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Sample records for sector mal drenado

  1. Mal de Debarquement

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Mal de debarquement (MdD), the “sickness of disembarkment,” occurs when habituation to background rhythmic movement becomes resistant to readaption to stable conditions and results in a phantom perception of self motion typically described as rocking, bobbing, or swaying. Although several studies have shown that brief periods of MdD are common in healthy individuals, this otherwise natural phenomenon can become persistent in some individuals and lead to severe balance problems. Increased recognition of MdD in a persistent pathological form occurred after the publication of a case series of six patients by Brown and Baloh in 1987. Over 20 years later, although more is known about the clinical syndrome of persistent MdD, little is known about what leads to this persistence. This review addresses the clinical features of MdD, the associated symptoms in the persistent form, theories on pathogenesis, experience with treatment, and future directions for research. PMID:19834863

  2. Overproduction of MalK protein prevents expression of the Escherichia coli mal regulon.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, M; Shuman, H A

    1988-01-01

    The mal regulon of Escherichia coli comprises a large family of genes whose function is the metabolism of linear maltooligosaccharides. Five gene products are required for the active accumulation of maltodextrins as large as maltoheptaose. Two cytoplasmic gene products are necessary and sufficient for the intracellular catabolism of these sugars. Two newly discovered enzymes have the capacity to metabolize these sugars but are not essential for their catabolism in wild-type cells. A single regulatory protein, MalT, positively regulates the expression of all of these genes in response to intracellular inducers, one of which has been identified as maltotriose. In the course of studying the mechanism of the transport system, we have placed the structural gene for one of the transport proteins, MalK, under the control of the Ptrc promoter to produce large amounts of this protein. We found that although high-level expression of MalK was not detrimental to E. coli, the increased amount of MalK decreased the basal-level expression of the mal regulon and prevented induction of the mal system even in the presence of external maltooligosaccharides. Constitutive mutants in which MalT does not depend on the presence of the internal inducer(s) were unaffected by the increased levels of the MalK protein. These results are consistent with the idea that MalK protein somehow interferes with the activity of the MalT protein. Different models for the regulatory function of MalK are discussed. Images PMID:3049541

  3. Regulation of the malic enzyme gene malE by the transcriptional regulator MalR in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Krause, Jens P; Polen, Tino; Youn, Jung-Won; Emer, Denise; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-06-15

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive nonpathogenic bacterium that is used for the biotechnological production of amino acids. Here, we investigated the transcriptional control of the malE gene encoding malic enzyme (MalE) in C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, which is known to involve the nitrogen regulator AmtR. Gel shift experiments using purified regulators RamA and RamB revealed binding of these regulators to the malE promoter. In DNA-affinity purification experiments a hitherto uncharacterized transcriptional regulator belonging to the MarR family was found to bind to malE promoter DNA and was designated as MalR. C. glutamicum cells overexpressing malR showed reduced MalE activities in LB medium or in minimal media with acetate, glucose, pyruvate or citrate. Deletion of malR positively affected MalE activities during growth in LB medium and minimal media with pyruvate, glucose or the TCA cycle dicarboxylates l-malate, succinate and fumarate. Transcriptional fusion analysis revealed elevated malE promoter activity in the malR deletion mutant during growth in pyruvate minimal medium suggesting that MalR acts as a repressor of malE. Purified MalR bound malE promoter DNA in gel shift experiments. Two MalR binding sites were identified in the malE promoter by mutational analysis. Thus, MalR contributes to the complex transcriptional control of malE which also involves RamA, RamB and AmtR. PMID:22261175

  4. Virus Characterization by FFF-MALS Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razinkov, Vladimer

    2009-03-01

    Adequate biophysical characterization of influenza virions is important for vaccine development. The influenza virus vaccines are produced from the allantoic fluid of developing chicken embryos. The process of viral replication produces a heterogeneous mixture of infectious and non-infectious viral particles with varying states of aggregation. The study of the relative distribution and behavior of different subpopulations and their inter-correlation can assist in the development of a robust process for a live virus vaccine. This report describes a field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering (FFF-MALS) method optimized for the analysis of size distribution and total particle counts. A method using a combination of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) techniques has been shown to improve the estimation of virus particle counts and the amount of aggregated virus in laboratory samples. The FFF-MALS method was compared with several other methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), size exclusion chromatography followed by MALS (SEC-MALS), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT Q-PCR), median tissue culture dose (TCID(50)), and the fluorescent focus assay (FFA). The correlation between the various methods for determining total particle counts, infectivity and size distribution is reported. The pros and cons of each of the analytical methods are discussed.

  5. The mean age of petit mal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Syeda, Afsarunnesa; Karim, Md. Rezaul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Petit mal epilepsy or absence seizures involve brief, sudden lapses of consciousness and most often occurs in people under age of 20 years. This study was done to find out the most likely significant age affected by petit mal epilepsy and whether they had higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems. Materials and Methods: We run tests on total 32 patients (male 16 and female 16) from newborns to 20 years of age. Results: The most affected ages were from 4 to 9 years and both genders were equally affected. They have higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems, and most likely recovering ages from the disease were from 15 to 20 years. Conclusion: These findings could contribute in diagnosis and treatment of Petit Mal Epilepsy, as it often misinterpreted as daydreaming or inattention.

  6. Mal de Debarquement (Sickness of Disembarkment)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that will counter the different, rhythmical shipboard movements. Adaptation to such movement is sometimes referred to as ... Shupak A. “Clinical features of mal de débarquement: adaptation and habituation to sea conditions.” Journal of Vestibular ...

  7. Mal'tsev algebras and triality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paal, Eugen

    2012-02-01

    A concept of the Mal'tsev pair is presented. This concept is based on the generalized Maurer-Cartan equations of a local analytic Moufang loop. The triality can be seen as a fundamental property of such pairs. Based on triality, the Yamagutian is constructed. Properties of the Yamagutian are studied.

  8. Mal de débarquement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hain, T C; Cherchi, M

    2016-01-01

    Mal de débarquement syndrome (MdDS) is typified by a prolonged rocking sensation - for a month or longer - that begins immediately following a lengthy exposure to motion. The provoking motion is usually a sea voyage. About 80% of MdDS sufferers are women, and most of them are middle-aged. MdDS patients are troubled by more migraine headaches than controls. Unlike dizziness caused by vestibular disorders or motion sickness, the symptoms of MdDS usually improve with re-exposure to motion. The long duration of symptoms - a month or more - distinguishes MdDS from land-sickness. Treatment of MdDS with common vestibular suppressants is nearly always ineffective. Benzodiazepines can be helpful, but their usefulness is limited by the potential for addiction. Studies are ongoing regarding treatment with visual habituation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:27638086

  9. Effects of MAL61 and MAL62 overexpression on maltose fermentation of baker's yeast in lean dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Lin, Xue; Song, Hai-Yan; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-08-01

    The predominant fermentable sugar in lean dough is maltose. To improve the leavening ability of baker's yeast in lean dough, maltose metabolism should be improved. Maltase (alpha-glucosidase, encoded by MAL62) and maltose permease (encoded by MAL61) are the major factors involved in maltose metabolism. The major rate-limiting factor in maltose metabolism and leavening ability of baker's yeast remains unclear. In this work, MAL61 and/or MAL62 overexpression strains were constructed to investigate the decisive factor for maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in lean dough. Our results show that elevated maltose permease activity by MAL61 overexpression yielded less improvement in maltose fermentation compared to elevated maltase activity by MAL62 overexpression. Significant increase in maltase activity by MAL62 overexpression could result in a 44% increase in leavening ability of industrial baker's yeast in lean dough and a 39% increase in maltose metabolism in a medium containing glucose and maltose. Thus, maltase was the rate-limiting factor in maltose fermentation of industrial baker's yeast in lean dough. This study lays a foundation for breeding of industrial baker's yeast for quick dough leavening.

  10. Microbiologic Methods Utilized in the MAL-ED Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Eric; Gratz, Jean; Kosek, Margaret; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Qureshi, Shahida; Kang, Gagandeep; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Barrett, Leah; Lima, Aldo; Havt, Alexandre; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Taniuchi, Mami; Stroup, Suzanne; McGrath, Monica; Lang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A central hypothesis of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is that enteropathogens contribute to growth faltering. To examine this question, the MAL-ED network of investigators set out to achieve 3 goals: (1) develop harmonized protocols to test for a diverse range of enteropathogens, (2) provide quality-assured and comparable results from 8 global sites, and (3) achieve maximum laboratory throughput and minimum cost. This paper describes the rationale for the microbiologic assays chosen and methodologies used to accomplish the 3 goals. PMID:25305291

  11. Microbiologic methods utilized in the MAL-ED cohort study.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Eric; Gratz, Jean; Kosek, Margaret; Zaidi, Anita K M; Qureshi, Shahida; Kang, Gagandeep; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Barrett, Leah; Lima, Aldo; Havt, Alexandre; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Taniuchi, Mami; Stroup, Suzanne; McGrath, Monica; Lang, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    A central hypothesis of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is that enteropathogens contribute to growth faltering. To examine this question, the MAL-ED network of investigators set out to achieve 3 goals: (1) develop harmonized protocols to test for a diverse range of enteropathogens, (2) provide quality-assured and comparable results from 8 global sites, and (3) achieve maximum laboratory throughput and minimum cost. This paper describes the rationale for the microbiologic assays chosen and methodologies used to accomplish the 3 goals. PMID:25305291

  12. Investigation of the malE Promoter and MalR, a Positive Regulator of the Maltose Regulon, for an Improved Expression System in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Michaela; Wagner, Alexander; Ma, Xiaoqing; Kort, Julia Christin; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Rauch, Bernadette; Siebers, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the regulator MalR (Saci_1161) of the TrmB family from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was identified and was shown to be involved in transcriptional control of the maltose regulon (Saci_1660 to Saci_1666), including the ABC transporter (malEFGK), α-amylase (amyA), and α-glycosidase (malA). The ΔmalR deletion mutant exhibited a significantly decreased growth rate on maltose and dextrin but not on sucrose. The expression of the genes organized in the maltose regulon was induced only in the presence of MalR and maltose in the growth medium, indicating that MalR, in contrast to its TrmB and TrmB-like homologues, is an activator of the maltose gene cluster. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the binding of MalR to malE was independent of sugars. Here we report the identification of the archaeal maltose regulator protein MalR, which acts as an activator and controls the expression of genes involved in maltose transport and metabolic conversion in S. acidocaldarius, and its use for improvement of the S. acidocaldarius expression system under the control of an optimized maltose binding protein (malE) promoter by promoter mutagenesis. PMID:24271181

  13. Investigation of the malE promoter and MalR, a positive regulator of the maltose regulon, for an improved expression system in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michaela; Wagner, Alexander; Ma, Xiaoqing; Kort, Julia Christin; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Rauch, Bernadette; Siebers, Bettina; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the regulator MalR (Saci_1161) of the TrmB family from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was identified and was shown to be involved in transcriptional control of the maltose regulon (Saci_1660 to Saci_1666), including the ABC transporter (malEFGK), α-amylase (amyA), and α-glycosidase (malA). The ΔmalR deletion mutant exhibited a significantly decreased growth rate on maltose and dextrin but not on sucrose. The expression of the genes organized in the maltose regulon was induced only in the presence of MalR and maltose in the growth medium, indicating that MalR, in contrast to its TrmB and TrmB-like homologues, is an activator of the maltose gene cluster. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the binding of MalR to malE was independent of sugars. Here we report the identification of the archaeal maltose regulator protein MalR, which acts as an activator and controls the expression of genes involved in maltose transport and metabolic conversion in S. acidocaldarius, and its use for improvement of the S. acidocaldarius expression system under the control of an optimized maltose binding protein (malE) promoter by promoter mutagenesis.

  14. Evolution of mal ABC transporter operons in the Thermococcales and Thermotogales

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The mal genes that encode maltose transporters have undergone extensive lateral transfer among ancestors of the archaea Thermococcus litoralis and Pyrococcus furiosus. Bacterial hyperthermophiles of the order Thermotogales live among these archaea and so may have shared in these transfers. The genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima bears evidence of extensive acquisition of archaeal genes, so its ancestors clearly had the capacity to do so. We examined deep phylogenetic relationships among the mal genes of these hyperthermophiles and their close relatives to look for evidence of shared ancestry. Results We demonstrate that the two maltose ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter operons now found in Tc. litoralis and P. furiosus (termed mal and mdx genes, respectively) are not closely related to one another. The Tc. litoralis and P. furiosus mal genes are most closely related to bacterial mal genes while their respective mdx genes are archaeal. The genes of the two mal operons in Tt. maritima are not related to genes in either of these archaeal operons. They are highly similar to one another and belong to a phylogenetic lineage that includes mal genes from the enteric bacteria. A unique domain of the enteric MalF membrane spanning proteins found also in these Thermotogales MalF homologs supports their relatively close relationship with these enteric proteins. Analyses of genome sequence data from other Thermotogales species, Fervidobacterium nodosum, Thermosipho melanesiensis, Thermotoga petrophila, Thermotoga lettingae, and Thermotoga neapolitana, revealed a third apparent mal operon, absent from the published genome sequence of Tt. maritima strain MSB8. This third operon, mal3, is more closely related to the Thermococcales' bacteria-derived mal genes than are mal1 and mal2. F. nodosum, Ts. melanesiensis, and Tt. lettingae have only one of the mal1-mal2 paralogs. The mal2 operon from an unknown species of Thermotoga appears to have been horizontally

  15. MAL-PDT for difficult to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Hanke, C William

    2011-01-01

    With an incidence of over 3.5 million nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) per year in the United States, there is an increasing need for effective, cost-effective treatments for NMSC. When surgical excision is impractical or not feasible, methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) has demonstrated consistently high long-term cure rates ranging from 70-90%, with superior cosmetic outcomes compared with other treatment modalities. With the exception of invasive squamous cell carcinoma, MAL-PDT has been successful in treating all types of NMSC, especially in patients with multiple comorbidities, field cancerization, and lesions in cosmetically sensitive locations. Herein, a step-by-step description of the procedure for MAL-PDT is provided, followed by a review of outcomes from large clinical trials performed over the past 15 years for each variant of NMSC. After reading this review, clinicians should have a thorough understanding of the benefits and limits of MAL-PDT, and should be able to add this valuable procedure to their armamentarium of therapies for NMSC.

  16. The core and conserved role of MAL is homeostatic regulation of actin levels.

    PubMed

    Salvany, Lara; Muller, Julius; Guccione, Ernesto; Rørth, Pernille

    2014-05-15

    The transcription cofactor MAL is regulated by free actin levels and thus by actin dynamics. MAL, together with its DNA-binding partner, SRF, is required for invasive cell migration and in experimental metastasis. Although MAL/SRF has many targets, we provide genetic evidence in both Drosophila and human cellular models that actin is the key target that must be regulated by MAL/SRF for invasive cell migration. By regulating MAL/SRF activity, actin protein feeds back on production of actin mRNA to ensure sufficient supply of actin. This constitutes a dedicated homeostatic feedback system that provides a foundation for cellular actin dynamics.

  17. Mal3 masks catastrophe events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe microtubules by inhibiting shrinkage and promoting rescue.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, Miho; Drummond, Douglas R; Osei, Michael; Cross, Robert A

    2009-10-23

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mal3 is a member of the EB family of proteins, which are proposed to be core elements in a tip-tracking network that regulates microtubule dynamics in cells. How Mal3 itself influences microtubule dynamics is unclear. We tested the effects of full-length recombinant Mal3 on dynamic microtubules assembled in vitro from purified S. pombe tubulin, using dark field video microscopy to avoid fluorescent tagging and data-averaging techniques to improve spatiotemporal resolution. We find that catastrophe occurs stochastically as a fast (<2.2 s) transition from constant speed growth to constant speed shrinkage with a constant probability that is independent of the Mal3 concentration. This implies that Mal3 neither stabilizes nor destabilizes microtubule tips. Mal3 does, however, stabilize the main part of the microtubule lattice, inhibiting shrinkage and increasing the frequency of rescues, consistent with recent models in which Mal3 on the lattice forms stabilizing lateral links between neighboring protofilaments. At high concentrations, Mal3 can entirely block shrinkage and induce very rapid rescue, making catastrophes impossible to detect, which may account for the apparent suppression of catastrophe by Mal3 and other EBs in vivo. Overall, we find that Mal3 stabilizes microtubules not by preventing catastrophe at the microtubule tip but by inhibiting lattice depolymerization and enhancing rescue. We argue that this implies that Mal3 binds microtubules in different modes at the tip and on the lattice. PMID:19740752

  18. Sensing actin dynamics: Structural basis for G-actin-sensitive nuclear import of MAL

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} MAL has a bipartite NLS that binds to Imp{alpha} in an extended conformation. {yields} Mutational analyses verified the functional significance of MAL-Imp{alpha} interactions. {yields} Induced folding and NLS-masking by G-actins inhibit nuclear import of MAL. -- Abstract: The coordination of cytoskeletal actin dynamics with gene expression reprogramming is emerging as a crucial mechanism to control diverse cellular processes, including cell migration, differentiation and neuronal circuit assembly. The actin-binding transcriptional coactivator MAL (also known as MRTF-A/MKL1/BSAC) senses G-actin concentration and transduces Rho GTPase signals to serum response factor (SRF). MAL rapidly shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in unstimulated cells but Rho-induced depletion of G-actin leads to MAL nuclear accumulation and activation of transcription of SRF:MAL-target genes. Although the molecular and structural basis of actin-regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of MAL is not understood fully, it is proposed that nuclear import of MAL is mediated by importin {alpha}/{beta} heterodimer, and that G-actin competes with importin {alpha}/{beta} for the binding to MAL. Here we present structural, biochemical and cell biological evidence that MAL has a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal 'RPEL' domain containing Arg-Pro-X-X-X-Glu-Leu (RPEL) motifs. The NLS residues of MAL adopt an extended conformation and bind along the surface groove of importin-{alpha}, interacting with the major- and minor-NLS binding sites. We also present a crystal structure of wild-type MAL RPEL domain in complex with five G-actins. Comparison of the importin-{alpha}- and actin-complexes revealed that the binding of G-actins to MAL is associated with folding of NLS residues into a helical conformation that is inappropriate for importin-{alpha} recognition.

  19. [Meleda disease (Mal de Meleda): historical shifts in perception].

    PubMed

    Gjurasić, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, hereditary diseases are viewed through molecular mechanisms, and one of them, which keeps occurring rather frequently in medical publications, has been named after the Island of Mljet. The world first learned about mal de Meleda from a Dubrovnik physician Luka Stulli in 1826. He described it in a number of his island patients as a non-contagious hereditary skin disease, and named it mal de Meleda (a disease of Mljet). After Stulli, numerous scientists continued to investigate its aetiology and distinctive properties, introducing new scientific procedures to research the disease. The article keeps track of the way people and medicine perceived and treated mal de Meleda patients, starting from the early 19th century to the present day. It pays special attention to how the disease was perceived and described in medical literature through history. There are no reports in writing about the disease before the 19th century, but in oral tradition it was perceived as a punishment for the sins of sacrilege, sins of piracy, or even as leftovers of leprosy brought by the crusaders. We investigated if these legends have any support in preserved historical documents and to what extent they are related to real historical events and circumstances. Influenced by the booming research in microbiology, end 19th century physicians believed the disease was an isolated focus of leprosy. However, early 20th century physicians defined it as a hereditary skin disease with changes which distinguish it from other skin conditions. Genetic nature of the disease was later confirmed by molecular science. As for its geographical origin, the most recent medical research has shown that mal de Meleda is not restricted to the island of Mljet, and that it is spread worldwide, particularly in regions that, historically, were the trading routes of the Dubrovnik Republic. This implies that the mutation has spread through migration and persists only because it is not lethal and does not affect

  20. MalVac: Database of malarial vaccine candidates

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Rupanjali; Ahmed, Shakil; Ansari, Faraz Alam; Singh, Harinder Vir; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Background The sequencing of genomes of the Plasmodium species causing malaria, offers immense opportunities to aid in the development of new therapeutics and vaccine candidates through Bioinformatics tools and resources. Methods The starting point of MalVac database is the collection of known vaccine candidates and a set of predicted vaccine candidates identified from the whole proteome sequences of Plasmodium species provided by PlasmoDb 5.4 release (31st October 2007). These predicted vaccine candidates are the adhesins and adhesin-like proteins from Plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium yoelii. Subsequently, these protein sequences were analysed through 20 publicly available algorithms to obtain Orthologs, Paralogs, BetaWraps, TargetP, TMHMM, SignalP, CDDSearch, BLAST with Human Ref. Proteins, T-cell epitopes, B-cell epitopes, Discotopes, and allergen predictions. All of this information was collected and organized with the ORFids of the protein sequences as primary keys. This information is relevant from the view point of Reverse Vaccinology in facilitating decision making on the most probable choice for vaccine strategy. Results Detailed information on the patterning of the epitopes and other motifs of importance from the viewpoint of reverse vaccinology has been obtained on the most probable protein candidates for vaccine investigation from three major malarial species. Analysis data are available on 161 adhesin proteins from P. falciparum, 137 adhesin proteins from P. vivax and 34 adhesin proteins from P. yoelii. The results are displayed in convenient tabular format and a facility to export the entire data has been provided. The MalVac database is a "community resource". Users are encouraged to export data and further contribute by value addition. Value added data may be sent back to the community either through MalVac or PlasmoDB. Conclusion A web server MalVac for facilitation of the identification of probable vaccine

  1. Integrating electrodermal biofeedback into pharmacologic treatment of grand mal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Scrimali, Tullio; Tomasello, Damiana; Sciuto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrodermal biofeedback, when integrated with pharmacologic treatments, indicate promising methods for the treatment of grand mal seizures. They can be used to monitor patient arousal and help patients learn new strategies to better cope with stress and anxiety. Our proposed method can possibly reduce the number of crises for patients who are dependent on pharmacologic therapy and can improve their quality of life. This article describes the scientific background of electrodermal monitoring and electrodermal biofeedback for patients affected by grand mal seizures. In this study, we have reported a clinical case study. The patient was treated for 2 years with electrodermal biofeedback to augment pharmacologic treatments. The trial has been designed in accordance with “n = 1 case study research”. Our results have shown that our methods could achieve a significant reduction in grand mal seizures and sympathetic arousal when applied. The patient under consideration was also relaxed and exhibited greater competency to cope with stress. Additionally, the patient’s sense of mastery and self-efficacy was enhanced. PMID:26029078

  2. Integrating electrodermal biofeedback into pharmacologic treatment of grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    Scrimali, Tullio; Tomasello, Damiana; Sciuto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrodermal biofeedback, when integrated with pharmacologic treatments, indicate promising methods for the treatment of grand mal seizures. They can be used to monitor patient arousal and help patients learn new strategies to better cope with stress and anxiety. Our proposed method can possibly reduce the number of crises for patients who are dependent on pharmacologic therapy and can improve their quality of life. This article describes the scientific background of electrodermal monitoring and electrodermal biofeedback for patients affected by grand mal seizures. In this study, we have reported a clinical case study. The patient was treated for 2 years with electrodermal biofeedback to augment pharmacologic treatments. The trial has been designed in accordance with "n = 1 case study research". Our results have shown that our methods could achieve a significant reduction in grand mal seizures and sympathetic arousal when applied. The patient under consideration was also relaxed and exhibited greater competency to cope with stress. Additionally, the patient's sense of mastery and self-efficacy was enhanced. PMID:26029078

  3. Sequential Action of MalE and Maltose Allows Coupling ATP Hydrolysis to Translocation in the MalFGK2 Transporter.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huan; Dalal, Kush; Cytrynbaum, Eric; Duong, Franck

    2015-10-16

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have evolved an ATP-dependent alternating-access mechanism to transport substrates across membranes. Despite important progress, especially in their structural analysis, it is still unknown how the substrate stimulates ATP hydrolysis, the hallmark of ABC transporters. In this study, we measure the ATP turnover cycle of MalFGK2 in steady and pre-steady state conditions. We show that (i) the basal ATPase activity of MalFGK2 is very low because the cleavage of ATP is rate-limiting, (ii) the binding of open-state MalE to the transporter induces ATP cleavage but leaves release of Pi limiting, and (iii) the additional presence of maltose stimulates release of Pi, and therefore increases the overall ATP turnover cycle. We conclude that open-state MalE stabilizes MalFGK2 in the outward-facing conformation until maltose triggers return to the inward-facing state for substrate and Pi release. This concerted action explains why ATPase activity of MalFGK2 depends on maltose, and why MalE is essential for transport. PMID:26338707

  4. Sequential Action of MalE and Maltose Allows Coupling ATP Hydrolysis to Translocation in the MalFGK2 Transporter.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huan; Dalal, Kush; Cytrynbaum, Eric; Duong, Franck

    2015-10-16

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have evolved an ATP-dependent alternating-access mechanism to transport substrates across membranes. Despite important progress, especially in their structural analysis, it is still unknown how the substrate stimulates ATP hydrolysis, the hallmark of ABC transporters. In this study, we measure the ATP turnover cycle of MalFGK2 in steady and pre-steady state conditions. We show that (i) the basal ATPase activity of MalFGK2 is very low because the cleavage of ATP is rate-limiting, (ii) the binding of open-state MalE to the transporter induces ATP cleavage but leaves release of Pi limiting, and (iii) the additional presence of maltose stimulates release of Pi, and therefore increases the overall ATP turnover cycle. We conclude that open-state MalE stabilizes MalFGK2 in the outward-facing conformation until maltose triggers return to the inward-facing state for substrate and Pi release. This concerted action explains why ATPase activity of MalFGK2 depends on maltose, and why MalE is essential for transport.

  5. Portable device for detection of petit mal epilepsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. G.; Houge, J. C.; Webster, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    A portable device that analyzes the electroencephalogram to determine if petit mal epilepsy waveforms are present is developed and tested. Clinicians should find it useful in diagnosing seizure activity of their patients. The micropower, battery-operated, portable device indicates a seizure has occurred if three criteria are satisfied: (1) frequencies of 2.5-7 Hz, (2) large-amplitude waves, and (3) minimum number of waves per second. Levels and counts are adjustable, thus insuring high reliability against noise artifacts and permitting each subject to be individually fitted. The device has shown promise in giving the patient a possible mechanism of seizure control or suppression.

  6. 7 CFR 1421.418 - Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disbursement date, peanut type, warehouse code, and State where peanuts were inspected; and (2) LDPs with the... this section shall be submitted to FSA with the following documents: (1) Individual paper warehouse... receipts as one MAL or LDP, waive the service fee to the DMA, and either hold MAL paper warehouse...

  7. 7 CFR 1421.418 - Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disbursement date, peanut type, warehouse code, and State where peanuts were inspected; and (2) LDPs with the... this section shall be submitted to FSA with the following documents: (1) Individual paper warehouse... receipts as one MAL or LDP, waive the service fee to the DMA, and either hold MAL paper warehouse...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.418 - Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disbursement date, peanut type, warehouse code, and State where peanuts were inspected; and (2) LDPs with the... this section shall be submitted to FSA with the following documents: (1) Individual paper warehouse... receipts as one MAL or LDP, waive the service fee to the DMA, and either hold MAL paper warehouse...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.418 - Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disbursement date, peanut type, warehouse code, and State where peanuts were inspected; and (2) LDPs with the... this section shall be submitted to FSA with the following documents: (1) Individual paper warehouse... receipts as one MAL or LDP, waive the service fee to the DMA, and either hold MAL paper warehouse...

  10. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10 g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  11. NMR resonance assignments of the major apple allergen Mal d 1.

    PubMed

    Ahammer, Linda; Grutsch, Sarina; Tollinger, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The major apple allergen Mal d 1 is the predominant cause of apple (Malus domestica) allergies in large parts of Europe and Northern America. Allergic reactions against this 17.5 kDa protein are the consequence of initial sensitization to the structurally homologous major allergen from birch pollen, Bet v 1. Consumption of apples can subsequently provoke immunologic cross-reactivity of Bet v 1-specific antibodies with Mal d 1 and trigger severe oral allergic syndroms, affecting more than 70 % of all individuals that are sensitized to birch pollen. While the accumulated immunological data suggest that Mal d 1 has a three-dimensional fold that is similar to Bet v 1, experimental structural data for this protein are not available to date. In a first step towards structural characterization of Mal d 1, backbone and side chain (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts of the isoform Mal d 1.0101 were assigned. The NMR-chemical shift data show that this protein is composed of seven β-strands and three α-helices, which is in accordance with the reported secondary structure of the major birch pollen allergen, indicating that Mal d 1 and Bet v 1 indeed have similar three-dimensional folds. The next stage in the characterization of Mal d 1 will be to utilize these resonance assignments in solving the solution structure of this protein. PMID:27165578

  12. Identification and Characterization of MalA in the Maltose/Maltodextrin Operon of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Hwang, Sungmin

    2013-01-01

    A putative maltose/maltodextrin operon was found in the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 genome. The gene cluster consisted of 7 genes (malA, trmB, amyA, malG, malF, malE, and malK). Here, we report the identification of MalA, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of maltose or maltodextrin to glucose in S. acidocaldarius. The transcription level of malA was increased 3-fold upon the addition of maltose or starch to the medium. Moreover, the α-glucosidase activity for maltose as a substrate in cell extracts of S. acidocaldarius DSM639 was also 11- and 10-fold higher during growth in YT medium (Brock's mineral salts, 0.1% [wt/vol] tryptone, and 0.005% [wt/vol] yeast extract) containing maltose or starch, respectively, than during growth on other sugars. The gene encoding MalA was cloned and expressed in S. acidocaldarius. The enzyme purified from the organism was a dodecamer in its active state and showed strong maltose-hydrolyzing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. MalA was remarkably thermostable, with half-lives of 33.8 h, 10.6 h, and 1.8 h at 95°C, 100°C, and 105°C, respectively. Substrate specificity and kinetic studies of MalA with maltooligosaccharides indicated that MalA efficiently hydrolyzed maltose to maltopentaose, which is a typical characteristic of GH31-type α-glucosidases. However, glycogen or starch was not hydrolyzed. Reverse transcription-PCR, sugar uptake, and growth studies of the wild-type DSM639 and ΔmalEFG mutant on different sugars demonstrated that MalA located in the mal operon gene cluster is involved in maltose and starch metabolism in S. acidocaldarius. PMID:23396915

  13. Identification and characterization of MalA in the maltose/maltodextrin operon of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Hwang, Sungmin; Cha, Jaeho

    2013-04-01

    A putative maltose/maltodextrin operon was found in the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 genome. The gene cluster consisted of 7 genes (malA, trmB, amyA, malG, malF, malE, and malK). Here, we report the identification of MalA, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of maltose or maltodextrin to glucose in S. acidocaldarius. The transcription level of malA was increased 3-fold upon the addition of maltose or starch to the medium. Moreover, the α-glucosidase activity for maltose as a substrate in cell extracts of S. acidocaldarius DSM639 was also 11- and 10-fold higher during growth in YT medium (Brock's mineral salts, 0.1% [wt/vol] tryptone, and 0.005% [wt/vol] yeast extract) containing maltose or starch, respectively, than during growth on other sugars. The gene encoding MalA was cloned and expressed in S. acidocaldarius. The enzyme purified from the organism was a dodecamer in its active state and showed strong maltose-hydrolyzing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. MalA was remarkably thermostable, with half-lives of 33.8 h, 10.6 h, and 1.8 h at 95°C, 100°C, and 105°C, respectively. Substrate specificity and kinetic studies of MalA with maltooligosaccharides indicated that MalA efficiently hydrolyzed maltose to maltopentaose, which is a typical characteristic of GH31-type α-glucosidases. However, glycogen or starch was not hydrolyzed. Reverse transcription-PCR, sugar uptake, and growth studies of the wild-type DSM639 and ΔmalEFG mutant on different sugars demonstrated that MalA located in the mal operon gene cluster is involved in maltose and starch metabolism in S. acidocaldarius.

  14. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  15. The MAL-ED cohort study in Mirpur, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Islam, Md Munirul; Mondal, Dinesh; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Am Shamsir; Tofail, Fahmida; Gaffar, Sm Abdul; Haque, Rashidul; Guerrant, Richard L; Petri, William A

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study site in Bangladesh is located in the capital city of Dhaka in an urban slum that has one of the highest population densities in the world. The site is in the Bauniabadh area of Mirpur, Dhaka. A typical squatter settlement, the average family size of households in Mirpur Bauniabadh is 4.5, with 48% females. About 20% of households have a monthly income of only US$62. About 30% of mothers never attended school, and only 3% obtained secondary school education. The majority of the people are day laborers, garment workers, and transport workers. About 72% of caregivers always wash their hands after helping the child defecate and 6.6% never wash their hands. The diarrheal attack rate for Mirpur is 4.69 episodes per child per year. The study site is representative of a typical urban slum of Dhaka city in terms of demographics, socioeconomic status, and general health indicators.

  16. The MAL-ED cohort study in Mirpur, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Islam, Md Munirul; Mondal, Dinesh; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Am Shamsir; Tofail, Fahmida; Gaffar, Sm Abdul; Haque, Rashidul; Guerrant, Richard L; Petri, William A

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study site in Bangladesh is located in the capital city of Dhaka in an urban slum that has one of the highest population densities in the world. The site is in the Bauniabadh area of Mirpur, Dhaka. A typical squatter settlement, the average family size of households in Mirpur Bauniabadh is 4.5, with 48% females. About 20% of households have a monthly income of only US$62. About 30% of mothers never attended school, and only 3% obtained secondary school education. The majority of the people are day laborers, garment workers, and transport workers. About 72% of caregivers always wash their hands after helping the child defecate and 6.6% never wash their hands. The diarrheal attack rate for Mirpur is 4.69 episodes per child per year. The study site is representative of a typical urban slum of Dhaka city in terms of demographics, socioeconomic status, and general health indicators. PMID:25305298

  17. A Common Variant in the Adaptor Mal Regulates Interferon Gamma Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ní Cheallaigh, Clíona; Sheedy, Frederick J; Harris, James; Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Lee, Jinhee; West, Kim; McDermott, Eva Palsson; Smyth, Alicia; Gleeson, Laura E; Coleman, Michelle; Martinez, Nuria; Hearnden, Claire H A; Tynan, Graham A; Carroll, Elizabeth C; Jones, Sarah A; Corr, Sinéad C; Bernard, Nicholas J; Hughes, Mark M; Corcoran, Sarah E; O'Sullivan, Mary; Fallon, Ciara M; Kornfeld, Hardy; Golenbock, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen V; O'Neill, Luke A J; Lavelle, Ed C; Keane, Joseph

    2016-02-16

    Humans that are heterozygous for the common S180L polymorphism in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor Mal (encoded by TIRAP) are protected from a number of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), whereas those homozygous for the allele are at increased risk. The reason for this difference in susceptibility is not clear. We report that Mal has a TLR-independent role in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) receptor signaling. Mal-dependent IFN-γ receptor (IFNGR) signaling led to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 phosphorylation and autophagy. IFN-γ signaling via Mal was required for phagosome maturation and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The S180L polymorphism, and its murine equivalent S200L, reduced the affinity of Mal for the IFNGR, thereby compromising IFNGR signaling in macrophages and impairing responses to TB. Our findings highlight a role for Mal outside the TLR system and imply that genetic variation in TIRAP may be linked to other IFN-γ-related diseases including autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:26885859

  18. Effect of postharvest storage on the expression of the apple allergen Mal d 1.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Ana I; Foxall, Robert; Browne, Tom; Dey, Rickmer; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Marzban, Gorji; Waldron, Keith W; van Ree, Ronald; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Laimer, Margit; Mills, E N Clare

    2006-08-01

    Consumption of fresh apples can cause allergy in susceptible individuals. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to determine Mal d 1 levels in apple pulp using a monoclonal antibody (BIP-1). The ELISA was able to rank ten cultivars according to their Mal d 1 content (between 3.8 and 72.5 mug/g pulp). For the first time, it has been demonstrated that growing conditions and postharvest storage, using three different treatments over a 5 month period in 2 consecutive years, increase Mal d 1 expression at a translational and transcriptional level (3.5- and 8.5-fold under controlled atmosphere storage). Expression of three major Mal d 1 isoforms was observed by real-time polymerase chain reaction over the 5 month storage period, and Mal d 1.02 was the most highly expressed isoform. In conclusion, Mal d 1 gene expression was significantly increased during modified atmosphere storage. Individuals suffering from birch pollen-apple allergy syndrome might experience fewer problems consuming freshly picked apples.

  19. A Common Variant in the Adaptor Mal Regulates Interferon Gamma Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ní Cheallaigh, Clíona; Sheedy, Frederick J; Harris, James; Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Lee, Jinhee; West, Kim; McDermott, Eva Palsson; Smyth, Alicia; Gleeson, Laura E; Coleman, Michelle; Martinez, Nuria; Hearnden, Claire H A; Tynan, Graham A; Carroll, Elizabeth C; Jones, Sarah A; Corr, Sinéad C; Bernard, Nicholas J; Hughes, Mark M; Corcoran, Sarah E; O'Sullivan, Mary; Fallon, Ciara M; Kornfeld, Hardy; Golenbock, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen V; O'Neill, Luke A J; Lavelle, Ed C; Keane, Joseph

    2016-02-16

    Humans that are heterozygous for the common S180L polymorphism in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor Mal (encoded by TIRAP) are protected from a number of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), whereas those homozygous for the allele are at increased risk. The reason for this difference in susceptibility is not clear. We report that Mal has a TLR-independent role in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) receptor signaling. Mal-dependent IFN-γ receptor (IFNGR) signaling led to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 phosphorylation and autophagy. IFN-γ signaling via Mal was required for phagosome maturation and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The S180L polymorphism, and its murine equivalent S200L, reduced the affinity of Mal for the IFNGR, thereby compromising IFNGR signaling in macrophages and impairing responses to TB. Our findings highlight a role for Mal outside the TLR system and imply that genetic variation in TIRAP may be linked to other IFN-γ-related diseases including autoimmunity and cancer.

  20. Maturity and storage influence on the apple (Malus domestica) allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Ana I; Foxall, Robert; Rigby, Neil M; Browne, Thomas; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Waldron, Keith W; Mills, E N Clare

    2006-07-12

    Consumption of apples can provoke severe allergic reactions, in susceptible individuals, due to the presence of the allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein, found largely in the fruit skin. Levels of Mal d 3 were determined in peel as a function of apple cultivar, position of the fruit growing on the tree, apple maturity, and postharvest storage by ELISA. As the apples mature, Mal d 3 levels increased, although the rate was dependent on cultivar and tree position. During storage, levels of Mal d 3 decreased in all cultivars (cvs. Cox, Jonagored, and Gala), the rate of overall decrease being greatest under controlled atmosphere conditions. There was no correlation between Mal d 3 levels and total apple peel protein, indicating specific alterations in Mal d 3 expression. Thus pre- and postharvest treatments (i.e., storage) can modify the allergen load in apple peel, the highest levels being found in overly mature and freshly harvested fruits.

