high nitrogen oxide (NOx), primary particles, or a combination of the two) affected SOA formation from α-pinene. Results demonstrated that high NOx concentrations emitted by the pellet boiler reduced SOA yields from α-pinene, whereas the chemical properties of the primary particles emitted by the pellet boiler had no effect on observed SOA yields. The maximum SOA yield of α-pinene in the presence of pellet boiler exhaust (under high-NOx conditions) was 18.7% and in the absence of pellet boiler exhaust (under low-NOx conditions) was 34.1%. The reduced SOA yield under high-NOx conditions was caused by changes in gas-phase chemistry that led to the formation of organonitrate compounds.

  20. Impacts of Sulfate Seed Acidity and Water Content on Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny P S; Lee, Alex K Y; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-11-17

    The effects of particle-phase water and the acidity of pre-existing sulfate seed particles on the formation of isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated. SOA was generated from the photo-oxidation of isoprene in a flow tube reactor at 70% relative humidity (RH) and room temperature in the presence of three different sulfate seeds (effloresced and deliquesced ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) under low NOx conditions. High OH exposure conditions lead to little isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) SOA being generated. The primary result is that particle-phase water had the largest effect on the amount of SOA formed, with 60% more SOA formation occurring with deliquesced ammonium sulfate seeds as compared to that on effloresced ones. The additional organic material was highly oxidized. Although the amount of SOA formed did not exhibit a dependence on the range of seed particle acidity examined, perhaps because of the low amount of IEPOX SOA, the levels of high-molecular-weight material increased with acidity. While the uptake of organics was partially reversible under drying, the results nevertheless indicate that particle-phase water enhanced the amount of organic aerosol material formed and that the RH cycling of sulfate particles may mediate the extent of isoprene SOA formation in the atmosphere.

  1. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alex K. Y.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Li, Shao-Meng; Sjostedt, Steve J.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Liggio, John; Macdonald, Anne Marie

    2016-06-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA-2), which were primarily generated by gas-phase oxidation of monoterpenes and perhaps sesquiterpenes. The temporal variations of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 can be explained by gas-particle partitioning in response to ambient temperature and the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night. While BSOA-1 arises from gas-phase ozonolysis and nitrate radical chemistry at night, BSOA-2 is likely less volatile than BSOA-1 and consists of products formed via gas-phase oxidation by OH radical and ozone during the day. Organic nitrates produced through nitrate radical chemistry can account for 22-33 % of BSOA-1 mass at night. The mass spectra of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 have higher values of the mass fraction of m/z 91 (f91) compared to the background organic aerosol. Using f91 to evaluate BSOA formation pathways in this unpolluted, forested region, heterogeneous oxidation of BSOA-1 is a minor production pathway of BSOA-2.

  2. Formation and evolution of molecular products in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; McVay, Renee C; Huang, Dan D; Dalleska, Nathan F; Aumont, Bernard; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-11-17

    Much of our understanding of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from volatile organic compounds derives from laboratory chamber measurements, including mass yield and elemental composition. These measurements alone are insufficient to identify the chemical mechanisms of SOA production. We present here a comprehensive dataset on the molecular identity, abundance, and kinetics of α-pinene SOA, a canonical system that has received much attention owing to its importance as an organic aerosol source in the pristine atmosphere. Identified organic species account for ∼58-72% of the α-pinene SOA mass, and are characterized as semivolatile/low-volatility monomers and extremely low volatility dimers, which exhibit comparable oxidation states yet different functionalities. Features of the α-pinene SOA formation process are revealed for the first time, to our knowledge, from the dynamics of individual particle-phase components. Although monomeric products dominate the overall aerosol mass, rapid production of dimers plays a key role in initiating particle growth. Continuous production of monomers is observed after the parent α-pinene is consumed, which cannot be explained solely by gas-phase photochemical production. Additionally, distinct responses of monomers and dimers to α-pinene oxidation by ozone vs. hydroxyl radicals, temperature, and relative humidity are observed. Gas-phase radical combination reactions together with condensed phase rearrangement of labile molecules potentially explain the newly characterized SOA features, thereby opening up further avenues for understanding formation and evolution mechanisms of α-pinene SOA.

  3. Impact of Propene on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from m-Xylene

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chen; Na, Kwangsam; Warren, Bethany; Malloy, Quentin; Cocker, David R.

    2007-10-15

    Propene is widely used in smog chamber experiments to increase the hydroxyl radical (OH) level based on the assumption that the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from parent hydrocarbon is unaffected. A series ofm-xylene/NOx photooxidation experiments were conducted in the presence of propene in the University of California CECERT atmospheric chamber facility. The experimental data are compared with previousm-xylene/NOx photooxidation work performed in the same chamber facility in the absence of propene (Song et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 3143-3149). The result shows that, for similar initial conditions, experiments with propene have lower reaction rates of m-xylene than those without propene, which indicates that propene reduces OH in the system. Furthermore, experiments with propene showed more than 15% reduction in SOA yield compared to experiments in the absence of propene. Additional experiments ofm-xylene/NOx with CO showed similar trends of suppressing OH and SOA formation. These results indicate that SOA from m-xylene/NOx photooxidation is strongly dependent on the OH level present, which provides evidence for the critical role of OH in SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons.