  1. A qRT-PCR assay for the expression of all Mal d 1 isoallergen genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A considerable number of individuals suffer from oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple, resulting in the avoidance of apple consumption. Apple cultivars differ greatly in their allergenic properties, but knowledge of the causes for such differences is incomplete. Mal d 1 is considered the major apple allergen. For Mal d 1, a wide range of isoallergens and variants exist, and they are encoded by a large gene family. To identify the specific proteins/genes that are potentially involved in the allergy, we developed a PCR assay to monitor the expression of each individual Mal d 1 gene. Gene-specific primer pairs were designed for the exploitation of sequence differences among Mal d 1 genes. The specificity of these primers was validated using both in silico and in vitro techniques. Subsequently, this assay was applied to the peel and flesh of fruits from the two cultivars ‘Florina’ and ‘Gala’. Results We successfully developed gene-specific primer pairs for each of the 31 Mal d 1 genes and incorporated them into a qRT-PCR assay. The results from the application of the assay showed that 11 genes were not expressed in fruit. In addition, differential expression was observed among the Mal d 1 genes that were expressed in the fruit. Moreover, the expression levels were tissue and cultivar dependent. Conclusion The assay developed in this study facilitated the first characterisation of the expression levels of all known Mal d 1 genes in a gene-specific manner. Using this assay on different fruit tissues and cultivars, we obtained knowledge concerning gene relevance in allergenicity. This study provides new perspectives for research on both plant breeding and immunotherapy. PMID:23522122

  2. MalE of Group A Streptococcus Participates in the Rapid Transport of Maltotriose and Longer Maltodextrins▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shelburne, Samuel A.; Fang, Han; Okorafor, Nnaja; Sumby, Paul; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Keith, David; Patel, Payal; Austin, Celest; Graviss, Edward A.; Musser, James M.; Chow, Dar-Chone

    2007-01-01

    Study of the maltose/maltodextrin binding protein MalE in Escherichia coli has resulted in fundamental insights into the molecular mechanisms of microbial transport. Whether gram-positive bacteria employ a similar pathway for maltodextrin transport is unclear. The maltodextrin binding protein MalE has previously been shown to be key to the ability of group A Streptococcus (GAS) to colonize the oropharynx, the major site of GAS infection in humans. Here we used a multifaceted approach to elucidate the function and binding characteristics of GAS MalE. We found that GAS MalE is a central part of a highly efficient maltodextrin transport system capable of transporting linear maltodextrins that are up to at least seven glucose molecules long. Of the carbohydrates tested, GAS MalE had the highest affinity for maltotriose, a major breakdown product of starch in the human oropharynx. The thermodynamics and fluorescence changes induced by GAS MalE-maltodextrin binding were essentially opposite those reported for E. coli MalE. Moreover, unlike E. coli MalE, GAS MalE exhibited no specific binding of maltose or cyclic maltodextrins. Our data show that GAS developed a transport system optimized for linear maltodextrins longer than two glucose molecules that has several key differences from its well-studied E. coli counterpart. PMID:17259319

  3. The bacterial flora of the skin surface following routine MAL-PDT.

    PubMed

    Bryld, Lars Eeik; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy using methylated 5-aminolevulate (MAL-PDT) appears to have an effect on non-neoplastic skin diseases, for example acne vulgaris and rosacea, for which antibiotics are sometimes used, and a possible antibiotic effect of PDT has previously been suggested. It does, however, also cause local immunosuppression and post-treatment barrier defects, which may promote infection. At the same time, PDT-induced therapeutic skin damage is sometimes confused with secondary bacterial infection by non-dermatologists. The possible changes in bacterial flora associated with MAL-PDT were therefore studied in 47 patients undergoing treatment. Skin swabs were taken immediately before applying the MAL and instantly after light irradiation. Bacterial growth was identified in 18 cases. No statistically significant changes were seen, either in the specific species found or the estimated bacterial density on the skin surface. The observations do not support the notion that routine MAL-PDT affects the bacterial flora of the skin in a clinically significant manner. Therefore, the possible antibacterial effect of routine MAL-PDT is probably not the main explanation of its apparent effect on non-neoplastic skin disease.

  4. Structural Basis for the Interconversion of Maltodextrins by MalQ, the Amylomaltase of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Simon C.; Skerra, Arne; Schiefner, André

    2015-01-01

    Amylomaltase MalQ is essential for the metabolism of maltose and maltodextrins in Escherichia coli. It catalyzes transglycosylation/disproportionation reactions in which glycosyl or dextrinyl units are transferred among linear maltodextrins of various lengths. To elucidate the molecular basis of transglycosylation by MalQ, we have determined three crystal structures of this enzyme, i.e. the apo-form, its complex with maltose, and an inhibitor complex with the transition state analog acarviosine-glucose-acarbose, at resolutions down to 2.1 Å. MalQ represents the first example of a mesophilic bacterial amylomaltase with known structure and exhibits an N-terminal extension of about 140 residues, in contrast with previously described thermophilic enzymes. This moiety seems unique to amylomaltases from Enterobacteriaceae and folds into two distinct subdomains that associate with different parts of the catalytic core. Intriguingly, the three MalQ crystal structures appear to correspond to distinct states of this enzyme, revealing considerable conformational changes during the catalytic cycle. In particular, the inhibitor complex highlights the requirement of both a 3-OH group and a 4-OH group (or α1–4-glycosidic bond) at the acceptor subsite +1 for the catalytically competent orientation of the acid/base catalyst Glu-496. Using an HPLC-based MalQ enzyme assay, we could demonstrate that the equilibrium concentration of maltodextrin products depends on the length of the initial substrate; with increasing numbers of glycosidic bonds, less glucose is formed. Thus, both structural and enzymatic data are consistent with the extremely low hydrolysis rates observed for amylomaltases and underline the importance of MalQ for the metabolism of maltodextrins in E. coli. PMID:26139606

  5. Voxel Based Morphometry Alterations in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee; Chakrapani, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Background Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a disorder of chronic self-motion perception that occurs though entrainment to rhythmic background motion, such as from sea voyage, and involves the perception of low-frequency rocking that can last for months or years. The neural basis of this persistent sensory perception abnormality is not well understood. Methods We investigated grey matter volume differences underlying persistent MdDS by performing voxel-based morphometry on whole brain and pre-specified ROIs in 28 individuals with MdDS and comparing them to 18 age, sex, and handedness matched controls. Results MdDS participants exhibited greater grey matter volume in the left inferior parietal lobule, right inferior occipital gyrus (area V3v), right temporal pole, bilateral cerebellar hemispheric lobules VIII/IX and left lobule VIIa/VIIb. Grey matter volumes were lower in bilateral inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and left superior medial gyri (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr). In ROI analyses, there were no volume differences in the middle occipital gyrus (region of V5/MT) or parietal operculum 2 (region of the parietoinsular vestibular cortex). Illness duration was positively related to grey matter volume in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI), right posterior insula, superior parietal lobule, left middle occipital gyrus (V5/MT), bilateral postcentral gyrus, anterior cerebellum, and left cerebellar hemisphere and vermian lobule IX. In contrast, illness duration was negatively related to volume in pgACC, posterior middle cingulate gyrus (MCC), left middle frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-DLPFC), and right cerebellar hemispheric lobule VIIIb (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr). The most significant differences were decreased volume in the pgACC and increased volume in the left IFG/AI with longer illness duration (qFDRcorr <0.05). Concurrent medication use did not correlate with these findings or have a

  6. Expression of the Escherichia coli malPQ operon remains unaffected after drastic alteration of its promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Débarbouillé, M; Raibaud, O

    1983-01-01

    The malPQ operon, one of the three operons of the maltose regulon, is positively controlled by the product of gene malT. The starting point for malPQ transcription was deduced from experiments which involved a hybridization of in vivo-synthesized malPQ mRNA with adequate DNA probes, followed either by a digestion of nonhybridized DNA (S1 nuclease mapping) or by an extension of the hybridized probe (reverse transcriptase mapping). In the wild-type strain, this starting point was 37 nucleotides upstream from the initiation codon for malP. This analysis was also performed on a double mutant which contained both a 13-base pair deletion and a 3-base pair insertion in the promoter region. This double mutant expressed the malPQ operon exactly as the wild-type strain did, in a maltose-inducible manner. In this strain, the starting point for malPQ transcription was shifted 11 nucleotides downstream from the wild-type location. An analysis of these results suggests that (i) the binding site for the malT product is located upstream from the region which is severely altered in the double mutant, i.e., upstream from position -31; and (ii) the 30-base pair sequence which precedes the transcription starting point contains very few positions which are essential for promoter activity. Images PMID:6186658

  7. Change in Myself-as-a-Learner Scale (MALS) Scores as Pupils Transfer to and Progress through Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norgate, Roger; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal changes in pupils' academic self-perception (as measured by Myself-As-a-Learner Scale [MALS]) were investigated between Year 6 and Year 10. The possibility of there being gender and attainment differences was also explored. There was a significant drop in mean MALS scores between Years 6 and 7. There was a further drop between…

  8. Rising Mal-Employment and the Great Recession: The Growing Disconnection between Recent College Graduates and the College Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over time. The…

  9. 7 CFR 1421.418 - Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA. 1421.418 Section 1421.418 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE...

  10. Step-by-step thermal transformations of a new porous coordination polymer [(H2O)5CuBa(Me2mal)2]n (Me2mal2-=dimethylmalonate): Thermal degradation to barium cuprate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zauzolkova, Natalya; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Lermontov, Anatoly; Zorina, Ekaterina; Emelina, Anna; Bukov, Mikhail; Chernyshev, Vladimir; Sidorov, Aleksey; Kiskin, Mikhail; Bogomyakov, Artem; Lytvynenko, Anton; Kolotilov, Sergey; Velikodnyi, Yuriy; Kovba, Maksim; Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The reactions of CuSO4·5H2O, dimethylmalonic acid and Ba(OH)2·H2O (Cu: H2Me2mal: Ba=1: 2: 2) in aqueous and aqueous-ethanol solutions (H2O: EtOH=1: 1) resulted in formation of 3D-porous coordination polymers [(H2O)3(μ-H2O)2CuBa(μ3-Me2mal)(Me2mal)]n (1) and [(μ-H2O)CuBa(μ3-Me2mal)(μ4-Me2mal)]n (2), respectively. It has been shown that compound 2 was an intermediate in the thermal degradation of compound 1. Thorough studies of solid-state thermolysis of 1 and 2 allowed to detect formation of coordination polymer [CuBa(μ4-Me2mal)(μ5-Me2mal)]n (3), structure of which was determined by X-ray powder diffraction. It has been found that the channels in polymer 3 were accessible for guest molecules (MeOH). Theoretical estimation of methanol diffusion barrier was carried out. Complete solid-phase thermolysis of 1 and 2 leads to a mixture of BaCuO2, BaCO3, and CuO. Special conditions for obtaining of a crystalline phase of pure cubic BaCuO2 were determined.

  11. High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX) rainbow trout "Mal" population.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Karina; Jouanno, Elodie; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Galiana-Arnoux, Delphine; Guyomard, René; Helary, Louise; Mourot, Brigitte; Fostier, Alexis; Quillet, Edwige; Guiguen, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY). However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal). As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C), and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold) at the highest temperature treatment (18°C). Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C). However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.

  12. Impact of sulfur and vitamin C on the allergenicity of Mal d 2 from apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Marzban, Gorji; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Brunner, Richard; Gruber, Clemens; Hahn, Rainer; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Laimer, Margit

    2014-07-30

    Mal d 2 is a minor allergen from apple which shows a high conformational stability due to its eight conserved disulfide bridges. Chemical reduction of disulfide bridges and linearization of Mal d 2 lead to enhanced IgE reactivity in vitro and indicate a higher potential for allergenicity. Since food preservatives such as sulfur and vitamin C are reducing and denaturing agents, their influence on Mal d 2 allergenicity was verified by simulated food processing conditions. The immunoreactivity of purified Mal d 2 was investigated after different treatments in vitro and in vivo using IgG/IgE Western blotting, mediator-releasing cell assay, and skin prick and oral smear tests. The conformational changes of Mal d 2 upon addition of 1% and 5% vitamin C were also monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show no positive skin and oral smear test reactivity to native, heated, or vitamin C-treated purified Mal d 2. Furthermore, the results confirm that sulfur in combination with heat treatment can influence the structural integrity and thus the allergenicity of Mal d 2, while vitamin C is too weak as a reducing agent to change allergenicity. PMID:24983674

  13. Inactivation of the MAL gene in breast cancer is a common event that predicts benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Hisani N.; Lee, Paula S.; Murphy, Susan K.; Alonso, Miguel A.; Olson, John A.; Marks, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Dis-regulation of MAL (myelin and lymphocyte protein) has been implicated in several malignancies including esophageal, ovarian, and cervical cancers. The MAL protein functions in apical transport in polarized-epithelial cells, therefore its disruption may lead to loss of organized polarity characteristic of most solid malignancies. Bisulfite sequencing of the MAL promoter CpG island revealed hypermethylation in breast cancer cell lines and 69% of primary tumors analyzed compared to normal breast epithelial cells. Differential methylation between normal and cancer DNA was confined to the proximal promoter region. In a subset of breast cancer cell lines including T47D and MCF7 cells, promoter methylation correlated with transcriptional silencing that was reversible with the methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In addition, expression of MAL reduced motility and resulted in a redistribution of lipid raft components in MCF10A cells. MAL protein expression measured by immunohistochemistry revealed no significant correlation with clinico-pathologic features. However, in patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, reduced MAL expression was a significant predictive factor for disease-free survival. These data implicate MAL as a commonly altered gene in breast cancer with implications for response to chemotherapy. PMID:19208741

  14. Impact of sulfur and vitamin C on the allergenicity of Mal d 2 from apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Marzban, Gorji; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Brunner, Richard; Gruber, Clemens; Hahn, Rainer; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Laimer, Margit

    2014-07-30

    Mal d 2 is a minor allergen from apple which shows a high conformational stability due to its eight conserved disulfide bridges. Chemical reduction of disulfide bridges and linearization of Mal d 2 lead to enhanced IgE reactivity in vitro and indicate a higher potential for allergenicity. Since food preservatives such as sulfur and vitamin C are reducing and denaturing agents, their influence on Mal d 2 allergenicity was verified by simulated food processing conditions. The immunoreactivity of purified Mal d 2 was investigated after different treatments in vitro and in vivo using IgG/IgE Western blotting, mediator-releasing cell assay, and skin prick and oral smear tests. The conformational changes of Mal d 2 upon addition of 1% and 5% vitamin C were also monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show no positive skin and oral smear test reactivity to native, heated, or vitamin C-treated purified Mal d 2. Furthermore, the results confirm that sulfur in combination with heat treatment can influence the structural integrity and thus the allergenicity of Mal d 2, while vitamin C is too weak as a reducing agent to change allergenicity.

  15. Ferromagnetic coupling in the three-dimensional malonato-bridged gadoliniumIII complex [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)6] (H2mal = malonic acid).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Molina, María; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; López, Trinidad; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2003-09-01

    The novel gadolinium(III) complex of formula [Gd(2)(mal)(3)(H(2)O)(6)] (1) (H(2)mal = 1,3-propanedioic acid) has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group I2/a, a = 11.1064(10) A, b = 12.2524(10) A, c =13.6098(2) A, beta = 92.925(10) degrees, U = 1849.5(3) A(3), Z = 4. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional network made up of malonate-bridged gadolinium(III) ions where the malonate exhibits two bridging modes, eta(5)-bidentate + unidentate and eta(3):eta(3) + bis(unidentate). The gadolinium atom is nine-coordinate with three water molecules and six malonate oxygen atoms from three malonate ligands forming a distorted monocapped square antiprism. The shortest metal-metal separations are 4.2763(3) A [through the oxo-carboxylate bridge] and 6.541(3) A [through the carboxylate in the anti-syn coordination mode]. The value of the angle at the oxo-carboxylate atom is 116.8(2) degrees. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the occurrence of a significant ferromagnetic interaction through the oxo-carboxylate pathway (J = +0.048(1) cm(-1), H = -JS(Gd(1)) x S(Gd(1a))).

  16. SmartMal: a service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Zhizhong; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Wang, Aili; Hung, Patrick C K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents SmartMal--a novel service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for vehicular and mobile devices. The highlight of SmartMal is to introduce service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and behavior analysis into the malware detection paradigms. The proposed framework relies on client-server architecture, the client continuously extracts various features and transfers them to the server, and the server's main task is to detect anomalies using state-of-art detection algorithms. Multiple distributed servers simultaneously analyze the feature vector using various detectors and information fusion is used to concatenate the results of detectors. We also propose a cycle-based statistical approach for mobile device anomaly detection. We accomplish this by analyzing the users' regular usage patterns. Empirical results suggest that the proposed framework and novel anomaly detection algorithm are highly effective in detecting malware on Android devices. PMID:25165729

  17. SmartMal: a service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Zhizhong; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Wang, Aili; Hung, Patrick C K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents SmartMal--a novel service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for vehicular and mobile devices. The highlight of SmartMal is to introduce service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and behavior analysis into the malware detection paradigms. The proposed framework relies on client-server architecture, the client continuously extracts various features and transfers them to the server, and the server's main task is to detect anomalies using state-of-art detection algorithms. Multiple distributed servers simultaneously analyze the feature vector using various detectors and information fusion is used to concatenate the results of detectors. We also propose a cycle-based statistical approach for mobile device anomaly detection. We accomplish this by analyzing the users' regular usage patterns. Empirical results suggest that the proposed framework and novel anomaly detection algorithm are highly effective in detecting malware on Android devices.

  18. Une localisation exceptionnelle de la tuberculose vertébrale Mal de Pott sous-occipital

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaoui, Sana; Majdoub, Senda; Zaghouani, Houneida; Fradj, Hosni Ben; Bakir, Dejla; Bouajina, Elyes; Kraiem, Chakib

    2013-01-01

    Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus commune de la tuberculose osseuse touchant essentiellement le rachis dorso-lombaire. La localisation sous-occipitale reste exceptionnelle. Le diagnostic de cette entité est le plus souvent tardif ce qui expose à des complications graves. Les radiographies standard ne sont parlantes qu’à un stade tardif de la maladie, d'où l'intérêt de l'imagerie moderne notamment la tomodensitométrie (TDM) et l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) qui permettent un diagnostic précoce. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de tuberculose sous-occipitale. Le diagnostic était posé sur l'imagerie en coupe et confirmé histologiquement à la biopsie transorale. Sont rappelés les aspects en imagerie de cette localisation particulière du mal de Pott. PMID:23819005

  19. The importance of correct patient positioning in theatres and implications of mal-positioning.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Rimi; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim; Maruthainar, Nimalan

    2010-04-01

    Patient positioning in theatre pertains to how a patient is transferred and positioned for a specific procedure. Patient safety is a central focus of care within the NHS and every healthcare practitioner must ensure that patients are protected from harm where possible. Mal-positioning of the patient has important implications in terms of associated problems of pressure sores, nerve compressions, deep vein thrombosis and compartment syndrome, and should be avoided.

  20. Proof of Concept of the Core Parameter Service Using the CCSDS SM&C MAL Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupart, E.; Steere, S.; Coccoluto, F.; Feliot, D.

    2009-05-01

    Within the context of the Spacecraft Monitoring & Control (SM&C) work group of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), which sees the active participation of 10 space agencies and of the Space Domain Task Force of the Object Management Group (OMG), a service oriented architecture is being defined consisting of a set of standard end-to-end services between functions based on the ground or on-board a spacecraft, that are responsible for mission operations. A specification for the layering service has been agreed upon (see [1], [2], [3], [4]) between the involved space agencies to achieve interoperability at the service level. Mission operation services sit upon a Message Abstract Layer (MAL) which is transport agnostic (see [4]). the CCSDS Message Abstraction Layer (MAL) provides message abstraction and generic service patterns to the Mission Operation Services defined in [1]. The three layers of the Mission Operations Service Framework [1] are The Mission Operations (MO) Layer, The Common Services Layer, and the Message Abstraction Layer (MAL). The CNES has decided to study the implementation of this service oriented architecture on one of its Monitoring & Control applications, called OCTAVE, using the Message Oriented Middleware JORAM. Many Questions arise when trying to migrate existing Monitoring & Control applications towards this standard: Questions concerning the SM&c Standard: Is it possible to have a satifying operational implementation? Is there an over cost due to the richness of data structures? Is the standard complete enough to be used by a project? Questions concerning migration: Is it feasible to migrate the CNES legacy Monitoring & Control System (MCS) "OCTAVE" and if yes how? External Adapters? Internal Adapters? Native SM&C? Is it possible to reduce the impact on our existing legacy application? How to keep existing additional functionalities not covered by SM&C? MAL implementation questions: Is the CNES MAL/Joram reference

  1. Current methods for photodynamic therapy in the US: comparison of MAL/PDT and ALA/PDT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter K; Kloser, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    There is some debate regarding the rate of progression of actinic keratosis (AK) into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).1-4 However, it is clear that treatment for AK lesions is warranted. Results from numerous studies with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of AKs, SCC, and Bowen's disease show high rates of clearance for these lesions. MAL/PDT provides similar efficacy to ALA/PDT with the benefits of shorter incubation times according to the approved FDA labeling, greater selectivity, reduced pain during and immediately following therapy, and fewer systemic side effects. Cosmetic outcomes are better with PDT than with cryosurgery or excisional surgery. A number of case reports show efficacy with ALA/PDT and MAL/PDT for acne, photorejuvenation, and other off-label indications. Side effects with PDT tend to be mild to moderate and transient in nature. Overall, ALA/PDT and MAL/PDT are effective for a variety of skin diseases and conditions. MAL/PDT provides some advantages over ALA/PDT.

  2. The MAL protein is crucial for proper membrane condensation at the ciliary base, which is required for primary cilium elongation.

    PubMed

    Reales, Elena; Bernabé-Rubio, Miguel; Casares-Arias, Javier; Rentero, Carles; Fernández-Barrera, Jaime; Rangel, Laura; Correas, Isabel; Enrich, Carlos; Andrés, Germán; Alonso, Miguel A

    2015-06-15

    The base of the primary cilium contains a zone of condensed membranes whose importance is not known. Here, we have studied the involvement of MAL, a tetraspanning protein that exclusively partitions into condensed membrane fractions, in the condensation of membranes at the ciliary base and investigated the importance of these membranes in primary cilium formation. We show that MAL accumulates at the ciliary base of epithelial MDCK cells. Knockdown of MAL expression resulted in a drastic reduction in the condensation of membranes at the ciliary base, the percentage of ciliated cells and the length of the cilia, but did not affect the docking of the centrosome to the plasma membrane or produce missorting of proteins to the pericentriolar zone or to the membrane of the remaining cilia. Rab8 (for which there are two isoforms, Rab8A and Rab8b), IFT88 and IFT20, which are important components of the machinery of ciliary growth, were recruited normally to the ciliary base of MAL-knockdown cells but were unable to elongate the primary cilium correctly. MAL, therefore, is crucial for the proper condensation of membranes at the ciliary base, which is required for efficient primary cilium extension.

  3. Distinct mechanism of activation of two transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, involved in amylolytic enzyme production in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kuta; Tanaka, Mizuki; Konno, Yui; Ichikawa, Takanori; Ichinose, Sakurako; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-02-01

    The production of amylolytic enzymes in Aspergillus oryzae is induced in the presence of starch or maltose, and two Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, are involved in this regulation. AmyR directly regulates the expression of amylase genes, and MalR controls the expression of maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster genes. Deletion of malR gene resulted in poor growth on starch medium and reduction in α-amylase production level. To elucidate the activation mechanisms of these two transcription factors in amylase production, the expression profiles of amylases and MAL cluster genes under carbon catabolite derepression condition and subcellular localization of these transcription factors fused with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined. Glucose, maltose, and isomaltose induced the expression of amylase genes, and GFP-AmyR was translocated from the cytoplasm to nucleus after the addition of these sugars. Rapid induction of amylase gene expression and nuclear localization of GFP-AmyR by isomaltose suggested that this sugar was the strongest inducer for AmyR activation. In contrast, GFP-MalR was constitutively localized in the nucleus and the expression of MAL cluster genes was induced by maltose, but not by glucose or isomaltose. In the presence of maltose, the expression of amylase genes was preceded by MAL cluster gene expression. Furthermore, deletion of the malR gene resulted in a significant decrease in the α-amylase activity induced by maltose, but had apparently no effect on the expression of α-amylase genes in the presence of isomaltose. These results suggested that activation of AmyR and MalR is regulated in a different manner, and the preceding activation of MalR is essential for the utilization of maltose as an inducer for AmyR activation.

  4. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy.

  5. Methods of analysis of enteropathogen infection in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Kosek, Margaret; Pan, William K; Checkley, William; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-11-01

    Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study was designed to evaluate, via intensive community surveillance, the hypothesis that repeated exposure to enteropathogens has a detrimental effect on growth, vaccine response, and cognitive development, which are the primary outcome measures for this study. In the setting of multiple outcomes of interest, a longitudinal cohort design was chosen. Because many or even the majority of enteric infections are asymptomatic, the collection of asymptomatic surveillance stools was a critical element. However, capturing diarrheal stools additionally allowed for the determination of the principle causes of diarrhea at the community level as well as for a comparison between those enteropathogens associated with diarrhea and those that are associated with poor growth, diminished vaccine response, and impaired cognitive development. Here, we discuss the analytical methods proposed for the MAL-ED study to determine the principal causes of diarrhea at the community level and describe the complex interplay between recurrent exposure to enteropathogens and these critical long-term outcomes.

  6. Assessment of environmental enteropathy in the MAL-ED cohort study: theoretical and analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world.

  7. Assessment of Environmental Enteropathy in the MAL-ED Cohort Study: Theoretical and Analytic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A.; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C.; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

  8. Establishment of the MAL-ED birth cohort study site in Vellore, Southern India.

    PubMed

    John, Sushil M; Thomas, Rahul J; Kaki, Shiny; Sharma, Srujan L; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Raghava, Mohan V; Koshy, Beena; Bose, Anuradha; Rose, Anuradha; Rose, Winsley; Ramachandran, Anup; Joseph, A J; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-11-01

    The Indian Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) site is in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, in south India and is coordinated by the Christian Medical College, Vellore, which has many years of experience in establishing and following cohorts. India is a diverse country, and no single area can be representative with regard to many health and socioeconomic indicators. The site in Vellore is an urban semiorganized settlement or slum. In the study site, the average family size is 5.7, adults who are gainfully employed are mostly unskilled laborers, and 51% of the population uses the field as their toilet facility. Previous studies from Vellore slums have reported stunting in well over a third of children, comparable to national estimates. The infant mortality rate is 38 per 1000 live births, with deaths due mainly to perinatal and infectious causes. Rigorous staff training, monitoring, supervision and refinement of tools have been essential to maintaining the quality of the significantly large quantity of data collected. Establishing a field clinic within the site has minimized inconvenience to participants and researchers and enabled better rapport with the community and better follow-up. These factors contribute to the wealth of information that will be generated from the MAL-ED multisite cohort, which will improve our understanding of enteric infections and its interactions with malnutrition and development of young children.

  9. Assessment of environmental enteropathy in the MAL-ED cohort study: theoretical and analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

  10. Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Richard, Stephanie A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Miller, Mark A; Caulfield, Laura E; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is to identify specific risk factors associated with growth faltering during the first 2 years of life; however, growth in early childhood is challenging to characterize because growth may be inherently nonlinear with age. In this manuscript, we describe some methods for analyzing longitudinal growth to evaluate both short- and long-term associations between risk factors and growth trajectories over the first 2 years of life across 8 resource-limited settings using harmonized protocols. We expect there will be enough variability within and between sites in the prevalence of risk factors and burden of linear growth faltering to allow us to distinguish some of the key pathways to linear growth faltering in the MAL-ED study. PMID:25305295

  11. Methods of analysis of enteropathogen infection in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Kosek, Margaret; Pan, William K; Checkley, William; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-11-01

    Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study was designed to evaluate, via intensive community surveillance, the hypothesis that repeated exposure to enteropathogens has a detrimental effect on growth, vaccine response, and cognitive development, which are the primary outcome measures for this study. In the setting of multiple outcomes of interest, a longitudinal cohort design was chosen. Because many or even the majority of enteric infections are asymptomatic, the collection of asymptomatic surveillance stools was a critical element. However, capturing diarrheal stools additionally allowed for the determination of the principle causes of diarrhea at the community level as well as for a comparison between those enteropathogens associated with diarrhea and those that are associated with poor growth, diminished vaccine response, and impaired cognitive development. Here, we discuss the analytical methods proposed for the MAL-ED study to determine the principal causes of diarrhea at the community level and describe the complex interplay between recurrent exposure to enteropathogens and these critical long-term outcomes. PMID:25305292

  12. Aberrant methylation of LINE-1, SLIT2, MAL and IGFBP7 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Shiraishi, Kenji; Eguchi, Ayami; Ikeda, Koei; Mori, Takeshi; Yoshimoto, Kentaro; Ohba, Yasuomi; Yamada, Tatsuya; Ito, Takaaki; Baba, Yoshifumi; Baba, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation and gene hypermethylation play important roles in instability and carcino-genesis. Methylation in long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1) is a good indicator of the global DNA methylation level within a cell. Slit homolog 2 (SLIT2), myelin and lymphocyte protein gene (MAL) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) are known to be hypermethylated in various malignancies. The aim of the present study was to assess the precise methylation levels of LINE-1, SLIT2, MAL and IGFBP7 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a pyrosequencing assay. Methylation of all regions was examined in 56 primary NSCLCs using a pyrosequencing assay. Changes in mRNA expression levels of SLIT2, MAL and IGFBP7 were measured before and after treatment with a demethylating agent. Methylation of these genes was also examined in 9 lung cancer cell lines using RT-PCR and a pyrosequencing assay. Frequencies of hypomethylation of LINE-1 and hypermethylation of SLIT2, MAL and IGFBP7, defined by predetermined cut off values, were 55, 64, 46 and 54% in NSCLCs, respectively and exhibited tumor-specific features. The hypermethylation of all genes was well correlated with changes in expression. The methylation level and frequency of MAL were significantly higher in smokers and in patients without EGFR mutations. Through accurate measurement of methylation levels using pyrosequencing, hypomethylation of LINE-1 and hypermethylation of SLIT2, MAL and IGFBP7 were frequently detected in NSCLCs and associated with various clinical features. Analysis of the methylation profiles of these genes may, therefore, provide novel opportunities for the therapy of NSCLCs.

  13. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

  14. Enhanced leavening properties of baker's yeast overexpressing MAL62 with deletion of MIG1 in lean dough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cuiying; Dong, Jian; Wu, Mingyue; Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to increase maltose fermentation in industrial baker's yeast to increase its leavening properties. To this end, we overexpressed MAL62 encoding alpha-glucosidase (maltase) and deleted MIG1 encoding a transcriptional repressor that regulates MAL gene expression. Strain overexpressing MAL62 showed 46.3 % higher alpha-glucosidase activity and enhanced leaving activity than the parental strain when tested in glucose-maltose low sugar model liquid dough (LSMLD). Deleting MIG1 was much less effective, but it could further strengthen leavening properties in a strain overexpressing MAL62. The relationship between maltose permease and alpha-glucosidase was further dissected by transforming the two genes. The results indicated that without increasing the maltose permease activity, maltose metabolism could also be enhanced by the increased alpha-glucosidase activity. Previous strategies for strain improvement have targeted the enhancement of alpha-glucosidase and maltose permease activities in concert. Our results suggest that increasing alpha-glucosidase activity is sufficient to improve maltose fermentation in lean dough.

  15. Comparative in vivo study of precursors of PpIX (ALA and MAL) used topically in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, Raquel F.; Inada, Natalia M.; Ferreira, Juliana; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) combined with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in treatment of cancer has been studied for over ten years. However, there is no established dose for the topical use of these drugs in PDT. The purpose of this study was the comparison of induced PDT response of ALAsense (5-aminolevulinic acid - ALA) and Metvix (methyl aminolevulinate - MAL). Depth of necrosis induced by PDT was analyzed in normal liver of male Wistar rats, using different light doses and topical application of both PpIX precursors - ALA and MAL. PDT was performed with a diode laser at 630 nm with different doses of light (20, 50, 100 and 200 J/cm2), and intensity of 250 mW/cm2. Depth of necrosis analysis was used to calculate the threshold dose for each drug. The results showed that MAL-PDT presented a better response than ALA-PDT, mainly due to formulation differences. Moreover, the ability of the ALA PpIX production was more efficient.

  16. SmartMal: A Service-Oriented Behavioral Malware Detection Framework for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhizhong; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Wang, Aili; Hung, Patrick C. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents SmartMal—a novel service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for vehicular and mobile devices. The highlight of SmartMal is to introduce service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and behavior analysis into the malware detection paradigms. The proposed framework relies on client-server architecture, the client continuously extracts various features and transfers them to the server, and the server's main task is to detect anomalies using state-of-art detection algorithms. Multiple distributed servers simultaneously analyze the feature vector using various detectors and information fusion is used to concatenate the results of detectors. We also propose a cycle-based statistical approach for mobile device anomaly detection. We accomplish this by analyzing the users' regular usage patterns. Empirical results suggest that the proposed framework and novel anomaly detection algorithm are highly effective in detecting malware on Android devices. PMID:25165729

  17. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: A Rare Entity—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nwagwu, Veronica; Patel, Rakesh; Okudo, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MDS) is a rare, understudied, underdiagnosed, and self-limiting condition. Etiology and incidence are unknown. It is characterized by abnormal sensation of motion/balance reported after travel by air, land, and sea; being reexposed to motion/activity relieves it. Symptoms may last from minutes to years. Workup though required reveals no findings; it is a diagnosis of exclusion. While no efficacious treatment exists, amitriptyline and benzodiazepines as well as supportive therapy have proved to be useful. We have described a 40-year-old Caucasian female who presented for the evaluation of persistent rocking and swaying sensation after a ship cruise which lasted for one week. Patient was treated with benzodiazepines after extensive workup and is now stable. A high index of suspicion is required to make a diagnosis. PMID:26346344

  18. Infant Feeding Practices, Dietary Adequacy, and Micronutrient Status Measures in the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Bose, Anuradha; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Turab, Ali; Patil, Crystal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intakes on the development of malnutrition, poor cognitive development, and diminished immune response. The use of 8 distinct sites for data collection from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia allow for an examination of these relationships across different environmental contexts. Key to testing study hypotheses is the collection of appropriate data to characterize the dietary intakes and nutritional status of study children from birth through 24 months of age. The focus of the current article is on the collection of data to describe the nature and adequacy of infant feeding, energy and nutrient intakes, and the chosen indicators to capture micronutrient status in children over time. PMID:25305294

  19. Infant feeding practices, dietary adequacy, and micronutrient status measures in the MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E; Bose, Anuradha; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Turab, Ali; Patil, Crystal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-11-01

    The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intakes on the development of malnutrition, poor cognitive development, and diminished immune response. The use of 8 distinct sites for data collection from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia allow for an examination of these relationships across different environmental contexts. Key to testing study hypotheses is the collection of appropriate data to characterize the dietary intakes and nutritional status of study children from birth through 24 months of age. The focus of the current article is on the collection of data to describe the nature and adequacy of infant feeding, energy and nutrient intakes, and the chosen indicators to capture micronutrient status in children over time. PMID:25305294

  20. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. PMID:25305301

  1. Folding pathway of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate C-S lyase MalY from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Mariarita; Cellini, Barbara; Laurents, Douglas V; Borri Voltattorni, Carla

    2005-08-01

    MalY from Escherichia coli is a bifunctional dimeric PLP (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate) enzyme acting as a beta-cystathionase and as a repressor of the maltose system. The spectroscopic and molecular properties of the holoenzyme, in the untreated and NaBH4-treated forms, and of the apoenzyme have been elucidated. A systematic study of the urea-induced unfolding of MalY has been monitored by gel filtration, cross-linking, ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulphonic acid) binding and by visible, near- and far-UV CD, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopies under equilibrium conditions. Unfolding proceeds in at least three stages. The first transition, occurring between 0 and 1 M urea, gives rise to a partially active dimeric species that binds PLP. The second equilibrium transition involving dimer dissociation, release of PLP and loss of lyase activity leads to the formation of a monomeric equilibrium intermediate. It is a partially unfolded molecule that retains most of the native-state secondary structure, binds significant amounts of ANS (a probe for exposed hydrophobic surfaces) and tends to self-associate. The self-associated aggregates predominate at urea concentrations of 2-4 M for holoMalY. The third step represents the complete unfolding of the enzyme. These results when compared with the urea-induced unfolding profiles of apoMalY and NaBH4-reduced holoenzyme suggest that the coenzyme group attached to the active-site lysine residue increases the stability of the dimeric enzyme. Both holo- and apo-MalY could be successfully refolded into the active enzyme with an 85% yield. Further refolding studies suggest that large misfolded soluble aggregates that cannot be refolded could be responsible for the incomplete re-activation. PMID:15823094

  2. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  3. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  4. The elastic, electronic and magnetism structure of the MAl and M3Al (M=Fe and Ni) alloy with and without hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The energetic stability, electronic and magnetism of the MAl, M3Al alloy (M=Fe, Ni) and variant surfaces of MAl (001) with and without hydrogen atoms are investigated by utilizing DFT and GGA as the exchange-correlation potential. All presented alloys with and without the H atom absorption is found elastically and thermodynamically stable. The calculated absorption energy shows that H is more energetically stable in the bridge and octahedral site in MAl and M3Al alloys, respectively. Hydrogen atoms absorption is expanded and brittle the studied host alloys. The ability of absorption of H atom at more than one site in the MAl alloy is found energetically and thermodynamically stable. The H adsorption on the variant surfaces of MAl (001) is predicted too. Fourfold and top sites are found more energetically stable to adsorbed the H atom on the above surface layer of H/MAl-M and H/MAl-Al, respectively. The obvious changes are observed in the interlayer spacing for studied surfaces which yields to decrease the LDOS and magnetic moments of the surface and subsurface layers.

  5. Performance of the OptiMAL assay for detection and identification of malaria infections in asymptomatic residents of Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fryauff, D J; Purnomo; Sutamihardja, M A; Elyazar, I R; Susanti, I; Krisin; Subianto, B; Marwoto, H

    2000-01-01

    The OptiMAL assay, a new immunochromatographic "dipstick" test for malaria based on detection of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), is purported to detect infections of approximately 200 parasites/microL of blood and to differentiate between Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum. We evaluated OptiMAL performance by comparing the test strip interpretations of two independent readers with consensus results obtained independently by expert malaria microscopists. Unbiased measures of sensitivity were derived by applying the OptiMAL test for detection and differentiation of light, asymptomatic infections by P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. OptiMAL readings were separated in time to determine whether the reaction signal was stable. Microscopy identified infections in 225 of 505 individuals screened; those with P. falciparum (n = 170) averaged 354 asexual forms/microL and P. vivax/Plasmodium malariae (n = 112) averaged 216 asexual forms/microL of blood. Concordance between OptiMAL and microscopy was 81% and 78% by the two independent readings. The assay's sensitivity for detection of any malaria species was 60.4% and 70.2% respectively and specificity was 97% and 89%. Most cases identified by microscopy as P. falciparum were graded as negative or non-falciparum by both OptiMAL readers. OptiMAL false negatives as well as misidentifications were related to low parasitemias (< 500/microL). The OptiMAL assay demonstrated 88-92% sensitivity for detecting infections of 500-1,000 parasites/microL, a range covering the mean parasitemia of primary symptomatic P. falciparum infections in malaria-naïve Indonesian transmigrants. This device was markedly less sensitive than expert microscopy for discriminating between malaria species and is presently unsuited for use as an epidemiological screening tool. The OptiMAL assay is not approved for diagnostic use but is commercially available for research purposes only.

  6. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  7. « Les fleurs du MAL » une méthode d'ondelettes adaptive de lignes arbitraires I : problèmes de convection diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaoan; Xanthis, Leonidas S.

    2004-01-01

    Baudelaire's 'les fleurs du mal' refers to various new developments ('les fleurs') of the method ofarbitrarylines ( mal), since it was first published (in C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. I, in 1991). Here we revisit the basic mal (semi-discretization) methodology for stationary convection-diffusion problems and develop an adaptive, wavelet-based solver that is capable of capturing the thin layers that arise in such problems. We show the efficacy and high accuracy of the wavelet-mal solver by applying it to a challenging 2D problem involving both boundary and interior layers. To cite this article: X. Ren, L.S. Xanthis, C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

  8. Differential effects of petit mal anticonvulsants and convulsants on thalamic neurones: GABA current blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, D. A.; Huguenard, J. R.; Prince, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Currents evoked by applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to acutely dissociated thalamic neurones were analysed by voltage-clamp techniques, and the effects of the anticonvulsant succinimides ethosuximide (ES) and alpha-methyl-alpha-phenylsuccinimide (MPS) and the convulsants tetramethylsuccinimide (TMS), picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and bicuculline methiodide were assessed. 2. TMS (1 microM-10 microM) reduced responses to iontophoretically applied GABA, as did picrotoxin (0.1-100 microM), PTZ (1-100 mM) and bicuculline (1-100 microM). 3. ES, in high concentrations (1-10 mM), reduced GABA responses to a lesser extent, and also occluded the reductions in GABA-evoked currents produced by TMS, picrotoxin, and PTZ. ES did not occlude the effects of bicuculline on GABA responses. Therefore, we propose that ES acts as a partial agonist at the picrotoxin GABA-blocking receptor. 4. MPS had no effect on GABA responses (at a concentration of 1 mM), and, like ES, occluded the GABA-blocking actions of TMS, apparently acting as a full antagonist. 5. The anticonvulsant actions of ES and MPS against TMS and PTZ-induced seizures may thus involve two independent mechanisms: (1) the occlusion of TMS and PTZ GABA-blocking effects; and (2) the previously described specific effect of ES and MPS on low-threshold calcium current of thalamic neurones. The latter cellular mechanism may be more closely related to petit mal anticonvulsant activity. PMID:2119843

  9. Determinants of road traffic injury among adult motorcyclists in Malé, Maldives.

    PubMed

    Waseela, Mariyam; Laosee, Orapin

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the incidence of nonfatal road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Malé, the capital city of the Maldives, and identifies risk factors associated with RTIs. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among young adult motorcyclists in 3 public areas. A total of 350 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to the motorcycle riders who visited the study areas between December 2012 and January 2013. The incidence of RTIs for the previous 12 months was 39.8% among the 294 respondents who returned a completed questionnaire. About half (49.6%) of those were caused by the riders. The majority of riders were male (96.6%). None of the motorcycle riders wore a helmet. RTIs had a significant association with sex, age, and attitude. Young riders were 1.6 times more likely to be involved in an RTI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94-2.95). Having a negative attitude about road safety was a risk factor of RTIs (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.11-3.03). Based on the results of the present study, it is important to promote safe riding attitudes in young riders. PMID:24958612

  10. Santa Clara de Nanay: the MAL-ED cohort in Peru.

    PubMed

    Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Lee, Gwenyth; Olórtegui, Maribel Paredes; Chávez, César Banda; Flores, Julian Torres; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Burga, Rosa; Pinedo, Silvia Rengifo; Asayag, César Ramal; Black, Robert E; Caulfield, Laura E; Kosek, Margaret

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study communities in Peru are located in Loreto province, in a rural area 15 km from the city of Iquitos. This riverine population of approximately 5000 individuals is fairly representative of Loreto. The province lags behind the rest of the country in access to water and sanitation, per capita income, and key health indicators including infant mortality (43.0 vs 16.0 per 1000 nationwide) and under-5 mortality (60.6 vs 21.0 per 1000). Total fertility rates are higher than elsewhere in the country (4.3 vs 2.6). Nationwide, the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is estimated at 0.45%, the prevalence of tuberculosis is 117 per 100 000, and the incidence of malaria is 258 per 100 000. Stunting in this community is high, whereas acute undernutrition is relatively uncommon. The population suffers from high rates of diarrheal disease. Prevalent enteric pathogens include Ascaris, Giardia, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Campylobacter.

  11. Disease surveillance methods used in the 8-site MAL-ED cohort study.

    PubMed

    Richard, Stephanie A; Barrett, Leah J; Guerrant, Richard L; Checkley, William; Miller, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    Describing the early life associations between infectious disease episodes and growth, cognitive development, and vaccine response in the first 2 years of life is one of the primary goals of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study. To collect high-resolution data during a critical early period of development, field staff visit each study participant at their house twice weekly from birth to 2 years of age to collect daily reported illness and treatment data from caregivers. Detailed infectious disease histories will not only allow us to relate the overall burden of infectious disease with the primary outcomes of the study, but will also allow us to describe the ages at which infectious diseases have the greatest effect on child health. In addition, twice-weekly visits allow for sample collection when diarrhea episodes are identified. This article describes the methods used to collect illness and treatment history data and discusses the a priori definitions of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness episodes. PMID:25305290

  12. Effect of component mal-rotation on knee loading in total knee arthroplasty using multi-body dynamics modeling under a simulated walking gait.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenxian; Wang, Ling; Liu, Yaxiong; He, Jiankang; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2015-09-01

    Mal-rotation of the components in total knee arthorplasty (TKA) is a major cause of postoperative complications, with an increased propensity for implant loosening or wear leading to revision. A musculoskeletal multi-body dynamics model was used to perform a parametric study of the effects of the rotational mal-alignments in TKA on the knee loading under a simulated walking gait. The knee contact forces were found to be more sensitive to variations in the varus-valgus rotation of both the tibial and the femoral components and the internal-external rotation of the femoral component in TKA. The varus-valgus mal-rotation of the tibial or femoral component and the internal-external mal-rotation of the femoral component with a 5° variation were found to affect the peak medial contact force by 17.8-53.1%, the peak lateral contact force by 35.0-88.4% and the peak total contact force by 5.2-18.7%. Our findings support the clinical observations that a greater than 3° internal mal-rotation of the femoral component may lead to unsatisfactory pain levels and a greater than 3° varus mal-rotation of the tibial component may lead to medial bone collapse. These findings determined the quantitative effects of the mal-rotation of the components in TKA on the contact load. The effect of such mal-rotation of the components of TKA on the kinematics would be further addressed in future studies.

  13. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy.

  14. Modern analytics for synthetically derived complex drug substances: NMR, AFFF-MALS, and MS tests for glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Sarah; Pang, Eric; Sommers, Cynthia; Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic copolymers consisting of four amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine) with a labeled molecular weight range of 5000 to 9000 Da. GA is marketed as Copaxone™ by Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the agency has evaluated the structure and composition of GA and a commercially available comparator, Copolymer-1. Modern analytical technologies which can characterize these complex mixtures are desirable for analysis of their comparability and structural "sameness." In the studies herein, a molecular fingerprinting approach is taken using mass-accurate mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D-(1)H-NMR, 1D-(13)C-NMR, and 2D NMR), and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for an in-depth characterization of three lots of the marketplace drug and a formulated sample of the comparator. Statistical analyses were applied to the MS and AFFF-MALS data to assess these methods' ability to detect analytical differences in the mixtures. The combination of multiple orthogonal measurements by liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS), AFFF-MALS, and NMR on the same sample set was found to be fit for the intended purpose of distinguishing analytical differences between these complex mixtures of peptide chains.

  15. Modern analytics for synthetically derived complex drug substances: NMR, AFFF-MALS, and MS tests for glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Sarah; Pang, Eric; Sommers, Cynthia; Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic copolymers consisting of four amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine) with a labeled molecular weight range of 5000 to 9000 Da. GA is marketed as Copaxone™ by Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the agency has evaluated the structure and composition of GA and a commercially available comparator, Copolymer-1. Modern analytical technologies which can characterize these complex mixtures are desirable for analysis of their comparability and structural "sameness." In the studies herein, a molecular fingerprinting approach is taken using mass-accurate mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D-(1)H-NMR, 1D-(13)C-NMR, and 2D NMR), and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for an in-depth characterization of three lots of the marketplace drug and a formulated sample of the comparator. Statistical analyses were applied to the MS and AFFF-MALS data to assess these methods' ability to detect analytical differences in the mixtures. The combination of multiple orthogonal measurements by liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS), AFFF-MALS, and NMR on the same sample set was found to be fit for the intended purpose of distinguishing analytical differences between these complex mixtures of peptide chains. PMID:26458562

  16. Sequential and compartmentalized action of Rabs, SNAREs, and MAL in the apical delivery of fusiform vesicles in urothelial umbrella cells

    PubMed Central

    Wankel, Bret; Ouyang, Jiangyong; Guo, Xuemei; Hadjiolova, Krassimira; Miller, Jeremy; Liao, Yi; Tham, Daniel Kai Long; Romih, Rok; Andrade, Leonardo R.; Gumper, Iwona; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Sachdeva, Rakhee; Tolmachova, Tanya; Seabra, Miguel C.; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Hong, Wan Jin; Sabatini, David D.; Wu, Xue-Ru; Kong, Xiangpeng; Kreibich, Gert; Rindler, Michael J.; Sun, Tung-Tien

    2016-01-01

    Uroplakins (UPs) are major differentiation products of urothelial umbrella cells and play important roles in forming the permeability barrier and in the expansion/stabilization of the apical membrane. Further, UPIa serves as a uropathogenic Escherichia coli receptor. Although it is understood that UPs are delivered to the apical membrane via fusiform vesicles (FVs), the mechanisms that regulate this exocytic pathway remain poorly understood. Immunomicroscopy of normal and mutant mouse urothelia show that the UP-delivering FVs contained Rab8/11 and Rab27b/Slac2-a, which mediate apical transport along actin filaments. Subsequently a Rab27b/Slp2-a complex mediated FV–membrane anchorage before SNARE-mediated and MAL-facilitated apical fusion. We also show that keratin 20 (K20), which forms a chicken-wire network ∼200 nm below the apical membrane and has hole sizes allowing FV passage, defines a subapical compartment containing FVs primed and strategically located for fusion. Finally, we show that Rab8/11 and Rab27b function in the same pathway, Rab27b knockout leads to uroplakin and Slp2-a destabilization, and Rab27b works upstream from MAL. These data support a unifying model in which UP cargoes are targeted for apical insertion via sequential interactions with Rabs and their effectors, SNAREs and MAL, and in which K20 plays a key role in regulating vesicular trafficking. PMID:27009205

  17. Investigation of the physical properties of the tetragonal CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Williams, D. J.; Scott, B. L.; Luo, Yongkang; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties studied by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic, thermal and transport measurements of CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) are reported, along with the electronic structure calculations for LaMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt). These materials adopt a tetragonal crystal structure (space group P4/mmm) comprised of BaAl4 blocks, separated by MAl2 units, stacked along the c-axis. Both CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2 order antiferromagnetically below TN1 = 14 and 16 K, respectively, and undergo a second antiferromagnetic transitition at lower temperature (TN2 = 9 and 14 K, respectively). CePtAl4Si2 orders ferromagnetically below TC = 3 Kmore » with an ordered moment of μsat = 0.8 μB for a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the c-axis. Electronic structure calculations reveal quasi-2D character of the Fermi surface.« less

  18. Public Sector Impasse Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadakin, James C.

    The subject of collective bargaining negotiation impasse procedures in the public sector, which includes public school systems, is a broad one. In this speech, the author introduces the various procedures, explains how they are used, and lists their advantages and disadvantages. Procedures discussed are mediation, fact-finding, arbitration,…

  19. Readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex relieves the mal de debarquement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingjia; Cohen, Bernard; Smouha, Eric; Cho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS), a continuous feeling of swaying, rocking, and/or bobbing, generally follows travel on the sea. The associated symptoms cause considerable distress. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown, and to date there have been no effective treatments for this condition. Results in monkeys and humans suggested that MdDS was caused by maladaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) to roll of the head during rotation. We studied 24 subjects with persistent MdDS (3 males, 21 females; 19.1 ± 33 months). Physical findings included body oscillation at 0.2 Hz, oscillating vertical nystagmus when the head was rolled from side-to-side in darkness, and unilateral rotation during the Fukuda stepping test. We posited that the maladapted rocking and the physical symptoms could be diminished or extinguished by readapting the VOR. Subjects were treated by rolling the head from side-to-side while watching a rotating full-field visual stimulus. Seventeen of the 24 subjects had a complete or substantial recovery on average for approximately 1 year. Six were initially better, but the symptoms recurred. One subject did not respond to treatment. Thus, readaptation of the VOR has led to a cure or substantial improvement in 70% of the subjects with MdDS. We conclude that the adaptive processes associated with roll-while-rotating are responsible for producing MdDS, and that the symptoms can be reduced or resolved by readapting the VOR.

  20. Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Crystal L; Turab, Ali; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Bose, Anuradha; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Caulfield, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    We report the infant feeding experiences in the first month of life for 2,053 infants participating in "Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development" (MAL-ED). Eight sites (in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania), each followed a cohort of children from birth (by day 17), collecting detailed information on infant feeding practices, diet and illness episodes. Mothers were queried twice weekly regarding health status, breastfeeding and the introduction (or no) of non-breast milk liquids and foods. Here, our goal is to describe the early infant feeding practices in the cohort and evaluate factors associated with termination of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. With data from enrollment to a visit at 28-33 days of life, we characterized exclusive, predominant or partial breastfeeding (using a median of 6-9 visits per child across the sites). Only 6 of 2,053 infants were never breastfed. By one month, the prevalences of exclusive breastfeeding were < 60% in 6 of 8 sites, and of partial breastfeeding (or no) were > 20% in 6 of 8 sites. Logistic regression revealed that prelacteal feeding (given to 4-63% of infants) increased the likelihood of partial breastfeeding (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.10), as did the withholding of colostrum (2-16% of infants) (OR: 1.63:1.01, 2.62), and being a first-time mother (OR: 1.38:1.10, 1.75). Our results reveal diversity across these sites, but an overall trend of early transition away from exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. Interventions which introduce or reinforce the WHO/UNICEF Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding are needed in these sites to improve breastfeeding initiation, to reinforce exclusive breastfeeding and delay introduction of non-breast milk foods and/or liquids. PMID:26825923

  1. Readaptation of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Relieves the Mal De Debarquement Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingjia; Cohen, Bernard; Smouha, Eric; Cho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS), a continuous feeling of swaying, rocking, and/or bobbing, generally follows travel on the sea. The associated symptoms cause considerable distress. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown, and to date there have been no effective treatments for this condition. Results in monkeys and humans suggested that MdDS was caused by maladaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) to roll of the head during rotation. We studied 24 subjects with persistent MdDS (3 males, 21 females; 19.1 ± 33 months). Physical findings included body oscillation at 0.2 Hz, oscillating vertical nystagmus when the head was rolled from side-to-side in darkness, and unilateral rotation during the Fukuda stepping test. We posited that the maladapted rocking and the physical symptoms could be diminished or extinguished by readapting the VOR. Subjects were treated by rolling the head from side-to-side while watching a rotating full-field visual stimulus. Seventeen of the 24 subjects had a complete or substantial recovery on average for approximately 1 year. Six were initially better, but the symptoms recurred. One subject did not respond to treatment. Thus, readaptation of the VOR has led to a cure or substantial improvement in 70% of the subjects with MdDS. We conclude that the adaptive processes associated with roll-while-rotating are responsible for producing MdDS, and that the symptoms can be reduced or resolved by readapting the VOR. PMID:25076935

  2. Particular Mal de Meleda phenotypes in Tunisia and mutations founder effect in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Bchetnia, Mbarka; Laroussi, Nadia; Youssef, Monia; Charfeddine, Cherine; Ben Brick, Ahlem Sabrine; Boubaker, Mohamed Samir; Mokni, Mourad; Abdelhak, Sonia; Zili, Jameleddine; Benmously, Rym

    2013-01-01

    Mal de Meleda (MDM) is a rare, autosomal recessive form of palmoplantar keratoderma. It is characterized by erythema and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles that progressively extend to the dorsal surface of the hands and feet. It is caused by mutations in SLURP-1 gene encoding for secreted mammalian Ly-6/uPAR-related protein 1 (SLURP-1). We performed mutational analysis by direct sequencing of SLURP-1 gene in order to identify the genetic defect in three unrelated families (families MDM-12, MDM-13, and MDM-14) variably affected with transgressive palmoplantar keratoderma. A spectrum of clinical presentations with variable features has been observed from the pronounced to the transparent hyperkeratosis. We identified the 82delT frame shift mutation in the SLURP-1 gene in both families MDM-12 and MDM-13 and the missense variation p.Cys99Tyr in family MDM-14. To date, the 82delT variation is the most frequent cause of MDM in the world which is in favour of a recurrent molecular defect. The p.Cys99Tyr variation is only described in Tunisian families making evidence of founder effect mutation of likely Tunisian origin. Our patients presented with very severe to relatively mild phenotypes, including multiple keratolytic pits observed for one patient in the hyperkeratotic area which was not previously reported. The phenotypic variability may reflect the influence of additional factors on disease characteristics. This report further expands the spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with mutations in SLURP1 in the Mediterranean population.

  3. Employment in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report synthesizes the findings from several areas of work undertaken to assess what impact public sector employment has had on both the level and structure of employment. It also examines the impact of the public sector as employer on the labor market from two viewpoints: the level and share of public sector employment and the structure of…

  4. The Hale solar sector boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A Hale solar sector boundary is defined as the half (Northern Hemisphere or Southern Hemisphere) of a sector boundary in which the change of sector magnetic field polarity is the same as the change of polarity from a preceding spot to a following spot. Above a Hale sector boundary the green corona has maximum brightness, while above a non-Hale boundary the green corona has a minimum brightness. The Hale portion of a photospheric sector boundary tends to have maximum magnetic field strength, while the non-Hale portion has minimum field strength.

  5. [Materials for construction sector].

    PubMed

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  6. Tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (mal de Pott exclu): à propos de 120 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Koné, Samba; Ouali, Boubacar; Djaha, Kouassi Jean -Mermoz; Akoli, Ekoya Ondzala; Nseng, Ingrid Nseng; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean Claude; Touré, Stanislas André; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (TOA) représente 2 à 5% de l'ensemble des tuberculoses. Elle demeure d'actualité surtout dans les pays à forte endémicité tuberculeuse. L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence, les aspects topographiques, radiologiques de la TOA en milieu hospitalier ivoirien. Méthodes Les auteurs rapportent une expérience de 11 ans, à travers une étude rétrospective de 120 dossiers de patients atteints de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (le mal de Pott est exclu de cette étude). N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Résultats L'atteinte extra vertébrale représentait 09,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Il s'agissait de 54 hommes et 66 femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,13 ans. On notait 123 cas d'ostéoarthrites, et 8 cas d'ostéites des os plats. L'atteinte des membres inférieurs prédominait dans 91,87% des cas. La hanche était la première localisation (45,04%), suivie du genou (25,19%). Les atteintes étaient multifocales dans 20% des cas. L'atteinte osseuse était associée à une tuberculose pulmonaire dans 05,83% des cas. Des localisations inhabituelles ont été rapportées: poignet (n = 2), branches ischiopubiennes (n = 4), atteinte sternoclaviculaire (n = 4), médiopieds (n = 2). Les lésions radiologiques étaient avancées (stades III et IV) dans 55,73% des cas. A la TDM, la prévalence des abcès était de 77%. Un geste chirurgical a été réalisé sur 16 articulations (2 épaules, 13 genoux, une cheville). Conclusion La TOA des membres est peu fréquente contrairement à l'atteinte vertébrale. La hanche est la principale localisation. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions anatomoradiologiques. PMID:26587129

  7. EJERCICIO Y LA DETECCION DEL MAL AGUDO DE MONTAÑA GRAVE

    PubMed Central

    Garófoli, Adrián; Montoya, Paola; Elías, Carlos; Benzo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    El Mal Agudo de Montaña (MAM) es un conjunto de síntomas inespecíficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden rápidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimatación. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral) pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo está relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompaña de mayor hipoxemia y síntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudió el valor predictivo de la saturación de oxígeno en reposo y ejercicio submáximo a 2 700m y 4 300m en 63 sujetos que ascendían al cerro Aconcagua (6 962m). Se consideró desaturación de oxígeno con ejercicio a una disminución >=5% respecto al reposo. Se utilizó la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. 6 sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5%) y requirieron evacuación. La saturación de oxígeno en reposo a 2 700m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociación de desaturación durante el ejercicio a 2 700m más la saturación inapropiada en reposo a 4 300m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el montañismo y sugieren la adición de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicción del MAM grave. PMID:20228017

  8. Surface modification of MAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors to enhance water resistance by combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Suqing; Xue, Zhiping; Yang, Qu; Liu, Yingliang; Lei, Bingfu; Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Mingtao

    2013-10-01

    A facile combustion method was introduced into surface modification of MAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors to improve their water resistance. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), pH measurements and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometry were used to characterize the phosphors before and after modification, respectively. Experimental results showed that compact layer of MAl2B2O7 (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) substance was formed on the surface of aluminate phosphors by direct chemical reaction between aluminate and boracic acid. MAl2B2O7 (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) substance is chemically stable in water and could improve water resistance of aluminate phosphors effectively with little influence of luminescence property. It was considered that the versatility of combustion method for surface modification of aluminate phosphors has been confirmed.

  9. Alternative splicing of human T-cell-specific MAL mRNA and its correlation with the exon/intron organization of the gene

    SciTech Connect

    Rancano, C.; Rubio, T.; Alonso, M.A. )

    1994-05-15

    Sequence analysis of the T-cell-specific MAL gene revealed four exons, each encoding a hydrophobic, presumably membrane-associated, segment and its adjacent hydrophilic sequence. Amplification by the polymerase chain reaction of cDNA from different T-cell samples indicated the existence of four different forms of MAL mRNA, termed MAL-a, -b, -c, and -d, that arise from differential usage of exons II and/or III. As the three introns were located between complete codons, the reading frame was maintained in all the transcripts. A model resembling the structures postulated for different proteolipid proteins is proposed for the protein encoded by each alternative mRNA species. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Mal3, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog of EB1, is required for karyogamy and for promoting oscillatory nuclear movement during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Polakova, Silvia; Benko, Zsigmond; Zhang, Lijuan; Gregan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Two successive rounds of chromosome segregation following a single round of DNA replication enable the production of haploid gametes during meiosis. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, karyogamy is the process where the nuclei from 2 haploid cells fuse to create a diploid nucleus, which then undergoes meiosis to produce 4 haploid spores. By screening a collection of S. pombe deletion strains, we found that the deletion of 2 genes, mal3 and mto1, leads to the production of asci containing up to 8 spores. Here, we show that Mal3, the fission yeast member of the EB1 family of conserved microtubule plus-end tracking proteins, is required for karyogamy, oscillatory nuclear movement, and proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. In the absence of Mal3, meiosis frequently initiates before the completion of karyogamy, thus producing up to 8 nuclei in a single ascus. Our results provide new evidence that fission yeast can initiate meiosis prior to completing karyogamy.

  11. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  12. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  13. Experience and BCC subtypes as determinants of MAL-PDT response: preliminary results of a national Brazilian project.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Dora P; Kurachi, Cristina; Inada, Natalia M; Moriyama, Lilian T; Salvio, Ana G; Vollet Filho, José D; Pires, Layla; Buzzá, Hilde H; de Andrade, Cintia Teles; Greco, Clovis; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2014-03-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer type in Brazil and worldwide. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive technique with excellent cosmetic outcome and good curative results, when used for the initial stages of skin cancer. A Brazilian program was established to determine the efficacy of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT, using Brazilian device and drug. The equipment is a dual device that combines the photodiagnosis, based on widefield fluorescence, and the treatment at 630nm. A protocol was defined for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma with 20% MAL cream application. The program also involves the training of the medical teams at different Brazilian regions, and with distinct facilities and previous PDT education. In this report we present the partial results of 27 centers with 366 treated BCC lesions in 294 patients. A complete response (CR) was observed in 76.5% (280/366). The better response was observed for superficial BCC, with CR 160 lesions (80.4%), when compared with nodular or pigmented BCC. Experienced centers presented CR of 85.8% and 90.6% for superficial and nodular BCC respectively. A high influence of the previous doctor experience on the CR values was observed, especially due to a better tumor selection.

  14. Long-term follow-up of metil aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT in difficult-to-treat cutaneous Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Cavicchini, Stefano; Serini, Stefano Maria; Fiorani, Roberta; Girgenti, Valentina; Ghislanzoni, Massimo; Sala, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    Bowen's disease (BD) is a form of intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, which is clinically characterized by gradually enlarging, well-demarcated erythematous plaques with irregular borders and surface crusting or scaling, affecting primarily the elderly. BD often presents with lesions difficult to treat with standard therapy as surgery, cryosurgery, or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the risk of significantly poor cosmetic outcome, failure rate, and adverse events, related mainly to the age of the patients. Topical PDT with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) represents a valid and approved therapy for BD lesions in many cases, especially for lesions located at poor healing sites or for large patches of disease, due to its high efficacy coupled with good tolerability and tissue-sparing attitude. In this study, we sought to investigate the efficacy, safety, and cosmetic outcome of MAL-PDT in a series of patients with BD lesions which were challenging to treat for clinical, surgical, and patient-related reasons, such as size of the lesion, difficult surgical approach for anatomical sites, or age of patients and request of the best cosmetic result. We also performed a long-term follow-up to assess recurrence rates and eventual late-onset adverse events.

  15. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth from 1959 to 1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic-polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg in latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar-cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 by 10 to the 21st power Mx.

  16. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth during 1959-1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south running demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg of latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 x 10 to the 21st power Maxwells.

  17. [Harassment in the public sector].

    PubMed

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.

  18. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New Zealand's…

  19. Light chiral dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2016-08-01

    An interesting possibility for dark matter is a scalar particle of mass of order 10 MeV-1 GeV, interacting with a U (1 ) gauge boson (dark photon) which mixes with the photon. We present a simple and natural model realizing this possibility. The dark matter arises as a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (dark pion) in a non-Abelian gauge sector, which also gives a mass to the dark photon. For a fixed non-Abelian gauge group, S U (N ) , and a U (1 ) charge of the constituent dark quarks, the model has only three free parameters: the dynamical scale of the non-Abelian gauge theory, the gauge coupling of the dark photon, and the mixing parameter between the dark and standard model photons. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model does not allow any mass term for the dark quarks, and the stability of the dark pion is understood as a result of an accidental global symmetry. The model has a significant parameter space in which thermal relic dark pions comprise all of the dark matter, consistently with all experimental and cosmological constraints. In a corner of the parameter space, the discrepancy of the muon g -2 between experiments and the standard model prediction can also be ameliorated due to a loop contribution of the dark photon. Smoking-gun signatures of the model include a monophoton signal from the e+e- collision into a photon and a "dark rho meson." Observation of two processes in e+e- collision—the mode into the dark photon and that into the dark rho meson—would provide strong evidence for the model.

  20. A new internet tool to report peritoneal malignancy extent. PeRitOneal MalIgnancy Stage Evaluation (PROMISE) application.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, L; Thivolet, A; Bakrin, N; Mohamed, F; Isaac, S; Valette, P-J; Glehen, O; Rousset, P

    2016-06-01

    Based on the importance of assessing the true extent of peritoneal disease, PeRitOneal MalIgnancy Stage Evaluation (PROMISE) internet application (www.e-promise.org) has been developed to facilitate tabulation and automatically calculate surgically validated peritoneal cancer index (PCI), and other surgically validated scores as Gilly score, simplified peritoneal cancer index (SPCI), Fagotti and Fagotti-modified scores. This application offers computer-assistance to produce simple, quick but precise and standardized pre, intra and postoperative reports of the extent of peritoneal metastases and may help specialized and non-specialized institutions in their current practice but also facilitate research and multicentre studies on peritoneal surface malignancies. PMID:27067193

  1. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic sector design suggests a strategic approach to ease air traffic congestion, which is predicted to become a serious problem in the national airspace system by 2025. Considerable research has been conducted to address the sectorization problem. In previous work, an approach that combines the Voronoi diagrams, Genetic Algorithms (GA), and the iterative deepening algorithm was proposed. However, as originally formulated, the number of sectors used was predefined and only two-dimensional partitions were allowed, which constrained the method's ability to achieve good designs. The current work extends the earlier Voronoi-based method by treating the number of sectors as an additional decision variable, allowing 3D partitions, and developing more comprehensive costs.

  2. Photodynamic therapy for difficult-to-treat basal cell carcinomas: Do poorly responding BCCs lack accumulation of protoporphyrin IX after ALA/MAL application?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Carin; Paoli, John; Halldin, Christina B.; Gillstedt, Martin; Larkö, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie; Ericson, Marica B.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topical application of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methylaminolevulinate (MAL) has become a popular therapeutic method for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers such as basal cell carcinomas (BCCs); however, the treatment response varies. An important question is if BCCs which respond poorly to PDT lack accumulation of protoporhyrin IX (PpIX) after ALA/MAL application. In connection to PDT, fluorescence diagnostics (FD) can be performed to detect PpIX within human skin. We investigated fluorescence images from 22 patients with 35 BCCs. They were evaluated with respect to the fluorescence contrast based on image analysis, which was considered to be a tool to non-invasively measure the PpIX-concentration. As expected the fluorescence contrast between tumor and normal skin was elevated after MAL-application; although no correlation between low fluorescence contrast and lack of treatment response could be observed. In a former study, we have also investigated the transdermal penetration of ALA and MAL in 27 BCCs in vivo using a microdialysis technique. In 15 of 16 BCCs in which the microdialysis catheter was located superficially (i.e. at a depth of less than 1 mm), therapeutic drug concentrations were detected;.however, in the 11 lesions with a deeper catheter location (below 1 mm) drug concentrations above the detection limit of the system were only obtained in 6 lesions (p=0.026). No difference between the transdermal penetration of MAL and ALA could be seen. Conclusions: Lack of PpIX fluorescence cannot entirely explain why some BCCs don't respond to PDT, but inadecuate concentrations within the full thickness of the tumor may play a role as microdialysis has shown.

  3. Light fractionation increases the efficacy of ALA-PDT but not of MAL-PDT: What is the role of (vascular) endothelial cells?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, H. S.; de Vijlder, H. C.; de Haas, E. R. M.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, A.; Kruijt, B.; Poel-Dirks, D.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; ten Hagen, T. L. M.; Robinson, D. J.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using protoporpyrin IX (PpIX) precursors like 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) has shown to be effective in the treatment of various skin diseases. Using ALA we have shown in numerous studies a significantly improved efficacy by applying light fractionation with a long dark interval. In contrast, in the hairless mouse model, the PDT efficacy using MAL is unaffected by adopting this approach. More acute edema is found after ALA-PDT suggesting a difference in response of endothelial cells to PDT. To investigate the role of endothelial cells, cryo-sections of hairless mouse skin after 4 hours of topical MAL or ALA application were stained with a fluorescent endothelial cell marker (CD31). Co-localization of this marker with the PpIX fluorescence was performed using the spectral imaging function of the confocal microscope. We have also used intra-vital confocal microscopy to image the PpIX fluorescence distribution in correlation with the vasculature of live mouse skin. Our results show PpIX fluorescence at depth in cryo-sections of mouse skin after 4 hours of topical application. Co-localization has shown to be difficult due to the changes in tissue organization caused by the staining procedure. As expected we found high PpIX fluorescence levels in the epidermis after both MAL and ALA application using intra-vital microscopy. After ALA application more PpIX fluorescence was found deep in the dermal layer of the skin than after MAL. Furthermore we detected localized fluorescence in unidentified structures that could not be correlated to blood vessels or nerves.

  4. Trends in Public Sector Arbitration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Harry; Wallace, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Presents developments in grievance arbitration in government employment by examining all public sector arbitration cases from 1971 through 1979. Predicts that issues of employee discipline and discharge will comprise the largest number of cases proceeding to arbitration. (Author/MLF)

  5. Temperature compensation for miniaturized magnetic sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Temperature compensation for a magnetic sector used in mass spectrometry. A high temperature dependant magnetic sector is used. This magnetic sector is compensated by a magnetic shunt that has opposite temperature characteristics to those of the magnet.

  6. Twisted sectors from plane partitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Shouvik; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Li, Wei; Peng, Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Twisted sectors arise naturally in the bosonic higher spin CFTs at their free points, as well as in the associated symmetric orbifolds. We identify the coset representations of the twisted sector states using the description of W_{∞} representations in terms of plane partitions. We confirm these proposals by a microscopic null-vector analysis, and by matching the excitation spectrum of these representations with the orbifold prediction.

  7. Malonate-containing manganese(III) complexes: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Fernando S; Kerbellec, Nicolas; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2006-02-01

    The novel manganese(III) complexes PPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (1) and AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (2) (PPh4+ = tetraphenylphosphonium cation, AsPh4+ = tetraphenylarsonium cation, and H2mal = malonic acid) have been prepared, and the structure of 2 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. 2 is a mononuclear complex whose structure is made up of trans-diaquabis(malonato)manganate(III) units and tetraphenylarsonium cations. Two crystallographically independent manganese(III) ions (Mn(1) and Mn(2)) occur in 2 that exhibit elongated octahedral surroundings with four oxygen atoms from two bidentate malonate groups in equatorial positions (Mn(1)-O = 1.923(6) and 1.9328(6) A and Mn(2)-O = 1.894(6) and 1.925(6) A) and two trans-coordinated water molecules in the axial sites (Mn(1)-Ow = 2.245(6) A and Mn(2)-Ow = 2.268(6) A). The [Mn(mal)2(H2O)2]- units are linked through hydrogen bonds involving the free malonate-oxygen atoms and the coordinated water molecules to yield a quasi-square-type anionic layer growing in the ab plane. The shortest intralayer metal-metal separations are 7.1557(7) and 7.1526(7) A (through the edges of the square). The anionic sheets are separated from each other by layers of AsPh4+ where sextuple- and double-phenyl embraces occur. The magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 in the temperature range 1.9-290 K reveals the occurrence of weak intralayer ferromagnetic interactions (J = +0.081(1) (1) and +0.072(2) cm(-1) (2)). These values are compared to those of the weak antiferromagnetic coupling [J = -0.19(1) cm(-1)], which is observed in the chain compound K2[Mn(mal)2(MeOH)2][Mn(mal)2] (3), where the exchange pathway involves the carboxyate-malonate bridge in the anti-syn conformation. The structure of 3 was reported elsewhere. Theoretical calculations on fragment models of 2 and 3 were performed to analyze and substantiate both the nature and magnitude of the magnetic couplings observed.

  8. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the different…

  9. Acausality from a dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carone, Christopher D.

    2014-03-01

    Solutions to the hierarchy problem that require partners for each standard model particle often require that these states live at or above the electroweak scale, to satisfy phenomenological bounds. Partners to possible dark sector particles may be significantly lighter, due to the assumed weakness of the couplings between the dark and visible sectors. Here we consider the possibility that a dark sector might include light Lee-Wick particles. We present the formulation of a theory in which a dark photon and its Lee-Wick partner have kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We point out that the Lee-Wick partner of the dark photon will lead to an apparent violation of causality at small distance scales that might be discerned in low-energy experiments.

  10. Network topology of economic sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman A.; Gan, Siew Lee

    2016-09-01

    A lot of studies dealing with stock network analysis, where each individual stock is represented by a univariate time series of its closing price, have been published. In these studies, the similarity of two different stocks is quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient on the logarithmic price returns. In this paper, we generalize the notion of similarity between univariate time series into multivariate time series which might be of different dimensions. This allows us to deal with economic sector network analysis, where the similarity between economic sectors is defined using Escoufier’s vector correlation RV. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study dealing with this notion of economic sector similarity. Two examples of data from the New York stock exchange will be presented and discussed, and some important results will be highlighted.

  11. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  12. The utilization of a non-invasive fluorescence imaging system to follow clinical dermatological MAL-PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Campbell, Sandra; Curnow, Alison

    2009-06-01

    This study employed a commercially available, non-invasive, fluorescence imaging system (Dyaderm, Biocam, Germany), to measure protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) concentration at several different stages during clinical dermatological methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT). We validated the system prior to use to ensure that the PpIX changes witnessed were accurate and not due to environmental or user induced artifacts. The system was then employed to acquire color (morphological) and fluorescent (physiological) images simultaneously during dermatological PDT. Clinical data was collected from a range of licensed dermatological conditions (actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma) during initial and subsequent PDT treatment cycles. The initial clinical data indicated that each type of licensed lesion considered responded in a similar manner following the application of Metvix (Galderma, U.K.) and the subsequent light irradiation (Aktilite, Galderma, U.K.). Images acquired three hours after Metvix application showed a significant increase in PpIX concentration within the lesion (P < 0.05), whilst PpIX levels in the surrounding normal tissue remained unaltered. After irradiation, the PpIX concentration was significantly decreased and returned to a level similar to the initial concentration originally observed. Lesions that received subsequent treatment cycles accumulated significantly less PpIX (P < 0.05) prior to irradiation.

  13. Genetic threshold hypothesis of neocortical spike-and-wave discharges in the rat: An animal model of petit mal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Vadasz, C.; Fleischer, A.; Carpi, D.; Jando, G.