  4. Laboratory studies on secondary organic aerosol formation from crude oil vapors.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Palm, B B; Borbon, A; Graus, M; Warneke, C; Ortega, A M; Day, D A; Brune, W H; Jimenez, J L; de Gouw, J A

    2013-01-01

    Airborne measurements of aerosol composition and gas phase compounds over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 indicated the presence of high concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from organic compounds of intermediate volatility. In this work, we investigated SOA formation from South Louisiana crude oil vapors reacting with OH in a Potential Aerosol Mass flow reactor. We use the dependence of evaporation time on the saturation concentration (C*) of the SOA precursors to separate the contribution of species of different C* to total SOA formation. This study shows consistent results with those at the DWH oil spill: (1) organic compounds of intermediate volatility with C* = 10(5)-10(6) μg m(-3) contribute the large majority of SOA mass formed, and have much larger SOA yields (0.37 for C* = 10(5) and 0.21 for C* = 10(6) μg m(-3)) than more volatile compounds with C*≥10(7) μg m(-3), (2) the mass spectral signature of SOA formed from oxidation of the less volatile compounds in the reactor shows good agreement with that of SOA formed at DWH oil spill. These results also support the use of flow reactors simulating atmospheric SOA formation and aging.

  5. Mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling regulates palatal shelf elevation during secondary palate formation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Karuppaiah, Kannan; Ornitz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Palatal shelf elevation is an essential morphogenetic process during secondary palate closure and failure or delay of palatal shelf elevation is a common cause of cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Here, we studied the role of mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling during palate development by conditional inactivation of Fgfrs using a mesenchyme-specific Dermo1-Cre driver. We showed that Fgfr1 is expressed throughout the palatal mesenchyme and Fgfr2 is expressed in the medial aspect of the posterior palatal mesenchyme overlapping with Fgfr1. Mesenchyme-specific disruption of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 affected palatal shelf elevation and resulted in cleft palate. We further showed that both Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 are expressed in mesenchymal tissues of the mandibular process but display distinct expression patterns. Loss of mesenchymal FGFR signaling reduced mandibular ossification and lower jaw growth resulting in abnormal tongue insertion in the oral-nasal cavity. We propose a model to explain how redundant Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 expression in the palatal and mandibular mesenchyme regulates shelf medial wall protrusion and growth of the mandible to coordinate the craniofacial tissue movements that are required for palatal shelf elevation. PMID:26250517

  6. Mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling regulates palatal shelf elevation during secondary palate formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Karuppaiah, Kannan; Ornitz, David M

    2015-11-01

    Palatal shelf elevation is an essential morphogenetic process during secondary palate closure and failure or delay of palatal shelf elevation is a common cause of cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Here, we studied the role of mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling during palate development by conditional inactivation of Fgfrs using a mesenchyme-specific Dermo1-Cre driver. We showed that Fgfr1 is expressed throughout the palatal mesenchyme and Fgfr2 is expressed in the medial aspect of the posterior palatal mesenchyme overlapping with Fgfr1. Mesenchyme-specific disruption of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 affected palatal shelf elevation and resulted in cleft palate. We further showed that both Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 are expressed in mesenchymal tissues of the mandibular process but display distinct expression patterns. Loss of mesenchymal FGFR signaling reduced mandibular ossification and lower jaw growth resulting in abnormal tongue insertion in the oral-nasal cavity. We propose a model to explain how redundant Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 expression in the palatal and mandibular mesenchyme regulates shelf medial wall protrusion and growth of the mandible to coordinate the craniofacial tissue movements that are required for palatal shelf elevation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Secondary caries formation in vitro around glass ionomer-lined amalgam and composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, P; Kotsanos, N; Papadogianis, Y

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro secondary caries study was to examine the glass-ionomer liner's effect on wall-lesion inhibition when a conventional and a light-cured glass ionomer liner was placed under amalgam and composite resin restorations. Class V preparations in extracted upper premolars were used and ten restorations were used for each of the following groups: (i) two layers of copal varnish and amalgam; (ii) conventional glass-ionomer and amalgam; (iii) light-cured glass-ionomer and amalgam; (iv) bonding agent and light-cured composite resin; (v) conventional glass-ionomer, bonding agent and light-cured composite resin; (vi) light-cured glass-ionomer, extended 0.3 mm short of the enamel margin bonding agent and light-cured composite resin; and (vii) light-cured glass-ionomer, extended 1 mm short of the enamel margin, bonding agent and light-cured composite resin. The teeth were thermocycled and artificial caries were created using an acid-gel. The results of this study showed that artificial recurrent caries can be reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with a glass-ionomer liner under amalgam restorations. The results also showed that when the light-cured glass-ionomer liner was placed 0.3 mm from the cavosurface margin under composite resin restoration, the artificial recurrent caries reduced significantly (P < 0.05).

  8. ABORTED MICROSPORES Acts as a Master Regulator of Pollen Wall Formation in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Ding, Zhiwen; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Shi, Jianxin; Liang, Wanqi; Yuan, Zheng; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Schreiber, Lukas; Wilson, Zoe A.; Zhang, Dabing

    2014-01-01

    Mature pollen is covered by durable cell walls, principally composed of sporopollenin, an evolutionary conserved, highly resilient, but not fully characterized, biopolymer of aliphatic and aromatic components. Here, we report that ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) acts as a master regulator coordinating pollen wall development and sporopollenin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-wide coexpression analysis revealed 98 candidate genes with specific expression in the anther and 70 that showed reduced expression in ams. Among these 70 members, we showed that AMS can directly regulate 23 genes implicated in callose disso