    1995-02-27

    Neocortical high-voltage spike-and-wave discharges (HVS) in the rat are an animal model of petit mal epilepsy. Genetic analysis of total duration of HVS (s/12 hr) in reciprocal F1 and F2 hybrids of F344 and BN rats indicated that the phenotypic variability of HVS cannot be explained by simple, monogenic Mendelian model. Biometrical analysis suggested the presence of additive, dominance, and sex-linked-epistatic effects, buffering maternal influence, and heterosis. High correlation was observed between average duration (s/episode) and frequency of occurrence of spike-and-wave episodes (n/12 hr) in parental and segregating generations, indicating that common genes affect both duration and frequency of the spike-and-wave pattern. We propose that both genetic and developmental - environmental factors control an underlying quantitative variable, which, above a certain threshold level, precipitates HVS discharges. These findings, together with the recent availability of rat DNA markers for total genome mapping, pave the way to the identification of genes that control the susceptibility of the brain to spike-and-wave discharges. 67 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Investigation of the physical properties of the tetragonal CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Williams, D. J.; Scott, B. L.; Luo, Yongkang; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties studied by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic, thermal and transport measurements of CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) are reported, along with the electronic structure calculations for LaMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt). These materials adopt a tetragonal crystal structure (space group P4/mmm) comprised of BaAl4 blocks, separated by MAl2 units, stacked along the c-axis. Both CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2 order antiferromagnetically below TN1 = 14 and 16 K, respectively, and undergo a second antiferromagnetic transitition at lower temperature (TN2 = 9 and 14 K, respectively). CePtAl4Si2 orders ferromagnetically below TC = 3 K with an ordered moment of μsat = 0.8 μB for a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the c-axis. Electronic structure calculations reveal quasi-2D character of the Fermi surface.

  15. Geography, population, demography, socioeconomic, anthropometry, and environmental status in the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study Sites in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Aldo A M; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Soares, Alberto M; Filho, José Q; de Sousa, Francisco; Abreu, Cláudia B; Bindá, Alexandre; Lima, Ila; Quetz, Josiane; Moraes, Milena; Maciel, Bruna; Costa, Hilda; Leite, Alvaro M; Lima, Noélia L; Mota, Francisco S; Di Moura, Alessandra; Scharf, Rebecca; Barrett, Leah; Guerrant, Richard L

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort in the study's Fortaleza, Brazil, catchment area has a population of approximately 82 300 inhabitants. Most of the households (87%) have access to clean water, 98% have electricity, and 69% have access to improved toilet/sanitation. Most childbirths occur at the hospital, and the under-5 mortality rate is 20 per 1000 live births. The MAL-ED case-control study population, identified through the Institute for the Promotion of Nutrition and Human Development (IPREDE), serves 600 000 inhabitants from areas totaling about 42% of the city of Fortaleza. IPREDE receives referrals from throughout the state of Ceará for infant nutrition, and provides services including teaching activities and the training of graduate students and health professionals, while supporting research projects on child nutrition and health. In this article, we describe the geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and environmental status of the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study populations in Fortaleza, Brazil.

  16. Transglycosylation properties of maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) from Escherichia coli and its application for synthesis of a nigerose-containing oligosaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kyung-Mo; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Young-Wan; Boos, Winfried; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2010-06-18

    The transglycosylation reaction of maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) cloned and purified from Escherichia coli K12 was characterized and applied to the synthesis of branched oligosaccharides. Purified MalZ preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of maltodextrin, {gamma}-cyclodextrin (CD), and cycloamylose (CA). In addition, when the enzyme was incubated with 5% maltotriose (G3), a series of transfer products were produced. The resulting major transfer products, annotated as T1, T2, and T3, were purified and their structures were determined by TLC, MALDI-TOF/MS, {sup 13}C NMR, and enzymatic analysis. T1 was identified as a novel compound, maltosyl {alpha}-1,3-maltose, whereas T2 and T3 were determined to be isopanose and maltosyl-{alpha}-1,6-maltose, respectively. These results indicated that MalZ transferred sugar moiety mainly to C-3 or C-6-OH of glucose of the acceptor molecule. To obtain highly concentrated transfer products, the enzyme was reacted with 10% liquefied cornstarch, and then glucose and maltose were removed by immobilized yeast. The T1 content of the resulting reaction mixture reached 9.0%. The mixture of T1 containing a nigerose moiety can have an immunopotentiating effect on the human body and may be a potential functional sugar stuff.

  17. Interplanetary sector boundaries, 1971 - 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, L.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1979-01-01

    Eighteen interplanetary sector boundary crossings observed at 1 AU by the magnetometer on the IMP-6 spacecraft are discussed. The events were examined on many different time scales ranging from days on either side of the boundary to high resolution measurements of 12.5 vectors per second. Two categories of boundaries were found, one group being relatively thin and the other being thick. In many cases the field vector rotated in a plane from one polarity to the other. Only two of the transitions were null sheets. Using the minimum variance analysis to determine the normals to the plane of rotation, and assuming that this is the same as the normal to the sector boundary surface, it was found that the normals were close to the ecliptic plane. An analysis of tangential discontinuities contained in 4-day periods about the events showed that their orientations were generally not related to the orientations of the sector boundary surface, but rather their characteristics were about the same as those for discontinuities outside the sector boundaries.

  18. Cost effectiveness of OptiMal® rapid diagnostic test for malaria in remote areas of the Amazon Region, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In areas with limited structure in place for microscopy diagnosis, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) have been demonstrated to be effective. Method The cost-effectiveness of the Optimal® and thick smear microscopy was estimated and compared. Data were collected on remote areas of 12 municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon. Data sources included the National Malaria Control Programme of the Ministry of Health, the National Healthcare System reimbursement table, hospitalization records, primary data collected from the municipalities, and scientific literature. The perspective was that of the Brazilian public health system, the analytical horizon was from the start of fever until the diagnostic results provided to patient and the temporal reference was that of year 2006. The results were expressed in costs per adequately diagnosed cases in 2006 U.S. dollars. Sensitivity analysis was performed considering key model parameters. Results In the case base scenario, considering 92% and 95% sensitivity for thick smear microscopy to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively, and 100% specificity for both species, thick smear microscopy is more costly and more effective, with an incremental cost estimated at US$549.9 per adequately diagnosed case. In sensitivity analysis, when sensitivity and specificity of microscopy for P. vivax were 0.90 and 0.98, respectively, and when its sensitivity for P. falciparum was 0.83, the RDT was more cost-effective than microscopy. Conclusion Microscopy is more cost-effective than OptiMal® in these remote areas if high accuracy of microscopy is maintained in the field. Decision regarding use of rapid tests for diagnosis of malaria in these areas depends on current microscopy accuracy in the field. PMID:20937094

  19. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  20. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  1. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  2. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect

    R. Robichaud; A. Crawley; and L. Poole: NREL

    2005-09-09

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  3. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  4. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an ACE allocated to a sector is not exceeded in a given... CFR part 904, each sector, permit/vessel owner, and vessel operator participating in the sector may be..., the stock-level ACL plus the carryover amount, does not exceed the stock overfishing limit. Any...

  5. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  6. Dynamically Evolving Sectors for Convective Weather Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    A new strategy for altering existing sector boundaries in response to blocking convective weather is presented. This method seeks to improve the reduced capacity of sectors directly affected by weather by moving boundaries in a direction that offers the greatest capacity improvement. The boundary deformations are shared by neighboring sectors within the region in a manner that preserves their shapes and sizes as much as possible. This reduces the controller workload involved with learning new sector designs. The algorithm that produces the altered sectors is based on a force-deflection mesh model that needs only nominal traffic patterns and the shape of the blocking weather for input. It does not require weather-affected traffic patterns that would have to be predicted by simulation. When compared to an existing optimal sector design method, the sectors produced by the new algorithm are more similar to the original sector shapes, resulting in sectors that may be more suitable for operational use because the change is not as drastic. Also, preliminary results show that this method produces sectors that can equitably distribute the workload of rerouted weather-affected traffic throughout the region where inclement weather is present. This is demonstrated by sector aircraft count distributions of simulated traffic in weather-affected regions.

  7. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Pete; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Marland, Gregg

    2008-06-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other significant anthropogenic impacts on the global carbon cycle include human utilization of fossil fuels and impacts on less intensively managed systems such as peatlands, wetlands and permafrost. A great deal of knowledge, expertise and data is available within each sector. We describe the contribution of sectoral carbon budgets to our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Whilst many sectors exhibit similarities for carbon budgeting, some key differences arise due to differences in goods and services provided, ecology, management practices used, landmanagement personnel responsible, policies affecting land management, data types and availability, and the drivers of change. We review the methods and data sources available for assessing sectoral carbon budgets, and describe some of key data limitations and uncertainties for each sector in different regions of the world. We identify the main gaps in our knowledge/data, show that coverage is better for the developed world for most sectors, and suggest how sectoral carbon budgets could be improved in the future. Research priorities include the development of shared protocols through site networks, a move to full carbon accounting within sectors, and the assessment of full greenhouse gas budgets.

  8. Investigation of the physical properties of the new heavy fermion compounds Ce2MAl7Ge4 (M = Co, Ir, Ni, Pd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Nirmal; Cary, Samantha; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas; Brown, Craig; Eley, Serena; Wakeham, Nicholas; Rosa, Priscila; Janoschek, Marc; Civale, Leonardo; Thompson, Joe; Ronning, Filip; Bauer, Eric

    Ce-based intermetallic compounds provide a fascinating ground to study several exotic physical phenomena due to the presence of competing low Kondo and RKKY interactions. One widely explored entity in these compounds is the quantum phase transition that is accessed by the suppression of the magnetic order down to absolute temperature by an external parameter such as magnetic field, chemical substitution, or pressure. Exotic phenomena like unconventional superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behavior are ubiquitous in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. Quantum criticality in these Ce-based materials is often observed in layered, tetragonal systems such as the CeM2X2 (M =transition metal; X =Si, Ge) or CeMIn5 (M =Co, Rh, Ir) compounds. We present the structural and physical properties of a new family of heavy fermion compounds Ce2MAl7Ge4 (M = Co, Ir, Ni, Pd) that crystallize in the tetragonal space group P-421m. Ce2MAl7Ge4 (M =Co, Ir, Ni) show complex magnetic order below 2 K, while Ce2PdAl7Ge4 does not order magnetically down to 400 mK, and, instead, shows quantum critical behavior at low temperature. Present affiliation: Argonne National Laboratory.

  9. How ‘arm-twisting’ by the inducer triggers activation of the MalT transcription factor, a typical signal transduction ATPase with numerous domains (STAND)

    PubMed Central

    Danot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) get activated through inducer-dependent assembly into multimeric platforms. This switch relies on the conversion of their nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) from a closed, ADP-bound form to an open, ATP-bound form. The NOD closed form is stabilized by contacts with the arm, a domain that connects the NOD to the inducer-binding domain called the sensor. How the inducer triggers NOD opening remains unclear. Here, I pinpointed the NOD-arm interface of the MalT STAND transcription factor, and I generated a MalT variant in which this interface can be covalently locked on demand, thereby trapping the NOD in the closed state. By characterizing this locked variant, I found that the inducer is recognized in two steps: it first binds to the sole sensor with low affinity, which then triggers the recruitment of the arm to form a high-affinity arm-sensor inducer-binding site. Strikingly, this high-affinity binding step was incompatible with arm-NOD contacts maintaining the NOD closed. Through this toggling between two mutually exclusive states reminiscent of a single-pole double-throw switch, the arm couples inducer binding to NOD opening, shown here to precede nucleotide exchange. This scenario likely holds for other STANDs like mammalian NLR innate immunity receptors. PMID:25740650

  10. Postpartum Depressive Symptoms Across Time and Place: Structural Invariance of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire Among Women from the International, Multi-Site MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Kosek, Margaret; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Roshan, Reeba; Maphula, Angelina; Shrestha, Rita; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) is a screening instrument that has been shown to be an effective measure of depression in postpartum women and is widely used in developing nations. Methods The SRQ was administered to 2,028 mothers from eight nations at two time points: one and six months postpartum. All data were obtained from the Interactions of Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study. The sample included women from MAL-ED sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. This study examined three aspects of validity of SRQ scores including (a) structural validity, (b) cross-cultural invariance, and (c) invariance over time. Results A 16-item, one-factor structure with items reflecting somatic symptoms removed was deemed to be superior to the original structure in this postpartum population. Although differential item functioning (DIF) across sites was evident, the one-factor model was a good fit to the data from seven sites, and the structure was invariant across the one- and six-month time points. Limitations Findings are based on data from self-report scales. No information about the clinical status of the participants was available. Conclusions Overall, findings support the validity of a modified model of the SRQ among postpartum women. Somatic symptoms (e.g., headaches, not sleeping well) may not reflect internalizing problems in a postpartum population. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:24981251

  11. Real-life practice study of the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Annemans, Lieven; Caekelbergh, Karin; Roelandts, Rik; Boonen, Hugo; Leys, Christoph; Nikkels, Arjen F; van Den Haute, V; van Quickenborne, L; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Leroy, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Clinical trials have shown that photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratosis (AK), and nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma (nBCC and sBCC) unsuitable for other available therapies. Economic evaluation models have shown that it is a cost effective intervention as well. The objectives of this prospective, observational, one arm study were (i) to verify in a real-life practice study the results obtained in previous clinical trials with MAL-PDT in the treatment of AK, nBCC and sBCC; (ii) to calculate the real-life cost of treatment and validate predictions from an economic evaluation model. Patients with AK and/or BCC were selected according to Belgian reimbursement criteria for treatment with MAL-PDT. Clinical response, cosmetic outcome and tolerability were assessed. MAL-PDT cost was calculated and compared to published model cost data. Data were collected from 247 patients (117 AK, 130 BCC). A complete clinical response was obtained for 83% of AK (85/102) and BCC (97/116) patients. A good or excellent cosmetic outcome was obtained for 95% of AK patients and 93% of BCC patients. Tolerability was good: only 2 patients withdrew for adverse events. Clinical results were similar to previous studies. Total cost of care per patient was euro 381 for AK, euro 318 for nBCC, and euro 298 for sBCC. Total cost per lesion was euro 58 for AK (identical to model prediction), euro 316 for nBCC and euro 178 for sBCC (both within 20% of model prediction). The clinical results of MAL-PDT in this real-life practice study confirm those demonstrated in previous clinical trials. Costs calculated from this study confirm predicted cost-effectiveness in the original model for MAL-PDT in the management of AK and BCC.

  12. Research Frontiers in Public Sector Performance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhonghua, Cai; Ye, Wang

    In "New Public Management" era, performance measurement has been widely used in managerial practices of public sectors. From the content and features of performance measurement, this paper aims to explore inspirations on Chinese public sector performance measurement, which based on a review of prior literatures including influencial factors, methods and indicators of public sector performance evaluation. In the end, arguments are presented in this paper pointed out the direction of future researches in this field.

  13. Labor in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S., Ed.

    Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the public sector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the public sector. Orley…

  14. Public Sector Industrial Relations: Recent Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Phil; Leopold, John

    1985-01-01

    This issue reviews trends in public sector employment (particularly in the light of government policy to reduce it), wages (in a context of cash limits), and strikes and other forms of industrial action. It also considers recent developments in the structure, organization, and policy of the "actors" in public sector industrial relations. (CT)

  15. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... practical cut-off at not more than 5 degrees outside the prescribed sectors. (b) All-round lights shall be... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.17 Horizontal sectors. (a)(1... intensities. The intensities shall decrease to reach practical cut-off between 1 and 3 degrees outside...

  16. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... practical cut-off at not more than 5 degrees outside the prescribed sectors. (b) All-round lights shall be... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.17 Horizontal sectors. (a)(1... intensities. The intensities shall decrease to reach practical cut-off between 1 and 3 degrees outside...

  17. The Economic Effects of a Booming Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Since the 1970s, economists have recognized that a booming export sector of the economy can have unfortunate consequences for other sectors and lead to both appreciation of that nation's currency and a weakening position for its exports. A model to stimulate the effects of this situation is discussed. (IS)

  18. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  19. Activity mixed outside main N. Sea sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports on activity levels which are mixed in sectors outside the North Sea's major producing regions. Danish sector production prospects are improving in step with horizontal drilling technology. Dutch activity centers on laying on the Nogat pipeline system and developing gas fields that will feed it. And Ireland is considering ways of boosting exploratory interest.

  20. National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-06-30

    The goal of the National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR) project was to address cyber security issues for the electric sector, particularly in the near and mid-term. The following table identifies the strategies from the DOE Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity published in September 2011 that are applicable to the NESCOR project.

  1. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vertical sectors. 84.19 Section 84.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a)...

  2. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horizontal sectors. 84.17 Section 84.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.17 Horizontal sectors....

  3. Machined electrostatic sector for mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An electrostatic sector device for a mass spectrometer is formed from a single piece of machinable ceramic. The machined ceramic is coated with a nickel coating, and a notch is etched in the nickel coating to form two separated portions. The sector can be covered by a cover formed from a separate piece of machined ceramic.

  4. Youth Employment in the Hospitality Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Bradley R.

    A study used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to analyze the long-term effects of hospitality industry employment on youth. The subsample extracted for the study included all youth who were aged 16-24 in 1980 and employed in the civilian sector for pay at any time in the year. Statistics indicated the hospitality sector was…

  5. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vertical sectors. 84.19 Section 84.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a)...

  6. Labor Market Leverage. Sectoral Employment Field Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Mark; King, Elisabeth

    This document explains the concept of sectoral employment strategies and profiles 13 successful work force development programs based on such strategies. The first half of the document examines the increasing need for sectoral employment strategies and their key characteristics, role in achieving systemic change in work organizations, and…

  7. Education and Human Resources Sector Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy; Cieutat, Victor J.

    This manual endorses and adopts the sector-assessment approach for planning and managing the allocation of educational resources. Chapter 1 presents the manual's goals. Chapter 2 describes the manual's content and information sources, explains the term "sector assessment," identifies the groups that benefit from recommendations made by the…

  8. Mixed-Sector Tertiary Education. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    This research overview provides the key messages arising from two related projects investigating tertiary education institutions that have recently begun to offer tertiary programs outside the sector of their initial establishment and the sector of the majority of their enrolments. These are TAFE institutes offering higher education programs,…

  9. Observational constraints on decoupled hidden sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo; Vaskonen, Ville

    2016-09-01

    We consider an extension of the Standard Model with a singlet sector consisting of a real (pseudo)scalar and a Dirac fermion coupled with the Standard Model only via the scalar portal. We assume that the portal coupling is weak enough for the singlet sector not to thermalize with the Standard Model allowing the production of singlet particles via the freeze-in mechanism. If the singlet sector interacts with itself sufficiently strongly, it may thermalize within itself, resulting in dark matter abundance determined by the freeze-out mechanism operating within the singlet sector. We investigate this scenario in detail. In particular, we show that requiring the absence of inflationary isocurvature fluctuations provides lower bounds on the magnitude of the dark sector self-interactions and in parts of the parameter space favors sufficiently large self-couplings, supported also by the features observed in the small-scale structure formation.

  10. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Dy3+ co-doped and Eu2+ activated MAl2O4 (M = Ba, Ca, Sr) nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejene, F. B.; Kebede, M. A.; Redi-Abshiro, M.; Kgarebe, B. V.

    2013-09-01

    Long afterglow alkaline earth aluminates MAl2O4:Eu, Dy (M: Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors are generally synthesized by the solid-state process which is more feasible than other conventional processes in terms of operation and large-scale production. However, the constituents of phosphors synthesized using this process are usually not mixed well, the particles agglomerates and very high temperature requirement to synthesize the final powder make it undesirable. In order to circumvent these problems, MAl2O4:Eu, Dy (Ca, Ba, Sr) phosphors were prepared at low temperatures (500 °C) by the solution-combustion of corresponding metal nitrate-urea solution mixtures, over a time of 5-10 min. In order to elucidate the relationship between the constituent, structure and PL properties product's particle size, morphological and structural properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), while the characteristic luminescence properties were investigated using emission spectra. The low temperature monoclinic structure for both CaAl2O4 and SrAl2O4 and the hexagonal structure of BaAl2O4 were observed. The emission spectra of these phosphors indicated that all of them are broad band, and the only emission peaks around 448, 490 and 515 nm of CaAl2O4:Eu, Dy, BaAl2O4:Eu, Dy and SrAl2O4:Eu, Dy, respectively, are due to 5d → 4f transition of Eu2+. The decay curves implied that these phosphors contain fast, medium and slow-decay process. The Dy3+ trap levels may be considered to be responsible for the long afterglow phosphorescence at room temperature.

  11. Air Traffic Sector Configuration Change Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Drew, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A Mixed Integer Linear Programming method is used for creating sectors in Fort Worth, Cleveland, and Los Angeles centers based on several days of good-weather traffic data. The performance of these sectors is studied when they are subjected to traffic data from different days. Additionally, the advantage of using different sector designs at different times of day with varying traffic loads is examined. Specifically, traffic data from 10 days are used for design, and 47 other days are played back to test if the traffic-counts stay below the design values used in creating the partitions. The primary findings of this study are as follows. Sectors created with traffic from good-weather days can be used on other good-weather days. Sector configurations created with two hours of traffic can be used for 6 to 12 hours without exceeding the peak-count requirement. Compared to using a single configuration for the entire day, most of the sector-hour reduction is achieved by using two sector configurations -one during daytime hours and one during nighttime hours.

  12. Macroeconomic adjustment and social sector expenditure.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, S I

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the evolution of public financing of the social sectors in Costa Rica during the period 1975-1988 in which the country went in succession through rapid expansion, recession, and macroeconomic adjustment with slow reactivation. The review underlines the magnitude of the effort made by the country in the social sectors and the distortions that have occurred during the period in study. The paper concludes that Costa Rica can sustain its high level of social development provided that public sector resources are used more efficiently, and on activities targeted on the provision of basic services.

  13. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector

    PubMed Central

    NAG, Anjali; VYAS, Heer; NAG, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector. PMID:26903262

  14. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... overages, jointly and severally for civil penalties and permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an... issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Pursuant to 15 CFR part 904, each sector,...

  15. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., jointly and severally for civil penalties and permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an ACE... issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Pursuant to 15 CFR part 904, each sector,...

  16. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... overages, jointly and severally for civil penalties and permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an... issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Pursuant to 15 CFR part 904, each sector,...

  17. Protein Sectors: Statistical Coupling Analysis versus Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Teşileanu, Tiberiu; Colwell, Lucy J.; Leibler, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Statistical coupling analysis (SCA) is a method for analyzing multiple sequence alignments that was used to identify groups of coevolving residues termed “sectors”. The method applies spectral analysis to a matrix obtained by combining correlation information with sequence conservation. It has been asserted that the protein sectors identified by SCA are functionally significant, with different sectors controlling different biochemical properties of the protein. Here we reconsider the available experimental data and note that it involves almost exclusively proteins with a single sector. We show that in this case sequence conservation is the dominating factor in SCA, and can alone be used to make statistically equivalent functional predictions. Therefore, we suggest shifting the experimental focus to proteins for which SCA identifies several sectors. Correlations in protein alignments, which have been shown to be informative in a number of independent studies, would then be less dominated by sequence conservation. PMID:25723535

  18. Market Report for the Industrial Sector, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Sastri, Bhima; Brueske, Sabine; de los Reyes, Pamela; Jamison, Keith; Justiniano, Mauricio; Margolis, Nancy; Monfort, Joe; Raghunathan, Anand; Sabouni, Ridah

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of trends in industrial-sector energy use. It focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors and several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry.

  19. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector.

    PubMed

    Nag, Anjali; Vyas, Heer; Nag, Pranab

    2016-08-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector. PMID:26903262

  20. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector.

    PubMed

    Nag, Anjali; Vyas, Heer; Nag, Pranab

    2016-08-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector.

  1. Building recycling rates through the informal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, David C.; Araba, Adebisi O.; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-02-15

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

  2. Building recycling rates through the informal sector.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David C; Araba, Adebisi O; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-02-01

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials. PMID:18701272

  3. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N eff , we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  4. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  5. Spectroscopic Properties of Novel Aromatic Metal Clusters: NaM4 (M=Al, Ga, In) and their Cations and Anions

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K; Zhao, C

    2004-03-17

    The ground and several excited states of metal aromatic clusters, namely NaM4 and NaM{sub 4}{sup {+-}} (M=Al, Ga, In) clusters have been investigated by employing complete activespace self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by Multi-reference singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) computations that included up to 10 million configurations and other methods. The ground states NaM{sub 4}{sup -} of aromatic anions are found to be symmetric C{sub 4v} ({sup 1}A{sub 1}) electronic states with ideal square pyramid geometries. While the ground state of NaIn4 is also predicted to be a symmetric C{sub 4v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) square pyramid, the ground state of the NaAl4 cluster is found to have a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) pyramid with a rhombus base and the ground state of NaGa{sub 4} possesses a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) pyramid with a rectangle base. In general these structures exhibit 2 competing geometries, viz., an ideal C{sub 4v} structure and a distorted rhomboidal or rectangular pyramid structure (C{sub 2v}). All of the ground states of the NaM{sub 4}{sup +} (M= Al, Ga, In) cations are computed to be C{sub 2v} ({sup 3}A{sub 2}) pyramids with rhombus bases. The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, dissociation energies, adiabatic ionization potentials, adiabatic electron affinities for the electronic states of NaM{sub 4} (M=Al, Ga, In) and their ions are computed and compared with experimental results and other theoretical calculations. On the basis of our computed excited states energy separations, we have tentatively suggested assignments to the observed X and A states in the anion photoelectron spectra of Al{sub 4}Na{sup -} reported by Li et al. The X state can be assigned to a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) rhomboidal pyramid. The A state observed in the anion spectrum is assigned to the first excited state ({sup 2}B{sub 1}) of the neutral NaAl{sub 4} with the C{sub 4v} symmetry. The assignments of the excited states are consistent with

  6. Lepton mixing from the hidden sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludl, P. O.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Experimental results indicate a possible relation between the lepton and quark mixing matrices of the form UPMNS≈VCKM†UX , where UX is a matrix with special structure related to the mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We propose a framework which can realize such a relation. The main ingredients of the framework are the double seesaw mechanism, SO(10) grand unification and a hidden sector of theory. The latter is composed of singlets (fermions and bosons) of the grand unified theory (GUT) symmetry with masses between the GUT and Planck scale. The interactions in this sector obey certain symmetries Ghidden. We explore the conditions under which symmetries Ghidden can produce flavor structures in the visible sector. Here the key elements are the basis-fixing symmetry and mediators which communicate information about properties of the hidden sector to the visible one. The interplay of SO(10) symmetry, basis-fixing symmetry identified as Z2×Z2 and Ghidden can lead to the required form of UX. A different kind of new physics is responsible for generation of the CKM mixing. We present the simplest realizations of the framework which differ by nature of the mediators and by symmetries of the hidden sector.

  7. Green corona and solar sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Svalgaard, L.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the green-line corona for the interval 1947-1970 suggests the existence of large-scale organization of the emission. The green-line emission at high northern latitudes (approximately 40 to 60 deg) is correlated with the emission at high southern latitudes 6, 15, and 24 days later, while the low-latitude green corona seems to be correlated on both sides of the equator with no time lag. These coronal features are recurrent with a 27-day period at all latitudes between plus or minus 60 deg, and these large-scale structures are believed to be associated with the solar magnetic sector structure. The high correlation between northern and southern high-latitude emission at 15 days time lag is explained as a signature of a two-sector structure, while four sectors are associated with the 6- and 24-day peaks.

  8. Hospital expenses in a sector model.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, B; Pliska, S R

    1985-01-01

    This review summarizes the capabilities and contributions of quantitative sector models for understanding trends in hospital expenses and the effects thereon of various public policies. After some brief historical notes on the use of analogous models in other policy areas, the general classes of national, partial, and narrow health sector models are introduced with special attention to method of validation and behavioral structure. Fourteen published models, described and critically reviewed with regard to these criteria, are assessed for their individual application to important policy and behavioral issues. Suggestions are offered for improvements and new initiatives in the use of sector models both in forecasting and in the study of procompetitive policies and reimbursement rule changes. PMID:3918960

  9. Simulating spatial aspects of a flash flood using the Monte Carlo method and GRASS GIS: a case study of the Malá Svinka Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofierka, Jaroslav; Knutová, Monika

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the flash flood assessment using a spatially-distributed hydrological model based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. The model is implemented as r.sim.water module in GRASS GIS and was applied to the Malá Svinka Basin in Eastern Slovakia where a heavy rainfall (100 mm/hr.) caused a flash flood event with deadly consequences in July 1998. The event was simulated using standard datasets representing elevation, soils and land cover. The results were captured in time series of water depth maps showing gradual changes in water depths across the basin. The hydrological effects of roads in the study area were simulated using the preferential flow feature of the model. This simulation helped to identify source areas contributing to flooding in built-up areas. The implementation in a GIS environment simplifies the data preparation and eventual modification for various scenarios and flood protection measures. The simulation confirmed excellent robustness and flexibility of the method.

  10. In vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) non-structural proteins in insect cells reveals their putative functions

    SciTech Connect

    Maroniche, Guillermo A.; Mongelli, Vanesa C.; Llauger, Gabriela; Alfonso, Victoria; Taboga, Oscar

    2012-09-01

    The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1 viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread.

  11. Immunodetection and subcellular localization of Mal de Río Cuarto virus P9-1 protein in infected plant and insect host cells.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Fabiana A; Arneodo, Joel D; Pons, Amalia B Saavedra; Truol, Graciela A; Luque, Andrés V; Conci, Luis R

    2010-08-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV), a member of the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, has a genome consisting of 10 dsRNA segments. The segment 9 (S9) possesses two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORF-1 and ORF-2) encoding two putative proteins, MRCV P9-1 and MRCV P9-2, both of unknown function. The MRCV S9 ORF-1 was RT-PCR amplified, expressed in pET-15b vector, and the recombinant protein produced was used to raise an antiserum in rabbit. Western blot with the specific MRCV P9-1 antiserum detected a protein of about 39 kDa molecular weight present in crude protein extracts from infected plants and insects. However, no reaction was observed when this antiserum was tested against purified virus. In contrast, only virus particles were detected by a MRCV-coat antiserum used as a validation control. These results suggest that MRCV S9 ORF-1 encodes a non-structural protein of MRCV. Immunoelectron microscopy assays confirmed these results, and localized the MRCV P9-1 protein exclusively in electron-dense granular viroplasms within the cytoplasm of infected plants and insects cells. As viroplasms are believed to be the replication sites of reoviruses, the intracellular location of MRCV P9-1 protein suggests that it might be involved in the assembly process of MRCV particles. PMID:20419342

  12. EPR study of the ground state of Mn2+ impurity ions in alumoborates MAl3(BO3)4 (M = Y, Eu, Tm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, А А; Prokhorov, A. D.; Chernush, L. F.; Dyakonov, V. P.; Szymczak, H.; Dejneka, A.

    2015-06-01

    New data about the ground state of the Mn2+ impurity ions in a series of single crystals of alumbrados MAl3(BO3)4, where M = Y,Eu,Tm were obtained. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the Mn2+ spectra were studied, the parameters of the spin Hamiltonian describing the angular dependence of the spectrum were defined. It was shown that Mn2+ ions substitute trivalent ions of rare earth metals without changing the symmetry of the substitution site. The charge compensation process was found to be a nonlocal one. The cooling of the crystals leads to the increase of the splitting of the ground state, which is associated with the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient. It was shown that an application of the superposition model to explain the distortions induced by an impurity Mn2+ ion has some limitations. The EPR linewidth of the Mn2+ ion in the TmAl3(BO3)4 crystal increases with increasing temperature as a result of the dipole-dipole and exchange interactions with the excited states of the host lattice Tm3+ ion.

  13. Functional and biochemical properties of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (Fijivirus, Reoviridae) P9-1 viroplasm protein show further similarities to animal reovirus counterparts.

    PubMed

    Maroniche, Guillermo A; Mongelli, Vanesa C; Peralta, Andrea V; Distéfano, Ana J; Llauger, Gabriela; Taboga, Oscar A; Hopp, Esteban H; del Vas, Mariana

    2010-09-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a plant virus of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae that infects several monocotyledonous species and is transmitted by planthoppers in a persistent and propagative manner. Other members of the family replicate in viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) termed viroplasms that are formed in the cytoplasm of infected plant and insect cells. In this study, the protein coded by the first ORF of MRCV segment S9 (P9-1) was shown to establish cytoplasmic inclusion bodies resembling viroplasms after transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. In accordance, MRCV P9-1 self-associates giving rise to high molecular weight complexes when expressed in bacteria. Strong self-interaction was also evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, biochemical characterization showed that MRCV P9-1 bound single stranded RNA and had ATPase activity. Finally, the MRCV P9-1 region required for the formation of VIB-like structures was mapped to the protein carboxy-terminal half. This extensive functional and biochemical characterization of MRCV P9-1 revealed further similarities between plant and animal reovirus viroplasm proteins.

  14. The etiology, risk factors, and interactions of enteric infections and malnutrition and the consequences for child health and development study (MAL-ED): description of the Tanzanian site.

    PubMed

    Mduma, Estomih R; Gratz, Jean; Patil, Crystal; Matson, Kristine; Dakay, Mary; Liu, Sarah; Pascal, John; McQuillin, Lauren; Mighay, Emmanuel; Hinken, Elizabeth; Ernst, Alexandra; Amour, Caroline; Mvungi, Regisiana; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Zakaria, Yeconia; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Houpt, Eric R; Svensen, Erling

    2014-11-01

    The Haydom, Tanzania, site (TZH) of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) Study is in north-central Tanzania, 300 km from the nearest urban center. TZH is in a remote rural district where most of the population are agropastoralists and grow maize as the staple food. The average household size is 7. The average woman achieves a parity of 6 and has 1 child death. Socioeconomic indicators are poor, with essentially no household having access to electricity, piped water, or improved sanitary facilities (compared with 14%, 7%, and 12%, respectively, reported nationally). The Demographic Health Survey Tanzania 2004 indicated that the region had high rates of stunting and underweight (40% and 31% of children aged <5 years had a height-for-age z score and weight-for-age z score, respectively, of <-2 ) and an under-5 child mortality rate of 5.8%. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among 18-month-old children is <0.5%. TZH represents a remote rural African population with profound poverty and malnutrition, but a strong community-based research infrastructure.

  15. Sequencing of the bicistronic genome segments S7 and S9 of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (Fijivirus, Reoviridae) completes the genome of this virus.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, F A; Distéfano, A J; Arneodo, J D; Hopp, H E; Lenardon, S L; del Vas, M; Conci, L R

    2007-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of genomic segments S7 and S9 of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus group II) have been determined, thus completing the entire genome sequence of the virus. These segments showed a non-overlapping bicistronic structure, as in other members of the genus. MRCV S7 ORF-1 had a length of 1086 bp and encoded a 41.5 kDa putative polypeptide, whereas MRCV S7 ORF-2 had a length of 930 bp and encoded a 36.8 kDa putative polypeptide. Proteins of 39 and 20.5 kDa were predicted for the 1014 bp long MRCV S9 ORF-1 and the 537 bp long MRCV S9 ORF-2, respectively. The terminal 5' and 3' sequences of both segments were 5'AAGUUUUU3' and 5'CAGCUnnnGUC3', respectively. Specific imperfect inverted repeats of each segment were identified. Comparison of the predicted proteins with those of related virus genome segments counterparts in maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) and rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), showed 64.5-44.3% identities. These values are lower than those resulting from comparisons between MRDV and RBSDV. The topology of the trees obtained using the complete nucleotide and amino acid sequences of MRCV S7 and MRCV S9 was consistent with the analysis of the other MRCV segments previously published.

  16. Provenance of the Permian Malužiná Formation sandstones (Malé Karpaty Mountains, Western Carpathians): evidence of garnet and tourmaline mineral chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vďačný, Marek; Bačík, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The chemistry of detrital garnets (almandine; spessartine-, grossular-, and pyrope-rich almandine; andradite) and mostly dravitic tourmalines from three sandstone samples of the Permian Malužiná Formation in the northern part of the Malé Karpaty Mts (Western Carpathians, SW Slovakia) reveals a great variability of potential source rocks. They comprise (1) low-grade regionally metamorphosed rocks (metacherts, blue schists, metapelites and metapsammites), (2) contact-thermal metamorphic calcareous rocks (skarns or rodingites), (3) garnet-bearing mica schists and gneisses resulting from the regional metamorphism of argillaceous sediments, (4) amphibolites and metabasic sub-ophiolitic rocks, (5) granulites, (6) Li-poor granites and their associated pegmatites and aplites as well as (7) rhyolites. Consequently, the post-Variscan, rift-related sedimentary basin of the Malužiná Formation originated in the vicinity of a low- to high-grade crystalline basement with granitic rocks. Such lithological types of metamorphic and magmatic rocks are characteristic for the Variscan terranes of the Central Western Carpathians (Tatricum and Veporicum Superunits).

  17. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.

  18. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    PubMed Central

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261

  19. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    PubMed

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  20. Education and Public Sector Employment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; And Others

    A study examined the patterns of employment in the public sector as compared to the private, possible changes in that pattern in the last decade, and implications for educational policy. By using the human capital concept (employment patterns depend on productivity differences in individuals) and labor market segmentation analysis, the following…

  1. Quartet states of the lepton sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmachev, O. S.

    2013-09-15

    A holistic study of the lepton sector is fulfilled in the framework of rigorous restrictions by five input suppositions. All leptons are divided into three classes on the structure of their equations. They are singlets, doublets and quartets. The quartet states are the most interesting among them from the point of view of their properties and possible physical interpretations.

  2. Competitiveness measurement system in the advertising sector.

    PubMed

    Poveda-Bautista, Rocío; García-Melón, Mónica; Baptista, Doris C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to find indicators that can be used to measure companies' competitiveness and performance in an efficient and reliable way is presented. The aim is to assist managers of companies within a specific industrial sector by providing information about their relative position in the market so as to define better action plans that may improve the company's performance. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process, a multicriteria decision method, with the Balanced Scorecard. It allows the definition of a number of competitiveness indicators based on the performance and setting of the advertising sector. In this way it is possible to obtain a Competitiveness Index that allows a company to know its relative position with respect to other companies in the sector, and establish a ranking of the companies ordered by their competitiveness level. A case study in the advertising industry of Venezuela is provided. Results show that improvement plans for the agencies analyzed should promote creativity, innovation and the use of new technologies, as a particular form of innovation. These factors were considered to be the most relevant indicators in the advertising sector. The participating experts agreed that the methodology is useful and an improvement over current competitiveness assessment methods.

  3. Multi-sectoral interventions for healthy growth.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, Ma del Carmen; Lutter, Chessa K; Mangasaryan, Nune; Mwadime, Robert; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Aguilar, Ana Maria; Kopp, Ciro; Rico, Luis; Ibiett, Gonzalo; Andia, Doris; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    The risk of stunted growth and development is affected by the context in which a child is born and grows. This includes such interdependent influences as the political economy, health and health care, education, society and culture, agriculture and food systems, water and sanitation, and the environment. Here, we briefly review how factors linked with the key sectors can contribute to healthy growth and reduced childhood stunting. Emphasis is placed on the role of agriculture/food security, especially family farming; education, particularly of girls and women; water, sanitation, and hygiene and their integration in stunting reduction strategies; social protection including cash transfers, bearing in mind that success in this regard is linked to reducing the gap between rich and poor; economic investment in stunting reduction including the work with the for-profit commercial sector balancing risks linked to marketing foods that can displace affordable and more sustainable alternatives; health with emphasis on implementing comprehensive and effective health care interventions and building the capacity of health care providers. We complete the review with examples of national and subnational multi-sectoral interventions that illustrate how critical it is for sectors to work together to reduce stunting.

  4. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  5. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  6. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... overages, jointly and severally for civil penalties and permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an... issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Pursuant to 15 CFR part 904, each sector, permit... overfishing limit. Any such reduction of carryover amount shall be done consistent with the APA. (D)...

  7. Fees--The Impact on the Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David

    2012-01-01

    The author has been asked by the Editor-in-Chief to write about the impact of fees on the sector. He does so with concern for the impact on and implications for applicants, students, graduates and their families. Home and European Union undergraduate tuition fees are of course only part of the fee picture for higher education institutions (HEIs),…

  8. [Organization and technology in the catering sector].

    PubMed

    Tinarelli, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry is a service characterized by a contract between customer and supplier. In institutional catering industry, the customer is represented by public administration; in private catering industry, the customer is represented by privates. The annual catering trades size is about 6.74 billions of euros, equally distributed between health sector (hospitals, nursing homes), school sector and business sector (ivorkplace food service), with the participation of nearly 1.200 firms and 70.000 workers. Major services include off-premises catering (food prepared away from the location where it's served) and on-premises catering (meals prepared and served at the same place). Several tools and machineries are used during both warehousing and food refrigerating operations, and during preparation, cooking, packaging and transport of meals. In this sector, injuries, rarely resulting serious or deadly, show a downward trend in the last years. On the contrary, the number of occupational diseases shows an upward trend. About the near future, the firms should become global outsourcer, able to provide other services as cleaning, transport and maintenance. In addition, they should invest in innovation: from tools and machineries technology to work organization; from factory lay-out to safely and health in the workplaces. PMID:25558712

  9. [Organization and technology in the catering sector].

    PubMed

    Tinarelli, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry is a service characterized by a contract between customer and supplier. In institutional catering industry, the customer is represented by public administration; in private catering industry, the customer is represented by privates. The annual catering trades size is about 6.74 billions of euros, equally distributed between health sector (hospitals, nursing homes), school sector and business sector (ivorkplace food service), with the participation of nearly 1.200 firms and 70.000 workers. Major services include off-premises catering (food prepared away from the location where it's served) and on-premises catering (meals prepared and served at the same place). Several tools and machineries are used during both warehousing and food refrigerating operations, and during preparation, cooking, packaging and transport of meals. In this sector, injuries, rarely resulting serious or deadly, show a downward trend in the last years. On the contrary, the number of occupational diseases shows an upward trend. About the near future, the firms should become global outsourcer, able to provide other services as cleaning, transport and maintenance. In addition, they should invest in innovation: from tools and machineries technology to work organization; from factory lay-out to safely and health in the workplaces.

  10. Yukawa sector in SO(10) (Abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, A.

    2007-10-03

    Grand Unified Theories based on the group SO(10) generically provide interesting and testable relations between the charged fermions and neutrino sector masses and mixings. In the light of the recent neutrino data, we reexamine these relations both in supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models, and give a brief review of their present status.

  11. Competitiveness measurement system in the advertising sector.

    PubMed

    Poveda-Bautista, Rocío; García-Melón, Mónica; Baptista, Doris C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to find indicators that can be used to measure companies' competitiveness and performance in an efficient and reliable way is presented. The aim is to assist managers of companies within a specific industrial sector by providing information about their relative position in the market so as to define better action plans that may improve the company's performance. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process, a multicriteria decision method, with the Balanced Scorecard. It allows the definition of a number of competitiveness indicators based on the performance and setting of the advertising sector. In this way it is possible to obtain a Competitiveness Index that allows a company to know its relative position with respect to other companies in the sector, and establish a ranking of the companies ordered by their competitiveness level. A case study in the advertising industry of Venezuela is provided. Results show that improvement plans for the agencies analyzed should promote creativity, innovation and the use of new technologies, as a particular form of innovation. These factors were considered to be the most relevant indicators in the advertising sector. The participating experts agreed that the methodology is useful and an improvement over current competitiveness assessment methods. PMID:24505555

  12. [Eco-efficiency of Jiaozuo industry sectors].

    PubMed

    Du, Yan-chun; Jiang, Pan; Mao, Jian-su; Xu, Lin-yu

    2011-05-01

    Jiaozuo city was taken as a representative industry city and its industry energy consumption and industry emissions such as wastewater,solid waste, SO2, dust and so on were selected as corresponding environmental loads. The contribution rate to the environmental loads and eco-efficiencies of Jiaozuo industry sectors were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that, the industry sector with the highest energy eco-efficiency is Mining and Processing of Ferrous Metal Ores (FMM), 43.19 x 10(4) yuan x tce(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.003%; the one with the highest wastewater-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Transport Equipment (TRM), 3.58 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest solid waste-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery( SMM), 323.22 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.005%; the one with the highest SO2 emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery (SMM), 19.74 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest dust emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Rubber (RUM), 6.75 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.001%. It can be seen that the industry sector with high value of eco-efficiency always contributes less to its environmental load, which results that the industry sectors with high eco-efficiencies only play a weak role in leading the overall industry eco-efficiency. A succinct distance index (SDI) was proposed to estimate the differences between Jiaozuo and China average for their eco-efficiency of every industrial sector. The values of SDI range from -1 to 63.45, and the absolute value of SDI with positive value is much greater than that with negative value, which indicates that the values of eco-efficiencies for the advanced industry sectors of Jiaozuo city are much higher than those for China's industry sectors average.

  13. A retrospective analysis of real-life practice of off-label photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in 20 Italian dermatology departments. Part 1: inflammatory and aesthetic indications.

    PubMed

    Calzavara-Pinton, Pier Giacomo; Rossi, Maria Teresa; Aronson, Erica; Sala, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations have demonstrated that photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) may be a useful treatment in several inflammatory skin disorders and aesthetic indications. To assess the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of off-label MAL-PDT in daily clinical practice in 20 Italian hospital centers, a retrospective observational study of medical records of patients treated for off-label inflammatory and aesthetic indications was carried out. In all patients standard treatment options had been either ineffective, unacceptably toxic, or medically contraindicated. Clinical data regarding 221 patients affected by 22 different diseases were collected. The most common off-label indication was acne vulgaris, with >75% improvement in 72.8% of patients. Other disorders of the sebaceous gland, i.e. acne rosacea, hidradenitis suppurativa and sebaceous hyperplasia, were less responsive. Alopecia areata did not show any improvement. Granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica showed marked or moderate response in the majority of treated patients. The rate of patients with complete remission was lower for inflammatory skin disorders with hyperkeratosis, i.e. psoriasis (6/17) and porokeratosis (3/16). The efficacy for lichenoid dermatoses was dependent on the clinical variant (erosive and scleroatrophic were more responsive than hypertrophic). Only 1 of 6 patients with Zoon balanitis had a marked improvement. MAL-PDT of venous leg ulcers, photo-aging and hypertrophic scars led to a marked remission in 3/5, 3/6 and 5/8 patients, respectively. The treatment had to be interrupted because of strong pain and burning in 24 patients. Long term adverse events were not registered. Most patients with marked improvement had lasting remission with overall excellent cosmetic outcomes. The present findings demonstrate a high interest in off-label uses of MAL-PDT for inflammatory skin disorders. According to the observed clinical responses, safety, and

  14. A retrospective analysis of real-life practice of off-label photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in 20 Italian dermatology departments. Part 1: inflammatory and aesthetic indications.

    PubMed

    Calzavara-Pinton, Pier Giacomo; Rossi, Maria Teresa; Aronson, Erica; Sala, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations have demonstrated that photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) may be a useful treatment in several inflammatory skin disorders and aesthetic indications. To assess the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of off-label MAL-PDT in daily clinical practice in 20 Italian hospital centers, a retrospective observational study of medical records of patients treated for off-label inflammatory and aesthetic indications was carried out. In all patients standard treatment options had been either ineffective, unacceptably toxic, or medically contraindicated. Clinical data regarding 221 patients affected by 22 different diseases were collected. The most common off-label indication was acne vulgaris, with >75% improvement in 72.8% of patients. Other disorders of the sebaceous gland, i.e. acne rosacea, hidradenitis suppurativa and sebaceous hyperplasia, were less responsive. Alopecia areata did not show any improvement. Granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica showed marked or moderate response in the majority of treated patients. The rate of patients with complete remission was lower for inflammatory skin disorders with hyperkeratosis, i.e. psoriasis (6/17) and porokeratosis (3/16). The efficacy for lichenoid dermatoses was dependent on the clinical variant (erosive and scleroatrophic were more responsive than hypertrophic). Only 1 of 6 patients with Zoon balanitis had a marked improvement. MAL-PDT of venous leg ulcers, photo-aging and hypertrophic scars led to a marked remission in 3/5, 3/6 and 5/8 patients, respectively. The treatment had to be interrupted because of strong pain and burning in 24 patients. Long term adverse events were not registered. Most patients with marked improvement had lasting remission with overall excellent cosmetic outcomes. The present findings demonstrate a high interest in off-label uses of MAL-PDT for inflammatory skin disorders. According to the observed clinical responses, safety, and

  15. China's industrial sector in an international context

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Lehman, Bryan; Sinton, Jonathan

    2000-05-01

    The industrial sector accounts for 40% of global energy use. In 1995, developing countries used an estimated 48 EJ for industrial production, over one-third of world total industrial primary energy use (Price et al., 1998). Industrial output and energy use in developing countries is dominated by China, India, and Brazil. China alone accounts for about 30 EJ (National Bureau of Statistics, 1999), or about 23% of world industrial energy use. China's industrial sector is extremely energy-intensive and accounted for almost 75% of the country's total energy use in 1997. Industrial energy use in China grew an average of 6.6% per year, from 14 EJ in 1985 to 30 EJ in 1997 (Sinton et al., 1996; National Bureau of Statistics, 1999). This growth is more than three times faster than the average growth that took place in the world during the past two decades. The industrial sector can be divided into light and heavy industry, reflecting the relative energy-intensity of the manufacturing processes. In China, about 80% of the energy used in the industrial sector is consumed by heavy industry. Of this, the largest energy-consuming industries are chemicals, ferrous metals, and building materials (Sinton et al., 1996). This paper presents the results of international comparisons of production levels and energy use in six energy-intensive subsectors: iron and steel, aluminum, cement, petroleum refining, ammonia, and ethylene. The sectoral analysis results indicate that energy requirements to produce a unit of raw material in China are often higher than industrialized countries for most of the products analyzed in this paper, reflecting a significant potential to continue to improve energy efficiency in heavy industry.

  16. Abelian Hidden Sectors at a GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, David E.; Poland, David; Zurek, Kathryn; /Fermilab /Michigan U.

    2009-04-16

    We discuss mechanisms for naturally generating GeV-scale hidden sectors in the context of weak-scale supersymmetry. Such low mass scales can arise when hidden sectors are more weakly coupled to supersymmetry breaking than the visible sector, as happens when supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector by gauge interactions under which the hidden sector is uncharged, or if the hidden sector is sequestered from gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study these mechanisms in detail in the context of gauge and gaugino mediation, and present specific models of Abelian GeV-scale hidden sectors. In particular, we discuss kinetic mixing of a U(1){sub x} gauge force with hypercharge, singlets or bi-fundamentals which couple to both sectors, and additional loop effects. Finally, we investigate the possible relevance of such sectors for dark matter phenomenology, as well as for low- and high-energy collider searches.

  17. Universal Industrial Solution and Industrial Sectors Module for Pulp and Paper Sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased concerns over air pollution and its detrimental effects on health have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies in the industrial sector. However, stringent regulatory policies can potentially adversely affect domestic and international trade. Therefore E...

  18. Supersymmetric extended string field theory in NSn sector and NSn - 1-R sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Masako; Kato, Mitsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    We construct a class of quadratic gauge invariant actions for extended string fields defined on the tensor product of open superstring state space for multiple open string Neveu-Schwarz (NS) sectors with or without one Ramond (R) sector. The basic idea is the same as for the bosonic extended string field theory developed by the authors [1]. The theory for NSn sector and NS n - 1-R sector contains general n-th rank tensor fields and (n - 1)-th rank spinor-tensor fields in the massless spectrum respectively. In principle, consistent gauge invariant actions for any generic type of 10-dimensional massive or massless tensor or spinor-tensor fields can be extracted from the theory. We discuss some simple examples of bosonic and fermionic massless actions.

  19. How multiple episodes of exclusive breastfeeding impact estimates of exclusive breastfeeding duration: report from the eight-site MAL-ED birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ambikapathi, Ramya; Kosek, Margaret N; Lee, Gwenyth O; Mahopo, Cloupas; Patil, Crystal L; Maciel, Bruna L; Turab, Ali; Islam, M Munirul; Ulak, Manjeswori; Bose, Anuradha; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Pendergast, Laura L; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Lang, Dennis; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Caulfield, Laura E

    2016-10-01

    The duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is often defined as the time from birth to the first non-breast milk food/liquid fed (EBFLONG), or it is estimated by calculating the proportion of women at a given infant age who EBF in the previous 24 h (EBFDHS). Others have measured the total days or personal prevalence of EBF (EBFPREV), recognizing that although non-EBF days may occur, EBF can be re-initiated for extended periods. We compared breastfeeding metrics in the MAL-ED study; infants' breastfeeding trajectories were characterized from enrollment (median 7 days, IQR: 4, 12) to 180 days at eight sites. During twice-weekly surveillance, caretakers were queried about infant feeding the prior day. Overall, 101 833 visits and 356 764 child days of data were collected from 1957 infants. Median duration of EBFLONG was 33 days (95% CI: 32-36), compared to 49 days based on the EBFDHS. Median EBFPREV was 66 days (95% CI: 62-70). Differences were because of the return to EBF after a non-EBF period. The median number of returns to EBF was 2 (IQR: 1, 3). When mothers re-initiated EBF (second episode), infants gained an additional 18.8 days (SD: 25.1) of EBF, and gained 13.7 days (SD: 18.1) (third episode). In settings where women report short gaps in EBF, programmes should work with women to return to EBF. Interventions could positively influence the duration of these additional periods of EBF and their quantification should be considered in impact evaluation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes.

  1. Mixed-metal MIL-100(Sc,M) (M=Al, Cr, Fe) for Lewis acid catalysis and tandem C-C bond formation and alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Laura; Williamson, Patrick; Ehrlichová, Barbora; Anderson, Amanda E; Seymour, Valerie R; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Acerbi, Nadia; Daniels, Luke M; Walton, Richard I; Clarke, Matthew L; Wright, Paul A

    2014-12-15

    The trivalent metal cations Al(3+) , Cr(3+) , and Fe(3+) were each introduced, together with Sc(3+) , into MIL-100(Sc,M) solid solutions (M=Al, Cr, Fe) by direct synthesis. The substitution has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and solid-state NMR, UV/Vis, and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. Mixed Sc/Fe MIL-100 samples were prepared in which part of the Fe is present as α-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles within the mesoporous cages of the MOF, as shown by XAS, TGA, and PXRD. The catalytic activity of the mixed-metal catalysts in Lewis acid catalysed Friedel-Crafts additions increases with the amount of Sc present, with the attenuating effect of the second metal decreasing in the order Al>Fe>Cr. Mixed-metal Sc,Fe materials give acceptable activity: 40 % Fe incorporation only results in a 20 % decrease in activity over the same reaction time and pure product can still be obtained and filtered off after extended reaction times. Supported α-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles were also active Lewis acid species, although less active than Sc(3+) in trimer sites. The incorporation of Fe(3+) into MIL-100(Sc) imparts activity for oxidation catalysis and tandem catalytic processes (Lewis acid+oxidation) that make use of both catalytically active framework Sc(3+) and Fe(3+) . A procedure for using these mixed-metal heterogeneous catalysts has been developed for making ketones from (hetero)aromatics and a hemiacetal.

  2. Inter-domain communication mechanisms in an ABC importer: a molecular dynamics study of the MalFGK2E complex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A Sofia F; Baptista, António M; Soares, Cláudio M

    2011-08-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette transporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that convert the energy from ATP-binding and hydrolysis into conformational changes of the transmembrane region to allow the translocation of substrates against their concentration gradient. Despite the large amount of structural and biochemical data available for this family, it is still not clear how the energy obtained from ATP hydrolysis in the ATPase domains is "transmitted" to the transmembrane domains. In this work, we focus our attention on the consequences of hydrolysis and inorganic phosphate exit in the maltose uptake system (MalFGK(2)E) from Escherichia coli. The prime goal is to identify and map the structural changes occurring during an ATP-hydrolytic cycle. For that, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations to study three potential intermediate states (with 10 replicates each): an ATP-bound, an ADP plus inorganic phosphate-bound and an ADP-bound state. Our results show that the residues presenting major rearrangements are located in the A-loop, in the helical sub-domain, and in the "EAA motif" (especially in the "coupling helices" region). Additionally, in one of the simulations with ADP we were able to observe the opening of the NBD dimer accompanied by the dissociation of ADP from the ABC signature motif, but not from its corresponding P-loop motif. This work, together with several other MD studies, suggests a common communication mechanism both for importers and exporters, in which ATP-hydrolysis induces conformational changes in the helical sub-domain region, in turn transferred to the transmembrane domains via the "coupling helices".

  3. How multiple episodes of exclusive breastfeeding impact estimates of exclusive breastfeeding duration: report from the eight-site MAL-ED birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ambikapathi, Ramya; Kosek, Margaret N; Lee, Gwenyth O; Mahopo, Cloupas; Patil, Crystal L; Maciel, Bruna L; Turab, Ali; Islam, M Munirul; Ulak, Manjeswori; Bose, Anuradha; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Pendergast, Laura L; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Lang, Dennis; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Caulfield, Laura E

    2016-10-01

    The duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is often defined as the time from birth to the first non-breast milk food/liquid fed (EBFLONG), or it is estimated by calculating the proportion of women at a given infant age who EBF in the previous 24 h (EBFDHS). Others have measured the total days or personal prevalence of EBF (EBFPREV), recognizing that although non-EBF days may occur, EBF can be re-initiated for extended periods. We compared breastfeeding metrics in the MAL-ED study; infants' breastfeeding trajectories were characterized from enrollment (median 7 days, IQR: 4, 12) to 180 days at eight sites. During twice-weekly surveillance, caretakers were queried about infant feeding the prior day. Overall, 101 833 visits and 356 764 child days of data were collected from 1957 infants. Median duration of EBFLONG was 33 days (95% CI: 32-36), compared to 49 days based on the EBFDHS. Median EBFPREV was 66 days (95% CI: 62-70). Differences were because of the return to EBF after a non-EBF period. The median number of returns to EBF was 2 (IQR: 1, 3). When mothers re-initiated EBF (second episode), infants gained an additional 18.8 days (SD: 25.1) of EBF, and gained 13.7 days (SD: 18.1) (third episode). In settings where women report short gaps in EBF, programmes should work with women to return to EBF. Interventions could positively influence the duration of these additional periods of EBF and their quantification should be considered in impact evaluation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27500709

  4. Epidemiology and Impact of Campylobacter Infection in Children in 8 Low-Resource Settings: Results From the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Amour, Caroline; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; McGrath, Monica; Seidman, Jessica C.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Samie, Amidou; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Qureshi, Shahida; Hotwani, Aneeta; Babji, Sudhir; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Shakoor, Sadia; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lang, Dennis; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R.; Platts-Mills, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Enteropathogen infections have been associated with enteric dysfunction and impaired growth in children in low-resource settings. In a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED), we describe the epidemiology and impact of Campylobacter infection in the first 2 years of life. Methods. Children were actively followed up until 24 months of age. Diarrheal and nondiarrheal stool samples were collected and tested by enzyme immunoassay for Campylobacter. Stool and blood samples were assayed for markers of intestinal permeability and inflammation. Results. A total of 1892 children had 7601 diarrheal and 26 267 nondiarrheal stool samples tested for Campylobacter. We describe a high prevalence of infection, with most children (n = 1606; 84.9%) having a Campylobacter-positive stool sample by 1 year of age. Factors associated with a reduced risk of Campylobacter detection included exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, .47–.67), treatment of drinking water (0.76; 0.70–0.83), access to an improved latrine (0.89; 0.82–0.97), and recent macrolide antibiotic use (0.68; 0.63–0.74). A high Campylobacter burden was associated with a lower length-for-age Z score at 24 months (−1.82; 95% confidence interval, −1.94 to −1.70) compared with a low burden (−1.49; −1.60 to −1.38). This association was robust to confounders and consistent across sites. Campylobacter infection was also associated with increased intestinal permeability and intestinal and systemic inflammation. Conclusions. Campylobacter was prevalent across diverse settings and associated with growth shortfalls. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding, drinking water treatment, improved latrines, and targeted antibiotic treatment may reduce the burden of Campylobacter infection and improve growth in children in these settings. PMID:27501842

  5. Synthesis and structure of In(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} and vibrational spectroscopy of M(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} (M=Al, Ga, In)

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, Nhan; Kalachnikova, Katrina; Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, Richard G.; Sykora, Richard E. . E-mail: rsykora@jaguar1.usouthal.edu

    2006-12-15

    The reaction of Al, Ga, or In metals and H{sub 5}IO{sub 6} in aqueous media at 180{sup o}C leads to the formation of Al(IO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Ga(IO{sub 3}){sub 3,} or In(IO{sub 3}){sub 3}, respectively. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments have shown In(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} contains the Te{sub 4}O{sub 9}-type structure, while both Al(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Ga(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} are known to exhibit the polar Fe(IO{sub 3}){sub 3}-type structure. Crystallographic data for In(IO{sub 3}){sub 3}, trigonal, space group R3-bar , a=9.7482(4)A, c=14.1374(6)A, V=1163.45(8) Z=6, R(F)=1.38% for 41 parameters with 644 reflections with I>2{sigma}(I). All three iodate structures contain group 13 metal cations in a distorted octahedral coordination environment. M(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} (M=Al, Ga) contain a three-dimensional network formed by the bridging of Al{sup 3+} or Ga{sup 3+} cations by iodate anions. With In(IO{sub 3}){sub 3}, iodate anions bridge In{sup 3+} cations in two-dimensional layers. Both materials contain distorted octahedral holes in their structures formed by terminal oxygen atoms from the iodate anions. The Raman spectra have been collected for these metal iodates; In(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} was found to display a distinctively different vibrational profile than Al(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} or Ga(IO{sub 3}){sub 3}. Hence, the Raman profile can be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to discern between the different structural motifs.

  6. Interpenetration of a 3D Icosahedral M@Ni12 (M=Al, Ga) Framework with Porphyrin-Reminiscent Boron Layers in MNi9 B8.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Wagner, Frank R; Ormeci, Alim; Prots, Yurii; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Schmidt, Marcus; Schnelle, Walter; Grin, Yuri; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Two ternary borides MNi9 B8 (M=Al, Ga) were synthesized by thermal treatment of mixtures of the elements. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data reveal AlNi9 B8 and GaNi9 B8 crystallizing in a new type of structure within the space group Cmcm and the lattice parameters a=7.0896(3) Å, b=8.1181(3) Å, c=10.6497(4) Å and a=7.0897(5) Å, b=8.1579(4) Å, c=10.6648(7) Å, respectively. The boron atoms build up two-dimensional layers, which consist of puckered [B16 ] rings with two tailing B atoms, whereas the M atoms reside in distorted vertices-condensed [Ni12 ] icosahedra, which form a three-dimensional framework interpenetrated by boron porphyrin-reminiscent layers. An unusual local arrangement resembling a giant metallo-porphyrin entity is formed by the [B16 ] rings, which, due to their large annular size of approximately 8 Å, chelate four of the twelve icosahedral Ni atoms. An analysis of the chemical bonding by means of the electron localizability approach reveals strong covalent B-B interactions and weak Ni-Ni interactions. Multi-center dative B-Ni interaction occurs between the Al-Ni framework and the boron layers. In agreement with the chemical bonding analysis and band structure calculations, AlNi9 B8 is a Pauli-paramagnetic metal. PMID:26418894

  7. Establishment of novel in vitro mouse chief cell and SPEM cultures identifies MAL2 as a marker of metaplasia in the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Victoria G.; Petersen, Christine P.; Mills, Jason C.; Tuma, Pamela L.; Whitehead, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Oxyntic atrophy in the stomach leads to chief cell transdifferentiation into spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM). Investigations of preneoplastic metaplasias in the stomach are limited by the sole reliance on in vivo mouse models, owing to the lack of in vitro models for distinct normal mucosal lineages and metaplasias. Utilizing the Immortomouse, in vitro cell models of chief cells and SPEM were developed to study the characteristics of normal chief cells and metaplasia. Chief cells and SPEM cells isolated from Immortomice were cultured and characterized at both the permissive (33°C) and the nonpermissive temperature (39°C). Clones were selected on the basis of their transcriptional expression of specific stomach lineage markers (named ImChief and ImSPEM) and protein expression and growth were analyzed. The transcriptional expression profiles of ImChief and ImSPEM cells were compared further by using gene microarrays. ImChief cells transcriptionally express most chief cell markers and contain pepsinogen C and RAB3D-immunostaining vesicles. ImSPEM cells express the SPEM markers TFF2 and HE4 and constitutively secrete HE4. Whereas ImChief cells cease proliferation at the nonpermissive temperature, ImSPEM cells continue to proliferate at 39°C. Gene expression profiling of ImChief and ImSPEM revealed myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 (MAL2) as a novel marker of SPEM lineages. Our results indicate that the expression and proliferation profiles of the novel ImChief and ImSPEM cell lines resemble in vivo chief and SPEM cell lineages. These cell culture lines provide the first in vitro systems for studying the molecular mechanisms of the metaplastic transition in the stomach. PMID:25190476

  8. Establishment of novel in vitro mouse chief cell and SPEM cultures identifies MAL2 as a marker of metaplasia in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Weis, Victoria G; Petersen, Christine P; Mills, Jason C; Tuma, Pamela L; Whitehead, Robert H; Goldenring, James R

    2014-10-15

    Oxyntic atrophy in the stomach leads to chief cell transdifferentiation into spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM). Investigations of preneoplastic metaplasias in the stomach are limited by the sole reliance on in vivo mouse models, owing to the lack of in vitro models for distinct normal mucosal lineages and metaplasias. Utilizing the Immortomouse, in vitro cell models of chief cells and SPEM were developed to study the characteristics of normal chief cells and metaplasia. Chief cells and SPEM cells isolated from Immortomice were cultured and characterized at both the permissive (33°C) and the nonpermissive temperature (39°C). Clones were selected on the basis of their transcriptional expression of specific stomach lineage markers (named ImChief and ImSPEM) and protein expression and growth were analyzed. The transcriptional expression profiles of ImChief and ImSPEM cells were compared further by using gene microarrays. ImChief cells transcriptionally express most chief cell markers and contain pepsinogen C and RAB3D-immunostaining vesicles. ImSPEM cells express the SPEM markers TFF2 and HE4 and constitutively secrete HE4. Whereas ImChief cells cease proliferation at the nonpermissive temperature, ImSPEM cells continue to proliferate at 39°C. Gene expression profiling of ImChief and ImSPEM revealed myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 (MAL2) as a novel marker of SPEM lineages. Our results indicate that the expression and proliferation profiles of the novel ImChief and ImSPEM cell lines resemble in vivo chief and SPEM cell lineages. These cell culture lines provide the first in vitro systems for studying the molecular mechanisms of the metaplastic transition in the stomach.

  9. Approximate flavor symmetries in the lepton sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A. ); Silva, J.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Approximate flavor symmetries in the quark sector have been used as a handle on physics beyond the standard model. Because of the great interest in neutrino masses and mixings and the wealth of existing and proposed neutrino experiments it is important to extend this analysis to the leptonic sector. We show that in the seesaw mechanism the neutrino masses and mixing angles do not depend on the details of the right-handed neutrino flavor symmetry breaking, and are related by a simple formula. We propose several [ital Ansa]$[ital uml]---[ital tze] which relate different flavor symmetry-breaking parameters and find that the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is always easily fit. Further, the [nu][sub [mu]-][nu][sub [tau

  10. Nonplanar Integrability:. Beyond the SU(2) Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; Mohammed, Badr Awad Elseid; Smith, Stephanie

    We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of restricted Schur polynomials with a classical dimension Δ~O(N). The operators that we consider are labeled by Young diagrams with two long columns or two long rows. Simple analytic expressions for the action of the dilatation operator are found. The projection operators needed to define the restricted Schur polynomials are constructed by translating the problem into a spin chain language, generalizing earlier results obtained in the SU(2) sector of the theory. The diagonalization of the dilatation operator reduces to solving five term recursion relations. The recursion relations can be solved exactly in terms of products of symmetric Kravchuk polynomials with Hahn polynomials. This proves that the dilatation operator reduces to a decoupled set of harmonic oscillators and therefore it is integrable, extending a similar conclusion reached for the SU(2) sector of the theory.

  11. USDOE applied R D private sector initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, S.C.T. . Office of Technology Development); Borys, S.S.; Erickson, M.D. )

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently consolidated its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. Within that new organization, DOE has committed to conduct Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) activities within the Office of Technology Development (OTD) to reduce cost, reduce risk, and otherwise improve the technologies to meet its cleanup goals. Currently available technology is not adequate to assess environmental contamination, take permanent remedial action, and to eliminate or minimize the environmental impact of future operations. To focus private sector capabilities on the high-priority needs of DOE, a series of competitive solicitations will be issued starting in FY 1990. This paper describes the range and scope of the DOE initiatives for private sector involvement in Applied R D. 2 tabs.

  12. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, M.; Gies, H.; Jaeckel, J.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.

    2008-05-01

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axionlike particles. In this paper we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of 2. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses ≲0.05eV, the charge is now restricted to be less than (3-4)×10-7 times the electron electric charge. This is the best laboratory bound and comparable to bounds inferred from the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

  13. The market and health sector reform.

    PubMed

    Collins, C; Hunter, D J; Green, A

    1994-01-01

    A new international orthodoxy has developed on health sector reform. The dominant theme of the orthodoxy is the alleged benefits of market style reforms for health development. This is shaping changes formulated, and being implemented, in the British NHS and other European health services (including Central and Eastern Europe), Latin America and a number of developing health systems in Africa and Asia. Sets out a ten-point description of the orthodoxy. Contends that the orthodoxy is showing distinct signs of restricting the analysis and development of health management and planning. This is a matter for considerable concern as the adoption of market-style reforms can generate unforeseen and, in some cases, negative consequences. There is clearly a need for strengthening management research and development as a basis for effective health sector reform.

  14. Home and community care sector accountability.

    PubMed

    Steele Gray, Carolyn; Berta, Whitney; Deber, Raisa B; Lum, Janet

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on accountability for the home and community care (HCC) sector in Ontario. The many different service delivery approaches, funding methods and types of organizations delivering HCC services make this sector highly heterogeneous. Findings from a document analysis and environmental scan suggest that organizations delivering HCC services face multiple accountability requirements from a wide array of stakeholders. Government stakeholders tend to rely on regulatory and expenditure instruments to hold organizations to account for service delivery. Semi-structured key informant interview respondents reported that the expenditure-based accountability tools being used carried a number of unintended consequences, both positive and negative. These include an increased organizational focus on quality, shifting care time away from clients (particularly problematic for small agencies), dissuading innovation, and reliance on performance indicators that do not adequately support the delivery of high-quality care. PMID:25305389

  15. Fine-scale characteristics of interplanetary sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.; Barnstoff, H.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of the interplanetary sector boundaries observed by Helios 1 within sector transition regions was studied. Such regions consist of intermediate (nonspiral) average field orientations in some cases, as well as a number of large angle directional discontinuities (DD's) on the fine scale (time scales 1 hour). Such DD's are found to be more similar to tangential than rotational discontinuities, to be oriented on average more nearly perpendicular than parallel to the ecliptic plane to be accompanied usually by a large dip ( 80%) in B and, with a most probable thickness of 3 x 10 to the 4th power km, significantly thicker previously studied. It is hypothesized that the observed structures represent multiple traversals of the global heliospheric current sheet due to local fluctuations in the position of the sheet. There is evidence that such fluctuations are sometimes produced by wavelike motions or surface corrugations of scale length 0.05 - 0.1 AU superimposed on the large scale structure.

  16. Home and community care sector accountability.

    PubMed

    Steele Gray, Carolyn; Berta, Whitney; Deber, Raisa B; Lum, Janet

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on accountability for the home and community care (HCC) sector in Ontario. The many different service delivery approaches, funding methods and types of organizations delivering HCC services make this sector highly heterogeneous. Findings from a document analysis and environmental scan suggest that organizations delivering HCC services face multiple accountability requirements from a wide array of stakeholders. Government stakeholders tend to rely on regulatory and expenditure instruments to hold organizations to account for service delivery. Semi-structured key informant interview respondents reported that the expenditure-based accountability tools being used carried a number of unintended consequences, both positive and negative. These include an increased organizational focus on quality, shifting care time away from clients (particularly problematic for small agencies), dissuading innovation, and reliance on performance indicators that do not adequately support the delivery of high-quality care.

  17. Grand unified hidden-sector dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2014-10-01

    We explore G×G unified theories with the visible and the hidden or dark sectors paired under a Z2 symmetry. Developing a system of "asymmetric symmetry breaking" we motivate such models on the basis of their ability to generate dark baryons that are confined with a mass scale just above that of the proton, as motivated by asymmetric dark matter. This difference is achieved from the distinct but related confinement scales that develop in unified theories that have the two factors of G spontaneously breaking in an asymmetric manner. We show how Higgs potentials that admit different gauge group breaking chains in each sector can be constructed, and demonstrate the capacity for generating different fermion mass scales. Lastly we discuss supersymmetric extensions of such schemes.

  18. Management by missions in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Fonseca Pires, J; Rey, C; Más-Machuca, M; Bastons, M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of the mission statement in the healthcare sector. It's also argued that only formal declaration of the mission it's insufficient to the appropriate professional coordination of doctors, nurses and managers. It's proposed a systematic approach to facilitate the introduction of the mission within the systems of the organization, what is called "Management by missions." It promotes horizontal and vertical integration between doctors, nurses and managers. Criteria that ensure this integration are specified. PMID:27068141

  19. Management by missions in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Fonseca Pires, J; Rey, C; Más-Machuca, M; Bastons, M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of the mission statement in the healthcare sector. It's also argued that only formal declaration of the mission it's insufficient to the appropriate professional coordination of doctors, nurses and managers. It's proposed a systematic approach to facilitate the introduction of the mission within the systems of the organization, what is called "Management by missions." It promotes horizontal and vertical integration between doctors, nurses and managers. Criteria that ensure this integration are specified.

  20. Midnight Sector Observations of Auroral Omega Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, J. A.; Woodfield, E. E.; Donovan, E. F.; Fear, R. C.; Grocott, A.; Lester, M.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Lucek, E. A.; Kadokura, A.; Hosokawa, K.; Carlson, C. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Björnsson, G.

    2010-12-01

    We present observations of auroral omega bands on 28 September 2009. Although generally associated with the substorm recovery phase and typically observed in the morning sector, the omega bands presented here occurred just after expansion phase onset and were observed in the midnight sector, immediately dawnward of the onset region. The Tjörnes “Rainbow” all-sky imager, located in north-eastern Iceland, revealed that the omega bands were ˜200 km in scale and propagated eastward from the onset region at ˜0.4 km/s while a co-located ground magnetometer recorded the simultaneous passage of Ps 6 pulsations. Although somewhat smaller and slower-moving than the majority of previously reported omega bands, the observed structures were clear examples of this phenomenon, albeit in an atypical location and much earlier in the substorm cycle than is usual. During the study interval the THEMIS A and C probes provided detailed measurements of the upstream interplanetary environment while the Cluster spacecraft were located in the tail plasma sheet conjugate to the ground-based all-sky imager. Cluster observed pulsed fluxes of electrons moving parallel to the magnetic field towards the northern hemisphere auroral ionosphere. Despite mapping uncertainties, there is some suggestion that keV electron fluxes in the tail were related to the auroral emissions in the omega bands. We suggest that omega band formation may be linked to expansion phase onset in the midnight sector and that the finite propagation speed through post-midnight and early morning local times may account for the interpretation of omega bands as a morning sector recovery phase phenomenon.

  1. Implementing TQM in the health care sector.

    PubMed

    Motwani, J; Sower, V E; Brashier, L W

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the issue of implementing TQM/CQI programs in the health care industry by grouping the prescriptive literature into four research streams. Based on the literature, a strategic programming model for implementing TQM/CQI in the health care industry is suggested. Finally, issues relating to TQM in the health care sector, which need to be addressed within each research stream in the future, are provided.

  2. HSCT Sector Combustor Evaluations for Demonstration Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Stuart; Heberling, Paul; Kastl, John; Matulaitis, John; Huff, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In LET Task 10, critical development issues of the HSCT lean-burn low emissions combustor were addressed with a range of engineering tools. Laser diagnostics and CFD analysis were applied to develop a clearer understanding of the fuel-air premixing process and premixed combustion. Subcomponent tests evaluated the emissions and operability performance of the fuel-air premixers. Sector combustor tests evaluated the performance of the integrated combustor system. A 3-cup sector was designed and procured for laser diagnostics studies at NASA Glenn. The results of these efforts supported the earlier selection of the Cyclone Swirler as the pilot stage premixer and the IMFH (Integrated Mixer Flame Holder) tube as the main stage premixer of the LPP combustor. In the combustor system preliminary design subtask, initial efforts to transform the sector combustor design into a practical subscale engine combustor met with significant challenges. Concerns about the durability of a stepped combustor dome and the need for a removable fuel injection system resulted in the invention and refinement of the MRA (Multistage Radial Axial) combustor system in 1994. The MRA combustor was selected for the HSR Phase II LPP subscale combustor testing in the CPC Program.

  3. Challenges and responsibilities for public sector scientists.

    PubMed

    Van Montagu, Marc

    2010-11-30

    Current agriculture faces the challenge of doubling food production to meet the food needs of a population expected to reach 9 billion by mid-century whilst maintaining soil and water quality and conserving biodiversity. These challenges are more overwhelming for the rural poor, who are the custodians of environmental resources and at the same time particularly vulnerable to environmental degradation. Solutions have to come from concerted actions by different segments of society in which public sector science plays a fundamental role. Public sector scientists are at the root of all the present generation of GM crop traits under cultivation and more will come with the new knowledge that is being generated by systems biology. To speed up innovation, molecular biologists must interact with scientists from the different fields as well as with stakeholders outside the academic world in order to create an environment capable of capturing value from public sector knowledge. I highlight here the measures that have to be taken urgently to guarantee that science and technology can tackle the problems of subsistence farmers.

  4. Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Nadine; Bond, Tami C.; Wang, James S.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Bauer, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    A much-cited bar chart provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change displays the climate impact, as expressed by radiative forcing in watts per meter squared, of individual chemical species. The organization of the chart reflects the history of atmospheric chemistry, in which investigators typically focused on a single species of interest. However, changes in pollutant emissions and concentrations are a symptom, not a cause, of the primary driver of anthropogenic climate change: human activity. In this paper, we suggest organizing the bar chart according to drivers of change—that is, by economic sector. Climate impacts of tropospheric ozone, fine aerosols, aerosol-cloud interactions, methane, and long-lived greenhouse gases are considered. We quantify the future evolution of the total radiative forcing due to perpetual constant year 2000 emissions by sector, most relevant for the development of climate policy now, and focus on two specific time points, near-term at 2020 and long-term at 2100. Because sector profiles differ greatly, this approach fosters the development of smart climate policy and is useful to identify effective opportunities for rapid mitigation of anthropogenic radiative forcing. PMID:20133724

  5. 76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... to publish the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to the specific needs of electricity...

  6. Dark matter freeze-out in a nonrelativistic sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    A thermally decoupled hidden sector of particles, with a mass gap, generically enters a phase of cannibalism in the early Universe. The Standard Model sector becomes exponentially colder than the hidden sector. We propose the cannibal dark matter framework, where dark matter resides in a cannibalizing sector with a relic density set by 2-to-2 annihilations. Observable signals of cannibal dark matter include a boosted rate for indirect detection, new relativistic degrees of freedom, and warm dark matter.

  7. Accounting for School-Sector Differences in University Entrance Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary

    2009-01-01

    School-sector differences in student performance are often viewed as largely reflecting the intake characteristics of students and having little to do with differences in the provision of teaching and learning between school sectors. The contrary view is that school-sector differences show that non-government schools "add value" to student…

  8. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  9. Quality Guidance: A Sectoral Analysis. NICEC Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Sadler, Jackie

    This report reviews the structure of the guidance field and provides a sector-by-sector analysis of current quality assurance arrangements in the United Kingdom. Part 1 presents an outline of the guidance sector, including some key concepts, structures, and roles. It defines guidance and other terms; discusses the three main categories…

  10. Manifestations of CP Violation in the MSSM Higgs Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Sik

    2008-11-23

    We demonstrate how CP violation manifests itself in the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). Starting with a brief introduction to CP violation in the MSSM and its effects on the Higgs sector, we discuss some phenomenological aspects of the Higgs sector CP violation based on the two scenarios called CPX and Trimixing.

  11. New Technologies to Assist Training in Hospitality Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balta, Sabah

    2007-01-01

    Hospitality sector needs new technological training tools, which can assist to improve sector employees' skills and services quality. The sector might be more interactive when these technological training tools used on the job-training program. This study addresses to issue of illumination of new technologic tools that enforce training in which…

  12. Nepsilon-(3-[*I]Iodobenzoyl)-Lys5-Nalpha-maleimido-Gly1-GEEEK ([*I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK): a radioiodinated prosthetic group containing negatively charged D-glutamates for labeling internalizing monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Alston, Kevin L; Bigner, Darrel D; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    Novel methods are needed for the radiohalogenation of cell-internalizing proteins and peptides because rapid loss of label occurs after lysosomal processing when these molecules are labeled using conventional radioiodination methodologies. We have developed a radiolabeled prosthetic group that contains multiple negatively charged D-amino acids to facilitate trapping of the radioactivity in the cell after proteolysis of the labeled protein. N(epsilon)-(3-[(125)I]iodobenzoyl)-Lys(5)-N(alpha)-maleimido-Gly(1)-GEEEK ([(125)I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK) was synthesized via iododestannylation in 90.3 +/- 3.9% radiochemical yields. This radioiodinated agent was conjugated to iminothiolane-treated L8A4, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) in 54.3 +/- 17.7% conjugation yields. In vitro assays with the EGFRvIII-expressing U87MGDeltaEGFR glioma cell line demonstrated that the internalized radioactivity for the [(125)I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK-L8A4 conjugate increased from 14.1% at 1 h to 44.7% at 24 h and was about 15-fold higher than that of directly radioiodinated L8A4 at 24 h. A commensurately increased tumor uptake in vivo in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous U87MGDeltaEGFR xenografts (52.6 +/- 14.3% injected dose per gram versus 17.4 +/- 3.5% ID/g at 72 h) also was observed. These results suggest that [(125)I]IB-Mal-d-GEEEK is a promising reagent for the radioiodination of internalizing mAbs. PMID:16848419

  13. Comparison of the OptiMAL rapid antigen test with field microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum: considerations for the application of the rapid test in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Kolaczinski, J; Mohammed, N; Ali, I; Ali, M; Khan, N; Ezard, N; Rowland, M

    2004-01-01

    To establish the sensitivity and specificity of a batch of 'OptiMAL 48' rapid antigen tests procured by the World Health Organization in Afghanistan, a sample was tested, in parallel with routine, microscopical diagnosis, at basic health units (BHU) within Afghan refugee camps in Pakistan. The results of both methods of field diagnosis were compared with those of cross-checking microscopy at a reference laboratory, which were taken as the 'gold standard'. Out of 499 patients examined, 36% were diagnosed as malaria cases by field microscopy and 34% by the rapid test. For the OptiMAL 48 test, cross-checking of the corresponding smears at the reference laboratory gave a sensitivity of 79.3% and a specificity of 99.7% for Plasmodium falciparum and corresponding values of 86.1% and 98.7% for P. vivax infections. The performance of the field microscopy was better, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.2% and 99.7% for P. falciparum, and 90.4% and 98.7% for P. vivax, respectively. These results show that the performance of OptiMAL 48 is adequate for acute- and post-emergency situations when the alternative is just clinical diagnosis. However, in the developing health system of Afghanistan, the main focus should be on the expansion of the existing network for microscopical diagnosis and quality control, to meet the needs of a stable situation. Rapid antigen tests are more suited to investigations of outbreaks in remote situations, where health services are deficient or absent. PMID:15000726

  14. A retrospective analysis of real-life practice of off-label photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in 20 Italian dermatology departments. Part 2: oncologic and infectious indications.

    PubMed

    Calzavara-Pinton, Pier Giacomo; Rossi, Maria Teresa; Sala, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) has been suggested as a useful treatment option in a number of skin tumors, other than approved indications, and infections. However, evidence is poor because it is mainly supported by isolated case reports or small case series, often with conflicting results. To assess the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of off-label MAL-PDT in daily clinical practice in 20 Italian hospitals, a retrospective observational study of medical records of patients treated for off-label oncologic and infectious skin conditions was carried out. In all patients standard treatment options had been either ineffective, unacceptably toxic, or medically contraindicated. Clinical data from 145 patients were analyzed. Actinic cheilitis showed a complete remission (CR) in 27 out of 43 treated patients and CR was maintained at follow-up. CR was registered in 3 of 8, 5 of 8 and 10 of 17 treated patients who were affected by extra-mammary Paget's disease (EMPD), erythroplasia of Queyrat (QD), and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively. Five out of 19 patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma had a complete remission. Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, mastocytosis and nevus sebaceous were not responsive. Warts were treated in 30 patients and 15 had a complete remission. However, periungueal and plantar lesions were much more responsive than flat and common lesions. Condylomata showed a CR in 2 out of 5 male patients but treatment was painful. Bowenoid papulosis showed only a partial improvement. Atypical mycobacteriosis and chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis were successfully treated. Submammary candidal intertrigo and interdigital intertrigo with Pseudomonas aeruginosa did not improve. Among off-label oncological uses of MAL-PDT, the therapy of actinic cheilitis was the most investigated and showed the best results. In addition, MAL-PDT was used successfully in the majority of patients with QD, EMPD

  15. Phase Transitions in the Na 3M2(PO 4) 2F 3 Family ( M=Al 3+, V 3+, Cr 3+, Fe 3+, Ga 3+): Synthesis, Thermal, Structural, and Magnetic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Meins, J.-M.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.-P.; Hemon-Ribaud, A.; Courbion, G.

    1999-12-01

    The investigated compounds Na3M2(PO4)2F3 (M=Al3+, V3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Ga3+) have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis or by solid state synthesis and characterized by thermal analyses (TGA, DTA, DSC), powder and single crystal X-ray works, or neutron diffraction. Several other ways of characterization have also been used such as diffraction by TEM, IR, magnetism, and Mössbauer spectrometry. These compounds present two crystallographic transitions which involve three modifications: α, β, and α. The room temperature (β) phases can be split into two groups: the first (β1), with M=Al3+, Cr3+, Ga3+, crystallizes in the space group P42/mbc (a=12.406(2) Å, c=10.411(2) Å, Z=8 for M=Al3+) whereas the second group (β3) with M=V3+, Fe3+ crystallizes in the space group P42/mnm (a=9.047(2) Å, c=10.705(2) Å, Z=4 for M=V3+). On the other hand all the high temperature (α) phases adopt the same space group I4/mmm (a=6.206(1) Å, c=10.418(4) Å, Z=2 for M=Al3+). Mössbauer spectrometry and powder neutron diffraction (paramagnetic state) allowed us to evidence a low temperature (γ) phase on the Fe compound which is characterized by an orthorhombic symmetry (a=12.756(1) Å, b=12.803(1) Å, c=10.602(2) Å, Z=8, space group Pbam). All these compounds adopt an identical three-dimensional [M2(PO4)2F3]3-∞ network built up by sharing four corners between PO4 tetrahedra and M2O8F3 bioctahedra (one fluorine apex bridges two octahedra). Na+ ions are statistically distributed inside the resulting channels. Susceptibility measurements reveal an antiferromagnetic behavior for each of the paramagnetic compounds (M=V3+, Cr3+, Fe3+).

  16. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, N.R.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, W.N.

    2007-03-20

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H{sub 2}CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} recycled from the H{sub 2}-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H{sub 2}CAR process. The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. Whereras the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce {approx}30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H{sub 2}CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. The synthesized liquid provides H{sub 2} storage in an open loop system. Reduction to practice of the H{sub 2}CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H{sub 2} in the H{sub 2}CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H{sub 2}CAR is that there is no additional CO{sub 2} release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO{sub 2}.

  17. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Delgass, W. Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H2CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H2 and CO2 recycled from the H2-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H2CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. (ii) Whereas the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce ≈30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H2CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H2 storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H2CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H2 in the H2CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H2CAR is that there is no additional CO2 release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO2. PMID:17360377

  18. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  19. Transferring technology to the public sector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

  20. Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.

    1999-05-18

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area.

  1. En-route Sector Buffering Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugail, David; Bilimoria, Karl; Feron, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Using point mass dynamic model for aircraft, we investigate the efficiency of velocity control in the case of an en-route sector subject to an output rate restriction. Velocity control can only be a temporary solution to the problem of an input rate larger than the output rate. This translates into a maximum number of aircraft that can be controlled before a bottom speed limit is reached. We, derive this number, both analytically and through simulations. Two control strategies are simulated and analyzed and their differences are exhibited.

  2. Effect of phasing-sector angular extent in FM reticles.

    PubMed

    Driggers, R G; Halford, C E; Meads, M M; Boreman, G D

    1992-08-01

    A technique is presented for increasing the useful power of the FM modulation signal from a spinning FM reticle with a phasing sector. Spinning FM reticles often determine a target location by using a combination of a phasing sector to establish the angular target location and a radial frequency variation to establish the radial target location. Typically, the phasing sector of this reticle type consists of a semicircular transmissive sector with the other semicircular sector which provides FM modulation. The power of the FM modulation signal is increased by matching the phased-sector geometry to the size that corresponds to the period of the modulation frequency. This type of reticle is compared and contrasted with the more typical semicircular phasing-sector reticle in both the time and frequency domains. PMID:20725463

  3. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability.

  4. Hidden sector DM models and Higgs physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.

    2014-06-24

    We present an extension of the standard model to dark sector with an unbroken local dark U(1){sub X} symmetry. Including various singlet portal interactions provided by the standard model Higgs, right-handed neutrinos and kinetic mixing, we show that the model can address most of phenomenological issues (inflation, neutrino mass and mixing, baryon number asymmetry, dark matter, direct/indirect dark matter searches, some scale scale puzzles of the standard collisionless cold dark matter, vacuum stability of the standard model Higgs potential, dark radiation) and be regarded as an alternative to the standard model. The Higgs signal strength is equal to one as in the standard model for unbroken U(1){sub X} case with a scalar dark matter, but it could be less than one independent of decay channels if the dark matter is a dark sector fermion or if U(1){sub X} is spontaneously broken, because of a mixing with a new neutral scalar boson in the models.

  5. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    PubMed

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health.

  6. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability. PMID:26527335

  7. The private sector, international development and NCDs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011. PMID:21798001

  8. The private sector, international development and NCDs.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Christine; Kingo, Lise; Raynaud, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011.

  9. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    PubMed

    Cingolani, Isabella; Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns.

  10. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    PubMed

    Cingolani, Isabella; Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns. PMID:26485163

  11. Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

    A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

  12. Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.

  13. Climate forcing from the transport sectors.

    PubMed

    Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje; Myhre, Gunnar; Rypdal, Kristin; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt

    2008-01-15

    Although the transport sector is responsible for a large and growing share of global emissions affecting climate, its overall contribution has not been quantified. We provide a comprehensive analysis of radiative forcing from the road transport, shipping, aviation, and rail subsectors, using both past- and forward-looking perspectives. We find that, since preindustrial times, transport has contributed approximately 15% and 31% of the total man-made CO2 and O3 forcing, respectively. A forward-looking perspective shows that the current emissions from transport are responsible for approximately 16% of the integrated net forcing over 100 years from all current man-made emissions. The dominating contributor to positive forcing (warming) is CO2, followed by tropospheric O3. By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to warming. The transport sector also exerts cooling through reduced methane lifetime and atmospheric aerosol effects. Shipping causes net cooling, except on future time scales of several centuries. Much of the forcing from transport comes from emissions not covered by the Kyoto Protocol.

  14. Climate forcing from the transport sectors

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje; Myhre, Gunnar; Rypdal, Kristin; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt

    2008-01-01

    Although the transport sector is responsible for a large and growing share of global emissions affecting climate, its overall contribution has not been quantified. We provide a comprehensive analysis of radiative forcing from the road transport, shipping, aviation, and rail subsectors, using both past- and forward-looking perspectives. We find that, since preindustrial times, transport has contributed ≈15% and 31% of the total man-made CO2 and O3 forcing, respectively. A forward-looking perspective shows that the current emissions from transport are responsible for ≈16% of the integrated net forcing over 100 years from all current man-made emissions. The dominating contributor to positive forcing (warming) is CO2, followed by tropospheric O3. By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to warming. The transport sector also exerts cooling through reduced methane lifetime and atmospheric aerosol effects. Shipping causes net cooling, except on future time scales of several centuries. Much of the forcing from transport comes from emissions not covered by the Kyoto Protocol. PMID:18180450

  15. Fluorescence and phosphorescence properties of the low temperature forms of the MAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Clabau, Frederic; Garcia, Alain; Bonville, Pierre; Gonbeau, Danielle; Le Mercier, Thierry; Deniard, Philippe; Jobic, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    The fluorescence and phosphorescence properties of Europium-doped MAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) are reinvestigated and discussed on the basis of the propensity of an activator to agglomerate with an oxygen vacancy. Due to a stronger attraction of the anion vacancy towards Eu{sup 2+} cations going from BaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} to SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} and CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} host lattices, the interpretation of the fluorescence spectra turns out to be less trivial in the Ca and Sr host lattices than in the Ba one and requests the account for Eu{sup 2+} cations lying at alkaline-earth sites with or without vacancy in their neighborhood. Phosphorescence in these compounds is highlighted. - Graphical abstract: The Eu{sup 2+}-doped MAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) aluminosilicates exhibit a bluish white luminescence, which can last several minutes after the removal of the excitation. The account for Eu{sup 2+} cations coupled with defects is required to explain fluorescence spectra.

  16. Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

    2002-04-01

    Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms

  17. Occupational Hazards in the Thai Healthcare Sector.

    PubMed

    Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Mawn, Barbara; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Healthcare personnel work in vulnerable conditions that can adversely impact physical and/or mental health. This paper aims to synthesize the state of knowledge on work-related illnesses, injuries, and risks experienced by Thai healthcare workers. We found that Thai healthcare personnel, like others worldwide, are at risk for injury related to needle sticks and sharp instruments; infectious diseases due to biological hazards exposure such as airborne pathogens and patient secretions; muscle pain due to workload and long duration of work; and psychological disorders related to stressful working conditions. Because detailed surveillance data are limited for the Thai healthcare workforce, we recommend that additional surveillance data on Thai healthcare workers' health outcomes be collected. Future research efforts should also focus on evidence-based interventions in order to develop methods to prevent and treat occupational health injuries and illnesses acquired in the workplace for Thai healthcare sector workers. PMID:26956017

  18. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  19. Gas conversion opportunities in LILCO's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation into opportunities for gas conservation in Long Island Lighting Company's commercial sector. It focusses on gas-fired heating equipment. Various sources of data are examined in order to characterize the commercial buildings and equipment in the service territory. Several key pieces of information necessary to predict savings potential are identified. These include the efficiencies and size distribution of existing equipment. Twenty-one specific conservation measures are identified and their applicability is discussed in terms of equipment size. Recommendations include improving the characterization of existing buildings and equipment, and developing a greater understanding of the savings and costs of conservation measures, and their interactions, especially in the middle size range of buildings and equipment.

  20. Decoupled sectors and Wolf-Rayet galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischler, Willy; Jimmy; Lorshbough, Dustin

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been proposed that gamma-ray burst (GRB) events may be modified by the presence of a dark matter sector subcomponent that is charged under an unbroken U(1). This proposal depends upon there being a nontrivial density of charged dark matter in star forming regions of galaxies which host GRBs. We discuss four Wolf-Rayet galaxies (NGC 1614, NGC 3367, NGC 4216 and NGC 5430) which should contain comparable amounts of dark matter gas and visible matter gas in the star forming regions. We show that the ratio of dark jet power to visible jet power depends only on the ratio of particle mass and charge when the densities are equal, allowing for these input parameters to be probed directly by future observations of GRBs.

  1. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-26

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  2. Nucleon decay into a dark sector.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman

    2015-02-01

    A sub-GeV dark sector fermion X can have baryon-number-violating interactions induced by high-scale physics, leading to nucleon decay into X+meson and neutron→X+photon. Such processes can mimic standard search modes containing a neutrino, but have different kinematics and may have escaped detection. If a dark force mediated by a light vector Z(d) acts on X, depending on parameters, neutron→X+Z(d) can be important. In typical scenarios, Z(d) decays into ℓ(+)ℓ(-), where ℓ=e,μ, with an order unity branching fraction. Nucleon decay searches can potentially uncover new dark states that are otherwise inaccessible, due to their negligible coupling to ordinary matter or cosmological abundance. PMID:25699434

  3. Cosmology with interaction in the dark sector

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, F. E. M.; Barboza, E. M. Jr.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2009-06-15

    Unless some unknown symmetry in nature prevents or suppresses a nonminimal coupling in the dark sector, the dark energy field may interact with the pressureless component of dark matter. In this paper, we investigate some cosmological consequences of a general model of interacting dark matter-dark energy characterized by a dimensionless parameter {epsilon}. We derive a coupled scalar field version for this general class of scenarios and carry out a joint statistical analysis involving type Ia supernovae data (Legacy and Constitution sets), measurements of baryon acoustic oscillation peaks at z=0.20 (2dFGRS) and z=0.35 (SDSS), and measurements of the Hubble evolution H(z). For the specific case of vacuum decay (w=-1), we find that, although physically forbidden, a transfer of energy from dark matter to dark energy is favored by the data.

  4. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  5. Dilemmas of public sector contraceptive development.

    PubMed

    Zeidenstein, G

    1993-02-01

    The International Symposium on Recent Advances in Female Reproductive Health Care was organized in Helsinki, Finland. The symposium focused attention on female reproductive health care as a central element in the provision of services for moderating unwanted fertility. The most relevant aspects to biomedical scientists engaged in developing contraceptives intended primarily for use in publicly financed delivery programs include efficacy, cost and marginal utility, logistics, and abuse. At present the most effective methods are the NORPLANT contraceptive subdermal implant system and the Copper T 380A intrauterine device. NORPLANT has proved to be as effective as sterilization, and the TCu 380A is almost that effective. Researchers have suggested that the additional effectiveness of modern methods influences fertility only marginally as compared with the enormous impact from using any method at all. This translates into 18 births for no contraceptive use; 3 births for abstinence or withdrawal; 2 for condoms; 1 for oral contraceptives (OCs); and none for the IUD. In developing the Copper T IUDs and the NORPLANT system, the Population Council and those who participated in its development of contraceptives were concerned about the ultimate price to the public sector and produced prices of about US $1 for the TCu 380A and US $23 for the NORPLANT system when they are provided to developing country family planning programs. The corresponding private sector prices in the USA are about US $150 for the TCu 380A and US $300 for NORPLANT. The NORPLANT system is viewed by some US officials as a short-cut to solutions of larger social problems. When a woman was convicted of incorrigible child abuse, a judge suggested that she accept the NORPLANT system as an alternative to time in prison. The serious arguments leveled against IUDs, implants, OCs, and injectables have to be considered when trying to provide women with more effective and safer contraceptives.

  6. DARK SECTOR COUPLING BENDS THE SUPERCLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Junsup; Lee, Jounghun E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-11-01

    Galaxy clusters exhibit a noticeably anisotropic pattern in their clustering, which is vividly manifested by the presence of rich filament-like superclusters. The more anisotropic the clustering of galaxy clusters is, the more straight the rich filament-like superclusters become. Given that the degree of the anisotropy in the largest-scale clustering depends sensitively on the nature of dark energy, the supercluster straightness may play a complimentary role in testing dynamic dark energy models. Here, we focus on the coupled dark energy (cDE) models which assume the existence of dark sector coupling between scalar field dark energy and nonbaryonic dark matter. By determining the spines of the superclusters identified in the publicly available group catalogs from the COupled Dark Energy Cosmological Simulations for four different cDE models as well as for the ΛCDM model, we quantify the straightness of each supercluster as the spatial extent of its spine per member cluster, where a supercluster spine represents the main stem of the minimal spanning tree constructed out of the member clusters. It is shown that the dark sector coupling plays a role in making the supercluster less straight relative to the ΛCDM case and that in a cDE model with supergravity potential the superclusters are least straight. We also find that the difference in the degree of the supercluster straightness between the cDE and the ΛCDM cases increases with redshift. A physical interpretation of our result as well as its cosmological implication are discussed.

  7. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cingolani, Isabella; Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of “preferentiality” in countries’ trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members’ trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech “Textiles and Textile Articles” and the high-tech “Electronics” sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns. PMID:26485163

  8. Effect of Dynamic Sector Boundary Changes on Air Traffic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Lee, Paul; Kessell, Angela; Homola, Jeff; Zelinski, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dynamic sector boundary changes on air traffic controller workload was investigated with data from a human-in-the-loop simulation. Multiple boundary changes were made during simulated operations, and controller rating of workload was recorded. Analysis of these data showed an increase of 16.9% in controller workload due to boundary changes. This increased workload was correlated with the number of aircraft handoffs and change in sector volume. There was also a 12.7% increase in average workload due to the changed sector design after boundary changes. This increase was correlated to traffic flow crossing points getting closer to sector boundaries and an increase in the number of flights with short dwell time in a sector. This study has identified some of the factors that affect controller workload when sector boundaries are changed, but more research is needed to better understand their relationships.

  9. Child and Adolescent Obesity and Employment Sector in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zimmer, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance as a part of the economic reform in China, sectoral employment has been overlooked as a potential determinant of child and adolescent obesity (CAO). Using large-scale longitudinal data from surveys conducted from 1989 to 2006, this paper examines the relationship between the sector in which a parent is employed and CAO, with the sector being based on ownership and categorised as either state or non-state. Analyses of over 1,700 children and adolescents show that children and adolescents whose parents work in the state sector are less likely to be obese. Patterns of sectoral employment's effect are robust across time periods, in fixed-effects models, and across multiple measures of obesity. Additionally, the paper shows that socioeconomic characteristics of the parent, such as income, education, and occupation, typically thought to be important predictors of CAO, are not as important when the parental working sector is included in the models. PMID:24298293

  10. Long-term migration of the solar sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, C. L.; Heath, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic sector boundaries on the sun and in the solar wind are shown to have a high correlation with winter low pressure systems on earth. The vorticity-area index typically declines by about 10% during several days centered on the time when a sector boundary sweeps past the earth. Evidence that both the sector structure and solar activity levels can be understood as being under the influence of the same regular, internal solar mechanism is presented.

  11. Search for low-mass dark-sector Higgs bosons.

    PubMed

    Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Milanes, D A; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Yushkov, A N; Bondioli, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; West, C A; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Chao, D S; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Flood, K T; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Rakitin, A Y; Andreassen, R; Huard, Z; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Sun, L; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Spaan, B; Kobel, M J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Bhuyan, B; Prasad, V; Lee, C L; Morii, M; Edwards, A J; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Dauncey, P D; Behera, P K; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Hafner, A; Prencipe, E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; Behn, E; Cenci, R; Hamilton, B; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Dallapiccola, C; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Sciolla, G; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Schram, M; Biassoni, P; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; De Nardo, G; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Martinelli, M; Raven, G; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Honscheid, K; Kass, R; Brau, J; Frey, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Feltresi, E; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Akar, S; Ben-Haim, E; Bomben, M; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Sitt, S; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Pacetti, S; Rossi, A; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paoloni, E; Perez, A; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Bünger, C; Grünberg, O; Hartmann, T; Leddig, T; Schröder, H; Voss, C; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Cartaro, C; Convery, M R; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ebert, M; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Lewis, P; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Randle-Conde, A; Sekula, S J; Bellis, M; Benitez, J F; Burchat, P R; Miyashita, T S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Gorodeisky, R; Guttman, N; Peimer, D R; Soffer, A; Lund, P; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Ahmed, H; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bernlochner, F U; Choi, H H F; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Tasneem, N; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Wu, S L

    2012-05-25

    Recent astrophysical and terrestrial experiments have motivated the proposal of a dark sector with GeV-scale gauge boson force carriers and new Higgs bosons. We present a search for a dark Higgs boson using 516 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector. We do not observe a significant signal and we set 90% confidence level upper limits on the product of the standard model-dark-sector mixing angle and the dark-sector coupling constant. PMID:23003239

  12. Coronal magnetic structure at a solar sector boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Svalgaard, L.

    1973-01-01

    The persistent large-scale coronal magnetic structure associated with a sector boundary appears to consist of a magnetic arcade loop structure extending from one solar polar region to the other in approximately the North-South direction. This structure was inferred from computer coronal magnetic field maps for days on which a stable magnetic sector boundary was near central meridian, based on an interplanetary sector boundary observed to recur during much of 1968 and 1969.

  13. The interplanetary and solar magnetic field sector structures, 1962 - 1968

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field sector structure was observed from late 1962 through 1968. During this time it has been possible to study the manner in which the sector pattern and its relation to the photospheric magnetic field configuration changes from solar minimum to solar maximum. Observations were also made relating sector boundaries to specific regions on the solar disk. These and other observations related to the solar origin of the interplanetary field are briefly reviewed.

  14. Working with the private sector for child health.

    PubMed

    Waters, Hugh; Hatt, Laurel; Peters, David

    2003-06-01

    Private sector providers are the most commonly consulted source of care for child illnesses in many countries, offering significant opportunities to expand the reach of essential child health services and products. Yet collaboration with private providers presents major challenges - the suitability and quality of the services they provide is often questionable and governments' capacity to regulate them is limited. This article assesses the actual and potential contributions of the private sector to child health, and classifies and evaluates public sector strategies to promote and rationalize the contributions of private sector actors. Governments and international organizations can use a variety of strategies to collaborate with and influence private sector actors to improve child health - including contracting, regulating, financing and social marketing, training, coordinating and informing the public. These mutually reinforcing strategies can both improve the quality of services currently delivered in the private sector, and expand and rationalize the coverage of these services. One lesson from this review is that the private sector is very heterogeneous. At the country level, feasible strategies depend on the potential of the different components of the private sector and the capacity of governments and their partners for collaboration. To date, experience with private sector strategies offers considerable promise for children's health, but also raises many questions about the feasibility and impact of these strategies. Where possible, future interventions should be designed as experiments, with careful assessment of the intervention design and the environment in which they are implemented.

  15. IMF sector behavior estimated from geomagnetic data at South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, S.; Xu, W.h.

    1981-05-01

    IMF sector behavior which has previously been estimated from the geomagnetic data at Godhavn is confirmed by study of the data at South Pole for 1959--1970 with the same estimation technique, taking the difference between northern and southern hemispheres into consideration. A method to improve (about 18%) the agreement between assigned and actual sector structures by study of the data at the two stations is suggested. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on sector estimation are discussed, and reversed sector effects in winter are given special emphasis.

  16. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  17. Managing external resources in the health sector: are there lessons for SWAps (sector-wide approaches)?

    PubMed

    Walt, G; Pavignani, E; Gilson, L; Buse, K

    1999-09-01

    Drawing on the case studies presented in this issue, from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Mozambique, Zambia and South Africa, and examples from other countries, this paper asks what general conclusions can be drawn about the management of external resources, and specifically what lessons could inform the future implementation of sector-wide approaches (SWAps) in the health sector. Factors constraining the management of aid by ministries of health are grouped under three themes: context and timing, institutional capacities and the interplay of power and influence in negotiations over aid. Two factors, often underplayed, were found to be important in facilitating management of resources: the inter-relationship of formal and informal relationships, and the extent to which incremental changes are tolerated. The main conclusion is that coordination and management of external resources is inherently unstable, involving a changing group of actors, many of whom enjoy considerable autonomy, but who need each other to materialize their often somewhat different goals. Managing aid is not a linear process, but is subject to set-backs and crises, although it can also produce positive spin-offs unexpectedly. It is highly dependent on institutional and systemic issues within both donor and recipient environments. In promoting sector-wide approaches the key will be to recognize context-specific conditions in each country, to find ways of building capacity in ministries of health to develop and own the future vision of the health sector, and to negotiate a realistic package that is explicit in its agreed objectives. The paper ends with identifying crucial actions that will enable ministries of health to take the lead role in developing and implementing SWAps.

  18. Framework for integration of informal waste management sector with the formal sector in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Masood, Maryam; Barlow, Claire Y

    2013-10-01

    Historically, waste pickers around the globe have utilised urban solid waste as a principal source of livelihood. Formal waste management sectors usually perceive the informal waste collection/recycling networks as backward, unhygienic and generally incompatible with modern waste management systems. It is proposed here that through careful planning and administration, these seemingly troublesome informal networks can be integrated into formal waste management systems in developing countries, providing mutual benefits. A theoretical framework for integration based on a case study in Lahore, Pakistan, is presented. The proposed solution suggests that the municipal authority should draw up and agree on a formal work contract with the group of waste pickers already operating in the area. The proposed system is assessed using the integration radar framework to classify and analyse possible intervention points between the sectors. The integration of the informal waste workers with the formal waste management sector is not a one dimensional or single step process. An ideal solution might aim for a balanced focus on all four categories of intervention, although this may be influenced by local conditions. Not all the positive benefits will be immediately apparent, but it is expected that as the acceptance of such projects increases over time, the informal recycling economy will financially supplement the formal system in many ways. PMID:23999020

  19. Framework for integration of informal waste management sector with the formal sector in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Masood, Maryam; Barlow, Claire Y

    2013-10-01

    Historically, waste pickers around the globe have utilised urban solid waste as a principal source of livelihood. Formal waste management sectors usually perceive the informal waste collection/recycling networks as backward, unhygienic and generally incompatible with modern waste management systems. It is proposed here that through careful planning and administration, these seemingly troublesome informal networks can be integrated into formal waste management systems in developing countries, providing mutual benefits. A theoretical framework for integration based on a case study in Lahore, Pakistan, is presented. The proposed solution suggests that the municipal authority should draw up and agree on a formal work contract with the group of waste pickers already operating in the area. The proposed system is assessed using the integration radar framework to classify and analyse possible intervention points between the sectors. The integration of the informal waste workers with the formal waste management sector is not a one dimensional or single step process. An ideal solution might aim for a balanced focus on all four categories of intervention, although this may be influenced by local conditions. Not all the positive benefits will be immediately apparent, but it is expected that as the acceptance of such projects increases over time, the informal recycling economy will financially supplement the formal system in many ways.

  20. Genesis of the Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu, Ag) vein deposit. An extension-related Mesozoic vein system in the High Atlas of Morocco. Structural, mineralogical, and geochemical evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouabdellah, M.; Beaudoin, G.; Leach, D.L.; Grandia, F.; Cardellach, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) vein system, located in the northern flank of the High Atlas of Marrakech (Morocco), is hosted in a Cambro-Ordovician volcaniclastic and metasedimentary sequence composed of graywacke, siltstone, pelite, and shale interlayered with minor tuff and mudstone. Intrusion of synorogenic to postorogenic Late Hercynian peraluminous granitoids has contact metamorphosed the host rocks giving rise to a metamorphic assemblage of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, chlorite, amphibole, chloritoid, and garnet. The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) mineralization forms subvertical veins with ribbon, fault breccia, cockade, comb, and crack and seal textures. Two-phase liquid-vapor fluid inclusions that were trapped during several stages occur in quartz and sphalerite. Primary inclusion fluids exhibit Th mean values ranging from 104??C to 198??C. Final ice-melting temperatures range from -8.1??C to -12.8??C, corresponding to salinities of ???15 wt.% NaCl equiv. Halogen data suggest that the salinity of the ore fluids was largely due to evaporation of seawater. Late secondary fluid inclusions have either Ca-rich, saline (26 wt.% NaCl equiv.), or very dilute (3.5 wt.% NaCl equiv.) compositions and homogenization temperatures ranging from 75??C to 150??C. The ??18O and ??D fluid values suggest an isotopically heterogeneous fluid source involving mixing between connate seawater and black-shale-derived organic waters. Low ??13CVPDB values ranging from -7.5??? to -7.7??? indicate a homogeneous carbon source, possibly organic matter disseminated in black shale hosting the Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) veins. The calculated ??34SH2S values for reduced sulfur (22.5??? to 24.3???) are most likely from reduction of SO42- in trapped seawater sulfate or evaporite in the host rocks. Reduction of sulfate probably occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction in which organic matter was oxidized to produce CO2 which ultimately led to precipitation of saddle dolomite with

  1. Genesis of the Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu, Ag) vein deposit. An extension-related Mesozoic vein system in the High Atlas of Morocco. Structural, mineralogical, and geochemical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabdellah, Mohammed; Beaudoin, Georges; Leach, David L.; Grandia, Fidel; Cardellach, Esteve

    2009-08-01

    The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) vein system, located in the northern flank of the High Atlas of Marrakech (Morocco), is hosted in a Cambro-Ordovician volcaniclastic and metasedimentary sequence composed of graywacke, siltstone, pelite, and shale interlayered with minor tuff and mudstone. Intrusion of synorogenic to postorogenic Late Hercynian peraluminous granitoids has contact metamorphosed the host rocks giving rise to a metamorphic assemblage of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, chlorite, amphibole, chloritoid, and garnet. The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) mineralization forms subvertical veins with ribbon, fault breccia, cockade, comb, and crack and seal textures. Two-phase liquid-vapor fluid inclusions that were trapped during several stages occur in quartz and sphalerite. Primary inclusion fluids exhibit T h mean values ranging from 104°C to 198°C. Final ice-melting temperatures range from -8.1°C to -12.8°C, corresponding to salinities of ˜15 wt.% NaCl equiv. Halogen data suggest that the salinity of the ore fluids was largely due to evaporation of seawater. Late secondary fluid inclusions have either Ca-rich, saline (26 wt.% NaCl equiv.), or very dilute (3.5 wt.% NaCl equiv.) compositions and homogenization temperatures ranging from 75°C to 150°C. The δ18O and δD fluid values suggest an isotopically heterogeneous fluid source involving mixing between connate seawater and black-shale-derived organic waters. Low δ13CVPDB values ranging from -7.5‰ to -7.7‰ indicate a homogeneous carbon source, possibly organic matter disseminated in black shale hosting the Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) veins. The calculated δ34SH2S values for reduced sulfur (22.5‰ to 24.3‰) are most likely from reduction of SO4 2- in trapped seawater sulfate or evaporite in the host rocks. Reduction of sulfate probably occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction in which organic matter was oxidized to produce CO2 which ultimately led to precipitation of saddle dolomite with

  2. Meson Spectroscopy in the Light Quark Sector

    SciTech Connect

    De Vita, R.; Lunardi, S.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bucci, C.; Chiari, M.; Dainese, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Menegazzo, R.; Nannini, A.; Signorini, C.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    . This intense effort is leading to a very rich phenomenology in this sector and, together with recent theoretical progress achieved with lattice QCD calculations, is providing crucial information to reach a deeper understanding of strong interaction. In these proceedings I will review the present status of meson spectroscopy in the light quark sector and the plans and perspectives for future experiments.

  3. Scenario development in China's electricity sector

    SciTech Connect

    Steenhof, P.A.; Fulton, W.

    2007-07-15

    The continuing growth of China's electricity sector will affect global environmental and economic sustainability due to its impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and global resource depletion. In 2005, the generation of electricity in China resulted in the emissions of 2290 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide (approximately 53% of the nation's total) and required 779 million metric tonnes of coal (approximately 50% of China's total coal consumption). These figures are expected to increase with China's economic growth. In order to gauge the range in which fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could grow a scenario-based conceptual model has been developed by the authors (published in this journal). The application and analysis of this shows that under a business as usual (BAU) scenario, electricity generation could contribute upwards of 56% of China's energy related greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Meanwhile, consumption of coal will also increase, growing to nearly 60% of total national demand by 2020. However, variations in a number of key drivers could produce significant deviation from the BAU scenario. With accelerated economic output, even with greater technological advances and greater potential to bring natural gas on stream, carbon dioxide emissions would rise 10% above the BAU. Alternatively, in a scenario where China's economy grows at a tempered pace, less investment would be available for advanced technologies, developing natural gas infrastructure, or nuclear energy. In this scenario, reduced economic growth and electricity demand would thereby be countered by reduced efficiency and a higher contribution of coal.

  4. Pooling procurement in the Belgian hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The Belgian hospital sector is following the example of a number of other European countries and for more than ten years now, has been striving to pool its medical supplies and equipment purchases in a bid to reduce costs. The various experiments of which we are aware come under both opportunist purchases and initiatives which are designed to encourage local-regional contracts. These attempts have now all come to nothing or are struggling in the absence of a structured and professional approach. In 2005, the Saint Luc University Clinic in Brussels decided to set up a high-performance purchasing department, the aim being to centre its initiatives around TCO or Total Cost of Ownership. Following an analysis of the various experiments into pooling procurement in hospitals in Europe, the Saint Luc University Clinic decided on a central procurement agency model, in accordance with new legislation on public procurement. This article seeks to highlight the prerequisites which are vital for a procurement pooling initiative, without underestimating the risks and limitations of implementing such a change in procurement practices. The Mercure central procurement agency is now the largest interhospital purchasing structure in Belgium. PMID:21675637

  5. Venus ionopause 'clouds' and IMF sector boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Ma, Yingjuan; Zhang, Tielong; McEnulty, T.

    Disconnected or partially connected structures observed by the PVO Langmuir Probe near the ionopause of Venus were called 'clouds' by Brace et al. (1980). These authors speculated that the loss of atmosphere represented by these features could be significant compared to other loss processes. Russell et al. (1982) subsequently showed that the clouds occurred together with sharp rotations in the magnetic field. They suggested that the extreme draping of the interplanetary field that occurs near the ionopause at the draping poles could exert JxB forces sufficient to pull the ionospheric plasma in the cloud tailward and out into the heliosphere. But in 1991, Ong et al. demonstrated via analysis of many clouds that they are not generally seen in the polar regions of the draped magnetosheath field. Instead they occur at times when the interplanetary magnetic field undergoes a sudden rotation, as in interplanetary field sector boundaries. We discuss the statistics of such rotations at the orbit of Venus and their frequency as a function of solar cycle. Whether they enable or enhance escape or not requires simulation studies, but this study calls attention to the potential importance of time dependent external conditions.

  6. [Cost effectiveness and health sector reform].

    PubMed

    Musgrove, P

    1995-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a health intervention is an estimate of the relation between what it costs to be provided, and the improvement in health which results from such intervention. Health may improve because the incidence of illness or injury is reduced, because death is avoided or delayed, or because the duration or severity of disability is limited. The calculation of this health benefit combines objective factors, such as the age at incidence and whether or not the outcome is death, with subjective factors such as the severity of disability, the judgement as to the value of life lived at different ages, and the rate at which the future is discounted. The construction and interpretation of the estimate are explained. Also, the paper examines whether the concept of cost-effectiveness is consistent with ethical norms such as equity, and concludes that they are not in conflict. Finally, it addresses the question of how to incorporate cost-effectiveness into a health sector reform, and possible ways to implement it.

  7. Employment of Geoscientists in the Private Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    In the private sector, major employers of geoscientists engage in diverse activities ranging from resource exploration and extraction, assessment of geologic hazards, and determination of environmental impacts. These firms actively recruit, from the breadth of geoscience disciplines, technically qualified individuals with the ability to make pragmatic decisions in the context of multidisciplinary teams that commonly include non-scientists. Moreover, they expect applicants to communicate effectively verbally and in writing, as well as demonstrate skills and experience in integrating field investigations, conducting laboratory studies, and accomplishing computer modeling. These applicants should be capable of simultaneously working in multiple projects which are rapidly evolving. Successful recruiting and employment requires interactions between the job applicant and potential employer conducted with honesty and integrity. Resumes and associated transmittal letters should be directed to specific employers based on the applicant's review of information on the firm from the Internet and other sources. "Shotgun" or blanket approaches are seldom productive. Participation in pertinent professional societies, internships, and summer employment can provide valuable experiences and opportunities for networking with potential employers.

  8. Alignment limit of the NMSSM Higgs sector

    DOE PAGES

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2016-02-17

    The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) with a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV can be compatible with stop masses of order of the electroweak scale, thereby reducing the degree of fine-tuning necessary to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking. Moreover, in an attractive region of the NMSSM parameter space, corresponding to the \\alignment limit" in which one of the neutral Higgs fields lies approximately in the same direction in field space as the doublet Higgs vacuum expectation value, the observed Higgs boson is predicted to have Standard- Model-like properties. We derive analytical expressions for the alignment conditions andmore » show that they point toward a more natural region of parameter space for electroweak symmetry breaking, while allowing for perturbativity of the theory up to the Planck scale. Additionally, the alignment limit in the NMSSM leads to a well defined spectrum in the Higgs and Higgsino sectors, and yields a rich and interesting Higgs boson phenomenology that can be tested at the LHC. Here, we discuss the most promising channels for discovery and present several benchmark points for further study.« less

  9. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  10. Problems persist for French refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively.

  11. A unified dark sector cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, A. N.; Domínguez, M. J.

    We explore the consequences of the measurements of the equation of state of dark matter, Serra & Domínguez (2009), on the homogeneuos FRW uni- verse dynamics and build an alternative cosmological scenario to the con- cordance Lambda CDM universe. The new paradigm is based on the introduction of an effective scalar field that obeys a barotropic equation of state p = omega rho with omega = -1/3, replacing the undetected components of the dark sector: dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE or Lambda). We compute a minimal set of cosmological parameters which allow us to reproduce several observational results such as baryon abundance, constrains on the age of the universe, the astronomical scale of distances and the high redshift supernovae and gamma-ray bursts data with a high degree of precision. However it should be emphasized that the new model is not accelerating, instead expands as- symptotically towards an Einstein Static Universe. We also present a brief dynamical system analysis of this model showing his stable behaviour.

  12. Metaweaves: Sector-Way Nonreciprocal Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazor, Y.; Steinberg, Ben Z.

    2014-04-01

    Confluent with the single dimension of time, breach of time-reversal symmetry is usually perceived as a one-dimensional concept. In its ultimate realization—the one-way guiding device—it allows optical propagation in one direction, say +z, and forbids it in the opposite direction -z. Hence, in studies of time-reversal asymmetry the mapping t ↦-t is naturally associated with z↦-z. However, strongly nonreciprocal or one-way nanoscale threads can be used to weave metasurfaces thus adding dimensions to this concept. In this new family of surfaces the aforementioned association cannot be made. An example of appropriate threads is the planar one-way particle chains based on the two-type rotation principle. The resulting surfaces—the metaweaves—possess generalized nonreciprocity such as "sector-way" propagation, and offer new possibilities for controlling light in thin surfaces. We study several metaweave designs and their asymmetries in the wave-vector space.

  13. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Himmel, Alexander I.

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for vμ → $\\bar{v}$μ transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |Δ$\\bar{m}$atm 2| = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat) ± 0.06(syst)) x 10-3 eV2 and sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = 0.860-0.12+0.11(stat) ± 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  14. Latin American petroleum sector at crossroads

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Latin America's petroleum industry stands at a precarious crossroads of change. Fundamental changes of democratization, privatization, and economic reform that have marked South America's petroleum sectors since the late 1980s are seeping into other Latin American regions. An unprecedented return of capital that had fled the region in the 1980s - Latin America's lost decade - is under way in full force. That demonstrates the improved credibility of the region's economic reform programs, reports the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Even as those reform efforts marked progress in South America in 1991, however, that progress has been threatened in 1992 by political scandal, government crisis, and environmental controversy. Just as the fitful transition to capitalism in the former U.S.S.R. has threatened to collapse the former Soviet republics into chaos because of its economic fallout, so has economic reform in such nations as Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela stumbled. On the other hand, privatization continues apace in Argentina and Mexico. Those Latin American nations and others caught in the rising tide of privatization pulled by an increasingly market oriented global economy continue to avow their commitment to economic reform.

  15. Being a Manager in the English Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on interviews with 29 managers and deputy managers within 15 nurseries in the private sector in England. The author argues that, whilst there is a growing literature on management and professionalism within the Early Years (EY) sector, there is less known about the actual experiences of being a manager in this context. Many of…

  16. A Guide to Discipline in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Joel

    This monograph was prepared as an initial effort in development of a body of material for training public sector managers. It sets forth the basic principles of grievance arbitration covering discipline in the public sector. Major sections are devoted to the topics of just or proper cause for discipline, due process, the nature of discipline, and…

  17. 78 FR 39533 - Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 25, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-15941 Filed 6-28-13; 11:15 am] Billing code... July 1, 2013 Part VI The President Memorandum of June 25, 2013--Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of June 25, 2013 Power Sector...

  18. 76 FR 26603 - Reorganization of Sector North Carolina; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register MSU Marine Safety Unit NPRM Notice of... realignment (72 FR 36316, July 2, 2007). At that time, Sector North Carolina's office was located in Fort... Wilmington. The consolidation into one COTP zone will strengthen unity of command in the Sector...

  19. Gearing Up: An Interim Report on the Sectoral Employment Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Mark; Roder, Anne; King, Elisabeth; Stillman, Joseph

    A study assessed the first two years of a three-year initiative to test the potential of extending sectoral employment strategies among 10 organizations, most of which were new to the sectoral employment field. Five organizations increasing low-income workers' access to good jobs were ARCH; PhAME; Training, Inc.; WIRE-Net; and Project QUEST. Five…

  20. General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  1. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS IRISH PEACE PROCESS CULTURAL AND TRAINING PROGRAM § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred...

  2. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS IRISH PEACE PROCESS CULTURAL AND TRAINING PROGRAM § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred...

  3. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS IRISH PEACE PROCESS CULTURAL AND TRAINING PROGRAM § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred...

  4. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS IRISH PEACE PROCESS CULTURAL AND TRAINING PROGRAM § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred...

  5. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS IRISH PEACE PROCESS CULTURAL AND TRAINING PROGRAM § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred...

  6. Cross-Sector Collaboration: The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austrian, Ziona; Iannone, Donald

    1997-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center is one of six university-based environmental finance centers established by the federal government. Its primary mission is to help state and local government and private-sector organizations devise effective financing strategies for environmental improvement projects. Cross-sector collaboration and…

  7. The non-profit sector and the market: opportunities & challenges.

    PubMed

    2001-11-01

    By carefully examining the most important challenges and opportunities facing America's private non-profit organizations, the Non-profit Sector Strategy Group is working to stimulate a new consensus about the non-profit sector's roles and responsibilities, and offer practical recommendations to enhance policy, practice, research, and public education on this crucial set of institutions.

  8. General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  9. General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array is in background, behind Communications Antennas, Receiver Building, and Water Storage Tank - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  10. ICT and Web Technology Based Innovations in Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangeeta Namdev, Dhamdhere

    2012-01-01

    ICT made real magic and drastic changes in all service sectors along with higher education and library practices and services. The academic environment is changing from formal education to distance and online learning mode because of ICT. Web technology and mobile technology has made great impact on education sector. The role of Open Access,…

  11. SECTOR ANALYSIS--FROM SENTENCE TO MORPHEME IN ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLEN, ROBERT L.

    THE ADVANTAGES OF SECTOR ANALYSIS ARE DISCUSSED, WITH SPECIAL REGARD TO THE SEPARATION OF FUNCTION AND FORM IN SENTENCE ANALYSIS. SECTOR ANALYSIS, LIKE TAGMEMIC ANALYSIS, REJECTS THE USE OF REWRITE RULES FOR EXPRESSING GRAMMATICAL TRANSFORMS, AS WELL AS THE CONCEPT OF "KERNEL SENTENCES." A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF A CHILD'S LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESS…

  12. Sectors and Jobs in Metropolitan Economies. A Rand Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwitz, Aaron

    A study assessed the potential development of service sectors in different cities throughout the country and compared the results of growth in these and other sectors with respect to their effects on (1) total employment; (2) the geographic dispersion of metropolitan employment; (3) central city fiscal capacity; (4) metropolitan cyclical…

  13. Adults with Cognitive Disabilities in the Technical Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronsky, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the number of jobs created in the technical sector (Casserly, 2012), it is essential to identify how adults with cognitive disabilities can be best supported in professional environments and evolving sectors. Some career paths and jobs can be more understanding of learning disabilities than others (Nicholas, 2011). This is dependent not only…

  14. Partnerships with the Public Sector: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Designed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational education programs and services, this resource package contains information on successful partnership programs between California Community Colleges (CCC) and public sector entities. Following a brief overview of public sector partnerships, the report presents…

  15. New Brunswick`s forestry sector. Forest report number 7

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.D.; Simpson, C.M.

    1991-12-31

    The report presents data on the New Brunswick forestry industry, including forest land area, ownership, stock inventory, wood utilization, forest management expenditures, volume of roundwood production, silviculture activities, economic benefits from forest, fish, and wildlife, fuelwood consumption, Christmas tree production, maple syrup production, forest sector employment, salaries, income taxes from the industry, exports, and gross domestic product due to the forest sector.

  16. Foreign direct investment in the electricity sector: the Indian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.K.; Vohra, Ekta

    2008-08-15

    So far, India is losing out in the competition against other emerging economies to attract more foreign direct investment to its electricity sector. This is in large part because the Indian approach towards power sector reforms is more haphazard than the more orderly and sensitive growth model of Singapore and Latin American economies. (author)

  17. Quality in the Australian VET Sector: What Has Been Happening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger

    2015-01-01

    VET (vocational education and training) is a fascinating sector. Aligned closely with the labour market and sandwiched between two major sectors, it is continually buffeted by political winds, susceptible to the ideologies of different governments. Often labelled the "poor cousin", debates continue to rage about its quality. This paper…

  18. Developing Managers: A View from the Non-Profit Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper is rooted in practitioner experience of working within the non-profit sector. It is both underpinned by Master's level research and built on as part of an on-going sense-making process for the author in terms of her doctoral research. Focusing on a specific part of the sector--local development agencies, explores how personal theories…

  19. The Role of the Private Sector in Educational Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Wallace B.

    1978-01-01

    Both the government and private associations have made significant contributions to international educational exchange. An overview of the role of both sectors, including strengths and weaknesses, is provided, and the importance of continued cooperations between the government's International Communication Agency (ICA) and the private sector is…

  20. Sector Distinctions and the Privatization of Public Education Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Current trends indicate declining distinctions between "public" and "private" sectors in education. Reformers see sector barriers as unnecessary impediments to innovation, distracting attention and effort from "what works". This analysis questions whether trends in education policy are simply a natural evolution away…

  1. The Manufacturing Sector and Job Training in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Elias S.; Bugarin, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    The manufacturing sector is the second largest industry in California (after retail), employing over two million persons (including the self employed) and paying more than $86 billion in wages and salaries. There is concern, however, that California's manufacturing sector is on the decline and that companies are moving elsewhere. This report…

  2. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  3. The impact of oil price on Malaysian sector indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Luan, Yeap Pei; Ee, Ong Joo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, vector error correction model (VECM) has been utilized to model the dynamic relationships between world crude oil price and the sector indices of Malaysia. The sector indices have been collected are covering the period Jan 1998 to Dec 2013. Surprisingly, our investigations show that oil price changes do not Granger-cause any of the sectors in all of Malaysia. However, sector indices of Food Producer and Utilities are found to be the cause of the changes in world crude oil prices. Furthermore, from the results of variance decomposition, very high percentage of shocks is explained by world crude oil price itself over the 12 months and small impact from other sector indices.

  4. How to Effect Change Through Cross-sector Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, R.; Elinich, K.; Johnson, R.; Allen, L. B.; Crowley, K. J.; Bachrach, E.

    2014-12-01

    Collaboration is important for effecting large-scale changes, but it is difficult, time-consuming, and requires sustained effort on the part of all collaborating parties. Collaboration among organizations within a single sector (education, policy, or advocacy, for example) is easier than collaboration across sectors, where differences in language, expertise, expectations, and goals can be barriers to shared outcomes. Improving our collective response to climate change is an outcome shared across sectors, providing an opportunity for cross-sector collaboration. The Climate and Urban System Partnership is a network of cross-sector organizations in four cities, with each city forming a local Community of Practice, a group of learners coming together to try new things and learn from each other. We present findings from the first two years of this CCEP-II project, including results from learning sciences, evaluation, and design studies in Pittsburgh, New York, Washington, DC, and Philadelphia.

  5. Si vous pensez que c'est juste un mal de jambe… détrompez-vous: ce que les leaders en santé doivent savoir sur la maladie artérielle périphérique.

    PubMed

    Papia, Giuseppe; Mayer, Perry; Kelton, David; Queen, Douglas; Elliott, James A; Kuhnke, Janet L

    2015-11-01

    Environ 800 000 Canadiens ont une maladie artérielle périphérique (MAP), une cause majeure d'amputation. Pourtant, le public et les cliniciens connaissent très peu cette maladie. Le présent article traite de la campagne de sensibilisation Si vous pensez que c'est juste un mal de jambe… détrompez-vous que l'Association canadienne du soin des plaies a lancée pour contrer cette tendance. Il porte également sur les facteurs de risque et le dépistage de la MAP, son lien avec le diabète, son traitement et ses soins, ses innovations en matière de soins de la MAP et la nécessité de faire preuve de leadership sur le plan des politiques. PMID:26487733

  6. Focus:HOPE--A Case Study of a Sectoral Employment Development Approach. Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project Case Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jeffery W.; Turner-Meikeljohn, Susan; Conway, Maureen

    This case study on Focus: HOPE is the fourth of six sectoral studies to provide an in-depth look at individual sectoral employment development programs and their interaction within distinct economic and industry environments. It explores HOPE, a Detroit civil rights organization with a highly developed machinist training program. Section 1…

  7. Fifteen years of sector-wide approach (SWAp) in Bangladesh health sector: an assessment of progress

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Karar Zunaid; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Ijdi, Rashida -E-; Escudero, Gabriela Maria; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Reza, M M

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) of the Government of Bangladesh embarked on a sector-wide approach (SWAp) modality for the health, nutrition and population (HNP) sector in 1998. This programmatic shift initiated a different set of planning disciplines and practices along with institutional changes in the MOHFW. Over the years, the SWAp modality has evolved in Bangladesh as the MOHFW has learnt from its implementation and refined the program design. This article explores the progress made, both in terms of achievement of health outcomes and systems strengthening results, since the implementation of the SWAp for Bangladesh’s health sector. Secondary analyses of survey data from 1993 to 2011 as well as a literature review of published and grey literature on health SWAp in Bangladesh was conducted for this assessment. Results of the assessment indicate that the MOHFW made substantial progress in health outcomes and health systems strengthening. SWAps facilitated the alignment of funding and technical support around national priorities, and improved the government’s role in program design as well as in implementation and development partner coordination. Notable systemic improvements have taken place in the country systems with regards to monitoring and evaluation, procurement and service provision, which have improved functionality of health facilities to provide essential care. Implementation of the SWAp has, therefore, contributed to an accelerated improvement in key health outcomes in Bangladesh over the last 15 years. The health SWAp in Bangladesh offers an example of a successful adaptation of such an approach in a complex administrative structure. Based on the lessons learned from SWAp implementation in Bangladesh, the MOHFW needs to play a stronger stewardship and regulatory role to reap the full benefits of a SWAp in its subsequent programming. PMID:26582744

  8. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE.

  9. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  10. Has the Swap Influenced Aid Flows in the Health Sector?

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Rohan; Mortimer, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    The sector wide approach (SWAp) emerged during the 1990s as a mechanism for managing aid from the multiplicity of development partners that operate in the recipient country's health, education or agricultural sectors. Health SWAps aim to give increased control to recipient governments, allowing greater domestic influence over how health aid is allocated and facilitating allocative efficiency gains. This paper assesses whether health SWAps have increased recipient control of health aid via increased general sector-support and have facilitated (re)allocations of health aid across disease areas. Using a uniquely compiled panel data set of countries receiving development assistance for health over the period 1990-2010, we employ fixed effects and dynamic panel models to assess the impact of introducing a health SWAp on levels of general sector-support for health and allocations of health-sector aid across key funding silos (including HIV, 'maternal and child health' and 'sector-support'). Our results suggest that health SWAps have influenced health-sector aid flows in a manner consistent with increased recipient control and improvements in allocative efficiency.

  11. How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. PMID:25479891

  12. How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not.

  13. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  14. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration.

    PubMed

    Dancygier, Rafaela M; Donnelly, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration. PMID:24363457

  15. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration. PMID:24363457

  16. Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans

    PubMed Central

    BESHEARS, JOHN; CHOI, JAMES J.; LAIBSON, DAVID; MADRIAN, BRIGITTE C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee’s work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers’ need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans. PMID:21789032

  17. 50 CFR 648.63 - General category Sectors and harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 904. If a Sector exceeds its allocation in more than one fishing year, the Sector's... 15 CFR part 904. (7) Approved Sectors must submit an annual year-end report to NMFS and the Council... to Sectors and other regulations under 50 CFR part 648. Vessels operating within a Sector...

  18. 50 CFR 648.63 - General category Sectors and harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 904. If a Sector exceeds its allocation in more than one fishing year, the Sector's... 15 CFR part 904. (7) Approved Sectors must submit an annual year-end report to NMFS and the Council... to Sectors and other regulations under 50 CFR part 648. Vessels operating within a Sector...

  19. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    Attention is given to the assessment of results obtained by three NASA studies aimed at determining the global market for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications areas of the rural sector. An attempt was made to identify technical, social, and institutional barriers to PV system implementation, as well as the funding sources available to potential users. Country- and sector-specific results are discussed, and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector are suggested for the benefit of American PV products manufacturers.

  20. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the assessment of results obtained by three NASA studies aimed at determining the global market for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications areas of the rural sector. An attempt was made to identify technical, social, and institutional barriers to PV system implementation, as well as the funding sources available to potential users. Country- and sector-specific results are discussed, and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector are suggested for the benefit of American PV products manufacturers.

  1. Grouping characteristics of industry sectors in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the grouping coefficients of industrial sectors in the stock network based on stock data for the U.S. and Korean stock markets. These complex networks were modeled using the minimal spanning tree (MST) method. We propose a novel approach based on the shortest path length (SPL) between stocks to quantify the grouping characteristics of the industrial sectors. We find that the grouping coefficients for the industrial sector in the U.S. are larger than those of the Korean stock market. In particular, for the Korean stock market the conglomerates, comprised of a diverse of industrial companies, have a significant grouping coefficient.

  2. Enhancing private sector engagement: Louisiana's business emergency operations centre.

    PubMed

    Day, Jamison M; Strother, Shannon; Kolluru, Ramesh; Booth, Joseph; Rawls, Jason; Calderon, Andres

    2010-07-01

    Public sector emergency management is more effective when it coordinates its efforts with private sector companies that can provide useful capabilities faster, cheaper and better than government agencies. A business emergency operations centre (EOC) provides a space for private sector and non-governmental organisations to gather together in support of government efforts. This paper reviews business-related EOC practices in multiple US states and details the development of a new business EOC by the State of Louisiana, including lessons learned in response to the May 2010 oil spill.

  3. Input-output analysis of some sector actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Selected energy conservation actions previously discussed in depth but separately in the areas of the energy industry, the industry sector, the transportation sector, and the residential and commercial sector, were brought together and assessed as a group. Particular emphasis was devoted to identifying secondary or indirect impacts and multiple interactions. Preliminary results obtained from the ECASTAR energy input-output model suggest that the impacts of energy conservation actions can be grossly misrepresented if secondary impacts are not included in the assessment. A methodology which stresses the importance of secondary and multiple interactions permeates the underlying philosophy of this discussion.

  4. Just How Big is the Schism Between the Health Sector and the Water and Sanitation Sector in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, A. A.; Pond, K.

    2008-01-01

    Water, sanitation and hygiene are all key aspects to a healthy environment but often they suffer from a lack of coherence within the sector itself and also a lack of synergy with the health sector. This is not acceptable given one quarter of all child deaths are directly attributable to water-borne disease. This lack of synergy is evident at many different layers including planning, resource allocation and donor commitment. Developing countries must, in consultation with their communities, examine their biggest health risks and allocate resources accordingly. Sustained dialogue and increased in-depth analysis are needed to find consensus and an improved synergy across these vital sectors. PMID:21572829

  5. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  6. Sector iris hemangioma in association with diffuse choroidal hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Shields, Carol L; Atalay, Hatice Tuba; Wuthisiri, Wadakarn; Levin, Alex V; Lally, Sara E; Shields, Jerry A

    2015-02-01

    Two patients referred for iris lesions were found to have sector hemangioma of the iris stroma in contiguity with diffuse choroidal hemangioma. Neither patient had other manifestations of Sturge-Weber syndrome. PMID:25727597

  7. Searching for a hidden sector in multiparticle production at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Moreno-Picot, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    A hidden sector beyond the Standard Model can show up in multiparticle production altering inclusive correlations and factorial cumulants of multiplicity distributions. In this report such a study is advocated with a special emphasis on the searches at LHC.

  8. Health sector liability under the Trade Practices Act.

    PubMed

    Kamvounias, P

    1999-01-01

    Following the implementation of the national competition policy and the consequent exposure of unincorporated businesses to trade practices regulation, the health sector has faced increasing exposure to fair trading and competition issues. This article examines the rights and the obligations of health sector participants under the consumer protection and the restrictive trade practices provisions of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cwlth). The article outlines the relevant provisions and identifies examples of conduct that has breached the Act or that has the potential to breach the Act. The author notes that the Act has been applied to the health sector in the same way as it has been applied to all other sectors of the economy.

  9. No-boundary θ sectors in spatially flat quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulini, Domenico; Louko, Jorma

    1992-11-01

    Gravitational θ sectors are investigated in spatially locally homogeneous cosmological models with flat closed spatial surfaces in 2+1 and 3+1 spacetime dimensions. The metric ansatz is kept in its most general form compatible with Hamiltonian minisuperspace dynamics. Nontrival θ sectors admitting a semiclassical no-boundary wave function are shown to exist only in 3+1 dimensions, and there only for two spatial topologies. In both cases the spatial surface is nonorientable and the nontrivial no-boundary θ sector unique. In 2+1 dimensions the nonexistence of nontrivial no-boundary θ sectors is shown to be of topological origin and thus to transcend both the semiclassical approximation and the minisuperspace ansatz. The relation to the necessary condition given by Hartle and Witt for the existence of no-boundary θ states is discussed.

  10. Agricultural and Industrial Process-Heat-Market Sector workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, M. J.; Kannan, N. P.; deJong, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This workbook summarizes the preliminary data and assumptions of the Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Market Sector prepared in conjunction with the development of inputs for a National Plan for the Accelerated Commercialization of Solar Energy.

  11. Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Lotta; Reinikainen, Anu; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector.

  12. Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, internal struts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, internal struts- nose beams. - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  13. India's growing clinical research sector: opportunity for global companies.

    PubMed

    Varawalla, Nermeen

    2007-06-01

    Backed by a compelling foundation of essential requirements necessary for effective clinical trial conduct, and aided by initiatives that address concerns of data quality, regulatory timelines and IP protection, the clinical development sector in India has experienced annual revenue growth rates of 25% in the past two to three years, and is poised to participate substantially in global drug development. As both clinical trial sponsors and CROs increase their research capabilities in India, the clinical development sector is facing challenges with staff resourcing and facilities. Existing initiatives in the clinical sector must continue, and further investment must be made by stakeholders to overcome the current limitations in sector growth. Furthermore, global organizations seeking to derive long-term sustainable revenue growth and competitive advantage in the global marketplace from their business units in India must establish an appropriate organizational culture and an effective intra-organizational and industry interface for their operations.

  14. Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Lotta; Reinikainen, Anu; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector. PMID:27373724

  15. Towards resolving strongly-interacting dark sectors at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph; Nordström, Karl; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Dark sectors with strong interactions have received considerable interest. Assuming the existence of a minimally coupled dark sector which runs to strong interactions in the infrared, we address the question whether the scaling behavior of this dark sector can be observed in missing energy signatures at present and future hadron colliders. We compare these findings to the concrete case of self-interacting dark matter and demonstrate that the energy dependence of high-momentum transfer final states can in principle be used to gain information about the UV structure of hidden sectors at future hadron colliders, subject to large improvements in systematic uncertainties, which could complement proof-of-principle lattice investigations. We also comment on the case of dark Abelian U (1 ) theories.

  16. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  17. Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar geomagnetic field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    In order to infer the interplanetary sector polarity from polar geomagnetic field diurnal variations, measurements were carried out at Godhavn and Thule (Denmark) Geomagnetic Observatories. The inferred interplanetary sector polarity was compared with the polarity observed at the same time by Explorer 33 and 35 magnetometers. It is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar cap geomagnetic fields.

  18. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and performance of future residential and commercial sector photovoltaic (PV) and small wind installations rather than developing technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for the assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook buildings sector distributed generation projections.

  19. A Comparison of Cross-Sector Cyber Security Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a review and comparison (commonality and differences) of three cross-sector cyber security standards and an internationally recognized information technology standard. The comparison identifies the security areas covered by each standard and reveals where the standards differ in emphasis. By identifying differences in the standards, the user can evaluate which standard best meets their needs. For this report, only cross-sector standards were reviewed.

  20. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  1. E-Learning Readiness in the Academic Sector of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laohajaratsang, Thanomporn

    2009-01-01

    As e-learning in the academic sector serves as a crucial driving force in the development of e-learning in Thailand, this article looks at e-learning readiness in Thailand with a focus on the academic sector. The article is divided into four parts: (1) a brief history of e-learning in Thailand; (2) the infrastructure related to e-learning…

  2. Computer program for flat sector thrust bearing performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presler, A. F.; Etsion, I.

    1977-01-01

    A versatile computer program is presented which achieves a rapid, numerical solution of the Reynolds equation for a flat sector thrust pad bearing with either compressible or liquid lubricants. Program input includes a range in values of the geometric and operating parameters of the sector bearing. Performance characteristics are obtained from the calculated bearing pressure distribution. These are the load capacity, center of pressure coordinates, frictional energy dissipation, and flow rates of liquid lubricant across the bearing edges. Two sample problems are described.

  3. One Health: a perspective from the human health sector.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, M; Hossain, S S; Abbas, S S

    2014-08-01

    Despite emerging consensus that the One Health concept involves multiple stakeholders, the human health sector has continued to view it from a predominantly human health security perspective. It has often ignored the concerns of other sectors, e.g. concerns that relate to trade, commerce, livelihoods and sustainable development, all of which are important contributors to societal well-being. In the absence of a culture of collaboration, clear One Health goals, conceptual clarity and operating frameworks, this disconnect between human health and One Health efforts has often impeded the translation of One Health from concept to reality, other than during emergency situations. If there are to be effective and sustainable One Health partnerships we must identify clear operating principles that allow flexible approaches to intersectoral collaborations. To convince technical experts and political leaders in the human health sector of the importance of intersectoral cooperation, and to make the necessary structural adjustments, we need examples of best practice models and trans-sectoral methods for measuring the risks, burden and costs across sectors. Informal collaborations between researchers and technical experts will play a decisive role in developing these methods and models and instilling societal well-being into the human health sector's view of One Health.

  4. Placing AMISR Instrument in the African sector: Why and How?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke; Moldwin, Mark; Coster, Anthea

    2012-07-01

    Much of our understanding of this complex equatorial electrodynamics and ionospheric density distribution has been primarily based on observation from the only equatorial Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) instrument (even though satellite observation telling us differently) which is located in the region where fairly large excursion between the geomagnetic and geographic equator is available. In the African sector, where there is currently no incoherent (or coherent) scatter radar, the geomagnetic and geodetic equators are reasonably parallel, separated by at most 10 degrees. Data from satellites (e.g. ROCSAT, C/NOFS, DMSP) have indicated that the equatorial ionosphere in the African sector responds differently than other sectors. For example, ionospheric bubbles have been observed to be much deeper and to occur more frequently in the African sector. It has also been reported that ionospheric depletions more frequently rise to higher altitudes (up to 1000+ km) in the African sector than those in other longitude sectors. However, these observations have not been confirmed, validated or studied in detail by observations from the ground due to lack of suitable ground-based instrumentation in Africa. Thus, the causes or driving mechanisms of the unique density irregularities, bubbles, and depletions in the African sector remain unresolved. To address these issues, the U.S. National Science Foundation has recently sponsored a workshop that has been held at Boston College to consider the possibility of relocating an Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR) to Ethiopia. Adding a single ISR to the recently growing number of ground-based space science instruments in the continent, such as GPS, magnetometers, VHF, and Ionosonde, would be of significant scientific benefit. The primary purpose of this workshop was to define the science goals motivating such a move and to examine the technical and logistical issues involved. This talk will summarize the findings

  5. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a

  6. Energy Sector Adaptation in Response to Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. A.; Fricko, O.; Parkinson, S.; Riahi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global energy systems models have largely ignored the impacts of water scarcity on the energy sector and the related implications for climate change mitigation. However, significant water is required in the production of energy, including for thermoelectric power plant cooling, hydropower generation, irrigation for bioenergy, and the extraction and refining of liquid fuels. With a changing climate and expectations of increasing competition for water from the agricultural and municipal sectors, it is unclear whether sufficient water will be available where needed to support water-intensive energy technologies in the future. Thus, it is important that water use and water constraints are incorporated into energy systems models to better understand energy sector adaptation to water scarcity. The global energy systems model, MESSAGE, has recently been updated to quantify the water consumption and withdrawal requirements of the energy sector and now includes several cooling technologies for addressing water scarcity. This study introduces water constraints into the model to examine whether and how the energy sector can adapt to water scarcity over the next century. In addition, the implications for climate mitigation are evaluated under a scenario in which warming is limited to 2˚C over the pre-industrial level. Given the difficulty of introducing meaningful water constraints into global models, we use a simplistic approach and evaluate a series of scenarios in which the water available to the energy sector is systematically reduced. This approach allows for the evaluation of energy sector adaptations under various levels of water scarcity and can provide insight into how water scarcity, whether from climate change or competing demands, may impact the energy sector in different world regions. This study will provide insight into the following questions: How does the energy sector adapt to water scarcity in different regions? What are the costs associated with adaptation

  7. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy.

  8. Primakoff Prize Talk: The Search for Dark Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essig, Rouven

    2015-04-01

    Dark sectors, consisting of new, light, weakly-coupled particles that do not interact with the known strong, weak, or electromagnetic forces, are a particularly interesting possibility for new physics. Nature may contain numerous dark sectors, each with their own beautiful structure, distinct particles, and forces. Examples of dark sector particles include dark photons, axions, axion-like particles, and dark matter. In many cases, the exploration of dark sectors can proceed with existing facilities and comparatively modest experiments. This talk summarizes the physics motivation for dark sectors and the exciting opportunities for experimental exploration. Particular emphasis will be given to the search for dark photons, the mediators of a broken dark U(1) gauge theory that kinetically mixes with the Standard Model hypercharge, with masses in the MeV-to-GeV range. Experimental searches include low-energy e+e- colliders, new and old high-intensity fixed-target experiments, and high-energy colliders. The talk will highlight the APEX and HPS experiments at Jefferson Lab, which are pioneering, low-cost experiments to search for dark photons in fixed target electroproduction. Over the next few years, they have the potential for a transformative discovery.

  9. Critical design factors for sector transport maintenance in DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utoh, Hiroyasu; Someya, Youji; Tobita, Kenji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    This paper mainly focuses on a sector transport maintenance scheme from the aspects of high plant availability. In this study, three different maintenance schemes are considered based on (1) the number of maintenance ports and (2) the insertion direction. The design study clarifies critical design factors and key engineering issues on the maintenance scheme: (1) how to support an enormous overturning force of the toroidal field coils in the large open port for sector transport and (2) define the transferring mechanism of sectors in the vacuum vessel. On reviewing these assessment factors, the sector transport using a limited number of horizontal maintenance ports is found to be a more realistic maintenance scheme. In addition, evaluating maintenance scenarios under high decay heat is proposed for the first time. The key design factors are the cool-down time in the reactor and the cooling method in the maintenance scheme to keep components under operational temperature. Based on one-dimensional heat conduction analysis, after one month cool-down time, each sector of SlimCS could be transported to the hot cell facility by gas cooling.

  10. Nepal health sector decentralization in limbo: what are the bottlenecks?

    PubMed

    Gurung, G

    2011-06-01

    Nepal's efforts to decentralize its governance date back to over half a century. These efforts remained incomplete due to different reasons including administrative responses and political development affecting its implementation. The Local Self Governance Act (LSGA), 1999 envisaged, for the first time, to decentralize governance in the health sector through devolution of responsibilities, authority and resources to the local bodies. However, the pace of health sector decentralization in Nepal even after the LSGA was enacted has not progressed satisfactorily due to different reasons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss why health sector decentralization in Nepal has not advanced as expected. This paper identifies many issues--policy related, political, functional, and institutional--as stumbling blocks for health sector decentralization of Nepal. More specifically, the major bottlenecks for progress are lack of a clear cut policy, poor coordination among different sectors, improper handover process, lack of elected bodies, poor selection process of management committees, lack of coherence in the capacity building process of local bodies, ongoing debate about state restructuring including federalism and different political ideologies on decentralization. PMID:22364101

  11. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T.

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  12. Sector mapping method for 3D detached retina visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi-Ran; Zhao, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Li, Ke; Lu, Cui-Xin; Zhang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    A new sphere-mapping algorithm called sector mapping is introduced to map sector images to the sphere of an eyeball. The proposed sector-mapping algorithm is evaluated and compared with the plane-mapping algorithm adopted in previous work. A simulation that maps an image of concentric circles to the sphere of the eyeball and an analysis of the difference in distance between neighboring points in a plane and sector were used to compare the two mapping algorithms. A three-dimensional model of a whole retina with clear retinal detachment was generated using the Visualization Toolkit software. A comparison of the mapping results shows that the central part of the retina near the optic disc is stretched and its edges are compressed when the plane-mapping algorithm is used. A better mapping result is obtained by the sector-mapping algorithm than by the plane-mapping algorithm in both the simulation results and real clinical retinal detachment three-dimensional reconstruction. PMID:27480739

  13. The MAL-ED Cohort Study: Methods and Lessons Learned When Assessing Early Child Development and Caregiving Mediators in Infants and Young Children in 8 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C.; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P.; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Oria, Reinaldo B.; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B.; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. PMID:25305296

  14. Surface properties, textural features and catalytic performance for NO + CO abatement of spinels MAl 2O 4 (M = Mg, Co and Zn) developed by reverse and bicontinuous microemulsion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakas, A. E.; Ladavos, A. K.; Armatas, G. S.; Pomonis, P. J.

    2007-06-01

    Three typical spinels of general formula MAl 2O 4 (M = Mg, Co and Zn) have been successfully prepared via a microemulsion method both in the reverse and bicontinuous state. The final solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction followed by Rietveld analysis, N 2 adsorption-desorption porosimetry and SEM. Pore connectivity ( c) was also calculated with Seaton's method. The analysis of all these properties shown that spinels prepared via reverse microemulsion route have better surface and textural properties than bicontinuous ones. The spinels were tested for NO + CO reaction and reverse spinels shown better catalytic activity than bicontinuous ones while the full sequence of catalytic activity is: ZnAl 2O 4-r > ZnAl 2O 4-b > MgAl 2O 4-r > MgAl 2O 4-b > CoAl 2O 4-r > CoAl 2O 4-b. The Rietveld analysis helped us to give an explanation about the catalytic activity and shown that the configuration of inverse spinel phase is the critical factor for the catalytic behavior of final solids. The reactants NO and CO react in a 2:1 ratio at low temperature but they convert in a 1:1 ratio at high temperatures. From the kinetic analysis the heats of NO adsorption are estimated and are in full agreement with the results of catalytic activity.

  15. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of genome segments S1, S2, S3 and S6 of Mal de Río Cuarto virus, a newly accepted Fijivirus species.

    PubMed

    Distéfano, Ana J; Conci, Luis R; Muñoz Hidalgo, Marianne; Guzmán, Fabiana A; Hopp, Horacio E; del Vas, Mariana

    2003-03-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a newly described species of the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae. The nucleotide sequence of four MRCV genome segments was determined. MRCV S1, S2, S3 and S6 were predicted to encode proteins of 168.4, 134.4, 141.7 and 90 kDa, respectively. MRCV S1 encodes a basic protein that contains conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs, and is homologous to Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), Fiji disease virus (FDV) and Nilaparvata lugens reovirus (NLRV) polymerases as well as to corresponding proteins of members of other genera of the Reoviridae. MRCV S2 codes for a protein with intermediate homology to the ones coded by RBSDV S4 and FDV S3 'B' spike, which is presumably the B-spike protein. MRCV S3 most probably encodes the major core protein and is highly homologous to corresponding proteins of RBSDV S2 and FDV S3. MRCV S6-encoded protein has low homology to the proteins of unknown function coded by RBSDV S6 and FDV S6. The identity levels between all analyzed MRCV coded proteins and their RBSDV counterparts varied between 84.5 and 44.8%. The analysis of the reported sequences allowed a phylogenetic comparison of MRCV with other reovirus and supported its taxonomic status within the genus.

  16. Sequence analysis of genome segments S4 and S8 of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV): evidence that the virus should be a separate Fijivirus species.

    PubMed

    Distéfano, A J; Conci, L R; Muñoz Hidalgo, M; Guzmán, F A; Hopp, H E; del Vas, M

    2002-09-01

    This is the first sequence-based characterization of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV), currently classified as a variant of Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) and exclusively found in South America. We sequenced and analyzed genome segments S4 and S8. MRCV S4 coded for a putative 131.67 kDa protein while MRCV S8 coded for a putative 68.26 kDa protein containing an ATP/GTP-binding motif. The 5' and 3' ends of MRCV segments, were 5'AAGUUUUU3' and 5'CAGCUnnnGUC3', respectively. Prediction of secondary structure of both segments coding strands showed that terminal regions were able to form structures that are proposed to be replication and packaging signals. MRCV S4 showed identity to members of Fijivirus as well as to two other genera of the Reoviridae family. MRCV S8 revealed identity with Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) S8, MRDV S7, Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) S9 and Nilaparvata lugens reovirus (NLRV) S7. While MRDV and RBSDV segments are highly homologous between each other, MRCV identity levels with them was considerably lower. We discussed the evolutionary relationships of MRCV to other Reoviridae, and based on phylogenetic analysis we proposed that although MRCV is related to MRDV, it could be regarded as a new species of the Fijivirus genus.

  17. The MAL-ED cohort study: methods and lessons learned when assessing early child development and caregiving mediators in infants and young children in 8 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Rasmussen, Zeba A; Scharf, Rebecca J; Rasheed, Muneera A; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Oria, Reinaldo B; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. PMID:25305296

  18. Understanding Electricity Use Changes in the Jordanian Industrial Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghandoor, A.; Al-Hinti, I.

    2009-08-01

    Industrial electricity demand is responsible for about 31% of total electricity demand in Jordan. This paper analyzes the changes in industrial electricity demand during 1998-2005 years and identifies the factors affecting this demand. In order to gain greater insight into past electricity use changes, a Laspeyers decomposition approach was used to disaggregate changes in the electricity demand of the Jordanian industrial sector into production, structural, and efficiency effects. To accomplish the objectives of this paper, the Jordanian industrial sector was disaggregated into seven sub-sectors: mining of chemical and fertilizer minerals, paper, plastics, petroleum, cement, iron and steel, and others industries. A major finding of this paper is that although increased industrial production caused electricity demand to increase between 1998 and 2005, significant improvements in energy efficiency and structural shift have contributed to reducing the rate of this increase.

  19. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-09-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  20. Agricultural sector impacts of making ethanol from grain

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results of a model of the effects on the agricultural sector of producing ethanol from corn in the United States between 1979 and 1983. The model is aggregated at the national level, and results are given for all of the major food and feed crops, ethanol joint products, farm income, government payment, and agricultural exports. A stochastic simulation was performed to ascertain the impacts of yield and demand variations on aggregate performance figures. Results indicate minimal impacts on the agricultural sector for production levels of less than 1 billion gallons of ethanol per year. For higher production levels, corn prices will rise sharply, the agricultural sector will be more vulnerable to variations in yields and demands, and joint-product values will fall. Possibilities for ameliorating such effects are discussed, and such concepts as net energy and the biomass refinery are explored.

  1. The ranks of Indonesian and Japanese industrial sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ranks of Indonesian and Japanese industrial sectors from the economic point of view. The analysis period of this study is 2005. This study employs one of the well-known analysis tools in the economic topic, the Input-Output (IO) analysis. More specifically, this study uses the analysis methods in the IO analysis, backward and forward linkages, in order to achieve the purpose. The results of calculations show that the orders of the ranks depend on the method used. Nevertheless, from the results, one can say that the manufacturing industry was a leading sector in the Indonesian economy on the analysis period. On the other hand, for the Japanese case, the sector which had the beneficial effects in the Japanese economy on the analysis period was the transport.

  2. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Markus; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the standard model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term—sometimes called the Higgs portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs, we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone.

  3. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  4. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  5. The role of criminal law within the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Alhafaji, Yasmin

    2012-12-01

    Health is for most of us the most precious thing one can have. However, in practice situations occur where the patient is harmed within the healthcare institution. Traditionally, there are several ways to protect individuals in society: with civil, criminal and administrative procedures. Over the years in the Netherlands complaints procedures were established in which the complaints about healthcare providers' performance can be handled. Recently, there are some developments within the criminal law that concern the healthcare sector. Examples are: the establishment of the Public Prosecution Service's Expertise Center on Medical Matters, appointments of medical prosecutors. In addition, in legal literature suggestions are made that criminal law is nowadays applied in order to provide redress to the patients (relatives) and as a 'safety tool' that is to ensure security and to counter the risks within the healthcare sector. The article discusses the role of criminal law within the healthcare sector, and in particular, whether criminal procedure is suitable for handling complaints about healthcare.

  6. Competences in demand within the Spanish agricultural engineering sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis

    2014-09-01

    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural employers (50 farming sector employers); (3) competences required by farming sector professionals and former students (70 professionals). The surveys show significant differences between what competences agricultural employers require of graduates and the competences they acquire during their agricultural engineering degree courses. Recruiters are looking for generic competences such as the ability to coordinate groups and place less importance on knowledge of engineering, biology, applied economics and legislation. Of the computer-related competences, those most in demand by sector professionals were related to the use of Microsoft Office/Excel (used by 79% of professionals). Surveys were used to redesign some subjects of the degrees.

  7. Gauge mediation scenario with hidden sector renormalization in MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Masato; Okada, Nobuchika

    2010-02-01

    We study the hidden sector effects on the mass renormalization of a simplest gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. We point out that possible hidden sector contributions render the soft scalar masses smaller, resulting in drastically different sparticle mass spectrum at low energy. In particular, in the 5+5 minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with high messenger scale (that is favored by the gravitino cold dark matter scenario), we show that a stau can be the next lightest superparticle for moderate values of hidden sector self-coupling. This provides a very simple theoretical model of long-lived charged next lightest superparticles, which imply distinctive signals in ongoing and upcoming collider experiments.

  8. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  9. Trends in Private Sector Development in World Bank Education Projects. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosale, Shobhana

    The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. (Often the term "private sector" encompasses households' out-of-pocket expenses rather than describing for-profit or not-for-profit sectors.) Private sector development has not arisen primarily through public policy…

  10. Training in the Food and Beverages Sector in Denmark. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, Ole

    A study of the food sector in Denmark was limited to the slaughterhouse, dairy, beverages sectors. The food sector was the most important single industry in the Danish economy. It was the largest manufacturing sector, generated one-third of total manufacturing, and comprised approximately 8 percent of the total Danish gross domestic product. It…

  11. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  12. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector.

    PubMed

    Demertzi, Martha; Paulo, Joana Amaral; Arroja, Luís; Dias, Ana Cláudia

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved. PMID:27235900

  13. European scale climate information services for water use sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Donnelly, Chantal; Strömbäck, Lena; Capell, René; Ludwig, Fulco

    2015-09-01

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and environment (water quality). To study the climate change impacts we used two different hydrological models forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected general circulation model (GCM) output for both the lowest (2.6) and highest (8.5) representative concentration pathways (RCP). Selected indicators of water related vulnerability for each sector were then calculated from the hydrological model results. Our results show a distinct north-south divide in terms of climate change impacts; in the south the water availability will reduce while in the north water availability will increase. Across different climate models precipitation and streamflow increase in northern Europe and decrease in southern Europe, but the latitude at which this change occurs varies depending on the GCM. Hydrological extremes are increasing over large parts of Europe. The agricultural sector will be affected by reduced water availability (in the south) and increased drought. Both streamflow and soil moistures droughts are projected to increase in most parts of Europe except in northern Scandinavia and the Alps. The energy sector will be affected by lower hydropower potential in most European countries and reduced cooling water availability due to higher water temperatures and reduced summer river flows. Our results show that in particular in the Mediterranean the pressures are high because of increasing drought which will have large impacts on both the agriculture and energy sectors. In France and Italy this is combined with increased flood hazards. Our results show important impacts of climate change on European water use sectors indicating a clear need for adaptation.

  14. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  15. Impacts of climate change on the global forest sector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez-Garcia, J.; Joyce, L.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Xiao, X.

    2002-01-01

    The path and magnitude of future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide will likely influence changes in climate that may impact the global forest sector. These responses in the global forest sector may have implications for international efforts to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. This study takes a step toward including the role of global forest sector in integrated assessments of the global carbon cycle by linking global models of climate dynamics, ecosystem processes and forest economics to assess the potential responses of the global forest sector to different levels of greenhouse gas emissions. We utilize three climate scenarios and two economic scenarios to represent a range of greenhouse gas emissions and economic behavior. At the end of the analysis period (2040), the potential responses in regional forest growing stock simulated by the global ecosystem model range from decreases and increases for the low emissions climate scenario to increases in all regions for the high emissions climate scenario. The changes in vegetation are used to adjust timber supply in the softwood and hardwood sectors of the economic model. In general, the global changes in welfare are positive, but small across all scenarios. At the regional level, the changes in welfare can be large and either negative or positive. Markets and trade in forest products play important roles in whether a region realizes any gains associated with climate change. In general, regions with the lowest wood fiber production cost are able to expand harvests. Trade in forest products leads to lower prices elsewhere. The low-cost regions expand market shares and force higher-cost regions to decrease their harvests. Trade produces different economic gains and losses across the globe even though, globally, economic welfare increases. The results of this study indicate that assumptions within alternative climate scenarios and about trade in forest products are important factors

  16. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector.

    PubMed

    Demertzi, Martha; Paulo, Joana Amaral; Arroja, Luís; Dias, Ana Cláudia

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved.

  17. [Eco-efficiency of industry sectors for China].

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian-Su; Zeng, Run; Du, Yan-Chun; Jiang, Pan

    2010-11-01

    Industry is the main source of resource consumption and environmental emissions of China, and the analyzing of eco-efficiencies for industrial sectors may provide essential information for the restructure of industrial system and the improvement of environmental quality of China. The industry composition was analyzed and the relationship between the industry and its environment was established. The energy consumption and the main environmental emissions such as wastewater, solid waste, industry SO2, smog, dust were chosen as the environmental impact categories, the corresponding eco-efficiencies of industry were defined and estimated for China in 2007. The results are as follows: the energy efficiency is 615.5 x 10(4) yuan x ktce(-1), the wastewater and solid waste related eco-efficiencies are 54.3 x 10(4) yuan x kt(-1) and 1.9 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), respectively; industry SO2, smog, dust related eco-efficiencies are 59.6 x 10(4), 169.2 x 10(4) and 184.6 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), respectively. The eco-efficiencies of 39 industry sectors were analyzed extensively and the results showed that, the distribution of industrial sectors in above eco-efficiencies is uneven, and the order of industrial sector in industry will vary with industry sector and eco-efficiency category. Meanwhile, for the same category of eco-efficiency, the values for different industry sectors may change from centuplicate to several thousand folds, therefore a great possibility for the improvement of industry eco-efficiency is exist in the restructure of industry system.

  18. Interactive Sectoring and Animation of Global Change Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Paul J.; Buillory, Anthony R.; Atkinson, Robert J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to analyze and share results of global change data sets, scientists require a venue in which to exchange their results. One appropriate medium for these collaborative efforts is the world wide web. Intuitive and efficient user interfaces, and background processes have been developed at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center to interactively view weather satellite, radar, global temperature anomaly, and model output data using the world wide web. These tools combine scripts, Java and C code which allows the user to easily interact with data, to create high resolution sector images, and sectored animation sequences. This paper examines the architecture and interfaces and how they are used for collaborative research.

  19. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  20. Consumption trend analysis in the industrial sector: Existing forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-08-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is engaged in medium- to long-range research and development in various sectors of the economy that depend on gasing technologies and equipment. To assess the potential demand for natural gas in the industrial sector, forecasts available from private and public sources were compared and analyzed. More than 20 projections were examined, and 10 of the most appropriate long-range demand forecasts were analyzed and compared with respect to the various assumptions, methodologies and criteria on which each was based.

  1. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2014-11-01

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field σ which has a very large VEV f ≫mHiggs. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings ζi, where ζi ≲ mHiggs2 /f2. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of σ in the ζi → 0 limit. The singlet field σ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.

  2. Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    OAK-A258 Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan. This report for calendar years 1993 through September 1998 describes efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract. The development of a pyrochemical process, called TRUMP-S, for partitioning actinides from PUREX waste, is described in this report. This effort is funded by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), KHI, the United States Department of Energy, and Boeing.

  3. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  4. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with ...

  5. Competition and Cooperation in South Africa's Biotechnology Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerck, Gilton

    2005-01-01

    This article asserts that the normative, institutional and policy framework of an economy moulds the structure and performance of its innovation system. Three case studies of industry?higher education partnerships in South Africa's biotechnology sector challenge both the notion of a simple convergence within and between national innovation systems…

  6. A Central Dilemma in the Mental Health Sector: Structural Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doessel, Darrel P.; Williams, Ruth F. G.; Nolan, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Mental health services provision is persistently criticised regarding resource inadequacy. Services are also subject to another dilemma, "structural imbalance". This study demonstrates the dimensions of structural imbalance in Australia's mental health sector by recourse to the 1997 Australian Bureau of Statistics national survey of mental health…

  7. Defining managed care in public-sector psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hoge, M A; Davidson, L; Griffith, E E; Sledge, W H; Howenstine, R A

    1994-11-01

    Although managed care is an established force in the private sector, there is growing interest and experimentation with this concept in the public sector. This interest has been generated by the increased demand for services, the shrinking resource base due to cutbacks in state budgets, and the fragmentation of care that has accompanied the shift from a centralized, hospital-based model to a decentralized, community-based model for treating individuals with serious mental illness. But despite this interest, no consensus exists about the form or functions of managed care in the public arena. Simply importing private-sector versions of managed care is inadequate given the substantial differences in the patient population and service delivery mechanisms. The authors present a functional analysis of managed care in the public sector. Drawing on their conceptualization of managed care, they outline a functional approach to evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of treatment systems, innovations such as privatization and capitation, and recent health care reform proposals.

  8. Compensation Rules for Climate Policy in the Electricity Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Most previous cap and trade programs have distributed emission allowances for free to incumbent producers. However, in the electricity sector the value of CO[subscript 2] allowances may be far in excess of costs to industry and giving them away to firms diverts allowance value from other purposes. Using a detailed simulation model, this paper…

  9. Taking a Societal Sector Perspective on Youth Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…

  10. Insurance Sector Dynamics: Towards Transformation into Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkur, Gopalakrishna; Varambally, K. V. M.; Rodrigues, Lewlyn L. R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to study the influence of five critical factors on service quality in the insurance sector. Having studied the influence of these critical factors, an attempt has been made to obtain a generic solution to enhance the quality of service by proposing a holistic framework of learning organization. As…

  11. Public Sector Labor Relations, 1972. Bibliography Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spritzer, Allan D., Comp.

    Concern over the problems of labor-management relations in the public sector has generated considerable interest and concern in recent years among faculty and students as well as government employers and employees throughout the nation. Thus the Manpower and Industrial Relations Institute of the University of Alabama decided to issue a series of…

  12. Information Technology Training: Practices of Leading Private Sector Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined private-sector workforce training practices for information technology (IT) and non-IT professionals. Data were collected from the following sources: a literature review; discussions with academic and professional authorities; interviews with executives and managers at leading companies regarding their…

  13. 77 FR 43498 - Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... contacts an EEO counselor to allege discrimination. If the allegation is not resolved in counseling, the... on December 21, 2009. 74 FR 67839 (2009). The notice proposed changes to the Commission's federal... of the federal sector EEO complaint process for which the agencies bear...

  14. Environmental Education in the Formal Sector of Education in Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucunguzi, P.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a critical review of the present state of environmental education in the formal sector of education in Uganda. Recommends an improved approach to formal environmental education based on a multidisciplinary foundation that embraces the biophysical environment, people, culture, politics, and socioeconomic systems. (LZ)

  15. Measuring Systemic and Climate Diversity in Ontario's University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piché, Pierre Gilles

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a methodology for measuring institutional diversity and applies it to Ontario's university sector. This study first used hierarchical cluster analysis, which suggested there has been very little change in diversity between 1994 and 2010 as universities were clustered in three groups for both years. However, by adapting…

  16. The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Jill Anne

    2013-01-01

    In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

  17. Facilitating Expansive Learning in a Public Sector Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how learning opportunities can be organized to promote expansive learning in work practice. The discussion draws on results from a case study examining local development work and conditions that facilitate processes of expansive learning in a work team within a public sector organization in a Swedish…

  18. [Cross-sectoral quality assurance in ambulatory care].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Martin; Loos, Stefan; Otten, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming rigid sectoral segmentation in healthcare has also become a health policy target in quality assurance. With the Act to Enhance Competition in Statutory Health Insurance (GKV-WSG) coming into effect, quality assurance measures are to be designed in a cross-sectoral fashion for in- and outpatient sectors equally. An independent institution is currently mandated to develop specific quality indicators for eleven indications. For three of these operating tests have already been commissioned by the Federal Joint Committee. This article depicts the major results of a feasibility study, including a compliance cost estimate, for the aforementioned indications of cross-sectoral quality assurance (cQA). In conclusion, a number of both practical and conceptual basic challenges are still to be resolved prior to the full implementation of cQA, such as a sufficient specification to activate documentation requirements and an inspection system capable of separating actual quality problems from documentary deficits. So far, a comprehensive cost-utility analysis of cQA has not been provided, in particular with comparison to existing QA systems. In order to optimise cost and utility of cQA an evidence-based approach is required for both the extension of cQA areas and for QA provisions. PMID:24290666

  19. Public Sector Labor Legislation in the Midwest. A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

    In the face of a high degree of legislative activity concerning public sector labor relations in the Midwest, this guide was prepared to familiarize practitioners with such legislation enacted as of May 1, 1975, in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This legislation concerns state employees, fire fighters, municipal…

  20. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC SEAFOOD MARKETING...

  1. 50 CFR 270.6 - Sector participants eligible to vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sector participants eligible to vote. 270.6 Section 270.6 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC...

  2. Argentina: Social Sectors in Crisis. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Based on the findings of a two month visit to Argentina by a World Bank Mission in November/December of 1988, this report summarizes current economic, education, and social policies in Argentina. The four major areas targeted are the social sectors, education, health care, and housing. The analysis identifies critical problems in the organization…

  3. Commercial sector solid oxide fuel cell business assessment. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, P.

    1996-08-01

    Estimates for the commercial potential of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from the year 2001 to 2015 is 4 billion MWh. Their quiet operation, low cost, efficiency, and small size could make SOFCs ideal power sources for commercial customers. To better understand the market, this study had three main objectives: (1) identify the extent of the commercial market potential; (2) describe the most likely commercial segments and locations for SOFCs to be competitive; and, (3) determine the most appropriate product sizes. To profile commercial sectors by energy use, investigators conducted a market segmentation analysis. They classified markets within sectors as cogeneration and electric-only applications. Investigators then performed a market analysis to estimate the cost competitiveness of SOFC energy production by state, segment, and operating mode (cogeneration or electric-only). To determine which locations and sectors would be competitive with current utility retail rates, they used the cost per kWh of electrical energy produced by SOFC technology. Study results indicated that three sizes of SOFCs would meet most market capacity requirements: 20, 100, and 250 kW. The largest number of potential SOFC building applications fell into these sectors: education, health care, food service, and skilled nursing. In terms of competitive building applications, California, New York, Illinois, Texas, and Michigan were the top states. The potential market for SOFCs, however, could be much smaller if the pressures of deregulation decrease commercial retail rates or if the rates themselves increase more slowly than expected.

  4. Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector is the second entry in the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "School Survey Series." This report synthesizes information on Ohio's private schools collected by the U.S. Department of Education and the Ohio Department of Education (ODE). Two appendices provide supplementary tables and…

  5. Recent Progress in Search for Dark Sector Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliyergiyev, Maksym

    2016-08-01

    Many difficulties are encountered when attempting to pinpoint a common origin for several observed astrophysical anomalies, and when assessing their tension with existing exclusion limits. These include systematic uncertainties affecting the operation of the detectors, our knowledge of their response, astrophysical uncertainties, and the broad range of particle couplings that can mediate interaction with a detector target. Particularly interesting astrophysical evidence has motivated a search for dark-photon, and focused our attention on a Hidden Valleys model with a GeV-scale dark sector that produces exciting signatures. Results from recent underground experiments are also considered. There is a `light' hidden sector (dark sector), present in many models of new physics beyond the Standard Model, which contains a colorful spectrum of new particles. Recently, it has been shown that this spectrum can give rise to unique signatures at colliders when the mass scale in the hidden sector is well below a TeV; as in Hidden Valleys, Stueckelberg extensions, and Unparticle models. These physics models produce unique signatures of collimated leptons at high energies. By studying these ephemeral particles we hope to trace the history of the Universe. Our present theories lead us to believe that there is something new just around the corner, which should be accessible at the energies made available by modern colliders.

  6. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  7. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  8. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  9. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  10. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  11. Sector strength and efficiency on developed and emerging financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we analyse the importance of sectors and market efficiency on developed and emerging financial markets. To perform this we analyse New York Stock Exchange between 2004 and 2013 and Warsaw Stock Exchange between 2000 and 2013. To find out the importance of sectors we construct minimal spanning trees for annual time series consisting of daily log returns and calculate centrality measures for all stocks, which we then aggregate by sectors. Such analysis is of interest to analysts for whom the knowledge of the influence of particular groups of stocks to the market behaviour is crucial. We also analyse the predictability of price changes on those two markets formally, using the information-theoretic concept of entropy rate, to find out the differences in market efficiency between a developed and an emerging market, and between sectors themselves. We postulate that such analysis is important to the study of financial markets as it can contribute to the profitability of investments, particularly in the case of algorithmic trading.

  12. An Identification of Management Training Needs of Public Sector Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spikes, W. Franklin

    A study examined the management needs of public sector employees in the city of St. Louis, Missouri. A total of 287 St. Louis city service managers and supervisors were asked to assess their need for training in areas related to 12 job dimensions. The average study respondent was a white male (47 years of age) who supervised 13 employees and who…

  13. Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

  14. Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, LaVerne Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Decision making in the public sector encompasses many topics of interest to the academic researcher--environmental issues, health and human services, budget planning, and so on. Expertise in data collection and analysis is critical to the policy-making process and can be provided by academic researchers. But the "real world" policymaker…

  15. Six Questions about The World Bank's 2020 Education Sector Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with World Bank staff in April 2011, this article answers six questions about the World Bank's Education Sector Strategy 2020 (ESS 2020): (1) What is the ESS 2020? (2) What is it not? (3) How was the development process of the ESS 2020 different from that of past Strategies? (4) How are the policy recommendations of the ESS…

  16. 50 CFR 270.6 - Sector participants eligible to vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector participants eligible to vote. 270.6 Section 270.6 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC...

  17. Public sector administration of ecological economics systems using mediated modeling.

    PubMed

    van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in public sector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the public sector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the public sector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among public sector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems.

  18. Constructions of Professional Identity in a Dynamic Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    The expansion and specialisation of "non-academic" higher education roles, in response to increased regulation, monitoring and measurement of the sector, can be attributed to a rise in neoliberal manageralism and globalisation. Such changes have challenged the professional status of the academy, potentially…

  19. Circular-sector quantum-billiard and allied configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liboff, Richard L.

    1994-05-01

    The circular-sector quantum-billiard problem is studied. Numerical evaluation of the zeros of first-order Bessel functions finds that there is an abrupt change in the nodal-line structure of the first excited state of the system (equivalently, second eigenstate of the Laplacian) at the critical sector-angle θc=0.354π. For sector-angle θ0, in the domain 0<θ0<θc, the nodal curve of the first excited state is a circular-arc segment. For θc<θ0≤π, the nodal curve of the first excited state is the bisector of the sector. Otherwise nondegenerate first excited states become twofold degenerate at the critical-angle θc. The ground- and first-excited-state energies (EG,E1) increase monotonically as θ0 decreases from its maximum value, π. A graph of E1 vs θ0 reveals an inflection point at θ0=θc, which is attributed to the change in Bessel-function contribution to the development of E1. A proof is given for the existence of a common zero for two Bessel functions whose respective orders differ by a noninteger. Application of these results is made to a number of closely allied quantum-billiard configurations.

  20. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  1. Methodological challenges of researching in the care home sector.

    PubMed

    Mold, Freda; Roberts, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Joanne; Barriball, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Freda Mold, Julia Roberts, Joanne Fitzpatrick and Louise Barriball address the challenges encountered while undertaking a feasibility study to elicit the views of care home nurse managers on the needs of minority ethnic older residents. It includes advice for those who plan to conduct empirical work in this sector.

  2. The Third Sector and the Governance of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the nature, scope and form of third-sector involvement in education in New Zealand as demonstrated through a comparison of its relationship with the state in two distinct periods of state and educational development. It begins with an analysis of the period of state expansion from crown colony to centralised administration in…

  3. Every Child Matters and the Voluntary and Community Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallender, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Children's services in England are undergoing a radical reorganisation. New arrangements for local authorities and statutory partners impact significantly on organisations in the voluntary and community sector that are encouraged to deliver more public services. Local voluntary organisations will need help to organise themselves and to build…

  4. The Social Construction of Skills: A Hospitality Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of skills in service work with specific reference to international tourism and its hospitality subsector. It explores the role of experiential factors (cultural, emotional and aesthetic) in equipping those entering work in the sector. The specific context of work in less developed countries and within migrant labour…

  5. Industrial Rehabilitation in the Public Sector: The Ohio Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsheski, Jerry; Growick, Bruce

    In 1979, Ohio passed a law creating a Rehabilitation Division within its Industrial Commission and authorizing the building of two comprehensive rehabilitation centers to serve disabled workers. Ohio provides industrial rehabilitation services almost entirely through the public sector. This paper describes industrial rehabilitation policies and…

  6. Recent Court Decisions on Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifman, Burton R.

    This paper focuses on recent, significant court decisions in public sector collective bargaining under the following categories: the job security clause, the choice of instructional materials as the province of the school board under collective bargaining agreements, the effect of open meetings acts on the board of education in collective…

  7. [Cross-sectoral quality assurance in ambulatory care].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Martin; Loos, Stefan; Otten, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming rigid sectoral segmentation in healthcare has also become a health policy target in quality assurance. With the Act to Enhance Competition in Statutory Health Insurance (GKV-WSG) coming into effect, quality assurance measures are to be designed in a cross-sectoral fashion for in- and outpatient sectors equally. An independent institution is currently mandated to develop specific quality indicators for eleven indications. For three of these operating tests have already been commissioned by the Federal Joint Committee. This article depicts the major results of a feasibility study, including a compliance cost estimate, for the aforementioned indications of cross-sectoral quality assurance (cQA). In conclusion, a number of both practical and conceptual basic challenges are still to be resolved prior to the full implementation of cQA, such as a sufficient specification to activate documentation requirements and an inspection system capable of separating actual quality problems from documentary deficits. So far, a comprehensive cost-utility analysis of cQA has not been provided, in particular with comparison to existing QA systems. In order to optimise cost and utility of cQA an evidence-based approach is required for both the extension of cQA areas and for QA provisions.

  8. The Growth of the Information Sector in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Heather E.; York, Lynn

    Using data on the growth of information related businesses in Texas in the period from 1971 to 1981, this paper analyzes and interprets the results in the context of demographic changes and educational policy in Texas. To track the number of businesses that fall into the information sector, and to reveal trends in growth and in industry…

  9. 22 CFR 201.23 - Procurement under private sector procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of their principals, if any (including manufacturers or processors of the commodity). (e) Procurement... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement under private sector procedures... APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Procurement Procedures; Responsibilities of...

  10. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #5: HEALTH SECTOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Sector Assessment is one of the three levels of the assessment process that is intended to answer four questions: (1) What is the current status of the nation's health, and what are current stresses on our health? (2) How might climate change affect the country's healt...

  11. State Sector Strategies: The New Workforce Development in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberal governments consider global business competitiveness to be thwarted by costly bureaucratic regulation and programme duplication. In an effort to downsize the costs of operating a state, the governors now streamline job training functions via a coordinated workforce and economic development effort known as sector strategies, with…

  12. Information Studies for the Business Sector in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavate, Antonio Munoz; Hipola, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The management of information in the business world constitutes a single consolidated area within undergraduate and graduate study programs in Librarianship and Information Science. This article describes information studies for the business sector within Spain, including the university programs known as Diplomatura in Librarianship and…

  13. White dwarfs constraints on dark sector models with light particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2014-06-24

    The white dwarf luminosity function is well understood in terms of standard model physics and leaves little room for exotic cooling mechanisms related to the possible existence of new weakly interacting light particles. This puts significant constraints on the parameter space of models that contain a massive dark photon and light dark sector particles.

  14. Online Learning Trends in Private-Sector Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    For the past eight years, the Babson Survey Research Group has conducted surveys of higher education institutions on their attitudes, beliefs, and practices concerning online education. This current report is a new analysis of this collection of data, focusing on the role of online education among private-sector colleges and universities. For the…

  15. The Speed of Obsolescence: Evidence from the Dutch Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loo, Jasper B.

    2007-01-01

    HRD is extensively concerned with human capital investment, but only focuses on how skills and knowledge become obsolete to a limited extent. In this paper we look at the speed of obsolescence. Using data from a survey among Dutch public sector employees, we find that the yearly rate of skills obsolescence is 2.6%. Subsequent analyses show that…

  16. Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Min-Seok

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

  17. Public Sector Transformation, Racial Inequality and Downward Occupational Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Huffman, Matt L.

    2013-01-01

    New "governance" reforms entailing shifts toward privatization have permeated the public sector over the last decade, possibly affecting workplace-based attainments. We examine the consequences of this reform for African American men, who during the civil rights era reached relative parity with whites. We analyze race-based inequities on one…

  18. College Mergers: Lessons to Be Learned from Other Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    High profile mergers involving further education colleges have become a feature of post-16 education in England since the mid-1990s. Senior staff with little, if any, previous experience of the process have implemented most mergers and they are unlikely to repeat it. This article reviews merger activity in the further education sector since…

  19. Chiral symmetry aspects in the open charm sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheim, T.; Hilger, T.; Kämpfer, B.

    2016-01-01

    QCD sum rules serve as tools to investigate changing hadronic properties in a hot and/or dense nuclear medium. The role of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration effects in a medium can be addressed also in the heavy-light meson sector. Thus, we consider Weinberg sum rules which refer to chiral partner mesons composed of a light and a heavy quark.

  20. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  1. Corporate Governance: Can Universities Learn from the Private Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Raphaela

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance has several objectives: growth, transparency, leadership, social responsibility and trust, as well as the protection of shareholders and company assets. It also plays a key role in determining a company's control environment. In this article, the author takes a closer look at corporate governance in the private sector,…

  2. Retrieval Bargaining: A Guide for Public Sector Labor Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G.

    Retrieval bargaining is the process of removing, through collective bargaining, benefits won by employees in previous negotiations. This document treats the retrieval bargaining process, explaining first the factors that could make such cutback management techniques necessary in the public sector, including federal funding reductions, inflationary…

  3. 3. TAINTER GATES (LEFT FOREGROUND) AND ROLLING SECTOR GATE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TAINTER GATES (LEFT FOREGROUND) AND ROLLING SECTOR GATE AND SPILLWAY (BACKGROUND) OF THE NORTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, North Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  4. Stability of the sectored morphology of polymer crystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alageshan, Jaya Kumar; Hatwalne, Yashodhan; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2016-09-01

    When an entangled interpenetrating collection of long flexible polymer chains dispersed in a suitable solvent is cooled to low enough temperatures, thin lamellar crystals form. Remarkably, these lamellae are sectored, with several growth sectors that have differing melting temperatures and growth kinetics, eluding so far an understanding of their origins. We present a theoretical model to explain this six-decade-old challenge by addressing the elasticity of fold surfaces of finite-sized lamella in the presence of disclination-type topological defects arising from anisotropic line tension. Entrapment of a disclination defect in a lamella results in sectors separated by walls, which are soliton solutions of a two-dimensional elliptic sine-Gordon equation. For flat square morphologies, exact results show that sectored squares are more stable than plain squares if the dimensionless anisotropic line tension parameter α =γa n/√{h4Kϕ } (γa n = anisotropic line tension, h4 = fold energy parameter, Kϕ = elastic constant for two-dimensional orientational deformation) is above a critical value, which depends on the size of the square.

  5. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  6. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  7. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  8. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  9. Where Is the Xerox Corporation of the LIS Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrist, Alan; Brockman, John

    1996-01-01

    Discusses barriers to the implementation of quality management in the library and information science sector in Europe. Topics include Total Quality Management and other business experiences, an information quality infrastructure, supplier/customer relations, customer satisfaction, and a European Quality Model. (LRW)

  10. Institutionalization of Information Security: Case of the Indonesian Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, Muhamad Faisal Fariduddin Attar

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the institutionalization of information security in the banking sector. This study is important to pursue since it explicates the internalization of information security governance and practices and how such internalization develops an organizational resistance towards security breach. The study argues that information…

  11. [[Industrial sector labor absorption and migration in Asian countries

    PubMed

    Kim, C

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of labor absorption by industrial sector of five Asian countries and to analyze the impact of labor absorption on the intersectoral mobility of labor. The countries considered are the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  12. Teaching Chinese Students: Understanding Their Public Sector Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…

  13. Primordial black holes and a large hidden sector

    SciTech Connect

    Calmet, Xavier

    2010-10-15

    In this note we point out that primordial black holes could be much shorter lived than usually assumed if there is a large hidden sector of particles that only interacts gravitationally with the particles of the standard model. The observation of the explosion of one of these black holes would severely constrain the energy scale at which gravity becomes strong.

  14. Change in the Public Sector: The New Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Julia; Sheldrake, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Transformation in the Public Sector" (Foster); "Implementing the Vision" (Frater); "Enabling Authority" (Stewart); "Local Authority of the 1990s" (Bichard); "Training for 'Next Steps'--Initiative in the Public Service" (Wright); "Organizational Development" (Dodd); "Management Models and Professional Monitoring in Prison" (Evans);…

  15. A proposed framework of big data readiness in public sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Raja Haslinda Raja Mohd; Mohamad, Rosli; Sudin, Suhizaz

    2016-08-01

    Growing interest over big data mainly linked to its great potential to unveil unforeseen pattern or profiles that support organisation's key business decisions. Following private sector moves to embrace big data, the government sector has now getting into the bandwagon. Big data has been considered as one of the potential tools to enhance service delivery of the public sector within its financial resources constraints. Malaysian government, particularly, has considered big data as one of the main national agenda. Regardless of government commitment to promote big data amongst government agencies, degrees of readiness of the government agencies as well as their employees are crucial in ensuring successful deployment of big data. This paper, therefore, proposes a conceptual framework to investigate perceived readiness of big data potentials amongst Malaysian government agencies. Perceived readiness of 28 ministries and their respective employees will be assessed using both qualitative (interview) and quantitative (survey) approaches. The outcome of the study is expected to offer meaningful insight on factors affecting change readiness among public agencies on big data potentials and the expected outcome from greater/lower change readiness among the public sectors.

  16. Impacts of Increased Diesel Penetration in the Transportation Sector, The

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Requested by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Analyzes the impacts on petroleum prices, demand, and refinery operations of a projected increase in demand for diesel fuel stemming from greater penetration of diesel-fueled engines in the light-duty vehicle fleet of the U.S. transportation sector.

  17. Private Sector Involvement in Urban School Reform. Emerging Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document presents findings on the impact of privatization to date at a meeting at the Ford Foundation co hosted by the William Penn Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, and Ford. Increasingly, the private sector (both for-profit and non-profit) is providing resources and alternative delivery models for urban public schools. Beyond…

  18. Casebook of Private Sector Summer Youth Employment Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report profiles programs conducted in 19 cities during the summer of 1996 to employ youth in the private sector. In most of the programs, the youth served were disadvantaged; the programs were created or enhanced in order to replace funds that were cut under Title IIB of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). The report contains 20…

  19. Eco-efficiency in the Portuguese wine production sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Andrade, Isabel; Franco, Justina; Bastos, Alexandra; Delgado, Fernando; Costa, Roberto; Pereira, Carlos D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.

    2014-05-01

    The wine production sector is one of the more important and widely distributed agriculture sectors in Portugal, representing 555972600 liters in 2011 for the entire country (excluding the islands), in 146490 vineyards, representing a wide range of exploration dimension, that cover a total area of 175 773 ha. The wine sector accounts for 526820000€ of exports in 2005, and constitutes a high technology and highly competitive agricultural sector. The wine production systems vary from region to region, reflecting the property systems and the soil and climate conditions. Homogeneous wine production areas are often demarked and constitute a wine region with particular environmental and productive characteristics. Under the ECODEEP project, a set of energy and mass balances are being assessed for various Portuguese wine regions, namely Bairrada, Dão, Távora-Varosa and Alentejo. These wine regions vary in a number of characteristics, such as the use of irrigation, and the cultural practices. This work performs an analysis of yields and the use of energy and productive factors for different size vineyards and cellar processing methodologies for the above mentioned wine regions. The exhaustive survey is the basis for a LCA analysis that allows the comparison of different practices and highlights the more efficient and environmental friendly solutions, that will be presented. We give a particular attention to the comparison of more intensive vineyard conduction with the integrated protection ones.

  20. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed.